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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. Prompting the user for parameters. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

1D. 3D). as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages.e. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). In general. Solution: assigning loads. heat transfer and fluid problems. 1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. constraints and solving. Preprocessing: defining the problem. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. 2. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). 3. axi-symmetric. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 2D.

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Windows NT application 2. be sure that your local drive has space for it. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. you should see something labeled X-Win32. If you don't see this minimized program. as it automatically starts this application when booting. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. do this. you will now be prompted to login to GPU.. you can may want to reboot the computer. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.

click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. . type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. don't select this icon. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. but rather.

Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.7. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. such as file controls. 1.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. selections. graphic controls and parameters.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a.

This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. d. while the versions appear different. solution. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. general postprocessor. such as listing of data etc.0. e. the menu structure has not changed. 2.b. c. organized by preprocessor. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. . Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. However. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. More push buttons can be added if desired. design optimizer.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The second is by means of command files. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . however. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach.

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General Models . If the results differ by a large amount however. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If the results are nearly similar. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. but for a larger model.e. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry.. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. In general there are no real firm answers on this. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. For simple models it is of no concern. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. it will only slow the calculations down. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. loading and constraints.. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. When point loads are used. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution.

In general.In general however. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. In a solid mechanics problem. . it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. for example.

etc) that you previously saved. There are two methods to do this: 1. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point.. In that way. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. r Then when you get ANSYS started.db. and specify the previously defined jobname. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . To save your model. if you make some mistakes later on. and select your job from the list that appears. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from.db. ANSYS Inc. r In the ANSYS Launcher. solution. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. 2. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. Using the Launcher. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Or.. loads. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname.db . select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname.. select Interactive...UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). If you plan to use the command mode of operation. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). Listing of all error and warning messages. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. If you specified a jobname. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. the name of all the files created will be FILE.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). or move things from the /scratch directory. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs).. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). q If you will always be using the GUI. then you only require the . frame. Frame again with various extensions: frame. starting with an existing log file. That file may be rerun as is. say Frame. This file stores the geometry. This file stores the geometry. boundary conditions and any solutions. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. and the jobname has been specified. other files may have been written.* where the * represents various extensions described below. These files may contain results. boundary conditions and any solutions.. frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.err Error file (text). from another ANSYS run. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. frame. etc. then the created files will all have the file prefix.db Database file (binary). Once the ANSYS has started. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . frame. Depending on the operations carried out.db file. etc.

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and choose what you want to list from the menu. In the window that appears. 1. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. 1. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. while the second is a scalable vector plot.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Select 'File'/'Save As. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. You can pick multiple items. 'Monochrome'.' and give a file name to store the results. 2. 3. Select 'Elem Table Data'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2.0 Better Quality Plots . When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Then enter the file name of your choice. However.'. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. choose 'List Results'.. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'..0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen.. to get displacements. 'Reverse Video'.

you have a couple of options: 1.pic if your plot file is 'plots. a large graphics window will appear. or HPGL for example. Decrease the size of this window.pic'. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.pic' (with a period).n where n is plot number. but rather they will be written to the selected file.. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.g. This is performed by running a separate program called display. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File.frame.pic'(with a comma). Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . To do this. Either way. Load your plot file with the following command: file. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. To save some plots to a file. Now that the plots have been read in. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible.'. Note that although the file is 'plots. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. Display wants 'plots..: frame.. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Type in a filename (e.

and then issue the other commands as before pscr. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. enter the following commands in display: pscr. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. i.3 /show.pscr plot. starting at 00.grph.n where n is the plot number. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. you set the postscript color option to '3'. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. as above. you only require the plot. the postscript image will appear as blank box.pscr plot.color. where xx is a number. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. The printer information is still present. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor.2 /show. the postscript image will appear as blank box.n command as the other options have now been set. 3.color. The printer information is still present.hpgl plot. issue the following commands: /show. . what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper.e. overheads or even posters! 2. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. For subsequent plots. To do this. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.1. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file.

exit display by entering finish . This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command). the HPGL printer files could be given an '.hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. In a similar way.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.

Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. Step 1. many modeling options for constraints. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. you will want to leave it. holes. chamfers. Of course. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. loads. by suppressing them in Pro/E. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. analysis types will not be covered. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.W. etc..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . if the feature is critical to your design. mesh control. Also.

the plate and the loading hole are removed. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. . Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. Model units are inches. For this model. So. Several edges are rounded. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot.

idealizations). curves. Basically. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner.Step 2. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. We proceed in a topdown manner. loads. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. surface regions. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. This is where we specify modeling information. and so on. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. . Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points.

Constraints are organized into constraint sets. Fixed. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). For each direction X. Prescribed. and Z. edges. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. For beams and shells.Defining Constraints For our simple model. all we need are constraints. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. and Function of Coordinates). rotational constraints are active if specified. Y. In the final computed model. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). Select Surface. . A dialog window opens as shown above. loads. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. and surfaces). only one set can be included. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. and a specified material. For our solid model.

and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. For example. Loads are also organized into named load sets. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. and select the OK button. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. another might contain the support forces. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings.For our model. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. Enter the force components at the bottom. Note these are relative to the WCS. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. The load should be . Leave the defaults for the load distribution. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. Then select OK. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. These can be solved at the same time. another a temperature load.

Define the analysis Select Analyses > New .displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. If you select the Edit button. material). our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. In an assembly. At this point. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. you will see the properties of the chosen material. In the STRC MODEL menu. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. Step 3. loads. you could now assign this material to individual parts.

Enter a short description. Step 4. like "ansystest". . Select the type (Structural or Modal). Now select OK. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. The MEC STRUCT window. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here.Specify a name for the analysis. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis.

Here is an image of the default mesh. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). by selecting the Check button at the bottom. Select Close. . If the mesh does not pass these quality checks.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. evaluated for the model. shown in wire frame. The results are indicated in columns on the right.

Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. maximum mesh size. This will allow you to select points. edges.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. For example. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. and so on. you can select the Controls option. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. .

Step 5. In the MEC STRUCT menu. mesh). loads. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. select Run . materials.

In the Solver pull-down list at the top. select ANSYS.ans). Select OK and read the message window. In the Analysis list. loads. .ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. We are now finished with Pro/E. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . The analysis we defined (containing constraints.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. mesh. and material) is listed. Copy the . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. select Structural.

select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Select the .Step 6. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From.. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . This will read in the entire model. you will be informed that the solution is complete.ans file you created previously. Step 7. Step 8. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. and select Apply.. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements.

0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. A = 3250mm2).123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. reaction forces. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. p. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Note: to get the title to appear immediately. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. these keypoints are the ends of each truss. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. For this example. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2.

Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed.y coordinates: 0. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. Note: When entering the final data point. If you first press r . and enter the x. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).

The following window will then appear: . areas. elements. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. 3. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. lines. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. thus making any conversions where necessary. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. volumes.

r r r . Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i.e. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. click on it). Left click and a permanent line will appear. When you're done.

If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. they have most likely NOT been deleted. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. This is called 'meshing'. However. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. The following window will then appear: .

' button. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.. r 5. The following window will appear: r For this example. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'..r Click on the 'Add. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure.

select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add.r In the Preprocessor menu. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. Click on 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'.. .

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . 7.0'. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0.

r In the size 'NDIV' field. therefore. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. 8. For this example we want only 1 division per line. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . we have simply defined the element sizes. enter the desired number of divisions per line.

Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q ... keypoint numbers.Plot Numbering To show the line numbers.. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.. node numbers.

.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time.. 1. Define Analysis Type . you will at least be able to come back to this point. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). so if you make some mistakes later on. To do this. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. Select the name and location where you want to save your file.

In mechanical structures. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. i. for example. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. As shown above. these constraints will typically be fixed. r 2. r In the Solution menu.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. pinned and roller-type connections. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . Click 'OK'.e. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis.

.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Therefore. ROT on KPs' window.

r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. there are four downward loads of 280kN. 3.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. and 360kN at keypoints 1. Note that we are using units of N here. 280kN. r Using the same method. this is consistent with the previous values input. 210kN. 5. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. Therefore.ROT on KPs" window. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. 3. and 7 respectively. . you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option.

This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. .4.

Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'.r The above windows will appear.. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). .

r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

The following window will appear. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. . r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. .r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. The following window will appear. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.409).

r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. Click 'OK'. . Leave the other selections as the default values.

. you may want to use more useful intervals. r .. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.r Looking at the scale. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.

You should obtain the following. .

This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. .r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

From Table 1. strains). beams.. using the item 'LS.' r . while UY was constrained to zero at node 7.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. If you wanted to save these results to a file. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. therefore. spars. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. The Element Table is different for each element.2 in the Help file.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links..

in the 'Item. Comp' boxes. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. Next. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .r As shown above. . Then enter 1 after LS.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX... Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .'. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.

Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' . you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

9MPa as predicted analytically. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. In the dialog box that appears. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82.HTML version. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse... Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. Open the . Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. . A ...

Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame. ANSYS Inc. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem.

Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . units. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. scale factors.The first step is to simplify the problem. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.

click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. Click on the 'Add.. The following window will appear: r r For this example.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.e. When you're done... r From the Preprocessor Menu. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. A permanent line will appear. The following window will appear: r . r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. r r r 4.. Click on the 'Options. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.' button.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Now pick keypoint #2. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. click on it). Select the element shown and click 'OK'. Pick keypoint #1 (i.

This gives us extra force and moment output. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu.. r 5. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Click on 'OK'. ..

Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. enter '20' (i. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. enter the desired element length. (Alternatively. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. For an element length of 2cm. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. 8. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. However. therefore. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. we have simply defined the element sizes. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). Saving Your Work . r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9..r Click on 'OK'. r r r 7. r 6. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.

select Force/Moment > on Keypoints.Utility Menu > File > Save as. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. . select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'.ROT on KPs' window. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY.. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. r r 3. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. Therefore.. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. r 2.

2mm as shown above. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Now.we need to calculate what we should find. . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6.

the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. r r . In this menu you will find a variety of options. Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. 2.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress).

r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. r . Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations.

which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below..r You may want to have a more useful scale. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.. r . General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution.

If you wanted to save these results to a file.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. spars. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.r Are these results what you expected? Again. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. the right end of the rod.. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. Click on 'Add. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams...' r . strains).

Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . in the 'Item. . Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.r As shown above.Comp' boxes in the above window. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window..

914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically.Again. as shown in the following image. a bending moment diagram can be created. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. . Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. I and J. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. First. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element.

. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. this will give a name to the data B. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D.'.again. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. A. A. First. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. Click 'Add. the Element Table must be used. . The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. r In the window. Same as above .6 in the second Comp box E..To obtain the bending moment for this element.this will give a name to the data B. r Again. click 'Add... Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . Enter SMISC..' in the 'Element Table Data' window.

Same as above D. For step D.. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. enter SMISC. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot.12 in the second Comp box E. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. .C.. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Click 'OK'. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window.

Sequence Numbers. Table 1.Now. r Before the explanation of the above steps. PIPE16 Item. you can double check these solutions analytically. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears.

MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .1. !* MP. Major Poisson's Ratio. L. all of the lines. z Keypoint. x.PIPE16 KEYOPT.1.0.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.0.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.6.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.the Member moment for node I. . Material 1. Wall thickness ! Material Properties. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.33 !* LESIZE. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. Material 1.1.2.1.500. /PREP7 K. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. 2. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.25. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction .0. Young's Modulus.FY. Outside Diameter. Material 1.2.ALL.0.1 !* R. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.0.EX. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.0. 1. . 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. x. then hit enter. Copy the following code into the command line.0. K.0.1. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.1. y.1.2. y.20 LMESH.1.2 !* ET.0 !* DK. 0.PRXY.70000 MP.ALL FK.

Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code./STATUS. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.

these keypoints are the frame vertices. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. First. Alternatively. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Notice that by using variables like this. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3.2.

follows: K.0. ie . NPT.0 r ! keypoint.2. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out.for the second keypoint you might type: K. Reference number for the keypoint. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. #. Z where. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. Y. As with any programming language.0 into the command line followed by Enter.0.1. X. x=0. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.# . you may need to add comments.y2. However. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. y=y2. type help k into the command line For example. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. simply re-enter the code.y1. to enter the first keypoint type: K.

Zoom. To get an isometric view.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: .. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. You can either leave the 'Pan. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. y = 325.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. To define keypoint #1.. In this example. you have many controls. 5. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). z = 0. s 6. Rotate. translating and rotating it on all three axes. Zoom. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. This was simply used for convenience. for example. Try experimenting with them.

Keypoint at the end of line For example.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). Again. P2 Line. to obtain the first line. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE.1. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. I would write: ' L. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . we will use the command line to create the lines. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. P1.

C0 25 2 .if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. 8. LAB. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model.7. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. define the type of element (pipe16). we will again use the command line. As in the verification model. MAT. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open .

Lab4. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').. > Static 2.1.1. DOF label.Material Property.33 ' r 10. type: ' MP.PRXY.EX. 1. Apply Constraints Once again. Lab3. VALUE2. Lab6 Displacement on K. type ' MP. KEXPND. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. For example. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. Expansion key.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY).. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. VALUE. K #. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. value.Valid material property label. Lab2. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.. we will use the command line. KPOI. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. value2. to pin the .. Lab. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints.0. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Material Reference Number. Lab5. DK. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.

5.. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.. K.UY. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. K #. KPOI. UX is not constrained. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . Again.first keypoint enter: DK.UY. UY.0.UY and UZ). Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. value2 Force loads at keypoints. FY.0. Force Label directions (FX. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. FK.UX.1. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. FZ). Lab.1. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE. value2 (if req'd) . value1. the command line code is: DK.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. value. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4)..UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. UZ. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE.

3..-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST).. K.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. 'Def + undef edge' . 4. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.FY.3. the code should look like this: ' FK. If you need to delete one of the forces. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

'Left'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Your screen should look like the plot below: . Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. 'Back'. etc depend on how the object was first defined).

Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution...2. so we know what node(s) we're after. and turn on 'Node numbers'.. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. Note the node numbers of interest. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero.. Turn everything else off. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.').

. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed.. 3. Then close the 'List Results' menu. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.. Click on 'OK'.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. 4. Close this list window when you are finished browsing.. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.' from the 'List Results' menu. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table .. For each element in the model.

6 and SMISC. the bending moment diagram can be produced.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.12) And.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. to define the table (remember SMISC. to plot the data from the Element Table ... Select Element Table > Define Table.. Plot Results > Line Elem Res. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . A .. In the dialog box that appears. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..'. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. click on 'Save .' and select the file.HTML version... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Inc. and uniform pressure loading. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A figure of the plate is shown below. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). plane stress. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.

scale factors. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . units. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc.

however. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. Subtraction will used to create this model. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . a. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

0.200.100) b.0.s Fill in the window as shown above. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.100.0. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0.

20 ) c. (Alternatively. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.s Fill in the window as shown above. your image should resemble the following: . This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.50. Prior to this operation. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.50.100.

Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. s . The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked.s To perform the Boolean operation. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.

s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.1. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.2) . You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. as shown below.3. four-node element (PLANE42).. Click and hold the K3 button. therefore Click on the 'Options. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. For this example. we need a plane stress element with thickness..' button. r . as shown in the above figure. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries.

1.3) 6.3.1. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.1.3 (Alternatively.(Alternatively.1.1.EX.20) 5. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .PRXY. the command line code for the above step is MP.200000 followed by MP. the command line code for the above step is R.0.3) 4. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. the command line code for the above step is ET.

(Alternatively. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.ALL) You should now have the following: .25. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.r Select an element edge length of 25.) 7. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.

. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.0) 2. 1. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). Fill in the window as shown below.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Apply Constraints As shown previously.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.ROT on Lines' window. the left end of the plate is fixed. r r . (Alternatively. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

ALL. (Alternatively. therefore the last field is left blank. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. r r r .. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. the command line code for the above step is DL. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears.4. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. Therefore.0) 3. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

001 mm . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude. Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate). Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.we need to calculate what we should find. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . 2. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Hand Calculations Now.4.9 MPa.

we will check the stress at this point. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element... First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. (as shown below in red) . Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.

we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).9141 MPa at this point. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. r Resize Elements a. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . To change the element size.The equivalent stress was found to be 2.

.the element edge length decreases). The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged.8 MPa.c. This is a mere 2. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. (note . Click 'OK'. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. the values converge towards a final solution. d.

Therefore. . Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. Then select DOF solution. 4.. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. However.. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. USUM in the window. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. 3. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.0012 mm. r Observe the locations of deflection.

. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. r 5.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate... (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Then select Stress.. obtain these results as a list. von Mises in the window.r Alternatively.

PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Open the . Select Stress. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Bracket Example .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.' and select the file. A .

Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Create the main rectangular shape . A figure of the plate is shown below. a. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. Form Geometry Again. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.

a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. radius s Therefore. X coord (bottom left).0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. width. YCENTER. XCORNER. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.0.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4.80. YCORNER. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. Y coord for the center.80.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. the command line for this circle is CYL4. Y coord (bottom left).50.0. XCENTER.50 c. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. WIDTH. HEIGHT BLC4. height s s Therefore. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 .100 b. X coord for the center. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. RAD1 CYL4.

s To perform the Boolean operation. Boolean Operations ..Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area.ALL) s . click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AADD. e.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.

You should now have the following model: f. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

. (Alternatively.3) r . PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'. the command line code for the above step is ET.1..s Next select the three circles that we just created. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.6.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.3.1. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.

the command line code for the above step is R. (Alternatively.0. Again.20) r 5.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.1. we will need to make sure the model has converged.ALL) .PRXY. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.EX.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.3) 6. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. 4.) r 7. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.200000 followed by MP. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.5.1.ALL. (Alternatively.1.

. 1. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively. Apply Constraints . Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.0) 2. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE..

Apply Loads .As illustrated. Rotate. Zoom. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.ROT on Nodes' window..ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. r 3.. you have the option of creating a box. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. For this case. polygon. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. Repeat for the second bolt hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side.

there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results.As shown in the diagram. 4. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. . at the bottom of the large bolt hole.

it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged.1. 2. . Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . 3. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection.USUM in the window. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria.

Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. .r Alternatively..) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list. r 4... Then select von Mises Stress in the window..

Select Stress. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.HTML version.. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Quitting ANSYS . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Now go to 'File > Read input from..

click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'... .To quit ANSYS. In the window that appears.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . extrusion/ sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Filleting. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. copying. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.

WIDTH. YCORNER. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . XCORNER. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis.

Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.XCENTER.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. 3.RAD .YCENTER. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.

The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.y and z offset of the copied area.2 0. r .5 0.BASE. Enter the y offset as 4. The following window will appear.5 0.5 Circle 2 8. It asks for the x.SUBTRACT 5.2 4.6 and then click OK.

Add the smaller circles to the large area.ALL 7. . Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.5 You should obtain the following 6.

Enter 0.r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .

8. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. . Create the fillet areas r As shown below.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9. Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .

0) and (0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.#. Then select the following two keypoints r r . Plot Areas 3.0. (K.Y. 1. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .5.X. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.10.Z) 2. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.

r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. . Click on OK.

Change the Working Plane By default. for us to define the bolt holes. There are several ways to define a working plane. we need to use a different working plane. Create Bolt Holes 1.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . However. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane.

The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. 2. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.

note the origin of the working plane. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. By default those values would be 0. .0. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. 3. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. 4.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. The following window will appear. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.5 y=0 r=0.0. fill in the blanks as shown.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

This will result in the following completed structure: .r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . . Now go to 'File > Read input from...PDF version is also available for printing. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.

Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the Base 1.

6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .20 followed by LARC.4.7. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.5. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.8. type LARC.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.5 into the command line) when prompted.6.1.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.5.

5.4.# Copies (include original). RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied). Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.1.DZ) r .DY.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.DX. YCENTER=20.Area#.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.6.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.

r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .3.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.

the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. (Alternatively.102 into the command line) . Again. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.6.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.101. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. type VOFFST. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. (Alternatively. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. Change the working plane As in the previous example.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. we need to change the working plane. the first keypoint defines the origin. Therefore.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm).100. type KWPLAN.1. Note.

27. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. .2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.2. YCORNER=0. WIDTH=102. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.26 4. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51.1. YCENTER=180.

YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32. YCENTER=180.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. . Area 3 5. .5. RADIUS=18. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51.51.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 2.32.180. Area 1. .

57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.202 into the command line) 2. 204 .4 3.1. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.-1. type KWPLAN. (Alternatively. type WPCSYS.1. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. the first keypoint defines the origin.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.200. 203.201.57735*26) 129-(0.

. .204 4..'.200. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5. In the dialog box that appears.203. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A.

.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. /title.Harmonic Dynamic .

7.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 6. K. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm..#.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. enter the following geometric properties: i.y. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.1.ANSYS Inc. > Add..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) 4..x.y.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. and rotation about the Z axis).0) (1000.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.67 iii. 3. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5..z) 1 2 (0.

. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.. enter the following density for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.3 8.86e-6 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.ii. The following window will appear. Density DENS: 7.81m/s2 in the y direction. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. 10. r .0 2.

1. . This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. ACEL. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). DK.0. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case).ALL.9..

..4.777mm 2. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .2 . > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As observed in the upper left hand corner. This is in agreement with the theortical value. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. A . .777mm. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.. the maximum displacement was found to be 5. Open the .

Harmonic Dynamic . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .

0) 4... Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.#. enter the following geometric properties: i.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.K#... Distributed Loading 3. and rotation about the Z axis). > Add. 6. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.0) (1000. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.y) 1 2 (0. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2..ANSYS Inc...y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.x. 5. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. /title.

7. 9. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.ii.. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.3 8... Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.333 iii. . Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. . Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2. As shown in the following figure. over the entire length of the beam. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. 3.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .

.. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. 4. In the window that appears.2 2. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.

In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. 8. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.1. click 'Apply' 5.' 3. Click 'OK'. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window).... 7. In the second window of the same section. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. 9. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. . In the window that appears a. 6. For this example. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element.. select 'NMISC. ' d. (ie. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. 3 for the 'J' nodes. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. r As shown in the plot below. Click 'Add. For this problem. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c.

.' and select the file. Open the .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A ..

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. To solve this problem.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . the load will added incrementally. contact elements). After each increment. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .

.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.25 x 0. 2.125 inches. 6. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.03125 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.0) 3.. 4. With only 3 degrees of freedom. 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .y) 1 2 (0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . and rotation about the Z axis).. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. enter the following geometric properties: i.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) (5.. 5. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0..ANSYS Inc.069e-5 iii. > Add.

we would have to consider non-linear material properties. not non-linear material properties. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 7. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. If we were considering a block of wood. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. 8. The following image will appear: ..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). for example.i.0 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0..3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example..

Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. however. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. C. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . Enter 5 as the number of substeps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. this takes time.

Now. F. E. By default. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. For some special nonlinear cases. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. By default. This command controls the solution data written to the database. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. the previously computed matrix. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. type help followed by the command into the command line. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. the modified Newton-Raphson. However. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. D. For more information about these commands. the load is ramped. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. stress stiffening is automatically included. By default. By default. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1.

4.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.

1 2. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..Y. UY PLNSOL. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..0..U.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.1 .. > DOF solution. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

Define Variables .3.. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. As you recall. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Modeling the system non-linearly. this is not realistic for large deflections.. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.> DOF solution. the load was applied in steps. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. However.

. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction..r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.

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PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . ...HTML version.

. see Chapter 8. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. and many other solution control option. In this example.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. For more information regarding setting the time value.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing.

it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. Generally. . etc) that iterates to find a solution. In the case of a structural analysis. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. However. This is what will be explained next. which is discussed in the help file. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. Again. if the solution is highly non-linear. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. As can be seen in the graph above. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. as expected. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. 2. For instance. for more information about changing iteration settings. which ever is greater. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces.5% for loads.001). In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. many iterations will be required. Thus. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. If the problem is relatively linear. we will look at the force curves. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. the curves may be for temperature. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis.5 in the help file. you can see Chapter 8. or is not converging. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. which this graph is taken from. Some analyses use normalized values. For each substep. this graph relates to forces and moments. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. Once this occurs. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. In the case of a structural example. For ease of explanation. such as this. there are two curves plotted. In simpler terms.ANSYS Inc. For each parameter. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. If this graph were from a thermal analysis.

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note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. load perterbations.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. real-world buckling prediction analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. material nonlinearities and gaps.Harmonic Dynamic . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. static analysis to predict buckling loads. in real-life. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. This method is not recommended for accurate. However. For this type of analysis. large-deflection. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.0 to solve a simple buckling problem.Modal Dynamic . 2. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. ie.

. rigidly constrained at the bottom.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. Define Keypoints . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. applied at the top-center of the beam. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.ANSYS Inc. will be calculated.. The required load to cause buckling. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title.

100) 4. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. and rotation about the Z axis).1. enter the following geometric properties: i.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .y) 1 2 (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.333 iii... K. > Add..3 .. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.X. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.0) (0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm.#. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. 6.

change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. 9. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. prestress effects must be activated.. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window.8. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. r r . If you are looking at the abridged menu. select the unabridged version. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2.

Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). 4. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained).3. .

Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly.1 8. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. However. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. 7. 5.

FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. however. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used.... 11. 9. and ensure that it is on. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver.r Complete the window which appears. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. This time. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s).. is for an expansion pass. r . The 'Subspace' method could also be used. as shown below. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible.

The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . which is in Newtons for this example. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. /POST1 SET.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.LIST 2.123). Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated.

Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. /TITLE.Y .. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .#. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K..X.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.y) 1 2 (0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Define Mesh Size . 6. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.100) 4. and rotation about the Z axis). In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) (0. With only 3 degrees of freedom.3 8. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. > Add. L.2 5. 7.333 iii.

1 9. ESIZE.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). The following image will appear: .0 2. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control..

Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. F. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. B. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. this takes time. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Enter 20 as the number of substeps.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. E. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. C. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. D. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. however.

The model should now look like the window shown below. 4.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. For more information about these commands. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. 3. . type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.This shows the convergence of the solution. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.1 .r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..

> DOF solution..1 .r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.U.Y.0.. UY PLNSOL.

However. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. 1. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. . Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically.

This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. On the Time History Variable window. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . click the add button again. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.r To add another variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.

r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. .2. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.

which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40. Open the . A . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.000 N.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.123 N. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.. .

ANSYS Inc. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".Modal Dynamic . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. For instance.Harmonic Dynamic . In such a case. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .2 4. 5... Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. 6...y) 1 2 (0. > Add. L. /title.1. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. enter the following geometric properties: i. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0) (0.X. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters..Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. NonLinear Materials 2. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.#.100) 3..

002 0.001 0. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data. It should look like the one shown above. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up.i. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.003 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. When the data for the first point is input. the stress-strain data must be included. click Graph to see the curve. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.004 0. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . click Add Point to add another. Then click OK. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.005 0. When all the points have been inputed.

200 0.060 0. 8.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2..275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.100 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE...150 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. The following image will appear: . For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line). Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..250 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. /REPLOT 7.

This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. you can plot certain parameters over time. data for every load step is written to the database. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Therefore. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. this takes time. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. however. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. . E. F. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. C. D. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance.

3. 4. 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. For more information about these commands. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.B. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). type help followed by the command into the command line.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).

This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .

1 .2. UY PLNSOL. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..U.. > DOF solution.0.Y.

The following window should open automatically. . 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. However. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. .

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. so you must change them manually. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. .r To add another variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. click the add button again. On the Time History Variable window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.

HTML version. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. Open the . However. as the force increased.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . When you verify this example analytically. was low (in the linear range). A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. and subsequently the stress. you will see the solutions are very similar.. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate.PDF version is also available for printing.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . please use the links below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

2 2. The following window will appear . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options..ANSYS Inc. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. It is therefore more exact but. . This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below).r As shown. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.

. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.r For this problem. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. 4. . 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. we will use the default options so click on OK.

1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.22 ANSYS 8. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.51 472.300 52.0 0.54 Percent Error 0.311 51. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .2 0.69 472. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . 2. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .01 145. Select 'Def + undef edge'. instead of 10 elements.e.94 145. r To view the next mode shape.1 0.68 285.64 285.0 0. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .

3. Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . (To get a list of nodes and their attributes.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. In our case it is assigned Frequency.. which is node #2. By default.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.3.

4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. .

3 and 51 Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8. view the log scale of UY. To get a better view of the response.311 and 51. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .94Hz.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.

r As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .

See the help file for instructions.0.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. A . r For ANSYS version lower than 7. Open the . .100 Hz.HTML version. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

.

Modal Dynamic . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.Harmonic Dynamic . For our case. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead.

After the application of the load. The smaller the time step. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).ANSYS Inc. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. However.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. It is the quickest of the three methods. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). r . All types of non-linearities are allowed. However. if stresses and forces are of interest than. Therefore. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In other words. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. In ANSYS. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). the calculations are much quicker. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Select 'Reduced' as shown. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. However. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. please use the links below.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.

The following window will open. Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. .2. 3.

Time Step .. Note that for the reduced method. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. Load Step 1 . Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps.001. for this example we can skip this step. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. two sets of initial conditions are required. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). a. ii. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. s set [DELTIM] to 0. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. initial displacement and initial velocity.Initial Conditions i. Therefore. This will specify a time step size of 0.001 seconds to be used for this load step.4. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. However. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. . both default to zero. We can also solve for each load step after we define it.

Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .iii.

.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. and set a time of 0. Specify Time and Time Step Options . Load Step 2 i.s01 b. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Load Step 3 i. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.Time Step . ii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).001 for the end of the load step iii. ii.

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). which is node #2. In our case it is assigned Frequency. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. . Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. 1.Time Step . By default. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time ..

and the following window should pop up.. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ..r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK.

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .2.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. .3.

However. we would have to expand the reduced solution.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. We did not specify damping for our system. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. We also see another response at a higher frequency. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. if stresses and forces are of interest. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. .

.11 seconds.11 seconds r r r 2. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. 1.08 and 0. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. For this case. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .08 and 0. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open.

R5.0.00000000 DMPRAT.00000000 NCNV.00000000 .00000000 . 1. 0. 0.00000000 TREF._TINY DELTIM. 0.REDU. 0. 0.00000000 0. 0.000000000E-03.00000000 D.00000000 . 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 4 TRNOPT. 0.00000000 .. 0.500000000 . 0.00000000 0. /GOPR 1. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE. 0..00000000 .00000000 . 0. 0.DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 .00000000 . We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 .00000000 CGLOC. 0. 0. 1. 0 DOMEGA. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.ROTZ.00000000 OMEGA.000000000E-03 TIME. 1. -1. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. 0. 0. 0. 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE.s01.00000000 ERESX. 0. 5.00000000 .00000000 . 0. The file should look like the following.01 in all three load step files.00000000 DCGOMG..7. 0. 0. 0. 0..00000000 .0.TEMP. q .UY .00000000 .We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 .DEFA ACEL. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. D. -1.00000000 .00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. . 0. D.R5. /COM.00000000 0.00000000 .00000000 ALPHAD. TINTP.00000000 CGOMEGA. 0.00000000 BETAD. . 0. but now we will consider damping. 1.UX .ANSYS RELEASE 5. 0.00000000 0. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. 0.00000000 TINTP.00000000 .

HTML version.q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26.' .. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. After the results have been calculated. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.. After selecting MDOFs.. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. A . .

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .0 to solve a simple conduction problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .

0.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ANSYS Inc. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Width=1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.PLANE55 For this example.10 6.1.KXX. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Quad 4node 55). Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.05 7. 1. 5.0 2.1.1 4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Height=1 BLC4. Apply Constraints .1.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Y=0. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.ALL.05 AESIZE. Give example a Title 2. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.

all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. r r The following window will appear: . Convection. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow.For thermal problems. Heat Flux.options cannot be selected. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. Heat Generation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. or Radiation. In this example.

Temperature TEMP . > DOF solution. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.. r 3..

Open the . . A . Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. however. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. followed by the side and bottom constraints. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.' and select the file. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners.PDF version is also available for printing.

Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0 to solve simple thermal examples.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .

KXX. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0.ALL.1.0.0. Width=1.1.1 4. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Apply Conduction Constraints .0 2.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.PLANE55 As in the conduction example.05 AESIZE. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. 6.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.. Quad 4node 55).ANSYS Inc.. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.05 7. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. 1. Give example a Title 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Height=1 BLC4. Y=0. Quad 4Node 55 ET. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 5.

all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method.In this example. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. The following window will appear: r . while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. This is because we have uniform convection across the line.r Fill in the window as shown. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. 4. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. r .

thereby modeling an insulated wall. This will eliminate convection through the side. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. > DOF solution.

.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.

Also. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .040 kJ/kg*K. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

.KXX. Width=1.1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.DENS. Y=0.0. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.. Height=1 BLC4.1.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.04 MP. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title..ALL At this point.1 4.05 AESIZE.2. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.920 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ALL.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. 5. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. /Title.05 7. Quad 4node 55).0.ANSYS Inc.0.C.1.1.. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1.PLANE55 For this example.

.4 The window shown below will pop up. We will use the defaults. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. so click OK.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

2. . Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . Max no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. of substeps to 100. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. of substeps to 20. Min no.

This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. r r . or Radiation.options cannot be selected. Basically. For a complete description of what these options do. 3. Heat Flux. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Generation. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Convection. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. By writing the data at every step. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated.D) Set Line search to ON . In this example. Heat Flow. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. refer to the help file. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly.

The following window will appear: .

constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. r 4. > DOF solution. Temperature TEMP . Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method..

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.. specify the contour range.. .Animate Results Over Time r First. from 100 to 500. with 8 contours. user specified. Fill in the window as shown.

DOF solution > TEMP) .r Then animate the data. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames... Auto contour scaling OFF. 0 .300 Time Range. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.

. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. As can be seen. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. the curves are practically identical. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Also.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time.

Analytical Solution .

.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Creating the Temperature vs. The following window should open automatically. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.

and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. . Pick the center node on the mesh.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. node 261. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

To cause the solution to converge. From experience. This is because the solution has not completely converged. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. . Instead. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. will cause the solution to converge. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually.2. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . A .' and select the file.HTML version. ..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing..

As a warning. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. In this case. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.

. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.X2. Axisymmetric Tube 2.X1. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.Y2 .ANSYS Inc. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Y1. /title..

Therefore. 5. Solid. .. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. 6. axisymmetry is not supported. click the Options. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. Triangle 6node) element. we must define a U-shape... button. to create the geometry mentioned above. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4.. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Many elements support axisymmetry. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural.For an axisymmetric problem.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. 9. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.7.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. as shown below. By using the symmetry B.0 2. at x=0. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions.C. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. command.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. .C.

Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. then click OK.r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. .

. Therefore. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). 3. 4. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. This is required to constrain the model in space. click on Cancel to close the window. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. Once you've clicked Sele All. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK.

r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. r 5.

. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.Max box.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. 2.55 in the Min. as shown below and click OK.182 MPa...

r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. 3. (0. Thus.. . matching the analytical solution. such as corners. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube.18552 + 0. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators.182 MPa. the stress in the tube is 0. The average is used because in the analytical case. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. to approximate the analytical solution. we must average the stress over the thickness. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric.17866)/2. The following window will appear.

' and select the file. the model is a flat. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. as expected due to the change in geometry. Thus. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial.HTML version. The rest of the commands remain the same. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. If this is done... Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. with a rectangular hole in the middle. A .4.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . rectangular plate.

The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.7. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. a wall thickness of 10.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. Define Element Types For this problem. .Y and Z axis)..Catapult 3.. Y and Z axis. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). /title. and rotation about the X.

UY). Click 'OK'. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. b. c. a. s Select 'Combination'. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties.a. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements.. there should now be three types of elements defined. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. ROTY). For this example. s Select 'Combination'. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 4. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b.. UZ.. ROTX. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX.. UY.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.1000) (1000. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window... Click 'OK'.33 6.#. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.z) (0. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. 5.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.0. In the window that appears. N.0) (0.0.0) . there should now be three types of elements defined.0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.1000) (1000. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.y. c.x.0. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3. Define Element Material Properties 1. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.y. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.

1000) (0.0) (700.1000.0.400.0) (0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0..500) (0.0.500) (0. Then click 'OK'.0..0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .500) (400.1000) (0.1000.700. 'Material number' is set to 1. The following window will appear.0. .-500) 7. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1. Create PIPE16 elements a.1500) (0.

node a.6).1. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 . the first entry would be: E. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.b.

The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. three nodes are required. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Create elements When defining a joint. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Then click 'OK' b. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes .

node a. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. Then click 'OK' b. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. we do not need to mesh our model.E. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. To do this. node b.node a. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. 11. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. 10. you can list all the elements defined in the model. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3.

ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . we need to include the effects of large deformation... Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 3. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.

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Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

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Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

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You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

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**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

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**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

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5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. However. Fill this table as done previously. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item.. > Add.. we can now solve the optimization problem. 1.3 (instead of NMISC. 8. Comp selection box r r r 6. In this case the maximum values for each are the same. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. fill it in as shown previously ..1). r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File... however. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. . r r 7. this is not always the case. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.. This will give you the max stress at the j node. However.

0.2. .1.RATI. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM... .0. .P51X.0 MPDATA.2. . ..PRXY.2.ans.2.. 20 /PREP7 K.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.1 FITEM.0..(W*H**3)/12.. .H.3. .ALL...UX.1000.75.. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad..200000 MPDATA.... .txt’ Click ‘OK’.0 FLST.. .1.1 FITEM.start70.ORDE.3.1...ANSYS RELEASE 7. K.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input. 1.3 !* LESIZE. .1.W*H. .0. .. 20 *SET. Design Optimization *SET.2...1.LINE. LMESH.H .1 !* /GO DK.1 /title.1.EX. .1.1.ORDE. L.0.1. .100.2 ..1.BEAM3 !* !* R. .... MPTEMP. !* !* MPTEMP. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.W .UY.. FLST.0.1. !* ET... 2 !* HPTCREATE.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'..

0. ETABLE. . .UY.SMaxJ.0.1 FITEM.SORT.UY.SMaxI. . using command line code.NMISC.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. Therefore. ETABLE. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. !* SSUM !* *GET.ITEM. . if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device. Change this to: DK. FLST. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.P51X.0.1.0.SMAX. .SMAX_J.0.0.optimization.3.0. . 1 !* ESORT.1.-2000 ! /STATUS..SORT.FY.NMISC.3 !* /GO FK. . .P51X. .0.UX.!* /GO DK.DK.UX.SMAX_I. 3 !* ESORT.1.SSUM. .ETAB.0.2. However.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization. most of these changes will already be made.MAX AVPRIN. If you created the geometry etc.C:\Temp\.. .0.0.MAX *SET. .EVOLUME AVPRIN.SMax_J. .SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. .ORDE.2. . !* *GET. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. .0. !* *GET. .P51X.VOLU.0.UY.Volume.ETAB. ETABLE. ..SMax_I. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 .1. . .EVolume.

These variables are necessary to constrain the design. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. Without this SV. . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .FY. In our problem. For the width and height. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . Now that we have decided our design variables. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero.-2000 Change to: FK.0. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. . we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized.UY. In this example. . Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization.FK. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.FY. .UY. . the width and height of the beam are the DVs.3. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. .-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. 2. To define variables. In this example.DK. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable.0. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. Change to: DK.2. NOTE: As previously stated.0. If you are comfortable with command line coding.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . .P51X. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. r Click ‘OK’. .P51X. 3. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.0. .

.. > Add.01MPa. a.01mm. For the stress variable.. we do not need to define an allowable range. > Add. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.... s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem.. we will select a tolerance of 0.. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.on the volume of the beam. . This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm).

. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Percent forward diff.2% 7. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Defaults to 0. .s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.001) c. Click ‘OK’.2 Click ‘OK’. Percent step size SIZE = 100.. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. DELTA = 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. Defaults to 10. enter 200. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. confirm that the analysis file. Under Convergence Tolerance.. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. 6. method/type and maximum iterations are correct..

height=29. You will probably see that the width=13. View the Results 1. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. and the stress is equal to 199.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.. C. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .. B.24 mm.. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables.. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.16 mm. 2.

..Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. . You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.. In the window. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . all of the results data (ie stress. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. . displacement. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List.PDF version is also available for printing. Alternatively.' and select the file.... Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. . In addition. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu..

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29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. however. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. For this example. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.5 MPa. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. substructuring will be used for the wood block.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply loads to the super-element . v = 0. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.

3.WIDTH. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Apply remaining loads to the model.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.2.. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.YCORNER.. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.XCORNER. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). . Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.

Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . 5.29 6.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. r . 7. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear.SUBST 2.. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. This element has 4 nodes.

the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. 3. With the option SEPR. r . Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. In this case.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. 5. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.

.. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.WIDTH..XCORNER. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. FILNAME.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . including the super-elements from the Generation Pass..YCORNER.

enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 2. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data .41 8. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently.. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. For Selected set as shown. Therefore. . The following window will appear. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. 9. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.5 (MPa) ii.)...6. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.. Select Model Data. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid)..1 10.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

The following window will appear. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . ... 40 as shown. By Location. Select Nodes.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Y coordinates.SUB File... Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.

In the window that appears..r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply super-element load vectors . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3..0 2.

..1 . r 4. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .0..) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.U. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector. Translation USUM PLNSOL.SUM.. > DOF solution.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted.

FILNAME.. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .

..db . r 2. The following window will appear. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. The following window will appear.3.. r 3. Type 'EXPASS. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem .. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. r .ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.

1 .. > DOF solution. Translation USUM PLNSOL.SUM.U.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.0.4. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .

Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0). . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. with no internal stresses. stress is created in the link.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.the solutions and ..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.. However. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. A steel link. the link will attemp to expand. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Loads will not be applied to the link. For convenience. a thermal conductivity of 60.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. .

Thermal Stress Example 2.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. K. the analyses are coupled. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.0) 4. For instance. and write them to memory. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. and using it with any following coupled environments. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.1. Although the geometry must remain constant. the element types can change. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. However. Thermal Environment . however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.y. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. For our case. where the thermal effects will be applied. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment..y. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.0) (1. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file." Thus. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment... The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1.2 .x.z) 1 2 (0.#. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It is important to note. For a listing. the geometry is kept constant.. /title.

enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. 6. enter the following geometric properties: i. representing a link 1 meter long. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. KXX: 60... Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.. 9. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears..1 meters. > Add.. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 5.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2... For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.5 8.

For more information on this element. 1. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. which is defining the structural environment. 2. It does not clear the geometry however. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. In this case it is LINK 8. so it can be used in the next stage. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. In this case. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. see the help file. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.11. etc. Structural Environment . A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps.3 . material properties. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. such as the element type.

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. .0 2. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ALPX: 12e-6 3. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.

you will get error messages. as expected. This should make it visible. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. 4.rth. 7.rth. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. enter the file name File. If this is not done.rth. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. the left-most point. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. The thermal solution has now been obtained.If the Physics option is not available under Solution.rth is the thermal results file. this data can be found as file. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. . 3. 8. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. were . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. to 348 Kelvin. 6. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link.

Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .9. 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

1 3.As shown.1 ETABLE. List the Stress Data . 2. an element table must be created first.CompStress. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. Instead. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.LS. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line.

CompStr The following list should appear.180e9 Pa. . Note the stress in each element: -0.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.

HTML version.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. . A . Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. computational time can be kept to a minimum. Thus. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. rather than increasing mesh density. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

P-Method Meshing 2.ON Select p-Method Struct. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. as shown below .

x.0) (0.y.3.52) (55.100) (20.100) . K.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.100) (45. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS...52) (80. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.#.y.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.

9.0) (55. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A. 6.48) (45.100) (100..10. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.0) (80.0) 5.1. .2.7.3.6.48) (20..8.11.4.5.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.

Solid147. For now we will leave them as default. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. For more information on these elements. go to the Element Library in the help file. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library..For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. click Options. > Add. shown below. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. enter the following geometric properties: i... 8. Plane146... Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. to open the keyoptions window. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. After clicking OK to select the element.. 7. and Plane145. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

0 2.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 10. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. .ii..3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.

Max no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. . Min no. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. of substeps to 100. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. of substeps to 20.

5. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.

.The following stress distribution should appear.

Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.3. .

This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. these orders may go as high as 8. For more complex geometries. . a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. As a comparison.

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PDF version is also available for printing. .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. thus computational time will be low. and still get reasonable results. This is the benefit of using p-elements. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . However. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Open the .As one can see from the two plots.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.

Element birth is also possible. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. but will not be discussed here. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. The elements are still technically there. For further information. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

Element Death 2. enter the following properties: i. For this example. Quad 4node 55).. /title. enter the following properties: . 5.0.0.03 4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears.03 Height = 0.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following properties: i. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node..03 BLC4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.03.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. We will use the defaults. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. ANTYPE.4 2.0005m. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. Density DENS: 920 6.. you . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.i. Therefore. so click OK..

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . 3. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used.must type NROPT.FULL into the commmand line. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.

By writing the data at every step.D) Set Line search to ON . the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. For a complete description of what these options do. Basically. refer to the help file. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. 4.

Heat Flux. Convection. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. Heat Generation. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. . or Radiation. In this example.5. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows.

The model should now look as follows: .

. Here. For instance.. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. elements to create the desired effect. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.LAST 2.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. the user can manually kill. . Assume the material melts at 273 K. or turn off.

' Fill the window in as shown below. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. . thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK... 3.r Click on 'Add. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK.

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. 2. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. this will kill only those elements. Click OK to restart the analysis. This is much too time consuming in this case. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. thus it is just warning the user. which this analysis doesn't call for. . Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements.all into the command line.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. and close the warning message.

With the window still open. . select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

A . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. more accurately modelling the heating process.PDF version is also available for printing. That way. Open the . using command line code.HTML version.This procedure can be programmed in a loop.' and select the file. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point.. to more accurately model element death over time. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. causing it to bend and contact the lower. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. as shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. are 100mm long.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . Contact Elements 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. The beams. /title.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other.

... Quad 4node 42) element.Height) 1 2 (0. 10) 4. WP Y. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 0.Width.WP Y. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. click Options. . Width. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid.. 100. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. 10) (50.. 100.WP X... r While the Element Types window is still open. 15. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y). > Add. 5.. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below./PREP7 3.

r While the Element Types window is still open. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. pt-to-surf 48) element.. . The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines... click Options.. 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This is an important step. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. 8. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step.3 7. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. This way. enter the following geometric properties: i.. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls.

such as CONTA175. > Add. If there is too much penetration. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material.. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. As the surfaces approach each other.. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). given in %. When using contact elements in your own analyses. This will be covered below. require a target element. to function. Since this "spring" is so stiff. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. Thus. you should increase KN.It is important to note. enter the following properties: i. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties.. such as TARGE169. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. . ii. In this situation. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. Other contact elements.. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. be sure to understand how the elements work. resulting in convergence difficulties. you should decrease KN. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. 10. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. A small value of TOLS. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. rather than node to element edge.

Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus.. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. 11. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. etc. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. tolerances. Select the top beam and click OK. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. .. In this case. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. when the geometry is complex. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements.. However. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. First. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. In this simple case.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. the source nodes will be selected.

100..Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. . Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK..

..s Now if you list the selected nodes. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. you should only have the following nodes remaining.

s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. This can be very useful in other applications as well. and click OK. In this case. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. If you have a lot of contact elements. Now we can use this component. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. . Source. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements.

and click the Sele All button. Using the same procedure as above.Now select the target nodes.. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. When creating the component this time. This is done by opening the entity select menu.. . enter the name Target.. clicking the Also Select radio button. clicking the Also Select radio button. These values will be the ones you'll use. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. This is done by opening the entity select menu. and click the Sele All button. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. 12. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below... Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others..

Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. . The rest of the selections remain unchanged.

you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . your model should look like the following. If you wish. Unfortunately. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.At this point.

0 2.. If you zoom in on the contact areas. The following image will appear: . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. shown below. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.. The preprocessor stage is now complete.

Enter 100 as the number of substeps. C. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. however. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. this takes time. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. B. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . E. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. D.

if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. 3. Also. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. leave these relatively high at first. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. If you have too few substeps. type help followed by the command into the command line. Again. For more information about these commands. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Once everything is working. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all.

However. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 5. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . this is a point load on a 2D surface. Note.

many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.0 (true scale) radio button. 3. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. If you leave the scaling as default.2. then click ok. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. producing a stress distribution in both.' and select the file... the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As seen in the figure. .

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions.2 . The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.HEIGHT. finish /clear ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.LENGTH.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).How long is the truss.DIVISION. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.20 *ask. using a length of 200 m. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.How tall is the truss.How many cross supports even number.100 *ask. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask. Variables including length.

prxy.THEN k.1..1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.1.X_COORD.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.100 mp.KEYP.OSCILATE.1.0 *else k.i.KEYP.0.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.i.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.GT.(KEYP+1) *if.0.1.200000 mp.THEN L.X_COORD.LE.1 .1.NUM_K.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.j.3 esize.DIVISION.1.KEYP.(DIVISION-1).ex.i.link1 r.

This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. Par. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. the most intutitive method is to use "=". or a mathematical expression..0. OSCILATE.9.3. For example. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. However. is greater than zero. 2.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.GT. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. INC. In between the *DO and *ENDDO..How long is the truss.all finish 1.". the *ASK command can be used define a variable. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. This translates to "if the variable. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3.lmesh. then. see the help file.8.. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. This argument can be a single value. IVAL.i. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. FVAL. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.THEN. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. *do. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as.OSCILATE. For more information on this command. For example. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. determining if a certain case has occured. The syntax for the expression is *DO.1. 4. In this case. *ask. Thus in later parts of the code. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. Command File Mode of Solution .. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false.2. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true.10). An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. (ie 1. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.10_K. As seen above. in the code above there is a statement: *if. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.LENGTH.

' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. A .HTML version.. . Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

.) of the following example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . etc. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Stress.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. /title. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Height. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Width.3.0..0.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4..3 6. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static .all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. Y and Z directions). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.

3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). options 1. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. 5.ANTYPE. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). For this example we are trying to display a section. 4. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice.0 2. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . therefore. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display.

This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . let's view deflection of the entire model.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections.

these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . To illustrate how to take a cross section.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. offset the working plane to the desired position. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

90 /CPLANE. let's view stresses within the entire model.-1.SUM.0. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.0.0 WPROTA.1.0 2.0. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).Width/2.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0.8 PLNSOL. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. Equivalent Stress Again. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.1 /TYPE. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises ... simply use: WPCSYS.This can be repeated for any slice.U. however.

1.5 PLNSOL.0. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).S. You should now see the following: .0. Because it is much easier. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.1 /TYPE.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.EQV.

the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes.. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. type help ancut into the command line. For more information on how to modify the animation. the sweep direction is in the Z direction.. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. and the Y axis. Unfortunately. for something a little more impressive. but please bear with me.3. Next. Finally. r r . the sweep direction. In the graphics window. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). select the node in the back. the origin. Animation Now. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam.

' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. .. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. For example. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. . a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.

WP X. select the area to remain (ie. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.WP Y. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. the rectangle) and click OK.. Then. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5.0. 4.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.200. /title.0. r .0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. the circles) and click OK.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The remaining area should look as shown below.

8.... r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. > Add. enter a thickness of 10.3 .. In the 'Element Types' window. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.6. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants.. click 'Options.

Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. The model should now look like the figure below.0 2. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area.. 10. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 3.. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.9. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. .

you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. However. you could create a normal contour plot. 1. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r .4.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

meaning this function off. To keep window 1 visible during replots. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. r r 2. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . shown below.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. you must make a couple of changes. Turn window 1 'off'. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window.

or in other words. you must choose what to map to the path. r . 3. what results should be available to the path. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. For this example. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. equivalent stress is desired. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.

This is of little concern though. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. so disregard the warning. 4. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r .

Due to resolution restrictions. .The display should look like the following. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Note. these dots are not shown here.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .HTML version.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. . A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.

Use of Tables for Data Plots .UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. By plotting this data on a curve.. /title. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. rather than using a contour plot. Length of the following beam using tables. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. a special type of array. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. finer resolution can be achieved..

. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.y. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.0) 4.2. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.x. > Add. enter the following geometric properties: i.z) 1 2 (0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. 6. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.0) (400. Define Element Material Properties .y.. K. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.1..#. and rotation about the Z axis)...z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. 7..

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 8... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0 2. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. The model should now look like the figure below. 9.

.4. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. > OK. 2. This example is a simplified use of tables. but they can be used for much more. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. a special type of array. For this example there are 21 nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Create the Table . Therefore. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model.. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. Tables. 1. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.

Enter Data into Table First. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . select Model Data > Nodes r . In the window shown below. The reason for this will be explained below. Note there are 22 rows..1]. 3. one more than the number of nodes. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.2.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22..

. and continues down the column. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . Next. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. column 2.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X].. and continues down the column. the vertical displacement will be recorded. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. r . column 1.

Thus. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. to provide room to move this data. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). This causes problems during plotting. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.4. as it is keypoint 1. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit .

and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.833) is in row two. r .r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. UY = -0. Fill it in as shown. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. Select File > Apply/Quit 5.

. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below.r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . To see the changes to the labels. r r ..

Open the .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .PDF version is also available for printing. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..

all finish /solu antype.2.beam3 r.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For instance.prxy. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.2 et.1.0 L.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.0 dk. etc.all.1.333.0 K. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model. changing the background colour.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.833.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.3 esize.100. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.1.200000 mp.100.1. numbering the nodes. finish /clear /title.0.0.1.ex.10 mp.5 lmesh.

fy..fk.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. The following window will appear: ..2.

When you click OK.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. To remedy this problem. However. sometimes the numbers won't show up. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. You should get the following: . the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. For instance.

These extra symbols may not be necessary. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . the nodes have been numbered. 2. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments.As shown.

so those sections won't be used.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. or Initial Conditions. there are no Surface or Body Loads. In our case. . click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. Under the Boundary conditions section.

Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .The result should be as follows: 3.

The following output should be the result. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. As shown in the window. .This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. To turn off the triad. the legend or title can be turned off. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. it is things associated with the window background. In this case. etc.

. .4.. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.

The following should appear. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. thus elements are not going to show up. If there is no change in output. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. such as BEAM3. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. .When using line elements. don't be alarmed. To aid in this process.

you can change the view orientation.. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. 5.. . To get a better 3-D view of the model. but they have volume according to the real constants. the elements are no longer just a line.As shown.

Using these options. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. translate the view and zoom. Basic rotating. You can also select predefined views. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen.This window allows the user to rotate the view. . such as isometric or oblique. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. it's easy to see the elements in 3D.

If you don't like the colours of the contour. . Under uniform contours. plot the deformation contour for the beam.. they can be changed. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. Under non-uniform contours.6. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate.. those can also be changed. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Changing Contours First. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours.

Here we are only using Window 1..The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. 7. . and we'll set the background colour to white. but don't want a black background.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire.

select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. Notice how all the text disappeared. select Save As. this can be done in other graphic editors. This is because the text colour is also white.The resulting display is shown below.. If there is information that needs to be added. such as contour values. Under the File heading. To save the display.. .

If you are looking for a specific option. these are just a few.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. as is the help file. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. .

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options.. 2. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. select Read Input from. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. You may need to select Plot -> . Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. When it is complete. e. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. frame. Then before you are finished. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. see the next item in this list. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point.. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. to a text file.cmd) is stored and select it.g. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. or if you'd like to save the whole file. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode.. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window.

mode).frame. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. etc.. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear.. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. you would use the following syntax /input. .. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor../myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. At this point you could type in /menu. stress.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. you may need to point it to the proper directory. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file.cmd and yes that is a comma (.cmd. type /input. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. To rerun the command file.. Select File -> Clear & Start New.frame. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. then from the ANSYS input window. If the file was in the directory. Save those changes to disk.) between frame and cmd.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections.on. X11c.

z2.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .x2. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis. a10 see online help see online help rectng.l1.theta1.theta1...kp1.kp2.rad1.x1. kp8 va.l2.rad1.kp1.x2. applying loads and constraints.rad2.z1.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry. .kp1.. kp18 a...zcoord l.y2. . .theta2 sphere..xcoord.kp3.x1.ycoord.z1.kp2.rad2.y1.kp2 larc.y2 block. .kp#.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.kp1.a1.kp2.. . Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.y1.kp1..kp2.z2 cylind.. kp6 a.a2. l10 v.

line1.type may define as many as required. .line2.label.c1.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) . current type is set by real real..c0. . .a2.number esize.a2.number mp. .number.a2 aina.a1..inc or amesh.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.a1.number. current type is set by mat mat.a2.a1..inc or lmesh..area1.area2.. c4 may define as many as required.size. a9 aglue. a9 asba....ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.r1.number r.r2. current type is set by type type.number.all amesh.a1. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et. r6 may define as many as required.. ..

e.kp#.line#. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.value labels: UX.ROTY.value labels: FX.node#.MY.FZ.vol1.value labels: FX.ALL d.area#.MX.FY.ALL dl.MX.value labels: UX.node#.ROTX.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.ROTX. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .UZ.vol2.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.UZ.ROTZ.MZ f.inc or vmesh.label.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.UY.UY.label.MY.ROTZ.label.FZ.label.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).kp#.FY.ROTY.

5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".2.1.Enter number of divisions (default 5).0 *ENDDO *ELSE k. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.ndivs+1.x. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if . ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.0 k.else .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.ndivs.ndivs.i. if only is entered. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.1.x1.GT.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.x2.1.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.0.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .i. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.0.then .1 ! do i = 1. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).

.kp.1 kplot klist.! /pnum.all..coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .

This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Boolean operations. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. extrusion.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Pure Conduction . Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example.Transient Thermal Examples . This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Dynamic Analysis . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations).Modal Dynamic Analysis . ANSYS 7. This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.

Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.Thermal Examples .Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Analysis of heat conduction over time. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Modelling Using Axisymmetry .

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Using element death to model a volume melting. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. Additionally. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial.

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Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS 7. a special type of array. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables.

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7 emis2=0. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.-1 k.0 k.0.7.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.1 k.0 k.0.5.699*10**(-8) k.0254 rout=8*0.6. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0.1.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0.0.8.

rout.1.KXX.KXX.VM125 TOFFST.s..1 MAT.5.1 R.1.1 lsel. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.arc.rout LMESH.1 MP..TEMP ET..7.1.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.1 STEF.1.ndiv CIRCLE.1 csys.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.emis2 VTYPE.rin LMESH.s.1..offset ! inner cylinder.1 TYPE.0 GEOM.ndiv ET. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.circle...all lsel. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.2.2.MATRIX50.7.2 SE.8..rin.1..arc.x.2 lsel..SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .ALL lsel.6.emis1 EMIS.1 ESIZE.all MP.all csys.loc..LINK32.loc.1 MAT.stefbolt WRITE.2..x.

3 LABEL(1.T1 nsel.CHAR.HEAT *DIM.VALUE.loc.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.s.all *GET.ITEM.2 *DIM.Q.FSUM.TEMP.0.x.all csys.TEMP.rin D.csys.loc.ALL.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.s.s.all nsel.ALL.x.s.1.LABEL.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.1 nsel.1 nsel.rout D.all nsel.x.loc.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM. K /POST1 csys.loc.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.T2 nsel..x.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .1.

VALUE(1. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.exact *VFILL.*VFILL.A8.------------------------------------------------------/COM.VALUE(1. FINISH .--------------.1. /COM.' '.DATA.' '.2).VALUE(1.3) /COM.VALUE(1.LABEL(1.' '.Q *VFILL.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.1.2).F10.1).1F5.1).1).VALUE(1.F10.DATA.VALUE(1.3) (1X. *VWRITE.DATA.3).

nedit . puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. one simply types pico test. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. so they are always available.dat. but the backspace key does work normally. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. In pico. press this key. for example. The first three mentioned below are text based. but have a steep learning curve. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. To use pico to edit the file test.dat at the UNIX prompt. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key.

This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home.3 file format used by DOS. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. Very nice. It could then be edited. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. Applications . Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. For this reason. and block delimiting with the mouse..nedit is a very simple to use. when saving files in PFE. multiple file editing. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. yet powerful X Windows editor. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. undo. and then renamed back to its original name. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor.exe (look under the r: drive). It features pull-down menus. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. type wabi or win. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. saved. From a UNIX command window. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu.. and look at the option in the dialog box. Therefore.

If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. select your desired font size. Once this is done. To start ANSYS. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. it is necessary to select the Interactive . as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. From the next dialog box that appears. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Then choose GUI configuration. Press Enter to continue. you may enter ANSYS commands.. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. check . over a modem.x11c /menu. Press Enter to continue. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. heat transfer and fluid problems. If you've got some time.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear).. From this menu. 2. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. item. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. two methods are avialable: 1.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.

including static analysis. click on the car figure. If you've got some time. performs finite element analysis. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. For further information on this program. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. and design optimization.out the ANSYS Web page. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. Pro/Mechanica. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. like that shown above. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. Fyfe. see Dr. see Dr. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. check out the Fluent Web page. A companion program. sensitivity studies. Yokota. For more information about this program. see Dr. For further information on using ANSYS. . Toogood.

f and not test.e.cshrc file./a. For example: xlf main. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. To change the executable's output name to test. such as error messages. i. xlf by itself.' is in your path (this is changed in your . redirecting it).out. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. isn't it?). It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.out (logical. for example. type the command. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. This program would be run by entering . you now type.f To run this program. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main./test. your file must be named something like test. . e. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'.f. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.f sub2. Note that the .f sub1. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test.f >& errorfile will compile main.f and sub1. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.F. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f sub1. and output is the name of the file to which the output .f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. For learning about the compiler's many options. see Configuration Files).for or TEST.f sub3.f Normally no options are required. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. to a file.

symbolic and plotting functions.will be sent. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. the prompt will not appear on the screen.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. you can still run your program this way. The resulting text file may then be edited. If the program normally prompts the user for input. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. In this way you will have one window to edit your . Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. So. and what data to enter.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . The keyboard will still accept the input. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file.m files. Note that the text . printed and even imported into a word processor. and not actually exit the editor. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. because it too is being sent to the output file. you simply type: . however. From the Matlab prompt. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. if you know when to enter data. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file.

If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. For example. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). you will need to acquire and run an X server program. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. you must have an X server running on your local machine.labs.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up.labs through to mec30. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. . rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed.labs.ualberta. Once the job is completed.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. by issuing the command. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). For example. The workstations are named mec01. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.

just outside the main part of the lab. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet.txt. free of charge. . You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below.srv. To do this. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). This file is printed in the small room.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. newsgroups and WWW. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. In this command. To use E-mail then. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. Pine is based on the pico editor. but GPU does.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. either through lynx. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. The mecxx. To use it. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. If your CNS login id is jblow. see FTP. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. for example. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu.ca. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. type. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. or by typing pine at the prompt.ualberta. Many applications. You can enter the mail program called pine. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail.

issue the command: plotpostscript filename. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. For further information.128. To print from Windows applications in Wabi.85. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. . you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere.eps scale c where filename. If you fail to do so. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. room B-111). Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. or appendices. room 240. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. getting started. Prints are $0. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). From a GPU account login. see table of contents.145 (see FTP).20 per page. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results.

1. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p. width/2. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 0 ! keypoint.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.2.3. 0 K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. E. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. and stress for the truss system shown below.123) ! /title.height K. x. reaction forces. 0. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 3*width/2.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height . A. #.4. Note that Young's Modulus. y K. width.

6.200e3 ! element type #1.3.6 L. 2*width.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.ALL. .-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.ALL.-280e3 FK.5.FY.1.1.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.U.7.5.0.5.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.2 L. K.4 L.F PLDISP.2.3 L.FY. 5*width/2.1.7.SUM.LINK1 R.5.-210e3 FK.1.1.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .FY.1. ! ! define lines ! L.7. K.3250 MP.2. 3*width.5 L.6.7 L.5 L.3.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.4.4 L.K.6 L.1.1.3.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.4.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK. .1.UY.FY.EX.3 L.2 PLNSOL. spring element ! real constant #1. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.

NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL PLETAB.SAXL.SAXL.ETABLE. 1 PRETAB.LS.

ualberta.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .123) ! /title. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.2. Note that Young's Modulus. width. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.www. height K. 0 K. width/2.7. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.5. 3*width.3. and stress for the truss system shown below.mece. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.1.2.1. 0. y K. #. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0 ! keypoint. E.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.2. A. height K.3 L.3 L. 3*width/2. 2*width. 5*width/2.6.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 0 K. reaction forces. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. x.height K.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

0 DL.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.ualberta.2.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 SFL.ALL.S.4.PRES.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.www.

20 BLC4.80. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .0.80.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. plane stress.50 CYL4. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.80. and uniform pressure loading.20.20 CYL4.-20. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.0.20. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.100 CYL4.20. A figure of the plate is shown below. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.0. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0.50.

plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP. 9. .0 .3 ! mp.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.1.Poisson's ratio.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.11.PLANE82 KEYOPT.0. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.direction.0 .10.0 .AADD.12. DL.force ! Solve the problem .ALL.value ! mp.all areas.14.EX.3.PRXY.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 ! amesh.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .0.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.0 .ALL. DL.1. DL.material number.5 ! lesize.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ALL.1.30 CYL4.ALL CYL4.80. 8.6. 7.9.50..1.10 CYL4.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .FY. DL.ALL. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.ALL.200000 MP.Young's modulus.13.0 .1.real set number. DL..ALL.10 ASBA.80.ALL.0 .20.0.ALL.material number. DL.keypoint.20 ! r.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH. DL.0 .

0036 /CONT. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .OFF /WIND..1 /GCMD.2.ALL.DOF. PLDISP.-0.EPTO.0.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.3..3...0.1 /replot PRNSOL.05e-3 /FOC.0.1.10.EQV.1 /CONT.0.LBOT /WIND.2.0.4. PLNSOL.ALL.0.4.U..1.2 /GCMD.1 /GCMD.10.EQV.SUM.0.340000.3.RTOP /WIND. PLNSOL. PLNSOL.2.8 /CONT.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.4.10.S.0.LTOP /WIND.

ualberta.0.0. A figure of the plate is shown below. and uniform pressure loading. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. plane stress.80. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).mece.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.www. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.

-20. DL.ALL CYL4.0 ..80.1.1.keypoint.1.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.200000 MP.1.0 .ALL..5 ! lesize.60 AADD.0 . DL. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.ALL. DL.3.FY.all areas.0 .0. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.0.ALL ! Boolean Addition .0 .ALL.ALL.1.ALL.13.0 ! amesh. 8.20.PRXY. DL.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10 ASBA.12.mece.20.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.6.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.80.material number.80. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.20 ! r. .20 BLC4.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH. DL.20 CYL4.10 CYL4.80.value ! mp.10.50.50 CYL4. 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. DL.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .9.14.0.20.3 ! mp.material number.ALL.0 .0.0.ualberta.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.20.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .PLANE82 KEYOPT.ALL.Poisson's ratio.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.0 .-1000 (fk command) !fk.Young's modulus.html CYL4.30 CYL4. DL. 9.EX.50.www.ALL.11.real set number.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.direction.

! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.2.1.-0.4.ualberta.EPTO.4.LBOT /WIND. PLNSOL.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.2.1 /GCMD.2.1 /CONT.EQV.10. PLNSOL.0.2 /GCMD.OFF /WIND.4.www.EQV.0036 /CONT.1 /replot PRNSOL.0.10.ALL..05e-3 /FOC.1 /GCMD.340000.S.SUM.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.ALL.3.. PLNSOL.1.8 /CONT.RTOP /WIND.mece.3.10..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..LTOP /WIND.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.0. PLDISP..U.0.0.DOF.3.0.

Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Filleting. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. copying. extrusion/sweeping. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. . and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.

0.7.1.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.-0.ALL ! Sweep K.0. 1001 and 1002 K.3.11.8.5.8.5 BLC4.ALL LFILLT..1.5.1.6.4.360.2.0.5 AADD.0 K.1002.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .5 CYL4. .2002.0.2 ASBA.5.3.0.0 VROTAT.1001.5.ALL CYL4.0.6 AGEN..0. .0.14 AADD.2.2001.2.0.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.3.11) AL.3.0.. ..1002..2.3.0 K.9 lines 9.1.10.4.. AL. .1001.1 BLC4. .3.2.22.10.1.5..26.5 AADD.2.5. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0.0. .1 AGEN.5.7.

1.4.7 vsbv.82 K. .1.8.180 CYL4.0.2.20 L.6.13.2 CYL4.5 CYL4. .51 AADD. .82 K. .0.8.2002.5 vsbv.102 BLC4.20 LARC.102.1 VGEN.0.109.102.100.ALL VOFFST. .2.5.109.51.6.8 vsbv.5.0.26 K.45.all.4.2.10 vsbv.101.5.1.-20. .0.20 LARC.2001.102.6 AL.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .0 K.20 K.2003.1 KWPLAN.26 VOFFST.2003 CSYS.4.02 KWPLAN.all.all.6.K.2.0 K.0. .27.11 vsbv.1.2. .180.159.101.10 AGEN.9 vsbv.0.7 AADD.3.1.102 K.102.5.-1.6 vsbv.20.100.25.1.3. .0. .0.109.5.2. .5.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.62 ASBA.7.sqrt(3)/0.69 AGEN.5.6.0. .5.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.26 VADD.8.all.-20.7.

-1.57735*26) + 38.20. VADD. . .-1.32.26 K.33.38 AADD.202 CSYS.37 CYL4.203.34.AADD.7.204 VOFFST.200.201.180. . .61.18.200. 129-(0.180.51. .30 KWPLAN.3 CYL4.0.32.-20.36.0 A.1 WPCSYS.26 K.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.201. sqrt(3)/2*76.0 system K.2.129-(0.-20.0.202. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .1.0 K.203.204. .61.200.51.57735*26).5.60 VADD.60 VSBV.61.

extrusion/sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.www. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Filleting.ualberta.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. copying. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

ALL ! Sweep K.3.0.3. LFILLT.1001.7.0.0 K. .2003.2.1002.1.2.0.5.1.5 CYL4.3.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.8.0.6 AGEN.8.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.0.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.2.2. K. .4.10. .11.2002.5.0.14 AADD.0 K.4.5 AADD.. .0.1.5.1.0.2001.5.mece.5 AADD.5 BLC4..1001.0.1002.0 VROTAT.ualberta. .ALL CYL4.5.0.9 AL.0.3.2.7.5..3. .360.-0...University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.1. AL.0 K.ALL LFILLT.3.26.1 BLC4.5..1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.1 AGEN.3.22.2 ASBA.www.0.6..

www.102.6.109.4.-1.0.5. .82 K.51 AADD.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.0. .-20.101.25.0.0.20 K. .20 LARC.5.2 AADD.62 ASBA. .0 !Subtract areas vsbv. .159.0.51.2.2.all.20.7.1.2.13. .ualberta.5 CYL4.5.102 K.4. .6 vsbv.7 AADD.36.all.34.6 AL.6.9 vsbv.ALL VOFFST.32. .180 CYL4.26 VOFFST.0.101.4.45.69 AGEN.8.100.5.1.27.1.7 vsbv.all.33.20 L.109.1 VGEN.82 K. .8 vsbv.1.1. .-20.2 CYL4.2001.6.6.10 vsbv.102.2.8.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5 vsbv.sqrt(3)/0.5.5.102 BLC4.109.100.38 AADD.all.26 K.5.2.3.180.0 K.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 K. .0.20 LARC.1.mece. .0.10 AGEN.2002.11 vsbv.102.7.02 KWPLAN.102.5.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.html KWPLAN.2003 CSYS.26 VADD.0.8.

0 K.0.61.1. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .60 VSBV.51.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. 129-(0.0 K.-1.200.204. .7.180.57735*26) + 38.1 WPCSYS.20.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.18.0 A. .-20. sqrt(3)/2*76.mece.201.-20.203.2. .ualberta.32.200. .26 K.57735*26).60 VADD.26 K.61.61.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.html CYL4.30 KWPLAN. .204 VOFFST.202 CSYS.200.51. .www.201.202. VADD.3 CYL4.-1.5.129-(0.203.180.

1.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .1.2 ET.EX.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 L.Length.BEAM3 ! Set element type R. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.1.2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.Width*Height.0 K.Height MP.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Width*(Height**3)/12.

7.ALL.MP.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .DENS.86e-6 LESIZE. LMESH.9. ACEL.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRXY.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1.0.3 MP.ALL.1.Length/10..0 DK.0.

DENS. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.mece.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .PRXY.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.7.0 K.ALL.1.2.1.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Length/10.0. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX.1.1.0 L.Height MP.ualberta.Width*(Height**3)/12.Width*Height.1.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.Length. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.2 ET.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. LMESH.0.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.

8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.html DK.ALL.9. ACEL.www.0.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print..ualberta.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.

The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0 K.1.0. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 L. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.1.2.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .0.1000. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.

SMAXJ.BEAM3 R.NMISC.ET.EX.NMISC.833.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .10 MP.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .area.200000 MP.1.1.1.2 ETABLE..1.1.0 SFBEAM.PRES.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1..100 LMESH.UX.0 DK. 1 ETABLE.1.0.2.PRXY.UY. 3 PLLS.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.SMAXJ.ALL.SMAXI.33 ESIZE.SMAXI.333.100.I.UY DK.

0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.0 L.0.1. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 K.ualberta. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1000.1.2.ht. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1.www..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 ET. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.mece. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data..

SMAXI.UY.333.mece.33 ESIZE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXJ.I.PRXY..2.10 MP.1..SMAXI.1. 1 ETABLE.ualberta.0 DK.1.100 LMESH.www.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.200000 MP.100.SMAXJ.ht.UY DK.1.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 ETABLE.833.1.PRES. 3 PLLS..ALL.area.UX.0.EX.NMISC.0 ! Real constants .0 SFBEAM..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . R.NMISC.

nodal.1.0..01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . plane stress w/thick. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.7. with a small separation.5.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. one above top of the other.2 ! element type 1. In this model there are two blocks.01 ! thickness 0.plane42.4 aplot ! define element type ET.. 1.3.10. 0.1 ! activate element type 1 R.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force..5. strs out type.2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.2. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground. /title.

005.3 MP. 200e3 MP.1.01 ! cm. 2...loc. 1.0..1 esize.s.2 /pnum.2.2.NUXY.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.20e3.10 TYPE.r.99.3 ! meshing esize.2.! define material properties MP.s..2.NUXY.1 ! defines second element type .5 mat.EX. 20e3 MP.mat.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.1 amesh.7.source. 0.0.0.1 ! nsel.2D contact elements keyo. 0.area.35 mat.1 real.1 r.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.2 ! nsla.contac48.2 amesh.1.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .y.EX.2.

r.y.all.y.r.all. a small tolerance is used d.2.4 dk.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.2.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.3 finish /solution antype.loc.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .node gcgen.5 ksel.s.x.loc.loc.loc.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.7.target.fy.asel.r.stat.full.x.all..0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).99.s.20.01 cm.1 nsla.-100 allsel time.loc.y.100 autots.all.s.5 ksel.4 fk.area..on nropt.loc.1.y.s.all.source.1 nsubst.target.1 nsel.on pred.s.

0.0. izz.beam3 r.3 esize.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.1 lmesh.1.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. To solve this problem. After each increment.0. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.0 l.125 mp.prxy.ex.0.1.069e-5.30.1.1.0. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0e6 mp.4.0.03125.5.2. the load will added incrementally.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0 k.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .1.2 et.0. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.1.

max # substeps=1000.1000./solu antype.1 PRNSOL.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.U.1.all.2.5.static nlgeom.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots. min # substeps=1 outres.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.mz.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .all ! save results of all iterations dk.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.all fk.

3 esize.1 lmesh.1.0.03125. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.2 et.ex.mece.5.0. izz.0e6 mp. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.1.0 l.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0 k.0.beam3 r. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. the load will added incrementally.0.4.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.1.www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.1. To solve this problem.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.ualberta. After each increment.0.125 mp. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.069e-5.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.30.1.prxy.

on autots.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.mz.static nlgeom.1 outres. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.all fk.html /solu antype.5.all.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.1 PRNSOL.on nsubst.1000.all dk.1.U.ualberta.

This method is not recommended for accurate. real-world buckling prediction analysis. in reallife. . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. However. For this type of analysis. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. material nonlinearities and gaps.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. static analysis to predict buckling loads. largedeflection. ie. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. load perterbations. 2. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.

1.1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE. I (mm^4).333.100.EX.10 LMESH.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.200000 MP.10 MP.0. ANSYS .BEAM3 R.1.1.1.ALL.833. rigidly constrained at the bottom.100 L.3 K. area (mm^2). will be calculated. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.0 K. The required load to cause buckling.2.0.0.PRXY.1.2 ESIZE. applied at the top-center of the beam.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.

subspace. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .1.1.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.3 R.10 K.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.LIST SET. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.EX.1.PSTRES.1.833.100. since all loads are scaled during the analysis. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .LANB.1.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0 L.ON DK.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.PRXY.2.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).0.BUCKLE BUCOPT.1.0. I.ON MXPAND.100. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1 LMESH.0 K.200000 MP.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .FY.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .0.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL FK.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.333. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.2.2 ESIZE.

FX.ON LNSRCH.F.ON OUTRES.Y XVAR.2 PLVAR.2.X.U.0 FK.1.-50000 FK.ALL NSUBST.1 DK.FY.20 NEQIT.3.2.NLGEOM.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.ON /ESHAPE.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ALL.3 /AXLAB.2.Y NSOL.1.2.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.Y.ALL.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .

ualberta. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. large-deflection. material nonlinearities and gaps. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. This method is not recommended for accurate. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. real-world buckling prediction analysis. For this type of analysis. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. static analysis to predict buckling loads. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. 2. ie. load perterbations.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . However. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. in real-life.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.mece.

ualberta. will be calculated.mece.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.333.0. I (mm^4).0.ALL.2 ESIZE.1.2.200000 MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0 K.10 LMESH.www.1.100 L.100.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.PRXY. rigidly constrained at the bottom. area (mm^2).1. The required load to cause buckling.10 MP.3 K. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE. applied at the top-center of the beam.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0.BEAM3 R.833.1.EX.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. I.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.100.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).LANB.html ANTYPE.10 K.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .0.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0 K. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .1.STATIC PSTRES.ualberta.ALL FK.1.ON DK.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC NLGEOM.1.200000 MP.2. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .833.1.ON MXPAND. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.FY.PRXY.100.3 R.0 L.0.1.ON OUTRES.subspace.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.EX.mece.ALL.1.0.BUCKLE BUCOPT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 LMESH. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.2 ESIZE.0.LIST SET.333. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.www.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.2.1.

5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .3.ON /ESHAPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.U.mece.2.Y.ALL.1.1000 AUTOTS.Y NSOL.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2 PLVAR.2.html NSUBST.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .F.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.X.1 DK.Y XVAR.2.0 FK.ON LNSRCH.20 NEQIT.www.3 /AXLAB.FY.-50000 FK.FX.ualberta.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.

a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.PRXY.75 .1.1.2. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top..100 l.1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.12. For this analysis.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.3 TB. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).001.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.0. For instance. In such a case.1.EX. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.1.MELA.1.0.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2 ET.1.LINK1 R. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.0 k.0. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.75000 MP. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".25 MP.

.3 /AXLAB..002.ON LNSRCH.5 LMESH.1.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.0 DK.005.390 TBPT.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.U.X.ON NEQIT...1000 ANTYPE..Y.250 TBPT.355 TBPT..150 TBPT.2.Y.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.420 TBPT.449 TBPT.2.F..ON NSUBST.004.1 PLNSOL.ALL.025.06.240 TBPT...435 TBPT..3.U.Y XVAR..2 PLVAR.2..LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .ALL AUTOTS.1..275.25.FY.225 TBPT..1 OUTRES...TBPT.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.1.15....450 ESIZE.003.all FK.0...1000..20.300 TBPT.Y NSOL.

the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. For this analysis. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For instance. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.www.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.LINK1 R.1..0 k.100 l.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.0.2 ET.mece. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.1.. In such a case.ualberta. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.1.

0 DK.Y.1.001..2.ALL.all FK.3 TB..002.1 OUTRES..mece..435 TBPT..250 TBPT.240 TBPT.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.25.2 PLVAR..1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.025.F.300 TBPT.U.5 LMESH.ON LNSRCH....EX..3.1000 ANTYPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.004.1 PLNSOL...ualberta.12.06.. MP..449 TBPT.003...225 TBPT.0.1.75 TBPT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www..LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .U..Y.2.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.1.1.1000.ALL AUTOTS.2.420 TBPT.2.Y XVAR.1.0.ON NEQIT..450 ESIZE.275..FY.. TBPT...1..3 /AXLAB.PRXY.75000 MP.MELA.1.X.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.ON NSUBST.20.355 TBPT.390 TBPT..005.Y NSOL.15..150 TBPT.

PRXY.0 L.10 LMESH.33e-10.. /TITLE.1.0.1.1.ALL.2.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.BEAM3 R.2 ET.EX.0001.068e11 MP.7830 LESIZE.0 /PREP7 K.1.DENS.8.1.0 K.01 MP.1.Dynamic. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.2..1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .0.0.33 MP.0.1.1.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

3.. Define Lines (0. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0) (1... 1.0) . Open preprocessor menu 2.y) 1 2 5. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ..

In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. .01 m. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis.. 10. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 7. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.01 m x 0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0... 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. 9.33e-10 iii.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. > Add. Young's modulus EX: 2.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. and rotation about the Z axis).3 To enter the density of the material. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.068e11 ii. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8... Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. With only 3 degrees of freedom.0001 ii. enter the following geometric properties: i..

1.33 MP.0001.DENS.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .0.0 K.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.068e11 MP.0.0.8.1.01 MP.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.I.2.33e-10.0 L.PRXY.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.2 ET.1.1.BEAM3 R.2. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.EX.0.

5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 MODOPT.10..LESIZE.10 LMESH.5.FRONT MXPAND..LIST SET.ALL.5 DK.5 EQSLV.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. .0.1.SUBSP.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.

7830 LESIZE.1..DENS.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .33e-10.2.0 K.1.01 MP.1.1.PRXY.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.EX.I.1.www.33 MP.2 ET.0.0 L.10 LMESH.1.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.ALL.0.2.mece.0.068e11 MP.0001.1.ualberta.BEAM3 R.

2 MODOPT.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SUBSP.ualberta.5.1.FRONT MXPAND.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print. .0.www.LIST SET.5 DK.5 EQSLV.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. These 3 methods are the Full . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.100 Hz.

2.1.2.0 K.EX.2.0001.1.U.1.0.FY.01 MP.10 LMESH.1.0. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.I.2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.BEAM3 R.100.100 HARFRQ.0. UY_2 STORE.PRXY.33e-10.100..2.ALL.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. NSUBST.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.8.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .0. KBC.Y.2 PLVAR.1.MERGE PRVAR.33 MP..1.068e11 MP.1.3 DK.ALL FK.DENS.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.2 ET. However.1.7830 LESIZE.0 L.

www. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. These 3 methods are the Full . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.100 Hz.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.

1.1.U.2.MERGE PRVAR.2 ET.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .I.33 MP.3 DK.ualberta.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.1.068e11 MP.PRXY.0001.2.1. UY_2 STORE. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE. KBC.www.0 L.8.2.0.100.Y.7830 LESIZE.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. NSUBST.1.0.FY. However.2 PLVAR.ALL..1.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.100.EX.0.1.0.mece..100 HARFRQ.01 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.10 LMESH.DENS.1.ALL FK.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0.BEAM3 R.1.33e-10.

Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. a static analysis may be used instead.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. For our case. . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. for example. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.

However. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. After the application of the load. All types of non-linearities are allowed. The smaller the time step. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. In ANSYS. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. . In other words. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. Therefore. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture.

1.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE. M.0 L. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.01 MP. .33e-10. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . It is the quickest of the three methods.1.33 MP.0.0.1.REDUC.2.0.1.All. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.7830 LESIZE.. if stresses and forces are of interest than.2.PRXY.10 LMESH.ALL F. TRANS TRNOPT. NSEL.. However.FY..2 ET.1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.2.0 /PREP7 K.EX. . as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.0.DENS.S.0001.2.1. the calculations are much quicker.BEAM3 R. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).068e11 MP.UY.1. DELTIM.0 K.Dynamic..001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. However.11.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.ALL D. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.0.ALL.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end . The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.8.

!you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.1 KBC.0 FDELE.0 !* LSSOLVE.'Dynamic'.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.Y.!At time equals 0. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.3.2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.2.2.0.001 KBC. UY_2 STORE.U.001s TIME. time !Please note.'rdsp'.MERGE PLVAR.' NSOL.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. .1. In this case. ! Sets time to 0.2.'.

where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. for example.mece.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead.http://www. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.ualberta. Copyright 2003 .

ualberta. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The smaller the time step. Therefore. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Copyright 2003 . the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.mece. In other words.http://www. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. In ANSYS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior.University of Alberta . the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. However.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.

DELTIM.33e-10.2.S.1. NSEL.2 ET.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.ALL.0.10 LMESH.1.ualberta. .1.0 L. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.33 MP.All. All types of non-linearities are allowed. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.1.0.11.2.DENS. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.University of Alberta . the calculations are much quicker..ALL D.2.0.Dynamic.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .0 /PREP7 K.BEAM3 R.REDUC.1..0 K. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.0001. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.http://www.UY.0. However.PRXY.1.7830 LESIZE..1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.FY.1. TRANS TRNOPT.EX.ALL F. M. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).mece.01 MP. . we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.2.1. It is the quickest of the three methods.8. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. if stresses and forces are of interest than..0.1.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .068e11 MP. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.

2. In this case.3.0 !* LSSOLVE. ! Sets time to 0.'.0 FDELE. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.' NSOL. time !Please note.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.001 KBC.MERGE PLVAR.ualberta.'rdsp'.Y.University of Alberta .ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. UY_2 STORE.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.2.'Dynamic'.http://www.html !At time equals 0.2.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.1.U.001s TIME.0.1 KBC. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. Copyright 2003 .

The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0.0.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. then width and height . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 height=1.length.one corner.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 blc4.

0.TEMP.S.A.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.height D. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .10 ESIZE.100 NSEL.0 NSEL.LOC.Y.Y.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.500 NSEL.0 D.X.S.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.length NSEL.TEMP.TEMP.LOC.KXX.ALL.ALL..LOC.MP.A.1.length/20 AMESH.ALL NSEL.

one corner. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.mece. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.1.length/20 AMESH.0 height=1.h. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.KXX. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .length..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . PLANE55 MP.10 ESIZE.0.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.0 blc4. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.ualberta. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.www.

! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .h.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.LOC.A.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.height D..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LOC.500 NSEL.LOC.X.mece.TEMP.length NSEL. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.A.S.0 D..TEMP.Y.ualberta.S.ALL NSEL.0 NSEL.ALL.X.ALL.100 NSEL..0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y.TEMP.

10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area . PLANE55 MP.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Thermal .0 to solve simple thermal examples.0. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 height=1.0 blc4. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. then width and height .length.1.KXX.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.one corner.0.

ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.10.ALL.1 TYPE.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.length SF.X.LOC.0 D. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .S.LOC.S.0 SF..ALL.ALL NSEL.Y.TEMP.height D.MAT.X.500 NSEL.CONV.Y.length/20 AMESH.LOC.100 NSEL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.100 NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 NSEL.TEMP.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.CONV.1 ESIZE.0.ALL.S.TEMP.S.

1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.html Thermal .KXX.http://www.mece. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.0 blc4.10 MAT. then width and height Copyright 2003 .0.University of Alberta .1 ESIZE.0.length.ualberta.1 TYPE.one corner.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. PLANE55 MP.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0 height=1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.0 to solve simple thermal examples.

TEMP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 D.CONV.height D.100 NSEL.University of Alberta .0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.S.S.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.ALL.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 NSEL.S.TEMP.ALL.Y.CONV.ALL.S.Y.http://www.10.LOC.X.0 SF.html AMESH.TEMP.LOC.ualberta.length SF.X.100 NSEL.LOC.ALL NSEL.LOC.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0.mece.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .500 NSEL..

It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Also. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.040 kJ/kg*K. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.

500 ! area .2.S.length.ALL.05 AMESH.1.Y.500 NSEL.Dens. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.100. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .040 mp.LOC.0.ALL IC.2.length=1.20.all.0.TEMP ANTIME.100 NSEL.0 nsubst..1.500 PLNSOL.c.0.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.off lnsrch.920 mp.full lumpm.one corner.0 blc4.s.TEMP.ALL NSEL.1.1.TEMP.8.100 autots.5.0 D.on outres.Temp.0.20 neqit.kxx.all kbc.LOC.all.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.4 time.0.ALL.5 ESIZE.Y..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.300 nropt.0.0 height=1.height D. PLANE55 MP.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.0 blc4.one corner.mece. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.040 kJ/kg*K. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.length. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.www.0 height=1. height ! area . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Also.

5.all.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.c.1.Dens.all.1.20.TEMP.0.05 AMESH.0 D.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.full lumpm.ALL NSEL.0.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.mece.920 mp.5 ESIZE.2.TEMP ANTIME.on outres.100 NSEL.500 NSEL.0.www.0 nsubst.Temp.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .S. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .040 mp.1.1.s.TEMP. PLANE55 MP.height D..4 time.2.LOC.ALL.Y.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.300 nropt.ualberta.100 autots.Y.500 PLNSOL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.20 neqit.100..kxx.ALL IC.0.ALL.all kbc.8.LOC.off lnsrch.

0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. . In this case. As a warning. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.

95.loc.50 d.off rectng.15.0.s.2 amesh.all et.45.1 mp.200000 mp.1.x.plane2 keyopt.y.0.0 lsel.1.prxy.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .s.5 rectng.100 rectng.0 dl.all fk.all nsel.0.100 aadd.all.20.loc.symm lsel.0.-100 fk.1.1.all finish /solu antype.uy.all.loc.20.3.1.s. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.20.y.fy.0.3 esize.55 prnsol.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..12.fy.0 nsel.s.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.ex.

.1.nsel.10 /view.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .1.27.axis.2..all /expand.

A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below..ualberta.mece.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.www. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.. In this case.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. As a warning.. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.

0 dl.1.200000 mp.15.loc.3 esize.0.fy.0.1.uy.s.axis.symm lsel.s.off rectng.100 rectng.20.2 amesh.ualberta.all finish /solu antype.1.loc.5 rectng.fy.0.100 aadd..45.0.95.27.loc.0 nsel.plane2 keyopt.1 mp.www.y..100 solve finish /post1 nsel.12.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-100 fk.y.prxy.55 prnsol.0 lsel.10 /view.comp nsel. /prep7 /triad.all /expand.s.all.3.0..ex.all et.all.50 d.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.s.all nsel.mece..x.20.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.20.all fk..1.1..1.

A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.7. ANSYS Command Listing . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1. a wall thickness of 10. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.

0.10. 8 E.1000 N. 0 N. 4.1.1 MAT.10.2. 6 E. 0. 5 E. 3.1. .1000. . 0. 0 N. 4 E.1e9 R. 0. 0. 0. 500 N. 6 E.12.1000.1 E. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . Catapult /PREP7 ET.12. 0.13. 0. 0. 3 E.EX. 6. 0. 700.1e9.5. 0. 400.1000 N.1500 N.COMBIN14 R. 0.1. 8 E. 5 E. 0. 5. 6.1 REAL.0. 1.COMBIN7 ET.40.3. 0. 9. MP.12.PRXY.-500 TYPE. 0. 0. 500 N. 500 N. 1. 9.13. 700./title.1e9. 3 E. 8 E. 0. 4 E. 7.200000 MP. 2.2. 400.13 E. 7.3. 3.1000 N. 2. 0 N. 0.33 N. 1. 2. 8. 0 N.1.PIPE16 ET.10 R.11. 5.1000 N.1000.1000.

0. 10.6 /PNUM.ALL.2 *GET.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.4.ELEM.13 F.U.2 REAL.8 E.12.KP.NODE.ON NSUBST.. 9.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.7.3 E.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..FY.5. 11 E.7. 11 TYPE.5 D.2 E.3.13 ! Load node 7 .4.3 REAL.TYPE.8.0 /PNUM.0 NLGEOM.12. 1. 2.VERT7.

1. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.COMBIN14 R.PIPE16 ET.40.1.2.mece. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.www. ANSYS Command Listing /title.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.COMBIN7 ET.1.7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta. a wall thickness of 10. Catapult /PREP7 ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.

1000. 1. 0 N. 0. 0. . 0.1. 5 E. 0.html R.PRXY. 9. 3 E. 4.1 REAL.2. MP. 0.33 N. 7.8. 0 N.1. 1.13. 6.13.www.1e9.mece. 0. 0. 500 N.1000 N. 0 N.3. 700. 0.2 E.3 E. 0. 400.1 MAT. 2. 0. 10. 0 N. 3. 3. 8 E. 5.6 /PNUM. 0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 /PNUM.10.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 1.KP. 6.1000 N.-500 TYPE. 11 E. 500 N.EX.1000 N.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .11. 0. 400.ualberta.1000. 3 E. 8.ELEM.10.0.1000. 0. 700.200000 MP. 1. 500 N. 0.12. 6 E. 6 E. 8 E.5. 5 E.1500 N.1000. 2.1 E. 4 E.1000 N. 4 E.12.3 REAL.12. 0.0 NLGEOM.5.1e9.1e9 R. 0.8 E. 9. 4 TYPE. . 11 TYPE. 0.13 E. 5. 7. 2. 0. 9. 8 E.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 2.2 REAL.

3.NODE.12..0.5 D.4.ualberta.U.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .VERT7.7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .7.www.2 *GET.FY.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.mece.html NSUBST..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.ALL.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.13 F.4.12.

2.0.RATI. ET.BEAM3 R.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables. However.0 K..0 L..1. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.100 LMESH. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.H. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.PRXY.W*H.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.1000.EX.0.20 K.2 HPTCREATE.1.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.W.I (note '**'. not '^').H. Design Optimization *set. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm..75.1.LINE. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.1.. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.(W*H**3)/12.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.1. deciding which variables to use as design.0. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .1. height MP. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.20 *set.3 ESIZE.200000 MP. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

100. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration. max 200 ! Volume as object variable..MAX ETABLE.SMAXJ.NMISC.NMISC.SORT.001 MPa.ETAB.optimize.X.MAX *SET.SSUM. min 10 mm.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.0 DK.195. max 50 ! Width design variable.ITEM.50.0 FK.H.'optimize'.10. *GET.1.H.DV.Y.EVolume.200.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.1.001mm OPVAR..UY.001 tolerance 0.1.3 node ESORT.50. max 50 mm.SMAX_I.2.. min 195 MPa.EVOLUME ETABLE.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.VOLU.ANTYPE. tolerance 0..SMAXI. *GET.SMAX_I.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.SMAX..SMAX.0.001mm OPVAR.0 DK.txt ! Assign optimize.0. tolerance 0.UX. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .SMAX_J. ! Height state variable. min 10 mm.'txt'.200 OPTYPE.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.ETAB.0 DK.SORT.0.0.W.SV.0.1 node ESORT.001 mm.10.DV.UY. SSUM *GET.txt. Percent step size.SMAX_J.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.W /AXLAB.3.001 MPa OPVAR...2.1.Volume.FY.0.30.VOLUME.FIRS OPFRST.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.OBJ.

Design Optimization *set.0.2 HPTCREATE. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.1.. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.BEAM3 R.75.2. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.(W*H**3)/12.20 *set.. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.H.H. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print..1.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.PRXY. deciding which variables to use as design. However.1.200000 MP.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .EX.1.mece..0. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.I (note '**'.. ET. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.LINE.. not '^').1.ualberta.W.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.20 K..0.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0 K.RATI.0 L.www.W*H.1000.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. MP.

200.0.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.001 OPVAR.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.10.1.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. SSUM *GET.1 ESORT. Volume as object variable.DV.'optimize'.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.ITEM. max 50 mm.3.. min 10 mm. to Width design variable.0 DK.ETAB.NMISC.mece.www.SSUM.Y.txt ! Assign optimize...2.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.001 OPVAR. *GET.0 DK.SV.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR. max 50 mm.1.txt.200 OPTYPE.H.UX. Percent step size.EVolume..0.SORT.EVOLUME ETABLE.50. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.FY.MAX ETABLE. tol Height state variable.001 OPVAR.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.0 DK.H..100 LMESH.OBJ.W /AXLAB.SMAX_I. OPEXE PLVAROPT. ESIZE.VOLUME.DV.100.ETAB.NMISC. min 10 mm.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAX_J.SMAX_I.'txt'.195. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.MAX *SET..SMAXI. *GET. max 200 MPa.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..1.SORT..Volume.0 FK.50.2. min 195 MPa.0.VOLU.SMAX.30.SMAX_J.W.UY.0.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.X..0.SMAXJ.10.SMAX..optimize.0.ualberta.3 ESORT.FIRS OPFRST.UY.

The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. v = 0. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply remaining loads to the model. Apply loads to the super-element 2. substructuring will be used for the wood block.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.5 MPa. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. For this example. however. 3. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). ANSYS Command Listing . Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.

LOC.ALL.2.db ! GEN.2.10..140 NSEL.Y.S.1.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR. START /FILNAME.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.X.5 NSEL.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .R.5 MP.2 MP.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.GEN.0.PRXY.ALL.PRXY.1.FX.0.100.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.ALL NSEL.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .0.LOC.0.SUBST SEOPT.2.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.PLANE42 TYPE.100.0 F.EX.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.2 NSEL.0.S.1.EX.1.EXT M.40. 2.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4. amesh.

0.1 SFE.ALL ESEL.GEN2 SE.40 CPINTF.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y.SELV.MATRIX50 TYPE.0.NUM.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.2 real.0 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS..MAX SETRAN.ALL. superelement solution written to GEN.ON.GEN.S.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.U.NODE.1.1.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..GEN2 NSEL.2 amesh.MaxNode.1 ! Superelement ET.1 *GET.LOC.10.TYPE.ALL.SUM.U.MaxNode. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.1 ESEL.1.STATIC NSEL.1.ALL.GEN2.SUM.S.1.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .! Meshing AESIZE.0 D.LOC.ALL NSEL.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.Y.S.. mat..

A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. substructuring will be used for the wood block.mece. however.ualberta. For this example. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply remaining loads to the model. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. v = 0.. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring..41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. 3.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.5 MPa. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.www. Apply loads to the super-element 2.

X. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.ualberta.1.1. amesh.S.GEN. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.0.100.0.0.PRXY.5 NSEL.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.1.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.100..1.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.S.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.R.FX.www.ALL.ALL NSEL.2 NSEL..ALL NSEL.2.0.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .db ! GEN.ALL.mece.0 F. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP..PLANE42 TYPE. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.LOC.Y.EXT M.140 NSEL.40.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.LOC. START /FILNAME.EX.SUBST SEOPT.

1 SFE.ualberta.NODE.PRXY.USE EXPSOL.ALL ESEL.2 real.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.0 NSEL.STATIC NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SUM.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .MATRIX50 TYPE.5 MP.1..1 ESEL.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.ALL NSEL.2.1.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.0 D.10.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.LOC.U.SELV.S.Y.MaxNode.ALL.YES SEEXP..mece. 2.. mat.1.GEN2 NSEL.ON.0.www.MAX SETRAN.Y.S. MP.GEN..1 ! Superelement ET.LOC.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.NUM..0.ALL. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.SUM.U.1.GEN2 SE..2 amesh.GEN2.EX.1 *GET.40 CPINTF.TYPE.MaxNode.S.1.

stress is created in the link. and write them to memory.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. the link will attemp to expand. For a listing. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. For convenience. However. the geometry is kept constant. and using it with any following coupled environments. the element types can change. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. with no internal stresses.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. For instance. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis." Thus.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). Although the geometry must remain constant. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. Loads will not be applied to the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. . However. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. where the thermal effects will be applied. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled .. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. a thermal conductivity of 60. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. A steel link. the analyses are coupled. For our case. It is important to note. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.

temp.1.348 solve finish /solu physics.12e-6 physics.1.1.thermal physics.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress . mp.4e-4.2.prxy.1. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.0 dk.rth environment tref..temp.kxx.1 lmesh.1.273 dk.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.0 solve finish /post1 etable.clear finish /solu antype.all physics.read.3 mp.alpx..0.0 physics.200e9 mp.struct physics.thermal dk. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.CompStress...5 esize.2.read.1.struct ldread.0.ex.all.UX.1.link33 r.write.0 k.1.0.1.1..1.write.tts mp.0 l.LS.analysis.2 et.60.

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

A steel link. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. Loads will not be applied to the link. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. a thermal conductivity of 60. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).. the analyses are coupled. where the thermal effects will be applied.. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). the geometry is kept constant. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. For convenience.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.mece. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the link will attemp to expand. However. with no internal stresses. and using it with any following coupled environments. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. For our case. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.ualberta. . only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. stress is created in the link.www. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. However. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such." Thus.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.2 et.rth tref. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis..all physics. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.write.thermal dk.1.struct physics. It is important to note. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.60.1.1.1 lmesh.200e9 mp.. and write them to memory.0 l.temp.12e-6 physics.all.0.prxy.2.clear etchg..0.5 esize.link33 r.read..thermal physics.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.1.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.struct ldread.tts mp.ex.0 dk.0.1.0 physics.3 mp.clear finish /solu antype. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.temp.1.1.2.read.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html Although the geometry must remain constant.kxx.0 k.alpx.4e-4. For a listing. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.1.273 dk. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. For instance.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. mp.UX.mece.www.1.. the element types can change. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.write.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.LS.html solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.CompStress.mece.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 PRETAB.

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Thus. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. .0.

1.loc.100 k.all finish /solu antype.11.on /prep7 k.48 k.3.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.7.plane145 keyopt.loc.80.0 k.45.6..8.0 k.9.20.100 k.12 et.1.7.s.52 k.all time.12.45.1.0.80.1 lsel.100.4. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.all lsel.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .100 k.20.10.1.0.11.6.52 k.ex.9.5.5 amesh.3.0 nsubst.3.3 esize.200000 mp.all.1.20 outres. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .5.2.4.10 mp.48 k.s.20.prxy.0 a.all lsel.x.0.100.10.2.100 k.x.all.55.55.3 r.0 k.100.8.1.1.0 dl.

all.s.sfl.last plesol.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .-100 lsel.pres.all solve finish /post1 set.

The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.ualberta. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. computational time can be kept to a minimum.www. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

100 k.100.2.0.1.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .8.10.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .all solve finish /post1 set.5.100 k.1.100.0 k.55.x.0 a.45.5.x.6.3.0.52 k.12 et.-100 lsel.11.3 r.all time.all.3 esize.last plesol.2.all lsel.11.7.6.3.9.5 amesh.100 sfl.0 k.200000 mp.100.9.8.20.4.prxy.100 k.mece.100 k.12.all finish /solu antype.20 outres.ualberta.0 k.80.0 dl.45.48 k. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .3.pres.1.all.10.all.plane145 keyopt.20.all lsel.ex.0.55.loc.7.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1.20..52 k.html /prep7 k.1.4.0 nsubst.10 mp.www.s.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.80.loc.1 lsel.s.48 k.1.s.

This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.03.1.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . By keeping mesh density rather coarse. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0.0.0.03. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Thus. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 k. computational time can be kept to a minimum. rather than increasing mesh density.0.0 k. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.2.0.3.

0. esel.Dens.1 IC.368 nsel.0 nsubst.all esel.all.10.all. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.2.8 esize.1.60 nropt.s. not ramped ! Initial conditions. 20 Max no.4.268 nsel.100 autots.273 finish /solu antype.s.0005 amesh.full lumpm.last etable.off solve finish /post1 set. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .1.all kbc..2040 mp.melty.temp.0.03 a.1.920 mp.ext sf.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.1.3.conv.4 time.20 neqit.k.kxx.temp.1.etab.off lnsrch.Plane55 MP.on outres.all /gst.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .rest ekill.all.all finish /solu antype.melty.1.0.c.

temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .s.last esel./post1 set.live plnsol.

the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.03. rather than increasing mesh density. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.4. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum.mece.03 a.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0.2. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.03.1. Thus.ualberta.0 k.0 k.0.3.1.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .03 k.3.0.www.0. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0.

rest ekill. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .20 neqit.0.all..Plane55 MP.melty.off solve finish /post1 set.60 nropt.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html ! mesh 2D areas ET.live plnsol.2040 mp.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.268 nsel.273 finish /solu antype.s.last etable.all kbc.www.920 mp.10.full lumpm.1.1.0005 amesh.last esel.all /gst.off lnsrch.kxx.temp.1.0 nsubst.etab.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . not ramped ! Initial conditions.1.100 autots. 20 Max no.ext sf.all esel.1.Dens.temp.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.all.c.all.on outres.conv.s.1 IC. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.all finish /post1 set.all finish /solu antype.melty.mece.8 esize.ualberta.368 nsel.4 time.s. esel.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

R.0.0.0.Length KSEL.0 ASEL./SOLU ANTYPE.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.0.Height KSEL.Z.0.Width FK.U.1.LOC.1.0 WPOFFS.ALL KSEL.05.1 WPOFFS.0 WPROTA.8 WPCSYS.2 ! Animate the slices .X.LOC.Y.0 DA.0.Width/2.S.-1.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.1 /TYPE.14.7.1.0.All.EQV.0.90 /CPLANE.S.0.ALL.-2500 KSEL.S.1 /TYPE.43.0.0 ASEL.FY.SUM.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.5 PLNSOL.R.Z.LOC.1.LOC.All.5.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PRXY.SOLID45 MP.0.1. 1 .Height.Width.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.000000.20 vmesh.) of the following example.mece.3 esize. Stress.1.FAST ET.0.YS.60.200000 MP.ualberta. etc. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.www.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Length /ANGLE.EX.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.0.1 /REPLOT.

-2500 KSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Z.EQV.0.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Width/2.0.0.Y.R.0 WPROTA.43.0 WPOFFS.0.Width FK.ualberta.14.S.S.7.LOC.LOC.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.All.1/16*Length /CPLANE.1.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 ASEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.LOC.1 WPOFFS.ALL KSEL.S.X.R.0.1 /TYPE.www.Length KSEL.0 DA.FY.ALL.U.-1.5.1 /TYPE.1.0.0.mece.0.0 ASEL.8 WPCSYS.1.05.0.LOC.All.5 PLNSOL.90 /CPLANE.SUM.0.1.Z.Height KSEL.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.

Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.100 cyl4.10 cyl4. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. For example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.50.0.all .0.50. In this tutorial.200. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.50.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.150. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.10 asba. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.10 cyl4.100. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.50.1. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.

y.1000 ppath.50 path..all.ex.2.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.all.s..all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.SEQV.all nsel.loc.50 ppath.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .off /noerase /window..cutline.plane2.prxy.S.0 dl.eqv..bot nsel.loc.y.s.S.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.200.2..0.1.0.1.1.1.et.2.100 SFL..1.3 esize..2.1 /window.loc.3 R.s.200.PRES.50 PDEF.1.top /POST1 PLNSOL.eqv.AVG nsel.5 amesh.1.all PLPAGM.200000 mp.10 mp.y.

. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.0. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. In this tutorial. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.www.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.ualberta. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.200. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. For example. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.

50.50.3 R.5 amesh.50 ppath.AVG nsel.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.1.0.www.3 esize.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.1000 ppath.100.50 path.cutline.loc.all.off /noerase /window.bot nsel.s.ualberta.200.2..ex.S.1 /window..UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.prxy.y.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all nsel.eqv.100 SFL.10 cyl4.2.s.y.mece.s.1.2.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all PLPAGM.50.all et.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.10 asba.loc.top /POST1 PLNSOL..10 cyl4.PRES..1.plane2.0..200.1.10 mp.0 dl.200000 mp.1.loc.S.2. cyl4.150.eqv.50 PDEF.50..1..all..SEQV..1.y.

It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .2.3 k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.40 mp.0 k.I.1.beam3 r.length.ex. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.prxy.1.0.1.1.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.2 esize. By plotting this data on a curve. a special type of array. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. finer resolution can be achieved. Length of the following beam using tables.200000 mp.elementsize lmesh.0 l.1.2400.320e3.1. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. rather than using a contour plot.

-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.TABLE.fy. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.Length /axlab.u.1).graph(2.graph(1.graph(1.antype.node.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.2.2).node.2.graph(rows.loc.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.2).node.static dk.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.1).all fk.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .1).u.2) /axlab.0 400 *vget.all.graph(rows.graph(1. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(2.2.2).0 *set.y.rows.node.x.graph(1.1.y *vplot.1).loc.2.x *vget.graph.all.x *vget.y *set.

ualberta.0. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .3 k.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .I.ex. Length of the following beam using tables. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.40 mp. finer resolution can be achieved.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.mece.beam3 r.0.prxy.1.length.h.200000 mp.1.0 l. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. By plotting this data on a curve.2 esize. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7... It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. a special type of array.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.1. rather than using a contour plot.2.www.0 k.2400.320e3.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.

2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.all.h.fy.graph(1.2) /axlab. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .graph(2.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.1).2).all fk.x *vget.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.2. lmesh. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.1).loc.y *set.node.1).node.1.rows.ualberta.TABLE.2).loc.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Length /axlab.2.www.all.2).u.mece.x *vget.static dk..y.graph(2.graph(rows.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.all finish /solu antype.0 *vget.0 *set.graph.graph(1.graph(rows.graph(1..graph(1.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.1 *vget.1).node.x.node.2.y *vplot. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.u.

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