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# UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. Prompting the user for parameters.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. Solution: assigning loads. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. 2.e. constraints and solving. Preprocessing: defining the problem. 3. heat transfer and fluid problems. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. axi-symmetric. 3D). here we specify the loads (point or pressure). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. In general. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 1. 1D. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 2D. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations.

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If you don't see this minimized program. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. .. you should see something labeled X-Win32. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. do this. you can may want to reboot the computer.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. you will now be prompted to login to GPU.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. as it automatically starts this application when booting. Windows NT application 2. be sure that your local drive has space for it. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen..

q select the Run Interactive Now menu item.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. . type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. but rather. don't select this icon. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.

. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 1.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. graphic controls and parameters. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. selections. such as file controls.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.

Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. organized by preprocessor. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. e. c. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. More push buttons can be added if desired. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued.b. while the versions appear different. such as listing of data etc. general postprocessor.0. solution. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. . However. the menu structure has not changed. 2. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. d. design optimizer.

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Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. The second is by means of command files. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . however. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. typically in less than 50 lines of commands.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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If the results are nearly similar. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution.. General Models . Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member.e. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. When point loads are used. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. For simple models it is of no concern. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. If the results differ by a large amount however. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. In general there are no real firm answers on this. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution.. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. loading and constraints. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. but for a larger model. it will only slow the calculations down. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

In general however. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. In general. . for example. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. In a solid mechanics problem.

db .db. There are two methods to do this: 1. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. Or.. loads.. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. select Interactive. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. r Then when you get ANSYS started. ANSYS Inc. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. In that way. if you make some mistakes later on.db. To save your model. and specify the previously defined jobname. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. 2. r In the ANSYS Launcher. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.... where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. etc) that you previously saved. Using the Launcher. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation.. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. you will at least be able to come back to this point. solution. and select your job from the list that appears.

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rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to.db file.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. frame.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). frame. and the jobname has been specified. other files may have been written. If you specified a jobname. Once the ANSYS has started. boundary conditions and any solutions. say Frame. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution).. then you only require the .* where the * represents various extensions described below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. frame. from another ANSYS run.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. Listing of all error and warning messages. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. That file may be rerun as is. Depending on the operations carried out. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). starting with an existing log file. q If you will always be using the GUI.err Error file (text). frame. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . boundary conditions and any solutions. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). This file stores the geometry. This file stores the geometry. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc.db Database file (binary). or move things from the /scratch directory. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. These files may contain results. etc. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. Frame again with various extensions: frame. then the created files will all have the file prefix. the name of all the files created will be FILE. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. etc.

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' and give a file name to store the results.. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. and choose what you want to list from the menu.0 Better Quality Plots . 'Reverse Video'. Then enter the file name of your choice. 1. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. Select 'File'/'Save As. Select 'Elem Table Data'..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. However. In the window that appears.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'.. choose 'List Results'. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen.. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. You can pick multiple items. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. 'Monochrome'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. 2. 3. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. while the second is a scalable vector plot.'. to get displacements. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. 1.

. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.. Either way. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. a large graphics window will appear. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file.pic'(with a comma). You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot.. This is performed by running a separate program called display. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. Decrease the size of this window.frame.g. Note that although the file is 'plots.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.pic if your plot file is 'plots. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.n where n is plot number. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. but rather they will be written to the selected file. or HPGL for example.. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. To save some plots to a file. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript.pic'. Now that the plots have been read in. Load your plot file with the following command: file. Display wants 'plots.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. you have a couple of options: 1. To do this.'.: frame.pic' (with a period). Type in a filename (e. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.

Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. The printer information is still present.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. i. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. as above.pscr plot.hpgl plot.1. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.color. To do this.grph. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.n where n is the plot number. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. The printer information is still present. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper.n command as the other options have now been set. overheads or even posters! 2. starting at 00. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. issue the following commands: /show. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.color. 3. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. you only require the plot.e.2 /show. the postscript image will appear as blank box. the postscript image will appear as blank box.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. you set the postscript color option to '3'. enter the following commands in display: pscr. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. where xx is a number.3 /show. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner.pscr plot. For subsequent plots. .

exit display by entering finish . This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command). In a similar way.hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. the HPGL printer files could be given an '.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. mesh control. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. many modeling options for constraints. analysis types will not be covered. etc. if the feature is critical to your design. Of course.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. holes. loads. chamfers.W. you will want to leave it.. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. Step 1. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. Also. by suppressing them in Pro/E. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time.

So. For this model. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. the plate and the loading hole are removed. Model units are inches. .The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. Several edges are rounded. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below.

We proceed in a topdown manner. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. idealizations). Basically. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points.Step 2. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. . Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. loads. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. curves. This is where we specify modeling information. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. and so on. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. surface regions.

Constraints are organized into constraint sets. In the final computed model. and Z. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. For each direction X. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). Y. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. and a specified material. For our solid model. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. . only one set can be included. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. Select Surface. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. rotational constraints are active if specified. and Function of Coordinates). and surfaces). all we need are constraints. A dialog window opens as shown above. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). edges. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. loads. Fixed. Since we elected to create a surface constraint.Defining Constraints For our simple model. Prescribed. For beams and shells.

along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. The load should be . A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. and select the OK button. another might contain the support forces. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. Loads are also organized into named load sets.For our model. another a temperature load. These can be solved at the same time. Note these are relative to the WCS. For example. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. Then select OK. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. Enter the force components at the bottom. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location.

loads. At this point. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. If you select the Edit button. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. you will see the properties of the chosen material. Step 3. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . In the STRC MODEL menu. you could now assign this material to individual parts. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. material). In an assembly.

Select the type (Structural or Modal). The MEC STRUCT window. Now select OK. Enter a short description. . like "ansystest". Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here.Specify a name for the analysis. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. Step 4. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks).

by selecting the Check button at the bottom. Select Close. The results are indicated in columns on the right. Here is an image of the default mesh. shown in wire frame.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. . you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. evaluated for the model.

edges. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. This will allow you to select points. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. maximum mesh size. For example.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. and so on. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. . Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. you can select the Controls option.

select Run . materials. mesh). loads.Step 5. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. In the MEC STRUCT menu.

ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . select Structural. and material) is listed. Select OK and read the message window. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. select ANSYS. We are now finished with Pro/E. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. In the Analysis list. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. loads. mesh.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. . Copy the .ans).

Step 7. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results.. you will be informed that the solution is complete.Step 6. Step 8. Select the ..ans file you created previously. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. and select Apply. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. This will read in the entire model. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. p. A = 3250mm2). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. reaction forces. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.

these keypoints are the ends of each truss. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. For this example.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .

y coordinates: 0. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. and enter the x. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. Note: When entering the final data point. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. If you first press r .

Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. elements. 3.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. The following window will then appear: . thus making any conversions where necessary. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. lines. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. volumes. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. areas. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified.

It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. click on it). click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. Left click and a permanent line will appear.e. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. r r r . When you're done.

ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. This is called 'meshing'. The following window will then appear: . select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. they have most likely NOT been deleted. However. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4.

' button. r 5. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box.. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure.r Click on the 'Add. The following window will appear: r For this example. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.

. Click on 'OK'. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add..r In the Preprocessor menu. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.

6. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .

Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now.We are going to give the properties of Steel.0'. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. 7. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.

therefore. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. enter the desired number of divisions per line. we have simply defined the element sizes. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. 8. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r In the size 'NDIV' field. For this example we want only 1 division per line.

. node numbers.. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. keypoint numbers...Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q .

.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. so if you make some mistakes later on. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). To do this. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Define Analysis Type . 1. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations..

select Analysis Type > New Analysis. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. r In the Solution menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. In mechanical structures. As shown above. Click 'OK'. pinned and roller-type connections. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. these constraints will typically be fixed. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis.e.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. for example. i. r 2.

.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. ROT on KPs' window. Therefore. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'.

Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. 280kN. 3. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. there are four downward loads of 280kN. this is consistent with the previous values input.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. Therefore. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.ROT on KPs" window. Note that we are using units of N here. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. 5. r Using the same method. and 7 respectively. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). 3. and 360kN at keypoints 1. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. . 210kN. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option.

4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). .

Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description).r The above windows will appear.. . Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.

2. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .

These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. The following window will appear. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. .

r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. . The following window will appear.409). r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

. Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'.r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.

From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.r Looking at the scale.. you may want to use more useful intervals. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.. r .

.You should obtain the following.

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. .

strains). r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. The Element Table is different for each element.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. therefore.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.' r . using the item 'LS. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'..2 in the Help file. beams.. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. From Table 1. If you wanted to save these results to a file. spars. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations.

Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .r As shown above.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX... This specifies the name of the item you are defining. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. in the 'Item. . select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .'. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. Comp' boxes. Then enter 1 after LS. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Next.

select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .Again. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

.9MPa as predicted analytically.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. Open the . A . click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'... Now go to 'File > Read input from.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit..' and select the file.. In the dialog box that appears. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS Inc. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification .0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.

Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. units. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. scale factors. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.The first step is to simplify the problem. etc. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Enter Keypoints For this simple example.

The following window will appear: r r For this example. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. The following window will appear: r . A permanent line will appear.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. r r r 4.. When you're done.. Pick keypoint #1 (i. Now pick keypoint #2.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3.. Click on the 'Options. click on it).. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.' button. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. r From the Preprocessor Menu. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Click on the 'Add.e. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.

. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'OK'. r 5. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. . and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected).. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. This gives us extra force and moment output. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'.

we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]).. For an element length of 2cm.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. r 6. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. therefore. However.r Click on 'OK'. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. 8. Saving Your Work . enter the desired element length. we have simply defined the element sizes. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. r r r 7. enter '20' (i. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. (Alternatively. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'.

Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.ROT on KPs' window. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu.Utility Menu > File > Save as. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. r 2. Therefore. r r 3.. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. . The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'.. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints.

. Hand Calculations Now.2mm as shown above. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find.4. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6.

9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). r r . 2. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. In this menu you will find a variety of options. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Leave the other selections as the default values.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). r . This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Click 'OK'. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

. r . General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution..r You may want to have a more useful scale. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

r Are these results what you expected? Again. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams... the right end of the rod.. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. spars. If you wanted to save these results to a file..' r . Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. strains). Click on 'Add. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.

select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.r As shown above. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . in the 'Item.. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear..Comp' boxes in the above window. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. .

select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. as shown in the following image.Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. First. I and J. . a bending moment diagram can be created. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes.

. Click 'Add.. First.To obtain the bending moment for this element. the Element Table must be used...this will give a name to the data B.again. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.'. A. click 'Add. Enter SMISC. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.6 in the second Comp box E.. r In the window. Same as above . this will give a name to the data B. . A. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. r Again.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.

12 in the second Comp box E..C. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Click 'OK'. Same as above D. enter SMISC. For step D. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. . r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window..

Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. Table 1. Sequence Numbers. you can double check these solutions analytically. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. r Before the explanation of the above steps. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). PIPE16 Item. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition .Now. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter.

EX. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.ALL FK.70000 MP.FY. Material 1.2. x.1 !* R. then hit enter.0.1.2. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.2 !* ET. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.0.PRXY.6. 0. .0. Outside Diameter.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. all of the lines. Material 1.33 !* LESIZE.0. K.0. .1. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction .1.1. y. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.1. /PREP7 K. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.the Member moment for node I. !* MP. x.ALL. z Keypoint.1. 2.0. Major Poisson's Ratio.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .0.0 !* DK. Copy the following code into the command line. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant. 1.20 LMESH.PIPE16 KEYOPT.2. y. Young's Modulus.25.1.1. Material 1. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.500. L.

/STATUS. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Alternatively. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Notice that by using variables like this. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. these keypoints are the frame vertices. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.2. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. First.

#.2.for the second keypoint you might type: K.follows: K. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. X. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. NPT. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.0 r ! keypoint. you may need to add comments. However. ie . As with any programming language. type help k into the command line For example.# .y2.0 into the command line followed by Enter. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. x=0. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. Z where. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. Y. Reference number for the keypoint. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. to enter the first keypoint type: K.0.y1. simply re-enter the code. y=y2.1.0.

In this example.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. This was simply used for convenience. y = 325. Rotate. you have many controls.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Try experimenting with them. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. Zoom. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . translating and rotating it on all three axes. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). You can either leave the 'Pan. Zoom. To define keypoint #1. To get an isometric view. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. s 6.. for example. z = 0. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image.. 5. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0.

delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. I would write: ' L. to obtain the first line. Keypoint at the beginning of the line.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. P1. (This can be obtained from the list of lines).# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. P2 Line.1. Keypoint at the end of line For example. we will use the command line to create the lines. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. Again.

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. C0 25 2 . don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. define the type of element (pipe16). 8. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open .7. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. LAB. As in the verification model. MAT.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. we will again use the command line.

70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). we will use the command line. VALUE. Lab3. K #. Lab6 Displacement on K. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Lab5. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa.Valid material property label.1. value2. DK.1. Lab4.. value. KPOI. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints.. For example. Lab. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.PRXY. Material Reference Number. > Static 2. 1. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example.. Apply Constraints Once again. DOF label. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.EX. type: ' MP. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Lab2. to pin the . Expansion key.33 ' r 10. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions.Material Property.. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. VALUE2.0. KEXPND. type ' MP.

Lab. UY. value.0.0.UY. UZ. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE.UY and UZ).UY. Force Label directions (FX.1.5.. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. FK. value1. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. UX is not constrained. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. Again. the command line code is: DK.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .UX. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. KPOI. K. value2 Force loads at keypoints. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.. FY. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. value2 (if req'd) .first keypoint enter: DK. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions.1.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. K #.. FZ).

the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. If you need to delete one of the forces.. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). 4. the code should look like this: ' FK. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3..3. 'Def + undef edge' . K.3.FY.

etc depend on how the object was first defined). Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. 'Left'. 'Back'. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Turn everything else off.. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. Note the node numbers of interest. and turn on 'Node numbers'. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. so we know what node(s) we're after. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero... Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.2.'). The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model.. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.

. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. Then close the 'List Results' menu. For each element in the model. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example..r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. Click on 'OK'.' from the 'List Results' menu.. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . 4. . use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. 3..

. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.6 and SMISC.. Select Element Table > Define Table. to define the table (remember SMISC.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. Plot Results > Line Elem Res.12) And. the bending moment diagram can be produced.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. to plot the data from the Element Table ..

In the dialog box that appears. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.'.PDF version is also available for printing. click on 'Save . A .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.' and select the file.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer...Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

ANSYS Inc. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). plane stress. and uniform pressure loading. A figure of the plate is shown below. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . units. scale factors. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . however. Subtraction will used to create this model. a. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS.

(Alternatively.100. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.0.s Fill in the window as shown above.200.100) b.0.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0.

s Fill in the window as shown above.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. (Alternatively. your image should resemble the following: . This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.50. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.100.20 ) c. Prior to this operation. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.50.

s . select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected.

Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.1. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.2) . Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

3. as shown below. as shown in the above figure. therefore Click on the 'Options. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. four-node element (PLANE42). r . we need a plane stress element with thickness... For this example. Click and hold the K3 button. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional.' button.

Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. the command line code for the above step is R. the command line code for the above step is MP. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1.3) 6. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.20) 5. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.(Alternatively.EX. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . the command line code for the above step is ET.0. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.1.1.1.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.3.3) 4.200000 followed by MP.PRXY.3 (Alternatively.1.

) 7. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.25. (Alternatively.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.ALL) You should now have the following: . Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r Select an element edge length of 25.

ROT on Lines' window. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).0) 2. (Alternatively.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. r r . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. the left end of the plate is fixed. Apply Constraints As shown previously. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. Fill in the window as shown below.. 1..

Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. (Alternatively.0) 3. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. therefore the last field is left blank. r r r . s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. the command line code for the above step is DL. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa).. Therefore.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram.4. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate.ALL.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate).4.001 mm . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.we need to calculate what we should find.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9 MPa. 2. Hand Calculations Now. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3.

. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. we will check the stress at this point. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. (as shown below in red) . Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie.. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.

We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. To change the element size. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).The equivalent stress was found to be 2. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . r Resize Elements a.9141 MPa at this point.

(note . ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). This will remesh the model using the new element edge length.c. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie .5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. .8 MPa.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. d. the values converge towards a final solution.the element edge length decreases). Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. Click 'OK'. This is a mere 2.

0012 mm. Therefore. . Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. 3.. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. Then select DOF solution. r Observe the locations of deflection. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. However. 4. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. USUM in the window.

...) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate. von Mises in the window. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. r 5. obtain these results as a list.r Alternatively. Then select Stress.. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.

A .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Select Stress.. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. Open the .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Bracket Example . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Create the main rectangular shape . A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. A figure of the plate is shown below. a. Form Geometry Again. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.

Y coord for the center. radius s Therefore. YCORNER.50 c. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 .50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. XCORNER. WIDTH.100 b. X coord (bottom left). Y coord (bottom left).50.0. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm.0. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. height s s Therefore. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. the command line for this circle is CYL4. YCENTER. HEIGHT BLC4.80. XCENTER. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. X coord for the center.80. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. RAD1 CYL4. width.

e.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area...WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following. the command line code for the above step is AADD. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively.ALL) s . s To perform the Boolean operation. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window. Boolean Operations .

You should now have the following model: f. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

the command line code for the above step is ET.1.3.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3) r . PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.6. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.s Next select the three circles that we just created..ALL) Now you should have the following: 3..1.

the command line code for the above step is AMESH. (Alternatively.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. (Alternatively. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.) r 7.200000 followed by MP. 4.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.PRXY.1.EX. Again.5.0. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. we will need to make sure the model has converged. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5.3) 6.1.ALL. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.ALL) .1.20) r 5. the command line code for the above step is R.

Apply Constraints .. 1.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.0) 2. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. (Alternatively. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. For this case. you have the option of creating a box. Zoom.. Apply Loads . r 3.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.As illustrated.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. Repeat for the second bolt hole.ROT on Nodes' window. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. polygon. Rotate..

at the bottom of the large bolt hole. . there is a single vertical load of 1000N.As shown in the diagram. 4. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured.

The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection.USUM in the window. 3. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0.1. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. . 2.

. Then select von Mises Stress in the window... Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list.r Alternatively..) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.. r 4.

.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Select Stress.. A . Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Quitting ANSYS .' and select the file.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.

In the window that appears.. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.To quit ANSYS.. .

extrusion/ sweeping. copying. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. ANSYS Inc. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Filleting.

XCORNER. YCORNER. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. WIDTH. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: .

Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.XCENTER.RAD . ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.YCENTER. 3.

SUBTRACT 5.5 0. The following window will appear. It asks for the x. Enter the y offset as 4. r .y and z offset of the copied area.BASE.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.2 0.6 and then click OK.5 0. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.2 4. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.5 Circle 2 8.

r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.ALL 7. Add the smaller circles to the large area. .5 You should obtain the following 6. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius. Enter 0.

.8. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. Create the fillet areas r As shown below.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.ALL . Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

X. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. (K. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.10.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively. Then select the following two keypoints r r . Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .0) and (0.5.Z) 2. Plot Areas 3.#. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.Y.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.0. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. 1.

r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. Click on OK. .

one of which is to define it by three keypoints. Create Bolt Holes 1. However. There are several ways to define a working plane. for us to define the bolt holes. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. Change the Working Plane By default. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . we need to use a different working plane.

2. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.

We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. The following window will appear. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.note the origin of the working plane. fill in the blanks as shown. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.0. By default those values would be 0. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5.0. 3.5 y=0 r=0. 4. .

Youi should obtain the following model. .

This will result in the following completed structure: .r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file... A .HTML version. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Create the Base 1. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2.

type LARC.1.5.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.5 into the command line) when prompted.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .6. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.20 followed by LARC.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.4.8.7.5. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.

5. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).4.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD. YCENTER=20.DX.6. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.# Copies (include original).DZ) r .1.DY.Area#.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.

r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.3.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .

You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. Note.101. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. (Alternatively. the first keypoint defines the origin. we need to change the working plane. type VOFFST.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.100.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). type KWPLAN. Again. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.102 into the command line) .6.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. Change the working plane As in the previous example. (Alternatively.1. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Therefore. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.

.1.2.27.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. YCENTER=180. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3. WIDTH=102. YCORNER=0. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51.26 4. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.

Area 3 5.180.51. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . YCENTER=180.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. . . YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32.5. Area 1. RADIUS=18.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 2. .32. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.

the first keypoint defines the origin.-1. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. 204 . while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. type KWPLAN.4 3. type WPCSYS. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0. (Alternatively.202 into the command line) 2. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.1.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. 203. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.1.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.201.200.57735*26) 129-(0.

200. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. .204 4. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. In the dialog box that appears...'.203. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.

The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS..Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .

Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. enter the following geometric properties: i.. 6.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.#..1. 3.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.0) (1000..67 iii.x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.y.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7.ANSYS Inc.y. K. and rotation about the Z axis).. > Add. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.z) 1 2 (0.. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) 4.

Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.3 8..86e-6 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.ii. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. enter the following density for steel: i.. r . Density DENS: 7. The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.0 2.81m/s2 in the y direction. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 10..

This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction. DK.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).. .0.1.9.ALL.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. ACEL.

Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape . > Def + undef edge PLDISP..777mm 2.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.4. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.2 .

' and select the file.HTML version. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..PDF version is also available for printing. the maximum displacement was found to be 5. This is in agreement with the theortical value. Open the .. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.As observed in the upper left hand corner.777mm. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0.

ANSYS Inc. /title. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. enter the following geometric properties: i. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.x. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. Distributed Loading 3. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.. 5..0) (1000.y) 1 2 (0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . > Add. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.K#. 6. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .#. With only 3 degrees of freedom.0) 4. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. and rotation about the Z axis). Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K..y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.....

333 iii.ii.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 9. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. 7. . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.3 8.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii..

0 2. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. . r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. over the entire length of the beam. 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. As shown in the following figure. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained).Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .

select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. . we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements.. In the window that appears. 4.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings.2 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.

r As shown in the plot below. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. For this problem. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). 6. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. 9. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element.. Click 'OK'. select 'NMISC. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. In the second window of the same section. ' d. In the window that appears a. For this example. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. click 'Apply' 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. 3 for the 'J' nodes.. (ie. 7. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. Click 'Add. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. ..' 3.. 8. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.1.

Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . . Now go to 'File > Read input from..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . After each increment. Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. contact elements). the load will added incrementally.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . To solve this problem. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. > Add. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. and rotation about the Z axis).069e-5 iii..125 inches. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 2... the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. 6. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.25 x 0.03125 ii. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..y) 1 2 (0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. enter the following geometric properties: i.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.0) (5.ANSYS Inc. 1.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 4.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. 5.0) 3.

. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7. for example. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. If we were considering a block of wood. 8. The following image will appear: .1 " (50 element divisions along the line).3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example.. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. not non-linear material properties. we would have to consider non-linear material properties.i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. this takes time. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. C. however. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into.

You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. By default. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. By default. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. D. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. E. For more information about these commands. the load is ramped. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the modified Newton-Raphson. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. This command controls the solution data written to the database. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. For some special nonlinear cases. By default. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. By default. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. stress stiffening is automatically included. type help followed by the command into the command line. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. F. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. the previously computed matrix. However.Now.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. .

> DOF solution. UY PLNSOL.1 ..U. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.1 2.Y..General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..0..

the load was applied in steps. Define Variables . these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. this is not realistic for large deflections. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.3. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. Modeling the system non-linearly.. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. However. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. As you recall. However.. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load.> DOF solution. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.

> Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.... Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add.. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .

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. Open the . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .HTML version.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.

Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. In this example.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. and many other solution control option. see Chapter 8. For more information regarding setting the time value. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.

For each parameter. Generally. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. Some analyses use normalized values. As can be seen in the graph above. In the case of a structural example. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. which this graph is taken from. . it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. For instance. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values).5% for loads. In the case of a structural analysis. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. the curves may be for temperature. Once this occurs. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. as expected. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. If this graph were from a thermal analysis.001).ANSYS Inc. for more information about changing iteration settings. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. which is discussed in the help file. we will look at the force curves. However. you can see Chapter 8. etc) that iterates to find a solution. which ever is greater. Thus. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. or is not converging. Again. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. such as this. if the solution is highly non-linear. 2. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. In simpler terms. If the problem is relatively linear. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. there are two curves plotted. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. For ease of explanation. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. many iterations will be required. This is what will be explained next. this graph relates to forces and moments. For each substep. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number.5 in the help file.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. . Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions.Modal Dynamic . 2. in real-life. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. material nonlinearities and gaps. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. For this type of analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. load perterbations. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. static analysis to predict buckling loads. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). real-world buckling prediction analysis. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.Harmonic Dynamic . Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. However. This method is not recommended for accurate. ie. large-deflection. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. will be calculated. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. rigidly constrained at the bottom.. applied at the top-center of the beam.ANSYS Inc. Define Keypoints . The required load to cause buckling.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.

Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .333 iii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0..#. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.0) (0.X.. K... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.3 .. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.y) 1 2 (0. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm.1.100) 4. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833.. 6. enter the following geometric properties: i. > Add. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. and rotation about the Z axis).

This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). prestress effects must be activated. r r . If you are looking at the abridged menu..ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 9.8. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. select the unabridged version. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.

Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2).3. . 4. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained).

Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.1 8. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. 7. However. 5. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.

as shown below.. r . An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. is for an expansion pass. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . This time. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver... 11. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. and ensure that it is on.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. 9. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase.r Complete the window which appears. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. however.

the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. which is in Newtons for this example. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. /POST1 SET. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated.123). The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41.LIST 2.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.

#. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. /TITLE.Y . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3.X.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.

This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. With only 3 degrees of freedom.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Mesh Size . enter the following geometric properties: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.2 5. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..1. > Add. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.333 iii...y) 1 2 (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. L.0) (0.3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.. 6.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.100) 4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.

. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line).Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.1 9.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. The following image will appear: . Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.. ESIZE.

however. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. this takes time. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. F. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. B. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. E. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. D. C.

This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. For more information about these commands. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. type help followed by the command into the command line. The model should now look like the window shown below.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. 3. . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .

> Def + undeformed PLDISP.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape...1 .

Y.1 .U. > DOF solution.r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. UY PLNSOL..0..

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. 1. However. . you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. . r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r .r To add another variable. On the Time History Variable window. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.

Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.2. so you must change them manually. . Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.

123 N. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS... Now go to 'File > Read input from. . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.000 N. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. Open the . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . For instance.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Inc. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . In such a case. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.

NonLinear Materials 2.. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.X. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. > Add. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.y) 1 2 (0.. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window.1.0) (0. enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. L. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. /title. 5.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K..#..2 4. enter the following geometric properties for steel: ..100) 3.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . It should look like the one shown above. the stress-strain data must be included. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above.003 0. click Graph to see the curve.004 0. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. Then click OK. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. When all the points have been inputed.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.001 0. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.002 0. When the data for the first point is input.005 0. click Add Point to add another.i.

8. The following image will appear: .250 0.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).060 0. /REPLOT 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines..275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back..100 0.200 0.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.150 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..

D. . Enter 20 as the number of substeps. C. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. however. data for every load step is written to the database. F. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. E. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. you can plot certain parameters over time. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Therefore. this takes time.

3. 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 5.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). type help followed by the command into the command line. For more information about these commands.B.

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.This shows the convergence of the solution. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .

UY PLNSOL.. > DOF solution.Y.1 .U.2.0.. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.

. 1. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. However. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

If it does not open automatically. . select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

This will make the reaction force the x-variable. On the Time History Variable window. . Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2.r To add another variable. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. so you must change them manually. click the add button again.

Open the . When you verify this example analytically. Now go to 'File > Read input from.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly.' and select the file. and subsequently the stress... you will see the solutions are very similar. was low (in the linear range). The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate.PDF version is also available for printing. A . However. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. as the force increased.HTML version. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. please use the links below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.

ANSYS Inc. The following window will appear . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.2 2. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options..

This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below).r As shown. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. . it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. It is therefore more exact but. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No.

The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. 4. . 3.r For this problem. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). we will use the default options so click on OK... Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .64 285. 2.300 52. instead of 10 elements.0 0.22 ANSYS 8.69 472.2 0.54 Percent Error 0.68 285. r To view the next mode shape.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.0 0.01 145. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).51 472.94 145. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .1 0. Select 'Def + undef edge'. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.e. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .311 51.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

q

Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

..In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. By default. which is node #2. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . select Utility Menu > List > nodes). In our case it is assigned Frequency. and the following window should pop up. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK.

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.3. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .

Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. .4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

94Hz. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .311 and 51. view the log scale of UY.3 and 51 Hz.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. To get a better view of the response. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.

r As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .

.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.0. See the help file for instructions. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. A . Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.100 Hz. r For ANSYS version lower than 7. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.

.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.Modal Dynamic . we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a static analysis may be used instead.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . for example. For our case.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Harmonic Dynamic . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.

The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . The smaller the time step. After the application of the load. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. However.ANSYS Inc. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt.

we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. r . It is the quickest of the three methods. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. if stresses and forces are of interest than. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. However. However. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Select 'Reduced' as shown. the calculations are much quicker. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. In ANSYS. please use the links below. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. In other words. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Therefore. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.

3. The following window will open. see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. . Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs).2.

both default to zero.Time Step . Load Step 1 . Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . two sets of initial conditions are required. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. We can also solve for each load step after we define it.001. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order.4.001 seconds to be used for this load step. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. s set [DELTIM] to 0. ii. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. This will specify a time step size of 0. Note that for the reduced method. a. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. However.. Therefore. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. initial displacement and initial velocity. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. . The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. for this example we can skip this step.Initial Conditions i. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0).

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

ii. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. and set a time of 0. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1)..s01 b. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Specify Time and Time Step Options .Time Step . Load Step 3 i. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Load Step 2 i. ii.001 for the end of the load step iii.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.

select Utility Menu > List > nodes). and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii.. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. 1. By default.Time Step . .s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . In our case it is assigned Frequency. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. which is node #2. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.

. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ..r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. and the following window should pop up.

The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

2. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. .3. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs.

This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. We also see another response at a higher frequency. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We did not specify damping for our system. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. However. if stresses and forces are of interest.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. . We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam.

08 and 0.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam . We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip).. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. For this case. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26).08 and 0. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. 1. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded..11 seconds. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open.11 seconds r r r 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.

We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. 1. 0 DOMEGA.00000000 D.000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 OMEGA. 0.R5. 1. 0. 0.000000000E-03. 0. 0.00000000 . 0.. 0.00000000 ALPHAD. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. 0.00000000 .DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 . Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.01 in all three load step files. 0.00000000 0. D.00000000 . q ..7.00000000 NCNV. 0..00000000 . 0. but now we will consider damping. 0.00000000 0.s01. 0. 0. . 5.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam. -1.00000000 .REDU. -1.00000000 . 1. /COM.. 0.ROTZ.00000000 0. 0.00000000 . Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.00000000 .00000000 TINTP.00000000 .0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0. 1.00000000 .00000000 DMPRAT. .00000000 .00000000 . 0. 0. 0. 0.00000000 0. 0. 0.00000000 TREF.DEFA ACEL. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0. 0. 0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE. D.UY .00000000 ERESX. 4 TRNOPT. TINTP.00000000 .R5. 0.ANSYS RELEASE 5._TINY DELTIM. 0.00000000 .0. The file should look like the following. 0. 0. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.TEMP.500000000 .00000000 BETAD.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 . /GOPR 1.00000000 CGLOC. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.00000000 .1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE.UX .00000000 DCGOMG.

q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. After selecting MDOFs. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .' .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. After the results have been calculated. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. Open the .

and select the file. . A .PDF version is also available for printing.

The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

ANSYS Inc. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Height=1 BLC4. Give example a Title 2.10 6.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1.05 AESIZE.ALL. Apply Constraints . 1.0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.. Y=0.PLANE55 For this example.0 2.0. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0.1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. 5. Width=1.05 7. Quad 4node 55).1 4. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.KXX. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Generation. Heat Flow. Convection. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. or Radiation.For thermal problems. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. In this example.options cannot be selected. r r The following window will appear: . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Heat Flux.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. > DOF solution. r 3.. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method.

Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. A .PDF version is also available for printing. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. followed by the side and bottom constraints.. . however. Open the ..

0 to solve simple thermal examples. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.Modal Dynamic .

Apply Conduction Constraints . 1.1 4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.ALL.1. Width=1.05 7.0 2. Y=0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Give example a Title 2. Quad 4node 55).KXX. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.0.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.05 AESIZE. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..0. 6. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.PLANE55 As in the conduction example..1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 5.1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Height=1 BLC4.

In this example. The following window will appear: r . while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. r . Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block.r Fill in the window as shown. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. 4.

Temperature TEMP .. > DOF solution.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This will eliminate convection through the side.. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.

' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . Open the ..HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Also.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .

04 MP.05 AESIZE. 5. /Title.ALL At this point. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.KXX.ALL.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.0.PLANE55 For this example. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.1..ANSYS Inc.1. Y=0...1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0.920 6.2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.C. Height=1 BLC4.05 7. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4node 55). Width=1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node..1 4.DENS.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. .4 The window shown below will pop up. We will use the defaults. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. so click OK.

. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.2.

A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. of substeps to 100. Max no. of substeps to 20. Min no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .

Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK.D) Set Line search to ON . r r . By writing the data at every step. Basically. refer to the help file. or Radiation. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. For a complete description of what these options do. Heat Flux. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. In this example. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Convection. 3. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Heat Flow. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. Heat Generation.options cannot be selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.

The following window will appear: .

. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. > DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. r 4. Temperature TEMP . constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method.

. user specified. with 8 contours. specify the contour range. Fill in the window as shown..Animate Results Over Time r First. from 100 to 500. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours..

Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. 0 . Auto contour scaling OFF.r Then animate the data..300 Time Range. DOF solution > TEMP) . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time..

The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. As can be seen. Also. . thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. the curves are practically identical. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block.

Analytical Solution .

The following window should open automatically. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. .ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Creating the Temperature vs.

and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the center node on the mesh. . r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically. node 261.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. From experience. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. . will cause the solution to converge. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. To cause the solution to converge. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300.2. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Instead. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted.

PDF version is also available for printing. .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..' and select the file.

be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Modal Dynamic . As a warning. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In this case.Harmonic Dynamic . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Y2 . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG..X1.Y1.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.ANSYS Inc. /title.X2. Axisymmetric Tube 2.

we must define a U-shape.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. axisymmetry is not supported. Therefore. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type... Triangle 6node) element. to create the geometry mentioned above. Solid. button. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. click the Options. . 5. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.. Many elements support axisymmetry.For an axisymmetric problem. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.7. 9.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

> On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.0 2.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. By using the symmetry B.C. . ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. command. as shown below.C. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. at x=0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. . Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. then click OK.

Therefore. click on Cancel to close the window. Once you've clicked Sele All. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. 4. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. 3. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. This is required to constrain the model in space. . Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. r 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .

Max box.55 in the Min. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. ...182 MPa. 2. as shown below and click OK.

. matching the analytical solution.. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.17866)/2. 3. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. Thus. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. we must average the stress over the thickness. (0. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. to approximate the analytical solution. The average is used because in the analytical case.18552 + 0. The following window will appear.. such as corners.182 MPa. the stress in the tube is 0.

A . Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. If this is done. The rest of the commands remain the same. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. as expected due to the change in geometry. rectangular plate. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. the model is a flat.4. Thus. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial.' and select the file. with a rectangular hole in the middle. Open the .

7. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . a wall thickness of 10.1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.

3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint)..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) .Y and Z axis). and rotation about the X. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Y and Z axis.Catapult 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. . Define Element Types For this problem. /title. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window... enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure.a. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. For this example. UY). UY. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. there should now be three types of elements defined. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. s Select 'Combination'. ROTX. c. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis.. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. a. UZ. ROTY). 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'.. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. Click 'OK'. 4. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. b. s Select 'Combination'. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis.z) (0.0) (0. 5. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'. Define Element Material Properties 1. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.0.33 6.1000) (1000. there should now be three types of elements defined. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.#. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. Click 'OK'. N.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.0.. In the window that appears.y.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box. c.1000) (1000.0.y.x.0) .. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.

1500) (0.0) (0.-500) 7.700.0.500) (400. . Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.500) (0.0) (700.0.1000) (0.400.1000..1000) (0.500) (0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.1000.0. 'Material number' is set to 1. Then click 'OK'.0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1. The following window will appear..0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes . Create PIPE16 elements a.

node a.1. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.b. the first entry would be: E.6). Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .

13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . Create elements When defining a joint. three nodes are required. Then click 'OK' b. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node.

select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes.node a. To do this. we do not need to mesh our model. 11. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. you can list all the elements defined in the model. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. Then click 'OK' b. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements .node a. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. 10.E. node b. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model.

0 2... Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. we need to include the effects of large deformation.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . 3. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

1.. however. > Add. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX.. we can now solve the optimization problem.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. fill it in as shown previously ... Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. this is not always the case. r r 7. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. . Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. This will give you the max stress at the j node.1). This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. However. Fill this table as done previously. However. Comp selection box r r r 6. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. In this case the maximum values for each are the same...25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281.. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears..3 (instead of NMISC. 8.

. L. . 1..P51X.0..BEAM3 !* !* R.EX. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.100.ans.1. MPTEMP. ...1 !* /GO DK..W*H.200000 MPDATA.0..1. . K. . .1000..PRXY.1.(W*H**3)/12.. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE. .1..0.0.2.0 MPDATA. 20 *SET.1..txt’ Click ‘OK’. !* !* MPTEMP.1..0 FLST.H. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM..UX. Design Optimization *SET.0.1 /title. . FLST.2.3 !* LESIZE.3....W . . ...0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.2 .ORDE.. .2..start70. LMESH.ANSYS RELEASE 7..1.UY.1... !* ET.2.2.LINE.ALL. .1.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize... 2 !* HPTCREATE..'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.RATI.1 FITEM..75..0.1. . 20 /PREP7 K.1.ORDE. .1 FITEM.H .3. .

optimization.0.1 FITEM.0. ..UY.EVOLUME AVPRIN.DK. FLST.VOLU.0.0.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.UY. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.P51X.FY.NMISC. 1 !* ESORT.SORT. .P51X.SMAX. .ETAB. ETABLE. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.1. . .SMAX_J. . . The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. . . .SMax_J.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.3 !* /GO FK. most of these changes will already be made.P51X. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . .ITEM.1. However.0. Change this to: DK. .UX. !* *GET. .MAX *SET.2. Therefore. ..!* /GO DK.UX.2. . !* SSUM !* *GET.SMax_I. 3 !* ESORT.Volume. ETABLE. . ETABLE.0.SORT.0. .SMAX_I.3.0.0.MAX AVPRIN.-2000 ! /STATUS.NMISC.1.0. If you created the geometry etc..ETAB.1.0.SSUM.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.ORDE. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. using command line code.UY.0. .EVolume. !* *GET.C:\Temp\. .0. . Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.SMaxI.SMaxJ.

State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. NOTE: As previously stated.UY. To define variables. 3. These variables are necessary to constrain the design.0.-2000 Change to: FK. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. . you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. Change to: DK.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. For the width and height.FY. . . If you are comfortable with command line coding. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values.FK.0.2. .P51X. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. Without this SV. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. . . we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized.UY.FY. . In our problem.0. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. In this example. 2. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. . Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 .DK. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. .0. r Click ‘OK’. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. Now that we have decided our design variables. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. In this example. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective.3.P51X. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . the width and height of the beam are the DVs.

Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. > Add.... . Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.on the volume of the beam.. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm).. we do not need to define an allowable range. a. For the stress variable. Because the volume variable is the objective variable.01MPa. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. we will select a tolerance of 0....01mm. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. > Add.

In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Percent step size SIZE = 100..2 Click ‘OK’.. Percent forward diff. it is advisable to use different solution methods. confirm that the analysis file.. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective..001) c. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. Defaults to 10. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. .. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum.2% 7. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Defaults to 0. enter 200. Under Convergence Tolerance.. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Click ‘OK’. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. 6. DELTA = 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.

For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’.24 mm. B. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables..83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2.. and the stress is equal to 199.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. C. You will probably see that the width=13.16 mm. height=29.. 2. View the Results 1. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’.

. . Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. In the window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy.

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. Open the . all of the results data (ie stress. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. A .. displacement.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. In addition.. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu.PDF version is also available for printing. .HTML version. Alternatively.' and select the file.

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Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. For this example.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. however. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.5 MPa. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply loads to the super-element .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. v = 0. substructuring will be used for the wood block.

Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.. Apply remaining loads to the model. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.YCORNER. .XCORNER. 3. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .WIDTH.2. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.

Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. r . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.SUBST 2.. 7. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).29 6.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. This element has 4 nodes. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear.

In this case. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. r . With the option SEPR. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. 3.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname.

r In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. 5. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.4.

XCORNER. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.YCORNER. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.WIDTH.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . FILNAME.. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4..Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. Select Model Data. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc.. The following window will appear. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. 9. For Selected set as shown. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Young's modulus EX: 2.41 8.6. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Therefore... 7. . Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete....5 (MPa) ii.). We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).1 10. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

...SUB File. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Y coordinates.. By Location. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11. . 40 as shown.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Select Nodes. The following window will appear.

In the window that appears. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply super-element load vectors .0 2.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3..

> DOF solution.1 .) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. r 4.. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. Translation USUM PLNSOL. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.0..r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.U.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5..SUM. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector..

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . FILNAME. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname .Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass...

Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step.3. r . Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass.. Type 'EXPASS. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname... RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. r 2..db .. r 3.. The following window will appear.

. Translation USUM PLNSOL. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.SUM.1 . Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .U.4. > DOF solution.0..

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. . A . Open the .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..

. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. with no internal stresses.. A steel link. However.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Loads will not be applied to the link. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. stress is created in the link. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. the link will attemp to expand. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. For convenience.the solutions and . a thermal conductivity of 60.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.

y. Thermal Stress Example 2. For our case. the element types can change. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) 4.0) (1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..z) 1 2 (0. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. the geometry is kept constant. It is important to note. K.. However. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.x. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.#. /title. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.y. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ." Thus. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.2 . which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.1. For a listing. the analyses are coupled. Although the geometry must remain constant. where the thermal effects will be applied. Thermal Environment .Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. and using it with any following coupled environments.. and write them to memory. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. For instance.

6. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. representing a link 1 meter long. 9. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. enter the following geometric properties: i.. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element.. 5. KXX: 60. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.5 8. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK.. . Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. 7. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears..... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.1 meters. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. > Add.

Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. In this case. such as the element type. see the help file. 2. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. which is defining the structural environment. Structural Environment . Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. For more information on this element.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps.11.3 . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. It does not clear the geometry however. material properties. 1. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In this case it is LINK 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. so it can be used in the next stage. etc. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry.

Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. . Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ALPX: 12e-6 3.0 2.

were . If this is not done. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. 7. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK.rth. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. the left-most point. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. 8. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. The thermal solution has now been obtained. this data can be found as file. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. as expected. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5.rth. 4. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. 6. to 348 Kelvin. enter the file name File. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1.rth. This should make it visible. 3. . you will get error messages. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu.rth is the thermal results file.If the Physics option is not available under Solution.

Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .9. 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

1 3. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. 2.LS.1 ETABLE. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. List the Stress Data .As shown. the stress can't be listed in the normal way. Instead. an element table must be created first.CompStress. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.

CompStr The following list should appear.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. . Note the stress in each element: -0. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.180e9 Pa. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.

. A .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . ..HTML version.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

By keeping mesh density rather coarse.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Thus. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

P-Method Meshing 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1...ON Select p-Method Struct. /title. as shown below . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.52) (80. K..y..#.100) .100) (20.0) (0.100) (45.y.3.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.52) (55.

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.4.0) 5.0) (80.11.48) (20.8.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.1.2.48) (45.100) (100.9.7.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100... Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A. . 6.10.6.3.0) (55.5.

shown below. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type.. Solid147.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. 7. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.. For more information on these elements. enter the following geometric properties: i.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. to open the keyoptions window. For now we will leave them as default. After clicking OK to select the element. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. click Options. go to the Element Library in the help file. and Plane145. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. > Add.. Plane146. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). 8.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. 10.ii. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0...0 2. .

A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. of substeps to 20. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Min no. of substeps to 100. Max no. . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up.5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select Stress > von Mises SEQV .

The following stress distribution should appear. .

3. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear. .

As a comparison. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. . a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. these orders may go as high as 8.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. For more complex geometries. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.

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. and still get reasonable results.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. However. thus computational time will be low.As one can see from the two plots. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. This is the benefit of using p-elements.

The elements are still technically there. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. For further information. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Element birth is also possible. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. but will not be discussed here. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges.

03 BLC4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.03. Element Death 2. Quad 4node 55).0.03 4. enter the following properties: i. enter the following properties: . For this example. /title. 5.0.0.. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears.03 Height = 0.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. enter the following properties: i..

0005m.. ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. 7. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. you . Density DENS: 920 6. We will use the defaults. Therefore. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software..4 2. so click OK.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. 3.FULL into the commmand line.must type NROPT. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

refer to the help file. 4. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up.D) Set Line search to ON . By writing the data at every step. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . Basically. For a complete description of what these options do. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.

Heat Flux. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. In this example. Heat Generation. Convection. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. or Radiation. . Heat Flow.5.

The model should now look as follows: .

. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements..r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. elements to create the desired effect. For instance. the user can manually kill. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.LAST 2. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. Assume the material melts at 273 K. or turn off. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. Here. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table..

3. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK.. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.r Click on 'Add. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. .' Fill the window in as shown below.. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. which this analysis doesn't call for. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. this will kill only those elements. and close the warning message. . Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point.all into the command line. Click OK to restart the analysis.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. thus it is just warning the user. 2. This is much too time consuming in this case. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1.

select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.With the window still open. .

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. . That way.HTML version. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. to more accurately model element death over time.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.This procedure can be programmed in a loop.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A . using command line code. Open the . more accurately modelling the heating process. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. are 100mm long. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Contact Elements 2.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. causing it to bend and contact the lower. The beams. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor .. /title. as shown below. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends.

. 10) 4.. Width. .WP X.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. WP Y. 100.. 15. 5.... 10) (50. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y)./PREP7 3.WP Y. click Options. 100. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. > Add. r While the Element Types window is still open.Height) 1 2 (0. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements.Width. Quad 4node 42) element. 0.. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below.. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. This way. r While the Element Types window is still open. 6. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line.3 7. . pt-to-surf 48) element... Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii... This is an important step. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. click Options. incremements slowly when contact is immenent..In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step..

Other contact elements. enter the following properties: i. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s).. such as CONTA175. When using contact elements in your own analyses.. you should decrease KN. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. ANSYS recommends a value between 0.It is important to note. > Add. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep.. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. 10. ii. you should increase KN. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. As the surfaces approach each other. be sure to understand how the elements work. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. If there is too much penetration. This will be covered below. given in %.. resulting in convergence difficulties. to function. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). require a target element. . Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. rather than node to element edge. such as TARGE169. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. Thus. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. A small value of TOLS. Since this "spring" is so stiff. In this situation.

you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation.. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. In this simple case. In this case. However. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. tolerances. Select the top beam and click OK. when the geometry is complex. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces.. . etc. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. the source nodes will be selected.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction.. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. 11. First. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam.. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis.

X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus..100.. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. . Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.

. you should only have the following nodes remaining.. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. .s Now if you list the selected nodes.

and click OK. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. This can be very useful in other applications as well. Now we can use this component. In this case. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. If you have a lot of contact elements. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. Source. .

. 12.. and click the Sele All button. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. clicking the Also Select radio button. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. This is done by opening the entity select menu.Now select the target nodes. Using the same procedure as above. These values will be the ones you'll use. s s s Click the lower area for the area select.. When creating the component this time. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. enter the name Target. . Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. clicking the Also Select radio button... This is done by opening the entity select menu. and click the Sele All button.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. The rest of the selections remain unchanged. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). .

you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > .At this point. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. Unfortunately. your model should look like the following. If you wish.

The following image will appear: .. The preprocessor stage is now complete. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). If you zoom in on the contact areas.. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. shown below.0 2.

Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. however.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. C. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. E. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. D. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . B. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. this takes time. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.

NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. type help followed by the command into the command line. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. Also. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Again. 3. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. If you have too few substeps. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. Once everything is working. leave these relatively high at first. For more information about these commands.

This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. this is a point load on a 2D surface. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Note. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . However.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. 5.

3. If you leave the scaling as default. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1.0 (true scale) radio button. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.2. then click ok.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . producing a stress distribution in both... A .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.As seen in the figure. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

2 . This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.DIVISION. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.How long is the truss.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.20 *ask.How tall is the truss. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.LENGTH. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.HEIGHT. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.100 *ask. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. Variables including length. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.How many cross supports even number. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. using a length of 200 m.

1.KEYP.OSCILATE.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.200000 mp.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.NUM_K.X_COORD.1.1.1.THEN k.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.(KEYP+1) *if.0 *else k.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.LE.prxy.i.100 mp.DIVISION.1.i.i.link1 r.3 esize.KEYP.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.X_COORD.0.THEN L.1 .GT.1.(DIVISION-1).0.KEYP.j..ex.

*ask. In this case. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.".100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss.GT.. 4. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable.LENGTH. then... As seen above.10). For example. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. Thus in later parts of the code. This translates to "if the variable. the most intutitive method is to use "=". LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished.3. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.THEN.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.9. This argument can be a single value.10_K.8. is greater than zero.lmesh. *do. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. However. determining if a certain case has occured. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.all finish 1. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. see the help file. (ie 1. FVAL.. In between the *DO and *ENDDO.How long is the truss. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. 2. OSCILATE. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. IVAL. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true.2. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. or a mathematical expression. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. The syntax for the expression is *DO.1.0. in the code above there is a statement: *if.i. For example. Par.OSCILATE. Command File Mode of Solution . For more information on this command. INC.

Open the .The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. ..HTML version.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2.) of the following example. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /title. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . etc.. Stress.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.

Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.3. Y and Z directions).Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 5.0. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i..20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm.0.Width.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.Height.. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. 7. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.3 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1).0 2. 4. 5. 3. For this example we are trying to display a section. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. therefore.ANTYPE. options 1. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display.

This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. let's view deflection of the entire model.

From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. offset the working plane to the desired position. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. To illustrate how to take a cross section. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0.0 WPROTA. however.-1. simply use: WPCSYS. Equivalent Stress Again.1 /TYPE.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.This can be repeated for any slice..0.U. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.0 2.0.SUM.90 /CPLANE..8 PLNSOL.1. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).0. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. let's view stresses within the entire model.Width/2.

0.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. Because it is much easier.5 PLNSOL.1/16*Length /CPLANE. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.0.S.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). You should now see the following: .1 /TYPE.EQV. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.1.0.

You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. Animation Now. and the Y axis. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). the sweep direction.3. the origin. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be.. r r . but please bear with me. Finally. In the graphics window. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. For more information on how to modify the animation. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. Next. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. for something a little more impressive. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). Unfortunately.. select the node in the back. type help ancut into the command line. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis.

' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .HTML version...Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. For example.

The remaining area should look as shown below. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. the rectangle) and click OK. r . Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. 4.. the circles) and click OK. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. select the area to remain (ie.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.WP X. Then. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.200. /title.WP Y.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively.0.. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

6. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element..' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7.. In the 'Element Types' window... r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. click 'Options. enter a thickness of 10.. 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.3 . Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.. > Add. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes)... Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 3.0 2. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. 10. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. . The model should now look like the figure below.9. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant.. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

4. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . which would have the distribution over the entire plate. 1. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. However. you could create a normal contour plot.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. you must make a couple of changes. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. To keep window 1 visible during replots. r r 2. Turn window 1 'off'. shown below. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. meaning this function off. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window.

click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. what results should be available to the path.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. equivalent stress is desired. or in other words. 3. r . Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. you must choose what to map to the path. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. For this example.

This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. so disregard the warning. This is of little concern though. 4.r The warning shown below will probably pop up.

these dots are not shown here. . Note.The display should look like the following. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Due to resolution restrictions.

PDF version is also available for printing. .' and select the file..This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.HTML version. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

. a special type of array. Length of the following beam using tables.. Use of Tables for Data Plots . /title. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. By plotting this data on a curve.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. finer resolution can be achieved. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. rather than using a contour plot.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.

y..2..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x..0) (400. 6. Define Element Material Properties . 7. enter the following geometric properties: i.z) 1 2 (0. K. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element...x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0) 4.1.#. > Add. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm. and rotation about the Z axis).2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.y. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants....

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.0 2.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 8. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 9. The model should now look like the figure below..

it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. a special type of array.. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.. This example is a simplified use of tables. Tables. but they can be used for much more. Create the Table . Therefore. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. For this example there are 21 nodes.4. 2. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. > OK. 1. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows.

. Enter Data into Table First. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. one more than the number of nodes.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . In the window shown below. select Model Data > Nodes r .. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. Note there are 22 rows.1]. 3.2. The reason for this will be explained below.

r . and continues down the column. column 2. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. and continues down the column.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 1. the vertical displacement will be recorded. Next.2) > All > DOF solution > UY].1) > All > Location > X].. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1.

to provide room to move this data. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.4. This causes problems during plotting. as it is keypoint 1. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). Thus. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right.

and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Select File > Apply/Quit 5.833) is in row two. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. UY = -0. r . Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X).r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. Fill it in as shown. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.

. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. r r .r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . To see the changes to the labels..

PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .' and select the file..HTML version.. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 dk.0.1.100.ex. etc.beam3 r.all.0 L.1.10 mp.2 et.1.200000 mp.all finish /solu antype.5 lmesh. numbering the nodes.0.333.prxy.1.833. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.100.3 esize.1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. finish /clear /title. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.1. changing the background colour. For instance. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.0 K.1.2.

The following window will appear: ..2.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1..fy.fk. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

When you click OK. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. You should get the following: . sometimes the numbers won't show up.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. To remedy this problem. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. However. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. For instance.

These extra symbols may not be necessary. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. 2. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . the nodes have been numbered. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing.As shown.

click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. there are no Surface or Body Loads. so those sections won't be used. . In our case.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. Under the Boundary conditions section. or Initial Conditions.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

As shown in the window. . To turn off the triad. it is things associated with the window background. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. the legend or title can be turned off. etc. In this case. The following output should be the result. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off.

4. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.. ..

it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. If there is no change in output. thus elements are not going to show up. The following should appear. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. don't be alarmed. To aid in this process. such as BEAM3. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. .When using line elements. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements.

the elements are no longer just a line... you can change the view orientation. 5.As shown. but they have volume according to the real constants. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. To get a better 3-D view of the model. .

This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. Using these options. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. such as isometric or oblique. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. You can also select predefined views.This window allows the user to rotate the view. Basic rotating. . translate the view and zoom. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen.

those can also be changed. If you don't like the colours of the contour.. they can be changed. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours.6. Under uniform contours. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. plot the deformation contour for the beam.. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. Under non-uniform contours. . Changing Contours First.

Here we are only using Window 1. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. ... 7. and we'll set the background colour to white. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. but don't want a black background.

This is because the text colour is also white. If there is information that needs to be added. Notice how all the text disappeared. this can be done in other graphic editors.The resulting display is shown below... Under the File heading. To save the display. . select Save As. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. such as contour values.

. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. as is the help file. If you are looking for a specific option. these are just a few.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. see the next item in this list.. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others.cmd) is stored and select it. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. e. You may need to select Plot -> .g. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. frame. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. When it is complete.. Then before you are finished. or if you'd like to save the whole file. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options.. select Read Input from. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. 2. to a text file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Select File -> Clear & Start New. Save those changes to disk. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor.cmd. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely.on. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.. type /input.) between frame and cmd. you may need to point it to the proper directory. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example.. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. . you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. etc. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you. At this point you could type in /menu. X11c. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. then from the ANSYS input window. To rerun the command file. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. stress. mode).. If the file was in the directory.cmd and yes that is a comma (. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file.frame. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show..x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows.. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on.. you would use the following syntax /input.frame.

kp2..kp2 larc.kp2.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus ..kp1. applying loads and constraints.ycoord. .kp3.kp1... . l10 v.rad1.kp1.rad2.y1.theta1.z2 cylind.xcoord. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.l1.kp1.theta2 sphere. kp6 a.kp1.rad2.rad1.x2. .kp2. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.y2 block.y2.y1..x2.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.x1.a1..z2. ... setting up different analysis types and post-processing.kp#.a2. .z1.x1.theta1.zcoord l.l2.z1.kp2. kp8 va. kp18 a.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline. a10 see online help see online help rectng...

all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .all amesh. . current type is set by mat mat.line2.a2.a2. current type is set by type type.a1.. r6 may define as many as required.number r.a1..a2 aina. a9 asba.c1. .line1..r1..area2. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et..c0.label...inc or lmesh. a9 aglue. c4 may define as many as required. . current type is set by real real.number. ..Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.size.a2.number mp.number esize.number.r2.number.inc or amesh..area1..ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.a1. .type may define as many as required.a1.

UY.ROTX.FY.node#.label.vol1.label labels: SYMM (symmetry). ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.ALL d.value labels: UX.ROTZ.label.value labels: FX.FZ.ROTY.label.MZ f.value labels: FX.MX.area#.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.ROTX.MX.MY.kp#. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .node#.e.UZ.UY.ALL dl.inc or vmesh.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.FY.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.value labels: UX.ROTZ.UZ.FZ.MY.vol2.line#.label.kp#.ROTY.

i.1.then . It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.2.1 ! do i = 1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.1.x1.else . but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.x.ndivs+1.Enter number of divisions (default 5).0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.GT. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .0.1.0.0 k.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).i. if only is entered.x2. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.ndivs.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".ndivs.

all.1 kplot klist..coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .! /pnum.kp..

copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS 7. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. extrusion. Boolean operations. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes.

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Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example.Modal Dynamic Analysis .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Pure Conduction . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Dynamic Analysis . Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Transient Thermal Examples .

Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Modelling Using Axisymmetry . Analysis of heat conduction over time.Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples .Thermal Examples .

0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Using element death to model a volume melting. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Additionally. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam.

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a special type of array. ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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1 k.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.6.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.0.0254 rout=8*0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.0.0.0.-1 k.1.8.0 k.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.699*10**(-8) k. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.5. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.7 emis2=0.0.7.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.0 k.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.

all MP.TEMP ET..rin.1.2 lsel.VM125 TOFFST.rin LMESH.1....1 R.rout LMESH.emis1 EMIS.5.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.emis2 VTYPE.all lsel.2.2.LINK32.x.MATRIX50.1 lsel.1 csys.1.2.loc.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .ndiv CIRCLE.1.1 ESIZE.7.. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.0 GEOM.s..KXX.1 MAT.all csys.1..1.offset ! inner cylinder.2 SE.1 MAT.ALL lsel.1 MP.circle...arc.KXX.1 STEF.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.1 TYPE.x..7. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.rout.s.ndiv ET.8.stefbolt WRITE.loc.6.arc.

VALUE.loc.T1 nsel.csys.x.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.1 nsel.rout D.FSUM.x.T2 nsel.3 LABEL(1.1.ITEM.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .LABEL.x.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.all csys. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.TEMP.s. K /POST1 csys.x.1.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.loc.s.TEMP.s.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel..loc.CHAR.ALL.HEAT *DIM.ALL.1 nsel.0.all *GET.loc.Q.all nsel.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.rin D.all nsel.2 *DIM.s.

Q *VFILL.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.F10.' '.1).1.3) /COM.--------------.' '.3).VALUE(1.LABEL(1.2).3) (1X.A8.1F5.VALUE(1.1.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.1). *VWRITE.F10.------------------------------------------------------/COM.DATA.DATA.VALUE(1. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.2). FINISH .DATA.exact *VFILL.*VFILL.1).VALUE(1. /COM.' '.

the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. for example. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. one simply types pico test. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. In pico.dat at the UNIX prompt. so they are always available. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. nedit . Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. but the backspace key does work normally. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. press this key. The first three mentioned below are text based.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. To use pico to edit the file test. but have a steep learning curve.dat. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors.

It features pull-down menus.3 file format used by DOS. and look at the option in the dialog box. Applications . undo. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. Very nice.. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. From a UNIX command window. Therefore.. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. For this reason. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. type wabi or win. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor.nedit is a very simple to use. yet powerful X Windows editor. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files.exe (look under the r: drive). saved. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. when saving files in PFE. multiple file editing. It could then be edited. and block delimiting with the mouse. and then renamed back to its original name. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8.

. 2. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. If you've got some time. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands.. Press Enter to continue. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. Then choose GUI configuration. heat transfer and fluid problems. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. check . To start the X-Windows portion of the program. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. you may enter ANSYS commands. From the next dialog box that appears. From this menu. item. Press Enter to continue. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.x11c /menu. To start ANSYS. Once this is done. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). over a modem. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. two methods are avialable: 1. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. it is necessary to select the Interactive . select your desired font size.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems.

For further information on using ANSYS. If you've got some time. For more information about this program. Fyfe. see Dr. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. Pro/Mechanica. and design optimization. Toogood. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. For further information on this program. sensitivity studies. see Dr. see Dr. . including static analysis. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. performs finite element analysis. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures.out the ANSYS Web page. check out the Fluent Web page. A companion program. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. click on the car figure. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. Yokota. like that shown above.

see Configuration Files). If your program code consists of many files and libraries. redirecting it). To change the executable's output name to test.' is in your path (this is changed in your . the name of the resulting executable will default to a. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output.for or TEST. your file must be named something like test. such as error messages.f sub1.f and sub1. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. type the command./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. i. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.out (logical. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line.cshrc file. For example: xlf main.f.f To run this program.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.f and not test. to a file.f sub2.e.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f >& errorfile will compile main. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'.F.f sub3.out. This program would be run by entering . xlf by itself./test. you now type. isn't it?). For learning about the compiler's many options. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.f Normally no options are required. e. for example. and output is the name of the file to which the output . . Note that the .f sub1./a.

So. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. you simply type: . Note that it is only necessary to save the file. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. Note that the text . because it too is being sent to the output file. If the program normally prompts the user for input. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. The resulting text file may then be edited. however. printed and even imported into a word processor. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. and not actually exit the editor.m files.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. turn off the diary function with the diary off command.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . symbolic and plotting functions.will be sent. the prompt will not appear on the screen. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. The keyboard will still accept the input. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. In this way you will have one window to edit your . MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. and what data to enter. you can still run your program this way. if you know when to enter data. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. From the Matlab prompt.

logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. you must have an X server running on your local machine. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. by issuing the command.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus.labs through to mec30. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. but is very slow when running it over a modem. The workstations are named mec01. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network.ualberta. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). For example. For example. . A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.labs. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up.labs. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. Once the job is completed.

The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent.ca. Pine is based on the pico editor. just outside the main part of the lab. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. see FTP. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. The mecxx.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. To use it. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. To use E-mail then. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. free of charge. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. . You can enter the mail program called pine. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. for example. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero).srv. This file is printed in the small room. If your CNS login id is jblow. or by typing pine at the prompt. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. type. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. either through lynx.txt. To do this. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand.ualberta. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. but GPU does. Many applications. In this command. newsgroups and WWW. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory.

Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. your job (but not your file) will be deleted.85.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster).20 per page. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129.eps scale c where filename. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. Prints are $0. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. . issue the command: plotpostscript filename. room B-111). The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files.145 (see FTP). room 240. see table of contents. getting started. If you fail to do so. or appendices. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. For further information.128. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. From a GPU account login.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file.

(Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. 0 K. p. x.123) ! /title.4.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. E. reaction forces.height K.1.2. width. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. and stress for the truss system shown below. 0 ! keypoint. 3*width/2. #. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. height .Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. A. width/2. 0. y K. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. Note that Young's Modulus.3. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.

7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.FY. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.5 L.FY.3.4.5.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH. K.SUM.1.4.FY.U. ! ! define lines ! L. 5*width/2.1.6.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.3 L.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .2 PLNSOL.5 L. K.5.EX.3.6.7 L.4 L.LINK1 R.1.-210e3 FK.1. 2*width.F PLDISP.ALL.200e3 ! element type #1.5.2.7.3250 MP. .0.3 L.7.1.2 L. spring element ! real constant #1.2.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.1.1.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.4 L.K.1.5.6 L.3.FY.7.1. 3*width.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.6 L.-280e3 FK.ALL. .UY.

SAXL. 1 PRETAB.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .LS.SAXL PLETAB.ETABLE.SAXL.

0 K. reaction forces.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. and stress for the truss system shown below. 3*width/2. 3*width.123) ! /title.7. width. y K. 0 ! keypoint.2. 0 K. 5*width/2.3 L. #.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.www.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. width/2.1.4.2.height K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. x.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.2. A.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. 0. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.3.5.6. Note that Young's Modulus. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 2*width. p. height K.mece. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.3 L.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. height K. E.1.1. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 SFL.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.ualberta.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.4.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .S.ALL.0 DL.PRES.

ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. A figure of the plate is shown below.20.80.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). and uniform pressure loading.20 BLC4.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .100 CYL4.0.-20.80.0.20 CYL4.20.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.50.50 CYL4. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. plane stress.0.80.20.

0 ..10 CYL4.1.10 ASBA.Young's modulus.real set number.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL. DL.ALL CYL4.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .value ! mp.ALL. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.FY. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.PLANE82 KEYOPT.AADD.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. DL. DL..50.ALL. .20 ! r.30 CYL4.0 . 9.9.200000 MP.1.ALL. 7.keypoint.all areas.11.material number.80. DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.14.ALL.0 ! amesh.20.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.1.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ALL.ALL.12.0 .ALL. DL.3. DL.5 ! lesize.3 ! mp.13.PRXY.direction.10.0 .1.0.force ! Solve the problem .0.0 .EX. 8.0 .0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.80.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.Poisson's ratio. DL.ALL.1.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.0.0 .material number.6.

EQV.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.4.LTOP /WIND..0.0.ALL.1 /CONT.3.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.RTOP /WIND.8 /CONT.U.2.4.05e-3 /FOC.S.. PLDISP.1 /GCMD.2.1.-0.0. PLNSOL.3.4.OFF /WIND.0.EPTO..0.1 /GCMD.10.2.0.0036 /CONT.1 /replot PRNSOL.ALL. PLNSOL..0.3.EQV.SUM.LBOT /WIND.0.2 /GCMD.1.10.DOF.340000.10. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .. PLNSOL.

This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. and uniform pressure loading. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.80.0.ualberta. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.www. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).0. plane stress. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. A figure of the plate is shown below.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.

ALL.0.9.EX. .1.20.0 ! amesh.0 .PRXY. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.20.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.direction.Poisson's ratio.80.all areas.1..50.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .20 BLC4.0.PLANE82 KEYOPT.0.1.FY.ualberta. DL.mece.200000 MP.80.ALL..ALL.20. 7.0.10 ASBA.0 . plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .14.0. 8.1.real set number. DL.0 .ALL ! Boolean Addition .ALL.20.ALL.material number.-1000 (fk command) !fk.ALL CYL4. DL.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.ALL.0 .html CYL4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.www. DL.0 .0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.80.30 CYL4.3 ! mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-20.0 .Young's modulus.13.material number.6.10.1.20 ! r. DL.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.value ! mp.50.50 CYL4.5 ! lesize.ALL.10 CYL4.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.20 CYL4.80.3.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE. DL. 9. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.keypoint.12.ALL.0 .11. DL.60 AADD.ALL.

U.0.0. PLNSOL.8 /CONT....2 /GCMD.340000.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.mece.3.0.DOF.05e-3 /FOC.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.LBOT /WIND.0036 /CONT. PLNSOL.4. PLNSOL.10. PLDISP. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 /GCMD.2.ALL.0.1 /GCMD.-0.3.0.RTOP /WIND.1.10.4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SUM.EQV.OFF /WIND.2.3.4..LTOP /WIND.EQV.10..EPTO.1.www.0.ALL.S.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.ualberta.2.0.1 /CONT.1 /replot PRNSOL.

We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. . Filleting. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. copying. extrusion/sweeping.

3.1.2.0.9 lines 9. .1 BLC4..8.1.2002.0.0. .0 VROTAT.4.2..0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0. .1001.5 CYL4.3.0 K.0.4.5.-0.10.7..0. .ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4..5. AL.11.0.0.3.ALL CYL4.0.6 AGEN.14 AADD.6.360.0 K. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT. .2 ASBA.2001.0.1002.3.10.1.1. 1001 and 1002 K.ALL ! Sweep K.3.5.2.ALL LFILLT.0.2.8.5 BLC4.5..22.5.1001.26.5.5.1002..11) AL.5 AADD.0.3.2.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .5 AADD.2.1 AGEN. .1.7.0..

0.2001.6.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .102 BLC4.3.6.6.2002.109.27.0.51.1.82 K.6 vsbv.20 LARC. .5 vsbv.2.1 VGEN.2.101.02 KWPLAN.4. .180.20 K.5.2.0. .2003.102.ALL VOFFST.4.5.26 VADD.20 L.45.180 CYL4.5 CYL4.13.100.1.5.8.2 CYL4.102 K. .0.8 vsbv.0 K.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.20 LARC.10 AGEN.102.7 vsbv.2. .-20.5.100.5.2.all.3.sqrt(3)/0. .K.20.1.26 K.9 vsbv.5.10 vsbv. .0.all.62 ASBA.8.1.101.5.25. .159.1. .12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.7 AADD. . .109.0.26 VOFFST.109.2.-20.0 K.51 AADD.102.2003 CSYS.82 K.1.6.5.0.7.6 AL.69 AGEN.7.1 KWPLAN.8.all.-1.0.all. .0.4.0.11 vsbv.102.

61.204.3 CYL4.30 KWPLAN.57735*26) + 38.204 VOFFST.20. . .32.200.-1.AADD.37 CYL4.26 K.129-(0.202.7.2.180.57735*26). VADD.61.0 A. .0 system K.200. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together . sqrt(3)/2*76.203.51.61.-20.0.36.180.-20.0. .203. .201.0 K.32.202 CSYS.-1.201.51.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.1.18.34. 129-(0.38 AADD.200.26 K. .60 VADD.33.1 WPCSYS.5.60 VSBV.

html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.mece.www. copying. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . extrusion/sweeping. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Filleting. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.ualberta. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.

5 BLC4..0 K.0.8.2..2. LFILLT.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..2001. .26.5. .0.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.11.3.6.1.5.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0. .0.0.2003.1001.2 ASBA.7.5 CYL4.2.3. AL.ALL LFILLT.ualberta.9 AL.0.3.5.3.10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.1001.0.1002.0.0.1.3.0 K.www.ALL ! Sweep K.4.0. K.360.3.5..1002.8.2.0.14 AADD..0 VROTAT.ALL CYL4.4.5 AADD.5 AADD.1 AGEN.1 BLC4.5.3..0.mece.5.2002.6 AGEN.22.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.1.7.0 K. .2.1..1.5. .-0. .0.2.

.4.36.6 AL.7 vsbv.0 K.5.6 vsbv.1.51 AADD.0.102.100.2 AADD.02 KWPLAN.all.20.0.5.0. .4.3. .26 VADD. .5.180 CYL4.2002.26 K. .102.62 ASBA. .1.8.45.5 vsbv.109.102.0.1.all.6.33.51.1.11 vsbv.82 K.8. .-20. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.6.6.5.20 LARC.109.ALL VOFFST. .8 vsbv.10 AGEN.25.7 AADD.13.0.-1.69 AGEN. .37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .82 K.2 CYL4.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.6.5.-20.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.101.27.102 BLC4.5 CYL4.7.9 vsbv.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .32.159.2.4.2.0 K.html KWPLAN.5.1.1.20 K.2.all.1 VGEN.100.0.2001.5.0.mece.7. .0.26 VOFFST.sqrt(3)/0.ualberta.2.5.all.34.38 AADD.109. .180.2.102 K.101.2003 CSYS.0.20 L.2.102.8.20 LARC.www.10 vsbv.

26 K.57735*26) + 38.204.61.ualberta. . sqrt(3)/2*76.3 CYL4.180.0.180. .200.0 K.61.200.57735*26).5.203. 129-(0.60 VSBV.7.www.51.0 K.18.202 CSYS.200.mece.60 VADD.html CYL4.202. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-20.2.201.20.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.26 K. .1 WPCSYS.201.129-(0. .-1.30 KWPLAN.61.-1. VADD.0 A.-20.32.204 VOFFST.51. .203.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.

Height MP. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.1.Width*Height. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.EX.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.1.0 L.2.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .Length.0.Width*(Height**3)/12.0 K.2 ET.1.

Length/10.86e-6 LESIZE.DENS. ACEL.0.9.1.0.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 MP.7.MP.PRXY.. LMESH.0 DK.1.ALL.ALL.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

1.Height MP.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP. LMESH. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Width*Height.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 L.PRXY.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.www.EX.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.mece.2 ET.0.1.Width*(Height**3)/12.2. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.Length.1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.1.DENS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.1.7.Length/10.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 K.ualberta.ALL.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1.www.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ACEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html DK.9.0.mece..ALL.

A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.1.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line . ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.2. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0.1000.0 K.0 L. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

2.. 1 ETABLE.NMISC.833.1.PRXY.1.0.area.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .10 MP.UY DK.NMISC.ALL.1.100.ET.0 SFBEAM.SMAXJ.SMAXJ.1. 3 PLLS.200000 MP.333.2 ETABLE.PRES.1.SMAXI.BEAM3 R.0 DK..33 ESIZE.EX.0.UY.1.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .100 LMESH.SMAXI.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.UX.I.

0.ht.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data...1. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0 L.0 K.2 ET.1. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.1.mece.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1000.ualberta. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.www.

200000 MP.SMAXI.ualberta.ht.333.0 ! Real constants .PRES.100.833.1..100 LMESH.1.1..0 DK.33 ESIZE.NMISC.0.mece.UY..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXJ.PRXY.10 MP..EX.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.ALL.UY DK. 1 ETABLE. R.SMAXJ.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SMAXI.area.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.www.0 SFBEAM.2.2 ETABLE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.NMISC.1.1.0. 3 PLLS.UX.I.

plane42. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.2.2. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG. 1.0.. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.3.5. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.2 ! element type 1.. In this model there are two blocks.0. strs out type.. with a small separation.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . /title.7.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5. one above top of the other. plane stress w/thick.4 aplot ! define element type ET.10. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 0.1. nodal.01 ! thickness 0.1 ! activate element type 1 R.

s.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything ..005.EX.2D contact elements keyo.0.NUXY. 0. 200e3 MP.1 ! defines second element type .7.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.2.0.2.2.3 MP..2 amesh.1 real. 2.EX.2. 1.mat.1 ! nsel.1 amesh.1..2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel. 20e3 MP.35 mat.10 TYPE.contac48.source.20e3.1.y.2 ! nsla.2.3 ! meshing esize.01 ! cm.s.! define material properties MP.5 mat.99.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.loc.r.1 esize..NUXY. 0.0.2 /pnum.area.1 r.

0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).x.source.7.r.loc.y.r.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .all.5 ksel.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.on nropt.01 cm.x.all.fy.all.y.s.99.y.20.loc.1.loc.2.s.loc.target.4 dk.target.area.-100 allsel time.1 nsla.loc.r.s...y.stat.asel.node gcgen.5 ksel.on pred.full.s.s.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.2.1 nsubst.all.3 finish /solution antype.100 autots.4 fk.1 nsel.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.all.loc. a small tolerance is used d.

3 esize.0. To solve this problem.03125.0.0. After each increment. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.1.beam3 r.1.125 mp.1.5.0.1.0 l. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.0.4.1.0.1.1 lmesh.30.ex.0 k. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. the load will added incrementally.prxy.2.2 et.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . izz. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .069e-5.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.0e6 mp.

mz.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots. min # substeps=1 outres.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.5.1.all.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .2.static nlgeom.all ! save results of all iterations dk.1000. max # substeps=1000.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load./solu antype.1 PRNSOL.all fk.U.

1 lmesh.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0.125 mp.03125.ualberta. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .www.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area. To solve this problem. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.beam3 r.2 et.ex.1.1.mece.1. the load will added incrementally.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0e6 mp.0 l.30. After each increment.3 esize.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.prxy. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.0.069e-5.5.0 k. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.1.1.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .4. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.1.0.2.0.0.0. izz.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.

-100 solve /post1 pldisp.all fk.on nsubst.1000.mece.all dk.all.www. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.ualberta.5.1 PRNSOL.mz.html /solu antype.1 outres.static nlgeom.U.1.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .on autots.

it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. material nonlinearities and gaps. real-world buckling prediction analysis. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). static analysis to predict buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. This method is not recommended for accurate. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. However. load perterbations. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. 2. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. largedeflection. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. ie. in reallife. For this type of analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.

3 K. applied at the top-center of the beam. I (mm^4).100.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 MP. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.PRXY. The required load to cause buckling.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1.1.1.ALL.0. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.2 ESIZE.1.0.333.2.BEAM3 R.100 L. rigidly constrained at the bottom.833.1.10 LMESH. ANSYS . area (mm^2).0.EX.200000 MP.0 K.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET. will be calculated.

0. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .100.FY.100. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.833.1.LANB.ON MXPAND.200000 MP.PSTRES.2.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .BUCKLE BUCOPT.1.1.0.2 ESIZE.subspace.0 L. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .333.LIST SET. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.3 R.ALL FK.1. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.1 LMESH.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.EX.2.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1.PRXY.1. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0 K.1.0.10 K.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). I. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.ON DK.

1 DK.2.Y.2.Y NSOL.1.FX.ON LNSRCH.U.3 /AXLAB.ALL.X.2 PLVAR.ON OUTRES.NLGEOM.-50000 FK.3.ALL NSUBST.20 NEQIT.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ON /ESHAPE.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2.0 FK.FY.2.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.1.ALL.F.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .Y XVAR.

real-world buckling prediction analysis.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.mece. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). material nonlinearities and gaps.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions.www. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. static analysis to predict buckling loads. However. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. in real-life.ualberta. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. ie. This method is not recommended for accurate. large-deflection. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. load perterbations. For this type of analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. 2.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.

1.1.100 L. The required load to cause buckling. rigidly constrained at the bottom. applied at the top-center of the beam.0. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0 K. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.833. I (mm^4).1.ALL.333.BEAM3 R.10 LMESH.2 ESIZE.3 K.0.10 MP.2.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.mece. will be calculated.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . area (mm^2).www.PRXY.1.ualberta.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.EX.1.0.200000 MP.100.

ON DK.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).BUCKLE BUCOPT.subspace.0.STATIC NLGEOM. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info . height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .LANB.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.0.333.0 K.PRXY.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .2. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.1.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.0.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.ON MXPAND.2 ESIZE.LIST SET.FY.1. I. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ON OUTRES.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.100.2.EX.STATIC PSTRES.ALL FK. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.200000 MP.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1.0.10 K. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .ALL.833.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.www.3 R.1 LMESH.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0 L.html ANTYPE.100. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.

ualberta.2.FX.2 PLVAR.3 /AXLAB.FY.1.20 NEQIT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ON LNSRCH.Y.2.U.html NSUBST.2.mece.1.1000 AUTOTS.Y NSOL.-50000 FK.ALL.Y XVAR.1 DK.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.0 FK.www.ON /ESHAPE.F.X.3.2.

2. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.100 l.PRXY. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.3 TB.EX.2 ET..0 k.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.LINK1 R.0.1. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.75 .12..1.1. For this analysis. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.1. In such a case. For instance.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.1.0.0.25 MP.75000 MP.001.MELA.1. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).

1..all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.1 OUTRES.2..300 TBPT.0 DK.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..1..2.X.06.004.1.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .ALL AUTOTS..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.2 PLVAR.Y.005.275.ON LNSRCH.ON NEQIT.Y NSOL.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.U.Y.150 TBPT.225 TBPT..ON NSUBST.0......2.ALL.1 PLNSOL..25.003..U..2..5 LMESH.002.3 /AXLAB.1000.all FK.449 TBPT..420 TBPT.F..355 TBPT.20..TBPT.435 TBPT.3.250 TBPT.1000 ANTYPE..Y XVAR.390 TBPT.025.450 ESIZE..15.FY...240 TBPT.

the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.0. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.mece.. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.1.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. In such a case..100 l.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).ualberta.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin. For this analysis. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".1. For instance.2. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0 k.LINK1 R.2 ET.

001.EX.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE. TBPT.ALL..12...435 TBPT.003.Y.25.355 TBPT.ALL AUTOTS.15.275.1..390 TBPT.420 TBPT.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..06.002.Y..150 TBPT.PRXY.0 DK.005.300 TBPT.ON NSUBST.1.3 TB..1.1 OUTRES.ON NEQIT.2 PLVAR.1000.all FK..240 TBPT.20.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin...U.2.X..1..U.MELA.0.Y XVAR.450 ESIZE. MP.025.75 TBPT.1...3 /AXLAB..ON LNSRCH.ualberta.1.225 TBPT..all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.DEFLECTION /AXLAB..250 TBPT.mece.75000 MP.2.2..0.5 LMESH.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .3....www..Y NSOL.1 PLNSOL..FY.1000 ANTYPE.449 TBPT.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE...1.004.F..

.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.1.PRXY.1.0.0 /PREP7 K.8.0 L.2.EX.DENS.0 K.33e-10.33 MP.1.0001. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.0.0.068e11 MP. /TITLE.2.BEAM3 R.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .1.1.2 ET.1.7830 LESIZE..10 LMESH.1.Dynamic.01 MP.0.ALL.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. 3...Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS. Define Lines (0. 1. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) (1.y) 1 2 5. Open preprocessor menu 2.. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0) .

33e-10 iii.0001 ii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Young's modulus EX: 2. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 To enter the density of the material. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.01 m x 0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 8. 10. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. 6. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. > Add.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis... With only 3 degrees of freedom. 7. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties: i..068e11 ii. . Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8... and rotation about the Z axis).01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.01 m. 9. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.

1.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.33e-10.0.1.2 ET.1.0.DENS.8.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0.1.0 L.I.0 K.33 MP.1.2.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .EX.1.BEAM3 R.0.068e11 MP.0001.01 MP.2.PRXY.

.5.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .FRONT MXPAND.5 EQSLV.10 LMESH.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.2 MODOPT.ALL.10.LESIZE.1.5 DK.LIST SET.0. ..SUBSP.

10 LMESH.mece.BEAM3 R.7830 LESIZE.2.1.8.DENS.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.33e-10. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.0.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.PRXY.1.www.2 ET.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.ALL.01 MP.1.2.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.1.0 K.068e11 MP..I. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.0001.1.0 L.ualberta.EX.33 MP.0.0.

5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10.0.2 MODOPT.5 EQSLV.www.5.LIST SET.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.FRONT MXPAND.1.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.SUBSP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print. .5 DK.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.mece.

The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. These 3 methods are the Full . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. .100 Hz. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

2.10 LMESH.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .0001.. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE. NSUBST.1.100 HARFRQ.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0 K.2.0.PRXY.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.0.Y.DENS.33 MP.EX.1.0.7830 LESIZE.0 L.ALL.33e-10.8.1.2.3 DK.MERGE PRVAR.ALL FK.FY.I. However.068e11 MP.2 ET.0.2 PLVAR.1.1.2. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.01 MP. UY_2 STORE.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.100. KBC. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1.1.U.2.1.0.100.BEAM3 R..

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.100 Hz.ualberta. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . These 3 methods are the Full .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.2.ALL.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.10 LMESH.33 MP.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.01 MP. KBC.2 PLVAR.MERGE PRVAR.0.FY. UY_2 STORE.0 K.U.0001..1.0.2.100 HARFRQ.1.2.100.Y. NSUBST.ualberta.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.ALL FK.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .I.1.0 L.BEAM3 R.0.8..2 ET.mece.DENS.2.33e-10.3 DK.100.7830 LESIZE. However.1.PRXY.0. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.068e11 MP.www.2.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.1.EX.0.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. a static analysis may be used instead. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. . For our case. for example. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.

All types of non-linearities are allowed. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The smaller the time step. In other words. In ANSYS.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). However. Therefore. After the application of the load. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. . The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture.

the calculations are much quicker.0001. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.1..0.0.8.2. .2.1.. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0 K.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . However. .q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).01 MP.11. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.1.ALL.Dynamic.1. if stresses and forces are of interest than.10 LMESH.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .ALL D.BEAM3 R..7830 LESIZE.1.0.0 L.0.EX.PRXY.2 ET.1. However.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.068e11 MP.ALL F.FY.REDUC.1.1. It is the quickest of the three methods. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.0.33e-10.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DELTIM.UY. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).DENS.All.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.0 /PREP7 K..33 MP. NSEL.2. M. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. TRANS TRNOPT.S.2.

Y.2.1 KBC. In this case.'Dynamic'. ! Sets time to 0.001 KBC.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.0 !* LSSOLVE.MERGE PLVAR.2.0.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.'rdsp'.1.U. time !Please note.'.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.0 FDELE.001s TIME.' NSOL.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.3. UY_2 STORE.!At time equals 0. .2.

mece. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. a static analysis may be used instead. Copyright 2003 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case. for example. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.University of Alberta . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.http://www.

University of Alberta .mece. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. In other words. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.http://www. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The smaller the time step.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.ualberta. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. Copyright 2003 . However. Therefore. After the application of the load. In ANSYS. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure.

001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.7830 LESIZE.2. TRANS TRNOPT.0.DENS. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.2.All.0.1.BEAM3 R. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results..1. DELTIM.0.REDUC. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs)..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.FY. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.2.mece. It is the quickest of the three methods.0 /PREP7 K. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).0001. All types of non-linearities are allowed. NSEL.2 ET.. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.1.0.UY.2.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.068e11 MP.33 MP.ALL F.8.http://www.ALL D.1. M.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.ualberta. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0 K. .1.PRXY.1. However.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .University of Alberta .10 LMESH. if stresses and forces are of interest than.1. .Dynamic.33e-10.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.01 MP.1. However.0 L.11.0.S. the calculations are much quicker.EX.1.

001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.1.1 KBC. Copyright 2003 .'.2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.0 FDELE.'Dynamic'. time !Please note.html !At time equals 0.http://www. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.0 !* LSSOLVE.' NSOL.3.U.Y.University of Alberta . UY_2 STORE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.ualberta.2. ! Sets time to 0.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. In this case.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001s TIME.2.2.MERGE PLVAR.0.mece.'rdsp'.001 KBC.

0.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. then width and height . ANSYS Command Listing /title. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.0. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.one corner.length.0 blc4.

ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL NSEL.TEMP.TEMP.TEMP.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0 D..ALL. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .X.0.A.MP.10 ESIZE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.100 NSEL.KXX.0 NSEL.LOC.length NSEL.A.height D.S.Y.1.length/20 AMESH.S.LOC.Y.LOC.500 NSEL.

ualberta. PLANE55 MP. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 height=1.length. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.h. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. ANSYS Command Listing /title.10 ESIZE.one corner.www.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.0.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..mece. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.length/20 AMESH.KXX.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.0 blc4.0.

0 D.X.Y. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .S.A.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..www.TEMP.LOC.LOC.0 NSEL.Y.h.height D.ualberta.X.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0.ALL.length NSEL.mece.TEMP.100 NSEL.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.A..TEMP.500 NSEL.LOC.ALL NSEL..S.

0 height=1. then width and height .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0 blc4.Thermal .0. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0.1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX. PLANE55 MP.0 to solve simple thermal examples.length.1.one corner.

0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.1 TYPE.10.S.CONV.Y.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 SF.LOC.Y.X.length SF.1 ESIZE.TEMP.S.500 NSEL.LOC.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.100 NSEL.0 NSEL.ALL.ALL.MAT.ALL NSEL.ALL.CONV.X.ALL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.TEMP.0.LOC.TEMP.0 D.100 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .height D.S.length/20 AMESH.S..LOC.

http://www.mece.length.one corner.html Thermal .University of Alberta .0 height=1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. PLANE55 MP.1.0.0 blc4. then width and height Copyright 2003 . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 to solve simple thermal examples.1 ESIZE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.10 MAT. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX.ualberta.1 TYPE.

0.TEMP.mece.S..0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.http://www.ALL NSEL.500 NSEL.ALL.100 NSEL.10.0 NSEL.LOC.University of Alberta .X.S.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.S.ALL.ALL.0 D.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.length SF.S.0 SF.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.height D.TEMP.CONV.html AMESH.CONV.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.LOC.X.ualberta.Y. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .Y.TEMP.100 NSEL.

It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . Also. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.040 kJ/kg*K.

.ALL.kxx.5.0 height=1.TEMP.4 time.ALL NSEL.all kbc.c.100.300 nropt.2.0.0 blc4.Y.all. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.ALL IC.100 NSEL.0 nsubst.Y. PLANE55 MP.length=1. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .0.8.100 autots.S.height D.1.0 D.20 neqit.920 mp.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.1.0.040 mp.one corner.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Dens..1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.full lumpm.5 ESIZE.on outres.length.Temp.TEMP ANTIME.LOC.500 PLNSOL.500 ! area .0.0.1.TEMP.off lnsrch.LOC.ALL.05 AMESH.all.500 NSEL.1.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.s.2.20.

height ! area .html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Also. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.length.0.0 height=1. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.one corner.www. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .040 kJ/kg*K.0.ualberta.0 blc4.

1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.040 mp.0.all.2.300 nropt.8.5 ESIZE.Temp.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0.kxx.1.20.500 NSEL.5.mece.4 time.Y.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.ALL IC..LOC.off lnsrch.100 NSEL.05 AMESH.1.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.www.TEMP.ALL.20 neqit.all. PLANE55 MP.full lumpm.LOC.s.TEMP ANTIME.ALL NSEL.0.100.100 autots.0 D..c.500 PLNSOL.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.Y.Dens.ualberta.height D.S.TEMP.920 mp. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all kbc.ALL.on outres.2.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.0 nsubst.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.

The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. As a warning. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. In this case.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. .

loc.loc.all fk.1.0.20.0..uy.1 mp.100 aadd.s.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.y.1. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.3.plane2 keyopt.all.off rectng.20.12.ex.all nsel.all.1.loc.0.20.s.45.55 prnsol.0.prxy.15.2 amesh.3 esize.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.s.95.0 lsel.1.1.0.200000 mp.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .0 dl.fy.-100 fk.all finish /solu antype.5 rectng.s.x.100 rectng.50 d.y.fy.symm lsel.0 nsel.all et.

axis.nsel..1..10 /view.2.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .all /expand.27.1.

The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ualberta.www.mece.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.. In this case.. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. As a warning. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..

1.all et.3 esize.27.15.s.ualberta.0 nsel.uy.all nsel.y.5 rectng.0.axis.1.0.2.1.1.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2 amesh.mece.plane2 keyopt.0.20.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.s.200000 mp.45.1.ex.prxy.-100 fk.12...50 d.fy.loc..www.20.0.all finish /solu antype.1.100 rectng.fy..all.symm lsel.10 /view.1 mp.all fk.x.0 lsel.0 dl..20.loc.0.100 solve finish /post1 nsel..s. /prep7 /triad.3.loc.y.1.comp nsel.all /expand.100 aadd.95.55 prnsol.all.s.off rectng.

and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.1. a wall thickness of 10. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.7.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. ANSYS Command Listing .

40.1000 N. 500 N. 9.13 E.PIPE16 ET. 0 N. 0.COMBIN7 ET. 3 E.12. 0.1e9. 8 E. 7.10 R.1.1. 0.1000. 0. 6. 0.11. MP. 8 E.12.1000. 1. 1.1000 N.1000. 4 E.10.-500 TYPE. 9. 7. . 2. 500 N.1000 N. 400. 0. 0. 0 N. 0. 0.1e9.1. 6 E.3.COMBIN14 R. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 5 E. 500 N. 2. 3. 4. 700.1. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 0 N.10.1000. 0. 0.3. 0. .1500 N.1 REAL. 5.1 E. 5 E. 8. 0. 0. 5.PRXY. 4 E.200000 MP./title.12. 6 E. 700.13.1 MAT.1000 N. 0.5.2. 0. 0 N. 2.33 N. 400.2. 1. 3.EX.13. 0. 6.1e9 R. 3 E. 8 E. 0.0.

8 E. 11 E.KP.8.6 /PNUM.12.3 REAL.4.13 F.2 *GET.13 ! Load node 7 . 1.0.3 E.ALL..7.U. 11 TYPE.0 /PNUM.7..4.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.VERT7.3. 2.FY.2 REAL.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.NODE.2 E.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3. 10.0 NLGEOM. 9.5 D.ON NSUBST.TYPE.ELEM.12.5.

1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.40. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.COMBIN14 R.3. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.www. Catapult /PREP7 ET.mece.PIPE16 ET.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .COMBIN7 ET. ANSYS Command Listing /title.7. a wall thickness of 10.2.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.

EX.13 E.12.8. 5. 0.PRXY.10. 2. 2.1000.1e9. 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 0. 0. 10.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 E. 1. 4.0. 8 E. 500 N. 0. 5 E. 7. . 0 N.13.KP. 9.8 E. 8. . 0.11. 700.1 REAL.mece.www. 400. 11 E.1000. 0. 0. 8 E.1000 N.12. 3 E. 0. 3 E. 0. 8 E.1000 N. 5.33 N.1000 N. 3. 0. MP.6 /PNUM.2 REAL.1 MAT.1000 N. 0 N. 11 TYPE. 4 E.html R.ELEM.13.200000 MP.0 /PNUM. 0.5.-500 TYPE. 700. 9.3 REAL. 0. 3. 0 N.5. 2.1.10. 6 E.1. 0. 6.0 NLGEOM. 0. 1.2 E. 6 E.1000. 500 N.ualberta. 400.1e9. 1.1e9 R. 6. 2. 4 TYPE.2.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1000.3 E. 0. 9. 0 N. 0.3.1500 N. 4 E. 7. 0. 1. 5 E. 500 N.12.

www.3.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.4.ualberta.FY.12..Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.13 F.mece.7..5 D.2 *GET.html NSUBST.12.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.VERT7.NODE.4.U.

1.20 *set.W.2. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.1.RATI.75.LINE.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.PRXY.200000 MP.0.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. height MP.1000. not '^').2 HPTCREATE.100 LMESH.W*H.1. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line . The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial..0.20 K. However.. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. Design Optimization *set..0 L. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.0 K. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.3 ESIZE.I (note '**'.H.EX. deciding which variables to use as design.1.H.1.(W*H**3)/12.BEAM3 R. ET. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.1.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.

optimize.0 DK.10.001 MPa..SMAX_I.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.2.50.SMAX_I.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.0.3 node ESORT.200.001 mm.1.EVOLUME ETABLE.UX.NMISC..'txt'.FIRS OPFRST. tolerance 0.0.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.ETAB.SORT.txt ! Assign optimize.SV. SSUM *GET.X. ! Height state variable.100.0.UY. tolerance 0. *GET.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.W.0.2. max 50 ! Width design variable.001 tolerance 0.SMAX_J.30.W /AXLAB.SMAXI.H.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. min 195 MPa.1.SORT..0.SMAXJ. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.ANTYPE.MAX ETABLE.SSUM.NMISC.H.0.txt.EVolume.Y.1. *GET.ETAB.VOLUME.SMAX.MAX *SET. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT..SMAX_J..'optimize'.001mm OPVAR. Percent step size. min 10 mm.1.0 FK.DV.50.001 MPa OPVAR.ITEM.3.200 OPTYPE.VOLU.1 node ESORT. max 200 ! Volume as object variable..SMAX. max 50 mm.0 DK. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .0 DK.DV.195.FY..'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.001mm OPVAR.UY.OBJ.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.Volume.10. min 10 mm.

state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. not '^'). Design Optimization *set.H..RATI..PRXY.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.1.75..1.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.ualberta. MP. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . However.0.mece.EX.0 K.1.1.LINE. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.0 L.1000.1. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.20 K.BEAM3 R.1.www. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.200000 MP.2 HPTCREATE.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .H. deciding which variables to use as design.. ET.W*H. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.20 *set. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.I (note '**'.1.(W*H**3)/12. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.W.2..

MAX ETABLE.. min 195 MPa. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.001 OPVAR.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.. min 10 mm.001 OPVAR.VOLUME. ESIZE.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .UY.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.VOLU.SSUM.2.ualberta.0..195.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.SV. to Width design variable.3.1.DV.SMAX_I.X.1.DV.W. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .'txt'.30.200.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 FK.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.FY.0. Percent step size..0. max 50 mm.OBJ.SORT..10.. Volume as object variable.0.SMAX.UX.mece..ETAB.SMAXJ. SSUM *GET.ITEM.200 OPTYPE.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.0. tol Height state variable.SORT.SMAX_I.100 LMESH.www. *GET.3 ESORT. max 50 mm.SMAX_J.'optimize'.optimize..H.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.txt.0 DK.SMAX..100.SMAXI.1.ETAB.EVOLUME ETABLE.NMISC. min 10 mm.0 DK.1 ESORT. *GET. max 200 MPa.001 OPVAR.SMAX_J..MAX *SET.FIRS OPFRST.Volume.50.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.10.50.txt ! Assign optimize.W /AXLAB.UY.2.1.H.0 DK.Y. OPEXE PLVAROPT.NMISC.0.EVolume.

Apply remaining loads to the model.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.5 MPa. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. For this example. 3.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). ANSYS Command Listing . A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. v = 0. however. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

140 NSEL.SUBST SEOPT.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.1.1.S.40.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .ALL.2.100.PLANE42 TYPE.ALL NSEL.X.2 MP.5 NSEL.0 F.PRXY.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRXY.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.EXT M.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.LOC.FX.S. 2. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.PLANE42 ! Element type MP..100.2.R.5 MP.EX.0.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.ALL NSEL.Y.GEN.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.10.1. amesh.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon . START /FILNAME.EX.ALL.LOC.db ! GEN.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.0.0.2 NSEL.2.0.1.

0.40 CPINTF.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.MAX SETRAN. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.ON.2 real.2 amesh..SUM.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP..! Meshing AESIZE.1 SFE.LOC. superelement solution written to GEN.NODE.MaxNode.ALL.1.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.U.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .1.ALL..STATIC NSEL.0.Y.1.S.MaxNode.U.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.1 *GET.1 ! Superelement ET.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL ESEL.ALL NSEL.SUM.NUM. mat.MATRIX50 TYPE.GEN2 SE.S.0 D.GEN2 NSEL.S.Y.0 NSEL.SELV.1.GEN2.GEN.1 ESEL..LOC.TYPE.10.1.

29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. For this example.. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.mece.www. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Apply remaining loads to the model.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. 3. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.ualberta. Apply loads to the super-element 2. substructuring will be used for the wood block. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. v = 0. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.5 MPa. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. however..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.

www.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.2 NSEL.SUBST SEOPT...Y.LOC.0.1.ALL.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.0 F.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.PRXY.ALL NSEL.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.0.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.FX. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.40.X.EXT M. amesh.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.mece.0. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.100. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.1..10.ALL.5 NSEL.1.EX.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET. START /FILNAME.100.db ! GEN.1.PLANE42 TYPE.ualberta.LOC.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).GEN.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.R.ALL NSEL.S.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.2.140 NSEL.

2 amesh.SUM..41 ! Meshing AESIZE. 2.ALL.SUM.TYPE.mece.2. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..1 ! Superelement ET.U.0 NSEL.MaxNode.ON.10.0.GEN2.. MP.LOC.EX.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.1 SFE.USE EXPSOL.GEN.GEN2 SE.SELV.MATRIX50 TYPE..5 MP.S.Y.1.0.PRXY.STATIC NSEL.GEN2 NSEL. mat.NODE.1.2 real.1.ALL NSEL.40 CPINTF.www.1.0 D.NUM..ALL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.0.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.1 ESEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 *GET.ALL.MAX SETRAN.S..YES SEEXP.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.ALL ESEL.ualberta.U.2.Y. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.MaxNode.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.S.

For convenience. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . where the thermal effects will be applied. For a listing. a thermal conductivity of 60. For our case. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. . For instance. Loads will not be applied to the link. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. the analyses are coupled. with no internal stresses. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the link will attemp to expand. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. stress is created in the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.. However. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. A steel link.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. and using it with any following coupled environments. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. the geometry is kept constant. the element types can change. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. It is important to note. However. and write them to memory.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Although the geometry must remain constant. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K)." Thus. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.

struct ldread.temp.0 dk..read..2. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.CompStress.200e9 mp.alpx.read.0 l.0..thermal dk.write.1.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.12e-6 physics.rth environment tref.2.0 k..1.1.60.4e-4.0.all physics.0 solve finish /post1 etable.1.kxx.struct physics.UX.clear finish /solu antype.5 esize.write.1.tts mp.all.1.1 lmesh.1.1.3 mp.temp.ex..0.273 dk. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.LS.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress . mp.thermal physics.link33 r.1.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.0 physics.2 et.prxy.1.analysis.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K)..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. with no internal stresses. where the thermal effects will be applied.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.mece. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. For our case. the link will attemp to expand. A steel link. the geometry is kept constant. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. However.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. and using it with any following coupled environments.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the analyses are coupled. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. However. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. stress is created in the link. a thermal conductivity of 60.ualberta.www." Thus. Loads will not be applied to the link. For convenience. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. .

For instance.struct ldread.read.1. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.4e-4.348 solve finish /solu physics.0. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments..struct physics.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..1.0 physics.ualberta.1.0 k.5 esize.all.kxx.thermal physics.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.2 et.prxy.3 mp.temp.write.clear etchg. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.html Although the geometry must remain constant.ex.clear finish /solu antype.1. and write them to memory.1.1.link33 r.1.1.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .temp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .alpx.60.273 dk.0.tts mp..1.2.1 lmesh.read.12e-6 physics.200e9 mp.write.thermal dk. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. mp.0 dk. For a listing.2.1. the element types can change.0 l.all physics. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.rth tref.. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.mece.. It is important to note.1.UX.www.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.LS.ualberta.www.html solve finish /post1 etable.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .CompStress.1 PRETAB.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. . By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum.

80.0 k.2.all lsel.100.5.6.3.20.100 k.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .10.11.55.0 nsubst.0.45.20.0 k.7.5 amesh.100.100.all.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.48 k.0 k.52 k.3.loc.s.1.10 mp.1 lsel.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.100 k.ex.4.s.1.3 r.52 k.x. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .1.48 k.1.all finish /solu antype.9.11.9.1.8.100 k.10.3 esize.0.20.all time.prxy.plane145 keyopt.x.20 outres.1.12.all lsel.5.0.55.12 et.4.on /prep7 k.200000 mp.80.1.8.0 dl.100 k.45.2.all.3.7.0 a.6..loc.

all solve finish /post1 set.pres.-100 lsel.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .last plesol.sfl.all.s.

www. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. rather than increasing mesh density. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Thus.mece.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ualberta. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

all time.5.100 sfl.6.48 k.0 k.7.3.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.100 k.1.all finish /solu antype.0 k.2.3.ex.80.ualberta.80.10.all lsel.plane145 keyopt.52 k.html /prep7 k.100.1.100 k.mece.8.8.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .100 k.4.last plesol.3 r.9.loc.55.www.loc.pres.3.4.s.0 dl.0.1.6.0.x.prxy..12 et.0 k.12.5.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.20.7.s.all. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 nsubst.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10.45.all lsel.45.48 k.1 lsel.11.x.0 a.1.0.2.s.all.all solve finish /post1 set.1.52 k.200000 mp.100.10 mp.5 amesh.all.-100 lsel.1.20.1.100.3 esize.20.9.100 k.20 outres.55.11.

0.0 k.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.1.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor .03.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.03. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0 k. Thus.3. rather than increasing mesh density.2.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.

1 IC..4.1.all esel.10.last etable.full lumpm.s.on outres.920 mp.1. esel. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .all.ext sf.temp.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .2.off solve finish /post1 set.20 neqit.c. 20 Max no.0 nsubst.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.3. not ramped ! Initial conditions.melty.s.all finish /solu antype.0.8 esize.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.kxx.0.conv.4 time.100 autots.0.rest ekill.368 nsel.Plane55 MP.Dens.2040 mp.60 nropt.1.all kbc.all.all /gst.03 a.off lnsrch.all.273 finish /solu antype.etab.k.268 nsel.1.melty.1.0005 amesh.1.temp. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.

s.last esel.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ./post1 set.live plnsol.

0 k. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0.0.2. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.03.4.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.03 a.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.0.www.0 k. Thus. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0.03 k.3.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.2. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. rather than increasing mesh density. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.1.ualberta.3. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.03.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.1.

live plnsol.on outres.all kbc. esel.melty.1.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.60 nropt.off lnsrch.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.all.8 esize.temp.1.0 nsubst.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.etab.last esel.all finish /solu antype.1. 20 Max no.4 time.all finish /post1 set.20 neqit.368 nsel.conv.Plane55 MP.off solve finish /post1 set.full lumpm.c..1.0005 amesh.all esel.rest ekill.1.s.kxx.mece.268 nsel.2040 mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.melty.last etable.Dens.s.all /gst.1 IC. not ramped ! Initial conditions.www.ualberta.temp. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all.920 mp.ext sf.0.10.s.all.273 finish /solu antype.100 autots.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

FY.1 /TYPE.EQV.X.0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0 ASEL.Z.SUM.LOC.LOC.1.Length KSEL.0.All.1.2 ! Animate the slices .0.14.S.LOC.R.Y.05.5.All.Width/2.43.0./SOLU ANTYPE.0 WPOFFS.LOC.1.0 ASEL.U.0 WPROTA.1.0.0 DA.1 /TYPE.ALL.8 WPCSYS.5 PLNSOL.R.0.Width FK.-1.0.S.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.1 WPOFFS.S.0.90 /CPLANE.-2500 KSEL.0.Height KSEL.Z.0.0.ALL KSEL.7.

Height.0.1 /REPLOT.mece.1. etc. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.60.EX.20 vmesh.1.1.ualberta.0.Width.Length /ANGLE.SOLID45 MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .000000. Stress.3 esize.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print. 1 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.FAST ET.) of the following example.YS.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.PRXY.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.200000 MP.

1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.Length KSEL.1 /TYPE.ualberta.S.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 /TYPE.5.0 WPOFFS.0.0 ASEL.EQV.0.LOC.1.0.1.0.LOC.U.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.ALL.X.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.S.R.Y.Height KSEL.0.0.8 WPCSYS.ALL KSEL.05.90 /CPLANE.All.SUM.0.43.All.1.0.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.-1.5 PLNSOL.Width/2.S.1 WPOFFS.7.www.0.FY.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.-2500 KSEL.mece.Z.0 DA.1.0 ASEL.LOC.R.Width FK.0 WPROTA.14.Z.

10 asba.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.150.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0.all .100. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.50. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0.100 cyl4.200. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.10 cyl4. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. In this tutorial. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.50.1.50.10 cyl4. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. For example.50. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.

200.2.2.ex.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.200000 mp.all PLPAGM.loc..et.s.SEQV.1..0 dl.AVG nsel.50 ppath.50 path.s..all.200.1.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.top /POST1 PLNSOL.PRES.cutline.prxy.100 SFL.2.y.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.10 mp.S.1.y.0.1.50 PDEF.5 amesh.3 esize.loc.1 /window.3 R.all.all nsel.2.plane2.S.loc.1000 ppath.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .1.off /noerase /window.1.s.y.eqv...1.eqv...0.bot nsel.

mece. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. For example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.www. In this tutorial. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta ...200.

150.50.y..1..plane2.prxy.off /noerase /window.s.200..10 cyl4.50 ppath.1.cutline.1000 ppath.top /POST1 PLNSOL.200.2.2.S.200000 mp.10 cyl4.0..all.5 amesh.10 mp.2.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.bot nsel.all nsel.all PLPAGM..mece.100 SFL.ualberta.www.1.50.PRES.100.eqv.0 dl.50.1.1.ex.10 asba.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.50 path.all.S.3 R. cyl4.loc.y.eqv.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.1.all et.s.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .AVG nsel..1.2..loc..SEQV.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .y.50.0.1.50 PDEF.s.loc..1 /window.3 esize.

Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry . Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.2 esize.0.2400.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1. finer resolution can be achieved.1. a special type of array.prxy. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.ex. By plotting this data on a curve. Length of the following beam using tables.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.40 mp.beam3 r.length.0 k.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0 l. rather than using a contour plot.1.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.2.200000 mp.320e3.3 k. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.1.1.I.1.elementsize lmesh.

u. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .rows.fy.y *set.graph(1. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.x.0 *set.1).node.1).Length /axlab.2) /axlab.TABLE.2).2.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.y *vplot. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.y.graph(1.graph(1.graph(rows.2.2.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.antype.x *vget.2).0 400 *vget.graph(rows.1).1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.graph(2.x *vget.loc.u.node.2).node.graph(2.node.all fk.static dk.all.graph.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.1.2.loc.1).2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.graph(1.all.

200000 mp.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. By plotting this data on a curve.0.1.1..0 k.1.beam3 r. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.mece.ualberta.I.2400.320e3.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2 esize.prxy. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.. Length of the following beam using tables.40 mp.2.www. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3 k.length.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. finer resolution can be achieved. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. rather than using a contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. a special type of array.ex.0 l.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.0.h. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.

y.2) /axlab.u.1).node.fy.y *set.h. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.graph(rows. lmesh.2).-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.graph(1.x *vget.2).mece.graph(2.Length /axlab.all.graph(1.1). there are 21 nodes in the mesh.static dk.2).rows.node.x *vget.loc.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.2.all fk.1).1.graph(rows.all finish /solu antype.loc.1).2.node..2..x.y *vplot.1 *vget.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.graph(2.www.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.graph.graph(1.2.u.graph(1.0 *vget.TABLE.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.0 *set.node.