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# UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Prompting the user for parameters. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. . performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 2.e. Preprocessing: defining the problem. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. constraints and solving. 1D. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. 3D). heat transfer and fluid problems. 1. 3. Solution: assigning loads. In general. 2D. axi-symmetric.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

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be sure that your local drive has space for it. you should see something labeled X-Win32. do this. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab... Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. If you don't see this minimized program. . as it automatically starts this application when booting. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Windows NT application 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. you can may want to reboot the computer.

q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window. don't select this icon. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. but rather.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. .

Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. 1.7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. selections.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. graphic controls and parameters. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. such as file controls.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. .0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.

solution. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. such as listing of data etc. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. e.0. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands.b. 2. while the versions appear different. c. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. . More push buttons can be added if desired. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. general postprocessor. organized by preprocessor. design optimizer. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. However. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. d. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. the menu structure has not changed.

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This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. typically in less than 50 lines of commands.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. The second is by means of command files. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. however. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many.

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When point loads are used. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined.e.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. General Models . In general there are no real firm answers on this. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. If the results differ by a large amount however. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. For simple models it is of no concern. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. If the results are nearly similar.. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. loading and constraints. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i.. but for a larger model. it will only slow the calculations down. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member.

so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. In a solid mechanics problem. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. . In general. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. for example.In general however.

..db . and select your job from the list that appears. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. you will at least be able to come back to this point.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. if you make some mistakes later on. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. r In the ANSYS Launcher. To save your model. ANSYS Inc.. Using the Launcher... start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. r Then when you get ANSYS started. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point.db. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. Or. There are two methods to do this: 1. select Interactive. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. solution. and specify the previously defined jobname. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. etc) that you previously saved.db. 2. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . loads. In that way..

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log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). Frame again with various extensions: frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. from another ANSYS run.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). If you plan on using ANSYS command files. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. other files may have been written. If you specified a jobname. This file stores the geometry. boundary conditions and any solutions. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). then you only require the . frame. boundary conditions and any solutions. frame. etc.db file.* where the * represents various extensions described below. say Frame. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. q If you will always be using the GUI..dbb Backup of the database file (binary). Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. Depending on the operations carried out. or move things from the /scratch directory. frame. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. starting with an existing log file. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS.err Error file (text). These files may contain results. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. etc. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. Listing of all error and warning messages.. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . frame.db Database file (binary). That file may be rerun as is. and the jobname has been specified. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. the name of all the files created will be FILE. Once the ANSYS has started. then the created files will all have the file prefix. This file stores the geometry.

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You can pick multiple items. Select 'Elem Table Data'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu.'. Select 'File'/'Save As. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. and choose what you want to list from the menu..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. 'Monochrome'. 'Reverse Video'. choose 'List Results'. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. 2. However. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. In the window that appears. 3. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. to get displacements. 1.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'... 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy ..0 Better Quality Plots .' and give a file name to store the results. Then enter the file name of your choice. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. 1. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. while the second is a scalable vector plot.

pic if your plot file is 'plots.. Display wants 'plots. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.n where n is plot number. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. Type in a filename (e. Either way. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.. To save some plots to a file.: frame. or HPGL for example.frame.pic' (with a period).pic'. To do this. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. Decrease the size of this window. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. This is performed by running a separate program called display. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. you have a couple of options: 1. a large graphics window will appear. Note that although the file is 'plots. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. Load your plot file with the following command: file. Now that the plots have been read in. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2.'.g.. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . then n could be any number from 1 to 5. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible.pic'(with a comma).pic) in the 'Selection' Window. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot.. but rather they will be written to the selected file. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.

n where n is the plot number. the postscript image will appear as blank box. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.grph. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. you only require the plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.color.1. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.n command as the other options have now been set. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.color. The printer information is still present. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. The printer information is still present. i.pscr plot. issue the following commands: /show.2 /show. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. where xx is a number.3 /show. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. as above. overheads or even posters! 2.e. . besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways.pscr plot.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. starting at 00. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. To do this.hpgl plot. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. the postscript image will appear as blank box. you set the postscript color option to '3'. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. For subsequent plots. 3. enter the following commands in display: pscr.

A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.hpgl' extension. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. In a similar way. exit display by entering finish .You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. holes. analysis types will not be covered. by suppressing them in Pro/E.W. you will want to leave it. etc. many modeling options for constraints. Step 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model.. mesh control. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. Of course. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. Also. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. loads. chamfers. if the feature is critical to your design. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.

The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. For this model. Several edges are rounded. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Model units are inches. . as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. So. the plate and the loading hole are removed.

loads. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. We proceed in a topdown manner. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. surface regions. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. . check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. Basically. curves. and so on. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. This is where we specify modeling information. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. idealizations). select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using.Step 2.

Prescribed. all we need are constraints. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. Select Surface. For beams and shells. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). only one set can be included. and surfaces). Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). but this can contain numerous individual constraints. edges. loads. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model).Defining Constraints For our simple model. . Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. Y. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. rotational constraints are active if specified. and a specified material. and Function of Coordinates). A dialog window opens as shown above. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. For our solid model. Fixed. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. and Z. In the final computed model. For each direction X. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window.

The load should be . and select the OK button. Note these are relative to the WCS. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. another might contain the support forces. Enter the force components at the bottom. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. For example. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Then select OK. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. These can be solved at the same time. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. another a temperature load. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. Loads are also organized into named load sets.For our model. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings.

If you select the Edit button. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. At this point. you could now assign this material to individual parts. you will see the properties of the chosen material. loads. Step 3.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. In an assembly. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. material). Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. In the STRC MODEL menu. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button.

Now select OK. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Select the type (Structural or Modal). Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. The MEC STRUCT window. like "ansystest". Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. Enter a short description.Specify a name for the analysis. . Step 4. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum.

you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. evaluated for the model. Here is an image of the default mesh. shown in wire frame. Select Close. .This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. The results are indicated in columns on the right. by selecting the Check button at the bottom.

maximum mesh size. For example. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. you can select the Controls option. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. and so on. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. This will allow you to select points. . setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. edges.

materials.Step 5. select Run . Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. mesh). loads. In the MEC STRUCT menu.

The analysis we defined (containing constraints. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . select ANSYS.ans). In the Analysis list.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. and material) is listed. We are now finished with Pro/E. Select OK and read the message window. . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. Copy the . loads. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. mesh. select Structural.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS.

Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements.. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Select the . Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood .. Step 7. and select Apply.Step 6.ans file you created previously. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. This will read in the entire model. you will be informed that the solution is complete. Step 8. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left.

p. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. A = 3250mm2).123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. reaction forces. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.

r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . these keypoints are the ends of each truss. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. For this example. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. Note: to get the title to appear immediately.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'.

click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. and enter the x. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.y coordinates: 0. If you first press r . Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. Note: When entering the final data point.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).

The following window will then appear: . volumes. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. thus making any conversions where necessary. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. elements. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. 3. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. lines. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. areas.

When you're done.e. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. Left click and a permanent line will appear. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. click on it). r r r . A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu.

they have most likely NOT been deleted. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. However. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. The following window will then appear: . This is called 'meshing'.

The following window will appear: r For this example. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.' button. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: .r Click on the 'Add. r 5...

. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. Click on 'OK'.r In the Preprocessor menu.. . select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner.0'. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . 7. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.

For this example we want only 1 division per line. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r In the size 'NDIV' field. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. therefore. enter the desired number of divisions per line. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. 8. we have simply defined the element sizes.

. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. keypoint numbers...Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. node numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q ..

Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Select the name and location where you want to save your file. so if you make some mistakes later on. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. you will at least be able to come back to this point... Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. 1.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.. To do this. Define Analysis Type .

First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. i. pinned and roller-type connections. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. Click 'OK'. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. for example. these constraints will typically be fixed. In mechanical structures. r 2. r In the Solution menu. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . As shown above. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection.e.

Therefore.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. . select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. ROT on KPs' window.

there are four downward loads of 280kN. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. 3. 3. and 360kN at keypoints 1. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. and 7 respectively. 280kN.ROT on KPs" window. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. 210kN. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). .You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. this is consistent with the previous values input. Note that we are using units of N here. r Using the same method. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Therefore. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. 5. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option.

4. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. .

. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'.r The above windows will appear. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.

r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. .These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. The following window will appear.

One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. The following window will appear. .409).

r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. Click 'OK'. Leave the other selections as the default values. .

. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. you may want to use more useful intervals. r .r Looking at the scale.. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.

You should obtain the following. .

This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. .

therefore. beams.' r . while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. From Table 1. spars. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. using the item 'LS. The Element Table is different for each element. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. If you wanted to save these results to a file. strains).1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line).2 in the Help file.

r As shown above. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .'. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS.. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. in the 'Item.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Then enter 1 after LS. Next. Comp' boxes.. . Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .

you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. In the dialog box that appears.. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit. A . Open the .HTML version.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82.9MPa as predicted analytically. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.. .' and select the file.

0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . ANSYS Inc. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.The first step is to simplify the problem. scale factors. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. units. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. etc.

.. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line.e. r r r 4. r From the Preprocessor Menu. The following window will appear: r . Now pick keypoint #2. Pick keypoint #1 (i. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. Click on the 'Add. Click on the 'Options. The following window will appear: r r For this example.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. When you're done. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window.' button. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. click on it). A permanent line will appear. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.

r 5.. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. .r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom).. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Click on 'OK'. This gives us extra force and moment output.

Saving Your Work . r r r 7. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. (Alternatively.. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. However. therefore. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field.r Click on 'OK'. we have simply defined the element sizes.. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. For an element length of 2cm. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. enter the desired element length. enter '20' (i. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. r 6. 8.

Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.. r 2. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. r r 3. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'.. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. . select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Select the name and location where you want to save your file.Utility Menu > File > Save as. Therefore.ROT on KPs' window. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.4. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find.2mm as shown above. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. Hand Calculations Now. .

9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). In this menu you will find a variety of options.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. r r . Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. 2. Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. Leave the other selections as the default values. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Click 'OK'.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. r . Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'.

.. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. r .r You may want to have a more useful scale. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'.

. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.. the right end of the rod. spars.r Are these results what you expected? Again. If you wanted to save these results to a file. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. Click on 'Add. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2.. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses..' r . strains). use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX..Comp' boxes in the above window. in the 'Item.r As shown above. .

select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. as shown in the following image. .914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. I and J. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. a bending moment diagram can be created. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64.Again. First. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model.

again. .6 in the second Comp box E.this will give a name to the data B. Enter SMISC. this will give a name to the data B.. r In the window. First. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. Click 'Add.. r Again. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' .. Same as above . A.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D.'. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. click 'Add. the Element Table must be used. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. A. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' ..To obtain the bending moment for this element..

For step D. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Same as above D. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI.. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. .C..12 in the second Comp box E. enter SMISC. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. Click 'OK'. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu.

r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). PIPE16 Item. you can double check these solutions analytically. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. Sequence Numbers. Table 1. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. r Before the explanation of the above steps.Now.

!* MP.1.2 !* ET. x. 0.0.500.0.ALL FK.EX.PRXY. all of the lines. Material 1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. /PREP7 K. . Wall thickness ! Material Properties. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.2.1.FY. L.ALL. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.6.70000 MP.2. y. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.1 !* R.25. Copy the following code into the command line.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. Major Poisson's Ratio. Material 1. Outside Diameter. y.1. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Material 1.0.1.0. then hit enter. 2.0. 1. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.20 LMESH.PIPE16 KEYOPT.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ . therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.0. x. K.0.1.0 !* DK. z Keypoint.2. Young's Modulus. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.the Member moment for node I.0.1.1. .33 !* LESIZE.1.

/STATUS. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code.

The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Alternatively. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . these keypoints are the frame vertices. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.2. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. Notice that by using variables like this. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. First. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary.

The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. y=y2. type help k into the command line For example.y1. simply re-enter the code. to enter the first keypoint type: K.0 into the command line followed by Enter. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.0.1.# . coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.y2.follows: K. Z where. However. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. #. As with any programming language. you may need to add comments.for the second keypoint you might type: K. ie .2. Y. X. x=0. NPT. Reference number for the keypoint.0 r ! keypoint.0.

Zoom. In this example. translating and rotating it on all three axes.. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . or close it if your screen is already cluttered. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. To define keypoint #1.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). s 6.. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. Try experimenting with them. Rotate. You can either leave the 'Pan.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Zoom. y = 325. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. To get an isometric view. for example. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. This was simply used for convenience. z = 0. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. you have many controls. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. 5.

check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. I would write: ' L. Keypoint at the end of line For example. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. we will use the command line to create the lines. Again. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. P1.1. to obtain the first line. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . P2 Line. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.

if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. LAB. define the type of element (pipe16). As in the verification model. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. C0 25 2 . (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open .7. MAT. we will again use the command line. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. 8.

Lab3.Material Property. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. Apply Constraints Once again. DOF label. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. VALUE. Lab.Valid material property label.1.PRXY. Lab2. Material Reference Number. KPOI. type: ' MP. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. VALUE2.. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. 1. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.0. KEXPND. Lab6 Displacement on K. For example. Mesh Size As in the verification model. value2.33 ' r 10. Lab4. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). we will use the command line.. DK. Expansion key. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. type ' MP.. value.. Lab5.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY).1. > Static 2. to pin the .EX. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. K #.

value2 (if req'd) ..1.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.5. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. value1.UY. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. value2 Force loads at keypoints.0. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty.UY. UZ. K #.UX. Again. FZ).UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. FY.. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same.UY and UZ). UX is not constrained. the command line code is: DK.0. Force Label directions (FX. K. KPOI. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .1.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. FK.first keypoint enter: DK. UY. Lab. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.. value.

.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST).3. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. the code should look like this: ' FK. 'Def + undef edge' . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing. K.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3.FY.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.3.. If you need to delete one of the forces. 4.

'Left'. 'Back'. Your screen should look like the plot below: . etc depend on how the object was first defined). Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined.

r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Turn everything else off. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.')... Note the node numbers of interest.. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.. so we know what node(s) we're after.2. and turn on 'Node numbers'. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.

the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed.. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.' from the 'List Results' menu. 4. Then close the 'List Results' menu. . Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. For each element in the model.. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table ..r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Click on 'OK'.. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. 3.

select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.12) And... Plot Results > Line Elem Res.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again.6 and SMISC. to plot the data from the Element Table . Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.. Select Element Table > Define Table.. the bending moment diagram can be produced. to define the table (remember SMISC.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. In the dialog box that appears.' and select the file..'. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.. click on 'Save .. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. Open the . A .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

ANSYS Inc. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. plane stress. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. and uniform pressure loading. A figure of the plate is shown below.

scale factors. units.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . etc.

These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. a. Subtraction will used to create this model. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. however.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners .

0.s Fill in the window as shown above.100) b. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.0.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.200.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.100.0. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .

0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. (Alternatively. your image should resemble the following: .20 ) c.50.100. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.s Fill in the window as shown above.50. Prior to this operation. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.

from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. s .

2) . Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.1.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.

.' button. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. For this example. therefore Click on the 'Options. r . we need a plane stress element with thickness. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. Click and hold the K3 button.. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. four-node element (PLANE42). as shown in the above figure. as shown below.3.

the command line code for the above step is MP.1. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.200000 followed by MP. the command line code for the above step is ET.PRXY.0.3) 4.3 (Alternatively.3.(Alternatively. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. the command line code for the above step is R. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.1.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.EX.1.3) 6.20) 5. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1.

Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r Select an element edge length of 25. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. (Alternatively.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.25.ALL) You should now have the following: . We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.) 7.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. 1..ROT on Lines' window. r r . (Alternatively. Apply Constraints As shown previously.0) 2. the left end of the plate is fixed. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). Fill in the window as shown below..

ALL. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate.4. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). r r r . Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. the command line code for the above step is DL. (Alternatively. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. Therefore. therefore the last field is left blank.0) 3.. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

4. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9 MPa.we need to calculate what we should find. 2. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Hand Calculations Now.001 mm . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate).

Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. (as shown below in red) .. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. we will check the stress at this point. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged.. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

r Resize Elements a. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).9141 MPa at this point.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . To change the element size. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.

5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. This is a mere 2. . It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured.c. (note . This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).8 MPa. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves.the element edge length decreases). The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . d. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. Click 'OK'. the values converge towards a final solution.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed.

this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate.. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. 4. 3.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. Then select DOF solution.0012 mm. . the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. Therefore. However.. r Observe the locations of deflection. USUM in the window. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

.r Alternatively.. r 5. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. von Mises in the window. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list. Then select Stress.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate... .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Open the .' and select the file. Bracket Example . Select Stress.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. a. Create the main rectangular shape . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. A figure of the plate is shown below. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Form Geometry Again.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket.

height s s Therefore. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.0.80.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4.0. XCENTER.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4.50. Y coord (bottom left). Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. the command line for this circle is CYL4. YCORNER. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0.100 b. RAD1 CYL4. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. YCENTER.50 c. radius s Therefore. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. Y coord for the center. HEIGHT BLC4.80. XCORNER. width. WIDTH. X coord (bottom left). X coord for the center.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm.

the command line code for the above step is AADD. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively... s To perform the Boolean operation. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. e. Boolean Operations .WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.ALL) s .

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s .You should now have the following model: f. Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

. the command line code for the above step is ET.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.s Next select the three circles that we just created. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.1.3) r . Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.1.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'. (Alternatively..' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.6. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.

EX.1. 4. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.1.5. we will need to make sure the model has converged. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.) r 7. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.ALL) . (Alternatively.PRXY. Again. (Alternatively. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.0. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.200000 followed by MP.3) 6.ALL.1. the command line code for the above step is R.20) r 5.

Apply Constraints .0) 2. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. 1.. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.. (Alternatively.

Rotate. Zoom.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. Apply Loads .) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. you have the option of creating a box.As illustrated. For this case. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. polygon.ROT on Nodes' window. Repeat for the second bolt hole. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. r 3. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U...

there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .As shown in the diagram. 4. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured.

Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. 2. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. 3.USUM in the window.1. .

Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.. obtain these results as a list. Then select von Mises Stress in the window. . r 4..r Alternatively. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution...

.. Quitting ANSYS .PDF version is also available for printing. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . Select Stress.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

To quit ANSYS. . select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'. In the window that appears.. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit..

extrusion/ sweeping. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Filleting. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. ANSYS Inc. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.

Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. XCORNER. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . WIDTH. YCORNER. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

XCENTER.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.RAD .5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.YCENTER. 3.

r . Enter the y offset as 4.5 0.y and z offset of the copied area. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK. The following window will appear.5 Circle 2 8.2 4.BASE.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.5 0.6 and then click OK. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.2 0. It asks for the x.SUBTRACT 5.

. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL 7.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Add the smaller circles to the large area. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.5 You should obtain the following 6.

r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines . Enter 0.

8. . Create the fillet areas r As shown below. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.

Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

(K.Z) 2.5. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.0.Y. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.#.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. 1. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.X.0) and (0. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot . Then select the following two keypoints r r . Plot Areas 3.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.10.

. Click on OK.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

Create Bolt Holes 1. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. Change the Working Plane By default. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. for us to define the bolt holes. There are several ways to define a working plane. we need to use a different working plane.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. However.

Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. 2.

fill in the blanks as shown. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. The following window will appear.note the origin of the working plane. .5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. By default those values would be 0. 3.0.0.5 y=0 r=0. 4.

Youi should obtain the following model. .

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

.HTML version. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the Base 1. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib.

6. type LARC.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .7. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.8.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.4.5.20 followed by LARC.5.1.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.5 into the command line) when prompted.

DX.DZ) r .DY.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.# Copies (include original).Area#.5.6. YCENTER=20.1. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.4.

Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.3.r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.

Therefore. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. (Alternatively. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.102 into the command line) .6.100.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). the first keypoint defines the origin.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. Note. (Alternatively.101. type VOFFST. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. we need to change the working plane.1. Again. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. Change the working plane As in the previous example. type KWPLAN. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.

2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. WIDTH=102.1. YCORNER=0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.27.2. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. YCENTER=180.26 4. . Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0.

Area 2. YCENTER=180. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. . RADIUS=32. RADIUS=18. . Area 3 5. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib .5. Area 1. . YCENTER=180.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51.51.180.32. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD.

the first keypoint defines the origin.-1. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.1.200. type KWPLAN.57735*26) 129-(0. 203.4 3.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. 204 .202 into the command line) 2. (Alternatively. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.201.1. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. type WPCSYS.

204 4. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. .'.203..200. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. In the dialog box that appears.

0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . /title.Harmonic Dynamic . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Modal Dynamic . Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..

and rotation about the Z axis)..67 iii.z) 1 2 (0. K. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.x. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm..y. > Add. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window... 7.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x.1. 6. 3.ANSYS Inc.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.y.0) (1000.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.0) 4..#. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.ii. r ... Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.81m/s2 in the y direction.. 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. enter the following density for steel: i. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. The following window will appear. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.3 8. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.. Density DENS: 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.86e-6 9. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.

ALL. . This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). DK.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.1. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case).9. ACEL. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction.0..

2 . Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1... > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.777mm 2.

777mm. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.As observed in the upper left hand corner. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. .. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. This is in agreement with the theortical value. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .0. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.

With only 3 degrees of freedom. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. 6.x.. and rotation about the Z axis).. /title..K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.#..0) (1000..y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.ANSYS Inc.0) 4. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. enter the following geometric properties: i.. Distributed Loading 3. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.K#.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. > Add. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 . 5. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.y) 1 2 (0.

ii.. 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. 9. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. ... Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.333 iii. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.3 8.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. over the entire length of the beam. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. 3. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. . As shown in the following figure. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section..Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings.. 4.2 2. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. In the window that appears.. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. .

. Click 'OK'. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element.. In the window that appears a. For this example. 3 for the 'J' nodes. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. Click 'Add. In the second window of the same section. For this problem. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. (ie. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). 7. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. click 'Apply' 5. 8. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d..1. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.. 6.' 3. select 'NMISC.. 9. ' d. r As shown in the plot below. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.

PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. ..' and select the file. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from..

the load will added incrementally.Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. contact elements). Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . To solve this problem. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. After each increment.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic .

Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. and rotation about the Z axis). 6.. 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.y) 1 2 (0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's..ANSYS Inc.25 x 0... Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. enter the following geometric properties: i. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. 4.0) (5. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. 5.125 inches.. 1.069e-5 iii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.03125 ii. With only 3 degrees of freedom.. > Add. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 3. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.

7.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example.0 2.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. The following image will appear: .1 " (50 element divisions along the line). 8. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. If we were considering a block of wood.i. for example. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. not non-linear material properties. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..

Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. however. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. C. this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.

However. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps.Now. By default. the load is ramped. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. By default. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. This command controls the solution data written to the database. stress stiffening is automatically included. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). For more information about these commands. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. For some special nonlinear cases. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. E. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. type help followed by the command into the command line. F. the modified Newton-Raphson. the previously computed matrix. By default. D. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). By default. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time.

4. . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.

Y. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. > DOF solution.1 2. UY PLNSOL... View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.1 . > Def + undeformed PLDISP..U.0.

the load was applied in steps. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. As you recall. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Define Variables . List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.3..> DOF solution. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.. However. Modeling the system non-linearly. However. this is not realistic for large deflections. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1.

... > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r . Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add.

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HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. ..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . and many other solution control option.Harmonic Dynamic . An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. .0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. In this example. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. For more information regarding setting the time value. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. see Chapter 8.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.

it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. For each parameter. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. etc) that iterates to find a solution. which this graph is taken from. there are two curves plotted. many iterations will be required. In the case of a structural analysis. which ever is greater. In the case of a structural example. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. For instance. which is discussed in the help file. Some analyses use normalized values.001).5 in the help file. However. Thus. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. Generally. if the solution is highly non-linear. such as this. as expected. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. In simpler terms. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. for more information about changing iteration settings. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. As can be seen in the graph above. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command.ANSYS Inc. . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. For each substep. or is not converging. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. this graph relates to forces and moments. Again. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. we will look at the force curves. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. Once this occurs. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. For ease of explanation.5% for loads. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. If the problem is relatively linear. 2. you can see Chapter 8. the curves may be for temperature. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. This is what will be explained next. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time.

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material nonlinearities and gaps.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. . note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.Modal Dynamic .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. in real-life. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. load perterbations. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. This method is not recommended for accurate. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. real-world buckling prediction analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 2. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).Harmonic Dynamic . large-deflection. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. For this type of analysis. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . ie. However.

ANSYS Inc... /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. rigidly constrained at the bottom. The required load to cause buckling. Define Keypoints . applied at the top-center of the beam. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. will be calculated.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 .Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. K..X.100) 4.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. > Add.0) (0.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii...y) 1 2 (0. 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.#.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. enter the following geometric properties: i. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833... 6. and rotation about the Z axis). In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.333 iii.1. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.

r r . If you are looking at the abridged menu. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. select the unabridged version. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.0 2. 9. prestress effects must be activated. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.8. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'.

4.3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). .

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. 7. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. However. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. 5.1 8. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.

. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). This time. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes .. however.r Complete the window which appears. as shown below. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. r . Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. 11.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. 9. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver.. is for an expansion pass. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. and ensure that it is on.

123). /POST1 SET. which is in Newtons for this example. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well.LIST 2.

Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K..Y . /TITLE.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..#. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .X. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

and rotation about the Z axis). 7... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define Mesh Size . Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. enter the following geometric properties: i. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.2 5. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..1. > Add.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. L..0) (0. With only 3 degrees of freedom.100) 4. 6.333 iii.3 8. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x..y) 1 2 (0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

0 2. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control...Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..1 9. The following image will appear: .. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). ESIZE. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.

Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. D. E. C. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. F. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. B. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . this takes time. however.

This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. For more information about these commands. 4. The model should now look like the window shown below. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. 3. .

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

.This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

1 . > Def + undeformed PLDISP..r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..

.0. > DOF solution.1 .r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..U.Y. UY PLNSOL.

Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. 1. However. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. The following window should open automatically. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. .

If it does not open automatically. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. . Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r .r To add another variable. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. On the Time History Variable window.

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. .2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.123 N. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.PDF version is also available for printing.. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.' and select the file.HTML version. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.000 N.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. In such a case.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).Harmonic Dynamic . ANSYS Inc. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. For instance.Modal Dynamic . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

..#. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. > Add.0) (0. NonLinear Materials 2..Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. 6. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..X. enter the following geometric properties: i. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2..y) 1 2 (0. L.. 5.2 4.100) 3. /title.1.

When the data for the first point is input. click Add Point to add another.004 0. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.001 0.002 0. It should look like the one shown above. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.i.003 0. the stress-strain data must be included.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . Then click OK. When all the points have been inputed. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. click Graph to see the curve. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up.005 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined.

ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.200 0. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.060 0. /REPLOT 7. 8. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.100 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0.250 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.. The following image will appear: ... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).150 0.0 2..275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.

Therefore. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. however. data for every load step is written to the database. C. this takes time. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. you can plot certain parameters over time. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. F. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. . This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. D. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. E.

For more information about these commands. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). type help followed by the command into the command line.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). 3. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 5.B.

. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution.

View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..2.Y.U.0. UY PLNSOL. > DOF solution..1 .

Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. . 1. However. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. The following window should open automatically. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. .

click the add button again. . r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. On the Time History Variable window. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.r To add another variable. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. However. as the force increased.HTML version. was low (in the linear range). A .' and select the file. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. When you verify this example analytically. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. and subsequently the stress. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations...This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. you will see the solutions are very similar.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. please use the links below.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.Modal Dynamic . If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.

2 2.. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. The following window will appear . Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.ANSYS Inc. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.

r As shown. It is therefore more exact but. . of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.

we will use the default options so click on OK. . The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 4. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary...r For this problem. 3.

69 472. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . r To view the next mode shape.0 0.1 0. instead of 10 elements. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.0 0. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .68 285.64 285. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).22 ANSYS 8. 2.01 145.300 52.e.2 0. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .311 51.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.54 Percent Error 0. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. Select 'Def + undef edge'.51 472. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.94 145.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

(To get a list of nodes and their attributes. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). In our case it is assigned Frequency. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted... By default. which is node #2.

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.3.

.4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

94Hz. view the log scale of UY.3 and 51 Hz. To get a better view of the response. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.311 and 51.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

Open the .100 Hz.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.0.HTML version. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. See the help file for instructions. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . r For ANSYS version lower than 7.. A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. For our case. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.Modal Dynamic . .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. a static analysis may be used instead. for example.Harmonic Dynamic .

After the application of the load. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The smaller the time step. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. However. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f .ANSYS Inc.

In other words. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Select 'Reduced' as shown. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. In ANSYS. the calculations are much quicker. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. It is the quickest of the three methods. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). r . However. please use the links below. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. if stresses and forces are of interest than. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Therefore.

The following window will open. . Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. 3.2. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs.

initial displacement and initial velocity. two sets of initial conditions are required. s set [DELTIM] to 0. both default to zero. Note that for the reduced method. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. a constant time step is required throughout the time range.001. a. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. Load Step 1 .Initial Conditions i. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below).4.001 seconds to be used for this load step. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0).Time Step . We can also solve for each load step after we define it. for this example we can skip this step.. This will specify a time step size of 0. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Therefore. ii. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. However. . Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps.

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

Load Step 2 i.. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step . Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. and set a time of 0.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. ii. Specify Time and Time Step Options . Load Step 3 i. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).s01 b. ii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N.001 for the end of the load step iii.

select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. In our case it is assigned Frequency. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. By default. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. 1. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. which is node #2. . Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step .

r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ..r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. and the following window should pop up..

Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

2. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .

. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.3. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs.

We also see another response at a higher frequency. We did not specify damping for our system. However. we would have to expand the reduced solution. if stresses and forces are of interest. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. .A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.08 and 0. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below... This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.11 seconds r r r 2. 1. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. For this case.11 seconds. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .08 and 0. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip).Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses.

0.00000000 TINTP.00000000 . 0. q . 4 TRNOPT.0.. . 0.UX . . 0.00000000 DCGOMG.R5.00000000 . -1.00000000 OMEGA.TEMP. 0._TINY DELTIM. 0.00000000 ERESX. 0.00000000 ALPHAD. 0. 0 DOMEGA.00000000 .00000000 CGOMEGA. 0.00000000 . 0.ANSYS RELEASE 5. 0. 0. 1.500000000 . 1. 0.00000000 D.0.UY . 0.00000000 . 0.s01.00000000 BETAD. but now we will consider damping. D.REDU.. 0. 0.000000000E-03.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 0. /COM. TINTP. D.00000000 .00000000 .DEFA ACEL.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0. 0.00000000 . 0. 0.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.00000000 .00000000 . 5.00000000 0.00000000 NCNV. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.DAMP BFUNIF. 0.00000000 . 1.00000000 .00000000 .00000000 0.7. 0.00000000 TREF. We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 CGLOC.000000000E-03 TIME. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.01 in all three load step files. The file should look like the following. /GOPR 1. 0. 0.00000000 . 0. 1.ROTZ. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step..00000000 . 0. 0. -1..R5. 0.00000000 .00000000 0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.00000000 .00000000 DMPRAT.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic.

and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1..q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' . simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .HTML version. After the results have been calculated. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26.. After selecting MDOFs. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Open the .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

. A .PDF version is also available for printing.and select the file.

The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.Modal Dynamic .

0.1 4.05 7. Height=1 BLC4.. Quad 4Node 55 ET. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Apply Constraints . Y=0.1.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. 1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 5. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.PLANE55 For this example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0. Quad 4node 55). Width=1.ALL.05 AESIZE.10 6.0. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid..1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.KXX.ANSYS Inc.1. Give example a Title 2. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

Heat Flow. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. Heat Flux. Convection. r r The following window will appear: .For thermal problems. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Generation.options cannot be selected. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. or Radiation. In this example. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . > DOF solution. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. r 3. Temperature TEMP ..r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. followed by the side and bottom constraints. however. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the ..HTML version.' and select the file. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. A .

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .Modal Dynamic .0 to solve simple thermal examples.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Harmonic Dynamic .

0 2.KXX. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.05 AESIZE. Height=1 BLC4. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.1 4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3.1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Quad 4Node 55 ET.05 7.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. Apply Conduction Constraints .0. Quad 4node 55).1. Width=1. 6. Y=0.1.0.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.ALL.ANSYS Inc. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. 5. Give example a Title 2.0. 1.

r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. The following window will appear: r . all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block.In this example.

4.r Fill in the window as shown. r . Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius.

r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Temperature TEMP .. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. > DOF solution. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. This will eliminate convection through the side.

' and select the file.HTML version. A . ... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Also.Modal Dynamic . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .040 kJ/kg*K.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

0.920 6.C.ALL. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Y=0. Height=1 BLC4.. 5. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /Title. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ANSYS Inc.1. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.1.0.1.2.ALL At this point.1 4.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.KXX. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.04 MP.05 AESIZE. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.05 7. Quad 4node 55)..1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.PLANE55 For this example..Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Width=1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.0.DENS. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.

We will use the defaults. so click OK. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. .Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.4 The window shown below will pop up.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. .2.

Min no. of substeps to 20. Max no. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. of substeps to 100.

Basically. r r . the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. By writing the data at every step. Heat Flux. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. refer to the help file. or Radiation. For a complete description of what these options do. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. 3. In this example. Heat Generation. Heat Flow.options cannot be selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Convection. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected.D) Set Line search to ON .

The following window will appear: .

Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. > DOF solution. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. r 4..

. .. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. Fill in the window as shown. with 8 contours. user specified.Animate Results Over Time r First. specify the contour range. from 100 to 500.

DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 .. Auto contour scaling OFF.. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.300 Time Range.r Then animate the data.

thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. . Also. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. the curves are practically identical. As can be seen.

Analytical Solution .

ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . Creating the Temperature vs. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically.

If it does not open automatically. . node 261. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the center node on the mesh. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial.2. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. From experience. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. so you must change them manually. . Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. To cause the solution to converge. will cause the solution to converge. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Instead. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution.

. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.HTML version. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the ..

so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. As a warning. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. In this case. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

.Y1. /title..X2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Y2 . Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG. Axisymmetric Tube 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.X1.ANSYS Inc.

We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. 6. .For an axisymmetric problem. axisymmetry is not supported. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. button. to create the geometry mentioned above.. Therefore. we must define a U-shape.. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. Solid. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural.. click the Options. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 5.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. Triangle 6node) element.. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. Many elements support axisymmetry. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 8.

C. . as shown below.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.0 2. command. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. at x=0.C. By using the symmetry B.

then click OK. Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. .r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus.

3. This is required to constrain the model in space. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. click on Cancel to close the window. . Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. 4. Therefore. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Once you've clicked Sele All. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. click Sele All to reselect all nodes.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. r 5.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

as shown below and click OK. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities. .55 in the Min. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.Max box... 2.182 MPa.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0.

the stress in the tube is 0.. 3. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial..17866)/2. The following window will appear. matching the analytical solution. Thus. (0. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.182 MPa. The average is used because in the analytical case. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. . to approximate the analytical solution. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. such as corners.18552 + 0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. we must average the stress over the thickness.

with a rectangular hole in the middle.4. rectangular plate.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. Thus. as expected due to the change in geometry. A . The rest of the commands remain the same. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. If this is done.PDF version is also available for printing.. the model is a flat.' and select the file. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. .

and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. a wall thickness of 10.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Define Element Types For this problem. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. and rotation about the X.. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) .Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16..Y and Z axis).Catapult 3. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Y and Z axis. .

c. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility.a. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. UY).. Click 'OK'. ROTX. a. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 .. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties.. ROTY).. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. For this example. UY. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. 4. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. s Select 'Combination'. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. UZ. s Select 'Combination'. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. b. there should now be three types of elements defined.

ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.. Define Element Material Properties 1. In the window that appears.0.y. there should now be three types of elements defined. c. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.0. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.x.1000) (1000.0.z) (0. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.1000) (1000.33 6.. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. Click 'OK'. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.0.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.#. 5. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. N. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0) (0.y.0) .

'Material number' is set to 1.400.0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes . . The following window will appear.1500) (0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.1000..500) (400.0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0. Create PIPE16 elements a.0) (700.500) (0.500) (0.1000) (0.1000..0.1000) (0.0. Then click 'OK'.0) (0.700.-500) 7.

the first entry would be: E.6). Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .1. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.b. node a.

three nodes are required. Then click 'OK' b. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Create elements When defining a joint. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes .

Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements.node a. node b. 10. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. 11. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. you can list all the elements defined in the model. we do not need to mesh our model. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.E. Then click 'OK' b.node a. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. To do this.

3... Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we need to include the effects of large deformation.0 2. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes .You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

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Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

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**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

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**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

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5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

this is not always the case.3 (instead of NMISC. However. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. ... View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. > Add. 1. fill it in as shown previously ... In this case the maximum values for each are the same. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. we can now solve the optimization problem... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Comp selection box r r r 6.1). 8. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. Fill this table as done previously. however.. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.. This will give you the max stress at the j node. r r 7. However.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions.

ans.P51X...75. L. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.1 FITEM..1.PRXY.UX.EX.. . .1.100.1 FITEM. .0 MPDATA. .3.1.H ... 2 !* HPTCREATE..1..ALL. . MPTEMP.2.1 /title.1 !* /GO DK.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize. !* ET.. K.. .2.0.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.1....0 FLST. . . ..3 !* LESIZE...3.1. 20 /PREP7 K.0..1.0.0.W .200000 MPDATA.ORDE.ANSYS RELEASE 7.2 . .RATI.BEAM3 !* !* R.2. FLST.. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM. 20 *SET.LINE... 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.W*H. LMESH..1..(W*H**3)/12. .1000.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.start70.1.txt’ Click ‘OK’. ... 1..2.2. Design Optimization *SET.1.0.H.1.0.. !* !* MPTEMP. . . .UY..ORDE.

3 !* /GO FK.NMISC.C:\Temp\.1.SMax_I.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. FLST.0. ETABLE. .SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.optimization..VOLU. If you created the geometry etc.2. !* *GET.SMAX_J.0. .0.0.SMaxJ.ETAB. .UX. 1 !* ESORT.SORT. !* SSUM !* *GET.2. However. Therefore..FY. most of these changes will already be made.-2000 ! /STATUS.SSUM. . . The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . using command line code.DK.0.SMaxI.UY.UY.SMAX.0.!* /GO DK.SORT. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. .0. ETABLE. .UY.MAX AVPRIN. ETABLE.MAX *SET.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization. .ORDE..3.Volume.UX. 3 !* ESORT. .P51X. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.SMax_J. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.EVolume.1 FITEM. Change this to: DK. .P51X. . !* *GET.0. . .1. . .0.1.0.NMISC.ITEM.P51X.ETAB. . . the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. .0.EVOLUME AVPRIN.0. . .1.0.SMAX_I.

we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. In this example. To define variables.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file.FY. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.0. . This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result.FK.2. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. 3. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization.P51X. NOTE: As previously stated. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file.DK. .This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 .-2000 Change to: FK. 2. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . the width and height of the beam are the DVs. Without this SV. Now that we have decided our design variables. . . we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. . . Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. r Click ‘OK’. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. For the width and height. Change to: DK.UY.0. .0.0. In this example.3. If you are comfortable with command line coding. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable.P51X.UY. In our problem. .FY.

. .01MPa. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. > Add. a..on the volume of the beam. we will select a tolerance of 0.. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. > Add. we do not need to define an allowable range. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.01mm.. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b... Because the volume variable is the objective variable. For the stress variable..

it is advisable to use different solution methods.. Defaults to 10.001) c.2% 7. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. . confirm that the analysis file. Click ‘OK’. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30)... Defaults to 0. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. 6. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. DELTA = 0. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0.. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. Percent forward diff. enter 200.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section..2 Click ‘OK’.. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Under Convergence Tolerance.

Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence..24 mm. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. View the Results 1.. 2. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. C.. and the stress is equal to 199.16 mm.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. height=29.. B. You will probably see that the width=13.

. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy.. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’... . Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. In the window.

use whichever variable is necessary to plot. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Alternatively.HTML version. In addition....PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. displacement. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. Open the .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. .. all of the results data (ie stress. A . .

.

please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Apply loads to the super-element .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. substructuring will be used for the wood block. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. however. v = 0. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For this example. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.5 MPa.

. Apply remaining loads to the model. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).WIDTH.XCORNER. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.YCORNER. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . . 3. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.2. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4..

1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii.SUBST 2.29 6. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE.. 5. 7.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. r . each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). This element has 4 nodes. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm..

r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. In this case. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. r . Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. 3. With the option SEPR. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired.

r In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .

db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below. 5. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .4.

Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.XCORNER. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. FILNAME.... Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 .YCORNER. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass.WIDTH.. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3.

41 8.6. The following window will appear. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For Selected set as shown... Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.5 (MPa) ii.. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Therefore. 9. Select Model Data. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.). For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. .. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Young's modulus EX: 2.. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . 7.1 10.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

. 40 as shown. The following window will appear.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From .... Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Y coordinates. Select Nodes. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11..SUB File. By Location.

In the window that appears. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3.. Apply super-element load vectors . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities ..

0. > DOF solution..r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector.SUM.. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.1 .db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.. r 4.. Translation USUM PLNSOL. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .U.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. .

Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.. FILNAME..Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass.. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. The following window will appear.. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . Type 'EXPASS. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. r 3.3. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. r 2. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.db . r .. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line... The following window will appear..

> DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Translation USUM PLNSOL..4.1 .U. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .SUM.0.

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from...Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file.HTML version. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .

is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). . A steel link. the link will attemp to expand. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. a thermal conductivity of 60. However. stress is created in the link. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. Loads will not be applied to the link. with no internal stresses. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.. For convenience.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.the solutions and .

. /title. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1.0) 4. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.#. and write them to memory. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. the element types can change.y. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Thermal Stress Example 2. For a listing.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. For instance.1. the analyses are coupled. It is important to note. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment..y. the geometry is kept constant. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis..z) 1 2 (0. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. where the thermal effects will be applied. Thermal Environment .0) (1. K. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. and using it with any following coupled environments." Thus. However. Although the geometry must remain constant. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.2 .x. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. For our case.

. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.1 meters. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. > Add.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. representing a link 1 meter long.. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.5 8.. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. 6..Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2.. 7. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. enter the following geometric properties: i. KXX: 60.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. 9. 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.

A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. which is defining the structural environment. In this case it is LINK 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.3 . For more information on this element. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. material properties. Structural Environment . Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. such as the element type.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. 2. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. etc. 1.11. In this case. so it can be used in the next stage. It does not clear the geometry however. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. see the help file.

0 2. . enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ALPX: 12e-6 3.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. enter the file name File. 7. This should make it visible. as expected. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. were . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. 8. you will see it is a uniform 348 K.rth is the thermal results file. the left-most point. 4. 3. If this is not done.rth. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. 6. this data can be found as file. . you will get error messages. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. to 348 Kelvin. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5.rth. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.rth. The thermal solution has now been obtained.

Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.9. 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .

CompStress. 2. an element table must be created first. Instead.LS.1 ETABLE. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.1 3.As shown. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. List the Stress Data . Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.

.180e9 Pa.CompStr The following list should appear. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. Note the stress in each element: -0. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A ... Open the .HTML version.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .

computational time can be kept to a minimum. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Thus. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density.

ON Select p-Method Struct. /title... P-Method Meshing 2. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. as shown below .

#.52) (55.100) ..z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.52) (80..3.0) (0.x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.100) (20.y.100) (45. K.y.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.

6.0) 5. .12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below..11.10.6.7.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.2.8.4.100) (100.3. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (55.5..1.48) (45.9.48) (20.0) (80. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.

After clicking OK to select the element.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. Plane146. shown below. 8. click Options. go to the Element Library in the help file. and Plane145.. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. For now we will leave them as default. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.... Young's modulus EX: 200000 .. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. to open the keyoptions window. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. > Add. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Solid147. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. For more information on these elements. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.

3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.ii.0 2. 10. . For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm... Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

Min no. of substeps to 20. . C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. of substeps to 100.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Max no. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.5.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear. .3.

these orders may go as high as 8. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. For more complex geometries. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. .Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. As a comparison. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.

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. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. Now go to 'File > Read input from. However. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. thus computational time will be low..PDF version is also available for printing.As one can see from the two plots. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. This is the benefit of using p-elements. Open the . and still get reasonable results. .' and select the file. A .

The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. Element birth is also possible. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . but will not be discussed here.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For further information. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The elements are still technically there.

Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. Quad 4node 55). enter the following properties: i.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Element Death 2. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following properties: .. /title.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..0.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. enter the following properties: i.03.0.03 4. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. For this example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..03 BLC4. 5. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0.03 Height = 0.

4 2..0005m. We will use the defaults. so click OK.i. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. Therefore.. you . Density DENS: 920 6. ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. 7.

FULL into the commmand line. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . 3. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. B) Set Number of substeps to 20.must type NROPT.

you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. By writing the data at every step. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . Basically. refer to the help file. 4. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up.D) Set Line search to ON . For a complete description of what these options do.

5. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Convection. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. Heat Flow. or Radiation. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. In this example. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. . Heat Generation. Heat Flux.

The model should now look as follows: .

We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. Assume the material melts at 273 K. For instance..r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. elements to create the desired effect. .. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. or turn off. the user can manually kill. Here.LAST 2. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.

thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. 3. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire. .' Fill the window in as shown below.r Click on 'Add.. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK.

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. thus it is just warning the user. . Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. Click OK to restart the analysis.all into the command line. 2. this will kill only those elements.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. This is much too time consuming in this case. which this analysis doesn't call for. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. and close the warning message.

. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.With the window still open.

2. View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . to more accurately model element death over time.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. using command line code. more accurately modelling the heating process.HTML version.. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. That way.This procedure can be programmed in a loop.

10mm x 10mm in cross-section. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. causing it to bend and contact the lower. The beams.. as shown below. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. are 100mm long. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. /title.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Contact Elements 2.. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends.

0... 10) (50.WP Y. WP Y. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. 100.WP X. . This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. Quad 4node 42) element.. 5. 100. 15. 10) 4. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below....Height) 1 2 (0. click Options. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Width. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. r While the Element Types window is still open. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Width. > Add./PREP7 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants...

click Options. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. 6. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D.. This way. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.3 7. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines.. 8. ... enter the following geometric properties: i. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. r While the Element Types window is still open. This is an important step. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. pt-to-surf 48) element. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i..

the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. Thus. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. such as TARGE169. If there is too much penetration. resulting in convergence difficulties. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. to function. you should increase KN. > Add. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. be sure to understand how the elements work. such as CONTA175. Since this "spring" is so stiff. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. enter the following properties: i.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. rather than node to element edge.It is important to note. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. require a target element. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading.. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. As the surfaces approach each other. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. This KN value can greatly affect your solution... . given in %. In this situation. 10. When using contact elements in your own analyses. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). Other contact elements. A small value of TOLS. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). ii. This will be covered below. you should decrease KN..

. when the geometry is complex. In this case. the source nodes will be selected. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. . source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file.. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Select the top beam and click OK.. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. 11. etc. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. First.. However. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. In this simple case. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. tolerances. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK.

Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK..100. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50. . Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.

. .s Now if you list the selected nodes. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. you should only have the following nodes remaining.

the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. If you have a lot of contact elements. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. This can be very useful in other applications as well. and click OK. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. In this case. Source. .It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. Now we can use this component.

. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. .. This is done by opening the entity select menu. clicking the Also Select radio button.. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing.Now select the target nodes. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants.. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others. enter the name Target. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. 12. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam.. When creating the component this time. and click the Sele All button. Using the same procedure as above. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. clicking the Also Select radio button. This is done by opening the entity select menu. and click the Sele All button.. These values will be the ones you'll use. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below.

. The rest of the selections remain unchanged.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).

At this point. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . If you wish. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. Unfortunately. your model should look like the following.

you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE... Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The preprocessor stage is now complete. If you zoom in on the contact areas.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers).0 2. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. shown below. The following image will appear: .

This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. this takes time. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. E. C. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. B. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. D. however.

leave these relatively high at first. Again. For more information about these commands. type help followed by the command into the command line. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. Also. 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. Once everything is working. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . If you have too few substeps.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.

5.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. this is a point load on a 2D surface. However. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Note.

when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. If you leave the scaling as default. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. 3. then click ok. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working.2.0 (true scale) radio button. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: .

producing a stress distribution in both.As seen in the figure. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file...PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.

Variables including length.How many cross supports even number.100 *ask. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.HEIGHT.How tall is the truss.2 . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).DIVISION.LENGTH. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. using a length of 200 m.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. finish /clear ANSYS Inc.20 *ask. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.How long is the truss. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

i.1 .X_COORD.link1 r.1.1.KEYP..0.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.j.GT.0 *else k.X_COORD.prxy.(DIVISION-1).i.LE.(KEYP+1) *if.0.THEN L.i.1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.200000 mp.THEN k.KEYP.100 mp.NUM_K.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.1.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.3 esize.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.KEYP.1.1.DIVISION.ex.OSCILATE.

OSCILATE. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. INC. Par..10_K.". This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3.all finish 1. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop.GT. Command File Mode of Solution . This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. The syntax for the expression is *DO.8. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.10). For more information on this command. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. For example. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. FVAL.9. This translates to "if the variable. in the code above there is a statement: *if.1. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. However.THEN.LENGTH.. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. This argument can be a single value. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command.0. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop.2. Thus in later parts of the code. 2. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. IVAL. *do. see the help file. or a mathematical expression. In this case. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. is greater than zero. 4. determining if a certain case has occured. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. For example. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. then. *ask. As seen above. the most intutitive method is to use "=". *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. (ie 1.How long is the truss. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways..3.i.lmesh.OSCILATE. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . .

/title.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Stress. etc..UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2.) of the following example.

0.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm.3 6.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3.Height. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Width. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Y and Z directions).0. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 7..

ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1).0 2. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). 5. 4. 3. options 1. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. For this example we are trying to display a section. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. therefore.

let's view deflection of the entire model. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. To illustrate how to take a cross section. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r .From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. offset the working plane to the desired position.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).0.0. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. let's view stresses within the entire model.90 /CPLANE.0 2.SUM.-1. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. however.Width/2.0.U.1. simply use: WPCSYS. Equivalent Stress Again.This can be repeated for any slice.0. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0 WPROTA..8 PLNSOL.1 /TYPE..

0.0. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time. Because it is much easier.1.5 PLNSOL.1 /TYPE.EQV.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.S.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). You should now see the following: .Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.

Animation Now.. the sweep direction. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. for something a little more impressive. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). type help ancut into the command line. but please bear with me. Next.. the origin. and the Y axis.3. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. For more information on how to modify the animation. select the node in the back. r r . select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). Finally. In the graphics window. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. Unfortunately.

Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .. .HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.

distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. For example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. . Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.200. r . Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the circles) and click OK.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. Then. select the area to remain (ie.. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title . The remaining area should look as shown below. the rectangle) and click OK.0.WP Y. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.0. /title.WP X. 4. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.

. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. In the 'Element Types' window. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. > Add.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. click 'Options.3 . r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element.. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears. 8.... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. enter a thickness of 10. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.6..

Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. The model should now look like the figure below.. 10. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.9. 3.. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.0 2.

However. you could create a normal contour plot. if the stress near the holes are of interest. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. 1. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.4. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r .

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this. .

meaning this function off. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. To keep window 1 visible during replots. Turn window 1 'off'. you must make a couple of changes. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r .To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. r r 2. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. shown below. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window.

r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. 3. you must choose what to map to the path. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. equivalent stress is desired. For this example. what results should be available to the path. r . r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. or in other words.

r The warning shown below will probably pop up. so disregard the warning. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . 4. This is of little concern though. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.

these dots are not shown here. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations.The display should look like the following. Note. Due to resolution restrictions. .

' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing..This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .HTML version.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Length of the following beam using tables. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Use of Tables for Data Plots . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. By plotting this data on a curve. /title. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. finer resolution can be achieved... Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . rather than using a contour plot. a special type of array. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.

Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. K.0) (400. Define Element Material Properties .0) 4...y. 7.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. enter the following geometric properties: i..z) 1 2 (0.y. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. 6...2. > Add.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.#. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.x.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. and rotation about the Z axis).1.

.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. 9.0 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. The model should now look like the figure below. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 8. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.

Create the Table .4. 1. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. This example is a simplified use of tables. Therefore. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. 2.. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. For this example there are 21 nodes. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. Tables. a special type of array. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. but they can be used for much more. > OK.

2.1]. Enter Data into Table First. Note there are 22 rows. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. 3.. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . The reason for this will be explained below. select Model Data > Nodes r . Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. one more than the number of nodes. In the window shown below..r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up.

r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1..1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. and continues down the column.1) > All > Location > X]. Next. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. column 1. and continues down the column. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. r .. column 2. the vertical displacement will be recorded.

Thus. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. to provide room to move this data. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2).4. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. as it is keypoint 1. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. This causes problems during plotting.

r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). UY = -0.833) is in row two. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. Fill it in as shown. r . with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis.

r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. r r . To see the changes to the labels...

Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the ..PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. A ..HTML version. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1.0 L.200000 mp.0 K. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . etc.0. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.5 lmesh.100. For instance.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. changing the background colour.1.1.100. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.all.beam3 r.833.2 et.0 dk. numbering the nodes.2.10 mp.0. finish /clear /title.ex.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.prxy.all finish /solu antype.1.1.333.3 esize.

Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.fy.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1.2... The following window will appear: .fk.

For instance. However. To remedy this problem.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. sometimes the numbers won't show up. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. You should get the following: . select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. When you click OK. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item.

so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols .As shown. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. These extra symbols may not be necessary. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. the nodes have been numbered. 2.

In our case. or Initial Conditions. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. . there are no Surface or Body Loads. so those sections won't be used.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. Under the Boundary conditions section.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

the legend or title can be turned off. . select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. As shown in the window. etc. In this case. it is things associated with the window background. The following output should be the result. To turn off the triad. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now.

.. .4. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.

such as BEAM3. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. . it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like.When using line elements. If there is no change in output. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. thus elements are not going to show up. To aid in this process. The following should appear. don't be alarmed.

To get a better 3-D view of the model. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. the elements are no longer just a line. .. you can change the view orientation. 5.As shown.. but they have volume according to the real constants.

Basic rotating. it's easy to see the elements in 3D.This window allows the user to rotate the view. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. translate the view and zoom. such as isometric or oblique. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. You can also select predefined views. . By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. Using these options.

6. plot the deformation contour for the beam. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. If you don't like the colours of the contour.. . General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Under uniform contours. those can also be changed.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. Under non-uniform contours. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. Changing Contours First. they can be changed.

. Here we are only using Window 1..The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. 7. but don't want a black background. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. and we'll set the background colour to white. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation.

select Save As. Under the File heading. . This is because the text colour is also white. Notice how all the text disappeared. If there is information that needs to be added. To save the display.. such as contour values.. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. this can be done in other graphic editors.The resulting display is shown below.

If you are looking for a specific option. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. as is the help file. .There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. these are just a few.

If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point.g. select Read Input from. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. or if you'd like to save the whole file. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. e. frame. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. to a text file. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. 2.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. You may need to select Plot -> . GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI..cmd) is stored and select it. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window.. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. Then before you are finished. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. When it is complete.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. see the next item in this list. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI).

/myfiles/ansys/frame for example. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows.. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. you would use the following syntax /input.. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely.. Select File -> Clear & Start New. mode). Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. stress. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. To rerun the command file. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. Save those changes to disk. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections.. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory.frame. etc.) between frame and cmd. . you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. type /input.on. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. you may need to point it to the proper directory.. If the file was in the directory. X11c. then from the ANSYS input window. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. Command Line File Loading Alternatively.cmd.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.cmd and yes that is a comma (..q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.frame. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. At this point you could type in /menu.

Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k. kp6 a.. kp18 a.x1.rad2.kp2. . .ycoord.kp2. .y1.kp1.y2 block.l2..theta1. a10 see online help see online help rectng.kp2.kp1.kp1..z2 cylind.kp2.kp#.y2.rad2.z1.l1.rad1.theta2 sphere...y1.... .z1.zcoord l.z2.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.x2.x2.kp2 larc.kp3. l10 v.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus . setting up different analysis types and post-processing..xcoord.rad1.x1. . The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.. applying loads and constraints.a2. kp8 va.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.kp1.theta1.kp1.a1.

r2..inc or lmesh.c0. .type may define as many as required.a2.area1...a2 aina. . .number.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) . r6 may define as many as required. a9 aglue. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et. .a1.number..number r.line1.label.line2.c1.all amesh.a1. a9 asba.a1. . current type is set by real real..number esize.size..number.inc or amesh.number mp..ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.a2.a2...Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd. current type is set by type type. current type is set by mat mat.area2.r1.a1. c4 may define as many as required..

label.line#.FY.label. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.ROTY.FZ.FY.UY.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).kp#.value labels: FX.UZ.MY.ROTX.MX.ALL d.ALL dl. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .node#.FZ.value labels: UX.area#.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.ROTZ.MY.ROTY.MX.value labels: UX.vol2.inc or vmesh.ROTZ.value labels: FX.node#.label.vol1.MZ f.kp#.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.ROTX.label.e.UY.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.UZ.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).2.ndivs+1.x.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.1.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .i.1.ndivs. if only is entered.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ndivs.Enter number of divisions (default 5). ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.x2.0 k. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.GT.1 ! do i = 1.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.i.then .1.0.else .0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.x1.

1 kplot klist.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates ..kp.! /pnum.all..

0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. extrusion. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. ANSYS 7. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Boolean operations. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials.

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ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal Examples . This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Modal Dynamic Analysis .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. Dynamic Analysis . A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations).Pure Conduction . In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.

Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Analysis of heat conduction over time.Thermal Examples .Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Modelling Using Axisymmetry . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS 7. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Using element death to model a volume melting. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Additionally. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials. a special type of array.

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0254 rout=8*0.699*10**(-8) k.0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.0 k.0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.0.0.5.6.1 k. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.7 emis2=0.0 k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.7.0.-1 k. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.0.

rout.rin LMESH.offset ! inner cylinder.1 MP.circle...1 ESIZE.all MP...all lsel.x.1. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.emis1 EMIS.rout LMESH.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .1 MAT.1..loc.VM125 TOFFST.rin.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.0 GEOM.2 SE.s.8. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.2.1 TYPE.all csys.stefbolt WRITE.s..7.7.2 lsel.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF..MATRIX50.KXX.ndiv CIRCLE.1.1 lsel.arc.1.emis2 VTYPE.6.KXX.1 csys..TEMP ET.loc.ALL lsel.arc.1.1 R.1.1 MAT..5. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.2.x.LINK32.1 STEF..2.ndiv ET..

s.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.all csys.all nsel..CHAR.Q.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .all *GET.x.rout D.1 nsel.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.loc.3 LABEL(1.x.s.LABEL.FSUM.all nsel.VALUE.T2 nsel.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.x.T1 nsel.TEMP.s. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.csys.ITEM.x.loc.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.1 nsel.ALL.s.ALL.TEMP.2 *DIM.1.0.HEAT *DIM.loc.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.loc.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.1.rin D. K /POST1 csys.

1.------------------------------------------------------/COM.1F5. FINISH .3) (1X.Q *VFILL. *VWRITE.' '.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.3) /COM.DATA.VALUE(1.DATA.1). /COM.--------------.DATA.VALUE(1.A8.2).LABEL(1.VALUE(1.1).' '.F10.F10.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.3).exact *VFILL.' '.*VFILL. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.1.VALUE(1.1).2).

vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. In pico. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. but the backspace key does work normally. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. nedit . The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. To use pico to edit the file test. press this key. one simply types pico test. The first three mentioned below are text based.dat. for example. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. so they are always available.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. but have a steep learning curve. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text.dat at the UNIX prompt.

It features pull-down menus. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. saved. From a UNIX command window. For this reason. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. Applications . It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe.exe (look under the r: drive). Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. undo. Very nice.nedit is a very simple to use.3 file format used by DOS. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. type wabi or win. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. yet powerful X Windows editor. It could then be edited. and then renamed back to its original name.. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8.. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. Therefore. multiple file editing. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. and look at the option in the dialog box. when saving files in PFE. and block delimiting with the mouse.

A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. To start ANSYS.. check . Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. 2. heat transfer and fluid problems. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. If you've got some time. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. you may enter ANSYS commands. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials.x11c /menu. From this menu. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. two methods are avialable: 1. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). over a modem.. From the next dialog box that appears. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Then choose GUI configuration. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. select your desired font size. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. it is necessary to select the Interactive . it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. item. Press Enter to continue. Press Enter to continue. Once this is done. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. To start the X-Windows portion of the program.

check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. Pro/Mechanica. Yokota. check out the Fluent Web page. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. see Dr. performs finite element analysis. For more information about this program. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. For further information on this program. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. and design optimization. Toogood. click on the car figure. sensitivity studies. see Dr. For further information on using ANSYS. A companion program. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. . like that shown above. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore.out the ANSYS Web page. If you've got some time. Fyfe. including static analysis. see Dr.

execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f sub1. e. If your program code consists of many files and libraries.f Normally no options are required. such as error messages.f sub1. for example.cshrc file. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.f and sub1. and output is the name of the file to which the output . see Configuration Files).f >& errorfile will compile main.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.out. . i. For example: xlf main. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. This program would be run by entering . you now type. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. xlf by itself. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line.f.F.' is in your path (this is changed in your . Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. redirecting it). your file must be named something like test.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename./test.out (logical. to a file. isn't it?). For learning about the compiler's many options. To change the executable's output name to test. type the command. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.f sub3./a. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.e.f sub2. Note that the . Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile.f and not test.for or TEST.f To run this program.

turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt.m files. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . because it too is being sent to the output file. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. if you know when to enter data. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. symbolic and plotting functions. and what data to enter. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program.will be sent. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. and not actually exit the editor. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. you simply type: . the prompt will not appear on the screen. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. In this way you will have one window to edit your . Note that the text . From the Matlab prompt. The resulting text file may then be edited. If the program normally prompts the user for input. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. you can still run your program this way. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. however.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). Note that it is only necessary to save the file. So. printed and even imported into a word processor. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. The keyboard will still accept the input.

See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.ualberta. For example. . you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20).labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. The workstations are named mec01. by issuing the command. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB.labs through to mec30. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. For example. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. you must have an X server running on your local machine. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed.labs. but is very slow when running it over a modem.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations.labs. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. Once the job is completed. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*.

srv. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. If your CNS login id is jblow.ualberta. To use it. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. either through lynx.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent.txt. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. free of charge. This file is printed in the small room. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). with an accompanying banner page with your username on it.ca.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. newsgroups and WWW. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. You can enter the mail program called pine. type. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. but GPU does. To do this. Pine is based on the pico editor. . just outside the main part of the lab. for example. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. In this command. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. The mecxx. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). see FTP. To use E-mail then. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. or by typing pine at the prompt. Many applications. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail.

lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. getting started. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center.145 (see FTP).128.85. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. issue the command: plotpostscript filename.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). see table of contents. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. If you fail to do so. room B-111). room 240. From a GPU account login. To print from Windows applications in Wabi.20 per page. . or appendices. For further information. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. Prints are $0. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere.eps scale c where filename. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer.

is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0 ! keypoint. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. width. 0 K. E.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. and stress for the truss system shown below. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. x. width/2. reaction forces. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.123) ! /title.3. 3*width/2.height K.4. #. height .1. Note that Young's Modulus.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2. 0. A. y K.

.U.1.FY.5.6.5.7.EX.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.-210e3 FK.0.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.FY. ! ! define lines ! L.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.3 L.5 L.K.4.FY.1. . 5*width/2.3 L.1.ALL.1.ALL.6 L.7 L.1.4 L.1.7.4 L.UY.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.FY.4.2.2.3250 MP.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.5 L. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1. K.5.3. spring element ! real constant #1.2 L. 2*width.LINK1 R.SUM.3.7.5.6. K.1.6 L.2 PLNSOL.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .200e3 ! element type #1.3.-280e3 FK.F PLDISP.1.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH. 3*width.1.

LS.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .ETABLE. 1 PRETAB.SAXL.SAXL.SAXL PLETAB.

3 L.1. Note that Young's Modulus. 0 K. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 5*width/2. E. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. height K.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 0. y K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. p.7. width/2.2. and stress for the truss system shown below. height K. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.1.ualberta. 2*width.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.3. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. width.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. #.6. 3*width/2.5.3 L.mece. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. 0 K. 0 ! keypoint. x.2.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.123) ! /title.2. reaction forces.1. 3*width.height K.4.www. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. A. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

0 SFL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.S.0 DL.4. .www.ALL.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.2.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.PRES.mece.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

0. A figure of the plate is shown below.20 CYL4.100 CYL4.0.80.50 CYL4. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).50. and uniform pressure loading.-20. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.80. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.20.20. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. plane stress.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .20.0. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.0.20 BLC4.

DL.material number. 8.ALL.0 .subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.200000 MP.13.EX.value ! mp.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.direction.1. DL.0.ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ALL CYL4.ALL.material number.9.ALL. 9.0.ALL. DL.14.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .AADD..20 ! r..Young's modulus.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once. DL.80.real set number.0 . DL.0 . DL.PRXY.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.10.0. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.1.80.10 ASBA.11. 7.30 CYL4.0 .10 CYL4.all areas.5 ! lesize.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.FY. .3.20.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.12.1.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.keypoint.50.0 .1.ALL.Poisson's ratio.force ! Solve the problem . DL.6.0 .3 ! mp.1.ALL.PLANE82 KEYOPT.0 ! amesh.0 .

DOF...0.S.1 /replot PRNSOL.U.EPTO.3.SUM.ALL.1.1.LTOP /WIND.2. PLNSOL.4.OFF /WIND.0.4.10.0.1 /GCMD.0. PLNSOL.ALL.EQV..05e-3 /FOC.0.3.2.3.0.8 /CONT.340000..4.10.0.1 /GCMD.0036 /CONT.10.-0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.2 /GCMD.0.. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .EQV. PLNSOL.2. PLDISP.LBOT /WIND.RTOP /WIND.1 /CONT.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.

80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.ualberta.0. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. plane stress.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. and uniform pressure loading. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A figure of the plate is shown below.www.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.mece.

PRXY.200000 MP.3. DL.10.Young's modulus.0.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.all areas.0 ! amesh.1.0.50 CYL4.ALL CYL4.ALL.6. DL. DL.1.mece.0 .10 ASBA.30 CYL4.0 .1.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.FY.0 .ALL.12.-20.20.0 ..0 .10 CYL4.value ! mp.www..20 BLC4.50. DL.1. 8.14.20 CYL4.ALL ! Boolean Addition .5 ! lesize.EX.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.0 .ALL.real set number.ALL.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.Poisson's ratio.material number.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.20.-1000 (fk command) !fk.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.60 AADD. 7.9. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.1.0.13.20.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DL.material number.20.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.20 ! r.80.ALL.PLANE82 KEYOPT.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction . DL. DL.80.direction.80.ALL.ALL.0 .keypoint.50.html CYL4. 9.3 ! mp.ALL.ALL.80.0. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP. .11.

8 /CONT.EQV.RTOP /WIND.S.10.0.ualberta. PLNSOL.0.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.EQV.1 /CONT. PLNSOL.0.U.2. PLDISP.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL.0.0.-0.3.2.0036 /CONT.LTOP /WIND. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .SUM.1.EPTO.LBOT /WIND.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..www.mece.2 /GCMD.0.0.4.4..10.3.ALL.3.1 /replot PRNSOL.4.1.DOF.ALL..05e-3 /FOC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.1 /GCMD.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD..2..340000.10.0.OFF /WIND.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. . copying. extrusion/sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Filleting.

.5 CYL4.14 AADD..9 lines 9.10.1. 1001 and 1002 K.1. .ALL CYL4.3.6. AL.2.0 VROTAT.7.8.7.1.5.26.4..0.2.3.1 AGEN. ..1001.-0. .ALL LFILLT.1 BLC4..1002.5.1.6 AGEN.0.0. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0 K.5..2002.11) AL.4.0.11.3.2.5..0.1002.0.ALL ! Sweep K.0.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.8.5..0.5 BLC4. .2.10.1001.360.3.2001.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .5 AADD.0.0 K.0.2.5. .22.1.2.0.3.5 AADD.3.5.2 ASBA.0.

25.8. .2. .0.1 KWPLAN.20 LARC.7 vsbv.6 vsbv.2.20 LARC.5.6. .102.1.1.0.1.82 K.5.all.27.10 vsbv.1.7.8.0. .9 vsbv.1.5 CYL4.13.0.all.5. .0. .5 vsbv.K.102 K. .2001.62 ASBA.6.3.159.180 CYL4.4.45.7.5.8 vsbv.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.2003.4.82 K.26 VADD.1 VGEN.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.51 AADD.20.109. .2.26 VOFFST.4.101.0 K.1.6 AL.0.6. .6.101.2.102.109.0.-20.0 K. .0.sqrt(3)/0.11 vsbv.0.2002.5.100.109. .69 AGEN.102 BLC4.all.-20.20 K.-1.02 KWPLAN.all.5.180.100.2003 CSYS.2.10 AGEN.20 L.7 AADD.3.0.2.102.26 K.102. .2 CYL4.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .8.51.ALL VOFFST.5.5.

33. sqrt(3)/2*76. 129-(0.38 AADD.61.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.61.30 KWPLAN.32. .203.0 A.200.201.129-(0. .3 CYL4.AADD.57735*26) + 38.203.26 K.37 CYL4.-20.34.204. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .0 K.60 VSBV.-20.180.200.57735*26).1.200.-1.51.201.180.60 VADD.61.5.51.1 WPCSYS.0.7.26 K. . .202 CSYS.2.204 VOFFST. . VADD.0 system K. .0.18.20.36.202.-1.32.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.ualberta. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.mece. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. copying.www. Filleting. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . extrusion/sweeping.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.4. .-0.ALL ! Sweep K.3.3.1 AGEN.0 K.360..0. K.0.2.5.ALL CYL4..0.2002..7.0.3..7. AL.2.3.1.2003.mece.0.1001.2.3.1. .14 AADD.5 CYL4.1001.2.0.5.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.2001..3.5. .1 BLC4.2 ASBA.2.0 K.www.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .11.0.0.1002..5.26.0.0 K.ALL LFILLT. .1.0 VROTAT.5 AADD.6 AGEN. .6.10.ualberta.4.5 AADD.22.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .8.3.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0. .8.0.0.0.5..1.2.5.1002. LFILLT.5 BLC4.1.9 AL.0.5.

ALL VOFFST. .32.6.27.180.6 AL.7 vsbv.180 CYL4.8.20 K.102.0.82 K.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.0. .6.101.4.1.1. .all.45.26 K. .20 LARC.51 AADD.-20.1.1.0.82 K.109.2.4.102.0.102.2.2.5.02 KWPLAN.0.20.5.5 CYL4.www.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .109. .101.102 BLC4.8.2 CYL4.20 L.1.51.100. .5.2.all.5.5.7.3.11 vsbv.109.36.2. .1 VGEN.6 vsbv.5.6.0 K.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.26 VADD.-20.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8.100. .0.-1.8 vsbv.2 AADD.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.0. .mece.sqrt(3)/0.html KWPLAN.7 AADD.10 AGEN.159.13.33.2001.9 vsbv.102 K.0 K. .5.all.2002.5 vsbv.5.20 LARC.10 vsbv. .34.0.2003 CSYS.26 VOFFST.69 AGEN.102.ualberta.4.2.62 ASBA.7.38 AADD.0.25.all.6.

32.-20.0.7.180. .0 A.204 VOFFST.61.0 K. .201.www. VADD.202 CSYS.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.202.200.18. 129-(0. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .61.203.1 WPCSYS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. .180.51.203.-20. .4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K. .60 VADD.0 K.0.3 CYL4.html CYL4.200.1.20. .-1.30 KWPLAN.-1.60 VSBV.57735*26).mece.5.26 K.200.204.57735*26) + 38.51.26 K.61.201. sqrt(3)/2*76.2.129-(0.

The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Height MP.Length.0 L.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.EX.Width*(Height**3)/12.1.1.0 K.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /Title. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.2.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .Width*Height.0.2 ET.1.1.

0 DK.9.PRXY.Length/10.DENS.1.1.7.MP.ALL.0. ACEL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..ALL.86e-6 LESIZE.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .0.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1. LMESH.3 MP.

LMESH.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.1. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.2 ET.Height MP.PRXY.ualberta.ALL.1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.www.1.0.1.mece.0. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 L.Length.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Length/10.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.Width*(Height**3)/12.0 K.1.7.1.EX.Width*Height.DENS. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.

1.mece.. ACEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.9.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.html DK.0.www.ALL.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

2. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.1000.1.0 L.0.0.0 K.1. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line . ANSYS Command Listing /title. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.

UY DK.0.BEAM3 R..PRXY.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .NMISC.200000 MP.333.1.ET.SMAXJ.0 DK.1. 3 PLLS.UY.UX.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX.10 MP..1.100.area.1.I. 1 ETABLE.0.1.2.SMAXJ.100 LMESH.PRES.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.SMAXI.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .1.ALL.0 SFBEAM.33 ESIZE.2 ETABLE.833.1.SMAXI.NMISC.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.1..0.0 L.1000.1.ualberta.2 ET.. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.2.mece.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ht.www. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.1. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0 K. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.

SMAXJ.200000 MP.www..SMAXI.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXI.ht.0 SFBEAM.UX.area.PRES.1.NMISC.PRXY.1.1.0.1. 3 PLLS.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1..ualberta.333.NMISC.UY.UY DK..10 MP.2.100.0 ! Real constants .2 ETABLE. R.ALL.EX.0.0 DK.I.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece..SMAXJ. 1 ETABLE.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 LMESH.33 ESIZE.833.

one above top of the other.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.. nodal.. In this model there are two blocks. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. 0.2.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.10.7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.2 ! element type 1.plane42.2.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3.5. plane stress w/thick.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.01 ! thickness 0.5. /title. strs out type. 1.0. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground. with a small separation..1 ! activate element type 1 R.0.4 aplot ! define element type ET. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.

1. 0.2.3 ! meshing esize.1 r. 20e3 MP.0. 2.EX.r.1 ! nsel.y.99.2D contact elements keyo. 200e3 MP.area.1.0. 0.2 /pnum.0.s.10 TYPE.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .2.NUXY.1 amesh.mat.EX.01 ! cm.1 real.! define material properties MP.NUXY.1 esize.7.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.2..1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.loc.20e3.005.2 ! nsla.35 mat..5 mat.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.3 MP.1 ! defines second element type .2 amesh...2.s.2. 1.contac48.source.

r.y.99..3 finish /solution antype.1 nsel.7.loc.all.all.5 ksel.stat.y.y.100 autots.-100 allsel time.s.20..0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).5 ksel.area.all.loc.loc.on pred.s.1 nsubst.r.1.2.x.all.x.on nropt.loc.all.s.node gcgen.01 cm.2.asel.y.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.target.4 dk.r.s.s. a small tolerance is used d.full.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.1 nsla.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .loc.fy.4 fk.source.target.loc.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.

1. the load will added incrementally.4. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.1.0.1.5.125 mp.03125.2 et.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.0 l.069e-5.1.0e6 mp.ex. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1 lmesh.1.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.30. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor . izz.1.0. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.beam3 r.0.3 esize.prxy. To solve this problem. After each increment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0.0.2. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0 k.

X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .all ! save results of all iterations dk.static nlgeom.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.all fk. min # substeps=1 outres.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.2.U.mz.1 PRNSOL.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.1000./solu antype.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load. max # substeps=1000.5.all.1.

1.0 l.prxy.2. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.mece.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.1 lmesh.30. izz.0.beam3 r.5.4.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 k.1. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1.069e-5. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.0.1.ex.0.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .125 mp.ualberta.0.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.www.1.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3 esize. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. After each increment. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0e6 mp. To solve this problem. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .2 et. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0. the load will added incrementally.1.03125.

X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.1000.1 PRNSOL.1 outres.5.static nlgeom.html /solu antype.all fk. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.2.all dk.on autots.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-100 solve /post1 pldisp.all.on nsubst.mece.U.www.mz.1.

This method is not recommended for accurate. . The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. load perterbations. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. material nonlinearities and gaps. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. static analysis to predict buckling loads. in reallife. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. largedeflection. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. 2. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. However. real-world buckling prediction analysis. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. ie. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. For this type of analysis.

ALL.1.1.10 MP.3 K.BEAM3 R.333. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.PRXY.0.10 LMESH. I (mm^4).1. rigidly constrained at the bottom.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.0. The required load to cause buckling. applied at the top-center of the beam.0 K. ANSYS .1.100 L. will be calculated.200000 MP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1. area (mm^2).2.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0.EX.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.100.833.2 ESIZE.

LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .2 ESIZE.1. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1.1. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.ON DK. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .0.200000 MP.BUCKLE BUCOPT.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).0.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.LIST SET. I.1.0.subspace.2.ALL FK.333.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .833.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.FY.10 K.EX.3 R.ON MXPAND. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0 L.PSTRES. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.2. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.PRXY. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .LANB.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 K.100.1.1 LMESH.0.100.

0 FK.2.ALL.20 NEQIT.F.FY.ON LNSRCH.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .FX.X.ON /ESHAPE.Y NSOL.U.ON OUTRES.ALL.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.2.1.3 /AXLAB.NLGEOM.2.-50000 FK.Y.3.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.Y XVAR.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.1.1 DK.ALL NSUBST.2.2 PLVAR.

Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. large-deflection. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.ualberta. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. 2. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. ie.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. load perterbations. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. However.www. in real-life. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. real-world buckling prediction analysis. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. material nonlinearities and gaps.mece. For this type of analysis. This method is not recommended for accurate. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

0.ualberta.BEAM3 R. rigidly constrained at the bottom.ALL.10 LMESH.1.EX. The required load to cause buckling.1. I (mm^4).0.mece. applied at the top-center of the beam. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.200000 MP.100 L.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.PRXY. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .333.1. will be calculated.2. area (mm^2).100.3 K.www.0.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.10 MP.1.833.2 ESIZE.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.0 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

STATIC NLGEOM.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.LANB.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.1.STATIC PSTRES.subspace.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .1 LMESH.0. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.BUCKLE BUCOPT. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .200000 MP.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.2 ESIZE.ALL FK.1.3 R.www.ON DK.0.ualberta.10 K.PRXY.0 L.1. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load. I.0 K. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ON MXPAND.1.ALL.0.2.100. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.mece.2.833.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.LIST SET.FY.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.100.1.333.html ANTYPE.ON OUTRES.

3 /AXLAB.ON LNSRCH.F.Y NSOL.ON /ESHAPE.Y.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3.Y XVAR.2.X.20 NEQIT.ualberta.-50000 FK.U.www.mece.1000 AUTOTS.FX.0 FK.ALL.FY.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.2.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.1.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .html NSUBST.2.2 PLVAR.1 DK.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.

001.2.75 .LINK1 R. In such a case.MELA. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. For this analysis. For instance.3 TB.1. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.12.0.1.1.100 l.0 k. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.0..NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.PRXY.EX. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.0.2 ET.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.25 MP.75000 MP.1.1.

.0..LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label ..Y.2 PLVAR.ON NSUBST.003.1 PLNSOL..435 TBPT..005.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.2.U.ALL AUTOTS.1.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.ON NEQIT.5 LMESH.390 TBPT.225 TBPT...025.Y XVAR..449 TBPT....0 DK...20.275.25...F..ON LNSRCH.1 OUTRES...1..450 ESIZE.ALL.240 TBPT..X.1000 ANTYPE..355 TBPT.06.150 TBPT.300 TBPT.002.420 TBPT..3 /AXLAB.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2.Y.3.1000.FY.1.Y NSOL.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.250 TBPT.2.2.all FK.15.U.004.TBPT.

NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.100 l.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. For instance. For this analysis.1.1..ualberta..0 k.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.www. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.LINK1 R. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0.mece.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. In such a case. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.2 ET.2.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.

2.225 TBPT.EX.ALL AUTOTS.420 TBPT..1.1000 ANTYPE.0.1000..1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..www.ON LNSRCH.2.004....450 ESIZE.X.250 TBPT..25... TBPT.ON NSUBST.150 TBPT.2 PLVAR.1....10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.002.Y..275.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.449 TBPT.1 PLNSOL..2.20..75 TBPT.Y XVAR.all FK.3.005..Y..PRXY..240 TBPT.FY.ON NEQIT..F.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .. MP.5 LMESH.1.1 OUTRES.Y NSOL.12..MELA.001.3 /AXLAB..mece..1.75000 MP..435 TBPT.1.300 TBPT.025.ualberta.ALL.06..3 TB.003.390 TBPT.0.0 DK..1.U.15.2.355 TBPT.U.

1.1.1.01 MP.1.1.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .0.0.EX.Dynamic.068e11 MP.0 K.1..PRXY. /TITLE.0.0 L.ALL.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0001.8.33 MP.DENS.10 LMESH.7830 LESIZE.33e-10.2. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.BEAM3 R.0 /PREP7 K..1.1.0.2 ET.2.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

.y) 1 2 5..Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Open preprocessor menu 2. 1.0) (1. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0) . Define Lines (0... Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.

Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.33e-10 iii.01 m.068e11 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Young's modulus EX: 2. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. 6. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 7. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. .0001 ii. 10. > Add.. and rotation about the Z axis). Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.3 To enter the density of the material.01 m x 0. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. With only 3 degrees of freedom... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. 9. 8. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials..

2.33 MP.0 L.PRXY. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.1.0.DENS.1.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.068e11 MP.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.EX.1.BEAM3 R.01 MP.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.33e-10.2.1.1.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .0001.1.0.0.0 K.I.8.0.2 ET.

LESIZE.2 MODOPT. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .SUBSP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.10 LMESH.5 DK.5 EQSLV.FRONT MXPAND.LIST SET.ALL.0..1..10.5.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. .FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.

height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.I.0001.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.33 MP.0.1.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.0.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2.068e11 MP.PRXY.0.1.www.1.EX.33e-10.7830 LESIZE.1..2.1.ALL.0.0 K..1.8.0 L.BEAM3 R.2 ET.1.DENS.10 LMESH.mece. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.01 MP.

LIST SET. .5 EQSLV.1.5 DK.0.SUBSP.5.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.ualberta.2 MODOPT.mece.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.10.www. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.FRONT MXPAND.

The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. . These 3 methods are the Full . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.

FY.1.1.0.MERGE PRVAR. NSUBST.I. UY_2 STORE.0001.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.2.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.2 ET.0 K.1.1.PRXY.. However.33e-10.DENS.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 LMESH.33 MP.U.2.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.EX.100.2.2. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.0..100.BEAM3 R.0.7830 LESIZE.01 MP.2 PLVAR.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.068e11 MP.1.3 DK.ALL.2.0.1. KBC.ALL FK.1.0.Y.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.8.100 HARFRQ.

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. These 3 methods are the Full .ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.mece.

NSUBST.0001.33 MP. UY_2 STORE.FY.2.2.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.100.2 ET.1.1.0..ALL FK.0 K.1.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.BEAM3 R. KBC.www.0 L.Y.01 MP.1.1. However.8.DENS.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.100 HARFRQ. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.MERGE PRVAR.10 LMESH.2.1.I.2 PLVAR.0.7830 LESIZE.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.0.33e-10.2.ualberta.1..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .068e11 MP.100.PRXY.U.EX.1.3 DK.ALL.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. For our case.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. . Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. for example.

a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. However.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. . the higher the mode frequency we will capture. In ANSYS. The smaller the time step. All types of non-linearities are allowed. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. Therefore. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. After the application of the load. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. In other words. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.

33 MP.0.All. M.ALL D. NSEL.2. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end ..0 /PREP7 K.1.2.1.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.S.10 LMESH.2.068e11 MP.0.. DELTIM. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.2 ET.ALL.Dynamic.0. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).8. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.0 L.REDUC. TRANS TRNOPT. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. However. .0 K.33e-10.11.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).7830 LESIZE.0001.2.1.BEAM3 R. . if stresses and forces are of interest than.1..1.0.FY.UY.1.1. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. However. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.01 MP.PRXY.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.EX.DENS.ALL F. It is the quickest of the three methods. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis..-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . the calculations are much quicker.

' NSOL. time !Please note.'.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001s TIME.2.'rdsp'. .3.'Dynamic'.0 !* LSSOLVE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.2.U.1 KBC. In this case.001 KBC.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.Y.2.0.0 FDELE. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.!At time equals 0. ! Sets time to 0. UY_2 STORE.MERGE PLVAR.1.

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta .ualberta.mece. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. For our case.http://www. for example. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Copyright 2003 . Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.

http://www. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. Copyright 2003 .html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. After the application of the load. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).mece. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In ANSYS.ualberta. However. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. Therefore. The smaller the time step. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. In other words. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.University of Alberta .

0. However.S.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.ALL F.0 L.1.33e-10. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.1.ALL.7830 LESIZE.EX.2.2. However. .1. the calculations are much quicker..2.1.0 K.11.1.0.1.University of Alberta . as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. TRANS TRNOPT. DELTIM.Dynamic.8. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.2. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .. All types of non-linearities are allowed.ualberta. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0001.2 ET.mece. ..-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .01 MP.DENS. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.0. It is the quickest of the three methods. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.FY. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.068e11 MP.10 LMESH. M.1.0.UY.0.REDUC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.33 MP.ALL D.http://www. if stresses and forces are of interest than. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).BEAM3 R.. NSEL. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).All.1. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.0 /PREP7 K.PRXY.

0.'. ! Sets time to 0.3.MERGE PLVAR.' NSOL.'Dynamic'.1 KBC.2.'rdsp'.2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.0 FDELE.http://www.1.001 KBC.ualberta.001s TIME. time !Please note.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.html !At time equals 0. Copyright 2003 .0 !* LSSOLVE.mece.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. In this case.Y. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.U.2. UY_2 STORE.University of Alberta .

PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 to solve a simple conduction problem. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 blc4.0. then width and height . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.length. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.1. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0.one corner.

X.S.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.500 NSEL.length/20 AMESH.ALL.MP.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0 NSEL.ALL NSEL.TEMP.KXX.Y.100 NSEL.X.height D.A.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..LOC.S.Y.LOC.ALL.0.10 ESIZE.TEMP.0 D.A.1. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.length NSEL.TEMP.

height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ualberta. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.KXX.length.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.0 blc4.mece. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.1. PLANE55 MP.0.0.www.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .length/20 AMESH.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.0 height=1.h..one corner.10 ESIZE. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

.S.TEMP..mece.Y.A.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .A.X.ALL NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.X.Y.LOC.ALL.0 NSEL.S.height D.TEMP.100 NSEL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .h.0.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0 D.LOC.length NSEL.TEMP..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.www.ALL.ualberta. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.500 NSEL.

Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.0 blc4.Thermal . then width and height .1.0.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.KXX.length.0. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 to solve simple thermal examples.1.one corner.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area . PLANE55 MP.

100 NSEL.ALL.CONV.ALL NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.MAT.1 TYPE.S..TEMP.X.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.S.LOC.LOC.Y.ALL.X.100 NSEL.Y.ALL.0.500 NSEL.LOC.ALL.S.S.length/20 AMESH.length SF.height D.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 SF.TEMP.CONV.0 D.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.TEMP.0 NSEL.LOC.1 ESIZE. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .10.

0 to solve simple thermal examples.1 TYPE.0.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.1 ESIZE.http://www.one corner.10 MAT.University of Alberta .0 blc4.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.0 height=1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.mece. then width and height Copyright 2003 .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print. PLANE55 MP.html Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.KXX.ualberta.0.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.length.

X.CONV.TEMP.TEMP.S..500 NSEL.ALL.0.LOC.0 SF.height D.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.100 NSEL.TEMP.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.S.0 NSEL.Y.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.LOC. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .LOC.http://www.10.CONV.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.html AMESH.Y.0 D.100 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.ualberta.University of Alberta .ALL.ALL.ALL NSEL.length SF.S.X.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.

Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.040 kJ/kg*K. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Also. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.

500 NSEL.0.TEMP.Temp.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.8.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.all.full lumpm. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.100.S.5.off lnsrch.1. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .kxx.TEMP.TEMP ANTIME.2.20.1.1..0.LOC.all.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.300 nropt.100 autots.c.05 AMESH.0.0.length=1.0 D.20 neqit.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.height D.4 time.0.Y.5 ESIZE.LOC.ALL IC. PLANE55 MP.0.length.on outres.Dens.ALL.one corner.920 mp.100 NSEL.ALL NSEL.s.040 mp.0 nsubst.0 height=1.Y.500 PLNSOL.500 ! area .2.1.all kbc..ALL.0 blc4.

mece. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.length.one corner.0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. height ! area .html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.www.ualberta. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 blc4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Also.040 kJ/kg*K.

5 ESIZE.LOC.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.s.0.on outres.2.Temp.Dens.0.05 AMESH.S.1.1.Y.kxx.0 nsubst.full lumpm.Y.040 mp. PLANE55 MP.300 nropt.TEMP ANTIME..ALL IC.0.5.1.mece.height D.0.100 autots.8.all kbc.all.20 neqit.100 NSEL.ALL.500 NSEL.1.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.ALL.0 D.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.TEMP..500 PLNSOL. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .TEMP.920 mp.20.100.off lnsrch.4 time.2.all.ALL NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.c.LOC.

If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. In this case. As a warning. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. .

y.3 esize.5 rectng.20.x.y.2 amesh.0 lsel.100 aadd.0.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.ex.0 nsel.95.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .loc.loc.15.20.0.-100 fk.all nsel.s..45.s.55 prnsol.plane2 keyopt.0 dl.1.all et.1.50 d.all. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.s.0.200000 mp.off rectng.all fk.1 mp.symm lsel.1.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.all finish /solu antype.fy.0.prxy.3.fy.all.s.1.loc.uy.20.100 rectng.0.12.1.

.1.all /expand.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .10 /view..1.27.2.axis.nsel.

mece. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ualberta. As a warning. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..www.. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. In this case.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.

www.200000 mp.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .plane2 keyopt.1 mp..2 amesh..1.all.2.axis.1.s.20.100 rectng.all nsel.3 esize.fy.0 dl.s.all /expand.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .55 prnsol.fy.0 lsel.3.27..0.0.uy.y.1.100 aadd.50 d.x.ualberta.symm lsel.15.all et.95.off rectng.45.0.all finish /solu antype.loc..0 nsel..100 solve finish /post1 nsel. /prep7 /triad.5 rectng.-100 fk.prxy.loc.loc.10 /view.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.12.20.mece.0.20.1.s.1.comp nsel.s.0.all.ex.y..1.all fk.

1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. a wall thickness of 10. ANSYS Command Listing . This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.

0.COMBIN7 ET. 500 N.10. 7. 0.2. 0. 9. 0. 400.1.40.COMBIN14 R.1000.12. 5 E.1e9. 0. 2. 4 E.1000 N.11. 500 N.13 E. 0.1000.33 N.12.2. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 6.1000 N. 0. 0 N. 0. 5 E. 0.1 E. 700. 0. 6 E. 3 E. 4.1000 N. 7. 9.PIPE16 ET.5.1000. 2. 3 E.1 MAT.1e9 R.13.1 REAL. 6. 1.12.1e9. 3. 5. 5. .PRXY. 0. . 1. 2.1500 N.3.1. 4 E. 0 N.0. 1.13. MP. 3. 700. 0. 0. 0. 6 E.200000 MP. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ./title. 0.10 R.1. 0 N. 0 N. 500 N. 0.1.-500 TYPE.1000. 400. 0.3. 8 E.1000 N. 8 E. 8 E.EX.10. 8. 0.

8.3 REAL.0 NLGEOM.3 E.12.VERT7.7.3.ALL. 11 E.. 9.6 /PNUM.0.2 *GET.2 E.0 /PNUM.NODE.ELEM.2 REAL.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.8 E..12. 10.4.KP.13 F.U.5 D.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.FY.5. 1.7.13 ! Load node 7 .TYPE.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP. 2.ON NSUBST.4. 11 TYPE.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.7.www.PIPE16 ET.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.COMBIN14 R.COMBIN7 ET. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.mece. a wall thickness of 10.40.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.3.1. Catapult /PREP7 ET.1. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. ANSYS Command Listing /title.2.1.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 REAL. 7.13 E. 0.2.12.html R.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1000 N.8 E. 0.1000. 1.5. 9.ELEM.1 E. 0. 5 E. 10. 0. . 6 E. 0. 2. 4 TYPE. 2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . . 5.2 E.10. 6. 8 E. 9. 4 E. 700.13.1000 N. 0. 0 N.2 REAL. 700.KP. 500 N.3 REAL.6 /PNUM.1500 N. 0. 6 E. 5. MP. 8 E.0 NLGEOM.1000. 1. 0.1000 N. 0 N.11. 2. 0. 1. 0.13. 3 E.1e9 R. 6. 500 N. 4.5. 2.www.PRXY. 3. 8.8. 0 N. 0 N.1000. 4 E. 400. 0. 3.1 MAT.-500 TYPE. 0. 3 E.1e9.1. 9.1000 N.12.3 E. 7.200000 MP. 11 E.1. 11 TYPE. 0.10. 0.mece.1e9. 8 E.3.ualberta.33 N. 500 N. 0. 1.0 /PNUM.1000. 0. 400.12.0. 0.EX. 5 E. 0.

12.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html NSUBST.4.2 *GET.13 F.7..ALL.5 D.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.ualberta.NODE..mece.FY.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .VERT7.3.12.0.www.4.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.U.

0.H.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 R.W*H. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.20 *set. not '^').RATI.1. height MP. Design Optimization *set.75. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .LINE. ET.1.0 L.W. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.H.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.0.100 LMESH.0.1000..1.I (note '**'. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.EX.1.3 ESIZE. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.0 K. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.2 HPTCREATE.200000 MP.1.1..(W*H**3)/12. deciding which variables to use as design.20 K.2. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.PRXY. However.

W. max 50 ! Width design variable.001 MPa.3 node ESORT.0.SMAX. min 10 mm.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.SMAXJ. max 200 ! Volume as object variable.'txt'.1 node ESORT.SMAX_I.0 DK..001mm OPVAR.0. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .X.001 MPa OPVAR.MAX ETABLE. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.SMAX_J.1.10. ! Height state variable.EVOLUME ETABLE.NMISC.DV.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.195.NMISC.SORT.ANTYPE.2.VOLUME.200.0.50.SV.1.200 OPTYPE.H.UY..3.SMAXI.0 DK.optimize.001 mm.'optimize'.MAX *SET. max 50 mm.. tolerance 0..VOLU.0.. tolerance 0. min 10 mm.50.Volume.ITEM.EVolume.2.SMAX_I.1.0.ETAB.FIRS OPFRST. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration. min 195 MPa.SMAX_J.UX.001mm OPVAR. SSUM *GET.DV. Percent step size.0.UY.SMAX.W /AXLAB.100..-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.txt.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.10.0 FK.Y.0 DK.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.1.txt ! Assign optimize.OBJ.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.30.ETAB. *GET..C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL. *GET.FY.H.SSUM.SORT.001 tolerance 0.

It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.mece. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.2.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.I (note '**'. ET.www.20 K.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.ualberta.0.1.1..BEAM3 R. However..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.H. MP.1000..0. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.LINE.(W*H**3)/12.2 HPTCREATE. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title..20 *set..75. Design Optimization *set. not '^').1.RATI.W.0 K. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.1. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.1.PRXY.0 L.200000 MP.W*H.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print..EX.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. deciding which variables to use as design.1.H.0.

DV.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .50.SV.1.VOLUME.100. *GET.Volume.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.ETAB.2. SSUM *GET.UX..Number of Iterations /AXLAB.MAX ETABLE.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.ualberta.0. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ... max 50 mm.FIRS OPFRST.SMAX.1.SMAXJ.NMISC.2.UY.ITEM.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.001 OPVAR.0 DK. tol Height state variable. max 50 mm.'optimize'. Percent step size..H.UY.'txt'.H...1.SORT.0 FK..001 OPVAR. ESIZE.SMAX_J.optimize.mece.EVOLUME ETABLE.1.0.10.www.SMAX.Y.200 OPTYPE.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.001 OPVAR.195.0 DK. *GET.MAX *SET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100 LMESH.VOLU.3. min 10 mm.10.SSUM.SMAXI. min 195 MPa. max 200 MPa.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable. OPEXE PLVAROPT. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.ETAB.FY.0.EVolume.0.30.SMAX_I.txt.OBJ.DV. to Width design variable..3 ESORT.SMAX_J.NMISC.0.0 DK. Volume as object variable. min 10 mm.50.0.SORT.txt ! Assign optimize.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.1 ESORT.SMAX_I..200.W..X.W /AXLAB.

however. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. For this example. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. ANSYS Command Listing .Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. 3. substructuring will be used for the wood block.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Apply remaining loads to the model. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). v = 0. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).5 MPa. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.

40.ALL.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.100.5 MP.EX.EXT M.1.2 MP.ALL.5 NSEL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.ALL NSEL. START /FILNAME.PRXY.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.S. amesh.1.0. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.FX.0..0.100.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.1.GEN.0 F.0.PLANE42 TYPE.0.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.EX.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .LOC.Y.2.PRXY.2 NSEL.R.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.2.X.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .S.1.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.140 NSEL.ALL NSEL. 2.LOC.10.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.SUBST SEOPT.db ! GEN.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.

TYPE.0.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.MaxNode.GEN2.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.1.1.NUM.S.U.1.1.GEN.S.2 real.GEN2 NSEL.1 SFE.0.SUM.40 CPINTF.0 D..10.Y. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.1 ESEL. mat.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour ...1.LOC.LOC.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.NODE.SELV.MaxNode.MAX SETRAN.! Meshing AESIZE.SUM.U. superelement solution written to GEN.ALL ESEL.ALL NSEL.STATIC NSEL.1 ! Superelement ET.GEN2 SE.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.ON.ALL.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.2 amesh.1 *GET..ALL.Y.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 NSEL.S.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.

3. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.www. v = 0. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. For this example. however. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).5 MPa. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element..mece. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Apply remaining loads to the model.

X.FX. START /FILNAME.PLANE42 TYPE.S.2 NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.R.. amesh.ALL.1.. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .S.SUBST SEOPT.10.ALL NSEL.140 NSEL.0 F.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.mece.db ! GEN.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100.0.1.40.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.1.1.0.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.LOC.Y.0.EX.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.EXT M. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.ALL.www.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.100.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.LOC.0.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.GEN.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.PRXY.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.ALL NSEL.5 NSEL.

NUM.1.0.LOC. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .NODE.ALL.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.10.2 real.ALL.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.40 CPINTF.0.EX.SELV.GEN2 NSEL.TYPE.YES SEEXP.2.MAX SETRAN.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.S.1 SFE. MP.Y..S..1.5 MP.GEN2.LOC.0 D.MATRIX50 TYPE.2.1 *GET.SUM.1 ! Superelement ET..0 NSEL.U.MaxNode.www.MaxNode..1 ESEL. mat.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.S.GEN2 SE..1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.ualberta. 2.0.GEN.ON.SUM.PRXY.ALL ESEL.ALL NSEL.mece.USE EXPSOL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1..Y.STATIC NSEL.U.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.2 amesh.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). .. For our case. For convenience. Loads will not be applied to the link. Although the geometry must remain constant. For a listing. the link will attemp to expand. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. a thermal conductivity of 60. A steel link. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link." Thus. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . the analyses are coupled. It is important to note. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. the geometry is kept constant. the element types can change. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. For instance. where the thermal effects will be applied.. However. and using it with any following coupled environments. stress is created in the link. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. with no internal stresses. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). and write them to memory. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. However. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.

thermal dk..write.2.tts mp.temp.1.1.200e9 mp.12e-6 physics. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.CompStress.0 l.write.2 et. mp.all physics.4e-4.0 k..1.kxx.UX..0 dk.ex.struct physics.2.thermal physics..1.273 dk.alpx.temp. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.1 lmesh..clear finish /solu antype.prxy.1.read.analysis.rth environment tref.link33 r.0.LS.1.0 physics.1.struct ldread.3 mp.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .1.read.60.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.0 solve finish /post1 etable.0.0.all.1.5 esize.

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

with no internal stresses.www.mece. Loads will not be applied to the link.ualberta.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For convenience.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. . the link will attemp to expand.. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. where the thermal effects will be applied.. the analyses are coupled. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. A steel link.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis." Thus.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. and using it with any following coupled environments. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. a thermal conductivity of 60. However. However. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. stress is created in the link. For our case. the geometry is kept constant.

1.www. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.0.1.. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.1.rth tref. and write them to memory.0 dk.thermal physics.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.273 dk.0 physics.ualberta.temp.write.thermal dk.tts mp. the element types can change.3 mp.struct ldread.5 esize.2.12e-6 physics.link33 r.1.temp.1.0 k.clear finish /solu antype. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..write.2. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.1.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .alpx.1.4e-4. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1.1.mece.0 l.struct physics.all.read..clear etchg..read.1 lmesh.348 solve finish /solu physics.0.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.0. mp. For instance.200e9 mp.all physics.kxx.html Although the geometry must remain constant. It is important to note.1.prxy.UX.ex. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link..2 et. For a listing.60.

html solve finish /post1 etable.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.ualberta.www.1 PRETAB.CompStress.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .LS.

rather than increasing mesh density. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum. . The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Thus. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

0.3.100.prxy.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .200000 mp.100.1.0.7.all finish /solu antype.1.loc.2.20 outres..100 k.6.all lsel.3 r.all.55.0.0 dl.45.52 k.all lsel.plane145 keyopt.48 k. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .3 esize.5.9.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.52 k.4.0 nsubst.1.11.80.45.48 k.1.all time.55.20.3.11.0 k.6.10.100 k.loc.all.1. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.x.12 et.100.8.20.1.5 amesh.1.3.20.s.5.8.on /prep7 k.1 lsel.0 k.12.4.100 k.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100 k.10.10 mp.0 a.7.80.s.0 k.x.2.ex.9.

sfl.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .all.-100 lsel.last plesol.all solve finish /post1 set.s.pres.

ualberta. computational time can be kept to a minimum. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. Thus. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. rather than increasing mesh density.www. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.

52 k.html /prep7 k.all time.10 mp.3.20.1.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.45.0 k.48 k.0.prxy.ualberta.6.1.7.all finish /solu antype.loc.100 k.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.100 k.8.all.2.12.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.pres.20.s.0 k. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .x.mece.all lsel.80.4.20..5.5 amesh.plane145 keyopt.all.www.0 nsubst.200000 mp.3.3.1.ex.11.100 k.1.52 k.s.-100 lsel.80.20 outres.10.12 et.1.7.100.48 k.45.x.0.0 a.last plesol.1 lsel.3 r.3 esize.1.100.10.loc.6.11.0.1.100.55.9.all lsel.8.0 dl.s.4.55.9.all.100 k.5.all solve finish /post1 set.100 sfl.0 k.

03. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.0 k. rather than increasing mesh density.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2.0. Thus. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.03. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0 k.3. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.1.0.

Dens.ext sf.k.3.last etable.2. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.rest ekill.all.melty.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .1.1.Plane55 MP.temp. esel.s.all.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.4 time.full lumpm.all.all kbc.1 IC.all /gst.368 nsel. 20 Max no.melty.all esel.0 nsubst.268 nsel.03 a.8 esize.920 mp.on outres.0005 amesh.0.s.1.off solve finish /post1 set.all finish /solu antype.1.10.1. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .1.0.etab.c. not ramped ! Initial conditions.60 nropt.kxx.273 finish /solu antype.0.off lnsrch..temp.100 autots.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.20 neqit.conv.2040 mp.4.

temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .s.live plnsol./post1 set.last esel.

3.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.3.1.0.4.0. rather than increasing mesh density.1.03 k. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.03.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.03.2. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.www.0 k.0 k.mece.0.0.03 a.0. Thus. computational time can be kept to a minimum. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.ualberta.

mece.all /gst.last etable.8 esize.4 time.1.on outres.c.all esel.s. not ramped ! Initial conditions.368 nsel.all.live plnsol.all..0 nsubst.60 nropt.melty.all. esel.268 nsel.100 autots.rest ekill.0.1.last esel.conv.off solve finish /post1 set.920 mp.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.273 finish /solu antype.20 neqit.kxx.1.melty.s.10.Dens. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.s.ualberta.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .0005 amesh.temp.full lumpm.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.all finish /solu antype.ext sf.off lnsrch.www.temp.all kbc. 20 Max no.1 IC.Plane55 MP.1. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .etab.2040 mp.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.all finish /post1 set.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

0.5 PLNSOL.LOC.0 WPROTA.90 /CPLANE.0.0 ASEL.14.Z.All.LOC.0 ASEL.SUM.0.1.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.Z.2 ! Animate the slices .0.5.-1.1 /TYPE.FY.0 DA./SOLU ANTYPE.43.8 WPCSYS.1/16*Length /CPLANE.X.Y.S.0.U.05.0.All.0 WPOFFS.0.1.-2500 KSEL.1 WPOFFS.1.1 /TYPE.LOC.LOC.R.ALL KSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.7.Length KSEL.0.ALL.Width/2.Width FK.EQV.S.0.S.1.Height KSEL.R.0.

1.000000.1.20 vmesh.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . etc.mece.60.www. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.YS.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1 /REPLOT.Length /ANGLE.ualberta.SOLID45 MP.) of the following example.0.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .EX.0. 1 .Width.3 esize. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.0. Stress.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.200000 MP.Height.PRXY.FAST ET.

1.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 PLNSOL.0 ASEL.U.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.90 /CPLANE.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.Height KSEL.1.1/16*Length /CPLANE.ALL KSEL.EQV.FY.LOC.X.LOC.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.1 /TYPE.All.1.LOC.Z.SUM.S.0 ASEL.5.LOC.14.mece.Width FK.0.0.R.-2500 KSEL.www.0.0 WPROTA.0 WPOFFS.7.1 WPOFFS.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.-1.ualberta.Y.Length KSEL.0 DA.0.0.All.43.R.0.0.Z.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.S.0.8 WPCSYS.ALL.0.Width/2.1 /TYPE.0.S.05.

Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.10 cyl4.150. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.200. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.1.0. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.all . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.50. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.10 asba.0.100 cyl4.100.50.10 cyl4. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.50.50. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. In this tutorial. For example. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.

s.prxy.50 path.off /noerase /window.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.s.1.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.loc.PRES.0.50 PDEF.s.loc.all nsel.1.0.1.ex..loc..50 ppath.2.0 dl.bot nsel.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.S.y.y.5 amesh.3 R..all.eqv.100 SFL.1.200.cutline.1 /window.et.200.all.1.top /POST1 PLNSOL.200000 mp.all PLPAGM.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes ..10 mp.2.2.y.2.1.eqv..1.1000 ppath.SEQV..S..AVG nsel.plane2.3 esize.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . For example.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.www. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. In this tutorial. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.ualberta... distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.mece. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.0.0.200. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

1. cyl4.all nsel.10 cyl4.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.1.2.10 cyl4.off /noerase /window.50.top /POST1 PLNSOL.200.ualberta.y.1.1000 ppath.cutline.SEQV.10 mp.s.mece.3 R.s.200000 mp.50 PDEF.100...0.all.loc.50.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.PRES.2.1.10 asba....100 SFL.5 amesh.3 esize.loc.www.eqv.1.s.50 ppath.S.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .eqv.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.all PLPAGM.ex.0 dl.150.y.1 /window.prxy.2.bot nsel.200.1.50.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 path.y.50.0.S.all et.loc.1..plane2.AVG nsel.all.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.2....

3 k.2400. By plotting this data on a curve.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2 esize.40 mp.320e3.1.1. rather than using a contour plot.1.1.200000 mp.prxy.0 l.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. Length of the following beam using tables.0.2.beam3 r.1. finer resolution can be achieved. a special type of array.length.0. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.elementsize lmesh. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 k. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.I.ex. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.

graph(rows.all.1).1).graph(1.graph(1.all.loc.2.loc.x. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.y *set.0 400 *vget.graph(rows.2).y.graph(1.node.node.fy.u.all fk.node.2.static dk.graph(2.1.rows.2).2) /axlab.graph(2.x *vget.u.graph. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(1.1). but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .Length /axlab.2.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.node.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.1).2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.0 *set.2).x *vget.2.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.antype.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.TABLE.y *vplot.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. finer resolution can be achieved.length. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above..h.3 k.beam3 r.ex.I.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.prxy.40 mp.0 l.www.0.mece. rather than using a contour plot. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.2 esize.1.1. Length of the following beam using tables.0.2. By plotting this data on a curve. a special type of array.0 k.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.200000 mp.2400.1.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.320e3. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et..1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.

graph(1.ualberta.node..TABLE.all finish /solu antype.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.x *vget. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2.rows.y.1).y *set.loc.1. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2).University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .u.graph(2.h.0 *set.y *vplot.static dk.mece.graph(1. lmesh. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.fy.www.1).graph(rows.all.2.x.graph(1.2.2).graph(1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.node.graph(2.1).Length /axlab.2.1).2).Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.graph.u.0 *vget.2) /axlab.x *vget.all fk.graph(rows.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.node..1 *vget.node.loc.all.