UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
University of Alberta
s

ANSYS Utilities
An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

s

Basic Tutorials
Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
s

Intermediate Tutorials
Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

s

Advanced Tutorials
Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

s

Postprocessing Tutorials
Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

s

Command Line Files
Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities
An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.
q

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

q

q

q

Index
q

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
q q q

ANSYS Inc.
q

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials
The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.
q

Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

Index
q

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
q

q

University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials
The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.
q

NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
q q

Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
q

Axisymmetric

q

Index

q

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
q

University of Alberta

q

Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials
The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.
q

Element Death Contact Elements APDL
q

Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

q

Index

q

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
q q

q

ANSYS Inc.
q

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials
These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.
q

Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

q

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
q q

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. . ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). Prompting the user for parameters. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

3. Preprocessing: defining the problem. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. 1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. axi-symmetric. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). Solution: assigning loads. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 1D. 3D). here we specify the loads (point or pressure). In general.e. 2D. constraints and solving. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. heat transfer and fluid problems. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results.

.

you will now be prompted to login to GPU.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. you can may want to reboot the computer. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. be sure that your local drive has space for it. as it automatically starts this application when booting. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. ... Windows NT application 2. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. If you don't see this minimized program. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. do this. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. you should see something labeled X-Win32.

but rather. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. . don't select this icon.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.

1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.7. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. . 1. such as file controls. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. selections. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. graphic controls and parameters.

Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. organized by preprocessor. However. such as listing of data etc.0. solution. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. design optimizer. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. e. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. 2. . general postprocessor.b. c. More push buttons can be added if desired. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. d. the menu structure has not changed. while the versions appear different. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary.

.

This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. however. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. The second is by means of command files. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. typically in less than 50 lines of commands.

.

and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry.. For simple models it is of no concern. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. When point loads are used. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution.e. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. General Models . it will only slow the calculations down. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. If the results are nearly similar. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. loading and constraints. In general there are no real firm answers on this. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. If the results differ by a large amount however. but for a larger model. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions.

In a solid mechanics problem. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used.In general however. for example. In general. .

Using the Launcher. r Then when you get ANSYS started. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. There are two methods to do this: 1. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point.db . loads. 2.. etc) that you previously saved. Or.db.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . solution. and select your job from the list that appears. and specify the previously defined jobname. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. In that way. r In the ANSYS Launcher. select Interactive. you will at least be able to come back to this point..... select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. ANSYS Inc. if you make some mistakes later on. To save your model.db. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation.

.

from another ANSYS run. Depending on the operations carried out. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. then you only require the . If you plan to use the command mode of operation. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). say Frame.db file... you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). boundary conditions and any solutions. frame. That file may be rerun as is. These files may contain results. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. This file stores the geometry. other files may have been written. starting with an existing log file. Frame again with various extensions: frame. frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session.err Error file (text). If you specified a jobname. This file stores the geometry. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. and the jobname has been specified. q If you will always be using the GUI.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. the name of all the files created will be FILE. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . boundary conditions and any solutions. etc. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution).* where the * represents various extensions described below. Listing of all error and warning messages. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. Once the ANSYS has started.db Database file (binary).log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). etc. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. or move things from the /scratch directory. then the created files will all have the file prefix. frame. frame.

.

However. to get displacements. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.0 Better Quality Plots . For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. Select 'Elem Table Data'. You can pick multiple items. 3. Select 'File'/'Save As. 'Reverse Video'. 1. and choose what you want to list from the menu. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS.' and give a file name to store the results. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'.. 'Monochrome'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In the window that appears. while the second is a scalable vector plot. Then enter the file name of your choice.. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy .. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. 1. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. choose 'List Results'.. 2. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc.

pic'.pic) in the 'Selection' Window.frame. Now that the plots have been read in. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt.'. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. a large graphics window will appear.. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. Load your plot file with the following command: file. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.n where n is plot number. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . This is performed by running a separate program called display. but rather they will be written to the selected file. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. To do this.g.. or HPGL for example.. Either way.. you have a couple of options: 1. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. To save some plots to a file. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.pic if your plot file is 'plots. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you.pic' (with a period). Type in a filename (e.pic'(with a comma). If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Decrease the size of this window. Note that although the file is 'plots. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.: frame. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. Display wants 'plots.

n where n is the plot number. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner.color. The printer information is still present.n command as the other options have now been set.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways.2 /show. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run.1. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.grph. as above. where xx is a number.pscr plot.pscr plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. i. you only require the plot. the postscript image will appear as blank box.e. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. issue the following commands: /show.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. For subsequent plots. you set the postscript color option to '3'. The printer information is still present. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. overheads or even posters! 2. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. starting at 00. To do this.color. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. .3 /show. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx.hpgl plot. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. the postscript image will appear as blank box. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. 3. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. enter the following commands in display: pscr. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour.

the HPGL printer files could be given an '. In a similar way. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.hpgl' extension. exit display by entering finish .

. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. you will want to leave it. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .W. holes. Also. by suppressing them in Pro/E. Of course. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. mesh control. loads. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. etc. Step 1. if the feature is critical to your design. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. many modeling options for constraints. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. analysis types will not be covered. chamfers. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here.

Several edges are rounded. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. Model units are inches. For this model.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. . the plate and the loading hole are removed. So. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face.

Basically. This is where we specify modeling information. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. curves. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. and so on. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. . Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. loads. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. We proceed in a topdown manner. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints.Step 2. idealizations). Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. surface regions. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window.

and surfaces). edges. In the final computed model.Defining Constraints For our simple model. and Z. Prescribed. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. Fixed. all we need are constraints. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. Select Surface. Y. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. and a specified material. . In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. loads. and Function of Coordinates). rotational constraints are active if specified. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). For our solid model. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. For beams and shells. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. For each direction X. A dialog window opens as shown above. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. only one set can be included.

You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. The load should be . and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. These can be solved at the same time. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. another might contain the support forces. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. another a temperature load. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Loads are also organized into named load sets.For our model. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. Note these are relative to the WCS. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. Then select OK. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. Enter the force components at the bottom. For example. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. and select the OK button. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog.

At this point. you will see the properties of the chosen material. Step 3. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. In the STRC MODEL menu.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. In an assembly. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. loads. you could now assign this material to individual parts. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. material). our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. If you select the Edit button.

like "ansystest". The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. Enter a short description.Specify a name for the analysis. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. Now select OK. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. Step 4. Select the type (Structural or Modal). The MEC STRUCT window. .

If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. The results are indicated in columns on the right. Select Close. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). shown in wire frame. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. Here is an image of the default mesh. evaluated for the model. .This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then.

you can select the Controls option. This will allow you to select points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. For example. maximum mesh size. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. edges. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. and so on. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. .

In the MEC STRUCT menu. select Run . Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. loads.Step 5. materials. mesh).

mesh. . loads.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. We are now finished with Pro/E. In the Analysis list. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. and material) is listed. Select OK and read the message window. Copy the . In the Solver pull-down list at the top. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. select ANSYS.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. select Structural. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . The analysis we defined (containing constraints.ans).

Step 7.. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left.. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . and select Apply.Step 6. Step 8. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. Select the . you will be informed that the solution is complete. This will read in the entire model.ans file you created previously.

Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). A = 3250mm2).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. reaction forces. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. p. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.

Note: to get the title to appear immediately.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . these keypoints are the ends of each truss. For this example. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body.

If you first press r . click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).y coordinates: 0. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. and enter the x. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. Note: When entering the final data point.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.

lines. elements. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. thus making any conversions where necessary. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. The following window will then appear: . volumes. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. areas. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. 3. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem.

r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. click on it). click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Left click and a permanent line will appear. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. r r r .e. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. When you're done.

If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. The following window will then appear: . they have most likely NOT been deleted. This is called 'meshing'.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. However. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

' button. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r 5. The following window will appear: r For this example. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.r Click on the 'Add..

r In the Preprocessor menu.. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'.. Click on 'OK'. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. . The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now.0'. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. 7.

8. enter the desired number of divisions per line. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. For this example we want only 1 division per line.r In the size 'NDIV' field. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. therefore. we have simply defined the element sizes.

q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. node numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q ...Plot Numbering To show the line numbers... keypoint numbers.

you will at least be able to come back to this point. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations... Select the name and location where you want to save your file. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. To do this.. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. Define Analysis Type . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. 1. so if you make some mistakes later on.

you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis.e. pinned and roller-type connections. for example. i. r In the Solution menu. r 2. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. these constraints will typically be fixed. As shown above. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. Click 'OK'. In mechanical structures. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected.

select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. ROT on KPs' window. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. . Therefore.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.

apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). r Using the same method. 3. 210kN. 5. Therefore. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. and 7 respectively. . and 360kN at keypoints 1. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. this is consistent with the previous values input. there are four downward loads of 280kN. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. 3. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Note that we are using units of N here. 280kN. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U.ROT on KPs" window.

This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. .

r The above windows will appear. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'..

2. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' . Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. The following window will appear. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. .

r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. The following window will appear.409). r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. .

r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. . Click 'OK'. Leave the other selections as the default values.

you may want to use more useful intervals.. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. r .r Looking at the scale..

You should obtain the following. .

r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. . This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.

The Element Table is different for each element. If you wanted to save these results to a file. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7..' r . From Table 1. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. using the item 'LS. strains). therefore. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations.2 in the Help file.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. beams.. spars. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line).

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . Next. .'. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Then enter 1 after LS.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. in the 'Item. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .. Comp' boxes. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. This specifies the name of the item you are defining.r As shown above.

you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .

Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Open the . select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.9MPa as predicted analytically. In the dialog box that appears. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..HTML version. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. A . ..PDF version is also available for printing.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. ANSYS Inc.

r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. scale factors. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. etc. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). units.The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to.

Click on the 'Add.e. Now pick keypoint #2. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. r From the Preprocessor Menu. The following window will appear: r r For this example. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. A permanent line will appear. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box... It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. When you're done. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. click on it). You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. r r r 4. The following window will appear: r . Click on the 'Options.' button. Pick keypoint #1 (i.

and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). . Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu.. Click on 'OK'. This gives us extra force and moment output.. r 5. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.

Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. (Alternatively. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress.. Saving Your Work . Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. However.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. enter '20' (i. r r r 7. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. therefore. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. we have simply defined the element sizes. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. r 6. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). For this example we want an element length of 2cm. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. For an element length of 2cm. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. 8. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'.r Click on 'OK'. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum.. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. enter the desired element length. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.

. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. r 2.ROT on KPs' window. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. r r 3. Therefore.. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'.Utility Menu > File > Save as. . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.

Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.4. Hand Calculations Now.2mm as shown above. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find.

Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. r r . Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. In this menu you will find a variety of options. 2. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Click 'OK'. r . Leave the other selections as the default values.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis).

which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . r .r You may want to have a more useful scale.. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example.

spars.' r . r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2... Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.r Are these results what you expected? Again. strains). use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. the right end of the rod. If you wanted to save these results to a file. Click on 'Add. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams..

Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.r As shown above. in the 'Item.Comp' boxes in the above window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear... . select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .

Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element.Again. I and J. as shown in the following image.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. . select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. First. a bending moment diagram can be created.

Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D.'. First...6 in the second Comp box E. Same as above .. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . r In the window.' in the 'Element Table Data' window.To obtain the bending moment for this element. click 'Add. Enter SMISC. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J.this will give a name to the data B. this will give a name to the data B. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .. r Again. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element..again. Click 'Add. A. . A. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. the Element Table must be used.. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.

select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. . Same as above D. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. For step D.C. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window..12 in the second Comp box E. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res.. enter SMISC. Click 'OK'.

pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below).Now. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. Sequence Numbers. you can double check these solutions analytically. Table 1. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. PIPE16 Item. r Before the explanation of the above steps.

1.33 !* LESIZE.0.0.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.0. 1. Copy the following code into the command line.0.0. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.20 LMESH.1.FY.2. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.2.1. z Keypoint. Major Poisson's Ratio. y.the Member moment for node I.1. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. Material 1.70000 MP.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes. all of the lines.1. Material 1. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.0. Note that the text following the "!" are comments. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. Outside Diameter. 0.1 !* R.1. K. . x. y.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ . 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. Material 1. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant. 2.25. x.PIPE16 KEYOPT. !* MP.500.ALL. /PREP7 K.2. Young's Modulus. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0.EX. .2 !* ET.1.6.PRXY.0 !* DK. L.ALL FK. then hit enter.

Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame./STATUS. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines.

The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. Alternatively. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. First. these keypoints are the frame vertices. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model.2. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. Notice that by using variables like this. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members.

y=y2. As with any programming language. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. Reference number for the keypoint. to enter the first keypoint type: K.0. X. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined.# . if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. simply re-enter the code.0.follows: K. x=0. ie .y1.0 r ! keypoint. However. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter. Z where. you may need to add comments. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered. NPT. Y.y2. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively.for the second keypoint you might type: K. type help k into the command line For example. #.2. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation.1.

you have many controls.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . In this example. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. To define keypoint #1. You can either leave the 'Pan. z = 0. Rotate. Zoom. Zoom. To get an isometric view. for example. This was simply used for convenience.. Try experimenting with them. y = 325. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. s 6. 5.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). translating and rotating it on all three axes.. or close it if your screen is already cluttered.

'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . I would write: ' L. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). P1. we will use the command line to create the lines.1. Keypoint at the end of line For example.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. Again.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. to obtain the first line. P2 Line.

don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. we will again use the command line. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . MAT. LAB. define the type of element (pipe16). 8. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio.7. As in the verification model. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. C0 25 2 .

0. KPOI. VALUE2. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. KEXPND. > Static 2. type: ' MP. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Lab2.Valid material property label. Lab3. VALUE.33 ' r 10.1.EX. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11.. DOF label. Material Reference Number. For example. Expansion key. value2. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. Lab5. Lab6 Displacement on K. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. DK.. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. 1. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.PRXY. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').. K #. we will use the command line.Material Property. to pin the . Apply Constraints Once again.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY).. Lab4. Lab.1. value. type ' MP. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis.

first keypoint enter: DK.UX.UY. FY. FK. FZ). We will use the command line to define these loading conditions.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. K. Lab. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4).UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.5.UY. value1. value2 (if req'd) . These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.1.. UZ.0. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0.1. Force Label directions (FX. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same.0. value2 Force loads at keypoints... K #. UX is not constrained. the command line code is: DK. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. KPOI. Again.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . UY.UY and UZ).UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. value.

.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. 'Def + undef edge' .. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. K. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3.FY. the code should look like this: ' FK.3. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. If you need to delete one of the forces.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. 4.

Your screen should look like the plot below: .r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. 'Back'. etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.

. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Turn everything else off. Note the node numbers of interest. so we know what node(s) we're after. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r .2. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. and turn on 'Node numbers'...').

' from the 'List Results' menu. 4. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. 3. Click on 'OK'.. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.... the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. For each element in the model. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . .r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. Then close the 'List Results' menu.

.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. the bending moment diagram can be produced. Select Element Table > Define Table.12) And. to plot the data from the Element Table . Plot Results > Line Elem Res...6 and SMISC. to define the table (remember SMISC. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.

click on 'Save .'. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. In the dialog box that appears.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. and uniform pressure loading.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. ANSYS Inc. A figure of the plate is shown below. plane stress. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).

you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. units. scale factors.

Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. Subtraction will used to create this model. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. a. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. however.

100.100) b.0.s Fill in the window as shown above.200. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0. (Alternatively.0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.

50. (Alternatively. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.20 ) c.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.s Fill in the window as shown above. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. Prior to this operation. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.50.100. your image should resemble the following: .

s To perform the Boolean operation. s . Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.

1.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'.2) . You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.

we need a plane stress element with thickness. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. For this example. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries.' button.. Click and hold the K3 button. therefore Click on the 'Options. four-node element (PLANE42). as shown below. as shown in the above figure. r . PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element..3.

Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.1.1.3) 4.3 (Alternatively.0. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.3.1.(Alternatively.1.20) 5. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. the command line code for the above step is R.200000 followed by MP. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.EX. the command line code for the above step is ET. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.3) 6. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.PRXY. the command line code for the above step is MP.

the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.ALL) You should now have the following: .ALL.) 7. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.25.r Select an element edge length of 25.

Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U..0) 2. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. (Alternatively. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). the left end of the plate is fixed.. 1. Fill in the window as shown below. r r . Apply Constraints As shown previously.ROT on Lines' window. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is DL. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. r r r . select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears.0) 3.ALL. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained.. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. Therefore.4. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). therefore the last field is left blank.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

001 mm .we need to calculate what we should find. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate).4. Hand Calculations Now. 2. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.9 MPa.

We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.. we will check the stress at this point.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged.. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. (as shown below in red) .

we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.9141 MPa at this point. To change the element size.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). r Resize Elements a.

It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). Click 'OK'. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves.the element edge length decreases). ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. This is a mere 2. (note .5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. the values converge towards a final solution.c. d. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.8 MPa. .the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie .

Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.. Then select DOF solution. 3. . this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. r Observe the locations of deflection.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.0012 mm. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. However.. 4. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. USUM in the window. Therefore.

.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate... (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Then select Stress. von Mises in the window. obtain these results as a list. . r 5.. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively.

HTML version. Open the ..' and select the file. Select Stress. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Bracket Example . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.PDF version is also available for printing.

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. Form Geometry Again. a. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. A figure of the plate is shown below. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Create the main rectangular shape . This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.

Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.80. XCENTER. width. height s s Therefore. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. YCENTER. X coord (bottom left).50. Y coord for the center.80. X coord for the center.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.100 b. YCORNER.0. WIDTH. the command line for this circle is CYL4.50 c.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. HEIGHT BLC4. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . RAD1 CYL4. Y coord (bottom left). Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4.0. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. radius s Therefore. XCORNER.

e.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. Boolean Operations . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window..ALL) s . s To perform the Boolean operation.. the command line code for the above step is AADD.

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s .You should now have the following model: f. Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

s Next select the three circles that we just created. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.3) r . Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.1.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. the command line code for the above step is ET.6.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively. (Alternatively.1.3. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'...

3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.ALL) .0.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.EX. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.ALL. 4. the command line code for the above step is R. we will need to make sure the model has converged. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm. Again.5.20) r 5. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5.) r 7. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. (Alternatively.1.1.PRXY. (Alternatively.3) 6.200000 followed by MP.

Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Apply Constraints . It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.. 1. (Alternatively. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.0) 2..

(You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Repeat for the second bolt hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. r 3. you have the option of creating a box.As illustrated. Rotate. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected.. Zoom. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. For this case. Apply Loads . polygon.. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.ROT on Nodes' window. select 'circle' as shown in the window below.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.

We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. 4.As shown in the diagram. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. . at the bottom of the large bolt hole.

2.USUM in the window. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . 3. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. .1. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0.

. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution..) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.r Alternatively.. . r 4. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.. obtain these results as a list.

Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.' and select the file. Select Stress. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .HTML version. Quitting ANSYS ..

select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'..To quit ANSYS.. In the window that appears. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. .

Filleting. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. ANSYS Inc. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . extrusion/ sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.

XCORNER. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. YCORNER.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . WIDTH.

Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.YCENTER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. 3.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.XCENTER.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.RAD . Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.

5 Circle 2 8.2 4.2 0.5 0.BASE.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.y and z offset of the copied area.6 and then click OK.SUBTRACT 5. Enter the y offset as 4. The following window will appear.5 0. r . It asks for the x.

. Add the smaller circles to the large area.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.5 You should obtain the following 6. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.ALL 7.

1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines . Enter 0.r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

8. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. Create the fillet areas r As shown below. .

Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.ALL .

Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.10.#. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.0) and (0.X. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .Y.Z) 2. (K.5. 1. Plot Areas 3.0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis. Then select the following two keypoints r r . By default the graphics will now show all keypoints. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.

.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. Click on OK.

r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . for us to define the bolt holes. However. Create Bolt Holes 1. There are several ways to define a working plane.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. Change the Working Plane By default. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. we need to use a different working plane.

Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. 2. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status .

.5 y=0 r=0. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. fill in the blanks as shown.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees.0. The following window will appear.0. 3. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. By default those values would be 0. 4.note the origin of the working plane. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the ..PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the Base 1.

7. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.20 followed by LARC.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.5.4.5. type LARC.5 into the command line) when prompted.1. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.6.8.

RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.5.DY. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).4.DZ) r .6.DX.# Copies (include original).Area#. YCENTER=20.1.

Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.3.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.

You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. we need to change the working plane.100. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. type VOFFST. (Alternatively.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. the first keypoint defines the origin. (Alternatively.6. Change the working plane As in the previous example. Note.102 into the command line) . in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. Therefore.1. type KWPLAN.101. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. Again. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back.

HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.27. YCENTER=180.26 4. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. YCORNER=0.2. . WIDTH=102.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together.1. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0.

5. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51.180. RADIUS=32. Area 3 5. . Area 2. YCENTER=180.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. Area 1. . RADIUS=18. .51. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51.32. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . YCENTER=180.

1.202 into the command line) 2. 203.-1.4 3. type WPCSYS. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.57735*26) 129-(0.200.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. type KWPLAN. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.1. the first keypoint defines the origin. (Alternatively. 204 .201.

200.'.204 4. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.203..Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.. . In the dialog box that appears.

Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Harmonic Dynamic . The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. /title.

z) 1 2 (0.. and rotation about the Z axis).. K.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.#. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0) (1000.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm..ANSYS Inc.. 3.67 iii. 6. 7. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..1. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.y.x.y. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166... > Add. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . enter the following geometric properties: i.0) 4.

.3 8. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Density DENS: 7..81m/s2 in the y direction. enter the following density for steel: i. r . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. The following window will appear. 10.ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0 2.86e-6 9. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears..

There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.0..1. ACEL. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. .Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).ALL. DK.9.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape . Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. > Def + undef edge PLDISP.2 ..4..777mm 2.

A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.. Open the .777mm. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. This is in agreement with the theortical value. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As observed in the upper left hand corner. .

The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

0) (1000. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .K#.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Distributed Loading 3. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.. enter the following geometric properties: i. and rotation about the Z axis)...y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. With only 3 degrees of freedom. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.#.y) 1 2 (0.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.x. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.0) 4. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis... 5. /title.ANSYS Inc.

9. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .3 8.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm.333 iii. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm.0 2. . enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 3. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). over the entire length of the beam. As shown in the following figure.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .

. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. In the window that appears. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.. . select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. 4.2 2.

' d. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. 8. . A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. Click 'OK'. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. click 'Apply' 5.1. (ie. For this problem. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. For this example. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Click 'Add.. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window.. 9..' 3. In the window that appears a. 7. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window).. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. 3 for the 'J' nodes. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. 6. In the second window of the same section. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. r As shown in the plot below. select 'NMISC.

.. Open the . .' and select the file. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic . contact elements).Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). To solve this problem. After each increment.Harmonic Dynamic . the load will added incrementally. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .

ANSYS Inc. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window..069e-5 iii.. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. 1.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .125 inches. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. enter the following geometric properties: i. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. and rotation about the Z axis).03125 ii. 5.. 2.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.0) (5. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..y) 1 2 (0. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. With only 3 degrees of freedom.0) 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.25 x 0. 4. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. > Add. 6. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.

.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. not non-linear material properties. If we were considering a block of wood.1 " (50 element divisions along the line).. The following image will appear: . it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.i.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2. 7. 8.. for example.

This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. C. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. however.

Options include the full Newton-Raphson. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. F. This command controls the solution data written to the database. the load is ramped. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). with the Automatic Time Stepping is on.Now. D. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. stress stiffening is automatically included. E. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. For some special nonlinear cases. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. the modified Newton-Raphson. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. By default. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. However. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. By default. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. By default. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. type help followed by the command into the command line. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. For more information about these commands. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. By default. the previously computed matrix.

Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). . 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.

> DOF solution.1 2..U..1 ..General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Y. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.0. UY PLNSOL. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.> DOF solution. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.3. However. the load was applied in steps.. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. this is not realistic for large deflections. Define Variables . you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. Modeling the system non-linearly. As you recall. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. However. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

...r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .

.

. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .HTML version.' and select the file. .

5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.Harmonic Dynamic . .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . For more information regarding setting the time value. and many other solution control option. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration.Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. see Chapter 8.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. In this example.

s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. If the problem is relatively linear. Generally.5% for loads. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. This is what will be explained next. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. or is not converging. Thus. if the solution is highly non-linear. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. this graph relates to forces and moments. which this graph is taken from. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. For each parameter. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. which ever is greater. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). Once this occurs. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. as expected. As can be seen in the graph above. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels.001).ANSYS Inc. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. such as this. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. for more information about changing iteration settings. the curves may be for temperature. In simpler terms. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. However. many iterations will be required. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. In the case of a structural analysis. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. For ease of explanation. you can see Chapter 8.5 in the help file. we will look at the force curves. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. there are two curves plotted. etc) that iterates to find a solution. 2. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. In the case of a structural example. Some analyses use normalized values. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. For instance. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. Again. For each substep. . which is discussed in the help file.

.

Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. material nonlinearities and gaps. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. However. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). real-world buckling prediction analysis.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ie. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. large-deflection. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. in real-life. 2.Modal Dynamic . it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. load perterbations. This method is not recommended for accurate. For this type of analysis.Harmonic Dynamic . . It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.

Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. Define Keypoints . Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The required load to cause buckling. rigidly constrained at the bottom. applied at the top-center of the beam... Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .ANSYS Inc. /title. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. will be calculated.

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . 6.3 .1.333 iii.100) 4. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. > Add. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. K.. and rotation about the Z axis)..#. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm.y) 1 2 (0.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x....0) (0. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. enter the following geometric properties: i.X..

prestress effects must be activated.8. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. select the unabridged version.. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. If you are looking at the abridged menu. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'.0 2. r r . Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. 9.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..

4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained).3. . Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load.

with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly.1 8. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. 5. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. However. 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.

. however.r Complete the window which appears.. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). and ensure that it is on. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. 11. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver.. The 'Subspace' method could also be used.. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . 9. r . Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. This time. is for an expansion pass. as shown below. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver.

Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. which is in Newtons for this example. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r .123).LIST 2. /POST1 SET. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /TITLE..#. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.X.Y . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2..

enter the following geometric properties: i.100) 4.3 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. With only 3 degrees of freedom.2 5. 7... the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.333 iii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. 6.y) 1 2 (0. L. Define Mesh Size . Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i..1.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis).0) (0.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.. > Add. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.

.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. ESIZE.. The following image will appear: . For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line).1 9. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2..

Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . this takes time. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. D. however. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. F.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. C. B. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. E. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. The model should now look like the window shown below. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. type help followed by the command into the command line. 3. 4. For more information about these commands. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. .

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 .

Y.U.. > DOF solution.1 ..r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.0. UY PLNSOL.

1. However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. . you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. .

click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.r To add another variable. On the Time History Variable window. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.

so you must change them manually. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.2. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. .

which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.000 N.. .The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force. Open the . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.123 N.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . ANSYS Inc. In such a case. For instance. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.Modal Dynamic . This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

#. L..y) 1 2 (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. /title..0) (0. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.100) 3. > Add. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . 5. NonLinear Materials 2.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. 6. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element...1. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.X... Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.2 4. enter the following geometric properties: i.

001 0. click Graph to see the curve. When the data for the first point is input. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data. Then click OK.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. It should look like the one shown above. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.003 0.005 0. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. click Add Point to add another.004 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. When all the points have been inputed.002 0. the stress-strain data must be included.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 .

.8 9 10 11 12 13 0.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).250 0.200 0.0 2. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. The following image will appear: . /REPLOT 7.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. 8.150 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.060 0. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.100 0.

Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. data for every load step is written to the database. E. you can plot certain parameters over time. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. F. this takes time. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. however. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. . This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. C. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. D. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Therefore. Ensure Line Search is 'On'.

B. type help followed by the command into the command line. For more information about these commands. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . 4. 3.

. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.This shows the convergence of the solution.

0. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. UY PLNSOL.U. > DOF solution.Y.2.1 ...

However. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. . you can obtain the results (such as deflection. The following window should open automatically.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. . Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. click the add button again. so you must change them manually.r To add another variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. On the Time History Variable window. This will make the reaction force the x-variable.

A .PDF version is also available for printing. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. as the force increased.' and select the file. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. you will see the solutions are very similar.HTML version. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. However. was low (in the linear range). This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . When you verify this example analytically. and subsequently the stress... Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .

please use the links below. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .

.2 2. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. The following window will appear .ANSYS Inc.

it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. . select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.r As shown. It is therefore more exact but. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below).

r For this problem. 3. 4. . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1... Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). we will use the default options so click on OK. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary.

e.69 472. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. r To view the next mode shape. Select 'Def + undef edge'. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).01 145. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .0 0.0 0. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.68 285. 2.22 ANSYS 8. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . instead of 10 elements.54 Percent Error 0.311 51.2 0.94 145.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.51 472. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .300 52.64 285.1 0. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .

3. Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .

r r

Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.
q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

q

Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.
q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:
r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints
r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:
r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range
r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

In our case it is assigned Frequency. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1..In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .. which is node #2. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). and the following window should pop up. By default.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. .

view the log scale of UY.311 and 51. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear . This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.3 and 51 Hz.94Hz.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. To get a better view of the response.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.0.PDF version is also available for printing..HTML version. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.' and select the file. r For ANSYS version lower than 7. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . See the help file for instructions.100 Hz. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 ..

.

Modal Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. for example. . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.ANSYS Inc. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The smaller the time step. However. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. After the application of the load.

transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. However. Select 'Reduced' as shown. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. if stresses and forces are of interest than. In other words. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. the calculations are much quicker. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). In ANSYS. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. r . a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. However. please use the links below. Therefore. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. It is the quickest of the three methods. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.

The following window will open. 3. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). . choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs.2. see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis.

We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0).Initial Conditions i.4. However. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). Therefore. two sets of initial conditions are required. Load Step 1 . initial displacement and initial velocity.Time Step . We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. Note that for the reduced method. ii. both default to zero. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.001 seconds to be used for this load step. . This will specify a time step size of 0. for this example we can skip this step. a. We can also solve for each load step after we define it.001. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution.. s set [DELTIM] to 0.

Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .iii.

Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. and set a time of 0. ii. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time ..001 for the end of the load step iii. Load Step 2 i. Load Step 3 i.Time Step .s01 b. ii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Specify Time and Time Step Options .

Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted.Time Step . select Utility Menu > List > nodes). We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). which is node #2. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. .. 1. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. By default. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. In our case it is assigned Frequency.

and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ...r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. .3.

We also see another response at a higher frequency. we would have to expand the reduced solution. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. if stresses and forces are of interest. . We did not specify damping for our system. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. However. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam.

This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.11 seconds r r r 2.08 and 0. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded.11 seconds.08 and 0. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. 1.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam . For this case.. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.

0.s01.7. 0.000000000E-03. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. but now we will consider damping. 0.00000000 .00000000 . We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files. 0. /COM.00000000 . 0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.00000000 DMPRAT.00000000 .TEMP. 0. We will now re-run our transient analysis.ROTZ.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 .ANSYS RELEASE 5. 0.. 0. .00000000 . 1.00000000 . D. 0.500000000 . 0._TINY DELTIM.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. 0.00000000 . 0. .UY .00000000 TREF...00000000 NCNV.0.00000000 . 0. 1. 0. 0..00000000 .00000000 TINTP. 1.00000000 0.00000000 ALPHAD.00000000 . 0.0.00000000 D. q .R5.DAMP BFUNIF. 0 DOMEGA. 0. 4 TRNOPT. D. 0. 5. 0. 0.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0.00000000 OMEGA. 0. 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0. The file should look like the following.00000000 .00000000 0. -1.01 in all three load step files.00000000 . 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. /GOPR 1.R5.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. TINTP.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 . We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. 0.00000000 .DEFA ACEL.00000000 .00000000 0.000000000E-03 TIME. -1. 0.UX . 0.00000000 0.REDU. 0.00000000 ERESX. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.00000000 CGLOC. 1.00000000 .00000000 DCGOMG.00000000 BETAD.

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' . The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26...q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1. After selecting MDOFs. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. After the results have been calculated. Now go to 'File > Read input from. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . Open the .

. A .and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.

Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.

PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. 1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0 2. Width=1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Height=1 BLC4.1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.ANSYS Inc. Quad 4Node 55 ET.PLANE55 For this example.05 AESIZE..0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.1 4.KXX. Give example a Title 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.05 7.0. Quad 4node 55). 5. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.1. Y=0.ALL.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.10 6.. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.1. Apply Constraints .0.

Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. or Radiation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flux. Convection. Heat Flow. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.options cannot be selected. In this example. Heat Generation. r r The following window will appear: . all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.For thermal problems.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. r 3. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. > DOF solution...

then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. however. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. .. Open the . A .' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. followed by the side and bottom constraints.HTML version.

Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0 to solve simple thermal examples. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

0.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1.ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1.0. Y=0..0.0 2. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Width=1. 5. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.1.KXX.. Apply Conduction Constraints .PLANE55 As in the conduction example. 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.05 AESIZE. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Height=1 BLC4. Quad 4node 55). 6. Give example a Title 2.1 4.05 7.ALL.

In this example. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. The following window will appear: r . while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3.

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. 4. r . This is because we have uniform convection across the line.r Fill in the window as shown. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius.

> DOF solution. thereby modeling an insulated wall... Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This will eliminate convection through the side.

' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. A . Open the .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.Harmonic Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.040 kJ/kg*K. Also.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.

PLANE55 For this example.KXX.ANSYS Inc. 5. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0..ALL At this point.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Quad 4node 55).C.1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.0. Width=1..05 AESIZE. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node..10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.2. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. /Title. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.DENS.920 6.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.1.04 MP.05 7. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Height=1 BLC4.0.1 4.ALL. Y=0.1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.4 The window shown below will pop up. so click OK.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . We will use the defaults.

2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. .

of substeps to 20. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Max no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. of substeps to 100. Min no.

D) Set Line search to ON . 3. Heat Generation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. By writing the data at every step. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. Heat Flow. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. Convection. In this example. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. or Radiation. Basically. For a complete description of what these options do. Heat Flux. refer to the help file. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up.options cannot be selected. r r . constraints can be in the form of Temperature.

The following window will appear: .

> DOF solution. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Temperature TEMP .. r 4..

. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. Fill in the window as shown..Animate Results Over Time r First. specify the contour range. with 8 contours. . user specified. from 100 to 500.

.r Then animate the data. 0 . Auto contour scaling OFF.300 Time Range. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames.. DOF solution > TEMP) . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.

Also. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. the curves are practically identical. . As can be seen. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time.

Analytical Solution .

Creating the Temperature vs. . Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The following window should open automatically.

.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. node 261. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. This is because the solution has not completely converged.2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. To cause the solution to converge. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. Instead. . From experience. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. will cause the solution to converge.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .' and select the file.HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .

As a warning.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.Modal Dynamic .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Harmonic Dynamic . be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. In this case. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

Y2 .Y1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .ANSYS Inc... Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.X1.X2. /title. Axisymmetric Tube 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.

For an axisymmetric problem. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. Triangle 6node) element. . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 6. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). to create the geometry mentioned above. axisymmetry is not supported. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area.. button. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. click the Options. Solid. Many elements support axisymmetry. 5.. we must define a U-shape... however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. Therefore.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 9.7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: .3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.C. . Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. at x=0. By using the symmetry B.0 2. as shown below. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.C. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. command. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions.

Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. then click OK. .r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus.

Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. click on Cancel to close the window. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. 3.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). 4. This is required to constrain the model in space. Once you've clicked Sele All. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. Therefore. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. otherwise it would be free to float up or down.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. r 5. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

182 MPa. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0.55 in the Min.. as shown below and click OK. 2.Max box. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities. ..

we must average the stress over the thickness. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.. such as corners. the stress in the tube is 0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.182 MPa. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric.18552 + 0. (0. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.17866)/2. The following window will appear.. matching the analytical solution. 3. to approximate the analytical solution. . r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. The average is used because in the analytical case. Thus. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators.

Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling..HTML version. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. rectangular plate. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .4.. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. If this is done. with a rectangular hole in the middle. Thus. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. as expected due to the change in geometry. the model is a flat. . A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. The rest of the commands remain the same.

and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .7. a wall thickness of 10. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

. /title. and rotation about the X.. . COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Y and Z axis).Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Y and Z axis. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. Define Element Types For this problem. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16.Catapult 3.

. ROTY). and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. a. s Select 'Combination'. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. there should now be three types of elements defined. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. For this example. ROTX. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. UY. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. UZ.. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis.. UY). Click 'OK'. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 4. s Select 'Combination'. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX.a. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure.. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. c. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. b.

x.#. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.0.0. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.0. Click 'OK'. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. 5. Define Element Material Properties 1. there should now be three types of elements defined. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. In the window that appears. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.1000) (1000.. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.33 6.0.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.1000) (1000.y..0) (0.y. N. c. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.z) (0.0) . COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.

500) (0.0) (700. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.400... Create PIPE16 elements a.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0. The following window will appear.-500) 7. 'Material number' is set to 1.700. Then click 'OK'.0.1000.0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0.500) (0.1000) (0.0. .0) (0.1000.0.1500) (0.500) (400.1000) (0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .

node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. the first entry would be: E.6). node a.1. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.b. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .

The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Create elements When defining a joint. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Then click 'OK' b. three nodes are required.

Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines.node a. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9.node a. To do this. 10. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes.E. node b. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. we do not need to mesh our model. 11. Then click 'OK' b. you can list all the elements defined in the model. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines.

. 3. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . we need to include the effects of large deformation. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..0 2. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.
r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint
r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
Extracting Information as Parameters:
To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume
r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.
r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam
r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. However.. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'.. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. However. r r 7. Fill this table as done previously. this is not always the case. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. 1.. This will give you the max stress at the j node. 8. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. . Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. fill it in as shown previously . > Add. however.. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. we can now solve the optimization problem... View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281.3 (instead of NMISC.. Comp selection box r r r 6.1).

.75.1 !* /GO DK.H. . FLST. .RATI.2.. 20 /PREP7 K.1..1. 20 *SET..3.0.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.0.. LMESH. .EX.PRXY.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.BEAM3 !* !* R..100.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.. .H .3 !* LESIZE.1..1.1.. .1.200000 MPDATA..txt’ Click ‘OK’.....ans.UY..1.0 FLST. .. L. MPTEMP.1.1 FITEM.1 FITEM. .2. . .. .2.3.. .. Design Optimization *SET.2. . If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.1..W*H. ...0 MPDATA.ORDE.start70.ORDE.W .(W*H**3)/12. K.0.1 /title.1. 1.UX. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.. .ANSYS RELEASE 7.ALL. 2 !* HPTCREATE..1.P51X..1000.2 .0. !* !* MPTEMP.0.LINE..2.. !* ET.. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.0.

.P51X.0.ETAB.ITEM.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.SMaxI..NMISC.0.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.UX.NMISC.SMAX_I. . Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.ETAB. !* *GET. Therefore.0. .SMax_J. However.!* /GO DK. FLST.0.VOLU.UY.1 FITEM. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. .C:\Temp\. .SMax_I..optimization.P51X. ETABLE. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.1.FY.P51X.UY. . If you created the geometry etc.0.MAX AVPRIN. . ETABLE. using command line code.3 !* /GO FK.Volume.SSUM.2. 1 !* ESORT.0. .SORT.SMAX.0. ETABLE. . Change this to: DK. .EVolume. .0.3. .0.0.0..SMaxJ. .SMAX_J. .UY.EVOLUME AVPRIN. 3 !* ESORT.DK. .-2000 ! /STATUS. !* SSUM !* *GET. !* *GET. . .0. most of these changes will already be made. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.1.MAX *SET. . To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.ORDE. .1. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 .2.1.SORT.0.UX.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. .

FK. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization.0. For the width and height.-2000 Change to: FK.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . If you are comfortable with command line coding. In our problem. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears.UY.0. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. . In this example.P51X. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. Now that we have decided our design variables. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. . These variables are necessary to constrain the design. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .0. . we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. In this example. . To define variables. . Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect .2. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable.P51X. 3. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem.UY. Without this SV.DK. .3. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.FY. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. NOTE: As previously stated. 2. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. . the SV is the maximum stress in the beam.FY. r Click ‘OK’. . This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. Change to: DK. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. the width and height of the beam are the DVs.0.

We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. we will select a tolerance of 0. .01MPa..on the volume of the beam.01mm. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). Because the volume variable is the objective variable. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. For the stress variable... Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. > Add.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.. a. we do not need to define an allowable range. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. > Add...

Under Convergence Tolerance. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. . it is advisable to use different solution methods. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool.. Defaults to 0. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Percent forward diff.2 Click ‘OK’... DELTA = 0. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. enter 200. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.... Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. Defaults to 10. Click ‘OK’. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. confirm that the analysis file. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window.001) c. 6. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong.2% 7.

C. and the stress is equal to 199.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. View the Results 1. You will probably see that the width=13. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. height=29. 2..The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.. B. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.16 mm. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A.. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .24 mm.. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables.

In the window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. ... you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy.. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.

A .You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Open the . Alternatively. Now go to 'File > Read input from. In addition.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. all of the results data (ie stress.. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. .. displacement. .. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. use whichever variable is necessary to plot.HTML version.

.

The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. however. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).5 MPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply loads to the super-element . A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. For this example. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. v = 0.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. substructuring will be used for the wood block.

then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Apply remaining loads to the model..XCORNER. . Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.2. 3.. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).YCORNER.WIDTH. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.

r . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. This element has 4 nodes.SUBST 2.29 6. 7. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. 5. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear..For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid)..

r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. 3. r . With the option SEPR. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. In this case. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . 5. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.

Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. FILNAME.YCORNER. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 .XCORNER.WIDTH. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model... Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4... USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.41 8. 7. 9. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data ..6. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1 10. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. The following window will appear. Select Model Data. Young's modulus EX: 2. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.5 (MPa) ii. Therefore. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. For Selected set as shown.. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. ..).

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From .. Select Nodes.. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11. .. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .. 40 as shown. By Location. The following window will appear.SUB File. Y coordinates.

0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Apply super-element load vectors .r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities ... In the window that appears. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution . r 4..1 .) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector.U.SUM. > DOF solution.0.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Translation USUM PLNSOL... Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.

Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. FILNAME. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.

.. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. r .ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.3. r 2. r 3..db . The following window will appear. The following window will appear. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step... Type 'EXPASS.

U.4. > DOF solution.SUM.1 . Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Translation USUM PLNSOL.0...

Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0). This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.. ..PDF version is also available for printing. A .' and select the file. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. However. Loads will not be applied to the link. stress is created in the link. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For convenience. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. the link will attemp to expand. . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). A steel link.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.the solutions and . a thermal conductivity of 60. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K)..5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. with no internal stresses. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

x. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. K. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.y.y. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. For instance. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L." Thus.#.1. For our case. /title. where the thermal effects will be applied. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. and write them to memory.z) 1 2 (0. Although the geometry must remain constant. However. the element types can change. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment..Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. It is important to note. Thermal Environment .z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0) (1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . and using it with any following coupled environments. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. the geometry is kept constant. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.0) 4. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. the analyses are coupled. Thermal Stress Example 2.2 . For a listing..

.. 6. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.5 8... In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK.... For this example we will use an element edge length of 0.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2.1 meters. 5. enter the following geometric properties: i. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. representing a link 1 meter long. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. > Add. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. 9. KXX: 60. . 7. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element.

Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. material properties. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up.3 . Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.11. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. etc. 2. In this case it is LINK 8. In this case. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. which is defining the structural environment. see the help file. Structural Environment . 1. so it can be used in the next stage. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. It does not clear the geometry however. such as the element type. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For more information on this element. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. all that is required is to detail the structural variables.

Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. ALPX: 12e-6 3.0 2.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. . enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.

. If this is not done. The thermal solution has now been obtained. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. to 348 Kelvin.rth. this data can be found as file. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. 8. the left-most point. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. This should make it visible. as expected. 4.rth.rth. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. were . Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. you will get error messages. 6. 7. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1.rth is the thermal results file. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. enter the file name File.

Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.9.

Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line.LS. 2. an element table must be created first.1 3. Instead. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.CompStress. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.1 ETABLE. List the Stress Data .As shown.

or 180 MPa in compression as expected.180e9 Pa. .CompStr The following list should appear.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Note the stress in each element: -0.

. A ..HTML version.' and select the file.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . By keeping mesh density rather coarse. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Thus. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. rather than increasing mesh density. computational time can be kept to a minimum.

P-Method Meshing 2. as shown below . /title.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.ON Select p-Method Struct.. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..

y.52) (55.y.52) (80.#. K.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.100) (20.3.x...0) (0. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.100) (45.100) .

3.11.2.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.0) (80.8.9. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.1.0) (55. 6.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.48) (20.7. ..100) (100.0) 5..10.5.4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.48) (45.6.

. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add. shown below.. and Plane145. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.. go to the Element Library in the help file. enter the following geometric properties: i. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. to open the keyoptions window.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. click Options. After clicking OK to select the element.... Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Plane146. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). For more information on these elements. Solid147. For now we will leave them as default. 8. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. 7. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm..0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. . 10..ii.3 9. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. .A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. of substeps to 20. Max no. of substeps to 100. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Min no.

Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select Stress > von Mises SEQV .5.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.3.

and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. As a comparison. For more complex geometries. . a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. these orders may go as high as 8.

.

This is the benefit of using p-elements.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . A .As one can see from the two plots. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. thus computational time will be low.. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. However. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered.. and still get reasonable results.

Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". The elements are still technically there.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. For further information. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . but will not be discussed here. Element birth is also possible.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1.0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node..0.03.03 BLC4. enter the following properties: i.. For this example.03 4.0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. enter the following properties: i.. Element Death 2. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following properties: .03 Height = 0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Quad 4node 55). 5. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.0..

Density DENS: 920 6.4 2. Therefore. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up.0005m. ANTYPE. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software... so click OK. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. you .i. 7. We will use the defaults. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.FULL into the commmand line. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.must type NROPT. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . 3.

the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. For a complete description of what these options do. Basically. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. 4. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . By writing the data at every step. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. refer to the help file.D) Set Line search to ON .

5. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Convection. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. In this example. or Radiation. Heat Generation. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Heat Flow. . Heat Flux.

The model should now look as follows: .

Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. the user can manually kill. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. Assume the material melts at 273 K. elements to create the desired effect.. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. or turn off. Here. . For instance.LAST 2..

3. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK.. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK.r Click on 'Add. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.' Fill the window in as shown below. .

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

which this analysis doesn't call for. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. thus it is just warning the user.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. 2. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. this will kill only those elements.all into the command line. This is much too time consuming in this case. Click OK to restart the analysis. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. . Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. and close the warning message. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All.

. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.With the window still open.

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. That way.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. more accurately modelling the heating process..This procedure can be programmed in a loop. Open the . using command line code.HTML version. to more accurately model element death over time.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .

A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. are 100mm long.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Contact Elements 2. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. causing it to bend and contact the lower. /title. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . The beams. as shown below. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

100. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y). 100... For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. 10) (50.WP Y. Quad 4node 42) element./PREP7 3... This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. 5. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. WP Y. r While the Element Types window is still open. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.WP X... Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. 0. . Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. > Add.Height) 1 2 (0. click Options...Width. Width. 15.. 10) 4.

The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. 6. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls... Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step.. r While the Element Types window is still open. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. This is an important step. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. .In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. click Options. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. pt-to-surf 48) element. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm... enter the following geometric properties: i. 8.3 7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. This way. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.

. you should increase KN. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. rather than node to element edge.. When using contact elements in your own analyses. require a target element. such as CONTA175. In this situation. to function. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact.. you should decrease KN. > Add. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other.It is important to note. If there is too much penetration. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). be sure to understand how the elements work. 10. given in %. such as TARGE169. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. This will be covered below. Since this "spring" is so stiff. Thus. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window.. enter the following properties: i. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. ii.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. resulting in convergence difficulties. A small value of TOLS. Other contact elements. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. . A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. As the surfaces approach each other. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target.

. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis.. tolerances. 11. etc. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. However. In this case. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. when the geometry is complex.. In this simple case. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. the source nodes will be selected.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. Select the top beam and click OK. . source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface.. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. First.

s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.100. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. ... This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.

s Now if you list the selected nodes. ... you should only have the following nodes remaining. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.

s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. and click OK. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. In this case. Source. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. This can be very useful in other applications as well. If you have a lot of contact elements.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. . as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. Now we can use this component.

and click the Sele All button. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. .. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants.. This is done by opening the entity select menu.. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam.Now select the target nodes. and click the Sele All button. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. This is done by opening the entity select menu. These values will be the ones you'll use. clicking the Also Select radio button... Utility Menu > Select > Entities. When creating the component this time. 12. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.. clicking the Also Select radio button. enter the name Target. Using the same procedure as above.

The rest of the selections remain unchanged.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. . Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).

Unfortunately.At this point. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . your model should look like the following. If you wish. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.

Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). If you zoom in on the contact areas.. The preprocessor stage is now complete. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. The following image will appear: . shown below.

Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . this takes time. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. C. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. however. D. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. E. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. B.

3. type help followed by the command into the command line. For more information about these commands. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. leave these relatively high at first. If you have too few substeps. Once everything is working. Also. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. Again. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. However. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 .Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. this is a point load on a 2D surface. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. Note. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. 5.

2. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. 3. If you leave the scaling as default. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . then click ok. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted.0 (true scale) radio button.

Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam.. producing a stress distribution in both.HTML version.' and select the file.. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As seen in the figure.

LENGTH.How long is the truss. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. finish /clear ANSYS Inc.HEIGHT.How many cross supports even number.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.100 *ask. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. using a length of 200 m. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions.2 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. Variables including length. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.How tall is the truss. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.20 *ask. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.DIVISION.

GT.THEN k.i.NUM_K.DIVISION.0 *else k.(DIVISION-1).0.j.1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.1.LE.0.OSCILATE.200000 mp.3 esize.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.1.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.X_COORD.(KEYP+1) *if.KEYP.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.1 .100 mp.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.ex.i.KEYP.1.prxy.THEN L..X_COORD.i.1.1.KEYP.link1 r.

*IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. or a mathematical expression. This argument can be a single value. For more information on this command. is greater than zero.THEN.0. FVAL.How long is the truss. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. However.all finish 1.10). If it is not true it will skip to the *else command.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. Par. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. In this case. For example. OSCILATE. in the code above there is a statement: *if. *do. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. 2. then. For example..3.OSCILATE.lmesh. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key.. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. Thus in later parts of the code. IVAL.9. *ask.. INC.i.".2. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. determining if a certain case has occured.LENGTH.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. As seen above. The syntax for the expression is *DO. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true.10_K. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. the most intutitive method is to use "=". This translates to "if the variable.8. Command File Mode of Solution . but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m.. see the help file.1. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. 4.GT. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. (ie 1.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. .PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. A .The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

. etc.) of the following example. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. /title.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Stress. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2.

3 6. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Height. Y and Z directions).3. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm.Width. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. 7. 5. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4...0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.

therefore. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. options 1. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). 3. 5.0 2. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). For this example we are trying to display a section.ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown .

CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. let's view deflection of the entire model. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1.

From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . offset the working plane to the desired position. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. To illustrate how to take a cross section.

you should now have the following: .As desired.

And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).0. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. however.Width/2.0.1.8 PLNSOL.. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.-1.0.This can be repeated for any slice.SUM.U.0 2. let's view stresses within the entire model. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.0.1 /TYPE.90 /CPLANE. simply use: WPCSYS.0 WPROTA. Equivalent Stress Again..1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.

1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). Because it is much easier. You should now see the following: .1.5 PLNSOL. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.S.0.EQV.1 /TYPE.1/16*Length /CPLANE.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.0. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.0.

Animation Now. and the Y axis. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). Unfortunately. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. In the graphics window.. the origin. Next.. For more information on how to modify the animation. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. r r . Finally. but please bear with me. the sweep direction. type help ancut into the command line. for something a little more impressive.3. select the node in the back.

A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Open the .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.

The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. . a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. For example. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.

0.200.WP Y. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. Then. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. select the areas to be subtracted (ie.. r . the rectangle) and click OK. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. select the area to remain (ie. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.. 4.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below. /title.WP X. the circles) and click OK.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. The remaining area should look as shown below.

r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. In the 'Element Types' window.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. click 'Options. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.3 . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. 8. > Add..... Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.. enter a thickness of 10.6.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7.

r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. 3. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. 10. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1...0 2.9. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. The model should now look like the figure below. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. . uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area.

However. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.4. 1. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. you could create a normal contour plot. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . which would have the distribution over the entire plate.

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this. .

To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. Turn window 1 'off'. r r 2. you must make a couple of changes. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. shown below. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. meaning this function off. To keep window 1 visible during replots. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark.

r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. 3. you must choose what to map to the path. r . equivalent stress is desired. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. what results should be available to the path. or in other words. For this example.

This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. This is of little concern though. 4. so disregard the warning. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.r The warning shown below will probably pop up.

. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Note. Due to resolution restrictions.The display should look like the following. these dots are not shown here.

. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.' and select the file.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. Open the .

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.. rather than using a contour plot. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. finer resolution can be achieved. By plotting this data on a curve. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Use of Tables for Data Plots . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Length of the following beam using tables..UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. a special type of array. /title. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm. 6. Define Element Material Properties . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.#. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. 7.z) 1 2 (0. > Add. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.y.0) (400. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii...2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.0) 4. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.x. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.y. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.2. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. and rotation about the Z axis). K.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x...1... enter the following geometric properties: i..

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 9. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. .0 2. The model should now look like the figure below.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.

Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. This example is a simplified use of tables. Create the Table . 2... Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. Therefore. a special type of array. but they can be used for much more.4. For this example there are 21 nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. 1. Tables. > OK.

r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up.. Note there are 22 rows. The reason for this will be explained below.2. one more than the number of nodes. Enter Data into Table First. In the window shown below. 3. select Model Data > Nodes r . the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .1]. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22..

1) > All > Location > X].. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. r .2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. and continues down the column. column 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .. Next.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. column 2.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. and continues down the column. the vertical displacement will be recorded.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.

thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). This causes problems during plotting. to provide room to move this data. Thus. as it is keypoint 1. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.4. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right.

UY = -0. r . Fill it in as shown. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400.833) is in row two. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V).

. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. To see the changes to the labels.r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .. r r .

Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .PDF version is also available for printing. A .' and select the file...HTML version. Open the .

1.all. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.all finish /solu antype. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2.1.prxy.5 lmesh.1.10 mp.0.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. numbering the nodes. finish /clear /title.1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 dk.833.1.ex.1.0. etc.333.200000 mp.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.100.beam3 r.3 esize. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.0 L.2 et.100. changing the background colour.1.0 K. For instance.

fy..-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. The following window will appear: .fk.2. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering..

For instance. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. sometimes the numbers won't show up. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. To remedy this problem. However. When you click OK. You should get the following: .From this window you can select which items you wish to number.

the nodes have been numbered. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols .As shown. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. 2. These extra symbols may not be necessary. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible.

or Initial Conditions. there are no Surface or Body Loads.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. In our case. . so those sections won't be used. Under the Boundary conditions section.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

the legend or title can be turned off. In this case. . select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. As shown in the window. etc. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. The following output should be the result.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. it is things associated with the window background. To turn off the triad.

.. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.4..

it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. don't be alarmed. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. The following should appear. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. such as BEAM3.When using line elements. If there is no change in output. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. . To aid in this process. thus elements are not going to show up. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements.

As shown. the elements are no longer just a line.. you can change the view orientation. 5.. but they have volume according to the real constants. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. . To get a better 3-D view of the model.

.This window allows the user to rotate the view. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. translate the view and zoom. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. You can also select predefined views. such as isometric or oblique. Basic rotating. Using these options.

Under uniform contours.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. those can also be changed. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire.6. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. . General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. plot the deformation contour for the beam.. they can be changed. Under non-uniform contours. If you don't like the colours of the contour. Changing Contours First.

Here we are only using Window 1. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. 7.. but don't want a black background. . and we'll set the background colour to white..The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire.

. this can be done in other graphic editors. Under the File heading. To save the display. Notice how all the text disappeared. select Save As.. If there is information that needs to be added. This is because the text colour is also white. such as contour values. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image..The resulting display is shown below.

If you are looking for a specific option. these are just a few. as is the help file.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. . the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. When it is complete. select Read Input from. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. 2. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. Then before you are finished. e.cmd) is stored and select it.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. frame.. or if you'd like to save the whole file. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. You may need to select Plot -> . Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file.g. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. see the next item in this list. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1.. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. to a text file. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI).

.frame. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. you may need to point it to the proper directory. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. etc.cmd and yes that is a comma (.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. mode).. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. X11c. Select File -> Clear & Start New. . If the file was in the directory. you would use the following syntax /input. stress. Assuming that the analysis worked properly.. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file.cmd. type /input. At this point you could type in /menu. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. then from the ANSYS input window.. To rerun the command file. Save those changes to disk. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.) between frame and cmd.. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS.frame. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on.on. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show..

x1.l2.y1. .rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.y1.y2 block.kp1.rad1.kp3.y2.z2 cylind.kp2..kp2. kp6 a. setting up different analysis types and post-processing..a2.rad2. .theta1.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.zcoord l.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .kp1.kp2..rad2.z2.ycoord. a10 see online help see online help rectng. applying loads and constraints...l1.. l10 v.. .a1.theta1.kp1. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.kp1.x1.z1.xcoord..kp1.z1. kp8 va.x2. kp18 a.kp2 larc. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.rad1.x2.kp2.. .kp#. ..theta2 sphere.

number.number mp.line2.size. current type is set by mat mat.all amesh.r2.number r..label. a9 asba.number.number esize. . .r1..c1.line1.a2. a9 aglue.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.a1.c0.inc or amesh...a1.a1.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) ... current type is set by type type. ..ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.a2.type may define as many as required.area2.inc or lmesh. . c4 may define as many as required.number.. .a1. r6 may define as many as required.area1.a2 aina. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.. current type is set by real real..a2.

inc or vmesh.node#.MY.ROTX.ROTZ.value labels: UX.FZ.ROTX.MX.UY.value labels: UX.FZ.UZ.value labels: FX.vol2.e.MX.vol1.kp#.ROTY.kp#.label.value labels: FX.line#.ALL dl.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.label.MY.UY.FY.label.label.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .ALL d.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.UZ.area#. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.ROTY.FY.MZ f.node#.ROTZ.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).

but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.0.GT. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.2. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).x2.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.x1.ndivs+1.1 ! do i = 1.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .ndivs.then .else .THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.0. if only is entered.ndivs.0 k.i.0.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.Enter number of divisions (default 5).endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.i.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.x. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".

coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .all.1 kplot klist..kp..! /pnum.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Boolean operations. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. extrusion. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials.

.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example. ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. Dynamic Analysis .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials.Modal Dynamic Analysis .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example.Pure Conduction . This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Transient Thermal Examples . In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.

Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Modelling Using Axisymmetry . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Analysis of heat conduction over time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.Thermal Examples .

The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Using element death to model a volume melting. Additionally.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam.

.

The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. a special type of array.

.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.699*10**(-8) k.0254 rout=8*0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.0.0.1 k.-1 k.7.0 k.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0.0.0 k.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.0.1.8.6.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.7 emis2=0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.0.5.

x.. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.1.rout.1 STEF.1.rout LMESH.arc.7.5.1.x.KXX.1 lsel..6.all csys.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS..SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .VM125 TOFFST..0 GEOM.. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.offset ! inner cylinder.LINK32.1 MAT.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.2.s.KXX.loc.rin LMESH.1 csys..loc..rin.1..all lsel..stefbolt WRITE.TEMP ET.2.1 R.2..arc.ndiv ET.1.1 MAT. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.1.ndiv CIRCLE.circle..s.2 SE.1 MP.all MP.emis2 VTYPE.1 TYPE.2 lsel.emis1 EMIS.7.MATRIX50.ALL lsel.8.1 ESIZE.

1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .x.LABEL.0.1 nsel.all csys.2 *DIM..s. K /POST1 csys.loc.all nsel.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.x.loc.HEAT *DIM.rout D.FSUM.all *GET.VALUE.1.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.TEMP.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.ALL. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.ITEM.x.Q.all nsel.x.TEMP.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.T1 nsel.csys.3 LABEL(1.CHAR.s.rin D.T2 nsel.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.s.ALL.1 nsel.s.loc.1.loc.

1.' '.F10.1.F10.VALUE(1.Q *VFILL.' '.1F5.DATA.exact *VFILL.DATA.1).VALUE(1. FINISH .VALUE(1.2).2).VALUE(1.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.1).ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.3).A8. *VWRITE.LABEL(1.3) /COM.*VFILL. /COM.--------------.' '.DATA.1).VALUE(1.------------------------------------------------------/COM.VALUE(1.3) (1X.

Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save.dat at the UNIX prompt. but have a steep learning curve. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. nedit . puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. so they are always available. one simply types pico test. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. but the backspace key does work normally. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. To use pico to edit the file test. for example. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them.dat. In pico. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. press this key. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The first three mentioned below are text based. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful.

and block delimiting with the mouse. Very nice.exe (look under the r: drive). type wabi or win. when saving files in PFE. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. Applications . This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. For this reason.nedit is a very simple to use. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. From a UNIX command window... NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. undo. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu.3 file format used by DOS. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. It features pull-down menus. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. Therefore. saved. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. and then renamed back to its original name. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. It could then be edited. multiple file editing. yet powerful X Windows editor. and look at the option in the dialog box.

. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. two methods are avialable: 1. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear).ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. To start ANSYS. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.. heat transfer and fluid problems. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. check . it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. From this menu. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. From the next dialog box that appears. over a modem. select your desired font size. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. item. Once this is done. 2. it is necessary to select the Interactive . you may enter ANSYS commands. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. If you've got some time.x11c /menu. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. Then choose GUI configuration. Press Enter to continue.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Press Enter to continue. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home.

To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. Pro/Mechanica. Yokota. For further information on using ANSYS. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. A companion program. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. Toogood. see Dr. see Dr. and design optimization. . check out the Fluent Web page. If you've got some time. Fyfe. performs finite element analysis. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. click on the car figure. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. For further information on this program. sensitivity studies. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. For more information about this program. see Dr. like that shown above. including static analysis. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package.out the ANSYS Web page.

f and sub1. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. redirecting it).out (logical. and output is the name of the file to which the output . For example: xlf main. If your program code consists of many files and libraries.f >& errorfile will compile main. your file must be named something like test.f and not test.' is in your path (this is changed in your .f sub1. i.f sub1.e. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. xlf by itself. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. .out. This program would be run by entering .f sub2./test. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.for or TEST. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. the name of the resulting executable will default to a.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename.cshrc file.F. e. such as error messages. For learning about the compiler's many options. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main. isn't it?).f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. type the command. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance. see Configuration Files).f.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile.f Normally no options are required. to a file.f To run this program. you now type./a. for example.f sub3./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. To change the executable's output name to test. Note that the .

if you know when to enter data. printed and even imported into a word processor. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. symbolic and plotting functions. you can still run your program this way. This is accomplished by means of the diary command.will be sent. From the Matlab prompt. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. So. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it.m files. In this way you will have one window to edit your . You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. The keyboard will still accept the input. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. because it too is being sent to the output file. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. Note that the text . Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . If the program normally prompts the user for input. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. and not actually exit the editor. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. The resulting text file may then be edited. however. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. and what data to enter. the prompt will not appear on the screen. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. you simply type: .m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks).

Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. you must have an X server running on your local machine. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus.labs through to mec30. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20).print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to.ualberta. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). Once the job is completed. The workstations are named mec01. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files.labs. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.labs.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. For example. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. For example. by issuing the command. .

with an accompanying banner page with your username on it.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. To do this.txt. The mecxx. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. type. free of charge.srv. Many applications. In this command. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. or by typing pine at the prompt. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. If your CNS login id is jblow. To use it. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. for example. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. just outside the main part of the lab. either through lynx.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. Pine is based on the pico editor. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. but GPU does. You can enter the mail program called pine. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). see FTP. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu.ca. To use E-mail then. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand.ualberta. . to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. newsgroups and WWW. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). This file is printed in the small room.

Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service.85. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. issue the command: plotpostscript filename.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color.20 per page. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. room B-111). The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. For further information. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. From a GPU account login. If you fail to do so. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). see table of contents. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. . To print from Windows applications in Wabi. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer.eps scale c where filename. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print.128. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. room 240.145 (see FTP). Prints are $0. or appendices. getting started. your job (but not your file) will be deleted.

3*width/2. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. and stress for the truss system shown below.height K. height .2.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. 0 ! keypoint. A. x. Note that Young's Modulus. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 0 K.1. #. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. y K. width/2. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.3. E. width. reaction forces.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.123) ! /title. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.4. p. 0.

.U.F PLDISP.FY. 5*width/2.3.FY.SUM.ALL. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.K.7.6.6 L.1.5 L.EX.7 L.1.1.7.3. 3*width.1.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.5.2 PLNSOL.4. K.3.6 L.3250 MP.4 L.ALL.2 L.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.5 L.200e3 ! element type #1. K.UY.3 L. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK. ! ! define lines ! L.1.-280e3 FK.1.4.0.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.1.2.2.3 L.FY.5. spring element ! real constant #1.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.5.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .FY.LINK1 R.7.4 L.6.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.1. 2*width.5. .-210e3 FK.1.

SAXL.LS.SAXL. 1 PRETAB.ETABLE.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL PLETAB.

Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.6.5. 3*width/2. and stress for the truss system shown below.1. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.3 L. Note that Young's Modulus.1. A.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . x.4.3 L.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.height K. reaction forces. 2*width.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.3. p.www. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. #.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece. 0. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 5*width/2.123) ! /title. 0 K. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.2. E. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.7.1. y K. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. width. height K. 0 ! keypoint. 0 K.ualberta.2. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. height K. width/2. 3*width.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description
The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

3D Space Frame Example
Problem Description
The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example
The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

Plane Stress Bracket
Verification Example
The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . .ALL.2.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ualberta.PRES.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 SFL.4.0 DL.S.mece.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.

2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. A figure of the plate is shown below.80.20.80. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.50.0.80. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.0.20 CYL4. plane stress.20.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .20. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.100 CYL4. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.-20.20 BLC4. and uniform pressure loading.50 CYL4.

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.FY.. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.80. DL.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once. DL.value ! mp.50.20.14.EX.0 ! amesh.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.ALL.0 .3 ! mp.real set number. 8.0 .-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.ALL CYL4.0.3.PRXY.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .0 . DL.5 ! lesize..subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.200000 MP.ALL.0 .ALL.AADD.30 CYL4.ALL.force ! Solve the problem .0 .1.6.0.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE. DL.80.ALL.material number.PLANE82 KEYOPT.10.ALL.12.10 CYL4. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.all areas.13. 7.0 .3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.Young's modulus.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .10 ASBA.1.11.1.material number. DL.direction.0 .0.keypoint. DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.1.ALL.ALL.20 ! r.Poisson's ratio. DL. 9.1.9. .

0.340000.0.2.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL..LTOP /WIND..1 /CONT.0.SUM.. PLNSOL.1. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .10.U.10.0.2.4.4.2 /GCMD.0036 /CONT.EQV.-0.0. PLNSOL.3.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.RTOP /WIND.1 /GCMD.DOF.ALL.0..FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.0.0.EQV..LBOT /WIND.8 /CONT.1 /replot PRNSOL.10.05e-3 /FOC.2.ALL.S.3.1.3.4.EPTO. PLDISP.OFF /WIND.

The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).0. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. plane stress. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. A figure of the plate is shown below. and uniform pressure loading.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.www.ualberta.80.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

11.30 CYL4.ALL.50.50 CYL4.ALL.80.1..20 CYL4.ALL ! Boolean Addition .9.real set number. DL.20.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.200000 MP.80. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .material number. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.value ! mp.20. DL.0.ALL.-1000 (fk command) !fk.20 BLC4.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 .0 .PLANE82 KEYOPT.keypoint.3 ! mp.ALL.1.0.10.12. 7.3.0 . DL.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ALL.ALL.14.20.6. 8..1.0 .10 ASBA.20 ! r.0 .mece.-20.80.0 . all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.60 AADD.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .5 ! lesize. DL. DL.0.ualberta.ALL.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.EX.10 CYL4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.13.Poisson's ratio.20.80.html CYL4.0 ! amesh.0 . .ALL.ALL CYL4.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.PRXY.all areas. DL.0.0.FY.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.1. DL.1.ALL. 9.Young's modulus.direction.material number.50.

PLNSOL.0.1 /GCMD.0.0.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.0.0. PLNSOL.2 /GCMD.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.05e-3 /FOC.EQV.SUM.10.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .4.0036 /CONT.ALL.340000.4.EQV. PLDISP..OFF /WIND.DOF.2.10.LBOT /WIND.U.0. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.1 /replot PRNSOL.S.www.ualberta.2.-0.EPTO.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.4..LTOP /WIND..3.10..1 /GCMD. PLNSOL.ALL.1.0.RTOP /WIND.1 /CONT.0.8 /CONT..3.2.3.

We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Filleting. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. . We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. copying.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

0 K.4.3.2 ASBA..0.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0..7.3.0.22.1. . . ..0 K.0.5.1002.2.5 AADD.ALL CYL4.5.2001. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.1001.ALL ! Sweep K.10.5 CYL4.6 AGEN.6.1.1.3.0.8.5.4.3.1 AGEN.0.3.360.5.ALL LFILLT.9 lines 9..5.7. .0. .5 AADD.1.0.3. .5.1.11..5.2002.2.8.0 VROTAT..5 BLC4.0.2.. 1001 and 1002 K.-0.26.11) AL.10.2.1 BLC4.14 AADD.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.0.2.2.1002.0.1001.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints . AL.0.0.

26 VADD.5 vsbv.1.2.20 L.5.102 K.101. .100.109.all. .12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4. .2.0.1.51 AADD.5.9 vsbv.0.10 AGEN.20 LARC.101.all.0.6.0 K.0.26 VOFFST.20.-20.159.45.2.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.10 vsbv.0.26 K.0.25. . .20 LARC.1.4.2.all.82 K.2003 CSYS.5 CYL4.all.8.5.3.6.102.5.0.2.1.-1.102 BLC4.1.6 AL. .11 vsbv.5.82 K.02 KWPLAN.8 vsbv.1 VGEN.1 KWPLAN.13.1.-20. .180.0 K.0. .8.27.62 ASBA.102.2.ALL VOFFST.51.7 vsbv.102.6 vsbv.6.100.sqrt(3)/0.0.102.7.4.69 AGEN.7.3. .2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .8.5.180 CYL4.6. .2001.5.2 CYL4.7 AADD.2002.K.2003.4.0.5. .109.20 K.109. .

129-(0.57735*26) + 38.1.204.180.36.201. .-1.-20.2.1 WPCSYS.57735*26).18.180.5.0.38 AADD.30 KWPLAN.0 system K.202 CSYS.203.20.32.61.51.-20. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .26 K. VADD.0 A.129-(0. .51.204 VOFFST.33.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.200.7.200.3 CYL4.0.34.200. . .-1.26 K.202.201.32.61. . .60 VSBV.AADD.203.61. sqrt(3)/2*76.60 VADD.0 K.37 CYL4.

html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.ualberta. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. Filleting. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . extrusion/sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.mece.www. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. copying. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.0.5 BLC4.8.0.4.2..5.3. .1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0.9 AL.0.2002.0.1.0.7.7.0. .0.3.5.3.0 K.2.5.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.ALL ! Sweep K.1.1001.3.-0..360.5 AADD.0.4.1001.0 K.6.1.6 AGEN.3.. AL.ALL CYL4... .2.11.2.ualberta.1 BLC4.0 VROTAT.mece. LFILLT.3.0.1.3.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5 CYL4.2.1002.8.1002.26. K.0.2001.22.2003.14 AADD.5 AADD.2 ASBA.0 K.5.5. .5.. .1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . .www.0.ALL LFILLT.1 AGEN.1.2.0..10.5.

2003 CSYS.2001.02 KWPLAN.8.ualberta. .20.20 LARC.159.0. .2.5.5.25.100.5.2 AADD.6.1.0.101.36.26 VOFFST.5.0 K.38 AADD.82 K.82 K.0.5 CYL4.51.2002.51 AADD.34.mece.2.7.10 AGEN.102 BLC4.1.109.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.13.7. .26 K.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .all.102.2 CYL4.0. . .32.all.-20.102. .180 CYL4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.2.6.2.6 vsbv.5.ALL VOFFST.5.5.1 VGEN.0 K.3.4.4.8.8.26 VADD.180.20 LARC. .102 K.1.7 vsbv.0.0.-1.6 AL.2.1.20 L.0. .2.109.html KWPLAN.9 vsbv. .all.-20.8 vsbv.1.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.69 AGEN.www.4.1.33.7 AADD. .5.6.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .45.20 K. .62 ASBA.11 vsbv. .6.all.109.27.102.100.101.5 vsbv.sqrt(3)/0.10 vsbv.102.0.

129-(0. .0.60 VADD.30 KWPLAN.32.200.61.200.1 WPCSYS.26 K.201.mece.201.60 VSBV.ualberta. .180.-20.1.5.0.202.202 CSYS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. sqrt(3)/2*76.61.51. . .7.0 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-1.2.0 K.www.html CYL4.57735*26).61.203.18.180.-20.200. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 A.-1.57735*26) + 38.203.204.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.204 VOFFST. 129-(0. .26 K.20. .51.3 CYL4. VADD.

1.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Width*Height.Width*(Height**3)/12. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent . The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.EX.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.2.Height MP.Length.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 K.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.0.1.0 L.2 ET.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.

0.1.Length/10.MP.3 MP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.9.0.PRXY.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ALL.1.ALL.7.DENS.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape . ACEL.86e-6 LESIZE.0 DK. LMESH..1.

0.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .7.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.mece. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.Length/10.0 K.2 ET.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.Width*(Height**3)/12.0.0 L.DENS.2. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Height MP. LMESH. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.1.ALL.PRXY.Length.1.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.1.www.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.ualberta.Width*Height.EX.1.

9.ualberta.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print..html DK.0.mece.ALL.www.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ACEL.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1000.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .0. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.2. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0 K.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing /title. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0.1.1.

BEAM3 R.1. 1 ETABLE.833.1.0.1.200000 MP.SMAXJ.EX.NMISC.SMAXI.1.0.ALL.0 DK. 3 PLLS.333.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.2 ETABLE.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .33 ESIZE.SMAXJ.100 LMESH.10 MP...area.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.I.1.SMAXI.100.0 SFBEAM.UY.UY DK.UX.2.PRXY.NMISC.ET.PRES.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 L.ualberta.1000.1.. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.2 ET.mece.. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0 K.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.ht. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.2. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.www. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0.

.mece.1..1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ualberta.1.0 DK.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.UX.NMISC. 1 ETABLE..1.100.I.EX.1.33 ESIZE.200000 MP.100 LMESH. 3 PLLS.1.0.PRES.www.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UY DK.PRXY.SMAXJ.SMAXI.UY.ht.ALL.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXJ.NMISC.333.area.SMAXI.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10 MP..1.833. R.2 ETABLE.2.0 ! Real constants .0 SFBEAM.

plane42. In this model there are two blocks.0.. /title. with a small separation. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.01 ! thickness 0. nodal.10.2.. 1. plane stress w/thick.2.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block.0. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 0.1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.7. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.2 ! element type 1.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.5.5..4 aplot ! define element type ET.1 ! activate element type 1 R. strs out type. one above top of the other.3.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.

! define material properties MP.EX.3 MP.1 ! nsel.1. 20e3 MP.99..5 mat.2.EX.1.1 esize.2 /pnum.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.s. 1.area.2 ! nsla.r..01 ! cm.2. 0.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.1 amesh.005.2.7.2.3 ! meshing esize.loc.NUXY.y.1 ! defines second element type .2 amesh.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .0.s.source.35 mat..1 r.2.10 TYPE..1 real.mat.NUXY.20e3.0.contac48.2D contact elements keyo.2 ! activates or sets this element type real. 0. 200e3 MP. 2.0.

stat.s.loc.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.loc.100 autots.4 fk.1.1 nsla.loc.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).fy.99.2.2..5 ksel.r.01 cm.s.source.y.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.1 nsubst.loc.r.y.on pred.loc.s.3 finish /solution antype.asel.all.7.1 nsel.x.y.x.all.full.all.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .target.on nropt.target.5 ksel.-100 allsel time.area.y.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.s.node gcgen. a small tolerance is used d..loc.20.4 dk.r.all.all.s.

4.1.0e6 mp.0.0.0.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1 lmesh. To solve this problem.2.125 mp. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .30. the load will added incrementally.0.1.03125.0.069e-5. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.1.0.0 l.1.3 esize.1.ex. After each increment.1.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.5.beam3 r.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor . ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0 k. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. izz.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.prxy.2 et.

all ! save results of all iterations dk.U.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.mz.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.1 PRNSOL.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections . min # substeps=1 outres.static nlgeom./solu antype.1000.2. max # substeps=1000.1.all.all fk.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.5.

125 mp.0.4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . izz. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). To solve this problem.1.ex.5.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.069e-5.0e6 mp.0. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0.1.0.2 et.0 l. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0. After each increment.3 esize.0.1.0. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.prxy.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.03125.mece.1.2.30.1.0.beam3 r. the load will added incrementally.0 k.ualberta.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.1 lmesh.

mece.1.-100 solve /post1 pldisp. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 outres.5.all.1 PRNSOL.1000.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.on autots.ualberta.on nsubst.2.U.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.html /solu antype.all fk.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all dk.mz.static nlgeom.

largedeflection. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. . material nonlinearities and gaps. ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. However. For this type of analysis. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. 2. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.0 to solve a simple buckling problem.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. in reallife. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. load perterbations. This method is not recommended for accurate. real-world buckling prediction analysis.

ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0. will be calculated. rigidly constrained at the bottom.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.10 LMESH.3 K.2.100 L.1.EX.10 MP.1.1.1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.0.1.833. area (mm^2).2 ESIZE.ALL. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1. I (mm^4).333.BEAM3 R. The required load to cause buckling.200000 MP.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0 K.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. ANSYS .100.PRXY.0. applied at the top-center of the beam.

0 K.0.0 L.subspace.1.10 K.PSTRES.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.3 R.ALL FK.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.0.1. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.FY.100.1 LMESH. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .2.1.LIST SET.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .PRXY.0.1.2.833.ON MXPAND.0. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.ON DK.333. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.1.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.LANB.1.2 ESIZE.100.200000 MP.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.EX.1.BUCKLE BUCOPT. I. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .

3.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.ALL.ALL NSUBST.ALL.ON OUTRES.FY.Y NSOL.ON LNSRCH.2 PLVAR.X.1.2.F.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .Y XVAR.2.20 NEQIT.U.2.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.FX.NLGEOM.1000 AUTOTS.2.-50000 FK.ON /ESHAPE.1 DK.Y.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1.3 /AXLAB.0 FK.

note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. material nonlinearities and gaps. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. real-world buckling prediction analysis.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. load perterbations. 2. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). However. ie. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. large-deflection. For this type of analysis. This method is not recommended for accurate. in real-life. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.mece.ualberta. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable.www.

ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.10 MP.1.ualberta.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.3 K.PRXY.100.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.100 L.1.333. will be calculated.0. I (mm^4).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. The required load to cause buckling.EX. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0.0. rigidly constrained at the bottom. applied at the top-center of the beam.mece.1.200000 MP.0 K.2.1.2 ESIZE. area (mm^2).www.BEAM3 R.833.10 LMESH.

3 R.833. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.200000 MP.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.PRXY.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.1.1.FY. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .0 K.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .ON DK.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.2 ESIZE.1.0 L.ALL.ALL FK.mece.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 K.0.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area. I. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.1.0. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .STATIC PSTRES.1.0.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.STATIC NLGEOM.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1 LMESH.ON MXPAND.333.ON OUTRES.EX.2.ualberta.html ANTYPE.subspace.100.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .2.LIST SET.LANB.www.BUCKLE BUCOPT. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.100.

2.ALL.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.3 /AXLAB.FX.Y.html NSUBST.1.2.1000 AUTOTS.www.1.ualberta.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.mece.-50000 FK.FY.ON LNSRCH.2 PLVAR.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .2.1 DK.U.F.0 FK.20 NEQIT.X.3.Y NSOL.ON /ESHAPE.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.Y XVAR.

1.12.3 TB.100 l.0.1. In such a case.1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.1.75000 MP.1.0 k.1. For this analysis.0.1. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".EX. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.25 MP. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).2 ET..1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.MELA.0.75 .LINK1 R.001. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.PRXY.2.. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. For instance.

LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label ..355 TBPT.150 TBPT.1 PLNSOL...Y.DEFLECTION /AXLAB..Y NSOL.U.FY.240 TBPT.U.15..449 TBPT.25.3 /AXLAB.1.1.5 LMESH..1 OUTRES.275.005.0..1000...ALL AUTOTS.2.225 TBPT.3.20.420 TBPT.ON NSUBST.435 TBPT...0 DK.390 TBPT..1.F.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE..2.1000 ANTYPE.300 TBPT.ON LNSRCH.ON NEQIT.002..025.TBPT...450 ESIZE.all FK.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.Y...2.2.250 TBPT.2 PLVAR.06..Y XVAR.004.X..003.ALL..

1.ualberta. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.0 k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. For instance.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . For this analysis. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2 ET. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.. In such a case. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.mece.1..100 l.2.LINK1 R.0.

.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.all FK..1.20.3..275.1000..2..X.Y XVAR.250 TBPT.U.MELA.1.2.005.435 TBPT.. MP. TBPT.PRXY.1.1.EX.2.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .Y.002.ALL AUTOTS....University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..25.ALL.1000 ANTYPE.ON NEQIT.449 TBPT.U.F.004.003...0 DK.225 TBPT.www..3 TB.025.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.DEFLECTION /AXLAB...001.ON NSUBST..5 LMESH.1.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM..0.75 TBPT.Y.3 /AXLAB.300 TBPT.450 ESIZE.06.12.240 TBPT.0..1 PLNSOL.15..1.Y NSOL..150 TBPT..390 TBPT.355 TBPT..1.2 PLVAR.ON LNSRCH.1 OUTRES.ualberta....420 TBPT..FY.mece.75000 MP.

1.1.1.0 L..2.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.068e11 MP.0 K.ALL.DENS. /TITLE.1.1.7830 LESIZE.0 /PREP7 K.10 LMESH.1.1.33 MP.0.0001.PRXY.0.EX.01 MP.1.2 ET.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .Dynamic.33e-10.0.2.BEAM3 R.0. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME..8.

Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Define Lines (0.0) . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu 2.0) (1.y) 1 2 5. 1... 3. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.

Young's modulus EX: 2.01 m x 0. enter the following geometric properties: i...068e11 ii. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8.33e-10 iii.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. > Add. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. and rotation about the Z axis). 10.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line... Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. .01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0001 ii.01 m... both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified.3 To enter the density of the material. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. 7. 9. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. 6.

7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.BEAM3 R.1.33e-10.2.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .1.0.2.PRXY.1.DENS.1.33 MP.068e11 MP.1.I.0.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 L.1.1.0 K.0001.01 MP.0.2 ET.0.EX.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.8. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.

1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.FRONT MXPAND..5.ALL..SUBSP.2 MODOPT.10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.5 DK.LESIZE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.5 EQSLV.0. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape . .10 LMESH.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.LIST SET.

1.0 K.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.7830 LESIZE.01 MP.1.8.www.DENS.PRXY.mece.2 ET.33 MP.068e11 MP.1.0001.I.0.10 LMESH.1..1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.33e-10.EX. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0.1.BEAM3 R.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ALL.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..2.ualberta.2.0.0.0 L.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.1.

0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.mece.10. .0.LIST SET.www.SUBSP.5.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.ualberta.5 DK.1.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .FRONT MXPAND.5 EQSLV.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.2 MODOPT.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.100 Hz. . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. These 3 methods are the Full . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .

1.0 K.2.DENS.PRXY.1.. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2 PLVAR.ALL FK.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0 L.0.BEAM3 R.1.7830 LESIZE.0.2.MERGE PRVAR.33 MP. UY_2 STORE. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.8.Y.33e-10.1.01 MP.2.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data . NSUBST.EX.U..068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0001.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.2. However.FY.1.2 ET.1.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.100 HARFRQ.100.1.1.1.2.I.ALL.100.3 DK.10 LMESH.0. KBC.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.mece.ualberta. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .100 Hz. These 3 methods are the Full . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.www. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.

068e11 MP.0 K.1.2.1..EX. KBC.0.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 HARFRQ.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .PRXY. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0 L.0.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. NSUBST.0.100.Y.www.2..7830 LESIZE. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.2 PLVAR.2 ET.1.10 LMESH.ualberta.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1.I.1. However.01 MP.BEAM3 R.2.mece.8. UY_2 STORE.1.2.33e-10.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0.0001.3 DK.ALL FK.DENS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.U.100.MERGE PRVAR.0. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.FY.33 MP.

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load.

It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. In other words. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. However. After the application of the load. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. . transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In ANSYS. The smaller the time step. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. Therefore. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. All types of non-linearities are allowed.

we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.ALL.2. if stresses and forces are of interest than.0 K. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.1.8. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.S. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. .2 ET.DENS.10 LMESH. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1...0 /PREP7 K.Dynamic. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.1.ALL F. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).068e11 MP.33 MP.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .33e-10.2.0.1.0001.01 MP.1. .EX.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .7830 LESIZE.0. However. However.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..REDUC.1.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).11.1. NSEL.0 L. the calculations are much quicker..BEAM3 R. DELTIM.ALL D.0.FY.0.1.2.2.UY.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.PRXY.0. M.1. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. TRANS TRNOPT.All. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. It is the quickest of the three methods.

0 FDELE.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.'rdsp'.2.'.1.U.3.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.1 KBC. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. UY_2 STORE.0.2. In this case.MERGE PLVAR.0 !* LSSOLVE. time !Please note. .Y.!At time equals 0.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.'Dynamic'. ! Sets time to 0.001 KBC.001s TIME.' NSOL.2.

Copyright 2003 . For our case. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.ualberta.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.University of Alberta . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. a static analysis may be used instead. for example.mece.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.http://www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.

It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. The smaller the time step.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. Therefore. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. In ANSYS. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. However. Copyright 2003 .http://www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. After the application of the load. In other words. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt.ualberta. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.University of Alberta . It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture.mece.

33e-10.01 MP. All types of non-linearities are allowed.University of Alberta . However.2 ET.33 MP. NSEL.S.1.068e11 MP.0 K.0.ALL. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). if stresses and forces are of interest than.1.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.0 /PREP7 K.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. DELTIM.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 ..PRXY. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).2.1.10 LMESH..mece. .1.BEAM3 R.1. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.1.ALL F.7830 LESIZE.UY. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.http://www.0 L..0001.8.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .DENS. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0..11.EX.0. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.REDUC. the calculations are much quicker.FY. However.All. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.1. TRANS TRNOPT. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.0.2. .1.ALL D.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.2.0.Dynamic. M.ualberta. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. It is the quickest of the three methods.1.

0 !* LSSOLVE.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.University of Alberta .'rdsp'.mece. Copyright 2003 .'.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.html !At time equals 0.http://www.001s TIME.1 KBC.2.0.1. In this case.2.Y. UY_2 STORE.2.ualberta.001 KBC.3. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.U.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. ! Sets time to 0.0 FDELE.MERGE PLVAR.'Dynamic'. time !Please note.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.' NSOL.

0. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.one corner.0 height=1. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.length.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area . then width and height . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.1.0.0 blc4.

S.LOC.10 ESIZE.MP.A.length NSEL..ALL. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .X.ALL.X.LOC.LOC.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0 NSEL.length/20 AMESH.500 NSEL.TEMP.A.TEMP.ALL NSEL.100 NSEL.Y.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Y.1.height D.0.S.KXX.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.TEMP.0 D.

PLANE55 MP.10 ESIZE.0 height=1.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0.h. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 blc4. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.ualberta.KXX..one corner.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.mece..0 to solve a simple conduction problem.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.length.0.1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.length/20 AMESH. ANSYS Command Listing /title.

ALL..ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.length NSEL..S.100 NSEL.0. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.TEMP.S.ALL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.TEMP.0 D.ualberta.www.Y.Y.ALL NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .TEMP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .LOC.X.A.X.LOC.LOC.0 NSEL.h.height D.A..mece.500 NSEL.LOC.

length.Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.one corner. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0.0. PLANE55 MP.0 blc4. then width and height .0 to solve simple thermal examples. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.KXX.1.1.0 height=1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

TEMP.0 D.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.LOC.S.height D.0 SF.500 NSEL.ALL.LOC.LOC..ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.X.LOC.Y.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.ALL NSEL.1 ESIZE.0.ALL.1 TYPE.length/20 AMESH.S.length SF.0 NSEL.100 NSEL.S.MAT.TEMP.TEMP.100 NSEL.10.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .Y.S.CONV.CONV.

Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0. PLANE55 MP.1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. then width and height Copyright 2003 . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1.mece.0.University of Alberta . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 height=1.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .1 ESIZE.1 TYPE.ualberta.0 blc4.KXX.http://www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.html Thermal .10 MAT.0 to solve simple thermal examples.one corner.length.

ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.length SF.0 NSEL.X.ualberta.University of Alberta .LOC.ALL NSEL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.TEMP.100 NSEL.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.ALL.http://www.LOC.CONV.X.0 SF.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 D.0.TEMP.html AMESH.CONV.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.LOC. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .height D.100 NSEL.S.S.Y.Y.10.TEMP.S.mece.500 NSEL..S.ALL.

0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Also.040 kJ/kg*K.

1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.Y.2.0 nsubst.0.S.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.ALL.100.1.500 ! area .off lnsrch.0.c..920 mp.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.length=1.1.1.Dens.TEMP.all.5.1.2.0 height=1.TEMP. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .one corner.ALL.0. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.500 NSEL.all.040 mp.LOC.8.100 autots.1.full lumpm.s.20.500 PLNSOL. PLANE55 MP.4 time.height D.Y.20 neqit.LOC.kxx.length.0 D.0.05 AMESH.all kbc.300 nropt.ALL NSEL.0 blc4.Temp.0.TEMP ANTIME. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no..0.ALL IC.5 ESIZE.on outres.100 NSEL.

Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.0. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.one corner.mece.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .040 kJ/kg*K. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.ualberta.length.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 blc4. Also.0 height=1.www. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. height ! area .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.

height D.500 PLNSOL.ALL.2.5 ESIZE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ALL.300 nropt.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.TEMP.1. PLANE55 MP.S.100 autots..0.TEMP.Y.all.1.1.full lumpm.4 time.20 neqit.05 AMESH.920 mp.100 NSEL.0 nsubst.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LOC.8.www.0 D.ALL NSEL.LOC.Y.mece.0.0.all kbc.on outres.100.Dens..20.off lnsrch.1.ALL IC.ualberta.all.1.0.5.040 mp.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.500 NSEL.TEMP ANTIME.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.s.c.Temp.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.kxx.

so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. . Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. As a warning. In this case. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.

3 esize.x.0.off rectng.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.loc.prxy.s.uy.all.0.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.plane2 keyopt.all nsel.all finish /solu antype.5 rectng.all fk.12.100 aadd.20.ex.2 amesh.1.20.0 lsel.0 dl.200000 mp.50 d.s.1.0.s.45.20.15.y.fy.y.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .100 rectng.1.all.s.1.loc.55 prnsol.0 nsel.-100 fk.95..all et.symm lsel.loc.3.0.1 mp. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.fy.1.

.27.1.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .10 /view.all /expand..nsel.2.axis.1.

so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.mece. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. In this case.ualberta. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. As a warning. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.www... we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

loc.1..www.1 mp.plane2 keyopt.1.50 d.axis.15.s.0.0.0 nsel.0.uy.1.55 prnsol.all fk.s.off rectng.symm lsel.2.comp nsel.fy..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5 rectng.all et.0 lsel.all finish /solu antype.200000 mp.3.12.45.1.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.1.2 amesh.100 aadd.x.all.loc.loc.95.1.1.ex.10 /view.-100 fk.0.all nsel.27..3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .100 rectng.all /expand. /prep7 /triad.20.0 dl.s.fy.mece.ualberta..s..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.0.y.3 esize.prxy.y.20..20.all.

The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. ANSYS Command Listing . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1. a wall thickness of 10. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.7.

6 E.2. 0. 0.10 R. 0 N. 0. . 0.1000. 500 N. 500 N.1e9 R. 5. MP. 4 E.1 REAL. 8.13.1500 N.3.1000. 700.1. 0. 9. 2.PRXY. 0 N. 6 E.5. 400. 500 N.EX. 0. 8 E.1000 N.1e9. 2. 5 E. 1.1000 N. 400. 700. 0. 8 E. 0.PIPE16 ET.33 N.1. 3 E. 1. 2.40.COMBIN7 ET./title. 6.0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 7.2. 0.COMBIN14 R.13 E. 0.10.1 MAT. 9. 7. 4.12.10.3. 3. 5 E. 3 E. 0.1. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . Catapult /PREP7 ET.1000 N.13.1 E.1000. 0. 0 N. 8 E. 0 N.11.1000.1e9.200000 MP. . 0. 5.-500 TYPE.1. 4 E.1000 N. 6.12. 3. 1.12.

10.0 NLGEOM.. 11 TYPE.NODE.0 /PNUM.12.VERT7.6 /PNUM.5 D. 1.4.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.7.3 E.7.3 REAL.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ON NSUBST.2 E.5.13 F.ELEM.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3. 2.2 REAL.0.FY.KP.3.2 *GET.TYPE.ALL.12.8 E.8.4.U. 9.. 11 E.13 ! Load node 7 .

Catapult /PREP7 ET. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.3.mece.7.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . a wall thickness of 10.1.COMBIN7 ET.PIPE16 ET. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.www. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.ualberta.40. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.COMBIN14 R.2.1.

6 E.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 0.KP.1e9.1.11. 400.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 9. 0.EX.12. 5 E.5. 6. 0. 4.1e9 R. 0.1000 N. 2. 1. 10.2.1000 N.1e9. 700.ELEM. 4 E. 0. 3 E.12.1000.1000 N. 0. 7. 1.-500 TYPE. 0 N. 8 E.1500 N. 0 N. 5.10.1000.3 REAL. 400. 0.1000. 6 E. 3 E. 0. 0. 8 E. 9. 2.33 N. . 8.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .13. 0.13.0 NLGEOM. . 4 E. 0. 0 N. 2. 4 TYPE. 11 E.5.12. 7.6 /PNUM. 500 N. 0. 6. 11 TYPE.8.1000.10. 0. 5. 0.1 E. 3.www. MP.html R. 700. 500 N. 8 E. 0. 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 0.8 E.13 E. 500 N. 1.3.3 E.ualberta.2 REAL. 0.PRXY.2 E.1000 N. 5 E.1. 2. 9.200000 MP. 3. 1. 0 N.mece.1 MAT.1 REAL.0 /PNUM.

7.2 *GET..5 D.mece.ALL.12.4.U.3.0.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.7.FY.4.NODE..12.13 F.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.VERT7.html NSUBST.ualberta.

1. However. not '^').W.0.3 ESIZE. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.EX. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.1. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.PRXY.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.1.0.H.1.100 LMESH.200000 MP..0 K. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. ET. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.BEAM3 R. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.H.2.(W*H**3)/12.I (note '**'..1.20 *set..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. Design Optimization *set.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. height MP.W*H. deciding which variables to use as design.0.2 HPTCREATE.1000.LINE. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.75. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.20 K.0 L.1.RATI.

UX.H.SORT.DV. max 50 mm..MAX ETABLE. *GET. min 10 mm.FIRS OPFRST.50.VOLUME.30.EVolume.ETAB.200 OPTYPE.ITEM. tolerance 0.001 mm.0.SSUM.3 node ESORT.0.SMAXJ.001 tolerance 0.optimize.txt. ! Height state variable.SMAX_I.W /AXLAB.1.2. max 200 ! Volume as object variable. SSUM *GET. max 50 ! Width design variable.10.001 MPa.001mm OPVAR.3.NMISC.1.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.001 MPa OPVAR.2.txt ! Assign optimize.UY.SMAX.OBJ.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.. min 10 mm.100.1.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.SMAXI.SMAX_J.SMAX..SV.FY..Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.200. tolerance 0.Y.NMISC.1..0.EVOLUME ETABLE.1 node ESORT. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .0.SMAX_I..ETAB.195. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.ANTYPE.0.VOLU.001mm OPVAR. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.UY.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.50.0.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.H.0 DK..MAX *SET.'txt'. *GET.Volume.10.0 FK.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.'optimize'.W.X. Percent step size.SORT.0 DK.SMAX_J. min 195 MPa.DV.0 DK.

The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam..1.PRXY.mece.200000 MP.0 K.. Design Optimization *set. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.www.0 L. ET.1000.1.2 HPTCREATE.0. However.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0. MP.LINE.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.H. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.RATI. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. not '^').(W*H**3)/12..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.H. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.20 K.1.EX.1..20 *set.75.W.W*H.1.I (note '**'.1.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.BEAM3 R. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.. deciding which variables to use as design.0..ualberta.

OPEXE PLVAROPT.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.mece.UY. max 50 mm..200 OPTYPE.100.0 FK.H.H.SSUM..0.SMAX_J.SMAX_J. Volume as object variable.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.1.0 DK.30.txt.EVolume.W /AXLAB. min 10 mm.3.MAX ETABLE.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL. *GET.SMAX..SMAX_I.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.2.NMISC..Y.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.DV.200. tol Height state variable.0 DK. ESIZE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.0 DK.ETAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.optimize.UY.SMAX.VOLU.3 ESORT.SORT.FY.DV.FIRS OPFRST.0.SMAXI.UX.www..1.195.OBJ.50.MAX *SET.VOLUME.ualberta.0.W.NMISC.0. max 50 mm.10.'optimize'.Volume. min 10 mm.SORT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .001 OPVAR.50..EVOLUME ETABLE.2.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.txt ! Assign optimize.0.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SMAXJ.SMAX_I. SSUM *GET.SV.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.'txt'..100 LMESH.. to Width design variable.0.ETAB. *GET.001 OPVAR. min 195 MPa.001 OPVAR.1. Percent step size.ITEM. max 200 MPa.1.1 ESORT. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..10..

29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). For this example. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.5 MPa. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Apply remaining loads to the model. 3.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). however. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. ANSYS Command Listing . then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. substructuring will be used for the wood block. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. v = 0. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply loads to the super-element 2.

SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.EX. amesh.LOC.5 NSEL. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.EX. 2.2.1..PLANE42 TYPE.0.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.db ! GEN.2 MP.10. START /FILNAME.0 F.ALL.PRXY.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.EXT M.SUBST SEOPT.40.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.S.GEN.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.ALL NSEL.ALL.100.R.PRXY.140 NSEL.2.S.2.1.2 NSEL.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.LOC.0.5 MP.1.0.100.0.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.FX.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .Y.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .ALL NSEL.

GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.NUM..ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.! Meshing AESIZE.1 *GET.MaxNode.0 D.1.ON..GEN2 NSEL.SUM.1 ! Superelement ET.LOC.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .0.LOC.1. superelement solution written to GEN.MAX SETRAN.U.U.0.2 real.1. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.1.GEN2 SE.1.ALL NSEL.S.GEN2.1 SFE.40 CPINTF.1 ESEL. mat.2 amesh.ALL.SUM.S.S.0 NSEL.NODE.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.STATIC NSEL.GEN.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.ALL.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.TYPE.Y..YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.ALL ESEL.ALL.10.Y.SELV.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..MATRIX50 TYPE.MaxNode.

however. For this example. Apply remaining loads to the model. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).mece. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems..ualberta.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). 3.5 MPa. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.www. v = 0.

1.PRXY.0.X.ALL NSEL.LOC.EX..ALL.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.FX.1.40.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.S. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements)..R.140 NSEL.100.ualberta.db ! GEN.ALL NSEL.1. START /FILNAME.S.0.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 F.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.GEN.mece.EXT M.0.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.Y.ALL..2.1. amesh.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.www.PLANE42 TYPE.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.LOC.10.SUBST SEOPT. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.0.2 NSEL. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 NSEL.

2.ALL.MAX SETRAN.SELV.1.ualberta.0 D.40 CPINTF.1.GEN2 SE.MaxNode.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.NUM..1..GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.mece.STATIC NSEL.U.2.ALL NSEL.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.10.LOC.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. MP.SUM.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.GEN2.Y.NODE.S.0.EX.SUM.PRXY.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.0.1 ! Superelement ET. mat. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.LOC.MATRIX50 TYPE.2 amesh.1..U.GEN...1 *GET.ON.5 MP.2 real.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 2.S.0 NSEL.GEN2 NSEL.0. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..ALL ESEL.www.1 ESEL.S.TYPE.1 SFE.MaxNode.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.YES SEEXP.USE EXPSOL.Y.ALL.

and write them to memory. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. the analyses are coupled.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. and using it with any following coupled environments. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa." Thus. For a listing. where the thermal effects will be applied. Loads will not be applied to the link. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. the geometry is kept constant. However. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. stress is created in the link. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. a thermal conductivity of 60. For convenience. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. It is important to note. the link will attemp to expand. with no internal stresses. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steel link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. the element types can change. Although the geometry must remain constant. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. However. For our case. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. . For instance. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled .

link33 r.tts mp.rth environment tref.2.LS.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .clear finish /solu antype.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.3 mp.0 k.ex.0 physics.0..2.0 dk.200e9 mp.4e-4.5 esize.1.read.write.analysis. mp.1.1.temp.struct physics.kxx.1..all.thermal dk..prxy.1.write.1.60.1.2 et.12e-6 physics.read.UX.1.1.struct ldread..1 lmesh. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 l.348 solve finish /solu physics.CompStress.0.alpx.273 dk.1.all physics.thermal physics.0 solve finish /post1 etable.0.. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1.temp.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

with no internal stresses. Loads will not be applied to the link. For convenience.mece.ualberta. However. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. the link will attemp to expand. the analyses are coupled. However. A steel link. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). and using it with any following coupled environments. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. For our case. where the thermal effects will be applied. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the geometry is kept constant. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. a thermal conductivity of 60. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis." Thus. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K..html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. stress is created in the link.

temp. mp.2 et.12e-6 physics.1.clear finish /solu antype.0 dk.2. and write them to memory..1.3 mp.0.tts mp.1.1. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.write..4e-4.link33 r. the element types can change.60.kxx.all physics.1.. For a listing.UX.. It is important to note.thermal dk. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.alpx. For instance.read.clear etchg.1..0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.html Although the geometry must remain constant.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .thermal physics.1.ualberta.1.www.0 physics.0 k.struct ldread. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.5 esize.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.0.1.1.200e9 mp.1.struct physics. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.prxy.273 dk. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.348 solve finish /solu physics.read.ex.rth tref.0 l.1 lmesh. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.temp.2. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.write.all. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.

html solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.www.CompStress.mece.1 PRETAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.LS.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. rather than increasing mesh density. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.

all lsel.12 et.loc.10.1.0.0 a.1.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .20 outres.5.0 k.4.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100 k.s.0 dl.2.100.52 k.5.11.1 lsel.all.3 esize.s.3.10 mp.1.6.0 nsubst.loc.x. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.5 amesh.2.20.100 k.on /prep7 k.100.45.8.all lsel.6.100 k.1.ex.80.3 r.200000 mp.x.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.45.10.48 k.80.52 k.12.3.1.7.1.all.0 k.100.1.55.4. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .11.prxy.7.55.48 k.0 k.plane145 keyopt.9.all finish /solu antype.3.9.0.all time.20.100 k..20.0.8.

all solve finish /post1 set.all.last plesol.-100 lsel.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .sfl.s.pres.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. rather than increasing mesh density.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.www.mece.ualberta. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Thus. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

11.48 k.11.s.last plesol.6.loc.100.1.9.5.prxy.0.48 k.all solve finish /post1 set.s.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.12.0 dl.20.3 r.100.3 esize.200000 mp.12 et.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .x.80.100 k.0 k.1.4.7.www.7.all lsel.3.1.52 k.all time.20.1 lsel.0 k.10 mp.10.4.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100.3.100 k.-100 lsel.1.55.pres.6.loc.100 sfl.all.0 a.8.5.9.1.2.55.5 amesh.8.3.ualberta.52 k.10.all finish /solu antype.plane145 keyopt.100 k.45.all.80.0.20 outres.ex.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant . all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 nsubst.2.100 k..s.all lsel.x.mece.45.1.0 k.20.html /prep7 k.0.all.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0. rather than increasing mesh density.03.3. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.03. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0 k. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Thus.1.0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0.0.0 k.0. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.2. computational time can be kept to a minimum.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

268 nsel.1.last etable.1.20 neqit.s.1.s.1. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .0.1 IC. esel.920 mp.all.off lnsrch.1.368 nsel.60 nropt.273 finish /solu antype.c.temp.off solve finish /post1 set. 20 Max no.0.ext sf.melty.rest ekill.3.conv.0.2.full lumpm.all /gst.all esel.all..k. not ramped ! Initial conditions.2040 mp.8 esize.kxx.Dens.4.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.1.4 time.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.100 autots.etab.melty.all finish /solu antype.all.on outres.0 nsubst.0005 amesh.Plane55 MP.10.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .all kbc.temp.03 a.

s.live plnsol.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ./post1 set.last esel.

0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.03. computational time can be kept to a minimum. rather than increasing mesh density.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.2. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.4. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0 k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.03 a.2. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.03 k.0. Thus.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.1.1.3. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0 k.0.0.ualberta. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .3.03.0.mece.

4 time.1.1.20 neqit.www.rest ekill.100 autots.1.all.368 nsel.60 nropt.1.melty.all finish /post1 set.920 mp.on outres.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . not ramped ! Initial conditions.melty.8 esize.last etable.Plane55 MP. 20 Max no.all kbc. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.etab.temp.s.full lumpm.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.10.1 IC.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.off lnsrch.0 nsubst.s.2040 mp.mece.ualberta.all esel.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .temp.0.all.kxx.1.ext sf.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.273 finish /solu antype.Dens.all /gst.0005 amesh.conv..last esel.off solve finish /post1 set.all. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all finish /solu antype.live plnsol.268 nsel.c. esel.s.

Contact Elements

Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

X.-1.0 DA.LOC.0.S.0.R.ALL KSEL.Y.S.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.-2500 KSEL.S.1 /TYPE.2 ! Animate the slices .1.14.5.0 ASEL.LOC.0 ASEL.90 /CPLANE.1.U.0.Height KSEL.1 WPOFFS.Z.FY.All.0 WPOFFS.0.0.05.0.8 WPCSYS.Z.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Length KSEL.0.1.7./SOLU ANTYPE.0.0.Width/2.All.R.0.ALL.1/16*Length /CPLANE.LOC.EQV.1 /TYPE.0.0 WPROTA.SUM.5 PLNSOL.43.1.Width FK.LOC.

all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.0.SOLID45 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1.0.1. 1 . Stress. etc.200000 MP.mece.60.0.www.000000.Width.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.Length /ANGLE.20 vmesh.1.Height.FAST ET.) of the following example.YS.1 /REPLOT.ualberta.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.EX.3 esize.PRXY.

www.05.SUM.Width FK.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .90 /CPLANE.1 /TYPE.Z.Length KSEL.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.ALL KSEL.1 /TYPE.0.FY.1.All.1/16*Length /CPLANE.All.-1.14.0.LOC.0 WPROTA.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.LOC.1.0.mece.R.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Height KSEL.0 ASEL.LOC.0.1 WPOFFS.8 WPCSYS.LOC.ualberta.U.0 DA.R.Y.0.-2500 KSEL.EQV.0.S.0.S.0 WPOFFS.5.0.S.0 ASEL.43.0.1.X.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.5 PLNSOL.Width/2.Z.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.7.0.

a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.10 cyl4.0. In this tutorial.10 cyl4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.200. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.50.50. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.0.10 asba. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. For example.50. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.150.50.1.all .100.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.100 cyl4.

all.s.2.y.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.all PLPAGM.50 ppath.ex.cutline.1000 ppath..PRES.1..y.2.50 path.loc.s.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.all.top /POST1 PLNSOL.3 R.off /noerase /window.eqv.200000 mp.AVG nsel.s.0..1.1.y.10 mp.1.1.100 SFL.5 amesh.bot nsel.loc.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window...NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .S.3 esize.2.200.all nsel.loc.eqv.1 /window.1.et.1.0 dl.0.plane2.200...50 PDEF.2.prxy.SEQV.S.

one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . a plot of the stress along that path can be made. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.. In this tutorial. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.ualberta.www. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.200.mece.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.. For example.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.

0 dl.ex.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .bot nsel.AVG nsel..200000 mp.S.2.3 R.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.all..200.S.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .loc.1..s.all.10 cyl4.2.1 /window.plane2.eqv.all et.www.200.1.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.prxy.1.top /POST1 PLNSOL..0.1.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.150.50 path.1..-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.SEQV.50..50 PDEF.s.0.cutline.2.s.100.all nsel.ualberta.50 ppath.50.off /noerase /window.100 SFL.1.loc. cyl4.50.10 cyl4.loc.5 amesh..50.mece.3 esize.10 asba..1000 ppath.all PLPAGM.eqv.y.y..y.1.2.PRES.10 mp.1.

0 l.2.1.320e3.2 esize. finer resolution can be achieved.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.200000 mp.0.0.40 mp.1.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0 k.length.I. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2400.beam3 r.3 k. By plotting this data on a curve. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.elementsize lmesh.1.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.prxy.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .1.ex. rather than using a contour plot. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Length of the following beam using tables. a special type of array.

there are 21 nodes in the mesh.u.node.fy. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.graph(1.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.y *set.graph(1.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.0 *set.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.all fk.graph(2.x *vget.y.y *vplot.x.x *vget.all.1).loc.graph(1.2).2.1).TABLE.node. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .0 400 *vget.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.graph.1).all.Length /axlab.2) /axlab.static dk.node.loc.graph(rows.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.2).1).graph(rows.2.antype.1.u.2).rows.graph(1.node.2.graph(2.2.

1.1.3 k.0 l. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.1.320e3.1.0. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0 k.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . rather than using a contour plot.ex. By plotting this data on a curve.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2400.I.h.2 esize.beam3 r.40 mp.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.1.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.www.ualberta. finer resolution can be achieved.mece.prxy. a special type of array.. Length of the following beam using tables.length.200000 mp.

-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.graph(1.all finish /solu antype.node.loc.x.fy.2.TABLE.1).1). there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(rows.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.2.ualberta.1.node.1 *vget.Length /axlab.1).1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.all fk.graph(1.static dk.mece.x *vget.0 *vget.0 *set. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2).node.1)..u.www. lmesh.graph(2.all.graph.x *vget.y *vplot.u.all.2.graph(1..graph(1.2.graph(2.loc.y *set.y.node.2).Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.2) /axlab.graph(rows. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .rows.h.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful