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# UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. . Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. Prompting the user for parameters. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Preprocessing: defining the problem. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 2. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . constraints and solving. 3D). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. 1D. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis.e. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 2D. 1. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. In general. axi-symmetric. 3. Solution: assigning loads. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. heat transfer and fluid problems.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. do this. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. . be sure that your local drive has space for it. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. If you don't see this minimized program.. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1..7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. you can may want to reboot the computer. Windows NT application 2. you should see something labeled X-Win32. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. as it automatically starts this application when booting.

you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. don't select this icon. but rather. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. . q select the Run Interactive Now menu item.

graphic controls and parameters.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. 1.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7.7. selections. such as file controls. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.

It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. such as listing of data etc. solution. More push buttons can be added if desired. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued.0. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. However. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. 2. design optimizer. e. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. while the versions appear different.b. the menu structure has not changed. d. organized by preprocessor. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. c. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. general postprocessor. .

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This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. The second is by means of command files. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. however. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach.

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In general there are no real firm answers on this. For simple models it is of no concern. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. If the results differ by a large amount however. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. loading and constraints. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. General Models . and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. When point loads are used. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. If the results are nearly similar. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. it will only slow the calculations down..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined.. but for a larger model. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix.e. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test.

In a solid mechanics problem. for example. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. . In general.In general however.

and specify the previously defined jobname. loads. r Then when you get ANSYS started. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. and select your job from the list that appears. etc) that you previously saved. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Or. In that way. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. 2. There are two methods to do this: 1..db.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. r In the ANSYS Launcher. To save your model... start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. solution.. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. if you make some mistakes later on. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Your model will be saved in a file called jobname.db . ANSYS Inc. you will at least be able to come back to this point. select Interactive.db. Using the Launcher.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation.

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This file stores the geometry. Listing of all error and warning messages. This file stores the geometry. Depending on the operations carried out. If you plan to use the command mode of operation.err Error file (text).out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). If you specified a jobname. q If you will always be using the GUI. and the jobname has been specified. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. etc. the name of all the files created will be FILE. or move things from the /scratch directory. from another ANSYS run. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. then the created files will all have the file prefix. etc. starting with an existing log file. frame. say Frame.. then you only require the . That file may be rerun as is. frame.db Database file (binary). Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . frame. Frame again with various extensions: frame. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. frame. Once the ANSYS has started. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text).* where the * represents various extensions described below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. other files may have been written.. These files may contain results. boundary conditions and any solutions.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. boundary conditions and any solutions. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS.db file.

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you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. choose 'List Results'. 2. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.. 1. In the window that appears. Select 'File'/'Save As. 3.. Then enter the file name of your choice.' and give a file name to store the results. 'Monochrome'.0 Better Quality Plots . 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'.. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. while the second is a scalable vector plot. and choose what you want to list from the menu. to get displacements.. 'Reverse Video'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.'. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. 1. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . However. Select 'Elem Table Data'.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. You can pick multiple items.

remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2.pic) in the 'Selection' Window..n where n is plot number. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. but rather they will be written to the selected file.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. or HPGL for example. a large graphics window will appear. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.pic'(with a comma). This is performed by running a separate program called display.pic' (with a period). you have a couple of options: 1. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: .pic'. To do this. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Type in a filename (e. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. Load your plot file with the following command: file..frame. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.: frame.. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript.. Now that the plots have been read in. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. To save some plots to a file. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt.g. Note that although the file is 'plots. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. Display wants 'plots. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. Either way. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. Decrease the size of this window.'.pic if your plot file is 'plots.

you set the postscript color option to '3'.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.color.1.hpgl plot. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. For subsequent plots. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. you only require the plot. The printer information is still present. To do this. the postscript image will appear as blank box. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. issue the following commands: /show.2 /show.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. The printer information is still present. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.n where n is the plot number.3 /show.n command as the other options have now been set.pscr plot. overheads or even posters! 2. where xx is a number.color. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. enter the following commands in display: pscr. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. the postscript image will appear as blank box. as above. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. i. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. starting at 00. 3. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx.e.pscr plot. .grph.

In a similar way. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. exit display by entering finish . This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.hpgl' extension.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . loads. by suppressing them in Pro/E. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.W. Step 1. analysis types will not be covered. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. etc. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. mesh control. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. holes.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Also. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. many modeling options for constraints. Of course. you will want to leave it.. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. if the feature is critical to your design. chamfers.

Several edges are rounded. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. . So. the plate and the loading hole are removed. For this model. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. Model units are inches. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below.

select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. Basically. loads. curves. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. This is where we specify modeling information. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. We proceed in a topdown manner.Step 2. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. idealizations). Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. surface regions. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. . Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. and so on.

Constraints are organized into constraint sets. loads. . Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). edges. and a specified material. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. For beams and shells. Y. Prescribed. rotational constraints are active if specified. A dialog window opens as shown above. and surfaces). only one set can be included. and Function of Coordinates). Select Surface. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. Fixed. For each direction X. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. In the final computed model. and Z. For our solid model. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. all we need are constraints. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types.Defining Constraints For our simple model.

Leave the defaults for the load distribution. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. Note these are relative to the WCS. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. another might contain the support forces.For our model. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. Then select OK. Loads are also organized into named load sets. and select the OK button. Enter the force components at the bottom. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. These can be solved at the same time. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. The load should be . For example. another a temperature load. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED.

Step 3. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. you will see the properties of the chosen material. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . In the STRC MODEL menu. you could now assign this material to individual parts. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. loads. At this point. If you select the Edit button. In an assembly.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. material).

Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis.Specify a name for the analysis. Select the type (Structural or Modal). Step 4. Enter a short description. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. Now select OK. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). . The MEC STRUCT window. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. like "ansystest".

This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. Here is an image of the default mesh. evaluated for the model. The results are indicated in columns on the right. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. shown in wire frame. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. . Select Close. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below).

. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. you can select the Controls option. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. For example. This will allow you to select points. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. maximum mesh size. and so on. edges. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree.

select Run . In the MEC STRUCT menu. materials. mesh). Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints.Step 5. loads.

In the Analysis list. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. . Select OK and read the message window. select Structural. loads. mesh.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS.ans). In the Solver pull-down list at the top. We are now finished with Pro/E. Copy the . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. and material) is listed. select ANSYS. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension .

Select the . select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds.. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. and select Apply. you will be informed that the solution is complete. Step 7. Step 8.ans file you created previously. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . This will read in the entire model.Step 6. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model.. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left.

and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. reaction forces.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. A = 3250mm2). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. p. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.

select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . these keypoints are the ends of each truss. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. For this example. Note: to get the title to appear immediately.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'.

click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. If you first press r . Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. and enter the x.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.y coordinates: 0. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Note: When entering the final data point. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed.

areas. 3. lines. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. thus making any conversions where necessary. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. The following window will then appear: . elements. volumes. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box.

Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i.e. click on it). minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. Left click and a permanent line will appear. r r r . When you're done. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.

select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. This is called 'meshing'.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. The following window will then appear: . However. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. they have most likely NOT been deleted.

we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure.' button. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.r Click on the 'Add. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . The following window will appear: r For this example.. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r 5..

Click on 'OK'. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add.r In the Preprocessor menu.. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. .. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines .0'. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. 7.We are going to give the properties of Steel.

r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window .r In the size 'NDIV' field. 8. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. enter the desired number of divisions per line. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. we have simply defined the element sizes. therefore. For this example we want only 1 division per line.

. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q ..Plot Numbering To show the line numbers.. keypoint numbers. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. node numbers..

It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. 1.. Define Analysis Type . Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). To do this. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. so if you make some mistakes later on.. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as.

Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. i. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. r In the Solution menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . these constraints will typically be fixed. Click 'OK'. pinned and roller-type connections. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. r 2.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. As shown above.e. In mechanical structures. for example.

Therefore. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. . ROT on KPs' window.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.

ROT on KPs" window. 210kN. . r Using the same method. 3. there are four downward loads of 280kN. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. and 360kN at keypoints 1. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Note that we are using units of N here.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. 3. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. and 7 respectively. Therefore. this is consistent with the previous values input. 5. 280kN.

4. . Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).

. . r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.r The above windows will appear.

r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. The following window will appear. . select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu.

One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.409). . r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. The following window will appear.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7.

r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. . Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'.

Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. r . From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.r Looking at the scale. you may want to use more useful intervals...

.You should obtain the following.

This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. .r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.

beams. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. The Element Table is different for each element. spars.. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7..' r .1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. therefore. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). strains).2 in the Help file.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. From Table 1. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. using the item 'LS. If you wanted to save these results to a file.

.. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.'. Then enter 1 after LS. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .r As shown above. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Next.. in the 'Item. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. Comp' boxes. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.

you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. In the dialog box that appears. .PDF version is also available for printing. A . Open the .9MPa as predicted analytically.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.' and select the file.. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame. ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. units. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. etc. scale factors. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model').

Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Pick keypoint #1 (i. Click on the 'Add. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. r From the Preprocessor Menu. Click on the 'Options. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. r r r 4.. When you're done.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box.e. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. The following window will appear: r r For this example. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. Now pick keypoint #2. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.' button... A permanent line will appear. The following window will appear: r . r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. click on it).

select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Click on 'OK'.. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. . This gives us extra force and moment output. r 5.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'..

r Click on 'OK'.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. therefore. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. (Alternatively. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. enter '20' (i. 8. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. However. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. r r r 7. enter the desired element length. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'.. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.. r 6. For an element length of 2cm. we have simply defined the element sizes. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). Saving Your Work . Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. For this example we want an element length of 2cm.

r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. r 2. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'.Utility Menu > File > Save as. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. Therefore.ROT on KPs' window. . Select the name and location where you want to save your file. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu.. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. r r 3. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'.

4.2mm as shown above. Hand Calculations Now. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .we need to calculate what we should find. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. .

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. r r . the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. In this menu you will find a variety of options. 2.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.

r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). r . Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. Leave the other selections as the default values. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Click 'OK'. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations.

r . This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution..r You may want to have a more useful scale. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'.. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

. Click on 'Add.. strains). use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. If you wanted to save these results to a file.' r . spars. the right end of the rod. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.r Are these results what you expected? Again.. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.

in the 'Item.. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.r As shown above.. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .Comp' boxes in the above window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.

First. as shown in the following image.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes.Again. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. . I and J. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. a bending moment diagram can be created. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

this will give a name to the data B. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.6 in the second Comp box E.. A. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. click 'Add. Enter SMISC. Same as above ... Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. r In the window. the Element Table must be used.. First.'.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. . A. r Again.. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' .To obtain the bending moment for this element. this will give a name to the data B. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. Click 'Add.again.

. For step D. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu.C. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Same as above D..12 in the second Comp box E. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Click 'OK'. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. . enter SMISC. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI.

Table 1. r Before the explanation of the above steps. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). PIPE16 Item. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. you can double check these solutions analytically. Sequence Numbers. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter.Now. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition .

1.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ . x. /PREP7 K. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.500.70000 MP. Major Poisson's Ratio.PRXY. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.1. y.2. x. y.0.0.1.20 LMESH. .1.0. . The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.6. Copy the following code into the command line. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. Young's Modulus.1. then hit enter. 0.0.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.the Member moment for node I.2. z Keypoint. Material 1.0.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. L. K.25.0.PIPE16 KEYOPT. 2. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.ALL.ALL FK. !* MP.0.33 !* LESIZE. 1.2.0 !* DK.2 !* ET. all of the lines.0. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.1. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.1.EX. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Outside Diameter. Material 1. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.FY.1 !* R. Material 1.

Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1./STATUS. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code.

open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.2. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . First. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. these keypoints are the frame vertices. Notice that by using variables like this. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. Alternatively. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary.

ie . As with any programming language. y=y2.0.y1. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. to enter the first keypoint type: K. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.y2. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out.# . However. #. Z where. you may need to add comments. x=0.0 r ! keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter.1. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. type help k into the command line For example. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.for the second keypoint you might type: K.0. NPT. X.follows: K.2. Y. Reference number for the keypoint. simply re-enter the code. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined.

we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). To get an isometric view. translating and rotating it on all three axes.. s 6.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. Zoom. This was simply used for convenience. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). you have many controls. In this example. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. Rotate. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. for example. 5. Try experimenting with them. z = 0. Zoom. You can either leave the 'Pan. To define keypoint #1.. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. y = 325. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model.

I would write: ' L. to obtain the first line. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. Keypoint at the end of line For example. Again. P2 Line.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). Keypoint at the beginning of the line.1. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . we will use the command line to create the lines. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. P1.

C0 25 2 . Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. MAT. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output.7. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . As in the verification model. 8. LAB.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. we will again use the command line. define the type of element (pipe16).

1.PRXY. Lab5. VALUE.. > Static 2.Valid material property label. Lab2.Material Property.. Lab6 Displacement on K. value.. type: ' MP. Expansion key. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. VALUE2. KEXPND. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. DOF label. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis.1. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. Material Reference Number. For example. type ' MP. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa.0. value2. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Lab4. to pin the . KPOI.33 ' r 10. Lab. 1. Lab3. K #. DK. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Apply Constraints Once again.EX. we will use the command line.

FY.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.5.0. Lab.UY.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.UY. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE. value2 (if req'd) .UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE.first keypoint enter: DK.. FK. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. value1.1. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. the command line code is: DK. K. K #.UX. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). UY... r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . value.UY and UZ).0. UX is not constrained. KPOI.1. FZ). Force Label directions (FX. UZ. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. value2 Force loads at keypoints.. Again.

Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). 'Def + undef edge' . the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.3. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. 4. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3..FY.. If you need to delete one of the forces. the code should look like this: ' FK. K.3. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.

Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. 'Back'. 'Left'. Your screen should look like the plot below: . etc depend on how the object was first defined).r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined.

Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. and turn on 'Node numbers'.. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.'). so we know what node(s) we're after.. Note the node numbers of interest. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering...2. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Turn everything else off. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.

. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. 3. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. Close this list window when you are finished browsing... Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. 4. For each element in the model. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . Click on 'OK'. .r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Then close the 'List Results' menu.' from the 'List Results' menu.

. Plot Results > Line Elem Res. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.. to plot the data from the Element Table . to define the table (remember SMISC.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. the bending moment diagram can be produced.12) And.6 and SMISC. Select Element Table > Define Table...

HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.'. Open the ..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit... click on 'Save .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. In the dialog box that appears. A .

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

and uniform pressure loading. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . plane stress. ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. A figure of the plate is shown below. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.

The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: .This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. scale factors. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc. units. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. however. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. a. Subtraction will used to create this model. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models.

s Fill in the window as shown above.200. the command line code for the above command is BLC4. (Alternatively.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0.0.100. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.100) b.0.

20 ) c. (Alternatively.s Fill in the window as shown above. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.50. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100. Prior to this operation.100. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.50. your image should resemble the following: .0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.

The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. s . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation.

select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.2) . You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.1. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.

Click and hold the K3 button. For this example. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. r ..3.. as shown in the above figure. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. four-node element (PLANE42). therefore Click on the 'Options. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. as shown below.' button. we need a plane stress element with thickness.

the command line code for the above step is MP.200000 followed by MP.(Alternatively. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .EX.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.1.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3.3) 4. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.0. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.3 (Alternatively.PRXY. the command line code for the above step is ET. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.1.1.20) 5.1.3) 6. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples. the command line code for the above step is R.

ALL) You should now have the following: . (Alternatively.25.) 7. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.r Select an element edge length of 25. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.

(Alternatively. 1.0) 2.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Fill in the window as shown below. r r . the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. the left end of the plate is fixed.ROT on Lines' window. Apply Constraints As shown previously.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model..

select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.4. (Alternatively.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears.0) 3. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. Therefore. therefore the last field is left blank. r r r . the command line code for the above step is DL. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate..ALL. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3.4.001 mm . 2. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0. Hand Calculations Now. Convergence using ANSYS . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .9 MPa.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.just a flat plate).we need to calculate what we should find.

(as shown below in red) . Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. we will check the stress at this point. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point...

9141 MPa at this point. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. To change the element size. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). r Resize Elements a. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: .

The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. . d. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . the values converge towards a final solution.c.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. (note . This is a mere 2. Click 'OK'.the element edge length decreases). Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).8 MPa. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node).5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS.

USUM in the window.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. 4.. . this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. However. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.0012 mm. 3. Therefore. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. r Observe the locations of deflection. Then select DOF solution.

Then select Stress.. r 5. von Mises in the window... (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively. obtain these results as a list.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.. .

Now go to 'File > Read input from.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Bracket Example .. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..' and select the file. Select Stress. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.

Create the main rectangular shape . A figure of the plate is shown below. Form Geometry Again. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. a. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.

0. X coord for the center. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. Y coord (bottom left). height s s Therefore. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4.80. radius s Therefore.50 c. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. YCORNER. X coord (bottom left).0.50. XCENTER.80. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. XCORNER. HEIGHT BLC4.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. WIDTH. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 .0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. YCENTER. RAD1 CYL4. Y coord for the center. the command line for this circle is CYL4.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4.100 b. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. width. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.

e.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area...ALL) s .WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following. Boolean Operations . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. s To perform the Boolean operation. the command line code for the above step is AADD.

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.You should now have the following model: f.

PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.1.6.3... the command line code for the above step is ET.1. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. (Alternatively. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.3) r . Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.s Next select the three circles that we just created.

ALL.0.EX. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. we will need to make sure the model has converged. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.ALL) . Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm. (Alternatively.PRXY.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. 4.1. the command line code for the above step is R. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Again.3) 6.1.) r 7.5.20) r 5. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. (Alternatively.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.200000 followed by MP.1.

. Apply Constraints . Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. 1.0) 2. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as..

ROT on Nodes' window.. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. polygon. For this case. Zoom.. Rotate. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. you have the option of creating a box. Apply Loads . r 3. Repeat for the second bolt hole.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.As illustrated.

As shown in the diagram. 4. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. .

it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged.1. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. 3. 2. . Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously.USUM in the window.

Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively... r 4. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.. . obtain these results as a list..

Open the . Quitting ANSYS . Now go to 'File > Read input from..PDF version is also available for printing.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Select Stress. A ..HTML version.

In the window that appears.. . select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'..To quit ANSYS. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit.

extrusion/ sweeping. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. ANSYS Inc. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Filleting. copying. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.

YCORNER. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. XCORNER. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. WIDTH.

XCENTER.RAD .5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.YCENTER. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. 3. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.

Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.2 4.SUBTRACT 5.5 Circle 2 8.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. The following window will appear.5 0.BASE.2 0.y and z offset of the copied area. Enter the y offset as 4. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.6 and then click OK. It asks for the x.5 0. r .

Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.ALL 7. Add the smaller circles to the large area.5 You should obtain the following 6. . Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius. Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .

. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.8. Create the fillet areas r As shown below.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.ALL . Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

X. Plot Areas 3. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.0. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .#. Then select the following two keypoints r r .5. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.0) and (0. 1.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.Z) 2.Y.10. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints. (K. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.

.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. Click on OK.

Change the Working Plane By default. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. for us to define the bolt holes.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. However. There are several ways to define a working plane. Create Bolt Holes 1. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . we need to use a different working plane.

r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. 2. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.

Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.note the origin of the working plane. fill in the blanks as shown. By default those values would be 0.0. 3. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.5 y=0 r=0.0. The following window will appear. . Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. 4.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees.

Youi should obtain the following model. .

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

A .' and select the file.HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Open the .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the Base 1. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .

1.8.5.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .20 followed by LARC.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.4.6. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.7.5 into the command line) when prompted. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.5. type LARC.

1. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.4.DZ) r .7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD. YCENTER=20.DX.2 You should obtain the following image: 3. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.# Copies (include original).Area#.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).5.DY.6.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.

r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.3. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .

101. type KWPLAN.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. we need to change the working plane. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. (Alternatively.6. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back.100. (Alternatively. Change the working plane As in the previous example.102 into the command line) . in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Note. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints.1.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). type VOFFST. Therefore. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. Again.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. the first keypoint defines the origin.

Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.27. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.1. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51.26 4. YCENTER=180. WIDTH=102. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. YCORNER=0.2. . RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together.

5.180.51.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. YCENTER=180. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 1. RADIUS=32. . . DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . YCENTER=180.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 3 5. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.32. . Area 2. RADIUS=18.

Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.57735*26) 129-(0. 204 .-1. the first keypoint defines the origin. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.4 3. type WPCSYS.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.201.202 into the command line) 2. 203.1. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.1. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.200. type KWPLAN. (Alternatively.

In the dialog box that appears.'.. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5..200. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A.203. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.204 4. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. .

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 .. /title..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.Modal Dynamic .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Harmonic Dynamic .

1. 7. Young's modulus EX: 200000 .y..0) 4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.#. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 6.. > Add..ANSYS Inc. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..z) 1 2 (0.0) (1000. K. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.x..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm.67 iii.. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. and rotation about the Z axis). enter the following geometric properties: i.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x.y..

10. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.. r ..86e-6 9. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. Density DENS: 7..ii. enter the following density for steel: i.0 2. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.3 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears.. The following window will appear. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm.81m/s2 in the y direction. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). ACEL. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.0. DK. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction.1.9.ALL.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. ..8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.777mm 2.4. > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .2 ... Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.As observed in the upper left hand corner. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.777mm. A . This is in agreement with the theortical value.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.HTML version..

Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.

/title.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 4. 5.0) (1000. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . > Add. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. With only 3 degrees of freedom. 6.ANSYS Inc. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Distributed Loading 3. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.y) 1 2 (0..K#... Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .#.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1...K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. enter the following geometric properties: i. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L.x. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. and rotation about the Z axis).

Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. 9.333 iii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.ii. 7.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.3 8. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. ..

. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2. 3. As shown in the following figure. over the entire length of the beam.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements.. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. .. 4. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously.. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. In the window that appears. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.2 2.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings.

1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. For this problem. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. (ie.. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. ' d. 7. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Click 'Add. r As shown in the plot below. In the window that appears a.' 3. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). click 'Apply' 5. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. Click 'OK'.. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window.1. 9. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. 6. For this example. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files... select 'NMISC. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. 8. In the second window of the same section. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. . 3 for the 'J' nodes. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d.

Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. A .' and select the file. .

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . To solve this problem. contact elements).Harmonic Dynamic . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). the load will added incrementally. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. After each increment. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .

. 5. 2. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. enter the following geometric properties: i..25 x 0.. > Add.ANSYS Inc.03125 ii.y) 1 2 (0.125 inches.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. With only 3 degrees of freedom. 6. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .069e-5 iii. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 1. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.0) (5. 4. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0... the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0) 3. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .

Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.1 " (50 element divisions along the line).. for example. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.0 2.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. If we were considering a block of wood.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. not non-linear material properties.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example.i. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. 7. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. The following image will appear: . 8.

Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. however. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . C. this takes time. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.

type help followed by the command into the command line. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. However. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. D. By default. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. the previously computed matrix. For some special nonlinear cases. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. By default. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. For more information about these commands. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. the load is ramped. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . the modified Newton-Raphson. By default. This command controls the solution data written to the database. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. E. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie.Now. By default. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. F. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. stress stiffening is automatically included.

. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. 4.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

1 2.. UY PLNSOL. > Def + undeformed PLDISP. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Y..0..U. > DOF solution. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..1 .

List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions.. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. As you recall. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. this is not realistic for large deflections. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1.. Modeling the system non-linearly. the load was applied in steps. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. However. Define Variables . However.3.> DOF solution.

.. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r ...r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.

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Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.' and select the file. .PDF version is also available for printing. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Open the ..

An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. see Chapter 8. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. For more information regarding setting the time value.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. .Modal Dynamic . In this example.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. and many other solution control option. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command.5% for loads. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. for more information about changing iteration settings. For each parameter. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. However. such as this. Once this occurs. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep.5 in the help file. For instance. 2. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied.001). Thus. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. or is not converging. Some analyses use normalized values. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. If the problem is relatively linear. which this graph is taken from. Again. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. if the solution is highly non-linear. etc) that iterates to find a solution. Generally. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. For ease of explanation. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). many iterations will be required. In the case of a structural example. the curves may be for temperature. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. as expected. As can be seen in the graph above. we will look at the force curves. there are two curves plotted. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. this graph relates to forces and moments. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. In simpler terms. In the case of a structural analysis. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. For each substep. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. This is what will be explained next. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. which ever is greater. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. which is discussed in the help file. . The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps.ANSYS Inc. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. you can see Chapter 8.

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It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. material nonlinearities and gaps.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. in real-life. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . real-world buckling prediction analysis. For this type of analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. . this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. However. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).0 to solve a simple buckling problem. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.Harmonic Dynamic . large-deflection. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. 2. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.Modal Dynamic . This method is not recommended for accurate. ie. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. static analysis to predict buckling loads. load perterbations.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. The required load to cause buckling. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. /title.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3.. will be calculated.ANSYS Inc. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Keypoints . rigidly constrained at the bottom. applied at the top-center of the beam. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..

In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window..100) 4. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.3 . enter the following geometric properties: i. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.0) (0.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..#.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..333 iii. K.y) 1 2 (0..1. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. > Add. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm... 6. 7. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.X. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. and rotation about the Z axis)..

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.0 2.8. 9. If you are looking at the abridged menu. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. r r . Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. select the unabridged version. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. prestress effects must be activated.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'.. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line)..

4. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load.3.

Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. 7.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. However. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly.1 8. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. 5.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10.. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible.. however. 11.. r . The 'Subspace' method could also be used. This time. 9.. and ensure that it is on. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). is for an expansion pass. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode.r Complete the window which appears. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. as shown below. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes .

/POST1 SET. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41.123). Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. which is in Newtons for this example. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r .r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.LIST 2. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.

Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3.. /TITLE.#. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..Y . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.X.

Define Mesh Size .1.100) 4. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.y) 1 2 (0.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.2 5. 6. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0) (0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window... This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. 7. With only 3 degrees of freedom.333 iii. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. L. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833..3 8. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. and rotation about the Z axis). > Add..

Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ESIZE. The following image will appear: .1 9.0 2... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines..

however. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. E. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. F. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. D. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. B. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. this takes time.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. C. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1.

The model should now look like the window shown below. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). For more information about these commands.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). type help followed by the command into the command line. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. . 3. 4.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .5.

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. .

> Def + undeformed PLDISP...1 .r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

.0.U.r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. > DOF solution.1 .Y.. UY PLNSOL.

stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. However. 1. . The following window should open automatically.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. . r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.

This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. On the Time History Variable window. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.r To add another variable.

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.2. . r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.

PDF version is also available for printing.. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. A .The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the . which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.123 N.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.000 N.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). In such a case.Modal Dynamic . The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". For instance.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. ANSYS Inc. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.Harmonic Dynamic . a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.

y) 1 2 (0.. L. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. 5.2 4. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .... enter the following geometric properties: i.#..1.X.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.0) (0. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . NonLinear Materials 2.. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. > Add. 6.100) 3. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.

click Add Point to add another.005 0. It should look like the one shown above.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.001 0. the stress-strain data must be included. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above.002 0.i. Then click OK. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii. click Graph to see the curve. When all the points have been inputed. When the data for the first point is input.003 0.004 0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

150 0. /REPLOT 7..275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. The following image will appear: .ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).200 0. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.060 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.250 0.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2... 8.100 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.

. data for every load step is written to the database. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. F. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Therefore. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. E. however. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. this takes time. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. C. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure Line Search is 'On'.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. D. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. you can plot certain parameters over time.

B. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). type help followed by the command into the command line. 4. For more information about these commands. 3. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . 5.

To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. . General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

1 .U.0. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. UY PLNSOL..Y.2.. > DOF solution.

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. . Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. The following window should open automatically. 1. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.

r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. .

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.r To add another variable. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. On the Time History Variable window. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. . The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. as the force increased. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .HTML version. However.. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. was low (in the linear range). and subsequently the stress. . the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. When you verify this example analytically. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. you will see the solutions are very similar. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..' and select the file.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. please use the links below.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. The following window will appear ..ANSYS Inc. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.2 2.

r As shown. . select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. It is therefore more exact but.

.r For this problem. . 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. we will use the default options so click on OK. 3..

54 Percent Error 0.22 ANSYS 8.51 472.e.01 145.68 285.64 285. r To view the next mode shape.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.300 52. Select 'Def + undef edge'.0 0. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.0 0.311 51.69 472.2 0.94 145. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . 2.1 0. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r . select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . instead of 10 elements.

3. Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

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Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

(To get a list of nodes and their attributes. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. and the following window should pop up. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. which is node #2. By default. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . In our case it is assigned Frequency.

Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. .

r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .3 and 51 Hz.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.94Hz. To get a better view of the response. view the log scale of UY.311 and 51. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.

r As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .

Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.100 Hz. Now go to 'File > Read input from. See the help file for instructions. A .. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. r For ANSYS version lower than 7. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.0.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . .

.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. a static analysis may be used instead.Modal Dynamic . for example. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case.Harmonic Dynamic . . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.

the higher the mode frequency we will capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The smaller the time step. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. However. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. After the application of the load. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.ANSYS Inc.

we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. However. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. It is the quickest of the three methods. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. Therefore. r . Select 'Reduced' as shown. In ANSYS. In other words. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. the calculations are much quicker. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. All types of non-linearities are allowed. However. please use the links below. if stresses and forces are of interest than. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis.2. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. The following window will open. 3. .

.4. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. Therefore. for this example we can skip this step. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. This will specify a time step size of 0. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. However. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below).001.Time Step . two sets of initial conditions are required. Note that for the reduced method. s set [DELTIM] to 0. initial displacement and initial velocity. ii. a. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution.Initial Conditions i. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. Load Step 1 . The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.001 seconds to be used for this load step. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0).. both default to zero.

Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .iii.

.Time Step .001 for the end of the load step iii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. and set a time of 0. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). Load Step 2 i. ii. ii. Load Step 3 i.s01 b. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options .

. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. .Time Step . Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. 1. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . which is node #2. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). By default. In our case it is assigned Frequency.

r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ..r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. and the following window should pop up..

Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2.

frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. . 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.3. Plot UY vs.

one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. . We did not specify damping for our system. we would have to expand the reduced solution. However. if stresses and forces are of interest. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. We also see another response at a higher frequency.

. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.11 seconds r r r 2. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. 1. For this case. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26).Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam . Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.11 seconds..08 and 0. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open.08 and 0.

000000000E-03.DEFA ACEL. 1.00000000 . /GOPR 1. 0. D. 0. 0. 0.00000000 OMEGA. 0.00000000 .REDU..00000000 DCGOMG. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.00000000 TINTP. TINTP.DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 . We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files..00000000 CGLOC. 0..0.00000000 D.UX . 5.000000000E-03 TIME.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 BETAD. -1. 0.00000000 DMPRAT.ROTZ. 4 TRNOPT. 0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE.00000000 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.00000000 .00000000 NCNV. 0.00000000 0.00000000 ._TINY DELTIM. 1.0.00000000 ERESX. 0. 0.00000000 .00000000 . 0.s01. 0.00000000 0. 0. .01 in all three load step files.UY . 0. 0. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.00000000 . 1.R5.R5.00000000 ALPHAD.00000000 . but now we will consider damping.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0.00000000 0.00000000 . The file should look like the following. . 0. We will now re-run our transient analysis. 0 DOMEGA. 0. 0. D.00000000 . 0. 0.00000000 . 0.7. 0.00000000 .500000000 ..00000000 .00000000 CGOMEGA. 0. 0. 0. 0.ANSYS RELEASE 5. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.00000000 .00000000 .00000000 TREF.00000000 . /COM. q .00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.TEMP. 0. -1. 1.

After selecting MDOFs. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. After the results have been calculated. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.HTML version.. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files ..' . Open the .q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26..

and select the file. .PDF version is also available for printing. A .

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Give example a Title 2. Apply Constraints . > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.0 2..1.ALL.KXX. 1.10 6.PLANE55 For this example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.ANSYS Inc.05 7. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. 5. Quad 4node 55). Width=1.0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.05 AESIZE. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1 4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Y=0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0. Height=1 BLC4.1.

options cannot be selected. Heat Generation. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. r r The following window will appear: . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow. Convection. or Radiation. Heat Flux.For thermal problems. In this example.

r 3. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .. > DOF solution. Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.

Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .PDF version is also available for printing.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. followed by the side and bottom constraints. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. A .. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. however. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners.HTML version. Open the .' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

0 to solve simple thermal examples. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Y=0.05 AESIZE.1.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.05 7.0.0. Width=1. 5. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.1 4. Quad 4node 55).ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.ALL.0. Give example a Title 2.1. Apply Conduction Constraints . Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.KXX. Height=1 BLC4. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0 2. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. 1.1.PLANE55 As in the conduction example.. 6.ANSYS Inc.

In this example. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. The following window will appear: r . Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block.

This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. 4.r Fill in the window as shown. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. r .

r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5. > DOF solution.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Temperature TEMP . This will eliminate convection through the side.

Open the .HTML version.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. A . .

040 kJ/kg*K. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Also. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.

1. Y=0.05 7. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.C. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP..04 MP.1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.2.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.. Width=1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Height=1 BLC4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.ALL. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1. 5.KXX.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Quad 4node 55).0.PLANE55 For this example.05 AESIZE.1. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.DENS.. /Title. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.0. Quad 4Node 55 ET.ALL At this point.1 4.0.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.920 6.ANSYS Inc.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. We will use the defaults. .4 The window shown below will pop up. so click OK.

. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.2.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Min no. of substeps to 100.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . Max no. of substeps to 20.

options cannot be selected. Heat Flux. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Heat Flow. Heat Generation.D) Set Line search to ON . r r . Convection. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. refer to the help file. In this example. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Basically. By writing the data at every step. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. For a complete description of what these options do. or Radiation. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. 3. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK.

The following window will appear: .

. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. r 4. > DOF solution. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Temperature TEMP . Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method.

.. Fill in the window as shown.Animate Results Over Time r First. user specified. from 100 to 500. with 8 contours. specify the contour range. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. .

DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 ..r Then animate the data. Auto contour scaling OFF..300 Time Range. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames.

. As can be seen. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. the curves are practically identical. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. Also.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time.

Analytical Solution .

Creating the Temperature vs. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. .ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. node 261.If it does not open automatically. Pick the center node on the mesh. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. will cause the solution to converge. Instead. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above.2. From experience. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. To cause the solution to converge. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. . reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This is because the solution has not completely converged. so you must change them manually. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. This will greatly increase the computational time required though.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file.. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Open the .

A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. In this case.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Harmonic Dynamic . Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. As a warning. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

.ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.X2. Axisymmetric Tube 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.Y2 .Y1.X1.. /title.

axisymmetry is not supported.. click the Options. button. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. . to create the geometry mentioned above.. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. we must define a U-shape. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. Solid.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area.. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. 6. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type.. Many elements support axisymmetry. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Therefore. Triangle 6node) element.For an axisymmetric problem. 5.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: .3 8. 9. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.

By using the symmetry B.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.C. as shown below. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. command. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.C. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry.0 2. . we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. at x=0.

Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. . then click OK.r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus.

click on Cancel to close the window. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. otherwise it would be free to float up or down.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. 4. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. Therefore. . This is required to constrain the model in space. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. 3. Once you've clicked Sele All. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window.

r 5. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. as shown below and click OK.55 in the Min..182 MPa. ..Max box. 2. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.

it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. we must average the stress over the thickness.18552 + 0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. The average is used because in the analytical case. the stress in the tube is 0. (0. to approximate the analytical solution. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. Thus. such as corners. 3. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube.182 MPa. matching the analytical solution.. The following window will appear.. .17866)/2. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators.

. the model is a flat. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.4. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. Open the . A . Thus.' and select the file. with a rectangular hole in the middle. The rest of the commands remain the same. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling.PDF version is also available for printing. If this is done.. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. as expected due to the change in geometry. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. rectangular plate.

A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. a wall thickness of 10. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.

. /title. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) .Catapult 3.Y and Z axis). It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. and rotation about the X. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.. Define Element Types For this problem. Y and Z axis. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

ROTY). s Select 'Combination'. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'.. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. For this example. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. b. c. UY). the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. UZ. s Select 'Combination'. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. there should now be three types of elements defined. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.a. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. UY. a. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties.. Click 'OK'. ROTX. 4. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types... Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements.

we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.z) (0. Click 'OK'.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. In the window that appears.y.0..x.1000) (1000. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.. c.y.0) (0. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. 5.0.0) .33 6.1000) (1000.0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.0. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4. Define Element Material Properties 1.#. there should now be three types of elements defined. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. N. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

-500) 7.0) (0. 'Material number' is set to 1.1000) (0. The following window will appear. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0.0) (700.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.500) (0..0.400. Create PIPE16 elements a.1500) (0.1000. Then click 'OK'.0.0.1000) (0.500) (400.500) (0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes . .0.700.1000.

Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .6). node a. the first entry would be: E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.b. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.1.

Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Create elements When defining a joint. Then click 'OK' b. three nodes are required. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2.

node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. 11.node a.node a. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. To do this. you can list all the elements defined in the model. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.E. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. we do not need to mesh our model. node b. Then click 'OK' b. 10. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements.

You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .0 2... ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 3. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we need to include the effects of large deformation. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

. 8. This will give you the max stress at the j node..r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. however.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. Fill this table as done previously. this is not always the case. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. fill it in as shown previously . Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... we can now solve the optimization problem... r r 7.. > Add. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. However.3 (instead of NMISC.. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. Comp selection box r r r 6. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. However.1). In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. In this case the maximum values for each are the same. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. . 1. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.

20 *SET. !* ET.txt’ Click ‘OK’.1 /title. . .0. .W .start70.ANSYS RELEASE 7.H. Design Optimization *SET.. .. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.0 MPDATA.. .LINE.1 FITEM..3 !* LESIZE.1.2.BEAM3 !* !* R..(W*H**3)/12..1..0.1. .2 . .2. ..0.ans.1.1. 2 !* HPTCREATE.2... FLST.P51X.W*H.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.1... .ORDE. . 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE..3. 1..... K.75.1 !* /GO DK..3. 20 /PREP7 K.2.1.1. LMESH. .1000.0. MPTEMP.0 FLST..1..1.. ..ORDE. . .PRXY.UY. . L.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'..0.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.2.200000 MPDATA.ALL...100.1 FITEM.1.RATI.EX.UX.0. !* !* MPTEMP.H ...

FY.1.1 FITEM.1. 3 !* ESORT.SSUM.2.-2000 ! /STATUS.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. . !* *GET. However. .ETAB.3. !* SSUM !* *GET. .EVOLUME AVPRIN.SMaxI.SMax_J.2.NMISC. .NMISC.UX.UY.SORT.0. .1.0.0. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . . 1 !* ESORT.P51X..SORT.MAX AVPRIN.0.!* /GO DK. !* *GET.P51X.VOLU.SMAX.0. .UY. ETABLE.ETAB.. .Volume. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.0. most of these changes will already be made.0. .SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.ITEM.EVolume. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.MAX *SET.0.0.0. . To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. .0.SMax_I..SMaxJ. If you created the geometry etc.SMAX_J.1.0.C:\Temp\. . using command line code. ETABLE. . Change this to: DK. . .UY. . if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.0. ETABLE.UX.3 !* /GO FK.ORDE. FLST. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. .optimization.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.P51X. . .SMAX_I.DK. Therefore. .

0.0.UY. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. . the width and height of the beam are the DVs.2. If you are comfortable with command line coding. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. For the width and height. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem.0. NOTE: As previously stated. . Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. Change to: DK. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.P51X.0. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . . ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. To define variables.DK.P51X. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. . In our problem. In this example. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values.FY. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . . you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. . we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. r Click ‘OK’.-2000 Change to: FK.FY. Now that we have decided our design variables. In this example. . 2. . 3. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs.UY.FK. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. Without this SV.3.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file.

on the volume of the beam.. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. a.01mm. we do not need to define an allowable range. we will select a tolerance of 0... Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables... > Add. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3... For the stress variable.01MPa. > Add.. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. .

For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Defaults to 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.001) c. Defaults to 10. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Percent forward diff.. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.2% 7. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.. ..2 Click ‘OK’... Under Convergence Tolerance.. Click ‘OK’. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. DELTA = 0. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. confirm that the analysis file. enter 200. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). 6. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0.

For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. C..The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. and the stress is equal to 199.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2..16 mm. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A.. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. View the Results 1. 2. You will probably see that the width=13.24 mm. B. height=29. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r .

Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy.. ... Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. In the window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.

bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.... Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. displacement. A . . In addition. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. . all of the results data (ie stress. Alternatively. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Open the .

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Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). For this example. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5 MPa. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Apply loads to the super-element . please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. v = 0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. however. substructuring will be used for the wood block.

YCORNER. 3. . Apply remaining loads to the model.WIDTH. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4.. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..2..XCORNER.. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. r . Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.SUBST 2.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. This element has 4 nodes. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 5. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid)..29 6.

3. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. r . r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. In this case.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. With the option SEPR.

r In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .

db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. FILNAME..XCORNER. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model.YCORNER.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2....WIDTH. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

. Young's modulus EX: 2. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data .41 8. Therefore. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. The following window will appear. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. . Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.5 (MPa) ii. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).. 7.6. 9. Select Model Data..1 10. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. For Selected set as shown.). Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas ...

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Select Nodes. . The following window will appear..SUB File. 40 as shown. Y coordinates. By Location.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From ..

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. In the window that appears. Apply super-element load vectors ...

Translation USUM PLNSOL. > DOF solution.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution ..U.0.SUM.1 ..) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector..db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5. r 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted.

. FILNAME. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass.

..ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..db . r 2. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . r 3. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. r . The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.. The following window will appear.3... Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. Type 'EXPASS.

Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution . > DOF solution.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Translation USUM PLNSOL.U.0...SUM.1 .

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from..HTML version.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. A . . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .

As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.the solutions and . Loads will not be applied to the link.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. For convenience. . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. with no internal stresses. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. However.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. stress is created in the link.. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. A steel link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. a thermal conductivity of 60. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). the link will attemp to expand.

Although the geometry must remain constant. the analyses are coupled. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. It is important to note. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. For a listing. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. where the thermal effects will be applied.y. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . and using it with any following coupled environments. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.2 . and write them to memory. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. However.. For instance." Thus.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1..0) 4.0) (1. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. Thermal Stress Example 2.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x..z) 1 2 (0. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. /title.. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. the element types can change. For our case.y. K. Thermal Environment .x. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. the geometry is kept constant.1.#. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.

Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. 9. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. 6... . In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. 5..1 meters. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 7. > Add. enter the following geometric properties: i.. representing a link 1 meter long. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.5 8. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.. KXX: 60.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.

Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. etc. Structural Environment . Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. so it can be used in the next stage. see the help file. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. such as the element type. 2. material properties. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In this case it is LINK 8. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. all that is required is to detail the structural variables.3 . only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. which is defining the structural environment. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. For more information on this element. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. In this case. 1. It does not clear the geometry however.11.

Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i.0 2. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. ALPX: 12e-6 3. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

4. as expected. 7. this data can be found as file. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1.rth.rth is the thermal results file. 3. 6. This should make it visible. The thermal solution has now been obtained.rth. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. you will get error messages. enter the file name File.rth. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. . Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. were . This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. the left-most point. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. 8. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. to 348 Kelvin. If this is not done. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. We will use these results in determing the structural effects.

9. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.

the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. an element table must be created first. 2. Instead.As shown. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below.1 3.CompStress. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS.1 ETABLE. List the Stress Data .LS. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.

Note the stress in each element: -0.CompStr The following list should appear. . or 180 MPa in compression as expected.180e9 Pa. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB.

Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing..This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A . .

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. rather than increasing mesh density. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Thus. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..ON Select p-Method Struct. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. /title. P-Method Meshing 2. as shown below .Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

3.0) (0.#.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.y.x.100) (45.52) (80.100) .y.100) (20..52) (55.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.. K.

4.2. .1.0) 5.10. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A..48) (45..5.8.0) (80.6.7.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below. 6.0) (55.100) (100.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.11.3.9.48) (20.

. For more information on these elements. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. and Plane145. 7. Solid147. Plane146. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library... > Add. 8. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears... go to the Element Library in the help file. to open the keyoptions window. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type.. After clicking OK to select the element. shown below. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . click Options. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. For now we will leave them as default.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 10..ii..0 2.3 9. . For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Max no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. Min no. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. . of substeps to 20.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.5.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.3. .

As a comparison. For more complex geometries. these orders may go as high as 8. . a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress.

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PDF version is also available for printing. and still get reasonable results. A . Open the . However. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.As one can see from the two plots. thus computational time will be low.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. This is the benefit of using p-elements.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse..

The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. Element birth is also possible.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. The elements are still technically there. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. but will not be discussed here. For further information. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death.

Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.0.. enter the following properties: i. /title.. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Element Death 2.0. Quad 4node 55). enter the following properties: .03 BLC4.03 Height = 0. For this example. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.03 4. enter the following properties: i.03.. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears..0.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. 5.

i. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. Density DENS: 920 6. you . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up.0005m.4 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Therefore. 7. We will use the defaults. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0... Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. ANTYPE. so click OK. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.must type NROPT. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .FULL into the commmand line. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. 3. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used.

D) Set Line search to ON . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. For a complete description of what these options do. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. By writing the data at every step. Basically. refer to the help file. 4.

Heat Generation. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. In this example. Convection. or Radiation. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows.5. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. . with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. Heat Flux.

The model should now look as follows: .

Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. For instance.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. Assume the material melts at 273 K. elements to create the desired effect. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. or turn off. the user can manually kill.LAST 2. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. . Here..

3. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting.' Fill the window in as shown below. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire..r Click on 'Add.. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

Click OK to restart the analysis. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point.all into the command line. this will kill only those elements. thus it is just warning the user. which this analysis doesn't call for. and close the warning message. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. 2. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. . This is much too time consuming in this case. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected.

select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK. .With the window still open.

2. View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

. more accurately modelling the heating process. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. That way.PDF version is also available for printing. . the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. Open the .HTML version.' and select the file.This procedure can be programmed in a loop. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. using command line code. to more accurately model element death over time.

Contact Elements 2.. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. The beams. as shown below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. /title. causing it to bend and contact the lower.. are 100mm long.

. 10) 4... 100. Width.. WP Y. Quad 4node 42) element.. 100. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).WP Y. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements..Width. . click Options. 5. 10) (50./PREP7 3. 15.. 0.. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. > Add.WP X. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. r While the Element Types window is still open.Height) 1 2 (0. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X.

pt-to-surf 48) element. 8. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. click Options.. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. 6. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact.3 7. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step.. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. .. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. This is an important step..In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. r While the Element Types window is still open. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines.. This way. incremements slowly when contact is immenent.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. rather than node to element edge.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. This KN value can greatly affect your solution.. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes.. 10. As the surfaces approach each other. Thus. ii. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. be sure to understand how the elements work. > Add. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. such as TARGE169. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. resulting in convergence difficulties. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. Since this "spring" is so stiff. If there is too much penetration. you should increase KN.. This will be covered below.. In this situation. Other contact elements. When using contact elements in your own analyses. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. . require a target element. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. you should decrease KN.It is important to note. enter the following properties: i. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. given in %. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). A small value of TOLS. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. to function. such as CONTA175. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window).

However. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. Select the top beam and click OK.. tolerances. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. etc.. 11. . you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation.. when the geometry is complex. First. In this simple case. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. In this case. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. the source nodes will be selected. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes.

Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.100. . This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.. This will select the nodes above the lower beam.

you should only have the following nodes remaining.s Now if you list the selected nodes. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. ..

s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. This can be very useful in other applications as well. In this case. Now we can use this component. and click OK. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. . Source. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. If you have a lot of contact elements. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements.

. enter the name Target.. This is done by opening the entity select menu. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. When creating the component this time. and click the Sele All button. 12.. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. clicking the Also Select radio button.. and click the Sele All button. These values will be the ones you'll use. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100.. clicking the Also Select radio button. This is done by opening the entity select menu.Now select the target nodes. Using the same procedure as above. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.

The rest of the selections remain unchanged.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). .

If you wish. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. Unfortunately. your model should look like the following.At this point. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > .

0 2. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. The preprocessor stage is now complete. The following image will appear: .Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). shown below. If you zoom in on the contact areas. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control..

Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. however. this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. B. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. C. D.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. E. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 .

the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. Again. Once everything is working. If you have too few substeps. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. type help followed by the command into the command line. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Also. leave these relatively high at first. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. For more information about these commands. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. 3.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes .

Note. 5.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. However. this is a point load on a 2D surface. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . thus we will use a point load for simplicity.

Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.0 (true scale) radio button. 3.2. If you leave the scaling as default. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. then click ok. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. producing a stress distribution in both. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A ..As seen in the figure. .' and select the file..

To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.2 .How tall is the truss. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).100 *ask.20 *ask. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.How long is the truss.DIVISION.How many cross supports even number.LENGTH. Variables including length. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic.HEIGHT. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. using a length of 200 m. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.NUM_K.THEN k.THEN L.i..(DIVISION-1).200000 mp.X_COORD.KEYP.LE.100 mp.0.OSCILATE.1.3 esize.link1 r.0.GT.ex.i.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.KEYP.0 *else k.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.1.j.1 .1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.prxy.1.1.KEYP.(KEYP+1) *if.DIVISION.i.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.X_COORD.1.1.

GT. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.". *ask.2. Thus in later parts of the code.How long is the truss. OSCILATE. IVAL. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. 4.all finish 1. The syntax for the expression is *DO. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. For more information on this command.LENGTH. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run.THEN.. in the code above there is a statement: *if. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. Par. INC.8. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. As seen above. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. determining if a certain case has occured. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m.3. For example.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. is greater than zero. This argument can be a single value. This translates to "if the variable. *do.10).0. Command File Mode of Solution . as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. However. see the help file. (ie 1. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.. In this case. FVAL. or a mathematical expression.. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.i. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. then. For example.OSCILATE. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.1. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.lmesh. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. the most intutitive method is to use "=".9.10_K.. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. 2. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. ... A .' and select the file.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

etc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. /title. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2...) of the following example. Stress.

.0.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Height. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Y and Z directions). Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.3 6. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.3. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.Width. 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.. 5.

therefore. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). For this example we are trying to display a section. 4.ANTYPE. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). options 1. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display.0 2. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). 3. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. 5. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice.

r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . let's view deflection of the entire model. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display.

halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. To illustrate how to take a cross section. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. offset the working plane to the desired position. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r .

As desired. you should now have the following: .

1 /TYPE.1.0.This can be repeated for any slice. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises .8 PLNSOL.90 /CPLANE. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.0 WPROTA.SUM.0..0. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. let's view stresses within the entire model.-1.. Equivalent Stress Again. simply use: WPCSYS. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0.Width/2.0 2.U. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. however.

S.5 PLNSOL. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.1 /TYPE.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.EQV.0. Because it is much easier.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). You should now see the following: . we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.1.0.

r r . You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Next. Unfortunately. For more information on how to modify the animation.. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). for something a little more impressive. the origin. but please bear with me. the sweep direction. select the node in the back. In the graphics window. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. Animation Now. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). Finally. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. type help ancut into the command line.. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. and the Y axis. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam.3.

' and select the file.HTML version. .PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer... Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. For example. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. . distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.

Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. Then.200. /title. 4. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First. select the areas to be subtracted (ie.WP X.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. r . the circles) and click OK.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.0..100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.WP Y. select the area to remain (ie.0. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the rectangle) and click OK. The remaining area should look as shown below.. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.6. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 .' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. enter a thickness of 10. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i... > Add... In the 'Element Types' window. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. click 'Options... 8.

10. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. The model should now look like the figure below. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. .0 2.9.. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.. 3. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant.

you could create a normal contour plot. if the stress near the holes are of interest.4. 1. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. However. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r .

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. you must make a couple of changes. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . Turn window 1 'off'. r r 2. To keep window 1 visible during replots. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. meaning this function off. shown below.

r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. 3. For this example. r . what results should be available to the path. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. equivalent stress is desired. or in other words. you must choose what to map to the path. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK.

This is of little concern though. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. 4. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . so disregard the warning. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map.r The warning shown below will probably pop up.

. Due to resolution restrictions. these dots are not shown here. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations.The display should look like the following. Note.

.' and select the file. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version..This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .

.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Use of Tables for Data Plots .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. finer resolution can be achieved. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. a special type of array. rather than using a contour plot. /title. By plotting this data on a curve.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Length of the following beam using tables. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.

Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.. 6..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.y...2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z) 1 2 (0. and rotation about the Z axis).#... Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.. K. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. 7. > Add.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1.0) (400. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.0) 4. Define Element Material Properties . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.2.x.y.

. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 9. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. The model should now look like the figure below.3 8. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm..

are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. For this example there are 21 nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Create the Table .. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. > OK.. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. This example is a simplified use of tables. 1. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. a special type of array. 2. Therefore.4. but they can be used for much more. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. Tables. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows.

1]. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . In the window shown below. The reason for this will be explained below.2. 3. select Model Data > Nodes r . one more than the number of nodes.. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. Enter Data into Table First. Note there are 22 rows..

Next. and continues down the column.2) > All > DOF solution > UY].. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. and continues down the column. the vertical displacement will be recorded.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 2.1) > All > Location > X]. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. r ..2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. column 1. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.

Thus. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. as it is keypoint 1. This causes problems during plotting. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. to provide room to move this data.4. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit .

When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. Fill it in as shown. UY = -0. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). r . Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X).833) is in row two. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis.

To see the changes to the labels...r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . r r . select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below.

' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse... Open the . .

1. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.2.all.prxy.1. For instance. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.833.1.1.all finish /solu antype.100.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.0 dk.3 esize.beam3 r. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 L.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. finish /clear /title.200000 mp.100.0.0. etc. changing the background colour.1.0 K.10 mp.333.1.2 et.ex.5 lmesh. numbering the nodes.

The following window will appear: .-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1..2.fk.fy. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering..

select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. For instance. However. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. You should get the following: . sometimes the numbers won't show up.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. To remedy this problem. When you click OK.

These extra symbols may not be necessary.As shown. the nodes have been numbered. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. 2. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible.

so those sections won't be used. . or Initial Conditions.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. In our case. Under the Boundary conditions section. there are no Surface or Body Loads.

Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .The result should be as follows: 3.

This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. it is things associated with the window background. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. To turn off the triad. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. As shown in the window. . In this case. The following output should be the result. the legend or title can be turned off. etc.

4. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape. ...

. If there is no change in output. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. thus elements are not going to show up. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. such as BEAM3. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window.When using line elements. don't be alarmed. To aid in this process. The following should appear. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes.

. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate.. but they have volume according to the real constants.As shown. To get a better 3-D view of the model. . you can change the view orientation. the elements are no longer just a line. 5.

translate the view and zoom. Basic rotating. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis.This window allows the user to rotate the view. such as isometric or oblique. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. Using these options. . You can also select predefined views.

Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. those can also be changed. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. If you don't like the colours of the contour. Under uniform contours. Changing Contours First. plot the deformation contour for the beam. Under non-uniform contours.. they can be changed. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions.6.. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. .

and we'll set the background colour to white. . Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. but don't want a black background..The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus.. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Here we are only using Window 1. 7.

. Under the File heading.The resulting display is shown below. such as contour values. select Save As. This is because the text colour is also white.. If there is information that needs to be added. To save the display. this can be done in other graphic editors. Notice how all the text disappeared.. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image.

the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. If you are looking for a specific option. as is the help file. . these are just a few.

or if you'd like to save the whole file.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. e. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. You may need to select Plot -> . Then before you are finished. When it is complete. 2. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up.. to a text file. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file..cmd) is stored and select it. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI.g. see the next item in this list. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. frame. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. select Read Input from.. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. The output window shows the progress of this procedure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

on. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line.) between frame and cmd. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS.cmd and yes that is a comma (.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections.cmd. stress.. etc./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file.. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. Save those changes to disk. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. Select File -> Clear & Start New. X11c. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. At this point you could type in /menu. mode).frame. If the file was in the directory. Command Line File Loading Alternatively.. . Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from... then from the ANSYS input window. you may need to point it to the proper directory. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show.. To rerun the command file. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. type /input.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.frame. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. you would use the following syntax /input. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file.

theta1. kp18 a..a2.y1.kp2.zcoord l.theta2 sphere.kp3. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k. .kp2.xcoord. applying loads and constraints. .x2. l10 v..ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.z2 cylind.x1.y2 block.rad1.x1.x2..kp2. kp8 va.. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis. .. .kp1.kp1.rad2.theta1.y2.z1.l1.kp1. ....kp2.l2.rad1.kp#.ycoord.y1..z1. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .kp2 larc.a1.rad2. kp6 a.. a10 see online help see online help rectng.kp1.z2.kp1.

type may define as many as required.. current type is set by mat mat.. . c4 may define as many as required.a1.number r.a1..a2 aina.a1. .line1.area1. .label. . a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et..Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd. .a1.r1.number mp.a2. current type is set by type type.area2.. a9 aglue.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .number.a2.c1. r6 may define as many as required..number esize..number. current type is set by real real.line2..r2.inc or lmesh.size.number..all amesh.inc or amesh.. a9 asba.c0.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.a2.

vol2.label.MY.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.ROTX. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .kp#.value labels: UX.ALL d.ALL dl.FY.inc or vmesh.FZ.MX.line#.UY.node#.MX.label.ROTY.value labels: UX.vol1.label.ROTY.UY.ROTZ.FZ.label.e.UZ.MZ f.area#.ROTZ.UZ.MY. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.kp#.node#.value labels: FX.FY.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).value labels: FX.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.ROTX.

5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs". Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.0.then .i.0 k.2.Enter number of divisions (default 5).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.ndivs.x.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.0. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .GT.ndivs. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.1. if only is entered.x1.1.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.else . ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.1 ! do i = 1.i.1. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.x2.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).ndivs+1.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.

kp.all...! /pnum.1 kplot klist.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. ANSYS 7. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. extrusion. Boolean operations. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Pure Conduction . ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations).Transient Thermal Examples .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Modal Dynamic Analysis . Dynamic Analysis .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis .

Modelling Using Axisymmetry .Thermal Examples .Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Analysis of heat conduction over time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. ANSYS 7. Additionally. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Using element death to model a volume melting. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. a special type of array. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.

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1 k.0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.0.0.-1 k.1.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.7 emis2=0.0 k.0.0254 rout=8*0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.5.6.699*10**(-8) k.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.7.0 k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8.

generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.s.emis1 EMIS.1 csys..offset ! inner cylinder.1 STEF.2.1 TYPE.2.1.LINK32.s.1.7.arc.. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.1 R.KXX.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS..ndiv ET..7.1.emis2 VTYPE.x.2 lsel.1 lsel.1 MAT.1.1.2 SE. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.0 GEOM.6..5.TEMP ET.rout.8.circle.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.stefbolt WRITE.all MP.1 ESIZE.MATRIX50.rin LMESH.1 MP.ALL lsel.x.1 MAT.rin.loc...loc.arc.VM125 TOFFST.all csys.all lsel.2.KXX...1..SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE ..ndiv CIRCLE.rout LMESH.

loc.ITEM.TEMP.Q.csys.2 *DIM.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.T1 nsel.1 nsel.T2 nsel.loc.loc.x.FSUM. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.LABEL.all *GET.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.s.s. K /POST1 csys.1.all nsel.rin D.TEMP.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.HEAT *DIM.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .rout D.s.all csys.all nsel.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.loc.s.3 LABEL(1.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.VALUE.x.1.x..CHAR.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.1 nsel.ALL.0.x.ALL.

DATA.--------------.VALUE(1.*VFILL. *VWRITE.exact *VFILL.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.3).A8.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.F10.' '.F10.' '.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.3) (1X.' '.2).DATA.Q *VFILL. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.LABEL(1.1.2).------------------------------------------------------/COM.1).VALUE(1.1F5.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.DATA.1). /COM.3) /COM. FINISH .1).1.

dat. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The first three mentioned below are text based. one simply types pico test. To use pico to edit the file test. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. press this key. but have a steep learning curve. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. In pico. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. for example. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. nedit . the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. but the backspace key does work normally. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico.dat at the UNIX prompt. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. so they are always available. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text.

The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. From a UNIX command window. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. type wabi or win. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. undo. Very nice. when saving files in PFE.. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files.3 file format used by DOS. For this reason. It could then be edited. Therefore. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. It features pull-down menus. and look at the option in the dialog box. saved. and block delimiting with the mouse. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. and then renamed back to its original name.exe (look under the r: drive).nedit is a very simple to use. yet powerful X Windows editor. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. Applications . It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. multiple file editing..

These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). To start ANSYS. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. item. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. over a modem. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show.x11c /menu. 2. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. select your desired font size. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. If you've got some time. From the next dialog box that appears.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. heat transfer and fluid problems.. Then choose GUI configuration. it is necessary to select the Interactive . From this menu. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt.. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. Press Enter to continue. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. check .on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. Once this is done. two methods are avialable: 1. you may enter ANSYS commands. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Press Enter to continue. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory.

Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. click on the car figure. If you've got some time. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. check out the Fluent Web page. Yokota. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. performs finite element analysis. see Dr. and design optimization. including static analysis. For further information on using ANSYS. For further information on this program. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. Toogood. Pro/Mechanica.out the ANSYS Web page. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. see Dr. For more information about this program. . A companion program. see Dr. like that shown above. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. sensitivity studies. Fyfe.

we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. Note that the .f To run this program.f and sub1. . This program would be run by entering . e.e.f sub3. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. isn't it?). and output is the name of the file to which the output . you now type. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. see Configuration Files). execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f Normally no options are required.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename.f and not test. for example. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. to a file. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. xlf by itself.f sub1.for or TEST.out. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output.cshrc file. such as error messages./a.' is in your path (this is changed in your . These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.f sub2. type the command./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.out (logical. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.f. i.f >& errorfile will compile main. For example: xlf main.F. redirecting it). Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'./test.f sub1. your file must be named something like test. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. For learning about the compiler's many options. To change the executable's output name to test.

Note that it is only necessary to save the file. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab .m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). and what data to enter. because it too is being sent to the output file. The resulting text file may then be edited. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. The keyboard will still accept the input. From the Matlab prompt. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. If the program normally prompts the user for input. symbolic and plotting functions. you can still run your program this way. In this way you will have one window to edit your . as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. So. and not actually exit the editor. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. you simply type: . printed and even imported into a word processor. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. however.will be sent. if you know when to enter data.m files. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. Note that the text . Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. the prompt will not appear on the screen. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file.

rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. For example. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home.ualberta. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. you must have an X server running on your local machine.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). Once the job is completed. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. . you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. by issuing the command. The workstations are named mec01. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network.labs through to mec30. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.labs. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. For example. you will need to acquire and run an X server program.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose.labs.

it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. To use E-mail then. The mecxx. but GPU does.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. .ualberta. newsgroups and WWW. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. Many applications. free of charge. To use it. type. You can enter the mail program called pine.ca. In this command. for example. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. either through lynx.srv. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. This file is printed in the small room. just outside the main part of the lab. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. Pine is based on the pico editor. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. If your CNS login id is jblow. see FTP. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. To do this.txt. or by typing pine at the prompt. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type.

145 (see FTP). issue the command: plotpostscript filename. see table of contents.128. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. or appendices. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. For further information.85. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing).20 per page. If you fail to do so. room B-111). Prints are $0. room 240. . Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. From a GPU account login. To print from Windows applications in Wabi.eps scale c where filename. getting started. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). your job (but not your file) will be deleted. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies.

2. y K.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3. 0 K. A. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. 0 ! keypoint. #. height . E. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.1. width.4. 0.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. reaction forces. 3*width/2. width/2.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. p. Note that Young's Modulus.123) ! /title.height K. and stress for the truss system shown below. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. x. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.

3250 MP.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.2 PLNSOL.3.1.2 L.K.4 L.2.3 L.200e3 ! element type #1.6 L.7. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1. ! ! define lines ! L. .U.5.4 L.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.3 L.6.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL. 2*width.ALL. K.SUM. 5*width/2.-280e3 FK.1.7.1.0.2.5.FY.-210e3 FK.3.4.1.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.1.7.F PLDISP.1.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.5. spring element ! real constant #1.FY. 3*width.UY. .1.4.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.1.ALL.EX.5.6 L.FY.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .5 L. K.6.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.1.FY.3.7 L.5 L.LINK1 R.

1 PRETAB.LS.ETABLE.SAXL PLETAB.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL.SAXL.

0 K.5. height K. A. width/2. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.1.mece.3 L.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.www.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.2. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0.1.6.7. 5*width/2.2.3 L. E. p.height K. reaction forces. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.4. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.ualberta.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. 0 ! keypoint.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. height K. 0 K. Note that Young's Modulus. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. x.1. width. and stress for the truss system shown below.2. 2*width. 3*width/2. 3*width. y K.123) ! /title.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. #.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

0 SFL.2. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 DL.PRES.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.4.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.ualberta.

Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.50. and uniform pressure loading.100 CYL4.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .0.0.80.0.20.50 CYL4. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.80.20. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.20 CYL4. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. plane stress. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.20 BLC4.-20.0.20. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. A figure of the plate is shown below.80.

1.1.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 .value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.0 . DL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.FY. DL.0.1. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.10.12. .EX.1.80.0 .ALL. DL.force ! Solve the problem .0.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.3.0 .3 ! mp. DL.13.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.20 ! r.ALL CYL4.200000 MP.material number.9.50.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .ALL.10 CYL4.0 .30 CYL4.AADD.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.Poisson's ratio.0.10 ASBA.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.0 . 8.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.real set number.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .direction.PRXY.11.ALL.ALL.1.ALL.ALL. 9..0 .14.ALL.6.value ! mp. DL.80.ALL.keypoint.all areas.0 ! amesh.material number.PLANE82 KEYOPT..Young's modulus. DL. 7.20.ALL.5 ! lesize. DL.

1.OFF /WIND.0.2.4.SUM.1 /replot PRNSOL.4..-0.EPTO.S.0...0.2 /GCMD.DOF.2.EQV.LBOT /WIND. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .05e-3 /FOC.340000.1.EQV.1 /CONT.0036 /CONT.0..ALL.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.0.U. PLNSOL. PLNSOL.10.4.3..0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL.2.1 /GCMD.0.3.10. PLDISP.10.3.RTOP /WIND.LTOP /WIND.0.ALL.8 /CONT.

0. plane stress. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.www.mece. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0. A figure of the plate is shown below. and uniform pressure loading. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.80.ualberta. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

direction.0. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.1.10 ASBA.50.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET..Poisson's ratio.0 .1.material number.ALL.mece.ALL.ALL.FY.60 AADD.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.13.PRXY. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.20 ! r.0.ALL CYL4.20 BLC4.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE. DL.10. DL.EX.50.0.80.11.html CYL4.0 . . DL.0 .keypoint.3 ! mp.1.20.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.0.50 CYL4.all areas.ALL.0.PLANE82 KEYOPT. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.0 .ALL ! Boolean Addition .10 CYL4. 8..ALL.1.0 .www.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Young's modulus.20 CYL4. DL.0 . DL.1.80.20.value ! mp.-1000 (fk command) !fk. DL.material number.0 ! amesh.0 .size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.80.20.80. DL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.12.200000 MP.5 ! lesize.-20.ALL.20.3.6.real set number.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction . 7.14.ALL.30 CYL4.9.ualberta. 9.ALL.

PLNSOL.1 /GCMD.05e-3 /FOC..html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND..DOF.0.EPTO.2.ALL.0.EQV.340000.1.1 /GCMD.0.U.www.8 /CONT.-0.LTOP /WIND.10. PLNSOL.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.EQV.0.mece.S.OFF /WIND..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.3.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.2.4.1.0036 /CONT.3.0.4..2 /GCMD.RTOP /WIND.SUM.0.10.LBOT /WIND.. PLDISP.0.3.1 /replot PRNSOL. PLNSOL.2.1 /CONT.0. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .4.10.

We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Filleting. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. copying.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. . Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.

4.. . .ALL LFILLT.0.22. .7.2002.5 BLC4.8.3.0 K.5 AADD.5.0.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0.. . AL.0 K.0.11.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .5.6..1002..2.0.. ..5 CYL4.5.2.10.7.0.0.2.9 lines 9.2.3.1.-0.1 AGEN.2.5.8.10.1.14 AADD.3.11) AL.2001.0.5.1002.1.5.3.1 BLC4.5 AADD.360.ALL CYL4.0.0 VROTAT. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.3.0.0. 1001 and 1002 K.2 ASBA.4. .2.3.26.1001.1001.1.1.ALL ! Sweep K.5.0..6 AGEN.

51 AADD.8.27.0.102 K.102. . . .8.0 K. .0.3.109.5 CYL4.5.100.8 vsbv.1.100.K.1.2.all.109.82 K.-1.0 K.69 AGEN.7.5.all.1.1 KWPLAN.45.5 vsbv.159.26 VADD.0. .12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4. .0.all.2 CYL4.20.20 LARC.0.2.62 ASBA.10 AGEN.7.102 BLC4.6 vsbv.sqrt(3)/0.82 K.ALL VOFFST.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .all.102.-20.0.20 K.101. .6.2.20 L.26 VOFFST.1. .4.6.9 vsbv.25.2.5.13.180.5.5.2001. .2.2003 CSYS.4.101.109.180 CYL4.02 KWPLAN.51.5.11 vsbv.2. .0.26 K. .6.2003.6.102.8. .2002.10 vsbv.0.1.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.5.1.102.20 LARC.7 vsbv.7 AADD.4.0.0.3.-20.5.1 VGEN.6 AL.

200.201.-20.61.51.0.36.1.203.38 AADD. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .1 WPCSYS.7.20.202 CSYS. .0 A.3 CYL4.5.204 VOFFST.AADD.32. 129-(0.26 K.30 KWPLAN.61.34.57735*26). sqrt(3)/2*76.200.180.203.0 K.202. VADD.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.201.32.57735*26) + 38.0 system K.18.61.33. . . . .0.204.37 CYL4.180.51.26 K.2.-20.60 VADD.200.60 VSBV.-1.-1.129-(0. .

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping.mece. copying. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Filleting.

5 AADD.1 AGEN.0 K.4.5.22.5.360..1001.6 AGEN.2.ALL LFILLT.14 AADD. .1.3.2. . .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. LFILLT.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.0. .1.1.0.5.3..0.5.0.3.5.0 K..1002.0..1002.5 BLC4.2002.26.1.2003.7. K.2.0.3..1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.ualberta.0.8.11.0. AL..3.1.2 ASBA.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.5 CYL4. .-0.1001.www.1 BLC4. .2.0 K.2.mece.0.0 VROTAT.6.0.5.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10.5..ALL CYL4.8.7.0.3.9 AL.2.3.2001.ALL ! Sweep K.4.5 AADD.0.

.5.2. .82 K.51 AADD.8 vsbv.36.101.0.102.www.1.0.2.-20.5.26 VOFFST.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.4.-20.6.7.27.102.0.5.180 CYL4.2.26 VADD.2003 CSYS.8. .38 AADD.5.5.-1.ualberta.100.159.10 vsbv.25.5.02 KWPLAN.all.20 K.2001.32.2002.26 K.html KWPLAN.0 K.3.6.20 LARC.mece.4.100.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . .10 AGEN.69 AGEN.all.5 CYL4.51.0.2 CYL4.4. .ALL VOFFST.7.6 vsbv.2 AADD.all.45.6.0.5 vsbv. .20.62 ASBA.1.2. .1.82 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 K.sqrt(3)/0.109.102 K.180.1.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.8.5.20 LARC.0.109.102.11 vsbv.13.5.0. .0.1. .1. .6 AL.7 vsbv.33.7 AADD.2. .9 vsbv.1 VGEN.all.2.6.8.101. .102.109.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.34.102 BLC4.20 L.0.

ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .200.51.201.-1.32.60 VADD.18.201. . . .180.57735*26) + 38.51.www.3 CYL4.5.200.202 CSYS.-1.-20.57735*26).30 KWPLAN.60 VSBV.202.203.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.26 K. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.204 VOFFST.61. 129-(0.0.1 WPCSYS. .129-(0.180.1.204.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . VADD.203.0 K.ualberta.0 A.2. sqrt(3)/2*76.html CYL4.61.7.200.26 K.61.0 K.mece.0.-20.20. .

Height MP.Width*Height. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Length. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1.Width*(Height**3)/12.0. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.EX.2.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2 ET.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.1.0 K.1.0 L.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 MP.0.DENS.1.ALL. ACEL.PRXY.1. LMESH.86e-6 LESIZE.ALL.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0 DK..9.Length/10.0.MP.1.7.

0.www. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Width*(Height**3)/12.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.2.0 L.Length/10.Height MP. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.1.2 ET. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.DENS.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0 K.ALL.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.PRXY.1.EX.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.mece.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.Length.7.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE. LMESH.Width*Height.1.1.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.ualberta.1.

0.ualberta.ALL.html DK. ACEL.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.9..1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.1000.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0 K.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .0 L.1.2.1.

area.ET.0.1.200000 MP.1.333.100 LMESH.PRES.0 SFBEAM.UY.. 1 ETABLE.EX.NMISC.SMAXJ.SMAXI.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .2.10 MP. 3 PLLS.1..UX.SMAXI.0 DK.1.33 ESIZE.1.0.SMAXJ.2 ETABLE.BEAM3 R.100.833.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.1.I.UY DK.NMISC.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .PRXY.1.

1. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1000.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.0 L.1.ht. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.2.1.0 K.0..2 ET.ualberta. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.mece.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing /title.

1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ALL.1.1.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..333..SMAXI.UY DK.NMISC.0.I.SMAXJ.1.0 ! Real constants . 1 ETABLE.100 LMESH.0 DK.UX.1.www.0 SFBEAM.10 MP.1.PRXY..33 ESIZE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SMAXJ.200000 MP.833.100.UY.area.EX. 3 PLLS.SMAXI.2.NMISC.mece..ualberta.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print. R.PRES.0.ht.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ETABLE.

1. plane stress w/thick. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.3. strs out type..5. /title. one above top of the other.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. with a small separation.plane42.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2 ! element type 1. nodal. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block.1.01 ! thickness 0. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.2.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG. In this model there are two blocks.1 ! activate element type 1 R.0.2. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.10.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0..5. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground..4 aplot ! define element type ET.7. 0.

2.0.1 r.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.y.1 amesh.1 ! defines second element type .s.005.01 ! cm. 20e3 MP. 2.2.10 TYPE.source.NUXY. 1.mat.2 /pnum.3 MP.NUXY. 0.2.. 0.2.5 mat.area.1.0.EX..EX.35 mat.2 amesh.2.! define material properties MP.. 200e3 MP.2 ! nsla.7.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.contac48.0.20e3.3 ! meshing esize..r.s.1 ! nsel.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .1 esize.1 real.loc.1.99.2D contact elements keyo.

a small tolerance is used d.100 autots.4 dk.asel.y.r.1 nsla.3 finish /solution antype.target.node gcgen.y.all.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.5 ksel.r.s.1.full.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.x.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .y.-100 allsel time.5 ksel.stat.loc.all.all.loc.x.7.r.99.on nropt.s.1 nsubst.loc.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.20.01 cm.all.2.1 nsel.all.loc.2..loc.on pred.target.4 fk.y.s.s.loc.source.s..fy.area.

This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0 l.prxy.beam3 r.1. the load will added incrementally. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.2 et. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.069e-5.0.03125.0 k.1 lmesh. After each increment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.3 esize.125 mp.1. To solve this problem.1.0e6 mp.0.5.1.ex. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status. izz.0.1.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.2.1.4.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.30.

U.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .1.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.all.1 PRNSOL.1000.mz.2. max # substeps=1000.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.all fk.all ! save results of all iterations dk.5. min # substeps=1 outres.static nlgeom./solu antype.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.

1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.069e-5. After each increment.125 mp.0 l. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0.1.www.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.prxy. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.03125.1 lmesh.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.1.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0e6 mp. To solve this problem. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1.1.0.ex.beam3 r.4.30.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print. the load will added incrementally.2.0 k.mece.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.1. izz.0.5.2 et.3 esize. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.0.

1.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.1 PRNSOL.1000.mece.mz.all.all fk.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .U.static nlgeom.on autots.www.html /solu antype.on nsubst.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.1 outres. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.all dk.5.2.

2. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. largedeflection. material nonlinearities and gaps. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). static analysis to predict buckling loads. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. . real-world buckling prediction analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This method is not recommended for accurate. in reallife. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. However.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. For this type of analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. load perterbations. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.

200000 MP.100.1.100 L.1.3 K. will be calculated. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.0 K.EX.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.PRXY.BEAM3 R.1.0. applied at the top-center of the beam.0.ALL.1. rigidly constrained at the bottom.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1. area (mm^2).0.833.1. The required load to cause buckling.2.10 LMESH.10 MP. ANSYS . I (mm^4).333.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ESIZE.

1.10 K.1.LIST SET. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .1.subspace. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .1.BUCKLE BUCOPT.100. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). I.PRXY. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ON MXPAND.0 K.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .2.0.333.2. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX.0.833.1.FY.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ESIZE.ALL FK.100.0.1.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for . Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.0 L.ON DK.200000 MP.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.PSTRES.0.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.LANB.1 LMESH.3 R.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.

Y.1.2 PLVAR.-50000 FK.U.2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.F.X.1000 AUTOTS.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.Y NSOL.3.NLGEOM.ON LNSRCH.ON /ESHAPE.20 NEQIT.2.ALL.ON OUTRES.2.FX.ALL NSUBST.Y XVAR.FY.2.3 /AXLAB.ALL.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.1 DK.0 FK.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .1.

note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. For this type of analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. However. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. 2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. ie. material nonlinearities and gaps. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. large-deflection. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. load perterbations. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.mece. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.ualberta. static analysis to predict buckling loads.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. in real-life. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. This method is not recommended for accurate. real-world buckling prediction analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.

1.100 L.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.ualberta.1.2 ESIZE.833. area (mm^2).2.BEAM3 R.PRXY.100.0.0 K.10 LMESH. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . rigidly constrained at the bottom.1.333.www.1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.mece.200000 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.10 MP. applied at the top-center of the beam. I (mm^4).Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.3 K.EX.1.ALL. The required load to cause buckling. will be calculated.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.1.

www.0 K.1.200000 MP.ualberta.0 L.833.LANB.10 K.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.subspace.0.ON DK.BUCKLE BUCOPT.FY. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1.0.2.1. I.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .100.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.3 R. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.EX.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1.STATIC PSTRES.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.1.1.ALL FK. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.LIST SET.PRXY.2 ESIZE.333.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1.ALL.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.ON MXPAND.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.html ANTYPE.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .0. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.mece.STATIC NLGEOM.ON OUTRES.1 LMESH.

LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.2.2.20 NEQIT.ON LNSRCH.X.2 PLVAR.mece.-50000 FK.0 FK.ALL.ualberta.Y XVAR.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.1000 AUTOTS.3 /AXLAB.ON /ESHAPE.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.F.html NSUBST.2.Y.www.U.1 DK.Y NSOL.FY.FX.3.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.1.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .

1.1. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.12.100 l. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.001. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.1..75000 MP. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. For this analysis. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.1.0.25 MP.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.1.0.75 .3 TB. In such a case..2. For instance.1.PRXY. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.LINK1 R.0 k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.1.MELA. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).1.2 ET.EX.

0 DK.150 TBPT.X.ON NEQIT.390 TBPT.300 TBPT..2.275.F.435 TBPT...Y NSOL.005..U.225 TBPT.003.5 LMESH..2 PLVAR.TBPT.1 PLNSOL.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.240 TBPT.2.355 TBPT.20.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.FY.1.3....all FK.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label ..1000 ANTYPE...3 /AXLAB.ALL AUTOTS.002.U..449 TBPT.ALL.450 ESIZE..06..Y.250 TBPT.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.025..420 TBPT.Y..1000.ON LNSRCH..0.2.1.004.25..1..2..15.ON NSUBST..1 OUTRES.Y XVAR..

1. For instance.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.2 ET. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa)..LINK1 R.0 k.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.ualberta. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .. In such a case. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.100 l.1.mece. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.0.2.www. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0. For this analysis.

.1.0.001.5 LMESH.005.75000 MP.ON LNSRCH.435 TBPT.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.75 TBPT....U..ON NSUBST.0 DK..1000 ANTYPE.Y NSOL.PRXY...ALL.449 TBPT.3 /AXLAB.ON NEQIT.1000.1 OUTRES.250 TBPT.240 TBPT.450 ESIZE.1.MELA...1..003.. TBPT.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.ualberta.www.2.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2 PLVAR.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.06.12.15....150 TBPT.Y XVAR.20..1.0..002.F..3 TB.275.1...2..FY. MP..X.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.1.420 TBPT..Y.all FK.25.004..3.300 TBPT.Y.355 TBPT..225 TBPT.2.025.U.390 TBPT.EX.ALL AUTOTS.1 PLNSOL..1.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

Dynamic.0 K.1.DENS.0.33 MP.0 L.1.10 LMESH.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.33e-10.7830 LESIZE.0.0. /TITLE.PRXY..0.1.1.ALL.8.1.2.01 MP.068e11 MP.1.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .0 /PREP7 K.2.BEAM3 R.0001.2 ET..Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.EX.1.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

.. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4..0) (1.y) 1 2 5.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS. Define Lines (0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. 1. 3.0) .. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0001 ii. 8.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.3 To enter the density of the material. and rotation about the Z axis). Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. Young's modulus EX: 2. 9. . For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line... With only 3 degrees of freedom. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials... enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 7.01 m x 0. 10. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. > Add. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.33e-10 iii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.01 m. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis..068e11 ii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8.

01 MP.33e-10.2.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.I.BEAM3 R.2 ET.0 K.1.1.2.PRXY.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 L.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.1.1.EX.DENS.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.068e11 MP.0001.8.0.0.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .0.1.33 MP.

..0.5.10.LESIZE.FRONT MXPAND.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 EQSLV.LIST SET.2 MODOPT.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.ALL.10 LMESH.1. .5 DK.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .SUBSP.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.1.0.1.1.DENS.2.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0001.33e-10.1.0.33 MP.7830 LESIZE..ualberta..8.2 ET.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.BEAM3 R.www.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.0 L.0 K.PRXY. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.10 LMESH.ALL.1.068e11 MP.1.EX.01 MP.1.I.

10. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . .LIST SET.2 MODOPT.ualberta.FRONT MXPAND.5 EQSLV.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.5 DK.SUBSP.0.www.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.1.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.mece.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.5.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. These 3 methods are the Full .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .100 Hz.

2.0001.2.EX.1.DENS.3 DK. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.1.0 L.2.2.1. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1.100.Y..01 MP.1.2 PLVAR.FY.BEAM3 R.100.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL. KBC. However.7830 LESIZE.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1..1.0.U.33e-10.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data . UY_2 STORE.MERGE PRVAR.10 LMESH.33 MP.068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.ALL.1.ALL FK. NSUBST.I.0 K.2.100 HARFRQ.PRXY.0.0.2 ET.8.

The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .www. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.mece. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. These 3 methods are the Full .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.1. NSUBST.100..I.1.0.1.MERGE PRVAR. However.1.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.100 HARFRQ. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option. UY_2 STORE.www.DENS.33e-10.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.8.0 K.mece.EX.U.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PRXY.7830 LESIZE.10 LMESH.0.33 MP.2 ET.1.Y.2.1.2.2 PLVAR.0.01 MP.1.2.BEAM3 R.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.FY.3 DK.2.2.0001.ualberta.068e11 MP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. KBC.ALL.100.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.ALL FK.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. a static analysis may be used instead. For our case. . for example.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load.

q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. After the application of the load. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. . All types of non-linearities are allowed. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. In other words. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. Therefore. In ANSYS. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The smaller the time step. However. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.

ALL.7830 LESIZE.1. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.33 MP. ..2.REDUC.PRXY.0 K.2. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.UY.2 ET. TRANS TRNOPT. the calculations are much quicker.1.1.BEAM3 R. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.0. It is the quickest of the three methods. DELTIM. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.ALL F.0.0.33e-10. NSEL.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.. if stresses and forces are of interest than.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .2.ALL D.FY. However.0.DENS. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.All. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.1.. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.1.1.1.EX. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.1.0.8.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .2. M.0 L. However.1..0001.01 MP.S.11.Dynamic.0 /PREP7 K.10 LMESH.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. .q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).

2. ! Sets time to 0.Y. In this case.2.!At time equals 0.0 FDELE. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. time !Please note.1 KBC. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.2.MERGE PLVAR.'rdsp'.001s TIME.0 !* LSSOLVE.0.'Dynamic'.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.1.001 KBC.3.'.' NSOL. .2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. UY_2 STORE.U.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. for example. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.http://www. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead.mece.ualberta.University of Alberta . Copyright 2003 . For our case.

ualberta.University of Alberta .http://www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. However. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the higher the mode frequency we will capture.mece. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. Copyright 2003 . In ANSYS. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. The smaller the time step. After the application of the load. In other words. Therefore.

S. if stresses and forces are of interest than.0 /PREP7 K.mece. However.ALL D.University of Alberta .33 MP. TRANS TRNOPT. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. NSEL.0 K.0001. .UY.8. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..2.0.2.1.0.0. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.All. All types of non-linearities are allowed.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.2. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.EX.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .FY. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. .http://www.11. M.2 ET.1.ALL.ALL F. the calculations are much quicker.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.Dynamic.0.REDUC. It is the quickest of the three methods.1. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).0.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 ..068e11 MP.01 MP.PRXY..BEAM3 R.1.7830 LESIZE.1.ualberta. DELTIM. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.DENS. However.0 L.1.10 LMESH.33e-10.2.1..html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.1. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.

2. UY_2 STORE.U. time !Please note. Copyright 2003 .html !At time equals 0.mece.'rdsp'.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.001 KBC.2.0. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. ! Sets time to 0. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.University of Alberta .2. In this case.3.2.ualberta.MERGE PLVAR.' NSOL.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.1.0 FDELE.0 !* LSSOLVE.001s TIME.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.'Dynamic'.'.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.Y. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.http://www.1 KBC.

one corner.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 blc4.length. then width and height .1. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 height=1.

S.ALL NSEL.Y.0 D.LOC.MP.X.100 NSEL..Y.ALL.LOC.500 NSEL.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.height D.length/20 AMESH.LOC.TEMP.LOC.10 ESIZE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.TEMP.X.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.length NSEL.A.TEMP. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .0.S.KXX.0 NSEL.A.

10 ESIZE.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.KXX.length. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.1.mece.0 blc4.length/20 AMESH. PLANE55 MP.0. ANSYS Command Listing /title..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.1.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .ualberta.0 height=1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET..h.one corner.

TEMP.X.height D.h...TEMP..length NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.A.ALL NSEL. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 NSEL.LOC.A.LOC.0 D.LOC.0.S.ualberta.TEMP.ALL.mece.S.Y.Y.X.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.100 NSEL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .500 NSEL.LOC.www.

0. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 to solve simple thermal examples.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 blc4.0. PLANE55 MP.1.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.Thermal .length.0 height=1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.one corner.KXX.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. then width and height .

X.500 NSEL.LOC.S.height D.S.LOC.100 NSEL.ALL.MAT.CONV.TEMP.ALL.ALL NSEL.0 NSEL.100 NSEL.0 D.1 TYPE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.X.S.CONV.0 SF.ALL.Y.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.ALL.length/20 AMESH.TEMP.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0.1 ESIZE.TEMP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..Y.LOC.S.10.length SF.

length.0. then width and height Copyright 2003 .length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0 height=1.ualberta.1.10 MAT.1 TYPE.html Thermal .1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.1 ESIZE. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 to solve simple thermal examples.http://www.mece.one corner. PLANE55 MP.KXX.0 blc4.0. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.

TEMP.University of Alberta .Y.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .TEMP.ALL.X.100 NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.TEMP.html AMESH..mece.100 NSEL.ualberta.0 D.ALL.0 SF.CONV.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.ALL.http://www.ALL.S.500 NSEL.0 NSEL.height D.10.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.LOC.CONV.LOC.LOC.Y.S.S.S.X.length SF.ALL NSEL.0.

040 kJ/kg*K. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Also.

0.kxx.ALL.500 ! area .TEMP.05 AMESH.on outres.0 blc4.Y.2.all kbc.1.0.1.0 D.5 ESIZE.height D.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.300 nropt.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.0.100 autots.ALL NSEL.20 neqit.4 time.LOC.c.ALL.one corner.Temp.20.length=1.100 NSEL. PLANE55 MP.5.920 mp.ALL IC.040 mp.0..100.0. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .TEMP ANTIME.1.full lumpm.0. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Dens.1..0 height=1.2.all.Y.S.TEMP.s.LOC. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.500 PLNSOL.length.off lnsrch.0 nsubst.all.8.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.500 NSEL.

html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.one corner. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0. Also.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. height ! area .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.0 blc4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 height=1. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.mece.length.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.040 kJ/kg*K.0. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.

100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.TEMP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.1.all kbc.LOC.300 nropt.05 AMESH.s.20 neqit.ALL.ALL NSEL.www.LOC.1.kxx.100 NSEL.040 mp.mece.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0.off lnsrch.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.all.Y.height D.ALL.0 nsubst.0.2..c.S.TEMP.5.1.100 autots.500 NSEL.Y.0.20.Dens.4 time.8.920 mp.2.all. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.500 PLNSOL. PLANE55 MP.ALL IC.0 D.0.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.Temp..full lumpm.TEMP ANTIME.ualberta.100.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .on outres.1.5 ESIZE.

Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. In this case. As a warning.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.

200000 mp.1.3 esize.1 mp.s.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.3.1..100 solve finish /post1 nsel.ex.50 d.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .plane2 keyopt.all.95.1.-100 fk. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.uy.0.fy.all.100 aadd.fy.0.100 rectng.y.55 prnsol.s.all fk.off rectng.symm lsel.0.all finish /solu antype.0 dl.20.y.20.x.15.1.5 rectng.12.0 lsel.0 nsel.all nsel.prxy.45.loc.0.20.s.s.2 amesh.all et.0.loc.loc.

nsel.1.axis.1.10 /view.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .all /expand..27..2.

ualberta. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.mece. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel..www. As a warning. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. In this case. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.

all et.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.all nsel.5 rectng.55 prnsol.1.fy. /prep7 /triad.50 d.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.s.x.-100 fk.200000 mp.1.45.0 dl.0.2 amesh..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.y.ex..0..0.1 mp.uy..1.3.symm lsel.0 nsel...all finish /solu antype.axis.s.0 lsel.20.all.comp nsel.20.1.12.all /expand.100 aadd.20.prxy.s.loc.95.loc.fy.mece.1.15.off rectng.www.y.100 rectng.1.27.ualberta.all fk.all.plane2 keyopt.0.loc.10 /view.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.s.3 esize.2.

Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. a wall thickness of 10. ANSYS Command Listing . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1.7. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.

4 E. 2.10 R. 1. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 0. . 700.1e9 R. 0. 400.1 MAT. 0.PRXY.1000 N. 8 E.COMBIN14 R.200000 MP.0. 0.PIPE16 ET. 0 N.13.1000. 3 E.EX.33 N. 9. 500 N. 8 E. 0.12. 2.2. 400. 3. .1 REAL. 0. 0. 7.1000. 6 E. 0. 0. 0 N.1000. 6 E. 700.40.3. 0. MP.1500 N.12.1000 N. 5 E. 0.10. 5. 0. 0. 6. 6.1 E. 7.12.13 E. 9. 500 N.1000 N. 8. 0.1e9.1e9. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 8 E. 1.5. 3. 0. 0. 5 E.COMBIN7 ET.1. 500 N.1. 4.10.2.-500 TYPE.11. 5.3. 1.13.1000. 0. 0 N. 2. 0 N. 4 E.1. 0.1000 N./title.1. 3 E.

2 E.12.4. 2.ALL.FY.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.7..6 /PNUM.0 /PNUM..7.0.5 D.13 F.12.5.ON NSUBST.0 NLGEOM.3 E. 11 TYPE.8 E.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 10.VERT7.2 *GET.13 ! Load node 7 . 11 E.4.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3. 9.3 REAL.8.NODE.KP.ELEM.3.U.2 REAL. 1.TYPE.

2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .COMBIN7 ET. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.COMBIN14 R.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7.ualberta.40.1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. Catapult /PREP7 ET.1.mece.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.PIPE16 ET. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. a wall thickness of 10. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.3.www.

0. 8 E. 11 TYPE.3 E.13 E. 0 N. 1.1 E. 5 E. 10. 0.KP.8. 8 E. 0. 400.1000 N. 5. 0.5.33 N. 0.1000.12. 500 N. .1500 N. 700. 0.8 E.ualberta. 0.6 /PNUM. 0 N.html R. 0 N. 400.1.5.11. 3 E. 1.1 MAT.1 REAL.0 NLGEOM. 6. 0.1. 0.1e9.10. 0. 700. 4 E. 1. 4 E.0. 11 E. 0. 2.1000.3 REAL.12. MP.1e9 R. 0. 8. 0. 0. 3. 3 E. 4. 0 N.2.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .EX. 7.10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 6 E. 0.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3.1000 N.2 REAL. 3.1e9. 2.200000 MP. 2. 1.0 /PNUM.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 5. 6 E.PRXY. . 6. 0.1000. 2.1000 N. 5 E. 4 TYPE. 0.1000 N.-500 TYPE.1000.mece. 500 N. 9. 8 E.www. 7. 9. 9.2 E.12.13. 500 N.13. 0.ELEM.

7.NODE.0.7.U.2 *GET.ualberta.3.FY..13 F.html NSUBST.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.12.4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.4.5 D..Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.12.www.VERT7.mece.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

H.I (note '**'.20 K.1. Design Optimization *set.0.. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.200000 MP.LINE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area. However. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. ET.3 ESIZE.1.2. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.1.1.1. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line . It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.PRXY.0.1000.EX. height MP.. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.0 K.W. not '^'). the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.RATI.1..(W*H**3)/12. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.1.100 LMESH.2 HPTCREATE.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.H. deciding which variables to use as design.BEAM3 R.75.20 *set.0 L. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.W*H. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

FIRS OPFRST.VOLUME.ETAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.SMAX.W /AXLAB.DV.0 DK.ITEM..ETAB.SMAX_I. ! Height state variable.30..0 DK.50.SV.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.10.001 tolerance 0.MAX *SET.SMAX_J.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.optimize. tolerance 0. *GET.001 MPa OPVAR.0.SORT..NMISC.100.SMAX_J.UY. min 10 mm. max 50 mm. min 195 MPa.'optimize'.001 MPa.EVolume.. *GET.OBJ.3 node ESORT.50.txt.MAX ETABLE.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable. min 10 mm.10.NMISC.0.1.EVOLUME ETABLE.200 OPTYPE..Volume.SSUM.VOLU. tolerance 0.X.ANTYPE.0.1 node ESORT. max 50 ! Width design variable.1.FY..Y.0 FK. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .200..SORT.H.SMAXI.W.2.0.'txt'.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. Percent step size.0 DK.UX.1.SMAXJ.001 mm.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SMAX.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.3.0.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.DV.1.001mm OPVAR.0. SSUM *GET.txt ! Assign optimize. max 200 ! Volume as object variable.001mm OPVAR.195.SMAX_I.UY.2.H.

EX.2 HPTCREATE. not '^').0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.RATI. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial..20 *set.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 L.1.0.200000 MP. ET. However.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print. deciding which variables to use as design.ualberta.. Design Optimization *set.(W*H**3)/12.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.20 K.75. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .I (note '**'..W.H.1.mece. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.BEAM3 R.0.0 K. MP. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.1. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.2.1.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.www..W*H.H.LINE.0.1000..PRXY.. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.

.UY.001 OPVAR..Y.1 ESORT..'optimize'.0.50.0 FK.Volume.3 ESORT.DV.0.SMAX_I.txt ! Assign optimize.. max 50 mm.SMAX.10. OPEXE PLVAROPT.001 OPVAR.2.1.EVOLUME ETABLE.SMAX_I.VOLUME.DV.H. to Width design variable.SMAXI.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.FIRS OPFRST.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.0.100.SV.ualberta.0.NMISC.UX.195.VOLU.SMAXJ. tol Height state variable.10..C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.1.0.W /AXLAB.W.0 DK.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration. max 50 mm.ITEM.ETAB.FY..txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.mece.3.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.SMAX_J.MAX ETABLE. min 195 MPa..SMAX_J.SORT.optimize..NMISC. ESIZE. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . min 10 mm. *GET. max 200 MPa..2.SMAX.'txt'.50.MAX *SET.100 LMESH.ETAB.1.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.200 OPTYPE.H.0.30. min 10 mm..www. Volume as object variable.OBJ.001 OPVAR. Percent step size.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.SORT.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.0 DK.EVolume.X. SSUM *GET.txt.UY.SSUM.200. *GET.0 DK.

Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. ANSYS Command Listing . however. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. v = 0. Apply remaining loads to the model. 3. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.5 MPa. Apply loads to the super-element 2. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. substructuring will be used for the wood block. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. For this example. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).

amesh.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.LOC.0.1.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .5 MP.2.40.PRXY.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.EX.FX.EXT M.100.2.10.PRXY.5 NSEL. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.1.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.R.2 NSEL.EX.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .SUBST SEOPT.GEN.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.PLANE42 TYPE. START /FILNAME.S.100.ALL NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME..2.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4. 2.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.0.ALL.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.db ! GEN.1.0.X.0 F.1.0.ALL NSEL.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.Y.140 NSEL.ALL.S.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.LOC.2 MP.

2 amesh.U.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.0.MaxNode.GEN2 SE.0.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.NUM.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.Y.Y.1.0 D..STATIC NSEL.GEN2 NSEL.10. superelement solution written to GEN..ALL ESEL.1 ! Superelement ET.1 SFE.LOC.0 NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.S.ALL.SELV.ALL.ON.ALL NSEL.GEN2.1.1 ESEL.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME..1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .S.1..2 real.MATRIX50 TYPE.SUM.MAX SETRAN.! Meshing AESIZE.1.S. mat.1 *GET. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.U.GEN.SUM.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.MaxNode.NODE.ALL.TYPE.40 CPINTF.

3. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. v = 0. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. For this example. Apply remaining loads to the model.mece. Apply loads to the super-element 2. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. substructuring will be used for the wood block.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. however. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.5 MPa. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..www.ualberta.

mece.. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).1.ALL.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.2 NSEL.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .S.LOC.ALL NSEL.100.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1.EXT M.SUBST SEOPT.0.1.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.Y.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 F.GEN.0.PRXY.LOC.R.X.140 NSEL.ALL NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.www.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.0.PLANE42 TYPE..S.ualberta.40.10.db ! GEN.5 NSEL.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.FX.100. amesh. START /FILNAME.EX. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.ALL.

1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution..MaxNode.STATIC NSEL. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .S.1 *GET.ALL ESEL.GEN.SELV.2 amesh.U.1.. MP.2.1.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.0.2 real.MAX SETRAN.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.mece.0.MATRIX50 TYPE. mat.ON.NODE.ALL NSEL.GEN2 NSEL.TYPE.S.1 SFE.LOC..SUM.ALL.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.PRXY.0 NSEL.1 ! Superelement ET.Y.YES SEEXP. 2.0.ualberta.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.MaxNode..0 D.ALL.EX.GEN2.1..S.5 MP. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y.1 ESEL.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10.LOC.GEN2 SE.NUM.2..ALL.www.1.USE EXPSOL.SUM.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.40 CPINTF.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.U.

The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. and write them to memory.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. a thermal conductivity of 60. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such." Thus.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. the element types can change. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. However. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. and using it with any following coupled environments. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. Loads will not be applied to the link. the link will attemp to expand. A steel link. For convenience. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. However. For our case. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. with no internal stresses.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). It is important to note. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. Although the geometry must remain constant. the analyses are coupled. For instance. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.. the geometry is kept constant. . stress is created in the link. where the thermal effects will be applied. For a listing. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.

read.1.0.rth environment tref.write..clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.UX.kxx.1.0.1.all.clear finish /solu antype.all physics.273 dk.1..0 k.1. mp.12e-6 physics.1.0 solve finish /post1 etable.LS.analysis.prxy.60.struct ldread..struct physics.alpx.1.1.write..0 l.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.read.0.thermal physics.temp.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .tts mp.thermal dk.1 lmesh.link33 r.5 esize.temp.3 mp.2.1.ex..200e9 mp.0 dk.CompStress.0 physics.348 solve finish /solu physics.2. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.2 et.1.4e-4.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).mece. stress is created in the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.www. and using it with any following coupled environments. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). For convenience. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.ualberta. the link will attemp to expand. a thermal conductivity of 60. with no internal stresses.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steel link." Thus. However. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. the geometry is kept constant. the analyses are coupled. However.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. For our case. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. where the thermal effects will be applied. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. Loads will not be applied to the link. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. . A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 physics.clear etchg.1.0 k.2.ex.1.temp.2.1.1. For a listing. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 dk.1.read.12e-6 physics. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. For instance.3 mp..all.1..prxy. mp.1.273 dk.1. It is important to note. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.200e9 mp.1. the element types can change.1 lmesh.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .link33 r.0..2 et.alpx.read.all physics.5 esize.rth tref.1. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.temp. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.0.1.www.thermal dk.write.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.60.kxx..mece.html Although the geometry must remain constant. and write them to memory.struct ldread.tts mp.0 l.clear finish /solu antype. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.348 solve finish /solu physics.thermal physics.write.0.UX..struct physics.4e-4.

1 PRETAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LS.ualberta.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.mece.CompStress.html solve finish /post1 etable.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. . The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.

6.10.3 r.1.5.48 k.200000 mp.all lsel.3.80.20.45.on /prep7 k.1.1.45.3.11.0 dl.0 k.0.20.52 k.12.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .8.x.55.7.0.10.55.4.all lsel.0 nsubst.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.4.0 k.9.48 k.x.8.plane145 keyopt.0.0 a.100 k.6.10 mp. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.80.2.9.s.all.all.2.52 k.5 amesh. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .100.20.1.100.100.20 outres.1..12 et.5.11.0 k.3.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.7.all finish /solu antype.100 k.s.1 lsel.prxy.3 esize.1.ex.1.all time.100 k.100 k.loc.loc.

last plesol.all.all solve finish /post1 set.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .sfl.pres.s.-100 lsel.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. rather than increasing mesh density.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . computational time can be kept to a minimum. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.0. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.mece.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus.ualberta.

thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.6.100 k.0 k.9.5 amesh.200000 mp.1.6.100 k.loc.1.10 mp.7.s.0 a.8.all time.0.55.x.0 nsubst.3.1.9.48 k.all solve finish /post1 set.x. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2.100.all.80.all.10.52 k.3.45.52 k.100.1.12 et.0 dl.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.0 k.100 sfl.20.s.s.1.0.11.4.last plesol.3 esize.20 outres.12.all finish /solu antype.1 lsel.55.all lsel.5.80.100.0.all lsel.3.45.20.2.ex.0 k.mece.7.plane145 keyopt.loc.8.1.10.4..100 k.prxy.www.1.11.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.pres.48 k.100 k.3 r.20.html /prep7 k.-100 lsel.5.ualberta.

03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.03. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.2.0.0 k.1.0. Thus. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.03. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0 k.0.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.3.

all.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .10..last etable. 20 Max no.0.c.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.kxx.Dens.1.on outres.Plane55 MP.all.melty.0005 amesh.s. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .all.368 nsel.1.k.temp.2.melty.273 finish /solu antype.ext sf.all finish /solu antype.s. esel.03 a.1 IC.full lumpm.920 mp.0 nsubst.1.100 autots.temp.2040 mp.8 esize.rest ekill.all kbc.1.all esel.0. not ramped ! Initial conditions.off lnsrch.etab.3.1.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.268 nsel.0.60 nropt.4. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.4 time.1.20 neqit.off solve finish /post1 set.all /gst.conv.

/post1 set.live plnsol.last esel.s.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .

0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0 k.0.03.www.3.1.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.2.2. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Thus.3.03 k.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .03 a. rather than increasing mesh density. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.4. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.0.1.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.03.0.0 k.

all finish /solu antype.ext sf. not ramped ! Initial conditions.last etable.off lnsrch.1.Plane55 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.all.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .live plnsol.conv. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .s.10.920 mp.1.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .s.all finish /post1 set.60 nropt.www.mece.1.268 nsel.1. 20 Max no.all esel. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.temp.c.0.full lumpm.s.0 nsubst.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.ualberta.last esel.Dens.all.1 IC.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.1.kxx.368 nsel.melty.8 esize.273 finish /solu antype.all.0005 amesh.melty.on outres.all /gst.4 time.off solve finish /post1 set.temp.20 neqit..all kbc. esel.2040 mp.rest ekill.etab.100 autots.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

R.ALL KSEL.0.0.All.-2500 KSEL.1 /TYPE.0.U.-1.Y.All.43.1.S.SUM.LOC.X.0.R.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.5.1 WPOFFS.90 /CPLANE.0.Height KSEL.0 ASEL.ALL.Z.1.8 WPCSYS.S.2 ! Animate the slices .1.0 ASEL.7.EQV.FY.Z.Width FK.0./SOLU ANTYPE.S.LOC.5 PLNSOL.Width/2.Length KSEL.05.0 DA.1.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0 WPOFFS.0.0.14.0.0.0 WPROTA.LOC.1 /TYPE.0.

1.FAST ET.) of the following example.1.20 vmesh.0.Length /ANGLE.1 /REPLOT.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. etc.Height.YS.PRXY.60.0.200000 MP.0.ualberta.mece. 1 .all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.3 esize. Stress. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.SOLID45 MP.1.EX.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .000000.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.www.Width.

X.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.-2500 KSEL.1.8 WPCSYS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.EQV.1 /TYPE.0.0 WPOFFS.www.ALL.0.0 ASEL.5.U.90 /CPLANE.Length KSEL.ualberta.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 WPOFFS.5 PLNSOL.0.mece.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y.14.1.Z.LOC.Width/2.All.FY.R.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.05.S.0.0 DA.0.S.0.S.0.0 ASEL.1.0.LOC.LOC.LOC.Width FK.1.Height KSEL.All.43.Z.0 WPROTA.0.R.-1.ALL KSEL.7.SUM.0.1 /TYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.

Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.all .150. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.50.0. For example.100. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.50.200.10 cyl4. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.50.10 asba.0. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.1.50. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.10 cyl4. In this tutorial.100 cyl4.

eqv.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 ppath.cutline.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes ..2.1.plane2.200.50 PDEF.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.2.y.1.3 R.1.SEQV.PRES.bot nsel.100 SFL.prxy.1.off /noerase /window.loc.3 esize.s.200.10 mp..1000 ppath.S..all PLPAGM.0.2.AVG nsel.s.top /POST1 PLNSOL.50 path.all.eqv.1.0.s.y.loc.all.1.et.2.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window..S..5 amesh.200000 mp..all nsel.1.y.ex..0 dl.1 /window.loc.

www. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.200.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . In this tutorial... Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.mece. For example. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.ualberta.0. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

1 /window.loc..200.100 SFL.10 cyl4..10 cyl4.200000 mp.10 asba.100.all PLPAGM.1.1.s.1000 ppath.200.y.0 dl.loc.2.50 PDEF.bot nsel.all nsel.50.150.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0..1.ex.1.50...2.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.mece.s.0.plane2.1. cyl4.AVG nsel.1.PRES.cutline.eqv.y.5 amesh.3 R.50..2.SEQV.2.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .top /POST1 PLNSOL.S.10 mp.s..50 ppath.1.all.off /noerase /window.loc.www.50..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.all.ualberta.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.all et.3 esize.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 path.y.prxy.eqv..S.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.I.prxy.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. Length of the following beam using tables. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.320e3.1.0 k.0. a special type of array.beam3 r.0 l. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. rather than using a contour plot.1.2 esize.1.200000 mp.40 mp. finer resolution can be achieved. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.1.0.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2400.1. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .2.ex.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. By plotting this data on a curve.elementsize lmesh.3 k.length.

2) /axlab.graph.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.1).graph(2.all.1.graph(2.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.2).node.graph(1.loc.graph(rows.u.2.y *set.static dk.all fk.x.graph(1. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.2. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.TABLE.1).graph(1.0 *set.node.node. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.1).graph(1.2.0 400 *vget.fy.x *vget.2).u.rows.y.Length /axlab.2.loc.y *vplot.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.x *vget.node.1).graph(rows.antype.2).all.

a special type of array.1.200000 mp. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.0. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et..www.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Length of the following beam using tables.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.prxy.ualberta.beam3 r.3 k. By plotting this data on a curve.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .length.1.1.2 esize. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 l. rather than using a contour plot. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. finer resolution can be achieved.mece.1.2.I.0.0 k.2400..ex. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.40 mp.h.1.320e3.1.

.www.2. lmesh.mece.graph(rows.graph.rows.fy.graph(2.0 *set.1).y.graph(2.graph(1. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2).loc.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.all.node.node.loc.2) /axlab.2.1).TABLE.u.all fk.1).y *vplot.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.u.h.1.y *set.graph(1.1 *vget.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.all.node.node. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.x *vget.graph(rows.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.graph(1.x.Length /axlab.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.2).2).2. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .graph(1.x *vget.ualberta.all finish /solu antype.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2..1).0 *vget.static dk.