# UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

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**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section.
Index
Basic Tutorials
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This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section.
PostProc Tutorials Radiation
The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders.
Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis
ANSYS Inc. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section.
Basic Tutorials
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Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files.
. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. Prompting the user for parameters.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
Command Line Files
The following files should help you to generate your own command line files.

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2D. 1.
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. heat transfer and fluid problems. Preprocessing: defining the problem. 2. Solution: assigning loads. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams
Index
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ANSYS Inc. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. axi-symmetric. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. 3. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Introduction
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. constraints and solving. In general. 1D.e. 3D). as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
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POSTPROC.

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there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. If you don't see this minimized program.
Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps:
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in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. Unix X-Windows application
Index
Windows NT Start Up
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Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple:
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Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece.
Getting the Program Started
In the Mec E 3-3 lab.7 Run Interactive Now
Unix X-Windows Start Up
ANSYS Inc. be sure that your local drive has space for it.
.. you should see something labeled X-Win32. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Starting up ANSYS
Starting up ANSYS
Large File Sizes
ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. do this. you can may want to reboot the computer.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. as it automatically starts this application when booting.. Windows NT application 2.

type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. don't select this icon.
. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.q
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once the Xwindows emulator has started. but rather. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil.
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select the Run Interactive Now menu item.

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PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
ANSYS 5. such as file controls. graphic controls and parameters. selections.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. 1.
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Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a.7.
. Main Window
Index
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ANSYS Inc. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.0 Environment
The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.

d.b. Output Window
The Output Window shows text output from the program. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued.0. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. solution. such as listing of data etc. c. However. design optimizer. the menu structure has not changed. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. More push buttons can be added if desired. e. 2. while the versions appear different. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. general postprocessor. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. organized by preprocessor.
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The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. The second is by means of command files. consult:
Index
Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding
There are two methods to use ANSYS.
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ANSYS Inc.
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.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. however. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code.

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and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
FEM Convergence Testing
Introduction
A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements.
In general there are no real firm answers on this. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. it is desired to minimize the number of elements.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. it will only slow the calculations down.e.
The Problem
The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution?
Index
What to do about it. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix.
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For beam models.
Beam Models
ANSYS Inc. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. For simple models it is of no concern. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. If the results differ by a large amount however. If the results are nearly similar..
General Models
. When point loads are used. loading and constraints. but for a larger model. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test.
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The Consequences
Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions..

In a solid mechanics problem.
. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. In general.In general however. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. for example.

you will at least be able to come back to this point. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. r Then when you get ANSYS started..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC.db .
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. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. loads. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Or.db. and select your job from the list that appears..db. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname.. Using the Launcher.. solution. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. There are two methods to do this: 1. if you make some mistakes later on. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. etc) that you previously saved.. r In the ANSYS Launcher. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. In that way.. To save your model. and specify the previously defined jobname.
ANSYS Inc. 2. select Interactive. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs
Saving Your Job
It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation.
Index
Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job
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Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job.

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err Error file (text).
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.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. frame.
Index
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What to save?
When you want to clean up your directory.db file. Once the ANSYS has started. starting with an existing log file. then the created files will all have the file prefix. other files may have been written.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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ANSYS Files
Introduction
A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session.
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If you will always be using the GUI.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). If you specified a jobname. That file may be rerun as is. Listing of all error and warning messages. and the jobname has been specified. If you plan to use the command mode of operation.. etc. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. the name of all the files created will be FILE. boundary conditions and any solutions. or move things from the /scratch directory. from another ANSYS run. frame. Frame again with various extensions: frame. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution).* where the * represents various extensions described below. boundary conditions and any solutions.. frame.db Database file (binary). This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. etc. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). say Frame. frame. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. This file stores the geometry. Depending on the operations carried out. This file stores the geometry.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). If you plan on using ANSYS command files. then you only require the . what files do you need to save?
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ANSYS Inc. These files may contain results.

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.0 Quick Image Save
When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. choose 'List Results'. Select 'Elem Table Data'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. However. Then enter the file name of your choice. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. to get displacements.' and give a file name to store the results. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.
Index
Plotting of Figures
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There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'.. while the second is a scalable vector plot. and choose what you want to list from the menu.
1. Press 'OK'
ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File
Printing Text Results to a File
ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen.. 1. 'Monochrome'. Select 'File'/'Save As. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.
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This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. You can pick multiple items.0 Better Quality Plots
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2. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. 3. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu.'. 'Reverse Video'. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. In the window that appears. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. 2..

pic' (with a period).'. To save some plots to a file.. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. a large graphics window will appear.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. This is performed by running a separate program called display. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. To do this. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. but rather they will be written to the selected file. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Note that although the file is 'plots. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. Display wants 'plots. Either way. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. they may be saved to printer files of various formats:
.pic if your plot file is 'plots. Type in a filename (e.g.. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen.pic'. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. Load your plot file with the following command: file.: frame. you have a couple of options: 1.frame. Decrease the size of this window. or HPGL for example. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. Now that the plots have been read in.n where n is plot number.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript.pic'(with a comma)..

Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor.pscr plot.n command as the other options have now been set. To do this.n where n is the plot number. as above. where xx is a number. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. the postscript image will appear as blank box. The printer information is still present.color. the postscript image will appear as blank box. and then issue the other commands as before pscr.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. 3. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. i. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.2 /show.e.hpgl plot. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. For subsequent plots. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.pscr plot.1. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL.grph.
. The printer information is still present. enter the following commands in display: pscr. you set the postscript color option to '3'. you only require the plot. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. overheads or even posters! 2. starting at 00. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. issue the following commands: /show.3 /show.color.

In a similar way.hpgl' extension. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. exit display by entering finish
.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.

loads. Things to note are:
r r r
Index
be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. chamfers. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. mesh control. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here.W. you will want to leave it.
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ANSYS Inc. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. analysis types will not be covered. Make the part
Use Pro/E to make the part. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. etc. by suppressing them in Pro/E. many modeling options for constraints. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS
Notes by R. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E
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POSTPROC. Also. Of course. holes.. if the feature is critical to your design.
Step 1.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. Model units are inches. the plate and the loading hole are removed. So. For this model.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. Several edges are rounded. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end.
.

check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate.
. idealizations). Basically. This is where we specify modeling information. Create the FEM model
In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. We proceed in a topdown manner. curves. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. surface regions. and so on. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right.Step 2. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. loads. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces.

Defining Constraints
For our simple model. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). we can select one of the four buttons (Free.
. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. and Function of Coordinates). For each direction X. Fixed. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. For our solid model. and a specified material. A dialog window opens as shown above. rotational constraints are active if specified. only one set can be included. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. For beams and shells.
Select Surface. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. all we need are constraints. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). edges. and surfaces). loads. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. and Z. In the final computed model. Prescribed. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. Y.

leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. For example. one load set might contain only the internal pressure.For our model. and select the OK button. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. Then select OK. Loads are also organized into named load sets. Note these are relative to the WCS. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. The load should be
. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Enter the force components at the bottom. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways.
Defining Loads
In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface
The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. another a temperature load. another might contain the support forces. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. These can be solved at the same time.

displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. If you select the Edit button.
Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. Define the analysis
Select Analyses > New
. you will see the properties of the chosen material. loads. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints.
Step 3.
Assigning Materials
Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. At this point. In an assembly. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. you could now assign this material to individual parts. In the STRC MODEL menu. material).

select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum.
Step 4.
. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. The MEC STRUCT window. Now select OK. Enter a short description. like "ansystest". The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Select the type (Structural or Modal).Specify a name for the analysis. Creating the mesh
We are going to use defaults for all operations here.

.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). Select Close. The results are indicated in columns on the right. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. Here is an image of the default mesh. shown in wire frame. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. evaluated for the model.

and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. you can select the Controls option. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements.
. edges. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. maximum mesh size. This will allow you to select points. For example. and so on.Improving the Mesh
In the mesh command.

select Run
. loads. mesh). In the MEC STRUCT menu. Creating the Output file
All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints.Step 5. materials.

The analysis we defined (containing constraints. mesh. In the Analysis list. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program.
. select ANSYS. Select OK and read the message window. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. select Structural.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. We are now finished with Pro/E.ans). and material) is listed. Copy the . loads. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension .

and select Apply. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds.
Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood
.. Importing into ANSYS
Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Viewing the results
There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results.
Step 8.. This will read in the entire model. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements.Step 6. Running the ANSYS solver
In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left.
Step 7. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Select the .ans file you created previously. you will be informed that the solution is complete. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model.

Index
Problem Description
Determine the nodal deflections. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Two Dimensional Truss
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title:
.123)
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. p. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. reaction forces.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial').
(Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. A = 3250mm2).

Note: to get the title to appear immediately. these keypoints are the ends of each truss. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body.The following window will appear:
Enter the title and click 'OK'. For this example. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2.
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We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0
(these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure)
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From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
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0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Note: When entering the final data point. If you first press
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. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed.y coordinates: 0.The following window will then appear:
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To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. and enter the x. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints.

Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint.
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In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. volumes. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. areas. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. lines. thus making any conversions where necessary. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. elements. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. 3. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. The following window will then appear:
. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines.

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Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu.
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. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.e. click on it). When you're done. Left click and a permanent line will appear.

The following window will then appear:
.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. However. they have most likely NOT been deleted. This is called 'meshing'. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem:
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From the Preprocessor Menu.

.
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5. The following window will appear:
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For this example. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements:
. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.r
Click on the 'Add. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window..' button. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box.

Click on 'OK'... enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. The following window will appear:
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As shown in the window above.r
In the Preprocessor menu.
. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete
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Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.

6. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties:
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models
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Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic
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In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines
. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be.
7. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Enter the following field: EX 200000
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Set these properties and click on 'OK'.0'.

enter the desired number of divisions per line. we have simply defined the element sizes.
8. For this example we want only 1 division per line. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r
In the size 'NDIV' field. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. therefore.
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window
Your model should now appear as shown in the following window
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. keypoint numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK'
q
.Plot Numbering To show the line numbers.
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From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.. node numbers...

.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. 1. To do this.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
You have now defined your model.. Define Analysis Type
. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. so if you make some mistakes later on. you will at least be able to come back to this point. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').

you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. i. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. these constraints will typically be fixed. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints
.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem:
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From the Solution Menu. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. As shown above. In mechanical structures.e. for example. pinned and roller-type connections.
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2.
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Ensure that 'Static' is selected.
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In the Solution menu. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. Click 'OK'.

Therefore. ROT on KPs' window. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'.
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This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.r
Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.

you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. Note that we are using units of N here. there are four downward loads of 280kN.
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Using the same method.
3. 210kN. 5.ROT on KPs" window. and 7 respectively.
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The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. 280kN. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U.
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Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.
. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Therefore.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. and 360kN at keypoints 1. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. this is consistent with the previous values input. 3.
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Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints.

Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution:
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In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS.
.4. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).

Once the solution is done the following window will pop up.r
The above windows will appear.. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description).
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Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.
. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'.

2.
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Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK'
. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element
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from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

Deformation
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In the General Postproc menu. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. The following window will appear.
.
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Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

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Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!)
Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.
. The following window will appear.
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From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.409).

Click 'OK'. Leave the other selections as the default values.r
Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.
.

. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.
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Looking at the scale.. you may want to use more useful intervals.

You should obtain the following.
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General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution.
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The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). The Element Table is different for each element. beams. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. strains). From Table 1. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7.
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Axial Stress For line elements (ie links.. spars.r
Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.1'
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From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. using the item 'LS. therefore. If you wanted to save these results to a file. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.'
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.2 in the Help file..

. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .'.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear..r
As shown above. in the 'Item. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Comp' boxes. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK'
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Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" . Next. Then enter 1 after LS.

select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK'
. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot
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List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.Again.

.HTML version.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.
. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'..Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82..
Quitting ANSYS
To quit ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.9MPa as predicted analytically. In the dialog box that appears.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.
ANSYS Inc. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.
Problem Description
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Verification
. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Space Frame Example
| Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line |
Introduction
Index
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

scale factors. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.The first step is to simplify the problem. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. units. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure:
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.
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We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0
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From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select:
. Enter Keypoints For this simple example.

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4. Now pick keypoint #2..' button. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. click on it).
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From the Preprocessor Menu..Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. When you're done.. Click on the 'Add. The following window will appear:
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. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Click on the 'Options.. The following window will appear:
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For this example. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Pick keypoint #1 (i. A permanent line will appear.e. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.
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Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line.

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5.. This gives us extra force and moment output. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add.r
Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2
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This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected).. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements:
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In the Preprocessor menu.
. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. Click on 'OK'. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'.

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Click on 'OK'.. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. (Alternatively. enter '20' (i. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'.
NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines
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In the size 'SIZE' field. enter the desired element length. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. For an element length of 2cm.
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6. therefore.
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7. Saving Your Work
. we have simply defined the element sizes. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]).e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties:
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. 8. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed..
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window
9. However.

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The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.ROT on KPs' window. Therefore. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints.
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2. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'..Utility Menu > File > Save as.. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar
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In the Structural menu. Define Analysis Type
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From the Solution Menu. Apply Constraints
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In the Solution menu.
.. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY.
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3.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window.

Deflection:
The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution:
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Solution > Solve > Current LS
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.we need to calculate what we should find.
.2mm as shown above. Hand Calculations Now. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .4.

the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.
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.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress).Stress:
The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. 2. Results Using ANSYS Deformation
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from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. In this menu you will find a variety of options.

This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'.
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.
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From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.r
Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'.
Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

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. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution.. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'.r
You may want to have a more useful scale.. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

. spars.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.. strains).
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Stresses For line elements (ie beams.'
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Are these results what you expected? Again. the right end of the rod. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.
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From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. If you wanted to save these results to a file. Click on 'Add.

Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK'
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If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.Comp' boxes in the above window.
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As shown above.. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear. in the 'Item. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .

a bending moment diagram can be created.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64.
. First. as shown in the following image.Again.
Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot
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List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. I and J.

Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D..To obtain the bending moment for this element.
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Again.
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In the window. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .again. Enter SMISC.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. click 'Add.6 in the second Comp box E.'. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. . Same as above
. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. the Element Table must be used. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. A.this will give a name to the data B. First. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J.... Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. A...
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General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Click 'Add. this will give a name to the data B.

. enter SMISC. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res.12 in the second Comp box E. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.
.C. For step D.
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From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. Same as above D.. Click 'OK'
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Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. Click 'OK'. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot.

Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition
. Sequence Numbers. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below).
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Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears.Now. Table 1.
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Before the explanation of the above steps. PIPE16 Item. you can double check these solutions analytically. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter.

25. then hit enter.1.0.2.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ
SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC
3 4 5 6
at the node Member moments at the node
Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .2 !* ET.PRXY. Material 1. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2
! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant. 2.1.0 !* DK. Outside Diameter.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.
Copy the following code into the command line.33 !* LESIZE.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. K.0.ALL. Young's Modulus.0.FY.ALL FK.0.1.the Member moment for node I.1. .EX. Material 1.0.PIPE16 KEYOPT. /PREP7 K. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.1. y.0. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file:
q q q
From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.6. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.1. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static)
! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction
.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. x.2.0. L.20 LMESH. all of the lines. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.1. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.1 !* R. 1. Major Poisson's Ratio. !* MP. 0. . x. z Keypoint.70000 MP.500.1. Material 1. y.0.

We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail.
Bicycle Example
Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame.SOLU SOLVE FINISH
! Solve the problem
Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame:
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1./STATUS. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New
. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.

these keypoints are the frame vertices. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50
4. First. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Notice that by using variables like this. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3.
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We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1
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Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as
.2. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Alternatively. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized.

X. NPT. type help k into the command line For example. type 'KLIST' into the command line)
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If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.y1.y2.follows: K. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. to enter the first keypoint type: K.0. Z where. #. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. x=0. you may need to add comments.0. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. z=0
Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. However. As with any programming language. Reference number for the keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter. y=y2. ie .#
.2. simply re-enter the code.for the second keypoint you might type: K.1.0
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! keypoint. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. Y. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.

z = 0. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan.. Changing Orientation of the Plot
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To get a better view of our view of our model. you have many controls. Zoom. To define keypoint #1. for example. This was simply used for convenience. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together:
. Try experimenting with them. translating and rotating it on all three axes. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. You can either leave the 'Pan.. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint.
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6. Zoom.'
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In the window that appears (shown left). we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. Rotate. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. In this example. 5. To get an isometric view. y = 325.

2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. to obtain the first line.
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Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. P1. Again. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. Keypoint at the end of line For example. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following:
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. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. we will use the command line to create the lines.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
Again. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). I would write: ' L. P2 Line. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line.1. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. define the type of element (pipe16). we will again use the command line. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open .7. MAT. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. C0 25 2
. As in the verification model.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. 8. LAB.

to pin the
.PRXY. we will use the command line. Mesh Size As in the verification model. VALUE2. Apply Constraints Once again. 1. KEXPND. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. Lab5..
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window
Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. DOF label. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. Lab2. value.1..
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Material Reference Number. type ' MP.Material Property. value
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To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis.
DK. Expansion key.. KPOI. > Static 2. K #. value2. VALUE. type: ' MP. Lab4.EX.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY).0. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Lab3.1. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. For example. Lab6 Displacement on K. Lab.33 '
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10.Valid material property label.

Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0.5. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. FY.. UZ. value2 Force loads at keypoints. the command line code is: DK. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. KPOI.UY.UY.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. Again.0.UY and UZ)..1.1. UY. value1. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4).0. UX is not constrained. K. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. Force Label directions (FX.first keypoint enter: DK. value. Lab. FZ). We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. value2 (if req'd)
. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty.
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Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .UX. K #.. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following:
If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.. FK.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.

If you need to delete one of the forces.3. K.
4.. 'Def + undef edge'
.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
To begin Postprocessing. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE..To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. the code should look like this: ' FK.FY.

Your screen should look like the plot below:
. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. 'Back'. 'Left'.r
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You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. etc depend on how the object was first defined).

.. Turn everything else off. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.
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Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.')... Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero.2. Note the node numbers of interest. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window
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. and turn on 'Node numbers'. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. so we know what node(s) we're after.

Click on 'OK'.. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.' from the 'List Results' menu.
3. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. For each element in the model. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. Close this list window when you are finished browsing.r
Don't forget to use more useful intervals... Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way:
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Select 'Element Solution..
4. Then close the 'List Results' menu. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.
.
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General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table .

Plot Results > Line Elem Res. to define the table (remember SMISC. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot
5. to plot the data from the Element Table
.6 and SMISC.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. Select Element Table > Define Table.12) And.r r r
Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table
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Again.... the bending moment diagram can be produced.

In the dialog box that appears..HTML version.. click on 'Save
. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. A . Open the .Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.
Quitting ANSYS
To quit ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.'...

Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.
.

TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Plane Stress Bracket
| Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line |
Introduction
Index
This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.
Contributions Comments
Problem Description
MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. and uniform pressure loading. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). A figure of the plate is shown below. plane stress. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.
ANSYS Inc.

etc. scale factors. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:
. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to.
Verification Example
The first step is to simplify the problem. units.

many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. Subtraction will used to create this model. a. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. however. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners
. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies.

0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.0.100. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.0.0.s
Fill in the window as shown above. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle
. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. (Alternatively.200.100)
b.

your image should resemble the following:
. the command line code for the above command is CYL4. Prior to this operation.50.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.s
Fill in the window as shown above.50. (Alternatively.100. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.20 )
c.

s
To perform the Boolean operation. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.
s
. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below)
s
s
Therefore. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected.

1. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.s
Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'.2)
. You should now have the following model:
s
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(Alternatively. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.

' button. as shown below. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete
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Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. four-node element (PLANE42). therefore Click on the 'Options.3.
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PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'.. we need a plane stress element with thickness. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. For this example. as shown in the above figure. Click and hold the K3 button..

Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.1.3.3 (Alternatively.1. the command line code for the above step is MP.PRXY.1.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.20) 5.EX. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.1.(Alternatively.0.1. the command line code for the above step is ET.3) 4.200000 followed by MP. Define Geometric Properties
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As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm)
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(Alternatively. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas
.3) 6. the command line code for the above step is R.

ALL.ALL)
You should now have the following:
.
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In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.r
Select an element edge length of 25. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.25.)
7. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.

1. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. the left end of the plate is fixed. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.0)
2.
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... Apply Constraints As shown previously.ROT on Lines' window.
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In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
You have now defined your model. Fill in the window as shown below.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Define Analysis Type
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Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).

. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Therefore.ALL. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below.4. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. therefore the last field is left blank. the command line code for the above step is DL.
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. Apply Loads
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As shown in the diagram. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. (Alternatively. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa).r
This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained.0)
3.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.
.

since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie .just a flat plate).9 MPa.001 mm .4. The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.we need to calculate what we should find. Convergence using ANSYS
. 2. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. Hand Calculations Now. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.

#49)
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List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. (as shown below in red)
. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point..At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.. we will check the stress at this point. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.
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The plot should look similar to the one shown below. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie.

Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. To change the element size. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.
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Resize Elements a. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear:
.9141 MPa at this point.The equivalent stress was found to be 2.

Click 'OK'. (note .
.c. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. ( Solution Menu > Current LS )
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Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.the element edge length decreases).5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . the values converge towards a final solution. d.8 MPa. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured.
Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). This is a mere 2. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node).

However. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate.0012 mm. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. Therefore.
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Observe the locations of deflection..The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.
4. 3. USUM in the window. Deformation
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General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.
. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. Then select DOF solution..

von Mises in the window. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution...r
Alternatively.. obtain these results as a list.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate. Then select Stress. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.
..
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5.

. A .r
You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Select Stress. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Principals SPRIN
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.
Bracket Example
.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Form Geometry Again. a.
This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. A figure of the plate is shown below. Create the main rectangular shape
. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.

XCORNER YCORNER -20 20
.80.0)
s
Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. HEIGHT BLC4. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. X coord for the center. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. XCORNER. height
s
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Therefore. YCENTER.0. YCORNER.50. Y coord for the center.50
c.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Y coord (bottom left). XCENTER. RAD1 CYL4. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20
XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20
d. X coord (bottom left). Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.0.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. radius
s
Therefore.80. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4.100
b. the command line for this circle is CYL4. width. WIDTH.

.. Boolean Operations . click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area.
e.
s
To perform the Boolean operation. the command line code for the above step is AADD. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.ALL)
s
.WIDTH HEIGHT
20 60
Your screen should now look like the following.

s
Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10
parameter WP X WP Y radius
s
Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created)
s
. Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.You should now have the following model:
f.

3)
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.1.s
Next select the three circles that we just created. the command line code for the above step is ET.1.ALL) Now you should have the following:
3.3.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.6.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.. (Alternatively. PLANE82 will be used for this example
r
Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.

(Alternatively. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. the command line code for the above step is R.PRXY. Define Geometric Contants
r
Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.
4.1. Mesh Size
r
Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5.0. (Alternatively.5.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. Mesh
r
Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Again. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.ALL.)
r
7.EX.1.ALL)
.1.3)
6. we will need to make sure the model has converged. Element Material Properties
r
Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.20)
r
5.200000 followed by MP.r
Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.

. (Alternatively.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.0)
2. 1.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Apply Constraints
. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Define Analysis Type
r
'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'..

ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.As illustrated.
r
3.ROT on Nodes' window. Repeat for the second bolt hole. For this case. Zoom. Rotate..) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Apply Loads
. polygon.
r
r
Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. select 'circle' as shown in the window below.
r
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. you have the option of creating a box.. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected.

4. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.As shown in the diagram. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS
Post-Processing: Viewing the Results
We are now ready to view the results.
.

USUM in the window. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. Deflection
r
To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . 2. The graphic should be similar to the following
r
Observe the locations of deflection.
. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. Deformation
r
General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.
3.1. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria.

obtain these results as a list.r
Alternatively...) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.
r
4.. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.
.

r
You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from..' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Principals SPRIN
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.
Quitting ANSYS
. Select Stress. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..HTML version. Open the . A .

To quit ANSYS.
.. In the window that appears.. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.

Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.
ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Problem Description A
We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Solid Model Creation
Introduction
This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Filleting. extrusion/ sweeping. copying.

HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles:
.
Creation of Cross Sectional Area
1. YCORNER. WIDTH. XCORNER.Geometry Generation
We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4. 3.5 5
You should obtain the following:
2.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.5
Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1
Rectangle 3 8 0 0.RAD
.YCENTER. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.XCENTER.

2
4. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas
r
Click on the small circle and then on OK.5 0.BASE.2 0.y and z offset of the copied area. The following window will appear.The geometry of the circles:
Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.SUBTRACT 5.5 Circle 2 8. Enter the y offset as 4.
r
. It asks for the x.5 0. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.6 and then click OK.

r
Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.5 You should obtain the following
6.
. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL 7. Add the smaller circles to the large area. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet
r
Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.

Enter 0.r
The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.1
r
Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines
.

Create the fillet areas
r
As shown below.8.
. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines
r
Select the lines as shown below
r
Repeat for the other fillet
9.ALL
. Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.0) and (0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.X. Then select the following two keypoints
r
r
.#.Y.Z) 2. 1. (K. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis
r
You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.Areas)
Sweep the Cross Sectional Area
Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.5.10. Plot Areas 3. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .0.

. Click on OK.r
The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

we need to use a different working plane.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. There are several ways to define a working plane. Change the Working Plane By default.
r
Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1
. However. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. one of which is to define it by three keypoints.
Create Bolt Holes
1. for us to define the bolt holes.

the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation.
r
Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane.
Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status
. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints +
r
Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.r
Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system.
2.

The following window will appear. fill in the blanks as shown.
.note the origin of the working plane. 3.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen
We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.0. By default those values would be 0.0. 4.5 y=0 r=0. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes
r
Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

This will result in the following completed structure:
.r
Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes.

HTML version. A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.
. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.
Problem Description B
We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the ..

Create the Base
1.Geometry Generation
We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle
WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102
2. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area)
r
Create the following keypoints
X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0
You should obtain the following:
.

1.6.5 into the command line) when prompted. type LARC. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines
r
.5. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6
s
s
s
(Alternatively.5.4.r
Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad
s
Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.20 followed by LARC.7.20 into the command line)
r
Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.8.

5.1.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).DZ)
r
. YCENTER=20.7
r
Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.4.DX.# Copies (include original).DY. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes
r
Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.6.Area#.2
You should obtain the following image:
3.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.

r
Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.3. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area
.ALL)
r
You should obtain the following:
4.

(Alternatively.02
#100 #101 #102
r
Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. Again. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. type KWPLAN.100. Change the working plane As in the previous example.r
Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. Therefore.
(Alternatively. the first keypoint defines the origin. we need to change the working plane.101. Note. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.
r
Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.6. type VOFFST.1.102 into the command line)
.26 into the command line)
Create the Back
1. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.

2.26 4. YCORNER=0. WIDTH=102. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.
. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51.27. YCENTER=180.2 You should now have the following geometry
Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. Create the back area
r
Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. Add the base and the back together
r
Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together
r
r
3.1.

Create the Upper Cylinder
r
Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 1.5. Area 3
5.32.51. RADIUS=18. YCENTER=180. . Area 2. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. .60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole
r
r
r
You should now have the following geometry:
Create the Rib
. .180. RADIUS=32. YCENTER=180.r
Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD.

57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0
r
Create the rib area through keypoints 200. type KWPLAN. (Alternatively.0 into the command line)
r
Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30
#200 #201 #202
r
Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.200.57735*26) 129-(0.-1. 204
. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.201. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.4 3. the first keypoint defines the origin. Create the area
r
Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib
X #203 #204 129-(0. type WPCSYS.1. 203. Change the working plane
r
First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.1. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.202 into the command line)
2.

'. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5..200.203.204 4. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following:
Quitting ANSYS
To quit ANSYS. In the dialog box that appears..
. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.

0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7
.. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..67 iii. and rotation about the Z axis). > Add.x. Young's modulus EX: 200000
. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (1000. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Keypoint Coordinates (x.z) 1 2 (0.0)
4.y.1.. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm.#. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. K. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. 6.ANSYS Inc.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.
3... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.y. enter the following geometric properties: i.

0 2. Density DENS: 7. enter the following density for steel: i. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.
r
. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All'
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.81m/s2 in the y direction. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.3 8.ii.
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Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.86e-6 9. 10..

Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).
. DK.1.9.ALL. ACEL. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction..0.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction.

4. > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.777mm 2.2
. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape ...

the maximum displacement was found to be 5. Open the .. This is in agreement with the theortical value.HTML version. A .
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.777mm. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.As observed in the upper left hand corner.
.' and select the file.

Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Application of Distributed Loads
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
.0. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.

.0)
4.ANSYS Inc.x. /title.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. > Add. 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.#. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis). Cross-sectional area AREA: 100
.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x..K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.0) (1000..
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . enter the following geometric properties: i.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L... Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. Distributed Loading 3. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.K#.y) 1 2 (0. 5.

3 8.. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.333 iii.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 9.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.
. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i..ii. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .

enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'.
.0 2. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. over the entire length of the beam.
r r r
Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). As shown in the following figure. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 3.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

In the window that appears.. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements.. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.
. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP..2
2.

' 3.1.. 3 for the 'J' nodes. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. click 'Apply' 5.
. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4.. 6. 8. select 'NMISC. (ie.. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note:
r
ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. 9. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). In the second window of the same section. Click 'Add. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. In the window that appears a. For this example. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c.
r
As shown in the plot below. Click 'OK'. For this problem. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. 7. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. ' d.

. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.
.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). contact elements). TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
. the load will added incrementally. To solve this problem.Harmonic Dynamic .
Index
There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.Modal Dynamic . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. After each increment.

Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.. 5..0)
3. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x. 6. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.. > Add... Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .125 inches. and rotation about the Z axis). 2. 4.069e-5 iii. enter the following geometric properties for steel:
. With only 3 degrees of freedom.03125 ii. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.y) 1 2 (0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..ANSYS Inc.
1. enter the following geometric properties: i.0) (5..25 x 0.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. If we were considering a block of wood. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 7. Set Solution Controls
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.1 " (50 element divisions along the line)... for example. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii..ALL
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. not non-linear material properties. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. The following image will appear:
. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.i..3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 8.0 2.

there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load):
s s s s s
20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in
. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. C. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. however. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. this takes time. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.

When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the previously computed matrix. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints
. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. For more information about these commands. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. the modified Newton-Raphson. the load is ramped. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. E. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF.
Output
OUTRES
Stress Stiffness
SSTIF
Newton Raphson
NROPT
Convergence Values
CNVTOL
3. By default. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. By default. F. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). By default.Now. D. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. stress stiffening is automatically included. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. However. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. This command controls the solution data written to the database. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. type help followed by the command into the command line. By default. For some special nonlinear cases. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in.

. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. 4.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses
This shows the convergence of the solution.

> Def + undeformed PLDISP.0..1
.. UY PLNSOL..General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.Y.. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.1
2. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.U. > DOF solution.

. this is not realistic for large deflections. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. However. the load was applied in steps. Modeling the system non-linearly. However. As you recall.. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.
Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
As shown.> DOF solution.3. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Define Variables
. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

r
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Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction....r
Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add.. Graph Results over time
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Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below)
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.

.

HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .
.' and select the file. A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

For more information regarding setting the time value.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.
. see Chapter 8. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Graphical Solution Tracking
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. and many other solution control option.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
1. In this example. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number.5 in the help file. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. the curves may be for temperature. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used.
. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value.
s
The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). which ever is greater. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. For instance. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. Again. many iterations will be required.001). This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. you can see Chapter 8.ANSYS Inc. which this graph is taken from. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. we will look at the force curves. In the case of a structural analysis. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. for more information about changing iteration settings.
s
The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. etc) that iterates to find a solution. For ease of explanation. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. 2. there are two curves plotted. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels.
For each substep. However. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. For each parameter. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. such as this. which is discussed in the help file. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. this graph relates to forces and moments. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. Generally. if the solution is highly non-linear. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. or is not converging. As can be seen in the graph above. Once this occurs. This is what will be explained next. In simpler terms. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. In the case of a structural example.5% for loads. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. If the problem is relatively linear. Thus. Some analyses use normalized values. as expected. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied.

.

However.Harmonic Dynamic . suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. 2. Nonlinear
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. real-world buckling prediction analysis. large-deflection. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. static analysis to predict buckling loads. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial
Dynamic .
. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Buckling
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. load perterbations.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. in real-life. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.Modal Dynamic . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Eigenvalue
Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. material nonlinearities and gaps. This method is not recommended for accurate.Transient
Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. For this type of analysis.

Define Keypoints
. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. The required load to cause buckling.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. rigidly constrained at the bottom.ANSYS Inc.
Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. /title.. applied at the top-center of the beam.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. will be calculated. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

K.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.X.#.. and rotation about the Z axis). Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833..333 iii.0) (0. enter the following geometric properties: i. > Add. 7.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .100)
4.3
. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm...y) 1 2 (0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..1. 6.

The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). 9. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window.ALL
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.
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You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.
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. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line).0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. If you are looking at the abridged menu..8. prestress effects must be activated. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. select the unabridged version. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis.

4. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2).
. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load.3.

Specify Buckling Analysis Options
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options
. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6.
5.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.1 8. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. However. 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.

however..
r
. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. 11. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. as shown below. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). The 'Subspace' method could also be used..
9.. and ensure that it is on. Expand the solution
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. is for an expansion pass. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode..r
Complete the window which appears. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. This time.

Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape
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. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. /POST1 SET. Display the Mode Shape
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Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.123). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. which is in Newtons for this example. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.r
Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode
12.LIST 2.

Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3..Y
. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .X.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis
Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.. /TITLE. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.#.

Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.y) 1 2 (0.3 8.100)
4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. With only 3 degrees of freedom. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. > Add.. enter the following geometric properties: i.333 iii. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.2 5. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Mesh Size
.. and rotation about the Z axis).1. L. 6. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.0) (0. 7. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.

ESIZE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE...ALL
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.. Set Solution Controls
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.0 2.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). The following image will appear:
.1 9.

C. this takes time. F. E. however. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. B. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. D. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000
. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.

4.
. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). 3. For more information about these commands. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line. The model should now look like the window shown below. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses
.5.

This shows the convergence of the solution. View the deformed shape
r
To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).
.
General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.

1
...r
General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.

UY PLNSOL.U.0.r
View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.1
.. > DOF solution..Y.

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.
. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.
Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
As shown. However. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. Define Variables
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Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically. 1. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.

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Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.
. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer
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Click the add button
in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. click the add button again. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. On the Time History Variable window. The Time History Variables window should now look like this:
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.r
To add another variable.

so you must change them manually.2. Graph Results over Time
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Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.
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The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.
. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.
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Click the graphing button
in the Time History Variables window.

123 N. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.
.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.HTML version. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.000 N. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse...' and select the file. A .
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.
ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. In such a case. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". For instance.Modal Dynamic . a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
NonLinear Materials
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
For this analysis.Harmonic Dynamic . a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.

#. 5..y) 1 2 (0. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (0. > Add..X.100)
3. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K.1.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
1. NonLinear Materials 2.. L. 6.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. /title.. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.. enter the following geometric properties for steel:
. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. enter the following geometric properties: i. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window.2 4. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

Then click OK. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.
Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. click Add Point to add another. the stress-strain data must be included.i.003 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.005 0.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300
. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.001 0.002 0. When all the points have been inputed. click Graph to see the curve. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. When the data for the first point is input.004 0. It should look like the one shown above.

ALL
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.0 2.8 9 10 11 12 13
0. The following image will appear:
..250 0.060 0. Set Solution Controls
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. /REPLOT 7...200 0.100 0.150 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.275
355 390 420 435 449 450
To get the problem geometry back. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).

Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. data for every load step is written to the database. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. this takes time. Therefore. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. F. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. you can plot certain parameters over time. however. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.
. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. E. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. C. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. D.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).B. 4. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000
NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. For more information about these commands. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 5. 3. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses
. type help followed by the command into the command line.

This shows the convergence of the solution.
.
General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

2. > DOF solution.Y.. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..U. UY PLNSOL.1
.0.

The following window should open automatically.
Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.
. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. 1. Define Variables
r
Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. However.

r
Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer
r
Click the add button
in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.
.

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. Graph Results over Time
r
Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.
.r
To add another variable. On the Time History Variable window.
r
The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.
r
Click the graphing button
in the Time History Variables window. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. The Time History Variables window should now look like this:
r
2. click the add button again. so you must change them manually. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file.HTML version. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly.PDF version is also available for printing. was low (in the linear range). However. Open the .
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. you will see the solutions are very similar. A . When you verify this example analytically.
.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. as the force increased. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. and subsequently the stress.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
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POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . please use the links below. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.
. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.

Set options for analysis type:
r
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.. The following window will appear
.2 2.ANSYS Inc.
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.

The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.
. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No.
r
r
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The following window will then appear
For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual.r
As shown. It is therefore more exact but. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.

r
For this problem.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). we will use the default options so click on OK.
. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions
r
Select: General Postproc > Results Summary..
3. 4. The following window will appear
The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.

01 145.0 0.54
Percent Error 0.
r
To view the next mode shape. instead of 10 elements. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.69 472.2 0.64 285. The first four mode shapes should look like the following:
r
. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).0 0.1 0. 2.1
Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.e.51 472. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .68 285. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .311 51. Select 'Def + undef edge'.300 52.Mode 1 2 3 4 5
Theory 8.22
ANSYS 8. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. View Mode Shapes
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Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape
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Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .94 145.

Animate Mode Shapes
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Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear
.3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

q

Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

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Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

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Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

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Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

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By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

select Utility Menu > List > nodes).
r
Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. In our case it is assigned Frequency. By default. and the following window should pop up.
r
Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear
. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes.. which is node #2.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted.

Click OK.r
We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows
r
. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3. List Stored Variables
r
In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data:
.

frequency
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In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.4.
. Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

94Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8. To get a better view of the response.
r
Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear
. view the log scale of UY.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.3 and 51 Hz.311 and 51.

r
As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following
r
r
.

.PDF version is also available for printing.
. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. See the help file for instructions..' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .
r
For ANSYS version lower than 7.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.100 Hz. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.0. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 .

.

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a static analysis may be used instead.Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
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POSTPROC. For our case.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. for example.
.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.

We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f
. The smaller the time step. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.ANSYS Inc.
After the application of the load. However.

if stresses and forces are of interest than.
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Select 'Reduced' as shown.
r
. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Define Analysis Type
r
Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. the calculations are much quicker. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.
q
q
We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Therefore. However. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. All types of non-linearities are allowed. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. please use the links below. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). It is the quickest of the three methods.
q
The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. In other words.
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. In ANSYS.

see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs).
. Define Master DOFs
r
Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). choose UY as the first dof in this window
r
For an explanation on Master DOFs. 3. The following window will open.2.

s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below).Initial Conditions i. Specify Time and Time Step Options
s
Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . for this example we can skip this step. Load Step 1 . ii.
We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. However. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it.. Note that for the reduced method. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. both default to zero. a constant time step is required throughout the time range.001 seconds to be used for this load step. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. a. We can also solve for each load step after we define it.001.Time Step . two sets of initial conditions are required.
. initial displacement and initial velocity. s set [DELTIM] to 0. Therefore. This will specify a time step size of 0.4.

Write Load Step File
s
Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear
.iii.

Specify Time and Time Step Options
s
Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .s
Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Specify Time and Time Step Options
. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Define Load Step
s
Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).
ii. Load Step 2 i.001 for the end of the load step
iii.Time Step .
ii. and set a time of 0. Load Step 3 i.s01
b. Define Load Step
s
Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1..

. which is node #2. By default. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. Solve the System
r
Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. 1.
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Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5..s
Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step
iii.Time Step .

. and the following window should pop up.r
Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.
r
Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear
..

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We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows
r
. Click OK.

List Stored Variables
r
In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data:
.

3.
. frequency
r
In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

if stresses and forces are of interest. We also see another response at a higher frequency.
s
s
Expand the Solution
For most problems. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam.
. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. We did not specify damping for our system. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis.A few things to note in the response curve
s
There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. However. Note that the response does not decay as it should not.

Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam
.. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.08 and 0.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip).. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. Expand the solution
r
Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. 1.08 and 0.11 seconds
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r
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2. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. For this case.11 seconds. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.

1.00000000 .00000000 0.00000000 DMPRAT. 0.500000000 . Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.000000000E-03.REDU. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy. 1. 0.000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 .00000000 ALPHAD. -1.00000000 TINTP.. 0.00000000 . 0. 0.00000000 .00000000 . 0.00000000 CGLOC.00000000 0. 0. 0. 0.00000000 . The file should look like the following.0.R5.00000000 DCGOMG._TINY DELTIM. 0. 0. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. 0 DOMEGA.R5. 0. 0.00000000 . D.
q
Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.00000000 TREF.00000000 CGOMEGA. 0.. 0. . Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 0.ROTZ.00000000 .00000000 .UY .00000000
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Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. 1.00000000 .00000000 NCNV.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0.00000000 . 4 TRNOPT. We will now re-run our transient analysis. 0. 0. 0..00000000 ERESX. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.ANSYS RELEASE 5.. 0. TINTP.00000000 . 0.01 in all three load step files.7.DAMP BFUNIF. but now we will consider damping. 0. 5. 0.TEMP.00000000 BETAD.UX . /COM.00000000 0. 0.s01. 0.00000000 .00000000 OMEGA. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.00000000 D.00000000 . -1. /GOPR 1.0. D.DEFA ACEL. .
q
.00000000 .00000000 .00000000 0.00000000 . 0. 0. 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam. 1.

and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. Open the . After the results have been calculated.. After selecting MDOFs. The damped response should look like the following
q
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .q
Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.'
..HTML version..

and select the file.
. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
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POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Simple Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .

Quad 4node 55).ALL
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Y=0.1.1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.05 AESIZE. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1 4.PLANE55 For this example..0.10 6. 5. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ALL. Width=1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis..ANSYS Inc. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.
1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.1. Height=1 BLC4.KXX.0.0 2.0. Give example a Title 2. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.05 7. Apply Constraints
. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.

options cannot be selected. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. or Radiation. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.
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The following window will appear:
. Heat Flux. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Heat Generation. Heat Flow.For thermal problems. Convection. In this example.
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Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.

constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.. Temperature TEMP
. > DOF solution.r
Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .
r
3.

The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C..HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. however.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.
.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .PDF version is also available for printing. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. followed by the side and bottom constraints. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect.. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. Open the .Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied.

Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated)
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve simple thermal examples.Modal Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long):
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Thermal .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

Quad 4Node 55 ET.KXX. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid..PLANE55 As in the conduction example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
3.ANSYS Inc.05 7.ALL
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.. Give example a Title 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Y=0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 5.0.0.1 4.0 2.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. Height=1 BLC4. Quad 4node 55). Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Apply Conduction Constraints
. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.1.
1.ALL. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Width=1. 6.1.0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.05 AESIZE.

constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C
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3.
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Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions
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Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.In this example. The following window will appear:
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. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions
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Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank.r
Fill in the window as shown. This is because we have uniform convection across the line.
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.
4.

. > DOF solution.r
Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature
You should obtain the following:
5. thereby modeling an insulated wall.. This will eliminate convection through the side. Temperature TEMP
.

HTML version. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing..Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.
. A .

0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Also. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
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Transient Thermal Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

.04 MP.1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Height=1 BLC4. Width=1.0.05 7. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Quad 4node 55). Quad 4Node 55 ET. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1. 5.1. /Title.ALL At this point.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.C..920 6. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1 4.2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.0.ANSYS Inc.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.1.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.DENS.05 AESIZE. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. Y=0. the model should look like the following:
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.ALL. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0.PLANE55 For this example..
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.KXX.

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.4 The window shown below will pop up. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.
. We will use the defaults. so click OK.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.2.
.

Max no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. of substeps to 100. Min no. of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown
.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. B) Set Number of substeps to 20.

Apply Constraints For thermal problems. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. For a complete description of what these options do.D) Set Line search to ON . This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected.
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. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. or Radiation.options cannot be selected. refer to the help file. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK.
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Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Convection. In this example. Heat Flow. Heat Generation. By writing the data at every step. 3. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flux. Basically.

The following window will appear:
.

Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K:
5.
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4. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Temperature TEMP
..r
Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. > DOF solution..

specify the contour range. from 100 to 500.
. Fill in the window as shown. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. with 8 contours.. user specified.Animate Results Over Time
r
First..

. 0 . Auto contour scaling OFF. DOF solution > TEMP)
. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.r
Then animate the data.300 Time Range.. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames.

you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. the curves are practically identical. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. Also.
. As can be seen.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time.

Analytical Solution
.

Time Graph
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Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.ANSYS Generated Solution
Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Creating the Temperature vs.
. The following window should open automatically.

.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer
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Click the add button
in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.
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Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh. node 261.

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The Time History Variables window should now look like this:
.

Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis.
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The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.2.
. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Instead. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. This is because the solution has not completely converged. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. so you must change them manually. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.
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Click the graphing button
in the Time History Variables window. Graph Results over Time
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Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. From experience. will cause the solution to converge. To cause the solution to converge.

' and select the file... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.
.HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .

0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . As a warning. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric
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POSTPROC. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
. In this case. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Modelling Using Axisymmetry
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.

.X1.X2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.Y1..ANSYS Inc.Y2
. Axisymmetric Tube 2. /title. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.

however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. we must define a U-shape... Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD..For an axisymmetric problem. Many elements support axisymmetry. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Solid. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). 6. 5. Triangle 6node) element.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. to create the geometry mentioned above.. click the Options.
. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5
15 20 0
0 100
20 95 100
4. axisymmetry is not supported. button. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. Therefore. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this:
.7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 9. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.3 8.

C. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. By using the symmetry B. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.
.C. at x=0. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left.0 2. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. as shown below. command.

.r
Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. then click OK. Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below.

. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. 3. Once you've clicked Sele All. Therefore. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. click Sele All to reselect all nodes.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). 4. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. This is required to constrain the model in space. click on Cancel to close the window.

Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.r
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.
r
5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS:
.

..
.182 MPa. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities. as shown below and click OK.
2.55 in the Min.Max box.

(0.
. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.r
General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.17866)/2. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric.. Thus.182 MPa. the stress in the tube is 0.
r
If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. to approximate the analytical solution..
3. such as corners. we must average the stress over the thickness. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.18552 + 0. The following window will appear. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. The average is used because in the analytical case. matching the analytical solution.

' and select the file. A . Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. Now go to 'File > Read input from. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric.
. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. The rest of the commands remain the same. as expected due to the change in geometry. If this is done.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Thus. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. the model is a flat...4. with a rectangular hole in the middle.PDF version is also available for printing. rectangular plate.

The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
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POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce:
q
Contact Elements APDL
q q
the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.
A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.7. TUTORIALS
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Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. a wall thickness of 10.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.1. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.

Define Element Types For this problem. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. /title. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Y and Z axis..Catapult 3. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint).
. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . and rotation about the X. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16.Y and Z axis)..

> click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'.
s s s
Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. c. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure.. s Select 'Combination'. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. ROTX. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. a. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. b. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. UY. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9
. there should now be three types of elements defined. For this example.. Click 'OK'. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties.. UZ. ROTY). K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. UY). Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. 4. s Select 'Combination'..a. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis.

we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above):
Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.0.33 6.0) (0.y. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.x.z) (0.s
Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.. Click 'OK'.#.y.. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0)
.1000) (1000.1000) (1000.0. there should now be three types of elements defined. N.0. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. 5. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.
c. In the window that appears. Define Element Material Properties 1.

0.0) (700.500) (400.0.500) (0.1000.
.1000) (0. Create PIPE16 elements a. 'Material number' is set to 1.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
(0.0.1000) (0. Then click 'OK'.0) (0. The following window will appear.1500) (0.-500)
7..700.0.1000.400..500) (0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes . and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.

the first entry would be: E. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.b.1.6). Node a Node b
1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5
. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. node a.

Then click 'OK' b. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes
. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. three nodes are required.13 12 5 6
6 13 3 4
You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view)
8. Create elements When defining a joint.

To do this. node b. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. we do not need to mesh our model.node a. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. you can list all the elements defined in the model. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements
. Then click 'OK' b.node a. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. 10. 11. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3.E. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11
NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes.

we need to include the effects of large deformation..You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes
. 3.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1..

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

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You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

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**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

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**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

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5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. > Add.1). In this case the maximum values for each are the same. fill it in as shown previously . This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. Comp selection box
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6. we can now solve the optimization problem. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX.. 8.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa
Design Optimization
Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions.
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Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File.
.. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'.
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7. this is not always the case. Fill this table as done previously. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. However. however. 1..r
Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table..3 (instead of NMISC.... Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. However. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. This will give you the max stress at the j node.

.. . 2 !* HPTCREATE. ... . . 20 /PREP7 K.3.1.1..0 MPDATA.H... . 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE. ..2.2..(W*H**3)/12... ..W*H.0.1.0.H . MPTEMP.ALL. K. .2.3..1 /title.BEAM3 !* !* R. 1...100. .1. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.2.RATI.1..txt’ Click ‘OK’.ANSYS RELEASE 7.. 20 *SET.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.3 !* LESIZE.UY.PRXY..0.0. ..0. . .1.1...1 FITEM. FLST.UX.r r
In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.ORDE..1..start70..LINE.1 !* /GO DK. Design Optimization *SET. .1.0 FLST.. !* ET.EX.ans.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.1.. LMESH.0.
If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.. . . !* !* MPTEMP.200000 MPDATA.W .ORDE.1.1000.P51X.1 FITEM. L.2
.75.2.

!* SSUM !* *GET.SMAX_I.SMaxI.1 FITEM. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method)
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Line 32 . .1.2.UX.ITEM. .C:\Temp\. .MAX *SET.MAX AVPRIN.0.1.SMax_J. If you created the geometry etc.0.Volume. .SORT..COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.0. 1 !* ESORT. .ETAB.-2000 ! /STATUS. ETABLE. .0.UY.NMISC.SSUM.2.optimization.0.0. .ETAB.SMAX. . .VOLU. . To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. . ..SORT.NMISC.0. 3 !* ESORT.SMax_I. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.UY.3. Therefore.UX.!* /GO DK. ..DK. . FLST. .0. . the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. using command line code.EVOLUME AVPRIN.UY.0. .SMAX_J.1.0. !* *GET.SMaxJ.P51X. However.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.0.ORDE.P51X. Change this to: DK.3 !* /GO FK. most of these changes will already be made. ETABLE.
.EVolume. .1. ETABLE. !* *GET.0.0.P51X.FY.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device. .

. These variables are necessary to constrain the design.P51X. Without this SV. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file.P51X. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. Now that we have decided our design variables. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. . Change to: DK.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1
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Line 37 . . we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. . . In this example.UY. For the width and height. In this example. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. r Click ‘OK’. To define variables. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result.UY. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect
.0. 2. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam
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There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. . none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .DK. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. NOTE: As previously stated.FY. If you are comfortable with command line coding. the width and height of the beam are the DVs.FK. 3. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. .-2000 Change to: FK.FY.0.2.3. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. In our problem. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.0.0. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. .

.
.on the volume of the beam..01mm. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.. Define the State Variables
s
Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. > Add. For the stress variable. we do not need to define an allowable range.. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem.. a.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm)...01MPa. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam)
s
Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. > Add. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. we will select a tolerance of 0.
s
s
Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height)
b.

To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Run the Optimization
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Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run.
Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. DELTA = 0. Click ‘OK’.
6. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30)...2% 7.
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Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool.. confirm that the analysis file. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Under Convergence Tolerance. Defaults to 10. Define the Objective Variable
s s s
Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. enter 200.001)
c. Percent step size SIZE = 100.. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem.s
In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. method/type and maximum iterations are correct.. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. Defaults to 0.2 Click ‘OK’. Percent forward diff.
.

. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. View graphical results of each variable during the solution
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Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. You will probably see that the width=13. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. B. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List')
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.24 mm. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’.
View the Results
1. C. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A... 2. and the stress is equal to 199.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. height=29. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’..16 mm.

you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.
. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy..Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes
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Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.... Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls
In the graphics window. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. In the window.

Alternatively. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps.
. all of the results data (ie stress. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. . A . Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. In addition.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. displacement.. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List.

.

41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.5 MPa.
The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. however. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. For this example. Apply loads to the super-element
. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Substructuring
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. v = 0. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. substructuring will be used for the wood block.

. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4.
Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).YCORNER. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.
.. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.2. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Apply remaining loads to the model. 3.XCORNER.WIDTH.. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.

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. This element has 4 nodes. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .29 6. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes)..For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.1
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.SUBST 2. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. 5. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. 7.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options
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Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear.

With the option SEPR.
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. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied.s s s
Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. In this case. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.
3. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired.
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Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF
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In the window that appears.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.
5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ..YCORNER.XCORNER. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. FILNAME. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass.Use Pass: Using the Super-element
The Use Pass is where we model the entire model.WIDTH.
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40
. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.

. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. 7. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. The following window will appear. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model
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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . Therefore. Select Model Data.41 8. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.). 9. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.1 10... the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Young's modulus EX: 2. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).5 (MPa) ii. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently.
. For Selected set as shown. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc.6.. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs.

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Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number
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Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2
.

Y coordinates. 40 as shown..
.. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface
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Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Select Nodes.. The following window will appear.SUB File. By Location..r r
Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below)
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Utility Menu > Plot > Replot
11.

In the window that appears.r
Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All'
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Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Apply super-element load vectors
..

U.SUM.r
Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.) You should find that the super-element is element 41
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Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname... Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .
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4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. > DOF solution.. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector.0. Translation USUM PLNSOL..1
.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).
.Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted.

. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname
. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element
To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. FILNAME.
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.

Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded
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Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem .db . The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.. Activate Expansion Pass
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Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.
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..3.
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3. Type 'EXPASS. The following window will appear.
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2.. RESUME
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded
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Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step.... Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.

Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution ..SUM. > DOF solution.1
.0. Translation USUM PLNSOL.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1..U.

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..HTML version.' and select the file.
. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

a thermal conductivity of 60. the link will attemp to expand.. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. For convenience. with no internal stresses. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. . stress is created in the link.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Loads will not be applied to the link. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. However. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.the solutions and
. A steel link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.

thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. the analyses are coupled.. the geometry is kept constant. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. and write them to memory.2
. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.z) 1 2 (0.x. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. However.y. K.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the element types can change.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1.0)
4. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. For a listing. Thermal Stress Example 2. where the thermal effects will be applied.0) (1.#. and using it with any following coupled environments. It is important to note. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file..1. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. Thermal Environment .procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.y. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. For our case. For instance. Although the geometry must remain constant. /title. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution." Thus.

Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2... Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.5 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. 5. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1 meters....
.. 9. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. 6. representing a link 1 meter long. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. > Add. KXX: 60. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. 7. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. enter the following geometric properties: i..

In this case. etc. 2. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. such as the element type. It does not clear the geometry however. see the help file. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. In this case it is LINK 8. material properties. Structural Environment . Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. For more information on this element. 1. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. which is defining the structural environment. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. so it can be used in the next stage. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.11.3
. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list.

ALPX: 12e-6 3. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.
. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. enter the TITLE Struct
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described.

8. the left-most point. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. to 348 Kelvin.rth is the thermal results file. 3. you will see it is a uniform 348 K.rth. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. This should make it visible. you will get error messages. were . 4. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. this data can be found as file. If this is not done. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. 7.
. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below.rth. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. 6. The thermal solution has now been obtained. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. as expected. enter the file name File.rth.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS:
. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.
10.9.

LS.1 ETABLE. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. an element table must be created first. Instead. 2.CompStress.1
3. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. List the Stress Data
. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.As shown.

Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Note the stress in each element: -0.
.CompStr
The following list should appear.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.180e9 Pa.

. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.
.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the ..' and select the file.HTML version. A .This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

rather than increasing mesh density. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .ON Select p-Method Struct... as shown below
. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. P-Method Meshing 2. /title.

y.y.100) (45.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.3.x.0) (0.100)
. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.52) (80. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.52) (55..#. K.100) (20..

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.2.100) (100.1.3.7..12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.
6.11.7 8 9 10 11 12
(100.48) (20.0)
5.0) (80.6.9.5. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.48) (45.8.4.10.0) (55..
.

. shown below..For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.
Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. enter the following geometric properties: i. to open the keyoptions window.. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. Plane146. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. For now we will leave them as default. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Solid147. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). After clicking OK to select the element. For more information on these elements. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. 8. go to the Element Library in the help file. click Options. Young's modulus EX: 200000
.. 7. and Plane145.. > Add.

.0 2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All'
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.
. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 10.ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas..3 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.

C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100.
. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. of substeps to 20. Max no. Min no.

Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. select Stress > von Mises SEQV
.5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.

.The following stress distribution should appear.

3.
. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.

these orders may go as high as 8.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh. As a comparison. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below.
. For more complex geometries.

.

and still get reasonable results.As one can see from the two plots. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. This is the benefit of using p-elements. Open the .HTML version. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. Now go to 'File > Read input from. thus computational time will be low.. A .' and select the file.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse.
.. However. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered.

The elements are still technically there. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". Element birth is also possible. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. but will not be discussed here. For further information. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Melting Using Element Death
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model.

0. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0.. Quad 4node 55)..03 4.. enter the following properties: i.03 Height = 0..03 BLC4.03. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0. For this example. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. Element Death 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. enter the following properties:
. 5. enter the following properties: i. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. /title.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.
ANTYPE.. Therefore..0005m. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All'
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.i. you
. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. so click OK. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0.4 2. We will use the defaults. 7. Density DENS: 920 6.

B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. 3.FULL into the commmand line. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown
.must type NROPT.
A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.

Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K:
. Basically.D) Set Line search to ON . you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. By writing the data at every step. refer to the help file. 4. For a complete description of what these options do. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.

In this example. Convection. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K.
. Heat Flow. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. Heat Flux. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368.5. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. or Radiation. Heat Generation.

The model should now look as follows:
.

For instance. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.
r
From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.LAST 2. the user can manually kill. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. elements to create the desired effect.
. Assume the material melts at 273 K.. Here. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. or turn off. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting..r
Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death
1.

thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting..
r
We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.' Fill the window in as shown below. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK.r
Click on 'Add. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. 3..
.

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

and close the warning message. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. thus it is just warning the user. Click OK to restart the analysis. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart.
Postprocessing: Viewing Results
1. This is much too time consuming in this case. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. which this analysis doesn't call for. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. 2. this will kill only those elements. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point.Solution Phase: Killing Elements
1.all into the command line.
.

select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.With the window still open.
.

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows:
.2.

HTML version. That way. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. A .
. more accurately modelling the heating process.' and select the file.. to more accurately model element death over time. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. Now go to 'File > Read input from. using command line code.This procedure can be programmed in a loop.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

as shown below. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. are 100mm long. Contact Elements 2. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor
.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc. /title. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC..
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. The beams. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Contact Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. causing it to bend and contact the lower..

r
While the Element Types window is still open.Width. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements... This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y)..WP Y.
5. 0... 100. WP Y. > Add.Height) 1 2 (0. Width. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below.. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. 10) (50...WP X. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. Quad 4node 42) element. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 100.
. click Options. 10)
4./PREP7 3. 15.

Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. This way.
.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. enter the following geometric properties: i.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. pt-to-surf 48) element.
r
While the Element Types window is still open.. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.3 7. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. This is an important step. 6... Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm... Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. click Options. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact.

. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). This KN value can greatly affect your solution. you should decrease KN. such as TARGE169. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. resulting in convergence difficulties. Thus. If there is too much penetration. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. Since this "spring" is so stiff. Other contact elements. In this situation. This will be covered below.. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. you should increase KN. When using contact elements in your own analyses.. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading... enter the following properties: i. require a target element. ii. be sure to understand how the elements work. given in %.It is important to note. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. As the surfaces approach each other. to function.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. 10. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. such as CONTA175. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. rather than node to element edge. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). > Add. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. A small value of TOLS.

select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK.. 11. However. First.. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements..The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. the source nodes will be selected. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. In this case. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements.. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. Select the top beam and click OK. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. when the geometry is complex. where as target nodes are those that are contacted.
. tolerances. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. In this simple case. etc.
s
Utility Menu > Select > Entities.
s
Utility Menu > Select > Entities. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner.

Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.
s
Utility Menu > Select > Entities. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.
. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50..100.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.

.
.s
Now if you list the selected nodes. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. you should only have the following nodes remaining.

the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. Now we can use this component. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. and click OK. This can be very useful in other applications as well.
.
s
Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. If you have a lot of contact elements. In this case. Source. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements.

. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing.Now select the target nodes. clicking the Also Select radio button. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. These values will be the ones you'll use. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants.
When creating the component this time. 12. clicking the Also Select radio button. and click the Sele All button. enter the name Target... The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. and click the Sele All button.
s s s
Click the lower area for the area select. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others. Utility Menu > Select > Entities... This is done by opening the entity select menu. This is done by opening the entity select menu.
. Using the same procedure as above..

Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged.
.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up.

Unfortunately. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering >
. If you wish. your model should look like the following. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.At this point.

shown below.
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. The following image will appear:
. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.
The preprocessor stage is now complete. If you zoom in on the contact areas. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.. Set Solution Controls
r
Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control..Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers).

Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. this takes time. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. D. B. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. however. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100
. E. C.

Also. 3. If you have too few substeps. type help followed by the command into the command line. For more information about these commands.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. leave these relatively high at first. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes
. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Again. Once everything is working.

This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. However. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1
. this is a point load on a 2D surface. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
1.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam.
5. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Note.

many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows:
This should produce the following stress distribution plot:
. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted.0 (true scale) radio button. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. If you leave the scaling as default. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. 3.2. then click ok.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..
. A .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.As seen in the figure. producing a stress distribution in both.' and select the file. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. Open the .
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

20 *ask. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. finish /clear
ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).LENGTH.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic.How tall is the truss.HEIGHT. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. using a length of 200 m.How many cross supports even number.2
.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Use of APDL
Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. Variables including length.How long is the truss. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.DIVISION.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
/prep7 *ask.100 *ask. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code.

1.3 esize.(DIVISION-1).KEYP.i.NUM_K.1.0.0 *else k.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.THEN L.1.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD
= (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0
*do.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.KEYP.j.(KEYP+1) *if.THEN k.1.1
.DIVISION.0.LE.GT.1.i.link1 r.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.200000 mp.X_COORD.OSCILATE.1.i..ex.prxy.KEYP.HEIGHT *endif *enddo
KEYP = 0 *do.100 mp.X_COORD.

is greater than zero. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3.How long is the truss.9. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.all finish 1.".0. FVAL. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. determining if a certain case has occured. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. For example.i.8. For example. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending.1. However. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. In this case. 4.3. the most intutitive method is to use "=".1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.10). OSCILATE. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. This translates to "if the variable. then. As seen above.... Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH..100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. For more information on this command. IVAL. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. The syntax for the expression is *DO. in the code above there is a statement: *if.LENGTH. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. INC.2. see the help file. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. Thus in later parts of the code. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. (ie 1. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished.GT. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. *ask. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.10_K. 2. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach.OSCILATE. or a mathematical expression. *do.
Command File Mode of Solution
. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.lmesh. Par. This argument can be a single value. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.THEN.

.. A . Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.
.' and select the file.

Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.) of the following example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. etc.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. /title. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7
..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Stress. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Viewing X-Sectional Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..Height.3. Y and Z directions).all
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.3 6. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm
4.0. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm.0. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static
. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 5.. 7.Width.

Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1).0 2. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown
. options 1. 5. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice.
q
Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). For this example we are trying to display a section. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7).ANTYPE. 3.
q
Type
Description
Visual Representation
SECT or (1)
Section display. 4. therefore.

r
Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu
.
q
Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE)
1. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. let's view deflection of the entire model. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen
ZQSL or (8)
QSLICE Z-buffered display.CAP or (5)
Capped hidden diplay. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections.

increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane
r
. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. To illustrate how to take a cross section. offset the working plane to the desired position. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane
r
First.

As desired. you should now have the following:
.

let's view stresses within the entire model.8 PLNSOL.1.U.1 /TYPE.0. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations). however.SUM.90 /CPLANE.This can be repeated for any slice.Width/2.. simply use: WPCSYS.0 2. Equivalent Stress Again.0 WPROTA. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS..0.-1.0. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden'
r
Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises
.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP
Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.

You should now see the following:
.0. Because it is much easier.1 /TYPE.0.EQV.5 PLNSOL.1/16*Length /CPLANE.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display
Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.S. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.1.0.

Next.
r
Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. type help ancut into the command line.
r
r
. Unfortunately..3. but please bear with me. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. and the Y axis. the origin.. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Animation Now. Finally. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. In the graphics window. the sweep direction. For more information on how to modify the animation. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). for something a little more impressive. select the node in the back. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.. A .HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the ..
.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.
. For example. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results
Introduction
Index
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
In this tutorial. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.

Radius
r
Create three circles with parameters shown below. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the circles) and click OK. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas
r
First.100
r
Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. select the area to remain (ie.WP Y.0. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.200..
r
. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10
Circle 1 2 3
5. the rectangle) and click OK. /title..WP X. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Then. The remaining area should look as shown below.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively.
4.0.

Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic
r
In the window that appears...
r
In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). In the 'Element Types' window. click 'Options.... Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.
8.6.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk
r
7.
r
For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. enter a thickness of 10... > Add.3
.

Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines
r
Apply a constant.
.
r
For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines
r
Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction.9. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All'
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1.
The model should now look like the figure below. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area.
3.0 2. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..
10..

4. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. you could create a normal contour plot. However. 1. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Contour Plot
r
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below
r
. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
To see the stress distribution on the plate.

r
General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.
.

Create Path
r
General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. Turn window 1 'off'. shown below. meaning this function off.
r
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created.
r
r
2. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000
r
. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. To keep window 1 visible during replots. you must make a couple of changes. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark.

what results should be available to the path.r
Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0
When the third window pops up.
r
. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. 3. or in other words. you must choose what to map to the path.
r
General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. equivalent stress is desired. For this example. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.

so disregard the warning.
4. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. This is of little concern though. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. Plot the Path Data
r
General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below
r
.r
The warning shown below will probably pop up.

there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. these dots are not shown here. Due to resolution restrictions.The display should look like the following.
. Note.

' and select the file. Open the . A ..HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.
Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.
. Now go to 'File > Read input from.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.

/title.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Use of Tables for Data Plots
. By plotting this data on a curve. Length of the following beam using tables... Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . finer resolution can be achieved. a special type of array.
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
1.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. rather than using a contour plot.

z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. > Add.2.y. Define Element Material Properties
. enter the following geometric properties: i.0)
4.z) 1 2 (0.. 6. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. 7.. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.1. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.y...0) (400. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.#. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..x. K.

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.
. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. The model should now look like the figure below.3 8. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. 9. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0 2. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All'
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2.

Thus the table must have at least 21 rows.. a special type of array. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. For this example there are 21 nodes. but they can be used for much more. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam.4. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
It is at this point the tables come into play. Tables. 2. Therefore. 1. This example is a simplified use of tables. Create the Table
. > OK.

The reason for this will be explained below.2. Note there are 22 rows. select Model Data > Nodes
r
. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. Enter Data into Table First. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded
r
Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . In the window shown below..
3.1].. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. one more than the number of nodes.r
Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add
r
The window seen above will pop up.

.
r
.
Next.
r
Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. and continues down the column.r
Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. the vertical displacement will be recorded. column 2. column 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. and continues down the column.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1.1) > All > Location > X].

Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.
r
Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit
. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. This is why a table with 22 rows was created.4. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. as it is keypoint 1. This causes problems during plotting. Thus. to provide room to move this data.

UY = -0. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Select File > Apply/Quit
5.r
The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table.833) is in row two. Fill it in as shown. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis.
r
. Plot the Data
r
Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up.

.r
To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .. To see the changes to the labels. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below.
r
r
.

. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.
.HTML version. Open the .

1.0 L.1. etc.1.0.beam3 r. changing the background colour.100.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.10 mp. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.1.all.200000 mp.5 lmesh.0 K.100.1. finish /clear /title. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.1.3 esize.1. numbering the nodes.333. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.all
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.prxy.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.0.0 dk.833.all finish /solu antype.2 et. For instance.2.ex. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Changing Graphical Properties
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

The following window will appear:
..-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen:
Graphical Options
1.2..fy.fk. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

To remedy this problem. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. However. When you click OK.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. For instance. sometimes the numbers won't show up. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. You should get the following:
. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up.

Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols
. 2. the nodes have been numbered.As shown. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. These extra symbols may not be necessary. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible.

there are no Surface or Body Loads.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off.
. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. Under the Boundary conditions section. In our case. or Initial Conditions. so those sections won't be used.

Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options
.The result should be as follows:
3.

etc.
. it is things associated with the window background. the legend or title can be turned off.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. To turn off the triad. As shown in the window. In this case. The following output should be the result.

.
. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.4..

When using line elements. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. If there is no change in output. To aid in this process. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. such as BEAM3. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. thus elements are not going to show up. don't be alarmed. The following should appear.
.

5. To get a better 3-D view of the model. you can change the view orientation.As shown... but they have volume according to the real constants.
. the elements are no longer just a line. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate.

You can also select predefined views. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis.This window allows the user to rotate the view. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. Using these options. such as isometric or oblique. translate the view and zoom.
. Basic rotating. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate.

If you don't like the colours of the contour. Changing Contours First. those can also be changed. they can be changed. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate.
. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. Under uniform contours. Under non-uniform contours. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. plot the deformation contour for the beam.6...

. and we'll set the background colour to white.. but don't want a black background.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus.
7.
. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. Here we are only using Window 1.

..The resulting display is shown below. If there is information that needs to be added. such as contour values. This is because the text colour is also white.. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. select Save As. this can be done in other graphic editors. Notice how all the text disappeared. Under the File heading. To save the display.

There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. these are just a few. If you are looking for a specific option.
. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. as is the help file.

.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS
ANSYS Inc. e. to a text file. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution
Generating the Command File
There are two choices to generate the command file: 1.cmd) is stored and select it. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. see the next item in this list. frame. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch.
GUI Command File Loading
To run this command file from the GUI.g. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. You may need to select Plot ->
.. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. Then before you are finished. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
q
q
q
From the File menu.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Running the Command File
To run the ANSYS command file. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. 2.. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
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INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. or if you'd like to save the whole file. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. select Read Input from. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode.
q q
save the ASCII text commands in a text file. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). When it is complete.

you would use the following syntax /input. If the file was in the directory./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file.on.. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.
Command Line File Loading
Alternatively. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor.. Assuming that the analysis worked properly.cmd and yes that is a comma (.. mode). you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS.
.cmd. At this point you could type in /menu. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. X11c.. To rerun the command file. then from the ANSYS input window. you may need to point it to the proper directory. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. etc..) between frame and cmd.. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. type /input.q q
q
q
Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you. stress. Select File -> Clear & Start New.frame. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.frame. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. Save those changes to disk.

applying loads and constraints. l10 v.kp2.kp3.rad1.y1.kp2.kp2. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis..theta2 sphere.a1.kp1.rad1.z2 cylind.ycoord..theta2 see online help
circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus
. kp6 a.z2. .rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.x1. a10 see online help see online help rectng. .y2. ...kp1... . kp8 va..x2.. .zcoord l. kp18 a.y2 block.theta1.x2.a2.kp1.kp1.kp#.y1.x1.l1. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.z1.theta1.l2.kp1.kp2.rad2...kp2 larc.ANSYS Command Groupings
ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.rad2.z1.xcoord. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.

size.a2.inc or amesh.a2.line2..a1...number esize. c4 may define as many as required.number mp. current type is set by type type.area2.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing
adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection
aadd.number. . . .all amesh. current type is set by real real.c1. a9 aglue.a2 aina.number.a2.. ..a1.a1..label.r1.area1.line1. a9
volume boolean operations
see online help
et type
defines element type set current element type pointer
et. r6 may define as many as required.. ...type may define as many as required. current type is set by mat mat.number r.r2.number.. a9 asba.inc or lmesh.a1.c0.all
r real
define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer
mp
sets material properties for elements
mat esize eshape lmesh
sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s)
amesh
mesh area(s)
.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.

ROTY.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.kp#.MZ f.ROTX.vmesh Sets & Selection
mesh volume(s)
vmesh.UY.value labels: FX.vol2.value labels: UX.FY.UY.MX.node#.ROTX.line#.label.value labels: FX.label.MX.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).ALL d.ALL dl.inc or vmesh.label.e.UZ.MY.ROTZ. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.FZ. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint
Constraints
dk
d
defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a
dl
Loads
fk
f
defines a force at a node
.FZ.MZ
ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel
select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.kp#.UZ.vol1.label.value labels: UX.FY.node#.ROTZ.area#.ROTY.MY.

x1. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.ndivs.i.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.GT.x. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.0.endif r looping
Index
This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.i.2.0 k.1.Enter number of divisions (default 5).then .ndivs+1. It illustrates:
q
Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
q q q
entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.0 *ENDIF
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
ANSYS Command File Programming Features
The following ANSYS command listing.x2.0.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.1.0.1. if only is entered.ndivs. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials
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INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .1 ! do i = 1.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".else .

coord
! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates
.1 kplot klist.kp..all.! /pnum..

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.0 was used to create all of these tutorials
Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
Two Dimensional Truss
Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials)
The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. extrusion. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting.
Bicycle Space Frame
Plane Stress Bracket
Index
Solid Modeling
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. Boolean operations. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object.

.

Dynamic Analysis . Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example. This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.Modal
Dynamic Analysis . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
Dynamic Analysis .
Distributed Loading
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
NonLinear Analysis
Buckling
NonLinear Materials
ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials)
The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials.Pure Conduction
. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS.0 was used to create all of these tutorials
Effect of Self Weight
Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. ANSYS 7. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Transient
Thermal Examples .

Modelling Using Axisymmetry
.Thermal Examples .Transient Heat Conduction
Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Analysis of heat conduction over time. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples .

The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. ANSYS 7. Using element death to model a volume melting.0 was used to create all of these tutorials
Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
Springs and Joints
The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.
Model of two beams coming into contact with each other.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.
Design Opimization
Index
Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
Melting Using Element Death
Contact Elements
ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials)
The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements.
ANSYS Parametric Design Language
Design a truss using parametric variables. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Additionally.

.

TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials)
The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.0 was used to create all of these tutorials
Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
Viewing Cross Sectional Results
The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial.
Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results
Index
Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. ANSYS 7.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. a special type of array.

.

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.5.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.0.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.1 k.8.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Radiation Example
Problem Description
Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.0.
ANSYS Command Listing
/PREP7 /TITLE.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.0.0 k.-1 k.0254 rout=8*0.699*10**(-8) k.0 k.1 ! inches to metres
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort
ANSYS Inc.7 emis2=0.7. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.1.0.6.0.

all MP.rout LMESH.1 MP.x.rin.arc..0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.1 R...x.all csys. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary)
! cylindrical coord system
! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary)
! reset to rect coord system
! ! ! !
HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.emis2 VTYPE.s.1 csys.6.offset
! inner cylinder.1 TYPE.all lsel.KXX.SUB
! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE
...stefbolt WRITE.ALL lsel.0 GEOM.1.1.emis1 EMIS..2 SE.7.KXX.2.1.1 MAT. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.1 ESIZE.arc.MATRIX50.5.circle.ndiv ET. generated counter-clockwise
! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR..s.1 STEF.1.rout.LINK32.loc.TEMP ET.1 MAT.2.1.2 lsel.1 lsel.rin LMESH.7.2..VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.8.ndiv CIRCLE..loc.VM125 TOFFST...1.

K
/POST1 csys.x..T2 nsel.s.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.ITEM.1 nsel.s.ALL.2 *DIM.all nsel.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.all *GET.ALL.loc.s.3 LABEL(1.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.x.rin D.loc.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH
! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.csys.FSUM.1.TEMP.Q.x.all csys.CHAR.loc. K
! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.VALUE.LABEL.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.0.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1))
.all nsel.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.s.loc.x.1.TEMP.HEAT *DIM.T1 nsel.rout D.1 nsel.

2).1).3).Q *VFILL.VALUE(1.2). | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.3) (1X.1F5.VALUE(1.F10. /COM.1.1.DATA.1).A8.VALUE(1.--------------.DATA. *VWRITE.3) /COM.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.VALUE(1.' '.DATA.LABEL(1.*VFILL.VALUE(1. FINISH
.F10.' '.exact *VFILL.------------------------------------------------------/COM.' '.1).VALUE(1.

pico
A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico.dat. The first three mentioned below are text based. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. while the remaining have a graphical user interface.
nedit
. To use pico to edit the file test. In pico.UNIX Applications
Editors
The are several editors available on the system. but the backspace key does work normally. but have a steep learning curve.
vi & emacs
The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. so they are always available. for example. press this key. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text.dat at the UNIX prompt. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. one simply types pico test. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen.

Therefore. It features pull-down menus.. For this reason. and block delimiting with the mouse. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. check it out!
Windows Editors
Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. and look at the option in the dialog box. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. Very nice. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. type wabi or win.exe (look under the r: drive). It could then be edited. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor.
Applications
. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. From a UNIX command window. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder.3 file format used by DOS.nedit is a very simple to use. and then renamed back to its original name.. undo. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. when saving files in PFE. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. yet powerful X Windows editor. multiple file editing. saved.

.. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. From this menu. To start ANSYS. over a modem. item. If you've got some time. select your desired font size. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. 2. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. you may enter ANSYS commands. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). From the next dialog box that appears. check
. Then choose GUI configuration.x11c /menu. two methods are avialable: 1. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. it is necessary to select the Interactive . The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Press Enter to continue.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. Once this is done. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. heat transfer and fluid problems. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.ANSYS
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Press Enter to continue.

including static analysis. Yokota. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. click on the car figure. Fyfe.
. like that shown above. For further information on this program. see Dr.
Pro/Engineer
Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. sensitivity studies. see Dr. For further information on using ANSYS. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. A companion program. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. performs finite element analysis. Toogood. If you've got some time. For more information about this program.
Rampant
Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. see Dr.out the ANSYS Web page. and design optimization. Pro/Mechanica. check out the Fluent Web page.

cshrc file.f Normally no options are required. For learning about the compiler's many options. for example. isn't it?). to a file. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output.for or TEST. Note that the . If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test./a. see Configuration Files).f. To change the executable's output name to test.f sub2.f and not test.f sub3. type the command. . xlf by itself. redirecting it). execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f sub1. your file must be named something like test. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. you now type.out.' is in your path (this is changed in your .F.f sub1.f To run this program. such as error messages. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. For example: xlf main. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'.f and sub1. and output is the name of the file to which the output
. the name of the resulting executable will default to a./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. e. i.f >& errorfile will compile main. This program would be run by entering .e.FORTRAN
The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. If your program code consists of many files and libraries./test.out (logical.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.

To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab.will be sent. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. So.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). The keyboard will still accept the input. printed and even imported into a word processor. however. Note that the text . and not actually exit the editor. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. In this way you will have one window to edit your . as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment.m files. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. you simply type:
. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. From the Matlab prompt. If the program normally prompts the user for input. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab .
MATLAB
Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. you can still run your program this way. the prompt will not appear on the screen. because it too is being sent to the output file. The resulting text file may then be edited. symbolic and plotting functions. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. and what data to enter. if you know when to enter data.

labs. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08.
. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network.labs. For example. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. For example. The workstations are named mec01. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20).ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). Once the job is completed.
Remote Access
You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. you must have an X server running on your local machine.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. by issuing the command. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.labs through to mec30. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. but is very slow when running it over a modem.ualberta. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.

In this command. see FTP. If your CNS login id is jblow.
E-Mail and the Internet
Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. just outside the main part of the lab. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it.ca. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. type. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. Pine is based on the pico editor. To do this. To use E-mail then. or by typing pine at the prompt. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer.
Black & White Printing
Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). newsgroups and WWW.srv. for example. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. either through lynx. You can enter the mail program called pine. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. but GPU does.ualberta.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. To use it. Many applications.
.txt. The mecxx. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below.
Printing
Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. This file is printed in the small room.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. free of charge.

85. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. From a GPU account login.145 (see FTP). If you fail to do so. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. getting started. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. see table of contents.
. Prints are $0. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building.128. or appendices.
For further information.20 per page. room 240. room B-111). you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. issue the command: plotpostscript filename. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. your job (but not your file) will be deleted.
Color PostScript Printing
Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results.eps scale c where filename. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file.

0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.123)
ANSYS Command Listing
! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. reaction forces. width/2.2. p. Note that Young's Modulus. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 0 K.
(Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. height
. 0 ! keypoint. #. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.Two Dimensional Truss
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3. A. 0. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. and stress for the truss system shown below.4.123) ! /title.
Problem Description
Determine the nodal deflections. width.height K. x. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.1. E. y K. 3*width/2.

4. spring element ! real constant #1.1.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.2 PLNSOL.UY.FY. 3*width.5.SUM.ALL.1.4 L. K.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.3.5. Young's modulus: 200 GPa
LESIZE.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.1.1.ALL.0.3.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.1.7 L.5 L.1
! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection
.3 L.6 L. .5.1. .1.2 L. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1. K.6.FY.7.K.1.1.F PLDISP.EX.2.FY.3250 MP.U.3.5.LINK1 R.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.7.7.4 L. 5*width/2.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.7
0 height 0
! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2
! ! element definition ! ET.-280e3 FK.6.4. ! ! define lines ! L. 2*width.200e3
! element type #1.FY.3 L.2.5 L.6 L.-210e3 FK.

SAXL.SAXL PLETAB. 1 PRETAB.LS.NOAV
! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress
.ETABLE.SAXL.

2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. 0 K. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. Note that Young's Modulus. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.www.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. width.123) ! /title. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. p.height K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. 0. width/2.3.mece. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.ualberta.6. 3*width.5. y K.
(Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. E.4
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. 5*width/2. height K.2. reaction forces. 3*width/2.
Problem Description
Determine the nodal deflections. A.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . height K. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 0 ! keypoint. 0 K.1.3 L. #.2.1.3 L.7.2.1. and stress for the truss system shown below. 2*width.html
Two Dimensional Truss
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.123)
ANSYS Command Listing
! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. x.4.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ualberta.S.mece.ALL.0 SFL.0 DL.4. .EQV
! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.www.2.PRES.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html
FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

20.20.80.0.50.-20.20 CYL4.20 BLC4.50 CYL4. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.20.100 CYL4. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).
ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.0. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.60 ! Enter the pre-processor
.Plane Stress Bracket
Introduction
This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. plane stress.
This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.
Problem Description
The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.80. and uniform pressure loading.80. A figure of the plate is shown below.

30 CYL4.EX.0
! amesh.1.PLANE82 KEYOPT.real set number.1.1.3 ! mp.subtracts all areas (other than 6)
! Define Element Type ET.0 .0 .5 ! lesize. DL.10 ASBA.ALL. DL..20.ALL.all areas.80. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type. 9.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes
! Boolean Subtraction .10.AADD.0 .ALL. DL.50..3.Poisson's ratio.ALL.value ! mp.14.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.0 .keypoint.ALL.0 .force ! Solve the problem
.0 .3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.ALL.0.static (dl command)
! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL. DL.PRXY.material number.20 ! r.ALL CYL4.80. 8.0.1.6.10 CYL4.11.0
! There is probably a way to do these all at once.ALL.material number.0 .12.ALL. DL.9.ALL.value
! Plane stress element with thickness
! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.0.Young's modulus. DL.200000 MP.ALL from base area 6
! Boolean Addition .direction. . 7.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DL.FY.
! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.13.1.-1000 SOLVE
(fk command)
!fk.

1 /GCMD.LBOT /WIND.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.2 /GCMD.ALL.0.EQV.0.-0..1.1 /GCMD..1 /replot PRNSOL.4.3.ALL.RBOT GPLOT
! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor
/GCMD. PLNSOL..4..0036 /CONT.0. PLNSOL.0. PLDISP.OFF /WIND.2.2. PLNSOL.0.340000.0.DOF.RTOP /WIND.3.3.0.EQV..10.S.LTOP /WIND.EPTO.10.10.1 /CONT.0.
! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges
! Focus point
! Prints the nodal solutions
.05e-3 /FOC.4.SUM.8 /CONT.U.2.1.

A figure of the plate is shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.100 ! Enter the pre-processor
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.
This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.html
Plane Stress Bracket
Introduction
This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).0. plane stress. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.
ANSYS Command Listing
! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.www.mece.
Problem Description
The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.ualberta. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. and uniform pressure loading.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .80.

DL.mece.3 ! mp..50 CYL4. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.material number.14.ualberta.0.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba
! Define Element Type ET.80.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.FY.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.200000 MP.ALL ! Boolean Addition .0 .10 ASBA.0 ! amesh. DL.static (dl command)
! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.0.20.20.real set number. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.material number.html
CYL4.80.ALL CYL4.9.force
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.ALL. DL.value ! Plane stress element with thickness
! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ALL.ALL.ALL.ALL. DL.30 CYL4.0 . 9.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Young's modulus.keypoint.10. DL.0 .20 ! r.0.ALL.13.
! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.0.Poisson's ratio.-20.5 ! lesize.10 CYL4.20 BLC4.0 .1.80.3.PRXY.0
! There is probably a way to do these all at once.0.50.0 .20.20.1.ALL.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.50.20 CYL4.EX.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes
! Boolean Subtraction .11.0 .PLANE82 KEYOPT.1.ALL.6.direction. 7. DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.80.12. DL. ..1.-1000
(fk command)
!fk.60 AADD. 8.value ! mp.all areas.1.0 .www.

OFF /WIND.
! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges
! Focus point
! Prints the nodal solutions
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.DOF.U.0.0.0.S.0.3.RTOP /WIND.340000.html
SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.EQV.2.mece. PLNSOL.1 /GCMD.0036 /CONT.RBOT GPLOT
! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor
/GCMD.10.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-0.3.1.1 /replot PRNSOL. PLNSOL.EQV.10..EPTO.ALL.ALL.10.2 /GCMD.2.ualberta.3.. PLNSOL.0.4.1.4.www. PLDISP.1 /CONT.4.2...SUM.0.05e-3 /FOC.8 /CONT.0.1 /GCMD.LTOP /WIND.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print..LBOT /WIND.

Filleting.Solid Model Creation
Introduction
This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.
We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.
. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. extrusion/sweeping.

0.3.4..5 CYL4.10..0 K.5.7.2001.2.2 ASBA.360.2002.0 K.0.8.ANSYS Command Listing
Pulley Model
/PREP7 BLC4.2.9 lines 9.1 BLC4.7.11.1.0.0 VROTAT.0.0. . .1mm between
! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using
! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints
.5. .14 AADD.6 AGEN.6.4.5 AADD.5.ALL ! Sweep K.2.5.5 AADD. .5. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0.0.11) AL.ALL CYL4.1001.0.5.26..1002.2.5. 1001 and 1002 K.22.1001.5 BLC4...0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles
! Add the areas together ! Create circles
! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area
! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0..ALL LFILLT.2..1.1.3.1. AL.2.8.10.1.1 AGEN. .0. .3.3.3.3.0.1002.0.-0.

2 CYL4.1 VGEN.2002.K.0.5.1 KWPLAN.102.7 vsbv.20 LARC.0.180. .1. .20 L.5.ALL VOFFST. .20.101.-20.4.8.6 vsbv.5.0.27.5.109.0 K.100.100.3.1.11 vsbv.82 K.0 K. . . .2.4.all.6 AL.25.1.20 LARC.51 AADD.1.all.101.159.6.1.1.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.102 K. .26 K.109. .0.02 KWPLAN.69 AGEN.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.6.102 BLC4.2.102.2003 CSYS.10 AGEN.sqrt(3)/0.109.5 CYL4.13.0.2.102. .9 vsbv.6.3.8.180 CYL4.7 AADD.7.2.5 vsbv.0. .20 K.all.2.-20.5.82 K.-1.0.62 ASBA.26 VOFFST. .45.2001.4.26 VADD.2.8 vsbv.0.5.2003.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees
! Line arcs
! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas
! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints
! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes
.0.0.5.7.8.5.all.51. .10 vsbv.6.102.

201.51. .180.32.20.204 VOFFST. VADD.203.4
! Add areas
! ! ! !
Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it
! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate
! Keypoints
! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints
K.0.61. .36.5.202.38 AADD. ALL
! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together
.3 CYL4.0.26 K.1.0 system K.200.129-(0.-1. sqrt(3)/2*76.26 K. .0 A.32.0 K.60 VADD.1 WPCSYS.200.7.18. .203.60 VSBV.202 CSYS.201.-1.200.57735*26).30 KWPLAN.204. .61.33.2.61.37 CYL4.180. 129-(0.34. .-20.57735*26) + 38.AADD.-20.51.

We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.ualberta. copying.html
Solid Model Creation
Introduction
This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Filleting. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.mece.www. extrusion/sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.
We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.

0. AL.7.0.11. .0.3.0 VROTAT.1.1.6.2.5.mece.2.8.5..4.5.0 K.5 BLC4.3.0.5 CYL4.2 ASBA.5.0..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..5 AADD.7.2. .0 K.0.1 BLC4.1 AGEN.3. ..360.14 AADD.5.ALL CYL4.0.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.1..2.-0.10.0 K.1001.1002.6 AGEN.3.5.0.26.www.3.8.2.3..1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles
! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.ALL LFILLT.1002.5. LFILLT.0.0.2001.1.1001. .3.0.22.1.2.4.9 AL.ualberta.5 AADD. .2002.html
ANSYS Command Listing
Pulley Model
/PREP7 BLC4. K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.ALL ! Sweep K. .2003.0.0..

6.4.all.-1.4.26 K.0.100.2002.1.3.101.100.180 CYL4.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.0 K.2.26 VOFFST. .4.0.0. .sqrt(3)/0.11 vsbv.51 AADD.5.101.102 K.0.82 K.ualberta.7.5.109.5. .27.-20. .20.1.2.102.180.0.8.2.34.5.9 vsbv.6.36.20 K.1.20 L.20 LARC.all.2.1.82 K.2 CYL4.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints
! Line arcs
! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas
! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints
! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.02 KWPLAN.8.7 vsbv.13.0.2 AADD.0.5.all.5 CYL4.10 vsbv.6. .102.mece.8.1.45.6.0.6 vsbv.20 LARC.38 AADD.0 K.1 VGEN.10 AGEN. .5.5. .33.51.25.www.-20.102.html
KWPLAN.5 vsbv. .2001.5.2. .ALL VOFFST.26 VADD. .7 AADD.12
!Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees
Spindle Base Model
/PREP7 BLC4.2003 CSYS. .102.109.69 AGEN.102 BLC4.8 vsbv.62 ASBA.0.7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.109.32. .2.159.6 AL.1.

203. .0 K.57735*26).200.ualberta.60 VSBV.-1.html
CYL4.20.51.7.3 CYL4.1. 129-(0.61.201.0 K.1 WPCSYS. .200.201. .0 A.4
! ! ! !
Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it
! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints
! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints
K.129-(0.204.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.202.204 VOFFST.61.mece.0.-20.-1.51.www.30 KWPLAN. .5.180. sqrt(3)/2*76.0.-20.18.57735*26) + 38.200.26 K.203. .32. ALL
! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. .202 CSYS.26 K.61.180.60 VADD.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . VADD.

Width*Height.1.2 ET.Height MP. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.0 L.Width*(Height**3)/12.
ANSYS Command Listing
/Title.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.0.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints
!** = exponent
.EX.1.0 K.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.2. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Length.1.

.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.3 MP.7.9.1.PRXY.DENS.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.1.1.2
! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1
! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant
! Display deformed shape
.Length/10.MP.ALL. LMESH.0. ACEL.0 DK.86e-6 LESIZE.0.

mece. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.www.
ANSYS Command Listing
/Title.1.DENS.Width*(Height**3)/12.7.0.html
Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.2 ET.2.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.0 K. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.ualberta.Length/10.Length.EX.ALL.1.1. LMESH.PRXY.0.1.1.Width*Height.0 L.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.Height MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

html
DK.ualberta.2
! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant
! Display deformed shape
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.ALL.9.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.www.. ACEL.0.1.mece.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.1.0 L. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.1000.
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.Application of Distributed Loads
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 K.2 ! Define the keypoints
! Create the line
.0.2.1. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.

0.2 ETABLE.UY.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRES. 3 PLLS.100 LMESH.1.area.SMAXI.SMAXJ.NMISC.ALL.33 ESIZE..10 MP.333.1.SMAXI.0
! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .UX.NMISC.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line
! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load
! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data
.1.BEAM3 R.ET.1.0 DK.EX.833.100.0.1.UY DK.PRXY.I.200000 MP.0 SFBEAM..2.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.SMAXJ. 1 ETABLE.

2 ET. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.mece.0.1. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0 L. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.ht.
Application of Distributed Loads
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.1000..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.www.0 K.0.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.2.ualberta.1.

0..33 ESIZE.200000 MP.2 ETABLE.UY.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line
! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load
! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.PRES.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print..100.SMAXI.
R. 1 ETABLE.833.PRXY.ht.1.SMAXI.0
! Real constants .2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.1.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.NMISC.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.UX.1.10 MP...UY DK.SMAXJ.SMAXJ.0 SFBEAM.0 DK.www.333.100 LMESH.NMISC.ALL.EX.1.1.area.ualberta.I. 3 PLLS.

3.5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation
ANSYS UTILITIES
BASIC TUTORIALS
INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS
ADVANCED TUTORIALS
POSTPROC. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.4 aplot ! define element type ET.2.0. 0. nodal. plane stress w/thick. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.plane42.
Index
Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
ANSYS Inc.2 ! element type 1.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG. In this model there are two blocks. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block..1 ! activate element type 1 R.01
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. strs out type..0. one above top of the other..01 ! thickness 0.10.1.5. TUTORIALS
COMMAND LINE FILES
PRINTABLE VERSION
Contact Element Example
The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force. 1.7. with a small separation.
/title.2.

2D contact elements keyo.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel
select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source'
! relect everything
.2 ! nsla.005.0.1 amesh..10 TYPE.NUXY.2.s..99.1 esize.EX.NUXY.3 ! meshing esize.contac48.35 mat.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.1.2 /pnum.2.mat.source..! define material properties MP.0. 0.7.1 ! defines second element type .area. 200e3 MP. 1.1 real. 0.0.2. 20e3 MP.01 ! cm.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio
ET.r.1.1 ! nsel.2.3 MP.5 mat.20e3.EX.. 2.2.y.2 amesh.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.loc.s.1 r.

.y.100 autots.5 ksel.s.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).loc.all.01 cm.4 fk.1 nsubst.stat.y. a small tolerance is used d.s.r.-100 allsel time.area.loc.s.4 dk.new
! ! ! !
select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target'
! generate contact elements between defined nodes
!Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.loc.3 finish /solution antype.all.loc.x.on pred.1 nsla.x.loc.1 nsel.node gcgen.s.s.r.target.full.on solve finish
! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on
.2.on nropt.fy.y.asel.all.5 ksel.1.20.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.source.all.target.all.99.loc.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.2..y.r.7.

ex.5.30. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .1.125 mp.0. izz. After each increment.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0.2.
There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.beam3 r.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! element size of 0. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1.3 esize.069e-5.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.2 et.0 k.0.prxy.0.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor
. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.1.4.1 lmesh.
ANSYS Command Listing
/prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.1.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.03125.1.0e6 mp. To solve this problem.0.0. the load will added incrementally.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0 l.

U.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment
! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections
.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.mz.5.all fk.all ! save results of all iterations dk.1.on
! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis
autots.2. min # substeps=1 outres.all.1000.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.1 PRNSOL.static nlgeom.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load./solu antype. max # substeps=1000.

1.3 esize.0 l.0e6 mp.5. izz.4. the load will added incrementally.1 lmesh.1.prxy.ex.0.069e-5.html
NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.beam3 r.1. After each increment. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.
ANSYS Command Listing
/prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.2 et.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.0.1.0 k.2.0.30.125 mp.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.mece.03125.ualberta.www.0.
There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.0. To solve this problem. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! element size of 0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .static nlgeom.all dk.on autots.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.mece.mz.X
! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.all. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment
! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.1 outres.1000.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.html
/solu antype.U.on nsubst.all fk.5.1 PRNSOL.ualberta.www.2.

It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.
. load perterbations. For this type of analysis. static analysis to predict buckling loads. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. largedeflection. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. real-world buckling prediction analysis. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. material nonlinearities and gaps. This method is not recommended for accurate. in reallife. 2. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. ie. However. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.Buckling
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

will be calculated.2.2 ESIZE.3 K.1.833. rigidly constrained at the bottom. I (mm^4).STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.0.EX.1.1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.ALL.PRXY.100 L.0.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. The required load to cause buckling.0.
ANSYS Command Listing
Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data
/TITLE. ANSYS
. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio
! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high)
! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line
! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.100.333.200000 MP.1.10 MP.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 K.10 LMESH.1. applied at the top-center of the beam.BEAM3 R. area (mm^2).

since all loads are scaled during the analysis.ON MXPAND.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1 LMESH.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).EX.subspace.LANB.100.FY.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.BUCKLE BUCOPT.1.1.0.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand
! ! ! ! !
Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.833.1.333.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.ALL FK. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape
/TITLE.100.LIST SET. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.-1
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .10 K.0.PRXY.2 ESIZE.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.3 R.1.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .0 K.0.PSTRES.0 L. I.2.ON DK.
SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.2. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line
. one mode
! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1.200000 MP.

2.ON LNSRCH.20 NEQIT.3.2.2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.1.FX.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.2.Y XVAR.ALL.ON /ESHAPE.U.ON OUTRES.ALL NSUBST.ALL.F.0 FK.5% FY) to initiate buckling
! ! ! ! !
Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis
! Changes y label ! Changes X label
.Y.1.2 PLVAR.X.FY.-50000 FK.1 DK.Y NSOL.NLGEOM.3 /AXLAB.LOAD /REPLOT
! ! ! ! !
Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping
! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.

2.ualberta. For this type of analysis. in real-life. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.www. material nonlinearities and gaps.mece. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure.0 to solve a simple buckling problem.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. However. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.
Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta
. ie. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. large-deflection. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.html
Buckling
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. real-world buckling prediction analysis. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. load perterbations. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This method is not recommended for accurate.

2.1.10 LMESH.www.200000 MP.EX.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.100. I (mm^4).html
This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. area (mm^2).mece. The required load to cause buckling.2 ESIZE.833. applied at the top-center of the beam.0.
ANSYS Command Listing
Eigenvalue Buckling
FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data
/TITLE.10 MP.0 K. will be calculated.PRXY.1.0.100 L.1.ALL.1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET. rigidly constrained at the bottom.3 K.BEAM3 R. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio
! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode
Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta
.0.333.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.ualberta.1.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .FY. one mode
! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .3 R.10 K.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.1.0 K.mece. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape
NonLinear Buckling
FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data
/TITLE.1 LMESH.200000 MP.-1
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Before you can do a buckling analysis.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.STATIC NLGEOM.ALL FK.833.1.1.ON MXPAND.1.ON DK. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .www.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.0.2 ESIZE.0.0.1.html
ANTYPE. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.LIST SET.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . I. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.PRXY.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand
! ! ! ! !
Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .ON OUTRES.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).333.100.0.BUCKLE BUCOPT.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.
SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line
Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta
.0 L.subspace.100.EX.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.2.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.LANB.STATIC PSTRES.1.ualberta.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.

U.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.FY.Y.X.0 FK.Y XVAR.F.LOAD /REPLOT
! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.1 DK.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.1000 AUTOTS.FX.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.-50000 FK.ON /ESHAPE.ualberta.Y NSOL.20 NEQIT.1.1.ON LNSRCH.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.2 PLVAR.3.5% FY) to initiate buckling
! ! ! ! !
Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis
! Changes y label ! Changes X label
Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta
.3 /AXLAB.2.mece.www.2.html
NSUBST.2.

1.1.12.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /prep7 k.2 ET.0.1. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).75000 MP. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.PRXY.100 l.001.1. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0. In such a case..25 MP.MELA.2.3 TB.75
.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.0.EX.NonLinear Materials
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.
For this analysis. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points
TBPT.. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0 k. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.1. For instance.1.LINK1 R. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.

225 TBPT.390 TBPT.2.ON NEQIT.250 TBPT..F.3 /AXLAB..2..1 OUTRES.ALL AUTOTS...U.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.1.003.FY.450 ESIZE.1.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.150 TBPT.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines
! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum
! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2
! Changes y label ! Changes X label
.0 DK.15..2.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.1 PLNSOL..275..002..ON LNSRCH.Y XVAR..ALL..240 TBPT.Y NSOL.025..all FK..25.3.449 TBPT.20.ON NSUBST.Y.1000 ANTYPE.2.2 PLVAR.TBPT.300 TBPT..1...U.004..Y.X..005..435 TBPT.355 TBPT.06..1000.420 TBPT...DEFLECTION /AXLAB.5 LMESH.0.

ualberta.LINK1 R. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /prep7 k. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0.1. For instance.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).1.0..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".2. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.
For this analysis.1.www.0 k.1.
NonLinear Materials
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. In such a case.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.100 l. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.2 ET.mece.

2.3.355 TBPT.www..1.1..025.FY.ALL AUTOTS.U.ALL..0 DK.all FK..Y XVAR.75000 MP.0..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ...U.Y NSOL..1000 ANTYPE..0.275.1.1..
MP.250 TBPT.PRXY.001. TBPT.420 TBPT.ualberta.2.06.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.ON NSUBST.2.75 TBPT.1.F..1.240 TBPT..225 TBPT.2 PLVAR..ON LNSRCH....450 ESIZE..5 LMESH.15.1 OUTRES.435 TBPT.150 TBPT.Y..002.1 PLNSOL.EX.1.1000..20.Y..MELA.390 TBPT.003..12.X.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.ON NEQIT.449 TBPT.005...DEFLECTION /AXLAB..mece.3 /AXLAB.004.25..2..300 TBPT.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.LOAD /REPLOT
! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points
! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum
! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2
! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour
! ! ! !
Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis
! Changes y label ! Changes X label
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.3 TB.

8..01 MP.068e11 MP.0 L..ALL.33e-10.BEAM3 R.1.0.0.1.0 K.1.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials
This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.DENS.2 ET.1.EX.
/TITLE.PRXY.1.33 MP.1 FINISH
! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic'
.10 LMESH.7830 LESIZE.0.1.1.Dynamic.2.0.0001.2. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.0 /PREP7 K.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Define Lines (0. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.. 3.y) 1 2 5.0)
...
1. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Open preprocessor menu 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0) (1.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials
This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.

Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 8. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..0001 ii. 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All'
Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.01 m.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.3 To enter the density of the material.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. Young's modulus EX: 2. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. 6. With only 3 degrees of freedom. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.068e11 ii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.01 m x 0. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8..
.. > Add. 7..33e-10 iii. 9. enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. and rotation about the Z axis).Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.

01 MP.DENS.8.1.1.7830 ! Enter keypoints
! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2 ET.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.0001.1.2.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density
.068e11 MP.0 L.33 MP.0.I.EX.1.0.
ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.0 K.2.33e-10.1.BEAM3 R.PRXY.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.0.1.

.5.1.ALL. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes
! Constrain keypoint one
! List solutions
! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape
.LESIZE.FRONT MXPAND.10. .FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.5 DK.0
! Element size ! Mesh line
! ! ! !
Modal analysis Subspace.0.SUBSP.10 LMESH..2 MODOPT.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.LIST SET.5 EQSLV.

33 MP.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.1.068e11 MP.BEAM3 R.0.0 K.1.ALL.1.I.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.EX. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below..0.01 MP.html
Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0001.1.0.ualberta.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .DENS.
ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2.1.33e-10.8.2.www.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.10 LMESH.7830 LESIZE.1.PRXY.0 L.0.2 ET.1..

5 EQSLV.SUBSP.5.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.ualberta.1.5 DK.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LIST SET.html
FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 MODOPT.FRONT MXPAND.www.mece. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes
! Constrain keypoint one
! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.0.10.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.

. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.100 Hz.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.
ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. These 3 methods are the Full . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .
We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.

0 L.ALL. UY_2 STORE.3 DK.1.2.0.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints
! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area..1.1.PRXY.1.33 MP.1.DENS.ALL FK.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.068e11 MP.01 MP.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.0001.I.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line
! Print data ! Plot data
.2.2.100.0.0.10 LMESH.BEAM3 R.
ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.100.EX.33e-10.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.8..1.100 HARFRQ.1.2.0. However.1.FY. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.MERGE PRVAR.7830 LESIZE.0 K.U.2 ET. KBC. NSUBST. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.2 PLVAR.2.Y.

Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. These 3 methods are the Full .100 Hz.www. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .html
Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.
We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.
ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.ualberta.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

7830 LESIZE.068e11 MP. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.BEAM3 R.
ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.2.0.1. KBC.PRXY. UY_2 STORE.ALL.Y.0001.1.2 ET.ALL FK.html
This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.0 K..1.U.2.1. However. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.0.1.33e-10.100.10 LMESH.MERGE PRVAR.2 PLVAR.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.www..3 DK.33 MP.0.FY.100.1.0.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.DENS.8.mece.01 MP.EX.100 HARFRQ.2.I.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. NSUBST.1.2.2.0 L.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

For our case. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.
Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example. a static analysis may be used instead.
. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

q
The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. Therefore. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. In other words. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The smaller the time step. However. In ANSYS.
After the application of the load. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.
. All types of non-linearities are allowed.

It is the quickest of the three methods..2. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. DELTIM.1.0 L.S.FY. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.1.1. However. However.Dynamic.0.ALL F.DENS. TRANS TRNOPT. .1.1.11.PRXY. M.8. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0.REDUC.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /TITLE.EX.All.7830 LESIZE.2 ET.01 MP.ALL.-100 !*
! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line
! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes
! select nodes 2 .1. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.2..BEAM3 R.2. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).q
The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).1.33e-10.10 LMESH.0.
q
We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.1. NSEL.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. .1.33 MP.068e11 MP.UY.0.2. the calculations are much quicker. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results..11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end
.0 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.0001. if stresses and forces are of interest than.ALL D..0 /PREP7 K.

Y.
! Sets time to 0.001 KBC.2.3.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.!At time equals 0.' NSOL.'. In this case.2.001s TIME.'rdsp'. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.MERGE PLVAR. UY_2 STORE.'Dynamic'.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end
! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step
! solve multiple load steps
! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.1 KBC.0 !* LSSOLVE.
.1.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. time
!Please note.0.2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.U.0 FDELE.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example.html
Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.
Copyright 2003 .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case.mece.http://www.University of Alberta
. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead.
Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.ualberta.

We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt.
After the application of the load.ualberta.mece. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. In ANSYS.University of Alberta
.html
Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure.http://www. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. In other words.
Copyright 2003 . we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The rule of thumb in ANSYS is
time_step = 1 / 20f
where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. However. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. Therefore. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The smaller the time step.

Because of the reduced size of the matrices. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.2.UY.1.8.1. All types of non-linearities are allowed.0 /PREP7 K.2.33 MP.0 L.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end
Copyright 2003 .ualberta.0. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.EX.mece.2.1. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).html
The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. NSEL.1.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.33e-10.S. However.ALL D.DENS. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.2 ET.http://www. It is the quickest of the three methods. .11. TRANS TRNOPT. However.0.0. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. if stresses and forces are of interest than.1.01 MP.0 K..0. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.FY.PRXY..1.068e11 MP.University of Alberta
. DELTIM.10 LMESH.1.Dynamic.ALL.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /TITLE.7830 LESIZE. the calculations are much quicker.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.0001.1. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.2. .BEAM3 R.REDUC.ALL F. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). M..1. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0..All. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. time
!Please note.2.' NSOL. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.'Dynamic'. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.2.001 KBC.
! Sets time to 0.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.U.mece.0.1.3.'rdsp'.University of Alberta
.
Copyright 2003 . In this case.2.0 FDELE.Y.001s TIME.html
!At time equals 0.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end
! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.MERGE PLVAR.'.2.0 !* LSSOLVE.ualberta. UY_2 STORE.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.1 KBC.http://www. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.

1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Simple Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only
! area .0 blc4. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0. then width and height
. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.length.0 height=1.0. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.one corner.
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.

X.KXX.ALL.TEMP.Y.TEMP.500 NSEL.length/20 AMESH.100 NSEL.ALL NSEL.height D.A.S.TEMP.
! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side
! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS
! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides
! apply fixed temp of 100C
! contour plot of temperatures
.0 NSEL.Y.1.LOC.LOC.0.S.0 D.LOC.ALL.LOC.X..MP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.A.length NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 ESIZE.

ualberta. then width and height
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.0.0 blc4.
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.0 height=1. PLANE55 MP.length.www.10 ESIZE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.
Simple Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.one corner.h..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.length/20 AMESH.mece. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1..1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0.KXX.1.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side
! area . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.

length NSEL.A.100 NSEL.500 NSEL...height D..
FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Y.LOC. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.ALL.S.mece.0 D.X.TEMP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ualberta.TEMP.S.LOC.ALL NSEL.TEMP.0 NSEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.h.X.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.ALL.Y.A.www.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.

one corner.0 to solve simple thermal examples.0 height=1. then width and height
. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC
! area .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated)
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. PLANE55 MP.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0.KXX.Thermal .length.0 blc4.1.0. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long):
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.

CONV.LOC.500 NSEL.0 SF.LOC.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.S.100 NSEL.ALL NSEL.0 NSEL.0 D.TEMP.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.X.S.ALL.10.Y.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.TEMP.
! number of element sub-divisions/side
! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS
! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C
! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C
! bottom edge ! insulate edge
! contour plot of temperatures
.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.S.length SF.0.LOC.ALL.ALL.1 TYPE.X.100 NSEL.S.CONV.MAT.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y..TEMP.1 ESIZE.length/20 AMESH.height D.

The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long):
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated)
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 blc4.KXX.0.length.0 to solve simple thermal examples.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side
! area . PLANE55 MP.10 MAT.0 height=1.University of Alberta
.mece. then width and height
Copyright 2003 . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.http://www.1.1 TYPE.html
Thermal .0.one corner. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.1.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.1 ESIZE.

0.Y.100 NSEL.LOC.Y.S.ALL NSEL.S.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.ualberta.CONV.height D.CONV..10.mece.S.TEMP.500 NSEL.ALL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS
Copyright 2003 .ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.TEMP.100 NSEL.LOC.University of Alberta
.TEMP.html
AMESH.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.X.ALL.X.ALL.http://www.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 D.ALL.LOC.0 NSEL.length SF.S.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 SF.

It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry
. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Transient Thermal Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Also. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.

920 mp.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.LOC.5.0 blc4.500
! area .on outres.height D.500 NSEL.100 NSEL.8.ALL.Dens.Temp.off lnsrch.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.full lumpm.c.05 AMESH.1.20.TEMP.300 nropt.2.all.100. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps
! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K
! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K
! ! ! !
Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time
.1.0.20 neqit.500 PLNSOL.length.all.s.5 ESIZE.1.0..kxx.TEMP.2.0 D.ALL NSEL.Y.0. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.one corner.length=1.0.ALL IC..040 mp. then width and height
! ! ! ! ! !
Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area
! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.0 height=1.100 autots.4 time.0.S.0 nsubst.LOC.TEMP ANTIME.Y.1.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL. PLANE55 MP.1.0.all kbc.

040 kJ/kg*K. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.www. Also.0. then width and height
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.0 height=1. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.length. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.0 blc4.html
Transient Thermal Conduction Example
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.mece. height
! area . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.one corner.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.ualberta.0.

0 nsubst.1.100 autots.0.2.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.c.1.all.all.ALL IC.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.html
! mesh 2D areas ET.Dens.S.2.0.5.TEMP.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT..920 mp.1.full lumpm. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area
! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.Y.20.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.s.5 ESIZE.300 nropt.TEMP ANTIME.040 mp.500 PLNSOL.on outres.0 D.100 NSEL.mece.20 neqit.0.www.1.all kbc.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .4 time.ualberta.500 NSEL.ALL NSEL.off lnsrch.Temp.LOC.LOC.Y.TEMP.05 AMESH.height D.8..ALL.kxx.0. PLANE55 MP.

point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. As a warning. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Modelling Using Axisymmetry
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.
. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. In this case. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.

plane2 keyopt.loc.1.0.0. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.s.2 amesh.y.45.1.symm lsel.55 prnsol.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center
! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles
! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! Mesh size ! Mesh the area
! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes
.3 esize.off rectng.0 dl.all fk.loc.15.12.1.uy.20.prxy.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.100 aadd.20.all nsel.all.1.y.0.0 lsel.3.x.s.all et.200000 mp.s.fy.0 nsel.0.s.50 d.1 mp.95..20.all.100 rectng.1.loc.ex.-100 fk.5 rectng.0.ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.fy.all finish /solu antype.

.nsel.2.axis.1.10 /view.1.all /expand.3 /replot
! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle
.27..

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.
Modelling Using Axisymmetry
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.ualberta.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. In this case. Axisymmetric Tube
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.mece... Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. As a warning.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.

20.1.0.100 rectng.5 rectng..100 solve finish /post1 nsel.27.50 d.
/prep7 /triad.loc.3 /replot
! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles
! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! Mesh size ! Mesh the area
! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center
! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.ualberta.all fk.all nsel.100 aadd.1.comp nsel.15.10 /view.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ...y.20.0.200000 mp.all et.20.12.symm lsel.0.s.s.-100 fk.1 mp.0..plane2 keyopt.y.fy.3 esize.www.all finish /solu antype.off rectng.all.1.prxy.loc.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.s.95.2..3.55 prnsol.1.mece.1.uy.fy.all.0 lsel.loc..1.45.0 nsel.axis.s.0 dl.all /expand.0.2 amesh.ex.x.1.

1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.
A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.
ANSYS Command Listing
. This tutorial will introduce:
q q q
the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.7. a wall thickness of 10.

MP. 400. 0. 1.10.1000. 0.1. 0 N. 0. 6. 3 E. .5. 0. 4 E. 700.200000 MP.12.13. 500 N.1000. 8. 3. 0. 0. 1. 0. 6 E.33 N. 6.2. 8 E. 8 E. 5. 6 E.1 MAT.1. 7.0. 0. 3 E. 0 N.1000. 0 N.PRXY. 0. 5.1.13. 2.13 E. 0. 4. 3. 0.1000 N.1e9. 0. .1000 N. 700.COMBIN7 ET.1000 N.1 E. 1.12.-500 TYPE. 500 N./title.1. 9. 5 E.1500 N.2. 0. 0. 0. 9.3.10.1 REAL.12. 0. 4 E. 7.PIPE16 ET.EX.COMBIN14 R.11. 2.10 R.1e9 R. 0 N. 0. 5 E.1000. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 2. 500 N. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations
! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity
.1e9.1000 N. 0.3.40. 400. 8 E.

0 /PNUM.NODE.ALL.13 F.12.VERT7.. 9. 11 E.8 E. 11 TYPE.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.12.2 REAL. 10.4.2 *GET.3 REAL.2 E.6 /PNUM..FY.7.3 E.5.7.13 ! Load node 7
.U.4.ELEM.3. 1.TYPE.8.0 NLGEOM.Y
! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity
! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity
! Number nodes ! Number elements
! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.ON NSUBST.KP. 2.0.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.5 D.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.7.2.40.html
Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.COMBIN7 ET.1. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.1.1. Catapult /PREP7 ET.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.3.
ANSYS Command Listing
/title.mece.PIPE16 ET.ualberta.COMBIN14 R. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.www. a wall thickness of 10.

5 E. 1. MP.5.1000. 8 E. 3.1000 N.1.1e9 R. 700.mece. 0 N. 1. 0. 11 TYPE.www. 500 N.1. 6. . 6 E.3 E.1 E. 0.1e9.6 /PNUM. 0.2. 400.13.1000. 9. 0.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 0.8. 7.0 NLGEOM.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 8.EX.1500 N.10.13. 0. 0.ualberta. 0.1 MAT. 0 N. 0 N.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 0.1000.KP. 4 TYPE.1000. 10.13 E. 8 E. 3 E. 4 E.200000 MP. 9.33 N.1e9. 5. 1. 3.11.2 REAL. 0 N.1 REAL. 2. 3 E. 7. 700. 8 E.10.0. . 0.ON
! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations
! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity
! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements
! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.-500 TYPE.0 /PNUM. 2. 4 E.html
R. 500 N. 0.3. 0.1000 N.2 E. 0.12.12. 6 E. 500 N. 1. 11 E. 5. 9.8 E.ELEM.PRXY. 0. 2. 4. 5 E. 0. 2. 400. 6. 0.12.3 REAL.5. 0.1000 N.1000 N. 0.

7.4.VERT7.html
NSUBST.www.3.5 D.13 F.mece.2 *GET.7.NODE..FY.4.Y
! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.12..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.13 ! Load node 7
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .12.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.U.ALL.0.ualberta.

The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.1.2 HPTCREATE..ALL FINISH /SOLU
! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area. not '^').RATI.(W*H**3)/12. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.200000 MP. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.100 LMESH.1..BEAM3 R. ET.W.Design Optimization
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.LINE. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. Design Optimization *set.0 L.0.75. deciding which variables to use as design.20 K.0.I (note '**'.H.0.2.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.3 ESIZE. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.EX.1.W*H.1. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.1000. height MP.20 *set. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.. However.PRXY.0 K.1. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line
.H.
ANSYS Command Listing
/prep7 /title..

max 50 ! Width design variable.SMAX_I.FIRS OPFRST.0. min 195 MPa. tolerance 0. *GET.Volume.SV.SMAX_J. max 50 mm.1. *GET.W /AXLAB.'txt'.195..0 DK.UY.SMAXJ.1.1.ETAB.ITEM. tolerance 0.SORT. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data
.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT
! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint
! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I
! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J
! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize..30. min 10 mm.0.EVOLUME ETABLE.MAX *SET.UY.'optimize'.0.1..X.DV..SMAX.SMAX.3.SMAXI.3 node ESORT.SORT..0. SSUM *GET.2.10.50.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.0 DK. ! Height state variable.200 OPTYPE.optimize.FY.1 node ESORT.EVolume.UX.NMISC.001 mm.VOLU.SMAX_I.50.Y.NMISC.10.001 MPa.0 DK. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.ANTYPE.100.001 tolerance 0.W. Percent step size.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.H.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.SMAX_J.0.OBJ.VOLUME.H.001mm OPVAR.0.0 FK. max 200 ! Volume as object variable..txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.SSUM.txt.txt
! Assign optimize.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.DV.200.2. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.ETAB.001 MPa OPVAR.. min 10 mm.001mm OPVAR.MAX ETABLE.

1..
Design Optimization
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.20 K.1.2 HPTCREATE.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.0..1.20 *set.H.0 L.RATI. deciding which variables to use as design..BEAM3 R.0 K. not '^')..PRXY. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.1000. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.W. ET.0.(W*H**3)/12.W*H. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.ualberta.1.www. MP. Design Optimization *set.. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. However. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2..1..mece.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.75.LINE.EX. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.
ANSYS Command Listing
/prep7 /title.H.200000 MP.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.0.1.I (note '**'.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.

200 OPTYPE.mece.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.0.H.txt ! Assign optimize.SORT.0.001 OPVAR.FIRS OPFRST.30.H.W /AXLAB.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.ETAB.0. min 10 mm.www.SMAX.Y. *GET.0. Percent step size.0.SMAX_I.SMAXI. max 50 mm.X.UY. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.0 DK.0.MAX ETABLE.Volume. to Width design variable.1 ESORT.SMAX_J.195.ITEM.1.1..-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.3.ETAB.
ESIZE.optimize.SMAX_I..DV.W.. Volume as object variable. max 50 mm.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT
! Mesh size ! Mesh line
! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint
! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod
! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod
! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.001 OPVAR.DV.0 DK.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.1..001 OPVAR.UY. min 195 MPa.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.NMISC. max 200 MPa.NMISC. OPEXE PLVAROPT.10.SMAX_J.EVolume.10.OBJ.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EVOLUME ETABLE.. tol Height state variable.VOLUME.'txt'..txt..3 ESORT.50.SV.UX.2.'optimize'. tolerance 200 mm^2
! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.FY..200.VOLU..2.SMAXJ.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 FK.MAX *SET.SORT. SSUM *GET.SMAX..100 LMESH.ualberta.0 DK.100.SSUM. min 10 mm. *GET.1.50.

then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.Substructuring
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.
ANSYS Command Listing
.
The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.5 MPa.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Apply loads to the super-element 2. v = 0. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). however. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. 3. Apply remaining loads to the model. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. For this example. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.

ALL.R.LOC.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.1.5 MP.0 F.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.PRXY.100.db ! GEN.1.S.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.EXT M.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.0.SUBST SEOPT.EX.140 NSEL.100.SUB created
! Element size ! Mesh area
! Change jobname to use
! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.PRXY.GEN. 2.0.LOC. START /FILNAME.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.2.100
! Creates rectangle
! Define material properties of wood section ET.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .10.1.41
! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon
.2.0.X.FX.ALL NSEL.ALL.40.2 MP.0.ALL NSEL.S.2..2 NSEL.5 NSEL.PLANE42 TYPE.1.0.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4. amesh.Y.EX.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

ALL.GEN2 NSEL.U.LOC.Y.SUM.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.0 D.ALL. superelement solution written to GEN.Y.LOC.ALL NSEL.0 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 real.1 SFE.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.ALL.GEN.S.1.1 *GET.S.NODE.STATIC NSEL.S.GEN RESUME
! ! ! !
Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area
! ! ! ! ! ! !
MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface
! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements
! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour
! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database
/SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.1.MaxNode..MaxNode.1.SUM.. mat.GEN2. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.SELV.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.! Meshing AESIZE.2 amesh.ALL ESEL..1 ! Superelement ET.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.MATRIX50 TYPE.1
Full
! Plot deflection contour
.40 CPINTF.1 ESEL.ON.MAX SETRAN.U.TYPE.NUM.1.0.GEN2 SE.0.1..10.

For this example. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.www.5 MPa. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.mece... A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.
Substructuring
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . then
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. however. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.ualberta. Apply loads to the super-element 2.
The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. substructuring will be used for the wood block. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). v = 0. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). 3. Apply remaining loads to the model.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.

ALL NSEL.mece.www.5 NSEL.EXT M.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.0.Y.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.PLANE42 TYPE.ALL. amesh.2.db ! GEN.0.GEN.ALL NSEL. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing..100.140 NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.0.SUBST SEOPT..1.LOC.PRXY.1.X.FX.10. START /FILNAME.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.40..GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.ualberta.R.EX.1.
ANSYS Command Listing
! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .100.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area
! Change jobname to use
! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.2 NSEL.S.LOC.1.0.ALL.S.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 ! Creates rectangle
! Define material properties of wood section ET.
super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).0 F.

1 ! Superelement ET.1.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL.Y..PRXY.1
! Second material property set for silicon
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface
! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements
! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour
! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.S.5 MP. mat.1 ESEL.U.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.ALL.1 SFE.0.
MP.1.1.LOC..LOC.SUM.GEN2 NSEL.ALL. 2.TYPE.EX.SELV.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL NSEL.ON.ALL ESEL.2 real..SUM.S.2 amesh.GEN2.
Full superelement sol
! Plot deflection contour
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.USE EXPSOL..1.STATIC NSEL.NUM.2.1.10.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.U.0.MaxNode.GEN.40 CPINTF.ualberta.NODE.Y.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.GEN2 SE.YES SEEXP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1 *GET.0..MaxNode.www.MAX SETRAN.S.mece.0 NSEL.0 D.

When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. the analyses are coupled. stress is created in the link. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. Although the geometry must remain constant. Loads will not be applied to the link. and write them to memory. with no internal stresses.. For instance. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. For our case.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For convenience. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. However. However. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. For a listing. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). a thermal conductivity of 60. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. A steel link. and using it with any following coupled environments. It is important to note. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. the element types can change.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. the geometry is kept constant." Thus. where the thermal effects will be applied. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the link will attemp to expand. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled
.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. .

1.thermal dk.temp.write..1.348 solve finish /solu physics.tts mp..1.all.clear
! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints
! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment
etchg.thermal physics..3 mp..1.0.0.1.alpx.temp.1.200e9 mp.1.1.write.12e-6 physics.rth environment tref.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.read.0 solve finish /post1 etable.4e-4.LS.2 et..analysis.2.clear finish /solu antype.1.0.kxx.0 dk.60.1
! ! ! ! !
Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct
! ! ! !
Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1
! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal
! Apply structural constraints
! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress
.0 l.0 k. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.struct physics.link33 r.1.CompStress.0 physics.1.all physics. mp.273 dk.ex.prxy.1 lmesh.UX.5 esize.2.read.struct ldread.

PRETAB.CompStress
! Print the element table
.

For our case. and using it with any following coupled environments. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. with no internal stresses.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K." Thus.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. Loads will not be applied to the link.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. For convenience. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.ualberta. where the thermal effects will be applied. stress is created in the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.. However. the analyses are coupled. the geometry is kept constant. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. .
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.html
Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. a thermal conductivity of 60. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. However.
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.www. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. A steel link. the link will attemp to expand. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).mece.

1.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.273 dk.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.link33 r.0.0.2.4e-4.5 esize.0 l.3 mp.struct ldread..write.tts mp.ualberta.0 dk.. and write them to memory. mp.html
Although the geometry must remain constant.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct
! ! ! !
Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.12e-6 physics.0.1.200e9 mp.0 physics.1 lmesh.. It is important to note..thermal physics.read.thermal dk. For instance. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.1. the element types can change.1. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.ex.2.2 et.clear etchg..1.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.0 k.write.prxy.clear finish /solu antype.kxx.alpx. For a listing.1.1.temp.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.1.temp. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.all physics.struct physics.rth tref.60. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.all.read.www.1. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.mece.UX.

mece.www.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.1 PRETAB.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html
solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.LS.CompStress.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0.Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.
. rather than increasing mesh density. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. computational time can be kept to a minimum. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

all finish /solu antype.1.0 nsubst.1.100.45.12.100 k.52 k..8.1.52 k.1 lsel.9.0 k. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.8.3.3.5 amesh.100 k.9.100
! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry
! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .loc.200000 mp.100.55.on /prep7 k.80.48 k.0.0 a.6.4.0 k.3.2.12 et.ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.prxy.100 k.0.5.0.20 outres.10.7.6.s.1.10.2. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100
.20.100 k.20.all lsel.45.all.80.plane145 keyopt.5.11.all lsel.10 mp.7.20.11.100.55.0 dl.1.x.3 r.3 esize.x.1.48 k.loc.4.ex.all time.0 k.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio
! Element size ! Mesh area
! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1
! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1.s.all.

pres.-100 lsel.eqv
! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines
! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress
.last plesol.all solve finish /post1 set.sfl.all.s.

The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.www.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.0. rather than increasing mesh density. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.ualberta. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. computational time can be kept to a minimum.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title. Thus. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.html
Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

20.9.100.5.plane145 keyopt.all.1.1.1.20 outres.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.52 k.48 k.s.45.all.mece.100 k.-100 lsel.10.100.20.3.7.3 esize.12.all solve finish /post1 set.6.1.3.last plesol.100 k.52 k.3.5.prxy.20.5 amesh.100 sfl.3 r.x.100 k.80.all.0 k.s.all finish /solu antype.1.s.loc.100.10 mp.ex..8.9.80.48 k.45.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 k.1.0.11.2. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines
! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.0 a.pres.4.all time.loc.8.4.6.1.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio
! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1
! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1 lsel.ualberta.html
/prep7 k.0.100 k.7.eqv
! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry
! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .12 et.200000 mp.all lsel.all lsel.0 k.55.0 nsubst.x.10.0 dl.2.55.11.www.0.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0 k.0 k.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.03. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.1.0.0.0.3. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.03 ! Define keypoints
! Enter the preprocessor
.03. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus.2. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. rather than increasing mesh density.

k.last etable.20 neqit.268 nsel.0.1.all esel.etab.0005 amesh.melty.1. esel. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor
! ! ! !
Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements
.8 esize.temp.s.1.60 nropt.all kbc.4
! Connect the keypoints to form area
! mesh 2D areas ET.all finish /solu antype.full lumpm.273 finish /solu antype. 20 Max no. not ramped
! Initial conditions.melty.temp.2040 mp. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.1 IC.rest ekill.s.off lnsrch.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.conv..ext sf.920 mp.Dens.all.1.1.0 nsubst.03 a.2.on outres.Plane55 MP.0.c.4.1.all /gst.4 time.all.3.10.100 autots.off solve finish /post1 set.all.368 nsel.kxx.0.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area
! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .

s.live plnsol.temp
! ! ! !
Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements
./post1 set.last esel.

rather than increasing mesh density. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0 k.4.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.03 k.0 k.2. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.html
Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. computational time can be kept to a minimum.03. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.mece.0.03.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.3.2.0.0.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.ualberta.www.0.03 a.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor
! Connect the keypoints to form area
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.3.1.

last esel.all finish /solu antype.Dens.mece.all esel.60 nropt.off solve finish /post1 set.273 finish /solu antype.conv.368 nsel.html
! mesh 2D areas ET.off lnsrch.temp.0005 amesh.920 mp.1.on outres.kxx.www.1.melty.s.ext sf.10. 20 Max no.temp.last etable.100 autots.1 IC.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .all.all /gst.0 nsubst. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps..all kbc.1.c.1. not ramped
! Initial conditions.ualberta.1.all.2040 mp. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.4 time.268 nsel.rest ekill. esel.melty.live plnsol.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.all.s.Plane55 MP.full lumpm.etab.20 neqit.all finish /post1 set.8 esize.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.s.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

FY.ALL.1.1 /TYPE.S.1.1.1
! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas
! Select certain keypoint
! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve
! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display
! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress
!Animation ANCUT.Y.7.S.Z.LOC.0.X.0 ASEL.Height KSEL.8 WPCSYS.1.Width FK.U.R.0.0.S.0.2 ! Animate the slices
.0.ALL KSEL.0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.All.-2500 KSEL.0 WPROTA.05.90 /CPLANE.0.LOC.EQV.SUM.1 /TYPE.0 ASEL.LOC.0.Length KSEL.-1.R.0 DA.5 PLNSOL.1 WPOFFS./SOLU ANTYPE.0.Z.LOC.14.5.0.0.All.Width/2.0 WPOFFS.43.1/16*Length /CPLANE.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.
ANSYS Command Listing
FINISH /CLEAR /Title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .200000 MP.YS. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.0.FAST ET.60.Height. etc.1 /REPLOT.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.SOLID45 MP.000000.www.0.3 esize.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
. Stress.20 vmesh.1. 1 .PRXY.EX.1.1.Width.Length /ANGLE.mece.0.ualberta.) of the following example.html
Viewing X-Sectional Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

1 WPOFFS.All.5.EQV.90 /CPLANE.-2500 KSEL.0.S.0.0 WPOFFS.Length KSEL.1.43.Y.html
FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.1/16*Length /CPLANE.LOC.U.SUM.Z.7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.0.S.1.0 WPROTA.0.05.1 /TYPE.5 PLNSOL.8 WPCSYS.ALL KSEL.0.LOC.0 ASEL.0.1
! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas
! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display
! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress
!Animation ANCUT.S.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 DA.0.ualberta.R.1.Z.Width FK.1 /TYPE.-1.14.All.LOC.FY.Height KSEL.0.www.0 ASEL.0.R.2 ! Animate the slices
Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.X.Width/2.mece.ALL.1.LOC.

one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.50. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.10 cyl4.100. For example. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.150.10 asba.all
.0.50. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.1.50.100 cyl4.50.0.200.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.
In this tutorial.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.10 cyl4.

1.NODE
! ! ! !
Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! mesh size ! area mesh
! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face
! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line
! solve resulting system of equations
! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge)
! ! ! ! !
define define choose define define
a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path
! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes
.eqv.top /POST1 PLNSOL.1.0..50 ppath.200.AVG nsel.2.y.loc.2.prxy.1.0 dl.s.1.3 esize.ex.1000 ppath.all PLPAGM.S..s..PRES.1.2.S.100 SFL.cutline.1 /window.5 amesh.3 R..off /noerase /window.SEQV.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.50 PDEF.200.loc.all..all.bot nsel.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel..10 mp.2.s.plane2.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.loc.1.1.0.y.et.200000 mp.50 path.all nsel.y..eqv.

Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.100
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.200.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.0.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. For example. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.mece.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.www.. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.
In this tutorial.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.S.0 dl.cutline.10 asba.s.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio
! mesh size ! area mesh
! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations
! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge)
! ! ! ! !
define define choose define define
a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path
! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
..100 SFL.y.loc.prxy..all.5 amesh.all nsel.200.2.10 cyl4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes..www.50.PRES.50 ppath.all et.1.2.all..200000 mp.50.50.1.1..plane2.y.s.mece.50 path.bot nsel.
cyl4.all PLPAGM.ex.100.2.eqv.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.3 R..10 mp.0.1.loc..1.ualberta.top /POST1 PLNSOL.eqv.0.10 cyl4.50 PDEF.1.1.SEQV.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.S.s.1 /window.y.1000 ppath.1.off /noerase /window...150.AVG nsel.200.3 esize.loc.50.

40 mp.prxy.length.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.320e3.I.0.3 k.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio
! Geometry
. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.0.2.
This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.elementsize lmesh.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Length of the following beam using tables. rather than using a contour plot.1. By plotting this data on a curve.200000 mp.1. finer resolution can be achieved.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.0 l.0 k.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.1.2400. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.beam3 r.ex. a special type of array.1.2 esize.1.

graph(rows.antype. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels
.1).y
*set.loc.x
*vget.2).all fk.2).static dk.1).1.1).TABLE.y *vplot.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.node.-2500 solve finish /post1
! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end
! Note.y.graph(2.graph(1.2.Length /axlab.x.loc.x *vget.graph.0 400
*vget.1).Vertical Deflection /replot
! Re-enter the data for x = 400.node. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2) /axlab.1
For the procedure below
! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.graph(2.rows.all.2. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.2.2.graph(rows.node.graph(1.node.all.fy.0
*set.graph(1.u.graph(1.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly
*vget.u.2).

a special type of array.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.www.1. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.
ANSYS Command Listing
finish /clear /title.3 k.1.1.beam3 r.mece.320e3.40 mp. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.0 l.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. By plotting this data on a curve.I.0 k.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio
! Geometry
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.1.200000 mp.1.h. finer resolution can be achieved.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0.ex.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .
This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long..2 esize. rather than using a contour plot.prxy.. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.
Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results
Introduction
This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2.0.2400.ualberta.length. Length of the following beam using tables.

1).node.graph(rows.-2500 solve finish /post1
! Mesh
! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end
! Note.2)..x *vget.y *vplot.graph(2.x.2.graph.node.ualberta.y *set.loc..2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.2.www.node.graph(1.loc. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(2.static dk. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.x *vget.2).1.all.0 *vget.1).
lmesh.0 *set.1 *vget.fy.all fk.all finish /solu antype.node.all.h.1).graph(rows. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels
Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta
.graph(1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Length /axlab.2).u.Vertical Deflection /replot
For the procedure below
! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.u.TABLE.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.2) /axlab.1).graph(1.mece.y.rows.2.2.graph(1.