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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. . Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. Prompting the user for parameters. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

1D. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. In general. Preprocessing: defining the problem. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. 2D.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 2. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.e. 3D). Solution: assigning loads. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 3. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. axi-symmetric. constraints and solving. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 1. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. heat transfer and fluid problems. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.

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7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc.. do this. If you don't see this minimized program. . you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. as it automatically starts this application when booting. Windows NT application 2.. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. you should see something labeled X-Win32. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. be sure that your local drive has space for it. you can may want to reboot the computer.

click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. don't select this icon.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. but rather. . q select the Run Interactive Now menu item.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.7. graphic controls and parameters. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. 1. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. . selections. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. such as file controls.

It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. However. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands.b. while the versions appear different. solution.0. design optimizer. such as listing of data etc. More push buttons can be added if desired. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. c. d. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. the menu structure has not changed. organized by preprocessor. e. . It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. general postprocessor. 2.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. however. The second is by means of command files. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file.

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It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution.. but for a larger model.e. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If the results differ by a large amount however. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. For simple models it is of no concern. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. loading and constraints. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. If the results are nearly similar. In general there are no real firm answers on this. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions.. it will only slow the calculations down. General Models . specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. When point loads are used.

the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used.In general however. In general. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. . for example. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. In a solid mechanics problem.

Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. if you make some mistakes later on. you will at least be able to come back to this point. select Interactive.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In that way. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname.db. solution. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job.. 2. Or.. Using the Launcher. and specify the previously defined jobname... where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. To save your model.db.. loads. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from.db . etc) that you previously saved.. r Then when you get ANSYS started. ANSYS Inc. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. and select your job from the list that appears. There are two methods to do this: 1. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. r In the ANSYS Launcher.

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starting with an existing log file. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. q If you will always be using the GUI.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. boundary conditions and any solutions. from another ANSYS run. Frame again with various extensions: frame. frame. boundary conditions and any solutions. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. say Frame.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). then the created files will all have the file prefix. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. frame. This file stores the geometry. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. Once the ANSYS has started. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text).dbb Backup of the database file (binary). other files may have been written. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. then you only require the . That file may be rerun as is. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file.db file. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory.db Database file (binary). and the jobname has been specified. These files may contain results. Depending on the operations carried out. frame. or move things from the /scratch directory. Listing of all error and warning messages. etc. etc.err Error file (text). the name of all the files created will be FILE. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. This file stores the geometry.. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). frame.* where the * represents various extensions described below. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. If you specified a jobname.

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Save the resulting list in the same way described above. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Select 'Elem Table Data'.'...0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. 2. 'Monochrome'. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . and choose what you want to list from the menu.. 3. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. Select 'File'/'Save As. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.0 Better Quality Plots . Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. 1.' and give a file name to store the results. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2. In the window that appears. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. choose 'List Results'. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. 'Reverse Video'. Then enter the file name of your choice. You can pick multiple items. to get displacements. However.. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. while the second is a scalable vector plot.

'. Load your plot file with the following command: file.. Note that although the file is 'plots.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands.pic if your plot file is 'plots.pic) in the 'Selection' Window.frame. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you.n where n is plot number. Either way.g. To save some plots to a file.. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. Decrease the size of this window.pic'(with a comma). but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see..pic' (with a period). When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. This is performed by running a separate program called display.: frame. or HPGL for example. Type in a filename (e. you have a couple of options: 1. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. To do this.pic'. a large graphics window will appear.. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . Display wants 'plots. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. but rather they will be written to the selected file. Now that the plots have been read in.

Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. For subsequent plots. i.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. The printer information is still present.hpgl plot.e. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. where xx is a number.color. . the postscript image will appear as blank box. you set the postscript color option to '3'. To do this. as above. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.n where n is the plot number.grph. you only require the plot. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper.1. overheads or even posters! 2. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.3 /show. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor.n command as the other options have now been set.pscr plot. enter the following commands in display: pscr.color.pscr plot.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. issue the following commands: /show. the postscript image will appear as blank box. The printer information is still present. starting at 00. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. 3. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner.2 /show. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format.

exit display by entering finish . the HPGL printer files could be given an '.hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command). In a similar way. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. holes. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. if the feature is critical to your design. many modeling options for constraints. you will want to leave it. loads. Of course. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time.W. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. chamfers. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.. mesh control. by suppressing them in Pro/E. analysis types will not be covered. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. Also. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. etc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Step 1.

as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. Several edges are rounded. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. So. For this model. . Model units are inches. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. the plate and the loading hole are removed. A load is applied at the hole in the right end.

Step 2. . loads. We proceed in a topdown manner. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. Basically. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. idealizations). This is where we specify modeling information. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. and so on. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. surface regions. curves. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right.

. Fixed. Y. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. Prescribed. only one set can be included. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. and surfaces). Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. A dialog window opens as shown above. and Z. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). Select Surface. edges. rotational constraints are active if specified. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. For our solid model. In the final computed model. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). and Function of Coordinates). we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). all we need are constraints.Defining Constraints For our simple model. and a specified material. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. For each direction X. loads. For beams and shells.

and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. another might contain the support forces. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. For example. Leave the defaults for the load distribution.For our model. Loads are also organized into named load sets. and select the OK button. another a temperature load. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. Enter the force components at the bottom. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. Then select OK. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. The load should be . Note these are relative to the WCS. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. These can be solved at the same time.

If you select the Edit button. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. you could now assign this material to individual parts. In an assembly. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. Step 3. loads. At this point. material). In the STRC MODEL menu. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. you will see the properties of the chosen material.

Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. Step 4. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). The MEC STRUCT window. Now select OK. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. Select the type (Structural or Modal).Specify a name for the analysis. like "ansystest". . Enter a short description.

you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). Here is an image of the default mesh. evaluated for the model. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. Select Close. . The results are indicated in columns on the right.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. shown in wire frame.

Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. and so on. . setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. maximum mesh size. edges. you can select the Controls option. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. This will allow you to select points. For example.

mesh). Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. select Run . In the MEC STRUCT menu. loads. materials.Step 5.

and material) is listed. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . In the Analysis list. Copy the .This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. We are now finished with Pro/E. select Structural. loads. Select OK and read the message window. . You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. mesh. select ANSYS.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS.ans). Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program.

Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results.. Step 7. Step 8.ans file you created previously.Step 6. This will read in the entire model. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . you will be informed that the solution is complete. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From.. Select the . and select Apply.

In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial').123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. reaction forces.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. A = 3250mm2). p. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. For this example. these keypoints are the ends of each truss. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body.

0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. If you first press r . click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. and enter the x. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. Note: When entering the final data point.y coordinates: 0.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.

Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. lines. volumes. elements. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. The following window will then appear: . Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. areas. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. thus making any conversions where necessary. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. 3. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box.

Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.e. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. r r r . Left click and a permanent line will appear. When you're done. click on it). It will now be marked by a small yellow box.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.

Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. However. The following window will then appear: . If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. This is called 'meshing'. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. they have most likely NOT been deleted. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.

. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. The following window will appear: r For this example.' button. r 5.. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box.r Click on the 'Add.

select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.. Click on 'OK'. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above.r In the Preprocessor menu. . and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. 7. Click 'OK' on the window to continue.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.0'. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be.

r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . therefore. we have simply defined the element sizes. enter the desired number of divisions per line. For this example we want only 1 division per line. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r In the size 'NDIV' field. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. 8.

node numbers..... Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q . q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. keypoint numbers.

Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). To do this. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. you will at least be able to come back to this point.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time.. Define Analysis Type ... It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. so if you make some mistakes later on. 1. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as.

As shown above. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. In mechanical structures. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. r 2. Click 'OK'. i. for example. r In the Solution menu.e. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. these constraints will typically be fixed.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. pinned and roller-type connections.

r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. . select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Therefore. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. ROT on KPs' window.

this is consistent with the previous values input. and 7 respectively. there are four downward loads of 280kN. . The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Therefore. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. 280kN. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram.ROT on KPs" window. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained).You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. r Using the same method. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. and 360kN at keypoints 1. 210kN. Note that we are using units of N here. 3. 3. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. 5.

Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).4. .

. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. . Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r The above windows will appear. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.

Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2.

r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. The following window will appear. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. . select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. . The following window will appear. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.409).

Click 'OK'. Leave the other selections as the default values.r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. .

Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. you may want to use more useful intervals. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours..r Looking at the scale.. r .

You should obtain the following. .

.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution.

using the item 'LS.' r . For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. therefore. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. beams.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE.2 in the Help file.. The Element Table is different for each element. If you wanted to save these results to a file. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. strains). spars. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. From Table 1. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links.

This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .r As shown above. Comp' boxes.. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. Then enter 1 after LS. . Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Next. in the 'Item. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.'.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours ..

select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' . you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.Again.

. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.' and select the file.HTML version. . A . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..9MPa as predicted analytically.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. In the dialog box that appears.

0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. ANSYS Inc. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.

scale factors. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to.The first step is to simplify the problem. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . Enter Keypoints For this simple example. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. units. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. etc. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.

Click on the 'Add..' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. Click on the 'Options. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. r r r 4. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.' button.. When you're done. Pick keypoint #1 (i. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. click on it).Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3.e.. r From the Preprocessor Menu.. The following window will appear: r r For this example. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Now pick keypoint #2. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. The following window will appear: r . A permanent line will appear.

r 5. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. .. Click on 'OK'.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected).. This gives us extra force and moment output. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.

Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. r 6. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. enter the desired element length. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.r Click on 'OK'. Saving Your Work . (Alternatively. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. r r r 7. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. However. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. 8. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. therefore.. For an element length of 2cm.. enter '20' (i.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. we have simply defined the element sizes.

The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Therefore. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained..Utility Menu > File > Save as. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. . r 2. r r 3. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu.ROT on KPs' window. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints.. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'.

4. . Hand Calculations Now.we need to calculate what we should find. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.2mm as shown above. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6.

r r .Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. In this menu you will find a variety of options.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. 2. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Click 'OK'. r . Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). Leave the other selections as the default values. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.

This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'... General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'.r You may want to have a more useful scale. r . which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example.

the maximum deflection occurs at node 2.' r . spars.r Are these results what you expected? Again.. If you wanted to save these results to a file. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. the right end of the rod. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. strains).. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1... r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. Click on 'Add.

. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .Comp' boxes in the above window. in the 'Item.. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.r As shown above. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. .

First. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. I and J.Again. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. a bending moment diagram can be created. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. . let's look at how ANSYS defines each element.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. as shown in the following image.

r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Enter SMISC.this will give a name to the data B. First. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J..'. the Element Table must be used. Same as above . Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . A. A. Click 'Add.. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D.. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .. r In the window.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. . this will give a name to the data B. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element..To obtain the bending moment for this element. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. r Again. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.6 in the second Comp box E. click 'Add..again.

. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Click 'OK'. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window.C.. Same as above D. For step D. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. . enter SMISC.12 in the second Comp box E. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.

you can double check these solutions analytically. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. r Before the explanation of the above steps. PIPE16 Item. Table 1.Now. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . Sequence Numbers. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears.

The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.0.2.1.1. 0. y.25. Material 1.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.0.20 LMESH.1.0.1 !* R. Copy the following code into the command line.2. !* MP.PIPE16 KEYOPT.0. K. .ALL FK.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .EX. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. x. then hit enter.70000 MP.1.0. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.2 !* ET.0 !* DK. y. Outside Diameter. 2.1. Material 1. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.6.0. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.0. z Keypoint.1.the Member moment for node I.2.FY. /PREP7 K. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction .500.33 !* LESIZE. . x. Young's Modulus.PRXY.ALL. L.1. Major Poisson's Ratio. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.1.0. 1. Material 1. all of the lines.

The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail./STATUS.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame.

The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as .2. Notice that by using variables like this. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. Alternatively. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. First. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. these keypoints are the frame vertices. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members.

to enter the first keypoint type: K. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out.0.0 r ! keypoint.1. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.0.# .y2. ie . A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. As with any programming language. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.follows: K.y1. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. Z where. y=y2.2. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. X.0 into the command line followed by Enter. Y. Reference number for the keypoint.for the second keypoint you might type: K. However. you may need to add comments. type help k into the command line For example. x=0. NPT. #. simply re-enter the code.

you have many controls. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. Try experimenting with them. Rotate. Zoom. To define keypoint #1. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image.. s 6. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). In this example. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. translating and rotating it on all three axes. You can either leave the 'Pan. z = 0. 5. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . This was simply used for convenience. To get an isometric view. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. y = 325. for example. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen.. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). Zoom.

1. Again.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. we will use the command line to create the lines. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. to obtain the first line. I would write: ' L. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. P2 Line. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . Keypoint at the beginning of the line. Keypoint at the end of line For example. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. P1. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.

Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. we will again use the command line. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. MAT. As in the verification model. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open .if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. LAB.7. 8. define the type of element (pipe16). C0 25 2 .

VALUE... Lab.Material Property. Mesh Size As in the verification model.1. type: ' MP.Valid material property label. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. Lab3. Lab6 Displacement on K. 1. to pin the . therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.1. Lab4. DOF label.EX. Lab5. KEXPND.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. Lab2.0. For example. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Expansion key.33 ' r 10. > Static 2. Material Reference Number.PRXY. value2... KPOI. VALUE2. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. type ' MP. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. value. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). K #. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Apply Constraints Once again. we will use the command line. DK. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.

value. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. UX is not constrained.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3.UY and UZ).UY. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. UY. K #.5.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.. KPOI.1.. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. K. value1. value2 (if req'd) . FK. Again. UZ. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. Lab.. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required.0. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.UX.1. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. FZ). FY.. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. value2 Force loads at keypoints.UY. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . the command line code is: DK. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same.first keypoint enter: DK.0. Force Label directions (FX.

4.FY.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3..-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. 'Def + undef edge' . the code should look like this: ' FK. K.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. If you need to delete one of the forces.3. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.3.

'Back'. etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

Note the node numbers of interest.. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. and turn on 'Node numbers'. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Turn everything else off.')..2. so we know what node(s) we're after. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model.. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r .

. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. Then close the 'List Results' menu. 3... 4. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.. Click on 'OK'.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. For each element in the model.' from the 'List Results' menu.

6 and SMISC. Plot Results > Line Elem Res.. Select Element Table > Define Table. to plot the data from the Element Table . the bending moment diagram can be produced. to define the table (remember SMISC..r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5..12) And. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously..

.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.. Open the .'. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. click on 'Save ..' and select the file. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. In the dialog box that appears.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. and uniform pressure loading. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. A figure of the plate is shown below. plane stress. ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.

units. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. scale factors. etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: .

however. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . a. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. Subtraction will used to create this model.

Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .100) b.s Fill in the window as shown above.200.100.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.0.0. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.0. (Alternatively.

20 ) c. (Alternatively.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. your image should resemble the following: . Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. Prior to this operation.100. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.50. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.s Fill in the window as shown above.50.

s . Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.

the command line code for the above step is ASBA.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.2) . Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.1. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.

Click and hold the K3 button. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries.. r .' button. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. therefore Click on the 'Options.. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. For this example. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. four-node element (PLANE42).3. as shown in the above figure. as shown below. we need a plane stress element with thickness.

This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.3.1.200000 followed by MP. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .3) 6. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.1.20) 5.1.1.0.EX. the command line code for the above step is MP. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3 (Alternatively.PRXY. the command line code for the above step is R.3) 4.(Alternatively. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. the command line code for the above step is ET.

r Select an element edge length of 25. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.ALL) You should now have the following: .25. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.) 7.ALL.

0) 2. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). (Alternatively... Apply Constraints As shown previously. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. r r . Fill in the window as shown below. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.ROT on Lines' window. 1. the left end of the plate is fixed. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.

. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. the command line code for the above step is DL. (Alternatively. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). Therefore.0) 3. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure.ALL. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. therefore the last field is left blank. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. r r r . select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above.4. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. 2.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.001 mm .just a flat plate).we need to calculate what we should find. Hand Calculations Now. Convergence using ANSYS . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.9 MPa.4. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .

we will check the stress at this point. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. (as shown below in red) ... r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. To change the element size. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: .9141 MPa at this point. r Resize Elements a.

the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. This is a mere 2. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. the values converge towards a final solution. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. (note . It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). Click 'OK'.8 MPa. . Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves.c. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. d.the element edge length decreases).

The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. 4. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.. USUM in the window. Therefore. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. However. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.0012 mm. . Then select DOF solution.. r Observe the locations of deflection. 3.

.... von Mises in the window.. r 5. obtain these results as a list. Then select Stress. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.

.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.HTML version.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. A .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Bracket Example . Select Stress.

Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Form Geometry Again. a. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Create the main rectangular shape . A figure of the plate is shown below.

X coord (bottom left). XCENTER. YCORNER.50.100 b.50 c.0. radius s Therefore. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. HEIGHT BLC4.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . X coord for the center. YCENTER.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. XCORNER. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.80. Y coord (bottom left).0. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. width. WIDTH. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. the command line for this circle is CYL4. Y coord for the center. RAD1 CYL4. height s s Therefore. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.80.

Boolean Operations .. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.ALL) s . the command line code for the above step is AADD.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.. e.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. s To perform the Boolean operation.

You should now have the following model: f. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.3) r . the command line code for the above step is ET.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3. (Alternatively.s Next select the three circles that we just created. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options. the command line code for the above step is ASBA..1.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.6.1.

Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.EX. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. the command line code for the above step is R.0. Again. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. (Alternatively. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.200000 followed by MP.PRXY.ALL.ALL) . Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. (Alternatively.1.) r 7. we will need to make sure the model has converged.1.3) 6.20) r 5.5.1. 4. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.

the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. (Alternatively. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Apply Constraints . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model... Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.0) 2. 1.

As illustrated. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected.ROT on Nodes' window. you have the option of creating a box.. Repeat for the second bolt hole. polygon. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. For this case. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Zoom.. Rotate.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. Apply Loads . r 3. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side.

Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.As shown in the diagram. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. 4.

Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. 2. 3. .1. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.USUM in the window.

r 4. .) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. obtain these results as a list..r Alternatively. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.... Then select von Mises Stress in the window.

. A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the . Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Select Stress. Quitting ANSYS .' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. .. In the window that appears..To quit ANSYS. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.

Filleting. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. extrusion/ sweeping. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Inc. copying.

Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. YCORNER. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: .Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. XCORNER. WIDTH.

3.XCENTER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.YCENTER. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.RAD .

It asks for the x.6 and then click OK.2 4. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.BASE. r .5 0.SUBTRACT 5. Enter the y offset as 4.y and z offset of the copied area.5 0.5 Circle 2 8.2 0.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. The following window will appear. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.

ALL 7.5 You should obtain the following 6. Add the smaller circles to the large area. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. .r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

Enter 0.r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .

8. . Create the fillet areas r As shown below. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9. Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .

0. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. Plot Areas 3. 1.Y. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.0) and (0.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.10. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot . Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.Z) 2. (K.#.X.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.5. Then select the following two keypoints r r .

Click on OK. .r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

for us to define the bolt holes. Create Bolt Holes 1. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . one of which is to define it by three keypoints. Change the Working Plane By default.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. There are several ways to define a working plane. However. we need to use a different working plane.

Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . 2. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001.

We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.note the origin of the working plane. 4. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.0. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. The following window will appear. 3. . Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. fill in the blanks as shown.5 y=0 r=0. By default those values would be 0.0.

Youi should obtain the following model. .

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

' and select the file. Open the . Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.PDF version is also available for printing. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from... .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: . Create the Base 1.Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2.

7.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.6.20 followed by LARC.4. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.1. type LARC.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .5. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.5.8.5 into the command line) when prompted.

1. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.6.5. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.DX. YCENTER=20.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).# Copies (include original).DY.Area#.4.DZ) r .2 You should obtain the following image: 3.

ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.3.

02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.102 into the command line) . we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. Note. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. (Alternatively. Again. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. Change the working plane As in the previous example.6.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). the first keypoint defines the origin. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.100. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1.1. Therefore. (Alternatively. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. we need to change the working plane.101. type KWPLAN. type VOFFST.

2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.2. YCORNER=0.27. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. . YCENTER=180. WIDTH=102.1.26 4. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.

r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. . . YCENTER=180. Area 3 5. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. RADIUS=18. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51.51. Area 1. YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. . DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib .32.5.180. Area 2.

Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.1.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.4 3. 203. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.-1.200. (Alternatively. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.202 into the command line) 2.1.57735*26) 129-(0.201. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. type WPCSYS. type KWPLAN. 204 . the first keypoint defines the origin.

'. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. In the dialog box that appears... select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.200. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.203. .Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.204 4.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Harmonic Dynamic . The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. /title... Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.Modal Dynamic .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm.1.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. 3.z) 1 2 (0. K. and rotation about the Z axis).0) (1000.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.ANSYS Inc. 6.y. 7.#.y...67 iii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.. enter the following geometric properties: i..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 4. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. > Add. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.x..

. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.. 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.0 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The following window will appear. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. enter the following density for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.81m/s2 in the y direction. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.3 8.86e-6 9..ii.. Density DENS: 7. r .

.9.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). DK.1. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. ACEL. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction.ALL.0. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). .

.2 . > Def + undef edge PLDISP.. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.777mm 2.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.777mm. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.As observed in the upper left hand corner. . Open the . A . This is in agreement with the theortical value.PDF version is also available for printing. the maximum displacement was found to be 5...' and select the file.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Modal Dynamic . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .

y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . enter the following geometric properties: i.0) (1000. /title.#. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .K#. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. 6..ANSYS Inc. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. 5.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Distributed Loading 3.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K..x...y) 1 2 (0. > Add. With only 3 degrees of freedom. and rotation about the Z axis).0) 4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.

ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . 9. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.333 iii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 7. . Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm..3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10..

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. As shown in the following figure. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. over the entire length of the beam. . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). 3.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .

. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 4. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2 2. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. In the window that appears.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings...

. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. 6. For this problem. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC.1. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. . the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. ' d. In the window that appears a. Click 'OK'. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). For this example. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. 8. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. 3 for the 'J' nodes. select 'NMISC. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d.. r As shown in the plot below. (ie. 7. In the second window of the same section.' 3. 9... Click 'Add. click 'Apply' 5.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.. Open the . A .

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. contact elements). Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the load will added incrementally.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . To solve this problem. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.Harmonic Dynamic . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). After each increment.Modal Dynamic . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.

03125 ii... the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. > Add. 6. 5.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..069e-5 iii. and rotation about the Z axis).. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . enter the following geometric properties: i..ANSYS Inc.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 1.0) 3. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.y) 1 2 (0.25 x 0. With only 3 degrees of freedom. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. 2. 4.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.125 inches. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.0) (5. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.

8. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.. 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0. The following image will appear: . Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. not non-linear material properties. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. we would have to consider non-linear material properties..3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. for example.i.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.0 2. If we were considering a block of wood..

Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. however. C. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. this takes time.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off.

D. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This command controls the solution data written to the database. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps.Now. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. By default. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. the load is ramped. By default. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. For some special nonlinear cases. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. However. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. type help followed by the command into the command line. By default. the modified Newton-Raphson. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. E. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. the previously computed matrix. By default. F. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. stress stiffening is automatically included. For more information about these commands.

Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. 4.

. > Def + undeformed PLDISP...1 .U. > DOF solution.Y. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 2. UY PLNSOL.0.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. Define Variables . However. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. Modeling the system non-linearly. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.3. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. this is not realistic for large deflections. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. As you recall.> DOF solution. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. the load was applied in steps...

. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables... > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.

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HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file.. A .

Harmonic Dynamic . Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. see Chapter 8.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For more information regarding setting the time value. . and many other solution control option. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1.Modal Dynamic . This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. In this example.

which this graph is taken from. Generally. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. we will look at the force curves. For each parameter.ANSYS Inc. In the case of a structural example. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. there are two curves plotted. as expected. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. for more information about changing iteration settings. In the case of a structural analysis. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. or is not converging. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. However. if the solution is highly non-linear. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. For each substep. such as this. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. This is what will be explained next. etc) that iterates to find a solution. For ease of explanation. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. which is discussed in the help file. If the problem is relatively linear.5% for loads. many iterations will be required. Once this occurs. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. . 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. Some analyses use normalized values. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. you can see Chapter 8. As can be seen in the graph above. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. In simpler terms. this graph relates to forces and moments. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. Again. For instance. the curves may be for temperature. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. 2.5 in the help file. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. Thus.001). The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. which ever is greater.

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it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. real-world buckling prediction analysis. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.Modal Dynamic . This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. ie. in real-life. load perterbations. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. large-deflection. static analysis to predict buckling loads. .Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. This method is not recommended for accurate. For this type of analysis. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. 2.0 to solve a simple buckling problem.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. material nonlinearities and gaps. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.Harmonic Dynamic . Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . However. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions.

Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. Define Keypoints . will be calculated. The required load to cause buckling.. rigidly constrained at the bottom.ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. /title. applied at the top-center of the beam..

y) 1 2 (0. 7.1. K. 6..0) (0.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis).. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0..#.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.X.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . > Add. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. enter the following geometric properties: i.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.100) 4. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..3 . Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.333 iii. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833.

8. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. r r .. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. prestress effects must be activated. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 9. select the unabridged version. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu..0 2. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. If you are looking at the abridged menu. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). 4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load.3. .

5. However.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options .1 8. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. 7. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. This time. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . and ensure that it is on... as shown below. however. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible.. 11. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. 9.r Complete the window which appears. is for an expansion pass. r . The 'Subspace' method could also be used.. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s).

View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.123). which is in Newtons for this example. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. /POST1 SET.LIST 2. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.

#.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. /TITLE.Y . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.X.

With only 3 degrees of freedom. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.100) 4. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Mesh Size .0) (0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties: i.3 8..We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. and rotation about the Z axis). For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. 7.333 iii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. > Add. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.. L. 6.1. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.y) 1 2 (0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.2 5. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

0 2. The following image will appear: .. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. ESIZE.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.1 9. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line)...

Ensure Line Search is 'On'. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. F. however. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. E. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. this takes time. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. D. C. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . B. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.

For more information about these commands. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. The model should now look like the window shown below. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. 3.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. type help followed by the command into the command line.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. 4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). .

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .5.

This shows the convergence of the solution. . General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..1 . > Def + undeformed PLDISP.

r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. > DOF solution.Y.U...0. UY PLNSOL.1 .

However. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. 1. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. The following window should open automatically. . you can obtain the results (such as deflection. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. .If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. On the Time History Variable window.r To add another variable.

Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.2. . r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.

123 N. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .000 N. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force..The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.' and select the file. Open the . This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.

ANSYS Inc. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. For instance. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. In such a case.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

. 6. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. > Add.X.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1..2 4.. NonLinear Materials 2.100) 3. enter the following geometric properties: i..Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. /title. 5.y) 1 2 (0.0) (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. L. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.1.#...

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. When all the points have been inputed. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.002 0.005 0. the stress-strain data must be included. click Add Point to add another.001 0. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . When the data for the first point is input. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.003 0. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. click Graph to see the curve. It should look like the one shown above.i.004 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. Then click OK.

ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 8.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.200 0. /REPLOT 7.8 9 10 11 12 13 0..150 0..275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back. The following image will appear: ..060 0.100 0.250 0. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).

Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. E. D. Therefore. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. you can plot certain parameters over time.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. C. data for every load step is written to the database. however. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. . Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. F. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. this takes time. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge.

type help followed by the command into the command line. 4. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . 3.B. For more information about these commands. 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

.This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

2. > DOF solution. UY PLNSOL. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.1 ..0..U.Y.

However.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. . 1. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. The following window should open automatically. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.

.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.

. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. click the add button again. On the Time History Variable window. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.r To add another variable.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. When you verify this example analytically. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. .' and select the file. and subsequently the stress. A . the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. was low (in the linear range). you will see the solutions are very similar.. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. as the force increased.HTML version. However. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic . . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. please use the links below.

ANSYS Inc. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear . Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.2 2.

of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. It is therefore more exact but.r As shown. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). . select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries).

. . 3. 4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. we will use the default options so click on OK.r For this problem. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .0 0.69 472.94 145.2 0.68 285. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).0 0. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .300 52. r To view the next mode shape.51 472. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .54 Percent Error 0.22 ANSYS 8.01 145.64 285. instead of 10 elements.e.1 0.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. 2. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.311 51.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. By default.. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. which is node #2.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . and the following window should pop up. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. In our case it is assigned Frequency.

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

4. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. .

This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.94Hz.3 and 51 Hz. To get a better view of the response.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. view the log scale of UY. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .311 and 51.

r As marked by an 'A' in the above window. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .

See the help file for instructions. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.0. . Open the .This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 ... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.HTML version. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.100 Hz. r For ANSYS version lower than 7.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Modal Dynamic . we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. For our case. for example.

After the application of the load. However. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically.ANSYS Inc. The smaller the time step. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).

Select 'Reduced' as shown. if stresses and forces are of interest than. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. All types of non-linearities are allowed. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. the calculations are much quicker. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. please use the links below. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. It is the quickest of the three methods. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. In ANSYS. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. In other words. r . Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. However. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. Therefore.

choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. The following window will open. . Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. 3. Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0).2.

This will specify a time step size of 0. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). a. initial displacement and initial velocity. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.001 seconds to be used for this load step. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . both default to zero. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. ii. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. s set [DELTIM] to 0. Therefore.. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. Load Step 1 .001. two sets of initial conditions are required. for this example we can skip this step. Note that for the reduced method. . However.Time Step .Initial Conditions i. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it.4.

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. ii. ii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N.s01 b. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1..s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Load Step 2 i. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step . Specify Time and Time Step Options . and set a time of 0.001 for the end of the load step iii. Load Step 3 i.

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. . In our case it is assigned Frequency. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step . Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5.. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. By default. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). 1. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. which is node #2.

r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer... and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK.

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .2.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. .3. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. Plot UY vs.

However. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We also see another response at a higher frequency. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. . Note that the response does not decay as it should not.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. if stresses and forces are of interest. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. We did not specify damping for our system.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip).11 seconds. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. 1.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded.08 and 0. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.11 seconds r r r 2. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). For this case. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .08 and 0...

0. 0. 0.UX .00000000 .. 4 TRNOPT. 0.0. 1.00000000 . /GOPR 1. 5. -1.00000000 . Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.00000000 .00000000 DMPRAT.500000000 .DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.0.00000000 0.000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 . 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. 0.ANSYS RELEASE 5.00000000 . The file should look like the following. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files. 0.R5.00000000 .s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0.00000000 . TINTP. . 0. -1. but now we will consider damping.s01.00000000 OMEGA.00000000 .00000000 ALPHAD. .00000000 CGOMEGA. 0. 0. 0. 0. 1.UY .TEMP.00000000 . 0.00000000 TINTP.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE.00000000 TREF. 0. 0 DOMEGA.00000000 . 0. 1. 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.00000000 0.00000000 CGLOC. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.ROTZ. 0.REDU. 0. q . 0. D.DEFA ACEL..7. We will now re-run our transient analysis. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.00000000 ERESX. /COM.R5.. 0.00000000 NCNV. 0.00000000 . 0.00000000 ._TINY DELTIM.00000000 0.00000000 .00000000 D.00000000 DCGOMG. 1.000000000E-03.00000000 . 0. 0. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. 0.00000000 0. 0. D. 0.00000000 .00000000 . 0.01 in all three load step files.00000000 BETAD..We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.

. After selecting MDOFs. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs.. After the results have been calculated. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' . and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from..HTML version..

and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing. .

Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.PLANE55 For this example. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.ANSYS Inc.KXX.10 6.05 AESIZE. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Y=0. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Width=1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.. 1.ALL. Apply Constraints . 5.0 2.1.0. Give example a Title 2.1 4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Quad 4node 55).. Height=1 BLC4.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0.0.05 7.

or Radiation. In this example. Heat Flux.For thermal problems. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected.options cannot be selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Heat Flow. Convection. Heat Generation. r r The following window will appear: . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

> DOF solution.. r 3. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Temperature TEMP . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method..

Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. . A .HTML version. however. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from... then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C.PDF version is also available for printing. followed by the side and bottom constraints.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .0 to solve simple thermal examples. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .

Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. 1.05 7.1. 5. Give example a Title 2. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Width=1.1.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. Apply Conduction Constraints . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. 6. Quad 4Node 55 ET..10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.1. Y=0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0.ALL. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0 2.05 AESIZE. Height=1 BLC4.0.1 4.ANSYS Inc. Quad 4node 55).KXX. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

In this example. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. The following window will appear: r . constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block.

4. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. r . Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank.r Fill in the window as shown.

This will eliminate convection through the side.. thereby modeling an insulated wall.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . > DOF solution. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file... .

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Also. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.040 kJ/kg*K.

1..1.PLANE55 For this example.1.05 AESIZE. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.ALL. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.920 6.05 7. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Width=1.C.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Y=0.2..DENS.ANSYS Inc. /Title.0. Height=1 BLC4. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.0. Quad 4node 55).10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.04 MP. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid..Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0..ALL At this point. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 5.KXX.1.1 4. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0.

4 The window shown below will pop up. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. so click OK.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. We will use the defaults.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. .2.

A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. Min no. Max no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. B) Set Number of substeps to 20.

Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. refer to the help file. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. r r . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. For a complete description of what these options do. or Radiation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. Heat Flux. Basically. Heat Generation. In this example. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. Heat Flow. 3.options cannot be selected. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Convection. By writing the data at every step.D) Set Line search to ON . you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.

The following window will appear: .

> DOF solution. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Temperature TEMP .. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. r 4.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..

. Fill in the window as shown. from 100 to 500. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. user specified. with 8 contours..Animate Results Over Time r First. specify the contour range.

DOF solution > TEMP) ...300 Time Range. 0 . Auto contour scaling OFF. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames.r Then animate the data.

the curves are practically identical. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. . thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. Also. As can be seen.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time.

Analytical Solution .

The following window should open automatically. Creating the Temperature vs.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. .

node 261. . select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial.2. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Instead. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. To cause the solution to converge. will cause the solution to converge. . increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. From experience. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.

' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. Open the . .PDF version is also available for printing.

Harmonic Dynamic . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. In this case. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Modal Dynamic . As a warning. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.

.ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .X2.X1.Y2 . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..Y1. Axisymmetric Tube 2.

For an axisymmetric problem. button. Many elements support axisymmetry. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. to create the geometry mentioned above. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).. . 5. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. Therefore. 6. click the Options. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. Triangle 6node) element.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. axisymmetry is not supported. Solid. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open... we must define a U-shape. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0.

9.7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

> On Lines Pick the two edges on the left.C. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. at x=0. By using the symmetry B. as shown below. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.0 2. command. .

r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. . Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. then click OK.

click Sele All to reselect all nodes. click on Cancel to close the window. .Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. This is required to constrain the model in space. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. 3. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. Once you've clicked Sele All. Therefore. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. 4. otherwise it would be free to float up or down.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. r 5. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.

as shown below and click OK... Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. 2.55 in the Min.182 MPa.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.Max box. .

The average is used because in the analytical case. such as corners. the stress in the tube is 0. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. we must average the stress over the thickness.182 MPa. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. matching the analytical solution. to approximate the analytical solution. 3.. .18552 + 0. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. Thus. (0. The following window will appear.17866)/2. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness..r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.

The rest of the commands remain the same. with a rectangular hole in the middle. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. A . as expected due to the change in geometry. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the model is a flat..PDF version is also available for printing.4. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. rectangular plate. Thus.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. If this is done. Open the . but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling.

The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. a wall thickness of 10.1.7. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.

Y and Z axis.. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). /title.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define Element Types For this problem. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . .. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements.Catapult 3.Y and Z axis). 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. and rotation about the X.

there should now be three types of elements defined. s Select 'Combination'. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX.. ROTY).a. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. c. UY. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. a. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b.. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties.. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. For this example. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. Click 'OK'. UY). Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. ROTX. b. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. UZ. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'.. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. 4. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . s Select 'Combination'. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis.

In the window that appears.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'. c. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. 5.y.. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.33 6.z) (0.0.x. Define Element Material Properties 1. Click 'OK'. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.0.0) .0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0.1000) (1000.y. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.1000) (1000.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.#.0) (0. N. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.. there should now be three types of elements defined. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.

.0. 'Material number' is set to 1.400.1000) (0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.0.1000.500) (0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .1000.0.. Then click 'OK'.1500) (0. Create PIPE16 elements a.1000) (0. The following window will appear. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.700.500) (400.0.0.0) (700..500) (0.-500) 7.0) (0.

b. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 . node a. the first entry would be: E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.1. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'.6). Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.

The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Then click 'OK' b. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . three nodes are required. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Create elements When defining a joint.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation.

Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. To do this. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.node a. we do not need to mesh our model. 11. 10. node b.E. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. Then click 'OK' b. you can list all the elements defined in the model.node a. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.

3. we need to include the effects of large deformation.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering ..0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

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Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

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The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

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**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

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Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

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Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

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Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

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Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

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Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

this is not always the case. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. Comp selection box r r r 6. 1. In this case the maximum values for each are the same. . 8.3 (instead of NMISC. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. we can now solve the optimization problem. r r 7. fill it in as shown previously . r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define... however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. However. > Add. This will give you the max stress at the j node.. Fill this table as done previously. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'..1). Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. However. however..r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item.

0. .2. ..2 . .0 FLST..1.. 1.....txt’ Click ‘OK’.0.2. 2 !* HPTCREATE.1.UX.0...1.H .0. !* ET.1.W*H..UY. FLST.1. .0 MPDATA.P51X.3 !* LESIZE.2.RATI.. . 20 *SET.. . LMESH.75.1.start70.PRXY.. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.W . ..ANSYS RELEASE 7. .100...1. MPTEMP.ORDE.LINE.0. !* !* MPTEMP... . .200000 MPDATA.EX.ORDE..r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize. .2. K. . Design Optimization *SET.1 /title.1.ans..0. .(W*H**3)/12.2.H. L. . 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.3..1 FITEM.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input..'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad. 20 /PREP7 K.3...1.1 FITEM...1.1.BEAM3 !* !* R.ALL.1000..1 !* /GO DK. .

. . .SSUM.SMAX. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.ITEM. .optimization.UX. .MAX *SET.SMaxI.SMax_I.-2000 ! /STATUS. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.FY.ETAB.3 !* /GO FK. .NMISC. .UY.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.EVOLUME AVPRIN.1. !* SSUM !* *GET. .UY. . . ETABLE.P51X. However.1.3.ORDE.EVolume.P51X. ETABLE. 1 !* ESORT.SORT.!* /GO DK. .SMax_J. !* *GET.1 FITEM.SMaxJ. .SORT.0.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.VOLU. 3 !* ESORT. ETABLE.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.0. . Therefore.0.DK. .0.UX. Change this to: DK.0. . If you created the geometry etc.NMISC.Volume.0. . the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.. .2. using command line code.0.0. !* *GET.0. . most of these changes will already be made. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.1..0. .ETAB. FLST.1.MAX AVPRIN.0. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 ..SMAX_J. .0.P51X.C:\Temp\.0.UY.SMAX_I.2.

State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs.0. To define variables. . Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.0. . we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. In this example. Now that we have decided our design variables. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. For the width and height. . Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.FK. In this example. . 3.0.P51X.2.UY. In our problem.-2000 Change to: FK.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 .0. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. NOTE: As previously stated. r Click ‘OK’.3. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . If you are comfortable with command line coding. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. . Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . . .UY. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. . the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. Without this SV. the width and height of the beam are the DVs.DK. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears.FY. Change to: DK.FY.P51X. 2. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable.

We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). we do not need to define an allowable range.. ..01MPa. > Add.. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.on the volume of the beam.. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam.01mm. we will select a tolerance of 0. > Add. a.. For the stress variable.. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b.

. .s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.2% 7.. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. Defaults to 0.. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step... enter 200. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient.. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Under Convergence Tolerance.001) c. DELTA = 0. Percent forward diff. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. 6. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. confirm that the analysis file. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective. Click ‘OK’.2 Click ‘OK’. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Defaults to 10.

C. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. and the stress is equal to 199. 2. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’.24 mm... For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. B. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r . View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters..16 mm. height=29. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.. You will probably see that the width=13. View the Results 1.

Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. . Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.... you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. In the window.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. all of the results data (ie stress. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu.' and select the file.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .PDF version is also available for printing. In addition. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. displacement. Alternatively. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables.HTML version.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. .. Open the .

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The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 MPa. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. however. For this example. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply loads to the super-element .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. substructuring will be used for the wood block. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. v = 0. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.

.YCORNER. Apply remaining loads to the model. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. 3.. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.WIDTH. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.XCORNER. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements.. . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.2.

. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown.SUBST 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. This element has 4 nodes. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).29 6. r .1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm. 7. 5. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.

s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. In this case. r . With the option SEPR. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. 3. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied.

r In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .4.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. 5.

including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2...YCORNER.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. FILNAME. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .WIDTH. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4.XCORNER..Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model.

For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.. The following window will appear. 7. Young's modulus EX: 2.. For Selected set as shown. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. . Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Select Model Data.5 (MPa) ii. 9.). We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. Therefore. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.1 10.. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.6.. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data .41 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

. Select Nodes. 40 as shown.SUB File. By Location. The following window will appear.. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Y coordinates. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From ... .

In the window that appears. Apply super-element load vectors .. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..0 2.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.. > DOF solution.1 . Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector. Translation USUM PLNSOL. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .SUM.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. r 4...0.U. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.

Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname .. FILNAME. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Type 'EXPASS. r . The following window will appear. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.. The following window will appear.3.. r 3....ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step.db . r 2.. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..U.0..1 .4. Translation USUM PLNSOL. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution . > DOF solution.SUM.

. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. ..PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .HTML version. Open the .

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. However. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.the solutions and . the link will attemp to expand. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.. Loads will not be applied to the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). with no internal stresses. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. For convenience. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. .5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. a thermal conductivity of 60.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.. stress is created in the link. A steel link.

and write them to memory. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.. Although the geometry must remain constant.z) 1 2 (0. Thermal Environment . the geometry is kept constant. and using it with any following coupled environments. Thermal Stress Example 2. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.2 . the element types can change.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.x. For our case. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.y. It is important to note.. the analyses are coupled. For instance." Thus.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.1.0) (1. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution... where the thermal effects will be applied. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. /title. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. For a listing. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. K.#.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 4. However. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.y.

enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.. 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0.5 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. 6.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2.. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.... In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.1 meters. . Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. 9. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.. representing a link 1 meter long.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. KXX: 60.. 5.

Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. Structural Environment . which is defining the structural environment. In this case it is LINK 8. 1. etc. material properties. see the help file. such as the element type.11. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. It does not clear the geometry however. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. so it can be used in the next stage. In this case. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. 2.3 . This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. For more information on this element.

ALPX: 12e-6 3. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described.0 2. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. .Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

rth. you will get error messages. If this is not done. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. 3. this data can be found as file. enter the file name File. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. 8. 4. 7. the left-most point. to 348 Kelvin. were .rth. as expected. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. The thermal solution has now been obtained. . This should make it visible. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link.rth. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. We will use these results in determing the structural effects.rth is the thermal results file.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.9. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .

1 3.As shown.LS.1 ETABLE.CompStress. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. 2. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. List the Stress Data . the stress can't be listed in the normal way. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. Instead. an element table must be created first.

CompStr The following list should appear.180e9 Pa. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. or 180 MPa in compression as expected. Note the stress in each element: -0. .

. .HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Open the .

0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

ON Select p-Method Struct.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. as shown below . Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.. P-Method Meshing 2.

100) (20..3.100) (45.52) (55.y.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.52) (80. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.x. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.. K.#.100) .0) (0.y.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.

0) (55.1.10.48) (45. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.4.8.11.5. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.6.48) (20.100) (100.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100..0) (80.7.0) 5.2. .9.3..

8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 .. shown below. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). go to the Element Library in the help file. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. After clicking OK to select the element. Solid147. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm.. and Plane145.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For now we will leave them as default. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. 7. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight... In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. click Options.. > Add. enter the following geometric properties: i. Plane146. to open the keyoptions window. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. For more information on these elements.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 10.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 9. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm... .ii.

of substeps to 100. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. of substeps to 20. Min no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. . Max no. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4.

Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. select Stress > von Mises SEQV .

The following stress distribution should appear. .

. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.3.

and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. For more complex geometries. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. As a comparison. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. . these orders may go as high as 8.

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. However.PDF version is also available for printing. and still get reasonable results. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. A . the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. Open the .HTML version. This is the benefit of using p-elements..As one can see from the two plots. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. thus computational time will be low. .

Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Element birth is also possible. For further information. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. The elements are still technically there. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. but will not be discussed here. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following properties: . Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. Element Death 2.. enter the following properties: i. For this example. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..0.03. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. /title. enter the following properties: i.0.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.03 Height = 0. 5. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.03 4.03 BLC4. Quad 4node 55).0. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.0.

there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.0005m... Density DENS: 920 6. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software.i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. ANTYPE. you .4 2. so click OK. We will use the defaults. Therefore. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.

A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.FULL into the commmand line.must type NROPT. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. 3.

the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. refer to the help file. By writing the data at every step.D) Set Line search to ON . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . Basically. 4. For a complete description of what these options do.

In this example. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Convection. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Heat Generation. Heat Flux. Heat Flow. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. . or Radiation. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368.5.

The model should now look as follows: .

We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements.LAST 2. . Assume the material melts at 273 K. For instance. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. Here. elements to create the desired effect. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. or turn off. the user can manually kill.. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1.

thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. 3.' Fill the window in as shown below. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. .r Click on 'Add.. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire..

Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown. .

Click OK to restart the analysis. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. which this analysis doesn't call for. This is much too time consuming in this case. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. and close the warning message. thus it is just warning the user.all into the command line. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. 2. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. this will kill only those elements. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. .

With the window still open. . select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.

2. View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. more accurately modelling the heating process. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. A .HTML version. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point.. using command line code. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.This procedure can be programmed in a loop. . That way. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. to more accurately model element death over time.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . are 100mm long. Contact Elements 2. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. causing it to bend and contact the lower. The beams. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. as shown below. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa.

. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. r While the Element Types window is still open. Quad 4node 42) element.. click Options. 10) (50... For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. 100. 0. 5./PREP7 3.Height) 1 2 (0. WP Y... > Add. Width.WP Y...Width. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.WP X. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. . Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. 100. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. 15.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y). Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X. 10) 4.

Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. This is an important step. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.3 7. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. incremements slowly when contact is immenent.. . depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. pt-to-surf 48) element. 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9.. This way.. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. r While the Element Types window is still open.. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. click Options.. enter the following geometric properties: i. 8.

. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. you should decrease KN. enter the following properties: i. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. be sure to understand how the elements work.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. to function. In this situation. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window)... 10. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. Since this "spring" is so stiff. Other contact elements. rather than node to element edge. A small value of TOLS. given in %. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. . require a target element. If there is too much penetration. Thus. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. As the surfaces approach each other. resulting in convergence difficulties. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. you should increase KN. When using contact elements in your own analyses. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties.It is important to note. such as TARGE169. ii. such as CONTA175. This will be covered below. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. > Add..

. etc. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. Select the top beam and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. However. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. In this case. the source nodes will be selected. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. . when the geometry is complex. In this simple case.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. 11. First. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements.... ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. tolerances. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces.

.100. This will select the nodes above the lower beam..Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities..

Utility Menu > List > Nodes.. .. you should only have the following nodes remaining.s Now if you list the selected nodes.

it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. This can be very useful in other applications as well.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. Source. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. Now we can use this component. and click OK. In this case. If you have a lot of contact elements. .

The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100.. and click the Sele All button. These values will be the ones you'll use.. Using the same procedure as above.Now select the target nodes. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. This is done by opening the entity select menu. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others... clicking the Also Select radio button. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities. clicking the Also Select radio button. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. When creating the component this time. and click the Sele All button. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. enter the name Target. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. 12... This is done by opening the entity select menu.

.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged.

you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . your model should look like the following. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.At this point. If you wish. Unfortunately.

If you zoom in on the contact areas.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). The following image will appear: . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. The preprocessor stage is now complete.0 2. shown below. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.

Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. D. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. however.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. E. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . B. this takes time. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. C.

For more information about these commands. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. Again. Once everything is working. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . 3.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. leave these relatively high at first. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. Also. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. If you have too few substeps. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.

However. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Note. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . this is a point load on a 2D surface. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. 5.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. thus we will use a point load for simplicity.

Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. 3. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. then click ok. If you leave the scaling as default. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: .0 (true scale) radio button. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working.2. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. producing a stress distribution in both.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.As seen in the figure.. . A . the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

20 *ask. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.How many cross supports even number.How tall is the truss. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.LENGTH. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.100 *ask.HEIGHT.DIVISION. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions.How long is the truss. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL.2 . Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. Variables including length. using a length of 200 m.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.

(KEYP+1) *if.i.1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.THEN L.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.3 esize.link1 r.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.100 mp.KEYP.X_COORD.DIVISION.X_COORD.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.LE.1..(DIVISION-1).1.j.0 *else k.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.i.KEYP.NUM_K.KEYP.THEN k.1 .OSCILATE.1.GT.0.1.0.prxy.200000 mp.i.1.ex.

". in the code above there is a statement: *if. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop.3.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.all finish 1.10). IVAL.. determining if a certain case has occured. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. As seen above. Command File Mode of Solution ..1. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'.i. Thus in later parts of the code. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.9. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. the most intutitive method is to use "=". However.lmesh. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. This translates to "if the variable.0. In this case.10_K. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. FVAL. or a mathematical expression. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false.THEN. OSCILATE. For example. The syntax for the expression is *DO.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss.. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. (ie 1. 4.8. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. *do. Par. is greater than zero. For example. INC.How long is the truss. *ask. see the help file. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.2. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. 2. This argument can be a single value.LENGTH. For more information on this command. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m.. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.GT. then. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true.OSCILATE.

.HTML version.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. .PDF version is also available for printing.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. /title. Stress..) of the following example. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . etc.

Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.Width. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.0.0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Y and Z directions).. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 6. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.Height.3. 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize..

therefore. options 1. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). 5.ANTYPE. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. For this example we are trying to display a section. 4. 3. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7).0 2. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume.

CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. let's view deflection of the entire model.

increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . To illustrate how to take a cross section. let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. offset the working plane to the desired position.

you should now have the following: .As desired.

0. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises .0 WPROTA.0 2.SUM. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. Equivalent Stress Again. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.0. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations). however. simply use: WPCSYS. let's view stresses within the entire model..-1.0.0.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.1.This can be repeated for any slice.8 PLNSOL..Width/2.1 /TYPE.U.90 /CPLANE.

Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.5 PLNSOL. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.EQV.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.1 /TYPE. You should now see the following: .1.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).0.S.0. Because it is much easier.

For more information on how to modify the animation.. but please bear with me. Animation Now. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. In the graphics window. type help ancut into the command line. select the node in the back. Finally. r r . for something a little more impressive. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Unfortunately. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis.. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). Next. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). and the Y axis. the origin.3. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. the sweep direction. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse...HTML version.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .' and select the file. .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. For example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.

.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. 4. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Then.0. the circles) and click OK. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. The remaining area should look as shown below.200. the rectangle) and click OK.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.WP Y.0. /title. r . select the area to remain (ie. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.WP X..

8. click 'Options. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete......3 . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.6. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). > Add...' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. enter a thickness of 10. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears. In the 'Element Types' window.. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.

Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction...9. 10. 3. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . The model should now look like the figure below. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2.

Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . you could create a normal contour plot. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. 1. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. if the stress near the holes are of interest.4. However. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

To keep window 1 visible during replots. shown below. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r .To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. r r 2. Turn window 1 'off'. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. you must make a couple of changes. meaning this function off. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark.

For this example. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. 3. equivalent stress is desired. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. or in other words. r . you must choose what to map to the path.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. what results should be available to the path. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK.

This is of little concern though. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. 4. so disregard the warning.

there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Due to resolution restrictions. .The display should look like the following. Note. these dots are not shown here.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . A .' and select the file.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.

Use of Tables for Data Plots . Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . a special type of array. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. finer resolution can be achieved.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Length of the following beam using tables.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. /title. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. By plotting this data on a curve..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. rather than using a contour plot. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L..0) (400.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. 7.y. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. 6.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.y. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii..z) 1 2 (0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1.#. > Add. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Define Element Material Properties ... enter the following geometric properties: i. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element..0) 4. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. and rotation about the Z axis).2.x.. K.

. The model should now look like the figure below. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. . 9.3 8. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2.0 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Create the Table . Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Tables. but they can be used for much more. 1. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.4. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.. > OK. For this example there are 21 nodes.. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. This example is a simplified use of tables. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. 2. Therefore. a special type of array.

Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. The reason for this will be explained below. one more than the number of nodes... select Model Data > Nodes r .2. In the window shown below. Note there are 22 rows. Enter Data into Table First.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. 3.1]. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .

Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. r . r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. and continues down the column. Next. the vertical displacement will be recorded. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. and continues down the column. column 1.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 2.1) > All > Location > X].. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1..

to provide room to move this data. This is why a table with 22 rows was created.4. This causes problems during plotting. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. Thus. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). as it is keypoint 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table.

r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). Select File > Apply/Quit 5. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Fill it in as shown. r . UY = -0.833) is in row two. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis.

To see the changes to the labels... select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below.r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . r r .

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version..PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

1. changing the background colour.1. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.10 mp.all.1.0.833. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.ex. For instance.0 dk.2.1. numbering the nodes.100.1. finish /clear /title.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.333. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.0 K.100.3 esize.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.all finish /solu antype.5 lmesh.2 et. etc.200000 mp.0 L.1.prxy.beam3 r.

2.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.fk. The following window will appear: ...fy.

You should get the following: .From this window you can select which items you wish to number. However. sometimes the numbers won't show up. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. To remedy this problem. When you click OK. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. For instance. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. select the node numbering and plot the nodes.

The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. 2. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing.As shown. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. the nodes have been numbered. These extra symbols may not be necessary.

so those sections won't be used. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. there are no Surface or Body Loads. Under the Boundary conditions section. In our case. or Initial Conditions. .This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

As shown in the window. it is things associated with the window background. The following output should be the result. In this case.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. the legend or title can be turned off. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. . To turn off the triad. etc.

. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.4.. .

When using line elements. thus elements are not going to show up. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. . If there is no change in output. To aid in this process. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. don't be alarmed. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. The following should appear. such as BEAM3. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes.

To get a better 3-D view of the model. you can change the view orientation.. 5. the elements are no longer just a line. .As shown.. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. but they have volume according to the real constants.

translate the view and zoom. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. Basic rotating. . such as isometric or oblique. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. You can also select predefined views. Using these options.This window allows the user to rotate the view. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse.

you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. If you don't like the colours of the contour. those can also be changed. they can be changed.6. Under uniform contours. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. Under non-uniform contours.. Changing Contours First. plot the deformation contour for the beam. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions.. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours.

Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. . but don't want a black background. and we'll set the background colour to white.. Here we are only using Window 1.. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. 7.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus.

Notice how all the text disappeared. select Save As. such as contour values. If there is information that needs to be added.. .The resulting display is shown below. This is because the text colour is also white. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. To save the display.. this can be done in other graphic editors. Under the File heading.

If you are looking for a specific option. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. these are just a few. . as is the help file.

This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. e. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode.. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. When it is complete. Then before you are finished. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. to a text file.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc..cmd) is stored and select it. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. see the next item in this list. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch.. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You may need to select Plot -> . frame.g. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. or if you'd like to save the whole file. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. select Read Input from. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file.

If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file.cmd.. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory.frame. To rerun the command file. .q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. Select File -> Clear & Start New. etc. then from the ANSYS input window.. stress.) between frame and cmd. type /input. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. Save those changes to disk. Command Line File Loading Alternatively... make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. you may need to point it to the proper directory./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. you would use the following syntax /input. At this point you could type in /menu.frame. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands..start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows.cmd and yes that is a comma (.on. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. If the file was in the directory. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. mode). X11c. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from.

z2 cylind. .x2.. kp18 a.y2.theta1.x1.kp2.z1.kp1. kp6 a.rad2.a1.y1. kp8 va.kp1.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry..y2 block.theta1. . applying loads and constraints.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus ..rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.kp1.l1.xcoord. .ycoord. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.x2.l2.kp2.rad1.z2.kp2.kp3.kp1. .y1.zcoord l.rad1.kp#...x1.kp2..z1. l10 v.rad2.a2.. .theta2 sphere. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis... a10 see online help see online help rectng. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k..kp2 larc.kp1.

a1.type may define as many as required.. a9 aglue.c0.a1..inc or amesh. current type is set by real real. current type is set by type type. r6 may define as many as required.number mp.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.a2 aina.r2.number.inc or lmesh.number esize. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.size..line1.c1..label.all amesh. c4 may define as many as required. .a1.number. ..a1.area2.a2.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh. ..r1.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) . a9 asba.area1.a2.number... current type is set by mat mat.number r..line2. .a2.. .

ROTX.ROTY.ROTY.ALL dl.label.node#.value labels: FX.kp#.FY.MX.label.e.FZ.vol2.UZ.MX.ROTX.MY.value labels: UX.area#.FY. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.ROTZ.MY.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.ROTZ.label.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).node#.ALL d.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .vol1.kp#.UY.UY.label.FZ.value labels: UX.value labels: FX.MZ f.UZ.inc or vmesh.line#.

It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.ndivs. if only is entered.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.0 k. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.1 ! do i = 1.x. a default of "5" is used ! *IF. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.0.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".else .then .x1.Enter number of divisions (default 5).x2. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.ndivs. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.2.1.0.ndivs+1.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.GT.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).i.1.i.

.kp.all..1 kplot klist.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .! /pnum.

Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. ANSYS 7. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. extrusion.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. Boolean operations. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

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This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Transient Thermal Examples .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations).0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS 7.Pure Conduction . Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Dynamic Analysis . In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Modal Dynamic Analysis .

Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples .Thermal Examples . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Modelling Using Axisymmetry . Analysis of heat conduction over time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Additionally.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. ANSYS 7. Using element death to model a volume melting. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

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TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. a special type of array.

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1.8. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0 k.0.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.6.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.-1 k.0.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.0.1 k.699*10**(-8) k.7 emis2=0.0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0254 rout=8*0.0.0 k.7. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.

5.2 lsel.arc. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder..1 MAT.s..1..1.rin.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.emis1 EMIS.1 csys.1 R.2 SE.1 STEF.stefbolt WRITE.2.arc.1 lsel.6..emis2 VTYPE.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.1 ESIZE.circle.all csys.all lsel..7.1.KXX.. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.rout LMESH.ALL lsel.loc.2.2.1 MAT.7.KXX.x.TEMP ET.VM125 TOFFST.1.ndiv CIRCLE.0 GEOM.rout. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.offset ! inner cylinder.MATRIX50...1 MP.8.s.1..1 TYPE.x..all MP.loc.ndiv ET.rin LMESH.1.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE ..LINK32.

ALL.FSUM.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.rout D.LABEL. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.HEAT *DIM..x.csys.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.loc.VALUE.loc.s.T1 nsel.all csys.s.0.ALL.1.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.s.rin D.1 nsel.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.2 *DIM.loc. K /POST1 csys.s.all nsel.ITEM.x.T2 nsel.x.Q.all nsel.loc.TEMP.x.1.CHAR.3 LABEL(1.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .all *GET.TEMP.1 nsel.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.

LABEL(1.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.VALUE(1.DATA.exact *VFILL.' '.VALUE(1.3) /COM.1F5.VALUE(1. FINISH .DATA.3).1). /COM.1.F10.' '.3) (1X.2).1). *VWRITE.VALUE(1.DATA.' '.--------------.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.1).Q *VFILL.VALUE(1.A8.2).F10.*VFILL.------------------------------------------------------/COM.1. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.VALUE(1.

The first three mentioned below are text based.dat at the UNIX prompt. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. nedit . These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. but the backspace key does work normally. but have a steep learning curve.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. In pico. for example. one simply types pico test. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. press this key. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico.dat. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. To use pico to edit the file test. so they are always available. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals.

Applications .3 file format used by DOS. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name.nedit is a very simple to use. From a UNIX command window. It features pull-down menus. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. multiple file editing. It could then be edited.exe (look under the r: drive). Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. when saving files in PFE. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. and block delimiting with the mouse. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor.. and then renamed back to its original name. Very nice. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. For this reason. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. Therefore. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. type wabi or win. saved. and look at the option in the dialog box. undo. yet powerful X Windows editor.. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe.

therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. check . A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. If you've got some time. Once this is done. two methods are avialable: 1. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. 2. heat transfer and fluid problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. item. over a modem.. it is necessary to select the Interactive . and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. Then choose GUI configuration. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. Press Enter to continue. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show.. From the next dialog box that appears. select your desired font size. Press Enter to continue.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. From this menu. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. To start ANSYS.x11c /menu. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. you may enter ANSYS commands.

To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. like that shown above. and design optimization. Toogood. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. see Dr. For further information on this program. performs finite element analysis. Yokota. check out the Fluent Web page. For further information on using ANSYS. A companion program. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. sensitivity studies. If you've got some time. . Pro/Mechanica. Fyfe.out the ANSYS Web page. including static analysis. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. click on the car figure. see Dr. For more information about this program. see Dr. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures.

f and not test.f Normally no options are required.f sub1. This program would be run by entering . such as error messages./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. to a file. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. for example. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line.out (logical. i. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.out.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile.f >& errorfile will compile main.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. and output is the name of the file to which the output .f and sub1. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. For learning about the compiler's many options.f sub1. Note that the . your file must be named something like test.f.' is in your path (this is changed in your . To change the executable's output name to test. . If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. xlf by itself. For example: xlf main. see Configuration Files). Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. type the command.f sub3.f To run this program.F. you now type. isn't it?). Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.for or TEST. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename.f sub2.cshrc file. If your program code consists of many files and libraries./a. e./test. redirecting it).e. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.

symbolic and plotting functions. and not actually exit the editor. Note that the text . So. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. The keyboard will still accept the input. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. printed and even imported into a word processor. if you know when to enter data. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. however.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. If the program normally prompts the user for input. you simply type: . It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. because it too is being sent to the output file. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. The resulting text file may then be edited. From the Matlab prompt. In this way you will have one window to edit your . the prompt will not appear on the screen. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. and what data to enter. you can still run your program this way.m files.will be sent.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab.

you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). Depending from where you are trying to access these computers.labs. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. you must have an X server running on your local machine. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. For example. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab.ualberta. by issuing the command. . you will need to acquire and run an X server program. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. The workstations are named mec01. Once the job is completed.labs through to mec30. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. but is very slow when running it over a modem.labs. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. For example.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page.

You can enter the mail program called pine. In this command. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. Pine is based on the pico editor. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand.ca.srv. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). but GPU does. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). If your CNS login id is jblow. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. This file is printed in the small room.txt. . Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. free of charge. Many applications. To use E-mail then. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. just outside the main part of the lab. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. for example. The mecxx. newsgroups and WWW. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. see FTP. To do this. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. To use it. type.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. either through lynx. or by typing pine at the prompt. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU.ualberta.

lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. .20 per page. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building.eps scale c where filename. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. see table of contents. getting started. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price.145 (see FTP). room B-111). the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer.85. issue the command: plotpostscript filename. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service.128. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. Prints are $0. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. room 240. or appendices. From a GPU account login. If you fail to do so. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. For further information.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster).

is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. width/2. #. width. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.1. y K. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 0. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0 ! keypoint. reaction forces. and stress for the truss system shown below. 3*width/2. 0 K.height K.2. Note that Young's Modulus.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. E. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.123) ! /title. height . This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. A. x.3. p.4.

2.3.2 L. 5*width/2.UY. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.LINK1 R.5 L.1. 3*width.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.3.EX.-210e3 FK.4.1.4 L.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.6.ALL.3.0.-280e3 FK.FY.4 L.6 L.1.ALL.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK. spring element ! real constant #1.5.7 L.4.3 L.1.6 L.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET. K.2 PLNSOL. .0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.1.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.2. K.200e3 ! element type #1.7.1.FY.7.1.6.5 L.1.SUM.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.5.3250 MP.FY.7.5.F PLDISP.5. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection . . ! ! define lines ! L. 2*width.U.K.FY.1.3 L.

SAXL.SAXL.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .ETABLE.SAXL PLETAB. 1 PRETAB.LS.

3 L. E. #. 0 K.1. width. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . width/2.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.6. height K.mece.123) ! /title.height K.4.www. y K. 2*width. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.3 L.2.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.2. 5*width/2. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. 0. Note that Young's Modulus.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. and stress for the truss system shown below. 0 ! keypoint.5. A. reaction forces.3. height K.1.ualberta. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. x. 3*width. 3*width/2.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. p.2. 0 K.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.www.0 SFL.4.S.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . .ALL.0 DL.PRES.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.mece.

80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.20. A figure of the plate is shown below.80. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.100 CYL4.0.-20.20. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.0.60 ! Enter the pre-processor . plane stress.0.50.20 BLC4. and uniform pressure loading. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.20 CYL4. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.20. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.50 CYL4.80.

1.0 .ALL.ALL CYL4.14.direction.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ALL.10 CYL4. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction . DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10 ASBA.Poisson's ratio. DL.0.1.5 ! lesize. 9.80.keypoint.11. DL.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.0 ..0.all areas. DL.force ! Solve the problem .ALL.30 CYL4.EX.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition . 8.FY.PLANE82 KEYOPT.ALL.ALL.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.20.AADD.0.12.material number. 7. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.1.0 .9.50.0 .3. .200000 MP.ALL.value ! mp.0 .10.3 ! mp.0 .1.13.material number.ALL.Young's modulus.real set number.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.0 .1.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.PRXY.80.20 ! r. DL. DL.ALL. DL.ALL.0 ! amesh. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type..6.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.

LBOT /WIND. PLNSOL.U.S..4.4.0.OFF /WIND.1 /replot PRNSOL.4.LTOP /WIND.0.10.0.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.0..0036 /CONT.1.1 /CONT.RTOP /WIND.EQV.340000.SUM.2 /GCMD.0.3.10.1 /GCMD.ALL.ALL.0.10. PLNSOL.2.05e-3 /FOC.3.2. PLDISP. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .-0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.1. PLNSOL.EPTO.1 /GCMD.DOF..3.2.0...0.8 /CONT.EQV.

and uniform pressure loading. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.ualberta.80.0. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. plane stress.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.www. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.0. A figure of the plate is shown below. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.mece.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.

80.real set number.3.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH..20.ALL.20 CYL4.mece. 9. DL.9. DL.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.20.1.ALL.0 .80.material number.0 .ALL CYL4. DL.20 BLC4.200000 MP. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.ALL.ALL. DL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.6.5 ! lesize.ALL.value ! mp.1.1. . DL.80.0 ! amesh.50. DL.0.12.ualberta.13.0 .0.0 .1.-20. 7.keypoint. 8.PRXY.10.80.material number.20 ! r.0.30 CYL4.20.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .20.ALL ! Boolean Addition . all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.0 .html CYL4.ALL.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.0 .-1000 (fk command) !fk.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..Young's modulus.0.60 AADD.0 .11.0.ALL.3 ! mp.10 CYL4.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .direction.1.FY.Poisson's ratio. DL.all areas.50 CYL4.EX.ALL.PLANE82 KEYOPT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.10 ASBA.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.www.14.50.ALL.

0. PLDISP.EQV.1.1 /GCMD.1.1 /CONT.8 /CONT.3.ALL. PLNSOL.0.10.05e-3 /FOC.10..EPTO.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.10.DOF. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .-0.mece.4.2. PLNSOL.1 /replot PRNSOL.OFF /WIND..0.0.0.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. PLNSOL.S.SUM.0036 /CONT.www.340000.RTOP /WIND.LTOP /WIND.0..4.0.LBOT /WIND..ALL..4.2.1 /GCMD.0.U.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EQV.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.2 /GCMD.ualberta.3.3.

Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Filleting. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. . extrusion/sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.

1002.. .7.1.0..0.3.22.0.10.3.2.0.26..0.5.2002. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.11.5 CYL4.0.1001.ALL LFILLT.5.4.2.5 AADD. .5.0.5.5 BLC4.0.0.3.1 BLC4.2. .2001.ALL ! Sweep K.360.10.5.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .6 AGEN.5.-0.2.2.2 ASBA..11) AL..0. AL.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.3.ALL CYL4.0 VROTAT.3. 1001 and 1002 K.0. . .5 AADD.1.0 K.2.7.14 AADD..8.1.6.5.4.8..1.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.1 AGEN.3.0.1002.1.1001.9 lines 9.0 K. .

2.0 K.6 AL.180 CYL4.02 KWPLAN.51 AADD.1.0.4.1 VGEN.3.5.20 K.13.all.8.sqrt(3)/0.-20.0.6.5.6.1.5.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.2002.5.10 vsbv. .all. .2003.8 vsbv.0.159.100.109.5 CYL4.100.6 vsbv. .2 CYL4. .all.11 vsbv.20 LARC.27. .2.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .20 L.102. .102.20.26 VADD.82 K. .-1.0 K.7 AADD.0.6. .109.69 AGEN.0.2.6.0.25.all.5.101.5.5 vsbv.3.26 VOFFST.5. .1.1 KWPLAN.9 vsbv.7. .K.1.8.7.8.0.1.20 LARC.0.2.82 K.2003 CSYS.2.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.45.62 ASBA.102 K. .-20.2.102 BLC4.0.2001.4.180. .109.51.7 vsbv.5.1.10 AGEN.ALL VOFFST.0.4.101.102.26 K.102.

36.57735*26).33.204.57735*26) + 38.7.-20. .26 K.5.60 VADD.203.61.200.200.AADD.203. VADD. .180.0.204 VOFFST. sqrt(3)/2*76.61.2.26 K.38 AADD. .-20.-1. .20.3 CYL4.200.202.51. . .51.202 CSYS.34.1 WPCSYS.129-(0.0 system K.0 A.60 VSBV.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.37 CYL4.32.30 KWPLAN. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .180. 129-(0.0.61.201.-1.1.0 K.201.18.32.

www. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.mece. extrusion/sweeping. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Filleting. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.ualberta.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . copying. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.

9 AL.2.ALL CYL4.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.4.2.1 AGEN. LFILLT.www.5.2002.14 AADD.1.5 CYL4.2003.0.0. .7.0 VROTAT.ALL LFILLT.0.2.0. K.1.1002.3.5.0.ALL ! Sweep K.0.0..mece. AL.0 K..1.5 AADD.5.1.26.1.6.3.0.0 K.5.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0.8.7...2.5 AADD.2 ASBA.3.10.0. .ualberta.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2. .0. .4.11.3.22.3.0 K.1 BLC4..0.5.1001.360.-0.1002.8.2..3. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.5.6 AGEN.1001.5.5 BLC4.2001.0.3.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ..

180 CYL4.5 CYL4.26 K.109.180.82 K.36.2.34.38 AADD.3.2001. .7.102 K.6.20 LARC.ualberta.25.62 ASBA.100. . .0.0.1.109.9 vsbv.32.101.6.102.0.5.8.1.10 vsbv.20 L.20.2.2002.ALL VOFFST.-20.20 LARC.27.1.1.5. .7.8.2.html KWPLAN.-1.109.2 CYL4.0.2.www.159.all. .5.11 vsbv.2.0.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.5. . .6.102 BLC4.8 vsbv.all.26 VOFFST.2003 CSYS.4.5.02 KWPLAN.101.20 K.102.33. .8.7 AADD.7 vsbv.69 AGEN.10 AGEN.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.-20.0.4.all.1.1.4.51 AADD.51.6 vsbv. .26 VADD.100.0 K.13.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.102.102.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.5. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .0 K.5.sqrt(3)/0.all.5 vsbv.6 AL.45.1 VGEN.2 AADD.mece.0. .5.2.0.6.82 K.

61. sqrt(3)/2*76.0 K.-1.32.1 WPCSYS.5.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.20.1.26 K.-20.202 CSYS.51.61.201.180.201.61.200.html CYL4.3 CYL4. .204.200. .26 K.203.0. . ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .200. .0.30 KWPLAN.203.2.7.51.mece.ualberta.57735*26).129-(0.202.0 A.18.204 VOFFST.www.180. .0 K.57735*26) + 38. 129-(0.60 VSBV.-1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .-20.60 VADD. .4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K. VADD.

1.Width*Height.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.1.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 ! Set element type R. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Height MP.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.EX.1.2 ET.1.2.Length.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .0.Width*(Height**3)/12.0 K.0 L.

MP.0.1.86e-6 LESIZE.1.7.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .9.0 DK.. ACEL.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.PRXY.3 MP.ALL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. LMESH.0.ALL.Length/10.1.DENS.

BEAM3 ! Set element type R.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.www.0.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.Height MP.2.0 K. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.EX. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP. LMESH. ANSYS Command Listing /Title. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.Length.ualberta.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Width*Height.2 ET.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.1.PRXY.1.1.1.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.0 L.ALL.0.1.Length/10.DENS.1.Width*(Height**3)/12.

ualberta.www. ACEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print..ALL.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.0.html DK.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.9.

0 L. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0.2.1.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .0 K.1000.1.0. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. ANSYS Command Listing /title.

0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .1.0 DK.PRES..1.UY DK..NMISC.EX.SMAXI.1.2 ETABLE.833.1. 3 PLLS.100.BEAM3 R.0.100 LMESH.333.SMAXJ.area.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.NMISC.PRXY.1.ALL.0 SFBEAM.1.33 ESIZE.SMAXI.0.SMAXJ.I.2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.UX.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data . 1 ETABLE.10 MP.200000 MP.ET.UY.

1.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 ET.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..0 K.1000. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.mece.0.1.1.ualberta. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.ht. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.2.0 L. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa..

R.SMAXI.PRXY.NMISC.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 ! Real constants .1.I.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.2 ETABLE.33 ESIZE.mece.100 LMESH.SMAXJ.UY DK.www.10 MP.833.ualberta.2..area.. 3 PLLS.ALL. 1 ETABLE.0 SFBEAM.0 DK.UX.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE...200000 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.1.0.UY.100.1.1.SMAXI.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .333.1.1.PRES.ht.EX.SMAXJ.0.NMISC.

10.1. one above top of the other. plane stress w/thick.0.4 aplot ! define element type ET.. In this model there are two blocks.2.2.. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground. /title. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. 1.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.7. with a small separation.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. nodal.2 ! element type 1.5.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 0. strs out type.1 ! activate element type 1 R. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.3.plane42.0.01 ! thickness 0.5.

2.2.2D contact elements keyo. 200e3 MP.loc.source.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything . 1.NUXY.1.2..2.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.1 ! nsel. 0..2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.0.20e3. 20e3 MP.0..EX.99.s.! define material properties MP.3 MP.s.1 r.2.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.EX.contac48.7.2 /pnum.2 amesh.1 amesh.35 mat.1 ! defines second element type .area.NUXY.1 real.3 ! meshing esize.0.r.2 ! nsla.1 esize.5 mat. 2.1.y.01 ! cm.mat.005. 0.10 TYPE..

y.4 dk.1 nsla.target.7.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .area.3 finish /solution antype.loc.s.s.99.y.1 nsel.x.5 ksel. a small tolerance is used d.loc.1.5 ksel.loc.loc..-100 allsel time.r.loc.fy.all.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.loc.target.2.s.all.y.y.r.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.asel.on pred.full.x.all.100 autots..all.20.01 cm.source.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).s.4 fk.stat.1 nsubst.s.2.all.on nropt.node gcgen.r.

0.0.1.1.prxy.1.2 et. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.30.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .069e-5.1 lmesh.3 esize. To solve this problem.1.1.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.2.0e6 mp. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0.125 mp. After each increment.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. the load will added incrementally.03125.ex.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .5.0 k.0. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. izz.1.4. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.beam3 r.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0 l.

5.1.all.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots./solu antype.2.1 PRNSOL.U.mz.1000.all ! save results of all iterations dk.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .static nlgeom.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load. max # substeps=1000. min # substeps=1 outres.all fk.

3 esize.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .prxy.1.0. After each increment.1.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.mece.069e-5.0 l.5. To solve this problem. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0 k.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print. izz.1 lmesh.0.30. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.1.0.www. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.2.1.4.2 et. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.0e6 mp.beam3 r.03125. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .125 mp.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.ualberta.ex. the load will added incrementally.1.1.0.0.

5.all. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ualberta.all dk.mece.html /solu antype.1 PRNSOL.mz.U.all fk.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.www.on nsubst.2.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.on autots.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.static nlgeom.1 outres.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.1000.

The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. material nonlinearities and gaps. ie. load perterbations.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. static analysis to predict buckling loads. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. . structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. 2. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. in reallife. For this type of analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. real-world buckling prediction analysis. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. However. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. This method is not recommended for accurate. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. largedeflection.

area (mm^2).EX.ALL.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.100.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.333.2 ESIZE.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.1.0.PRXY. The required load to cause buckling.200000 MP.10 MP. applied at the top-center of the beam.1.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.10 LMESH. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1. will be calculated. rigidly constrained at the bottom.833. I (mm^4). ANSYS .BEAM3 R.1.0 K.1.100 L.3 K.0.1.2. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.0.

LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .2.1.100.1.10 K.LIST SET.LANB.FY.0.0.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.0 L. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.2 ESIZE.subspace.833.100.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.200000 MP. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1 LMESH.2.BUCKLE BUCOPT.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. I.PSTRES.EX.1.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .333.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).ALL FK.0 K.PRXY. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.3 R.ON DK. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .ON MXPAND.1.0.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.1.1.

2.3 /AXLAB.0 FK.1.NLGEOM.ALL NSUBST.1 DK.2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.X.2.2.FY.ON /ESHAPE.ALL.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .1.Y NSOL.U.3.ON LNSRCH.FX.ALL.2 PLVAR.Y.ON OUTRES.20 NEQIT.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y XVAR.-50000 FK.1000 AUTOTS.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.F.

load perterbations. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. large-deflection. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. in real-life. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. However. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. For this type of analysis. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. This method is not recommended for accurate.ualberta.www. ie. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. material nonlinearities and gaps.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. static analysis to predict buckling loads. 2. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.mece.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. real-world buckling prediction analysis.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.100 L. area (mm^2). rigidly constrained at the bottom.PRXY. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.3 K.1.833.ALL.333. The required load to cause buckling. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .EX.1.1.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.10 MP.200000 MP. applied at the top-center of the beam.1.0.0 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.0.www.mece.1.2.BEAM3 R. will be calculated.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. I (mm^4).ualberta.10 LMESH.2 ESIZE.100.0.

necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution . SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC PSTRES.ON OUTRES.2.subspace. I.ALL.333.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.ualberta.LANB.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0.1.html ANTYPE.100.833.BUCKLE BUCOPT. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.200000 MP.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0.100.LIST SET.0 L.1 LMESH.ALL FK.0.1.ON MXPAND.EX.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.0.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .ON DK.PRXY.STATIC NLGEOM. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .3 R.mece.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.1.0 K.FY. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 ESIZE.1.10 K.www.1.1.

2 PLVAR.X.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.FX.www.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3 /AXLAB.20 NEQIT.U.ualberta.ON /ESHAPE.F.FY.mece.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y NSOL.Y XVAR.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.0 FK.2.2.3.html NSUBST.2.ON LNSRCH.1.1.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .2.-50000 FK.1 DK.1000 AUTOTS.Y.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.

1.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1..0. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". For this analysis.1. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. For instance.MELA.75000 MP.3 TB.2.0.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. In such a case. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.2 ET.12. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.001.LINK1 R. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.100 l.1.EX.25 MP.1.PRXY. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.1.. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0.75 .0 k.

0 DK.U.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM..20..TBPT.2.2.ALL AUTOTS....1000.1.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.225 TBPT.3.0.all FK..275.U.450 ESIZE.Y.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..ON NEQIT.ON LNSRCH..004.300 TBPT...1 PLNSOL.25.150 TBPT...1000 ANTYPE.Y.ALL.2 PLVAR.FY.....003.2.1.15.1 OUTRES..ON NSUBST.2.025..LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .X.Y NSOL..3 /AXLAB.355 TBPT.F..DEFLECTION /AXLAB.Y XVAR.435 TBPT.449 TBPT.390 TBPT.420 TBPT.250 TBPT.1.005.240 TBPT..5 LMESH.002.06..

Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).2 ET.0.mece.100 l.ualberta.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.. For this analysis. For instance.LINK1 R.0 k. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.www. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.1. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.2.1. In such a case. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".1.

....1000.2...3.Y.1.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.www.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.025.1.1000 ANTYPE.435 TBPT.005.275...240 TBPT.25..250 TBPT.0.ON NSUBST..PRXY.75 TBPT.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.EX. TBPT.FY..Y XVAR.0 DK..U.1 OUTRES..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.75000 MP..LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 PLNSOL. MP.002.390 TBPT..300 TBPT.1..450 ESIZE.06...ALL AUTOTS.Y.X.1.F.3 /AXLAB.3 TB.449 TBPT.003.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.all FK.U.0..mece.2 PLVAR..MELA.2.004..5 LMESH..001..ALL.15.1...150 TBPT.1.ualberta.420 TBPT.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.ON LNSRCH..355 TBPT.225 TBPT.ON NEQIT.Y NSOL.20.2.12.

.0 /PREP7 K.8.0.1. /TITLE.7830 LESIZE.PRXY.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.DENS.1.BEAM3 R..0 L.1.EX.2.33e-10.10 LMESH.0 K.1.0.2.1.ALL.068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.33 MP.Dynamic.2 ET.0.1.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .1.01 MP.0.0001.1.

Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

.0) (1. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0) . Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . 1. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4... Open preprocessor menu 2. Define Lines (0.y) 1 2 5.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.. 3.

For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element... 8. enter the following geometric properties: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.33e-10 iii.068e11 ii.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. 6.... > Add. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. 7. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0001 ii. . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials..3 To enter the density of the material.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 10. 9.01 m x 0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. and rotation about the Z axis). With only 3 degrees of freedom. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Young's modulus EX: 2. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.01 m. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8.

1.2 ET.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .0 L.2.0.0 K.0.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.2.01 MP.1.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.1.8.33 MP.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.DENS.EX.1.I.068e11 MP.1.PRXY.0001.0.33e-10.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.BEAM3 R.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.

0. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1.5.LESIZE.10 LMESH.10.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.5 EQSLV.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE..SUBSP.2 MODOPT. .LIST SET..5 DK.FRONT MXPAND.ALL.

1.1.EX..2.0 K.1.1.1.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.www.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta.BEAM3 R.I.0001.0.33 MP.33e-10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.0.ALL.1.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2 ET.PRXY.8.1.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2.068e11 MP.01 MP..7830 LESIZE.10 LMESH.DENS.mece.

1. .ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SUBSP.10.5.www. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.FRONT MXPAND.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.5 DK.0.2 MODOPT.ualberta.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 EQSLV.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LIST SET.

. These 3 methods are the Full . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .100 Hz.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

DENS.0.1.I. KBC.FY.0.068e11 MP.ALL. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.2.2.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.BEAM3 R.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.3 DK. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.EX.0 K.7830 LESIZE.PRXY.0001.33e-10.2. UY_2 STORE.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1..MERGE PRVAR.0.1.100 HARFRQ. NSUBST.1.8.100.2..0.33 MP.10 LMESH.1.Y.U.2 ET.1.2 PLVAR.0.1.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.100.2.ALL FK.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .0 L. However.01 MP.

These 3 methods are the Full . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.ualberta.100 Hz.mece.www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

MERGE PRVAR.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.33 MP.1.www.2.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.U.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Y.0 L.ALL.3 DK.2.1.mece.2 ET. KBC..100 HARFRQ.2 PLVAR.01 MP.8.100.1. However.ualberta..1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.33e-10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.100.1. NSUBST.2.1.FY. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.0.PRXY.1.10 LMESH.068e11 MP.7830 LESIZE.0001.2.DENS.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.I.0.BEAM3 R.2. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE. UY_2 STORE.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0 K.0.1.ALL FK.0.EX.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. .Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example. a static analysis may be used instead. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.

the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. Therefore. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. In other words. All types of non-linearities are allowed. The smaller the time step. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. . transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. However. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. After the application of the load. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. In ANSYS. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.

we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.2. TRANS TRNOPT.0 /PREP7 K. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.0001.S.2.2.2 ET. if stresses and forces are of interest than.10 LMESH..PRXY.7830 LESIZE. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.1.0 K..DENS.ALL D.All.068e11 MP.0.0.1. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.11.0 L.Dynamic.ALL F.EX. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).33e-10.1.ALL. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis..1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.FY.BEAM3 R. .1. the calculations are much quicker. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.0.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). DELTIM. However.8.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.0. .1.2.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.33 MP. M.REDUC. NSEL. However.0.01 MP..1. It is the quickest of the three methods.UY.

001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.MERGE PLVAR.'Dynamic'.'rdsp'.' NSOL.2. UY_2 STORE.0.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.Y.2.3. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. ! Sets time to 0.'.2.001s TIME.0 !* LSSOLVE.1.0 FDELE.U. . In this case.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.!At time equals 0.2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.001 KBC. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.1 KBC. time !Please note.

Copyright 2003 . for example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.mece. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.http://www. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. a static analysis may be used instead.ualberta.University of Alberta .html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. For our case.

a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior.University of Alberta . Therefore.ualberta. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. The smaller the time step. However. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).mece. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. In ANSYS. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.http://www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. After the application of the load. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. In other words. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. Copyright 2003 .

html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. However. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. All types of non-linearities are allowed.. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).0 K.2.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.01 MP.068e11 MP.FY. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.1.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.1.0001.All.0.0 L. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.1.ualberta.0..1.33 MP.1..0 /PREP7 K.1. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. the calculations are much quicker. It is the quickest of the three methods.http://www. .33e-10.University of Alberta . The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).2 ET.2.DENS.mece.10 LMESH.8.PRXY.7830 LESIZE.ALL F. DELTIM.1.2.REDUC.1.BEAM3 R.. M. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.ALL D. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.S.1.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .ALL.EX.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. However. if stresses and forces are of interest than.0. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.0.11. NSEL. .UY.Dynamic. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. TRANS TRNOPT.

Copyright 2003 .'rdsp'.University of Alberta .ualberta.html !At time equals 0.2.'Dynamic'.'.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. ! Sets time to 0.001 KBC.2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.' NSOL.1 KBC. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.0.0 !* LSSOLVE.U.3.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. time !Please note.mece.0 FDELE. UY_2 STORE.001s TIME.http://www.MERGE PLVAR.Y.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. In this case.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.1.

0.0.0 height=1.0 blc4.one corner. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. then width and height .length.1. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .

500 NSEL.LOC.LOC.0.100 NSEL.length NSEL.TEMP.A.height D.0 NSEL.S.10 ESIZE.Y..A.KXX.LOC.Y. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .S.LOC.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.0 D.X.length/20 AMESH.ALL.ALL NSEL.TEMP.TEMP.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.MP.X.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.

0. ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .length/20 AMESH. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.10 ESIZE.0 height=1.. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.length. PLANE55 MP.. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 blc4.1.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .ualberta.www. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.one corner.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.h.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.mece.0.

LOC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.A.length NSEL.0 D.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .TEMP.0 NSEL.Y.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.100 NSEL.S..ALL.ALL NSEL.LOC.height D.h.X.X..TEMP. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .S. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.www.TEMP.ualberta..Y.LOC.500 NSEL.A.ALL.0.LOC.

0 to solve simple thermal examples. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. then width and height . Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.Thermal . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1.0. PLANE55 MP.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.length.one corner.0.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0 blc4.KXX.

ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL.500 NSEL.LOC.ALL.X.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL..length SF.S.TEMP.CONV.Y.0 D.1 TYPE.height D.S.0.length/20 AMESH.LOC.S.S.10.0 SF.Y.ALL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0 NSEL.ALL.100 NSEL.X.TEMP.CONV.LOC.1 ESIZE.MAT.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.100 NSEL.TEMP.ALL.

0 to solve simple thermal examples.ualberta. then width and height Copyright 2003 .mece.http://www.length.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.1. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.html Thermal .1 TYPE. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.10 MAT.University of Alberta . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.1 ESIZE.1. PLANE55 MP.KXX. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.0.one corner.0.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .0 blc4.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

0 NSEL.10.ALL.S.University of Alberta .length SF.100 NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.CONV.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.TEMP..ALL.TEMP.S.LOC.height D.500 NSEL.0.ualberta.100 NSEL.CONV.ALL.ALL NSEL.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.LOC.html AMESH.0 D.0 SF.TEMP.mece.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.Y.S.X.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.Y.http://www.S. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .LOC.X.

0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Also. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.040 kJ/kg*K. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.

0 height=1.LOC. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.2.Y.5.8.100 autots.length=1.s. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .full lumpm.500 ! area .c.1.040 mp..TEMP ANTIME.0.off lnsrch. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.20 neqit.100.Dens.1.0 blc4.05 AMESH.0.ALL NSEL.S.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.500 PLNSOL.Y.ALL IC.TEMP.1.1.5 ESIZE.0 D.ALL.1.height D.0.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.2.920 mp..all.0 nsubst.kxx. PLANE55 MP.4 time.length.100 NSEL.ALL.one corner.LOC.500 NSEL.on outres.TEMP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Temp.0.300 nropt.all.0.20.0.all kbc.

The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. Also.length.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.www. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.0 height=1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.one corner.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . height ! area . the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.ualberta.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.0 blc4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.0. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.

ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.height D.05 AMESH.1.www. PLANE55 MP.1.all.TEMP. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .4 time.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.ualberta.Y.0.0.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.all.off lnsrch.20 neqit.100.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL NSEL.0 D.0.on outres.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.LOC.full lumpm.LOC.c.100 autots.0 nsubst.all kbc.Temp.TEMP.S.500 NSEL.040 mp.Dens.5.Y.ALL IC..20.1.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.s.100 NSEL.920 mp.ALL.5 ESIZE.2.mece.8..TEMP ANTIME.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.kxx.0.ALL.500 PLNSOL.300 nropt.1.1.2.

. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. In this case. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. As a warning. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.

s.95.20.55 prnsol.2 amesh.45.all.0 lsel.ex.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .1. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.1.0.y.off rectng.s.12.uy.1.x.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.s.0.plane2 keyopt.prxy.loc.1.loc.all finish /solu antype.100 aadd.15.all fk.all nsel.fy..50 d.20.-100 fk.1 mp.0 nsel.3 esize.s.loc.y.all.5 rectng.3.20.1.fy.100 rectng.200000 mp.0.0 dl.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.all et.symm lsel.0.

all /expand.nsel.1.27.1.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle ..2..10 /view.axis.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.ualberta. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. In this case. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.mece. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . As a warning.. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.

ualberta.0 lsel.1 mp.1.all nsel.1.www.s.95.mece.all finish /solu antype.1..loc.0.3 esize.all.0 dl.50 d.fy..20.x..55 prnsol.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .100 aadd.0.y.45.prxy.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 nsel.1.15.s..off rectng.axis.all /expand.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.5 rectng.loc.10 /view.100 rectng.12.plane2 keyopt.s.0.y.loc.uy.200000 mp.1.fy..all.ex.20.2 amesh..27. /prep7 /triad.all fk.0.0.1.symm lsel.2.20.-100 fk.comp nsel.3.s.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.all et.

a wall thickness of 10. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. ANSYS Command Listing . This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.7.1.

0.1000 N.1000. 0.13 E. 0. 0 N.-500 TYPE.2. 0.1. 2./title. 0. 700. 3. 0 N.200000 MP.33 N.COMBIN7 ET. 0. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity .1000.3. 500 N. 0. 9. 6 E. MP.1 E.12. 0. 6. 1.1500 N.1. 700. 500 N. 5. 0.5. 0 N. 3 E. 2.2. 4 E. 0. 9.1e9.1000 N.1 REAL.0.1000 N. 1. 0 N.13.3.EX. 5 E.1e9 R. 0.1000.10 R. 7.11. 6 E. 8 E. .1000. 6. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 0.10. 5.1.40.PIPE16 ET. 400.1 MAT. 1. 8. 4. 5 E. 0.1e9. 0. 0. 7.12.1. 400. 500 N.12. 3. 4 E. 0. 3 E.10. 0.COMBIN14 R. 0. 8 E. .1000 N. 8 E. 2.13.PRXY.

3..NODE.FY.3 E.0.12.13 ! Load node 7 .1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.8 E.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.6 /PNUM.5 D.13 F.4. 11 TYPE.ON NSUBST.ELEM. 9.ALL.0 /PNUM.VERT7.2 *GET.. 11 E.5.8.TYPE. 2.12.0 NLGEOM.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.7.U. 10.3 REAL.2 E.2 REAL.7.KP. 1.4.

www. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.2. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.3.COMBIN7 ET. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.COMBIN14 R. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. Catapult /PREP7 ET. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. a wall thickness of 10.1.PIPE16 ET.mece. ANSYS Command Listing /title.7.40.1.1.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

7.2 E.8 E.3 E.12. .2. 3. 0.3.1. 2. 0.1000. 9.0 /PNUM.13. 2. MP. 11 E. 0.1e9. 2.1 E. 4 E.33 N.5. 0. 3 E. 0.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX. 1. 0. 0. 500 N.mece. 5. 0.PRXY.1000 N.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 6 E.200000 MP.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1000. . 0. 5. 1.12. 8 E. 10.13 E. 0 N.13.ualberta.8. 400. 9.1e9 R. 1. 0. 6 E. 3 E. 4 TYPE.2 REAL. 11 TYPE. 500 N. 5 E. 0 N. 2. 0.1 MAT.10. 400.ELEM.1 REAL.10. 0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0. 7. 4. 500 N. 0.1e9.3 REAL. 0. 0. 0.12.1000 N. 700. 8 E.-500 TYPE.1000.6 /PNUM.11. 700.1000 N.KP.1000 N.www.1500 N. 6.0 NLGEOM. 0. 8 E.html R. 0 N. 8. 4 E. 5 E. 0.1000. 6. 0 N.5. 1. 9. 3.

12.VERT7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.7.U.ualberta..www.FY.4.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.NODE.7.2 *GET.12.5 D.0.3..ALL.13 F.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.html NSUBST.4.

0 K.W..W*H. not '^').0 L.1.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.3 ESIZE. Design Optimization *set.2.20 *set..BEAM3 R.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.0.1. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below..100 LMESH.RATI.H.0.1000.1.H.75.1. However. ET. deciding which variables to use as design. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.(W*H**3)/12.I (note '**'. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.20 K.2 HPTCREATE. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. height MP. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.0. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.PRXY.EX. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.LINE.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.200000 MP.1..ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .1.

*GET.2.0 DK..txt. ! Height state variable.195. tolerance 0.MAX *SET.0.001 mm.SMAX_J.1 node ESORT.SV.UY..txt ! Assign optimize..W /AXLAB.50.0. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.Y.001 MPa OPVAR.H.200 OPTYPE..VOLU.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.1.0.2.UX.X.. min 10 mm.10.100. max 50 mm.SMAX_I.SMAX_I.0 FK.SMAX.EVolume.W.ITEM.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.1. tolerance 0.OBJ.FY.DV. SSUM *GET. Percent step size. max 200 ! Volume as object variable..0.001 MPa.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.30.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. *GET.SMAXI.1.optimize.ETAB.SMAX.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.'optimize'.001 tolerance 0.0..1.SMAXJ.50.3.VOLUME.ANTYPE.SORT.'txt'.001mm OPVAR.EVOLUME ETABLE.SMAX_J. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.0.DV.MAX ETABLE.0 DK. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.FIRS OPFRST.Volume.0 DK.ETAB.001mm OPVAR.3 node ESORT.NMISC.SORT.200.10. min 10 mm. min 195 MPa.SSUM.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.UY. max 50 ! Width design variable.H.NMISC.

0 L..0.1000. Design Optimization *set.. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam..height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..20 K. deciding which variables to use as design.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .(W*H**3)/12.I (note '**'.RATI.www..1.ualberta. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. ET.W.EX.200000 MP.mece.1. MP.H.0 K.1.2 HPTCREATE.H. However.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.2.BEAM3 R.W*H. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.1.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.PRXY.75. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.0. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.1.LINE.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. not '^').0.. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.20 *set. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.

ESIZE.mece.0 DK.0.NMISC.OBJ.FIRS OPFRST.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.195.optimize.txt.VOLUME.. max 50 mm. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.10.100.0.Y.30.VOLU. OPEXE PLVAROPT.SMAX_I.0.SMAXJ. to Width design variable.10.SORT. Volume as object variable.1.X.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE..txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.0.50.0.EVOLUME ETABLE.ualberta.0 DK.2. max 50 mm.001 OPVAR.SSUM..0 DK.DV.001 OPVAR.txt ! Assign optimize.Number of Iterations /AXLAB. *GET.. max 200 MPa.SMAX_J.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.'txt'. min 10 mm..ETAB.0.FY.SMAX. min 10 mm. *GET.MAX *SET.W.ETAB.. Percent step size.. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize..1 ESORT.SMAX_J.H.SMAX_I.SV.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAX.'optimize'.1.001 OPVAR.W /AXLAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3 ESORT..DV.UY.100 LMESH. SSUM *GET. tol Height state variable.EVolume.SMAXI.1.Volume.ITEM.UY.200 OPTYPE.3..50.UX.H.200.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SORT.0 FK.NMISC.MAX ETABLE.www. min 195 MPa.

Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Apply remaining loads to the model. substructuring will be used for the wood block. v = 0.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. For this example.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. however. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. 3. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.5 MPa. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). ANSYS Command Listing . then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Apply loads to the super-element 2.

0.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .2.1.140 NSEL.PRXY.0..0 F.ALL NSEL. 2.1. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.X.Y.GEN.0.5 NSEL.S.SUBST SEOPT.PRXY.2.0.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.40. START /FILNAME.5 MP.ALL.10.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.R.db ! GEN.PLANE42 TYPE.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.S.2 MP.2.LOC.100.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET. amesh.FX.EXT M.EX.100.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.2 NSEL.ALL.LOC.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL.EX.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.1.1.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.

10.Y.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.MaxNode.40 CPINTF.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 D.ALL NSEL.1.1.S.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.1 ! Superelement ET.U.SUM. superelement solution written to GEN.ALL.0.ALL.! Meshing AESIZE.ALL ESEL.NODE.SUM.2 amesh.Y.LOC.0 NSEL.0.1 ESEL.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.GEN.1.U..1 *GET.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour ..ON.S.TYPE.GEN2 NSEL.S.GEN2 SE.ALL.1.GEN2.NUM.LOC.STATIC NSEL.1 SFE..MAX SETRAN. mat.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.2 real.1.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.MaxNode.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.SELV.

Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Apply remaining loads to the model. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.5 MPa. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).ualberta. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element..29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. For this example. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.www. Apply loads to the super-element 2. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. v = 0. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.mece. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. 3. substructuring will be used for the wood block. however.

LOC.ALL NSEL. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements)..SUBST SEOPT.140 NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.Y.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL.PRXY. amesh.0. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.mece.0.S..ALL.PLANE42 TYPE.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.0. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. START /FILNAME.0.5 NSEL.FX.R.GEN.EX.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .40.10.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 NSEL.LOC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.0 F.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.ualberta.X.2.1..db ! GEN.1.S.100.100.1.ALL.1.EXT M.www.

MAX SETRAN.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.1.LOC.ALL ESEL. mat.U.GEN2 NSEL.YES SEEXP.S.1. 2.SUM.1 SFE.STATIC NSEL.1 ESEL. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10.ualberta.2.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.Y.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.LOC..EX.ON.PRXY..MaxNode.40 CPINTF.S.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.Y.mece.1.SUM.2 real.0 D..5 MP..ALL.GEN2.ALL.1.USE EXPSOL.1. MP.TYPE.GEN. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.SELV.0.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.0 NSEL.www.NUM.0..0.ALL NSEL.2.MaxNode.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 ! Superelement ET.1 *GET.U.GEN2 SE.S..ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.NODE.2 amesh.

the link will attemp to expand. a thermal conductivity of 60. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. Although the geometry must remain constant. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. with no internal stresses. where the thermal effects will be applied. For convenience. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). However. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. For instance. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. the geometry is kept constant. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. It is important to note. the element types can change. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. and write them to memory.. . "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. stress is created in the link. However. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. For our case. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. A steel link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. the analyses are coupled." Thus. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. For a listing.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Loads will not be applied to the link. and using it with any following coupled environments.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.

1 lmesh.1.all physics.prxy.2.CompStress.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .struct ldread.rth environment tref.348 solve finish /solu physics.temp.1.1..1.1..clear finish /solu antype.link33 r.0.2.273 dk.write.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.1.0 l.1.0 k.UX.5 esize.2 et.1.all.12e-6 physics.temp.read.4e-4.0.read...analysis.1.tts mp.kxx.write.0 physics.60.0 dk.ex.0 solve finish /post1 etable.alpx.struct physics. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.3 mp.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. mp.LS.thermal dk.200e9 mp.thermal physics.0.1.1.

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

where the thermal effects will be applied. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.. the geometry is kept constant. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). with no internal stresses. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. stress is created in the link. For our case.mece. the analyses are coupled. A steel link.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . However. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. . However. For convenience.ualberta." Thus.www. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.. the link will attemp to expand.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. a thermal conductivity of 60. Loads will not be applied to the link. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. and using it with any following coupled environments.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.

mp.273 dk.1.www.348 solve finish /solu physics.clear finish /solu antype. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.0 l.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 lmesh. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.all physics.UX..1.2 et.200e9 mp. and write them to memory.struct physics. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.tts mp.1.12e-6 physics.read.prxy.3 mp.temp.1.0 dk.2.0.alpx.60.kxx.1. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.read. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. It is important to note.clear etchg.struct ldread. the element types can change.0.1. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.ex.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.link33 r.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.temp.write.mece.html Although the geometry must remain constant.ualberta.5 esize.1. For a listing.0.1..1.1..0 physics.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.4e-4.thermal physics. For instance.0 k..thermal dk.2. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.rth tref.1.write.

CompStress.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.LS.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .www.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.html solve finish /post1 etable.1 PRETAB.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Thus. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. . By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

8.x.2.4. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .s.0 dl.100 k.0.0 nsubst.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .20 outres.all lsel.3.0 k.200000 mp.10.all lsel.all.loc.52 k.100.45.7.11.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.7.100.0.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1.1.3.1 lsel.20.3 esize.2.9.all.11.loc. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.6.0 k..0 a.48 k.6.12.55.1.0 k.on /prep7 k.9.100.1.80.1.8.4.all time.3 r.prxy.100 k.s.10.x.all finish /solu antype.3.20.ex.0.100 k.52 k.55.48 k.5.100 k.12 et.1.1.5.5 amesh.80.45.20.10 mp.plane145 keyopt.

eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .last plesol.all.pres.all solve finish /post1 set.s.-100 lsel.sfl.

computational time can be kept to a minimum.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.0.ualberta. Thus.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.mece. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

5 amesh.0 k.mece.48 k.100 k.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all.s.55.all.0 dl. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.all lsel.3.-100 lsel.3 esize.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .3.4.1.ualberta.45.all.all time.10 mp.all finish /solu antype.55.x.ex.x.prxy.8.5.1.100.10.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.200000 mp.3.last plesol.45.s.10.20.48 k.12.11.1.100 k.html /prep7 k.20.1.20.100 sfl.5.2.pres.6.www.12 et.0 k.s.20 outres.100 k.0..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.1.0.100.100 k.0 a.loc.4.loc.plane145 keyopt.1 lsel.6.2.all lsel.52 k.100.3 r.0 nsubst.0.52 k.0 k.80.8.9.7.1.all solve finish /post1 set.80.9.11.7.

Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.0.2.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . Thus. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.03. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.1. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.3.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0.0 k. computational time can be kept to a minimum. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.03.0 k.

60 nropt.920 mp.20 neqit.off solve finish /post1 set.0.kxx.temp.273 finish /solu antype.100 autots.2040 mp.268 nsel.c.ext sf.2.Dens.1.3.1.k.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . esel.all.all finish /solu antype..0005 amesh.all.melty.4.0.melty.etab.0 nsubst.1.rest ekill.conv.1.10.temp.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.full lumpm.on outres.Plane55 MP.last etable. 20 Max no.1.all.0.all kbc.8 esize. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.all esel.1 IC.off lnsrch. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .all /gst.1.s.s.03 a.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.368 nsel. not ramped ! Initial conditions.4 time.

/post1 set.s.last esel.live plnsol.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .

mece.0 k.0.2. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.03. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0.www.3.03 a.1.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.03.2. Thus. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ualberta.03 k.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print. computational time can be kept to a minimum.4. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.1.0 k.3.0.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

1.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .1 IC.etab.Plane55 MP. 20 Max no.1.all. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.s.last esel. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .100 autots.all finish /post1 set.off lnsrch.8 esize.0005 amesh.60 nropt.rest ekill.920 mp.all /gst.s.10.0 nsubst.0.melty.c.live plnsol.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Dens.s.mece.20 neqit.368 nsel.ualberta.full lumpm.all kbc.1.off solve finish /post1 set.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.all esel.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.all.www.on outres.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.all. esel..4 time.all finish /solu antype.1.conv.268 nsel.273 finish /solu antype. not ramped ! Initial conditions.2040 mp.temp.ext sf.temp.melty.last etable.kxx.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

SUM.0.EQV.R.0.Y.0.All.R.2 ! Animate the slices .0 WPROTA.Width/2.1.14.S.1 /TYPE.FY.90 /CPLANE.0.LOC./SOLU ANTYPE.X.LOC.Z.1.43.8 WPCSYS.0 WPOFFS.0.1.1 /TYPE.ALL KSEL.7.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.1.LOC.0.5 PLNSOL.0 DA.5.Z.Height KSEL.Length KSEL.LOC.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0 ASEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.05.0.S.Width FK.1 WPOFFS.0 ASEL.0.U.0.0.-1.-2500 KSEL.All.S.ALL.

SOLID45 MP. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.60.20 vmesh.www.PRXY.200000 MP.0. etc.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Length /ANGLE.0.3 esize. 1 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.0.FAST ET. Stress.) of the following example.Width.1.1 /REPLOT.EX.ualberta.YS.000000.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.Height.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.mece.1.

Height KSEL.0.0.0.Length KSEL.0.0.1 /TYPE.5 PLNSOL.05.0 WPOFFS.0 ASEL.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.43.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.-2500 KSEL.www.7.1 /TYPE.Width FK.90 /CPLANE.Width/2.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .LOC.0.Y.0 WPROTA.0.EQV.LOC.ALL.LOC.1.ALL KSEL.14.S.0.0.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.U.S.mece.LOC.1 WPOFFS.R.X.1.0 DA.All.1/16*Length /CPLANE.ualberta.1.8 WPCSYS.0 ASEL.5.SUM.-1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.Z.S.FY.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Z.All.R.0.

10 asba. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.100. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. For example.50.50.50.150.200. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.50. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.all .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.0.1. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.10 cyl4. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.100 cyl4. In this tutorial.0.10 cyl4.

2..50 ppath.3 R.2.5 amesh.ex.1 /window.50 path.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.s.et.y.loc.plane2..bot nsel.200.y.S.s.1.eqv.S..1.SEQV.1000 ppath.1.10 mp..s.PRES.200000 mp.cutline.all.0.100 SFL.0 dl.loc.1.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.50 PDEF.1.y.2.0.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .all nsel.off /noerase /window.AVG nsel.1.loc.prxy.top /POST1 PLNSOL...3 esize..all PLPAGM.2.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.200.1.eqv.all.

Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.200. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. In this tutorial.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.www. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate..ualberta..0. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. For example. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

bot nsel.100 SFL.200.1.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.1.eqv.1000 ppath.s.all PLPAGM.loc.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .loc.1 /window.all.200..UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel...2.mece..50.50 ppath.plane2.50.10 asba.3 R.50 path.s.0.1. cyl4....y.2.3 esize.eqv.50 PDEF.10 cyl4.2.100...50.1.200000 mp.1.AVG nsel.10 mp.all nsel.www.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.y.all et.top /POST1 PLNSOL.10 cyl4.0.off /noerase /window.S.ualberta.prxy.y.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0 dl.5 amesh.50.s.all.150.S.SEQV.1.PRES.ex.loc.cutline.2.

ex. Length of the following beam using tables.1.2400.2.200000 mp.1.3 k.1. a special type of array. rather than using a contour plot.0 l. By plotting this data on a curve. finer resolution can be achieved.1.1. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2 esize.prxy.0.40 mp.beam3 r.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.320e3.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .length.1.0.I.0 k.elementsize lmesh. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.

x.loc. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.all fk.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.u.x *vget.y *set.graph(1.2.2).graph.y *vplot.graph(rows.graph(2.all.2) /axlab.1).graph(2.1).graph(1.2).y.1.loc.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.graph(1.node.graph(1.antype.x *vget.u.2.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.Length /axlab.2).0 400 *vget. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .static dk.node.TABLE.rows.1).node.2.fy.graph(rows.1).0 *set.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.all.2.node.

0.1.ualberta.2 esize.1.200000 mp.ex.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. rather than using a contour plot. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Length of the following beam using tables.beam3 r..320e3.0 k.1.3 k. a special type of array.I.0 l.1. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.1. finer resolution can be achieved.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .40 mp.length.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .prxy.2400.www..h.mece. By plotting this data on a curve.

0 *set.2.2) /axlab.1).u.graph. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.1).graph(1.graph(1.fy.2).loc.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.rows.all fk.1).2.1).0 *vget.graph(rows. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .node.Length /axlab.2.y.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.y *set.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .u.graph(1.1 *vget.graph(rows.graph(2.mece.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.graph(2.x *vget.loc.y *vplot.node.node.static dk.all.2.node.x.2).h.graph(1. lmesh.ualberta.TABLE.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.www.all..x *vget.all finish /solu antype.2)..

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