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# UofA ANSYS Tutorial Index

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. . Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. Prompting the user for parameters. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

1. 3D). Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. axi-symmetric. 2D. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.e. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. constraints and solving. Preprocessing: defining the problem. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 3. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. 2. 1D. heat transfer and fluid problems. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. Solution: assigning loads. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. In general.

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be sure that your local drive has space for it. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. you should see something labeled X-Win32. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Windows NT application 2.. as it automatically starts this application when booting. . Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. you can may want to reboot the computer. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1.. If you don't see this minimized program. do this. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece.

q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. but rather. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window. . don't select this icon.

.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. 1. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. graphic controls and parameters. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. such as file controls.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. selections.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.

However. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. . It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. solution.0. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. c. d. 2. such as listing of data etc. while the versions appear different. More push buttons can be added if desired.b. e. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. general postprocessor. the menu structure has not changed. organized by preprocessor. design optimizer. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions.

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consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. however. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. The second is by means of command files. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . For information and details on the full ANSYS command language.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. If the results are nearly similar. General Models . For simple models it is of no concern. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. If the results differ by a large amount however. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions.e.. loading and constraints.. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. When point loads are used. but for a larger model. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. In general there are no real firm answers on this. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. it will only slow the calculations down. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry.

. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement.In general however. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. for example. In general. In a solid mechanics problem.

select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. There are two methods to do this: 1. and specify the previously defined jobname. select Interactive. ANSYS Inc.db . if you make some mistakes later on. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. To save your model... select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. 2.db. loads. Using the Launcher. r In the ANSYS Launcher. In that way. solution. r Then when you get ANSYS started..db. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. and select your job from the list that appears. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . you will at least be able to come back to this point. etc) that you previously saved.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. Or.... where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS.

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or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution).db Database file (binary). say Frame.db file. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). If you specified a jobname.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). That file may be rerun as is. This file stores the geometry. and the jobname has been specified. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. Once the ANSYS has started. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..* where the * represents various extensions described below. q If you will always be using the GUI. Listing of all error and warning messages. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. frame. Depending on the operations carried out. etc. Frame again with various extensions: frame. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. These files may contain results. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. boundary conditions and any solutions. the name of all the files created will be FILE. etc. This file stores the geometry.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. from another ANSYS run.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. then the created files will all have the file prefix. other files may have been written. frame.err Error file (text). or move things from the /scratch directory. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. frame. starting with an existing log file. then you only require the . If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point.. boundary conditions and any solutions. frame.

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to get displacements.0 Better Quality Plots . while the second is a scalable vector plot. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. choose 'List Results'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. 1. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. and choose what you want to list from the menu.. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. Any other solutions can be done in the same way.. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. In the window that appears. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. 2. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Then enter the file name of your choice. However. 'Reverse Video'. You can pick multiple items.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. Select 'Elem Table Data'. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2.. Select 'File'/'Save As. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. 'Monochrome'. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. 3. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. 1..'.' and give a file name to store the results.

pic' (with a period). but rather they will be written to the selected file. This is performed by running a separate program called display. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.. Either way. you have a couple of options: 1. Type in a filename (e. Decrease the size of this window.. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.frame. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. Note that although the file is 'plots. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript.'. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. To save some plots to a file.pic if your plot file is 'plots.pic'.: frame. Display wants 'plots. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: .pic'(with a comma). Now that the plots have been read in.n where n is plot number.pic) in the 'Selection' Window.. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS.. or HPGL for example. Load your plot file with the following command: file. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. To do this. a large graphics window will appear. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.g. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File.

This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. where xx is a number. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. as above. starting at 00.3 /show. The printer information is still present. i. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. The printer information is still present. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. 3. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.n command as the other options have now been set.hpgl plot.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. the postscript image will appear as blank box. you only require the plot.color. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. and then issue the other commands as before pscr.e. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format.pscr plot. enter the following commands in display: pscr.n where n is the plot number. you set the postscript color option to '3'. For subsequent plots. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file.grph.pscr plot. To do this. issue the following commands: /show. overheads or even posters! 2.color. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. .1. the postscript image will appear as blank box. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.2 /show.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor.

This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. In a similar way.hpgl' extension. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. the HPGL printer files could be given an '.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. exit display by entering finish .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. if the feature is critical to your design. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. mesh control. chamfers. loads. holes. Step 1. Also. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. you will want to leave it. many modeling options for constraints. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Of course.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. etc. analysis types will not be covered.W. by suppressing them in Pro/E.

the plate and the loading hole are removed. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. Model units are inches. Several edges are rounded. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. . the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. So.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. For this model.

The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. We proceed in a topdown manner. and so on. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. This is where we specify modeling information. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. surface regions.Step 2. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. loads. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Basically. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. . curves. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. idealizations). Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose.

and a specified material.Defining Constraints For our simple model. For our solid model. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. rotational constraints are active if specified. loads. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. all we need are constraints. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). and surfaces). we can select one of the four buttons (Free. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. Fixed. For beams and shells. For each direction X. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. only one set can be included. A dialog window opens as shown above. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. Y. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. Select Surface. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. and Function of Coordinates). but this can contain numerous individual constraints. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). . and Z. In the final computed model. Prescribed. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. edges. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1).

leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. Enter the force components at the bottom. The load should be .For our model. For example. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. and select the OK button. another a temperature load. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. These can be solved at the same time. Then select OK. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. Note these are relative to the WCS. Loads are also organized into named load sets. another might contain the support forces. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways.

material). If you select the Edit button. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. In an assembly. loads. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. In the STRC MODEL menu. At this point. you will see the properties of the chosen material.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. you could now assign this material to individual parts. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Step 3. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree.

Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. Step 4. like "ansystest". Select the type (Structural or Modal). select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. Enter a short description. . The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks).Specify a name for the analysis. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. The MEC STRUCT window. Now select OK.

Here is an image of the default mesh. . The results are indicated in columns on the right. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. evaluated for the model.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). Select Close. shown in wire frame.

Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. This will allow you to select points. you can select the Controls option.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. edges. . and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. maximum mesh size. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. and so on. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. For example.

select Run . In the MEC STRUCT menu. loads.Step 5. materials. mesh). Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints.

ans).This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. In the Analysis list. We are now finished with Pro/E. select Structural. and material) is listed. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. mesh. Select OK and read the message window.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. loads. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. . Copy the . select ANSYS.

You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. This will read in the entire model... A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. Select the . You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. you will be informed that the solution is complete. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . and select Apply.ans file you created previously. Step 7. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Step 8.Step 6. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds.

0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. p.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. A = 3250mm2). Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. reaction forces. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.

For this example. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. these keypoints are the ends of each truss. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin.

Note: When entering the final data point. Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed.y coordinates: 0. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above).The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. and enter the x. If you first press r .

It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. thus making any conversions where necessary. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. areas. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. The following window will then appear: . elements. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. volumes. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. lines. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. 3.

Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. Left click and a permanent line will appear. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. click on it). minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. r r r . A line will now show on the screen joining these two points.e. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. When you're done.

Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. The following window will then appear: . This is called 'meshing'. they have most likely NOT been deleted. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. However. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4.

' button.r Click on the 'Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box.. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window. The following window will appear: r For this example. r 5. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure..

r In the Preprocessor menu. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. ... select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. Click on 'OK'. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above.

6. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .

0'. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. 7. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the window to continue.We are going to give the properties of Steel.

we have simply defined the element sizes. enter '1' and then click 'OK'.r In the size 'NDIV' field. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. 8. therefore. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. enter the desired number of divisions per line. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . For this example we want only 1 division per line.

keypoint numbers.. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q .Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.... node numbers.

Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. you will at least be able to come back to this point. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. so if you make some mistakes later on. To do this..Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time.. Define Analysis Type . 1. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.

Click 'OK'. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. these constraints will typically be fixed. In mechanical structures. r 2. r In the Solution menu. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. As shown above. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. pinned and roller-type connections. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. i. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. for example.e.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu.

select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. . ROT on KPs' window.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Therefore.

you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. Note that we are using units of N here. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. 3. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.ROT on KPs" window. there are four downward loads of 280kN. and 360kN at keypoints 1. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. 210kN. r Using the same method. 280kN. and 7 respectively. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Therefore. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. 3.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. . this is consistent with the previous values input. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. 5. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner.

.4. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS.

.. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up.r The above windows will appear. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.

r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2. Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.

These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. The following window will appear. . select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.409).r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. The following window will appear. . One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.

Leave the other selections as the default values. . Click 'OK'.r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.

you may want to use more useful intervals. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. r ..r Looking at the scale.

You should obtain the following. .

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. . This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution.

. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.' r . we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. spars. using the item 'LS. The Element Table is different for each element. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. strains). r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. beams. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. If you wanted to save these results to a file. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). therefore.2 in the Help file. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.. From Table 1.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add.

. Comp' boxes. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Next. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. This specifies the name of the item you are defining... Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .'. Then enter 1 after LS. in the 'Item. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.r As shown above.

you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .Again.

9MPa as predicted analytically. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. In the dialog box that appears. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.. .. A .HTML version.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. ANSYS Inc. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.

This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). scale factors. etc. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . Enter Keypoints For this simple example. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. units.The first step is to simplify the problem. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.

Select the element shown and click 'OK'.' button. r From the Preprocessor Menu. When you're done. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Click on the 'Add.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window.e. Pick keypoint #1 (i.. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. A permanent line will appear. The following window will appear: r . click on it). The following window will appear: r r For this example. Click on the 'Options. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. r r r 4. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Now pick keypoint #2. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window...

Click on 'OK'.. r 5. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. This gives us extra force and moment output. . and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu.

8. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. For an element length of 2cm. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. Saving Your Work . Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. r 6. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. therefore. (Alternatively.r Click on 'OK'. However. we have simply defined the element sizes.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'.. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. enter the desired element length. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. r r r 7. enter '20' (i. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. For this example we want an element length of 2cm.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.

Apply Loads As shown in the diagram.Utility Menu > File > Save as. Therefore. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. r 2. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. r r 3. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu.ROT on KPs' window. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. .. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints..

Hand Calculations Now. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .2mm as shown above. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. .4.we need to calculate what we should find. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. In this menu you will find a variety of options. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. 2.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). r r . Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Click 'OK'. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. r . Leave the other selections as the default values.

r . If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.r You may want to have a more useful scale. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'...

r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.. Click on 'Add.' r . the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. the right end of the rod. If you wanted to save these results to a file...r Are these results what you expected? Again. spars. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.. strains).

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .Comp' boxes in the above window.. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear. . Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX..r As shown above. in the 'Item. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.

select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically.Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. as shown in the following image. First. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. . I and J. a bending moment diagram can be created. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes.

Enter SMISC. r Again. r In the window. Click 'Add. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. click 'Add. the Element Table must be used.' in the 'Element Table Data' window..this will give a name to the data B.. this will give a name to the data B. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.again. First. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . Same as above . .'...To obtain the bending moment for this element. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data.. A. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . A.6 in the second Comp box E.

C. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. .12 in the second Comp box E.. Click 'OK'.. Same as above D. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. enter SMISC. For step D. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.

Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. you can double check these solutions analytically.Now. Table 1. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. PIPE16 Item. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. r Before the explanation of the above steps. Sequence Numbers. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition .

the Member moment for node I.0. . 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. /PREP7 K. y. Copy the following code into the command line.ALL FK.25.1 !* R. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . K.0.1.0 !* DK.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.PRXY. 0. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.FY.2.0.0. all of the lines.1.1.2 !* ET.1. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.500.70000 MP. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.33 !* LESIZE.1. 2.20 LMESH. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. Material 1. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.0. 1.1. L.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .2. Material 1.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.6.0. Major Poisson's Ratio. y.1.0.PIPE16 KEYOPT. x. then hit enter.EX.1. x. . To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.2. Material 1. !* MP. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.0. Young's Modulus.ALL. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate. Outside Diameter. z Keypoint.

The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame./STATUS. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New .

r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.2. Alternatively. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. these keypoints are the frame vertices. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Notice that by using variables like this. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. First. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as .

y=y2. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. Y. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. However. X. Z where. to enter the first keypoint type: K.0. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively.0 r ! keypoint. NPT. x=0.y2.y1.follows: K. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. #. simply re-enter the code.1. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. type help k into the command line For example.for the second keypoint you might type: K.0. As with any programming language.# . you may need to add comments. ie . each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. Reference number for the keypoint.2.0 into the command line followed by Enter. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.

y = 325. Try experimenting with them. s 6. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Zoom. In this example. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. Rotate. This was simply used for convenience.. Zoom. you have many controls. To define keypoint #1.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. To get an isometric view. 5. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0.. for example. You can either leave the 'Pan. z = 0. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. translating and rotating it on all three axes. click on 'Iso' (at the top right).

we will use the command line to create the lines. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. I would write: ' L. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. (This can be obtained from the list of lines).keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. P1.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. to obtain the first line. Keypoint at the beginning of the line.1.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. Again. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. P2 Line. Keypoint at the end of line For example. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.

LAB. 8. we will again use the command line. MAT. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. As in the verification model. C0 25 2 . define the type of element (pipe16). Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9.7.

1. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. we will use the command line. For example. Lab6 Displacement on K. VALUE2. Lab4.. VALUE. Lab3.Material Property. type ' MP.PRXY..Valid material property label. value2. DOF label. value. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Material Reference Number. Lab5. K #.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). Expansion key. Mesh Size As in the verification model. KPOI.33 ' r 10. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Apply Constraints Once again. type: ' MP. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. DK.EX. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. 1. Lab. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. Lab2. KEXPND.1. > Static 2.. to pin the .0. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11.. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions.

first keypoint enter: DK.. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same.UY. value. Lab. the command line code is: DK. FZ).0. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. UZ. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3..1..5. value2 Force loads at keypoints.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0.. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. Again.1. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. value1. UY.0. KPOI. Force Label directions (FX. value2 (if req'd) .UX. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . K. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.UY.UY and UZ). K #. FY.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. FK. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). UX is not constrained.

the code should look like this: ' FK. K.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. 'Def + undef edge' . 4. If you need to delete one of the forces. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.FY.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3..3. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1.

'Left'. Your screen should look like the plot below: . Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Back'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined.

List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution... so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. and turn on 'Node numbers'.'). so we know what node(s) we're after. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame.2. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero.. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well. Turn everything else off. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Note the node numbers of interest. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.

Click on 'OK'. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.' from the 'List Results' menu. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. Then close the 'List Results' menu.. 4. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed.. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table .r Don't forget to use more useful intervals.. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. . Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution.. For each element in the model. 3.

6 and SMISC.12) And. the bending moment diagram can be produced. to plot the data from the Element Table . Plot Results > Line Elem Res. to define the table (remember SMISC... Select Element Table > Define Table.. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again.

Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.. Open the ..HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. click on 'Save . A . In the dialog box that appears.' and select the file..'..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . plane stress. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. and uniform pressure loading. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. A figure of the plate is shown below. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). ANSYS Inc. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.

you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. scale factors. units. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. etc. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: .This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.

Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. however. a. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . Subtraction will used to create this model. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.

0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0.0.s Fill in the window as shown above. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle . (Alternatively.200.0. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.100) b.100.

(Alternatively. Prior to this operation.20 ) c. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. your image should resemble the following: . This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.50. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.50.100.s Fill in the window as shown above.

The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected.s To perform the Boolean operation. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore. s .

1. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.2) . You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. as shown below. therefore Click on the 'Options. four-node element (PLANE42).' button. For this example.. as shown in the above figure. we need a plane stress element with thickness. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element.. Click and hold the K3 button. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'.3. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. r .

1. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is R.1.EX. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.3 (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ET.3) 6.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.20) 5.3.1.0. the command line code for the above step is MP.1.PRXY.1.3) 4. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.200000 followed by MP.(Alternatively.

the command line code for the above step is AMESH. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.) 7. (Alternatively.r Select an element edge length of 25. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.25.ALL) You should now have the following: .ALL.

Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. the left end of the plate is fixed. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. 1. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).ROT on Lines' window.. r r . Fill in the window as shown below. Apply Constraints As shown previously.. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.0) 2. (Alternatively. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.

select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa).r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. (Alternatively. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. the command line code for the above step is DL.. r r r .0) 3.4. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. therefore the last field is left blank. Therefore. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.ALL. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

Convergence using ANSYS . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.4.we need to calculate what we should find.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie .just a flat plate). Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. Hand Calculations Now.9 MPa.001 mm . 2. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.

Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. we will check the stress at this point. (as shown below in red) ..At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question.

We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. To change the element size.The equivalent stress was found to be 2.9141 MPa at this point. Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . r Resize Elements a. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).

Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. the values converge towards a final solution. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie .the element edge length decreases).8 MPa. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). .the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. (note . d. This is a mere 2.c. Click 'OK'. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged.

Then select DOF solution.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. 3. Therefore. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.0012 mm. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution. r Observe the locations of deflection. . Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. However.. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. 4. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. USUM in the window.

obtain these results as a list. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution..... von Mises in the window. r 5.r Alternatively. Then select Stress. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. .) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.

A ..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the ..r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Bracket Example .HTML version. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Select Stress.

This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. A figure of the plate is shown below. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Create the main rectangular shape . Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Form Geometry Again. a. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.

Y coord (bottom left). XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . X coord (bottom left). WIDTH. HEIGHT BLC4.80.100 b. radius s Therefore. Y coord for the center. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. XCORNER.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.50 c. RAD1 CYL4. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. XCENTER. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.0. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. the command line for this circle is CYL4. YCORNER.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. height s s Therefore.0.50.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. YCENTER.80. width. X coord for the center.

click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively.. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. Boolean Operations .ALL) s . s To perform the Boolean operation. the command line code for the above step is AADD.. e.

Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.You should now have the following model: f. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s .

ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.1.6. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. the command line code for the above step is ET. (Alternatively.s Next select the three circles that we just created. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.3) r .3..1.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.

Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. the command line code for the above step is R.200000 followed by MP.0. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5.1.ALL.EX.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.ALL) .5. 4.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.20) r 5. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. we will need to make sure the model has converged. (Alternatively.) r 7. Again.3) 6.1. (Alternatively.PRXY.

.. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Apply Constraints . 1.0) 2. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

. Rotate. Zoom. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. polygon.. r 3.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Repeat for the second bolt hole. you have the option of creating a box. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.ROT on Nodes' window. For this case. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. select 'circle' as shown in the window below.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. Apply Loads . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.As illustrated.

Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. 4.As shown in the diagram. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. .

Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0.USUM in the window. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection.1. 3. 2. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. .

(General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.r Alternatively.... Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.. r 4. .

PDF version is also available for printing. A . Quitting ANSYS .. Select Stress. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

To quit ANSYS. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. .. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.. In the window that appears.

copying. Filleting. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. ANSYS Inc. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. extrusion/ sweeping. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . WIDTH. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. YCORNER. XCORNER.

YCENTER. 3. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.XCENTER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted.RAD .5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.

The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.2 4.2 0.SUBTRACT 5.BASE. r . Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK. It asks for the x.5 0. Enter the y offset as 4.5 0.5 Circle 2 8.6 and then click OK. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA. The following window will appear.y and z offset of the copied area.

. Add the smaller circles to the large area.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.5 You should obtain the following 6.ALL 7.

Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

. Create the fillet areas r As shown below.8. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.

ALL . Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.0.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. Plot Areas 3. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.0) and (0.X. Then select the following two keypoints r r . Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.#. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .Z) 2.Y. (K. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.5. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.10. 1.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.

. Click on OK.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

Create Bolt Holes 1. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . we need to use a different working plane. However. Change the Working Plane By default. for us to define the bolt holes.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. There are several ways to define a working plane. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. one of which is to define it by three keypoints.

while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. 2. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation.

5 y=0 r=0. fill in the blanks as shown. 3. 4. .0. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. By default those values would be 0. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5.0. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. The following window will appear.note the origin of the working plane.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

This will result in the following completed structure: .r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes.

PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. A .' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..

Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: . Create the Base 1.

Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.7.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .5 into the command line) when prompted. type LARC.1.4.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.5.8.20 followed by LARC. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.6.5.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.

6.7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.# Copies (include original).DY.DX. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.5.1.Area#.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL. YCENTER=20. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.DZ) r .4.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).

3. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.

while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. (Alternatively.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. type KWPLAN. Therefore. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. Note.1.102 into the command line) . Change the working plane As in the previous example. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. Again.100.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. we need to change the working plane.6. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.101. type VOFFST.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. the first keypoint defines the origin. (Alternatively.

WIDTH=102. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. YCENTER=180.27.1. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. YCORNER=0.26 4. .2.

5.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib . . Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. . DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. Area 1.51. YCENTER=180.180.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. . Area 2. RADIUS=32. RADIUS=18. Area 3 5.32. YCENTER=180.

204 .0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.1.201. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. 203. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.-1. the first keypoint defines the origin. type KWPLAN.200.4 3. (Alternatively.57735*26) 129-(0.1. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0. type WPCSYS.202 into the command line) 2.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.

200.'. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. .204 4. In the dialog box that appears.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.203..

The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . /title. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

0) 4. 7. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. 3. 6.0) (1000. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. K.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5..#...67 iii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window..x. Young's modulus EX: 200000 .z) 1 2 (0. enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. > Add. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. and rotation about the Z axis).z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x.ANSYS Inc....y..y. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

Density DENS: 7.81m/s2 in the y direction.0 2. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. r .ii.3 8. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. enter the following density for steel: i.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. 10.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The following window will appear. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears..86e-6 9.

There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction..0.9.ALL. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case).Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). ACEL. DK.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction.1. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. .

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .2 .4...777mm 2. > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.777mm..PDF version is also available for printing. A .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.As observed in the upper left hand corner. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the ..HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . This is in agreement with the theortical value.

The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Modal Dynamic .

x. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. 5. /title. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's..K#.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L..K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.#.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. With only 3 degrees of freedom. 6. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. and rotation about the Z axis).. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .0) 4. Distributed Loading 3...ANSYS Inc. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.y) 1 2 (0..0) (1000.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. .ii. 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.333 iii.... Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. 9.3 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering ..

As shown in the following figure. 3.0 2. .Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. over the entire length of the beam. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained).

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.... we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. 4. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.2 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . In the window that appears.

. In the second window of the same section... In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. 6. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d..' 3. (ie. select 'NMISC. Click 'Add. 9. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. 3 for the 'J' nodes.. For this problem. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. Click 'OK'. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. click 'Apply' 5. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b.1. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. 8. 7. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. In the window that appears a. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. For this example. r As shown in the plot below. ' d.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..HTML version. . Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. After each increment.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. the load will added incrementally. contact elements). Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). To solve this problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.125 inches. 1.03125 ii.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. 6. With only 3 degrees of freedom.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.25 x 0. > Add... enter the following geometric properties for steel: . 5. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 4.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.0) 3.y) 1 2 (0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . 2. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's..069e-5 iii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0) (5.. enter the following geometric properties: i.ANSYS Inc.

Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 8. not non-linear material properties..0 2. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..i. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. for example. we would have to consider non-linear material properties. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The following image will appear: . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.. 7.. If we were considering a block of wood.

This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. however. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. C.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off.

Options include the full Newton-Raphson. the modified Newton-Raphson. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. D. By default. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . By default. By default. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. the load is ramped. E. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. F. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. For more information about these commands. the previously computed matrix. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. stress stiffening is automatically included. For some special nonlinear cases. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. type help followed by the command into the command line. By default. However.Now. This command controls the solution data written to the database.

4. .Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.

U... > DOF solution..Y. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 2.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..1 . View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.0. UY PLNSOL. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.

As you recall. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. the load was applied in steps. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Modeling the system non-linearly.3. this is not realistic for large deflections.. However. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Define Variables . you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.> DOF solution. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1.. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. However.

.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2... Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r . > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.

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Open the . . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing...HTML version.' and select the file.

the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration.Modal Dynamic . .0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. and many other solution control option.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In this example. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. For more information regarding setting the time value. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. see Chapter 8. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1.Harmonic Dynamic . An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .

a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. as expected. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. As can be seen in the graph above. Some analyses use normalized values. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. However. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. . you can see Chapter 8. if the solution is highly non-linear. 2. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. this graph relates to forces and moments. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. Once this occurs. Generally. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. For ease of explanation. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. For each parameter. In the case of a structural example. Thus. we will look at the force curves. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. For each substep. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. which is discussed in the help file. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. In the case of a structural analysis. which ever is greater. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. This is what will be explained next.5 in the help file. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. or is not converging. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time.ANSYS Inc. there are two curves plotted. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. For instance. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. etc) that iterates to find a solution. the curves may be for temperature. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value.001). In simpler terms. many iterations will be required. Again. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). which this graph is taken from. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used.5% for loads. such as this. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. If the problem is relatively linear. for more information about changing iteration settings. If this graph were from a thermal analysis.

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It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . material nonlinearities and gaps. However. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. load perterbations. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. ie. . Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. static analysis to predict buckling loads. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. large-deflection.Harmonic Dynamic . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. 2. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. real-world buckling prediction analysis. in real-life. For this type of analysis. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.Modal Dynamic . This method is not recommended for accurate.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. rigidly constrained at the bottom. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .ANSYS Inc. applied at the top-center of the beam. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. will be calculated. Define Keypoints . The required load to cause buckling..Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3.

Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.333 iii. > Add.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . and rotation about the Z axis).y) 1 2 (0. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833.. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.0) (0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.1. 7. K. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 6.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L..#.X.3 . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.100) 4.

prestress effects must be activated. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. select the unabridged version. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.8. If you are looking at the abridged menu.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. r r . which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 9. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu).

3. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. 4. .

7. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. 5. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase.1 8. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. However. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis.

9. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. 11.. r .. as shown below. is for an expansion pass. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used..r Complete the window which appears. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . and ensure that it is on. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10.. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. This time. however. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass.

123).r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. /POST1 SET. which is in Newtons for this example. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.LIST 2. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.

Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. /TITLE.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.Y .#. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.X.

Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. and rotation about the Z axis). For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define Mesh Size .3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. L. > Add.2 5.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's..y) 1 2 (0.. enter the following geometric properties: i.333 iii.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7.0) (0.. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. 6.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. With only 3 degrees of freedom.1.100) 4.

For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). The following image will appear: ...ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines... Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. ESIZE.1 9.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.

D. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. B. C. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. F.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. however. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. E. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. this takes time. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.

NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 3. The model should now look like the window shown below. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). 4. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. For more information about these commands. . This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .5.

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .This shows the convergence of the solution. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

..r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.1 .

r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.U. > DOF solution.1 .. UY PLNSOL.Y..0.

However. The following window should open automatically. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. . 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.If it does not open automatically. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. .

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force.r To add another variable. On the Time History Variable window. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.

. so you must change them manually. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.2. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.

This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41..' and select the file.000 N. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.HTML version.. which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.123 N. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . .

the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.Harmonic Dynamic . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". ANSYS Inc.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In such a case. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic . For instance. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.

. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.X. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..100) 3. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.1..#.2 4. /title. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. NonLinear Materials 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . enter the following geometric properties: i.. 6. 5. > Add.y) 1 2 (0.....Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.0) (0. L.

Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.001 0. When all the points have been inputed.005 0. click Add Point to add another.004 0.i. Then click OK. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. click Graph to see the curve. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up.003 0. It should look like the one shown above.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii.002 0. the stress-strain data must be included. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data. When the data for the first point is input.

100 0. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line). The following image will appear: .ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.200 0.150 0.250 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back. 8..060 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. /REPLOT 7...

however. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Therefore. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. C. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. data for every load step is written to the database. F. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. D. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. E. . Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. this takes time. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. you can plot certain parameters over time.

B. 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 4. For more information about these commands. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). type help followed by the command into the command line. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 3.

To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.This shows the convergence of the solution. .

View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.Y.0. UY PLNSOL..U. > DOF solution.2..1 .

However. The following window should open automatically. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. 1.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. . stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. . r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.

r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. On the Time History Variable window. click the add button again. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. so you must change them manually. . Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.r To add another variable.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate.HTML version. you will see the solutions are very similar. Open the .' and select the file. was low (in the linear range). as the force increased.PDF version is also available for printing. A .This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. However. and subsequently the stress. . When you verify this example analytically.

Modal Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Dynamic . . please use the links below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..2 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.ANSYS Inc. The following window will appear .

select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. . It is therefore more exact but.r As shown. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4. . 3. we will use the default options so click on OK. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..r For this problem. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS..

Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.e. 2.300 52. instead of 10 elements. r To view the next mode shape. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .22 ANSYS 8.68 285.311 51.69 472.0 0. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . Select 'Def + undef edge'.94 145. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).51 472.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.64 285.0 0.2 0.54 Percent Error 0. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.1 0. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .01 145. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

q

Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. By default. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. In our case it is assigned Frequency.. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. which is node #2.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. and the following window should pop up. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK.

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3.

4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs. .

view the log scale of UY. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .3 and 51 Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.311 and 51.94Hz. To get a better view of the response.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

HTML version. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .. Open the .This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. See the help file for instructions. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.100 Hz..0. r For ANSYS version lower than 7.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. . a static analysis may be used instead. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.Harmonic Dynamic . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. for example. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. For our case.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.Modal Dynamic . we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.

However. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The smaller the time step.ANSYS Inc. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. After the application of the load. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.

we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. In other words. the calculations are much quicker. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. In ANSYS. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). Because of the reduced size of the matrices. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. However. It is the quickest of the three methods. if stresses and forces are of interest than. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. Select 'Reduced' as shown. r . this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). Therefore. please use the links below. However. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.

2. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). 3. Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). . see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. The following window will open. choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs.

Therefore. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. a. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. However. ii. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.001. s set [DELTIM] to 0.. . for this example we can skip this step. Load Step 1 . two sets of initial conditions are required. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. initial displacement and initial velocity. both default to zero.Initial Conditions i. Note that for the reduced method. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). This will specify a time step size of 0. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order.001 seconds to be used for this load step.4.Time Step . Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Load Step 2 i. Specify Time and Time Step Options . Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.Time Step . ii. ii.001 for the end of the load step iii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. and set a time of 0. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Load Step 3 i.s01 b..

Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. By default.. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. In our case it is assigned Frequency. which is node #2. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.Time Step .s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . select Utility Menu > List > nodes). 1. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. .

r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ...

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement.

2. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. . frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.3. Plot UY vs.

s s Expand the Solution For most problems. if stresses and forces are of interest. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. However. We also see another response at a higher frequency. We did not specify damping for our system. we would have to expand the reduced solution.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. . one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it.

Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. For this case.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam ..11 seconds r r r 2.08 and 0. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26).08 and 0. 1. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.11 seconds. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.

UY . 0.00000000 0. 0. 0.00000000 .00000000 .00000000 .00000000 ERESX. 0.0. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE. The file should look like the following. 5.00000000 OMEGA. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.01 in all three load step files.UX . -1.REDU.00000000 .00000000 . 0. 0.TEMP. We will now re-run our transient analysis. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files. 0. 0.R5.00000000 . .. 0.00000000 DMPRAT.00000000 0. 0.00000000 ALPHAD.00000000 TREF. 0.00000000 CGLOC. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. 0. -1.. 0.00000000 BETAD.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.00000000 0.00000000 . 1.00000000 .000000000E-03 TIME. 0..00000000 . 0. q .00000000 . 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.7.00000000 ._TINY DELTIM.00000000 .00000000 TINTP. 1.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. 1.000000000E-03. /COM.00000000 . 0 DOMEGA. 0.00000000 .500000000 . 0. 4 TRNOPT.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 NCNV.DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 .00000000 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. TINTP.00000000 . 0. . Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New.00000000 D.00000000 .DEFA ACEL.s01. 0. /GOPR 1. D. 0.00000000 DCGOMG. 0. D. 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic.We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.ANSYS RELEASE 5.0. 0. 0.R5. but now we will consider damping. 0.. 1.ROTZ.

Now go to 'File > Read input from.q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs... After selecting MDOFs. Open the .. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. After the results have been calculated. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' . simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . plot up the response at node 2 in POST26.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

.and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. A .

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.

Quad 4Node 55 ET. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.1 4. Quad 4node 55).0. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.10 6.KXX. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.PLANE55 For this example. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP..0.1. Width=1. Y=0. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.. 5. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.ANSYS Inc. 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0. Give example a Title 2. Height=1 BLC4.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Constraints .05 7. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.ALL.0 2.05 AESIZE.

or Radiation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Heat Flux. Heat Generation.For thermal problems. In this example. Convection. r r The following window will appear: . Heat Flow. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.options cannot be selected.

. > DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. r 3. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Temperature TEMP . constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.

Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. . however. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. A . then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. followed by the side and bottom constraints. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .0 to solve simple thermal examples.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .

we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0..KXX. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Give example a Title 2.PLANE55 As in the conduction example.1.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1 4. 6. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Height=1 BLC4.ALL.ANSYS Inc. 5.0 2. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.05 7.0. Apply Conduction Constraints .. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3.05 AESIZE.1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Y=0.0. 1. Quad 4node 55).10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. Width=1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.

r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. The following window will appear: r . all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.In this example. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block.

r Fill in the window as shown. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. 4. r . This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block.

> DOF solution. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Temperature TEMP . This will eliminate convection through the side.. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0.

PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .HTML version.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..

0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.040 kJ/kg*K.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Also. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Modal Dynamic .

/Title..1. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .04 MP.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Width=1.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.PLANE55 For this example.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.920 6. 5. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.1. Quad 4Node 55 ET.0.0.DENS. Quad 4node 55).C..05 AESIZE.. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1 4.0. Y=0.ANSYS Inc.2.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.ALL At this point.ALL.Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Height=1 BLC4.05 7.1.KXX.1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE. We will use the defaults. .4 The window shown below will pop up.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. so click OK.

2. . Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

Min no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. of substeps to 100. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Max no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .

Heat Flow. By writing the data at every step. Convection. 3. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Heat Flux. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. For a complete description of what these options do. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. or Radiation. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated.options cannot be selected. Heat Generation. In this example. refer to the help file.D) Set Line search to ON . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. r r . Apply Constraints For thermal problems. Basically.

The following window will appear: .

. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. > DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . r 4..

Fill in the window as shown. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.Animate Results Over Time r First. . user specified. with 8 contours. specify the contour range. from 100 to 500...

Auto contour scaling OFF.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time. 0 . Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. DOF solution > TEMP) ..r Then animate the data.300 Time Range.

As can be seen. . The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Also.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. the curves are practically identical. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven.

Analytical Solution .

ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. The following window should open automatically. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Creating the Temperature vs. .

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. node 261. . and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh.If it does not open automatically.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. Instead. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case.2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. From experience. This is because the solution has not completely converged. will cause the solution to converge. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. . This will greatly increase the computational time required though. so you must change them manually. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. To cause the solution to converge. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted.

HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. . A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.

be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.Harmonic Dynamic .0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. In this case. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. As a warning. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Modal Dynamic . we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.X1.Y1.Y2 . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3... Axisymmetric Tube 2.ANSYS Inc.X2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title.

. Solid. 5. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. Many elements support axisymmetry. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4..For an axisymmetric problem.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. we must define a U-shape. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. Therefore. Triangle 6node) element. button. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.. 6. click the Options. . to create the geometry mentioned above. axisymmetry is not supported. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD.

7.3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 9.

command. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions.C. . Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. as shown below. at x=0.0 2. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left.C. By using the symmetry B.

then click OK. . Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below.r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus.

click Sele All to reselect all nodes. Therefore. . 4. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). 3. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. click on Cancel to close the window. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. This is required to constrain the model in space. Once you've clicked Sele All. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. r 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.

55 in the Min.. as shown below and click OK. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. ..Max box.182 MPa. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities. 2.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0.

we must average the stress over the thickness. such as corners. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. (0. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. 3..18552 + 0. The following window will appear. The average is used because in the analytical case. matching the analytical solution.182 MPa. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. Thus.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.17866)/2. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube.. the stress in the tube is 0. to approximate the analytical solution. .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. with a rectangular hole in the middle. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. The rest of the commands remain the same. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Thus.' and select the file. A . when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric.4. rectangular plate.. .PDF version is also available for printing. the model is a flat. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. as expected due to the change in geometry. If this is done.

7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. a wall thickness of 10. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.

. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Y and Z axis. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). . and rotation about the X. /title.Y and Z axis). Define Element Types For this problem. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Catapult 3..

. s Select 'Combination'. ROTX. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. Click 'OK'.. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2.a. b. s Select 'Combination'. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. c. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. ROTY). For this example. UZ. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. UY). a. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete.. there should now be three types of elements defined. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 4. UY..

s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.0. there should now be three types of elements defined. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes.33 6. 5.0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.z) (0.0) . c.0) (0. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.x.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x.y. N. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.0. Define Element Material Properties 1.0. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3..s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.y. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.1000) (1000..1000) (1000. Click 'OK'.#. In the window that appears.

1000.0) (700.. Create PIPE16 elements a. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0.1000) (0.1000.500) (0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.1000) (0.0. Then click 'OK'.700.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.0. The following window will appear.0. .-500) 7.. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .500) (0. 'Material number' is set to 1.0) (0.500) (400.400.0.1500) (0.

node a. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. the first entry would be: E.b.1.6). Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 . Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.

Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Create elements When defining a joint. Then click 'OK' b. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. three nodes are required.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8.

It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.node a. Then click 'OK' b. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. you can list all the elements defined in the model. To do this. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. 11. we do not need to mesh our model. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. 10. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements.node a. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements .E. node b. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.

Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. we need to include the effects of large deformation.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes .0 2. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. 3. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File.. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.3 (instead of NMISC. 8. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX... name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. Comp selection box r r r 6.. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order..1). However. > Add. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. 1. This will give you the max stress at the j node.. we can now solve the optimization problem. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define.. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. . however. r r 7. this is not always the case. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. However. Fill this table as done previously. fill it in as shown previously .

!* !* MPTEMP..ALL.1. .. . 2 !* HPTCREATE.1..3.0.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.1000. FLST. . Design Optimization *SET. . it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.0.1.75. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.1. .0 MPDATA.ans.P51X.1 !* /GO DK.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.0 FLST..ANSYS RELEASE 7.RATI. 20 /PREP7 K.. !* ET.. . K. 20 *SET.. MPTEMP.1.2 .0.1 FITEM.H .0..EX.0. ..W*H.2. L.1.1.2...ORDE..200000 MPDATA..UY.3 !* LESIZE.3.0.1 FITEM. 1.1..1 /title.2. ..1.1...txt’ Click ‘OK’.W . LMESH..UX. . .PRXY.BEAM3 !* !* R.. ..(W*H**3)/12.100... .LINE. .ORDE..start70.H..2.2.. ..1.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'. .. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.

ETAB.SORT. .0. However. .0.0. ETABLE. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.SSUM.SMAX. ETABLE.0.0. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. ETABLE.ORDE.EVolume. Therefore. .UX. Change this to: DK.FY.P51X.UY. If you created the geometry etc.NMISC.. .1.P51X.VOLU.UY. most of these changes will already be made. .UY. !* *GET. . .SMaxI.1 FITEM.Volume. .!* /GO DK.1.0.0.EVOLUME AVPRIN. .SMax_I. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.1.SMax_J..NMISC. .0.2. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device. 1 !* ESORT. .C:\Temp\. FLST.optimization.MAX *SET. .DK.SMAX_J. .-2000 ! /STATUS..2. . .SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.SMaxJ.0.UX.1. . .COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.MAX AVPRIN. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 .P51X. .SORT. using command line code.ETAB. .SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. .0.0.0.0. !* SSUM !* *GET. 3 !* ESORT. !* *GET.3 !* /GO FK.SMAX_I.3.ITEM. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.

Change to: DK. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. For the width and height. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem.3.UY. .0. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. To define variables. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. 2. NOTE: As previously stated.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. . . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .P51X. In this example. . .FY.UY.2. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. In our problem.0. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.DK. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required.0.FY.FK. 3.P51X.-2000 Change to: FK. Now that we have decided our design variables.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. .0. If you are comfortable with command line coding. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. In this example. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. . . r Click ‘OK’. Without this SV.

. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. we do not need to define an allowable range. For the stress variable. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0..01mm. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.01MPa. > Add... s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b.. a. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). .on the volume of the beam.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. > Add.. we will select a tolerance of 0..

. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. . In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Under Convergence Tolerance. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. Defaults to 10.2% 7. confirm that the analysis file. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. Defaults to 0....2 Click ‘OK’. 6. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). method/type and maximum iterations are correct. DELTA = 0. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Click ‘OK’... enter 200.001) c. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Percent forward diff.

.. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.16 mm. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r . View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. View the Results 1. C. You will probably see that the width=13. and the stress is equal to 199.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2.. 2.24 mm. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. B. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. height=29. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables..

Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.... You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy.. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. . Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. In the window. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.

PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. . all of the results data (ie stress.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps.. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. In addition. A . . Alternatively. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.' and select the file. displacement. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer... bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu.

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A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. however.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. v = 0. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Apply loads to the super-element . Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. substructuring will be used for the wood block.5 MPa. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. For this example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

WIDTH...YCORNER. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. . Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.2.. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).XCORNER. Apply remaining loads to the model. 3. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). 7. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. This element has 4 nodes. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. r . Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).SUBST 2.29 6. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . 5. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i.

Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. r . In this case. With the option SEPR. 3.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. 5.4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. FILNAME.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5..XCORNER. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2..WIDTH. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model..YCORNER. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). 7. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.5 (MPa) ii. Young's modulus EX: 2. Therefore..6. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .). If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.1 10.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. .. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.41 8. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. For Selected set as shown. 9. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. The following window will appear.. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. Select Model Data. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

Select Nodes.SUB File. By Location.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .. . Y coordinates. The following window will appear... 40 as shown.. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.

Apply super-element load vectors . In the window that appears. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3..0 2.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .

Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution . Translation USUM PLNSOL.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.... > DOF solution.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.U. r 4..r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.SUM.1 .0.

.Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. FILNAME. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname ..

Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.3. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.. The following window will appear. r .. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.db ..ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Type 'EXPASS. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem .. The following window will appear. r 2... Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. r 3.

. > DOF solution. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .1 .U.SUM.. Translation USUM PLNSOL.0.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0). . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A ..' and select the file. Open the .

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For convenience. a thermal conductivity of 60. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. A steel link. . However. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. stress is created in the link. Loads will not be applied to the link.. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K)..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. the link will attemp to expand.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. with no internal stresses.the solutions and .

and using it with any following coupled environments. where the thermal effects will be applied. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.1..z) 1 2 (0. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. For a listing..Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. Although the geometry must remain constant. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. /title. the element types can change. the analyses are coupled.. However.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.x.0) (1. K.2 . Thermal Stress Example 2. It is important to note. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. and write them to memory.#. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment." Thus. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) 4.y. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.y. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. Thermal Environment .z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. For instance. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. the geometry is kept constant. For our case.

.... This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. KXX: 60. 5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. representing a link 1 meter long. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. > Add. 9. 7.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. ...5 8. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. 6. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.1 meters.

which is defining the structural environment. so it can be used in the next stage. material properties. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. It does not clear the geometry however.3 . Structural Environment . In this case. In this case it is LINK 8. such as the element type. etc. 2. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. see the help file. For more information on this element.11. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. 1. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

0 2. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. ALPX: 12e-6 3. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. .

Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. 4.rth. The thermal solution has now been obtained. as expected. 3. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. were . the left-most point.rth is the thermal results file.rth. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. This should make it visible. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. If this is not done. to 348 Kelvin. this data can be found as file. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. 8. .rth. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. 7. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. you will get error messages. enter the file name File. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction.

10. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .9. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

2.CompStress. Instead. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.As shown.1 3. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. List the Stress Data .LS. an element table must be created first.1 ETABLE.

Note the stress in each element: -0. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. .CompStr The following list should appear.180e9 Pa. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

.HTML version. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing..' and select the file.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus. rather than increasing mesh density. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . computational time can be kept to a minimum. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

P-Method Meshing 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.. as shown below .ON Select p-Method Struct.. /title.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

.100) .y.100) (20.100) (45. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. K.x..#.0) (0.y.3.52) (55. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.52) (80.

8. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (80.11.2. .1..7.0) 5.9.6.48) (45.. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.3.5.48) (20. 6.4.10.0) (55.100) (100.

click Options.. and Plane145. 8. Solid147.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. After clicking OK to select the element. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. For more information on these elements. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type... Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. shown below.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. Plane146. 7. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. enter the following geometric properties: i. For now we will leave them as default. go to the Element Library in the help file. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. to open the keyoptions window. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. > Add. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.

For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 9. .. 10.ii.0 2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.

of substeps to 20. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. of substeps to 100. Min no. Max no. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4.

Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.5.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

3. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear. .

and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. As a comparison. For more complex geometries. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. .Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. these orders may go as high as 8. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.

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and still get reasonable results. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. Now go to 'File > Read input from. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse.As one can see from the two plots. This is the benefit of using p-elements. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse...HTML version. A . However. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. thus computational time will be low. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. Open the .

but will not be discussed here. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. Element birth is also possible. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. For further information. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. The elements are still technically there. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

enter the following properties: i.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0. enter the following properties: . we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. enter the following properties: i.0.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Element Death 2.03 4.03 Height = 0.03.03 BLC4.. /title.. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 5. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.0. For this example.0.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Quad 4node 55).

there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.4 2. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Density DENS: 920 6. you .. We will use the defaults.0005m. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Therefore.i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. 7. so click OK.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.

3. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . B) Set Number of substeps to 20. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.FULL into the commmand line. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF.must type NROPT.

you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. 4.D) Set Line search to ON . By writing the data at every step. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Basically. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. refer to the help file. For a complete description of what these options do.

Heat Flux. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368.5. or Radiation. Convection. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. In this example. Heat Flow. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. . Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. Heat Generation.

The model should now look as follows: .

Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. the user can manually kill.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1.. elements to create the desired effect. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. or turn off.. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. For instance. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. . Here. Assume the material melts at 273 K.LAST 2.

Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. .. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK..' Fill the window in as shown below.r Click on 'Add. 3. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart.all into the command line.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. this will kill only those elements. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. which this analysis doesn't call for. thus it is just warning the user. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. This is much too time consuming in this case. and close the warning message. 2. . Click OK to restart the analysis. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1.

.With the window still open. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.

2. View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. using command line code.HTML version. A . Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. to more accurately model element death over time. Open the .This procedure can be programmed in a loop. That way. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. more accurately modelling the heating process..PDF version is also available for printing. .' and select the file.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed.

causing it to bend and contact the lower.. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. /title. as shown below. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The beams. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . are 100mm long. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa.. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Contact Elements 2. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper.

This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y). 100. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. Quad 4node 42) element.Width./PREP7 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. r While the Element Types window is still open. 0.. 10) 4. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. WP Y. 10) (50... 5. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.. Width.. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below.WP Y. 100. 15. > Add. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. click Options.Height) 1 2 (0.. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X...WP X. .

one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. This is an important step.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. .. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. click Options. enter the following geometric properties: i.. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. pt-to-surf 48) element. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact.. This way.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. r While the Element Types window is still open. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. 8.3 7.

ii. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). such as CONTA175. As the surfaces approach each other. In this situation.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. rather than node to element edge. enter the following properties: i. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. A small value of TOLS. require a target element. This will be covered below. given in %. be sure to understand how the elements work. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. Thus. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user.. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. such as TARGE169. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes.It is important to note. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. Other contact elements. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other.. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). When using contact elements in your own analyses. . resulting in convergence difficulties. you should increase KN. Since this "spring" is so stiff. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. 10. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window.. If there is too much penetration. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. you should decrease KN.. to function. > Add.

s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. Select the top beam and click OK. In this case.. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes.. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. In this simple case. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. tolerances.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. when the geometry is complex. the source nodes will be selected. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. However. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. where as target nodes are those that are contacted.. First.. . Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. etc. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. 11. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam.

X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.100. This will select the nodes above the lower beam.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. . This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.

you should only have the following nodes remaining.s Now if you list the selected nodes. .. Utility Menu > List > Nodes..

and click OK. If you have a lot of contact elements. This can be very useful in other applications as well. Now we can use this component. In this case. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. . s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. Source. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements.

. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. and click the Sele All button. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. These values will be the ones you'll use. and click the Sele All button.. clicking the Also Select radio button. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. enter the name Target.. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. This is done by opening the entity select menu.. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. clicking the Also Select radio button. . When creating the component this time.Now select the target nodes. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.. This is done by opening the entity select menu. 12.. Using the same procedure as above.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. . The rest of the selections remain unchanged. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).

you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . Unfortunately. your model should look like the following. If you wish. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.At this point.

Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. If you zoom in on the contact areas. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). shown below.. The following image will appear: .. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The preprocessor stage is now complete.

Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. this takes time. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. D. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. C. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. however. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. B. E. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. Once everything is working. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. type help followed by the command into the command line. 3. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . leave these relatively high at first. Again. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Also. For more information about these commands. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. If you have too few substeps.

This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . 5. Note. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. However. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. this is a point load on a 2D surface. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis.

This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: .2. then click ok. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. 3. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1.0 (true scale) radio button. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. If you leave the scaling as default.

.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam.PDF version is also available for printing.As seen in the figure. Open the . A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. producing a stress distribution in both.

DIVISION. Variables including length. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.LENGTH.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.2 . The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code.100 *ask. using a length of 200 m. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions.How tall is the truss.20 *ask.How many cross supports even number. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.HEIGHT. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.How long is the truss.

(DIVISION-1).1.i.THEN L.link1 r.KEYP.i.j.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.1.0 *else k.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.100 mp.1.DIVISION.OSCILATE.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.X_COORD.0.prxy..HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.THEN k.GT.1 .KEYP.KEYP.1.1.0.3 esize.ex.1.200000 mp.X_COORD.i.LE.NUM_K.(KEYP+1) *if.

9. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.. For example.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'.3. The syntax for the expression is *DO.lmesh. The *SET command can also be used to define variables..THEN. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. As seen above. 2. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command.How long is the truss.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.LENGTH. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. In this case. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. This argument can be a single value. is greater than zero. *ask. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop.i.2. Command File Mode of Solution . 4. FVAL. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command.10_K. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. in the code above there is a statement: *if. Thus in later parts of the code. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop.OSCILATE. or a mathematical expression. INC. the most intutitive method is to use "=". *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. This translates to "if the variable. However..0. *do. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. determining if a certain case has occured.all finish 1. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. then. see the help file. OSCILATE.1. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.. For example. In between the *DO and *ENDDO.10). IVAL.GT. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. (ie 1. Par.8. For more information on this command.".

HTML version. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. . Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file...

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Stress..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . etc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. /title.) of the following example. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static .3 6. Y and Z directions). Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Height.. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. 5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.0.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4.Width. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.3.0.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

options 1.0 2. 4.ANTYPE. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . therefore. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). 3. For this example we are trying to display a section. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. 5. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE).

r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. let's view deflection of the entire model. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1.

let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. To illustrate how to take a cross section. offset the working plane to the desired position. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r .From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).8 PLNSOL.-1..Width/2. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.SUM. simply use: WPCSYS.0 WPROTA.0 2.1.. Equivalent Stress Again.0.This can be repeated for any slice.U. however. let's view stresses within the entire model.90 /CPLANE. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.0.1 /TYPE.0. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0.

we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.0.0. Because it is much easier.0.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).1.1/16*Length /CPLANE.S.1 /TYPE. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.EQV. You should now see the following: .5 PLNSOL.

let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. the origin. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. r r . type help ancut into the command line. select the node in the back. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. and the Y axis. Animation Now. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes... In the graphics window. For more information on how to modify the animation. Finally. for something a little more impressive. but please bear with me. Next. Unfortunately. the sweep direction. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears.3. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam.

Open the . . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .HTML version.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing..

For example. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. . distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

0. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. 4. select the area to remain (ie. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0.WP X. Then. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. the circles) and click OK..Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. r .200. The remaining area should look as shown below. the rectangle) and click OK. /title.. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.WP Y. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. select the areas to be subtracted (ie.

.3 .. In the 'Element Types' window.. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants...6.. 8. > Add. click 'Options.. enter a thickness of 10. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.

.0 2.. . The model should now look like the figure below. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. 10. 3. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.9.

you could create a normal contour plot. However. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. 1. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . if the stress near the holes are of interest. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.4. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . To keep window 1 visible during replots. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. you must make a couple of changes. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. shown below. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. Turn window 1 'off'. meaning this function off.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. r r 2. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off.

you must choose what to map to the path. 3. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. For this example. equivalent stress is desired. what results should be available to the path. or in other words. r . click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step.

r The warning shown below will probably pop up. This is of little concern though. 4. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. so disregard the warning. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.

Note.The display should look like the following. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. . these dots are not shown here. Due to resolution restrictions.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .PDF version is also available for printing. Open the ..HTML version.' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. Use of Tables for Data Plots .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. rather than using a contour plot. finer resolution can be achieved. a special type of array. /title. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. By plotting this data on a curve. Length of the following beam using tables.

.x.y.0) (400. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.1...y. Define Element Material Properties . 7. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii...2.z) 1 2 (0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.#.. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. and rotation about the Z axis).0) 4. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. 6. K. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2.0 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. The model should now look like the figure below.3 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm. . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

For this example there are 21 nodes. This example is a simplified use of tables.. Therefore. Tables. > OK. 1. 2. Create the Table . a special type of array. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play.4. but they can be used for much more. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'.

In the window shown below. Note there are 22 rows.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. one more than the number of nodes. select Model Data > Nodes r . Enter Data into Table First.2. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. The reason for this will be explained below. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .. 3.1]. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window..

> Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X].. column 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . Next. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. and continues down the column. r . column 2.2) > All > DOF solution > UY].2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. and continues down the column.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1..1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. the vertical displacement will be recorded.

and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. This causes problems during plotting. to provide room to move this data. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table.4. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. as it is keypoint 1. Thus.

with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400.833) is in row two. r . Select File > Apply/Quit 5. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). UY = -0. Fill it in as shown. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X).

.r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. To see the changes to the labels. r r .

HTML version..' and select the file.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. A .

333.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.100. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.0. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.prxy.1.ex. etc.5 lmesh.2 et.2.100.1.beam3 r. finish /clear /title.10 mp.1.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.all.1. For instance. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.0 K. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.833. numbering the nodes.1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.3 esize.1. changing the background colour.1.0 L.0 dk.200000 mp.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.all finish /solu antype.

.2.fk..fy.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. The following window will appear: . Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

For instance. To remedy this problem. You should get the following: . select the node numbering and plot the nodes. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. When you click OK. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. sometimes the numbers won't show up. However.

Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . 2. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. the nodes have been numbered.As shown. These extra symbols may not be necessary.

This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. In our case. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. so those sections won't be used. there are no Surface or Body Loads. . Under the Boundary conditions section. or Initial Conditions.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. In this case. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. etc. it is things associated with the window background. To turn off the triad. As shown in the window. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. The following output should be the result. . the legend or title can be turned off.

. .4.. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.

When using line elements. To aid in this process. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. The following should appear. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. such as BEAM3. . thus elements are not going to show up. don't be alarmed. If there is no change in output. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like.

. you can change the view orientation. To get a better 3-D view of the model.. .As shown. but they have volume according to the real constants. the elements are no longer just a line. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. 5.

. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse.This window allows the user to rotate the view. Basic rotating. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. translate the view and zoom. such as isometric or oblique. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. Using these options. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. You can also select predefined views.

6. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate.. If you don't like the colours of the contour. Changing Contours First. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. . you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. they can be changed. plot the deformation contour for the beam. Under non-uniform contours. those can also be changed.. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. Under uniform contours.

. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. but don't want a black background.. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. Here we are only using Window 1. 7. and we'll set the background colour to white.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. .

This is because the text colour is also white. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image.. this can be done in other graphic editors. To save the display.. .The resulting display is shown below. If there is information that needs to be added. such as contour values. Notice how all the text disappeared. Under the File heading. select Save As.

as is the help file. If you are looking for a specific option.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. . the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. these are just a few.

. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. select Read Input from. You may need to select Plot -> . Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file.. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. see the next item in this list. Then before you are finished. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. frame. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. e. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu..g. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. 2. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window.cmd) is stored and select it. to a text file.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. When it is complete. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. or if you'd like to save the whole file. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode.

/myfiles/ansys/frame for example. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. mode).cmd.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. X11c.. At this point you could type in /menu. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. If the file was in the directory. etc./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file... you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. . If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. you would use the following syntax /input. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. Command Line File Loading Alternatively.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.. stress.frame. you may need to point it to the proper directory. To rerun the command file. type /input.cmd and yes that is a comma (. Select File -> Clear & Start New. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. Save those changes to disk.) between frame and cmd. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. then from the ANSYS input window. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory..on.frame.

ycoord.rad2.kp2.y1. .kp1..y2. kp6 a.x1. kp8 va.kp1. .kp1.theta1.x2..theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .a2.y1.rad1.. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.l1. kp18 a. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k.kp2 larc.z2.kp2.kp#. ..kp2. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.rad2.z1.kp3.xcoord...a1. applying loads and constraints.rad1.kp2. .. a10 see online help see online help rectng..z1.theta1.y2 block.x1.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.zcoord l. l10 v.l2.z2 cylind.kp1.. .x2..theta2 sphere.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.kp1.

.number mp. a9 aglue.a2..area2.a1.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.r2.. . current type is set by real real.number.a1. current type is set by mat mat.area1.. r6 may define as many as required. . .inc or lmesh. .all amesh.a1.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) . a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.label.a2.line1.a2.. ...number r.a1..a2 aina.type may define as many as required.. a9 asba.number.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh. c4 may define as many as required.c0.number.number esize. current type is set by type type.r1.size.inc or amesh.line2.c1..

MZ f.node#.inc or vmesh.UY.value labels: UX.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.UZ.FY.ROTY.UY.label.vol1.MY.FZ.label.UZ.area#.MX.MX.ROTY.value labels: UX.ALL d.kp#.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).FY.vol2.ROTZ. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .value labels: FX.label.MY.line#.value labels: FX.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.ROTZ.e.label.FZ.ALL dl. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.node#.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.kp#.ROTX.ROTX.

but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.i. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.else .x.x2.ndivs.GT.1 ! do i = 1. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1.0 k.1.2.ndivs+1.1.Enter number of divisions (default 5). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.i.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.x1.ndivs. if only is entered.0. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .then . ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

1 kplot klist.! /pnum.kp..coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .all..

Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. extrusion. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Boolean operations.

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This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Dynamic Analysis . ANSYS 7. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic Analysis .Pure Conduction . This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc.Transient Thermal Examples . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.

Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example. Modelling Using Axisymmetry .Thermal Examples .Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Analysis of heat conduction over time.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. Using element death to model a volume melting. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Additionally.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. ANSYS 7. a special type of array. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials.

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0.0.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.7.0.5.0.8. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.7 emis2=0.6.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.699*10**(-8) k.1 k.0 k.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.-1 k.0254 rout=8*0. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.1.0 k.

rin.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE . SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.2 SE.1.offset ! inner cylinder.2.loc.8...5..1 ESIZE..VM125 TOFFST.1.all MP.rin LMESH.circle.1 TYPE.0 GEOM.7.s.1..s.1 STEF.MATRIX50.1.rout.2 lsel.arc..1.TEMP ET.1 lsel. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.KXX.stefbolt WRITE..KXX.2.all csys.1 MP.all lsel..x.7.arc.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.emis1 EMIS.x..1 MAT.ndiv ET. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.1 MAT.1 csys.loc.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.6.2.LINK32.1.ndiv CIRCLE.1 R.ALL lsel..emis2 VTYPE.rout LMESH..

rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.1 nsel.loc.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel..x.ITEM.rout D.TEMP. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.loc.HEAT *DIM.s.all *GET.3 LABEL(1.1.VALUE.all nsel.0.s.FSUM.TEMP.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.Q.CHAR.ALL.csys.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.all nsel.1.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.loc.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.x.s.rin D.T1 nsel.T2 nsel.x.x.2 *DIM.LABEL.all csys.s.1 nsel. K /POST1 csys.loc.ALL.

VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.3).LABEL(1.*VFILL.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.' '.exact *VFILL.A8.3) (1X.3) /COM.--------------.2).ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM. FINISH .------------------------------------------------------/COM.DATA.1. /COM.VALUE(1.1.' '.DATA. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.1).VALUE(1.F10.1F5. *VWRITE.1).VALUE(1.Q *VFILL.2).DATA.F10.1).' '.VALUE(1.

puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. The first three mentioned below are text based.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. so they are always available.dat. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. but the backspace key does work normally. nedit .dat at the UNIX prompt. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. for example. In pico. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. one simply types pico test. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. but have a steep learning curve. press this key. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. To use pico to edit the file test.

it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. type wabi or win. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. From a UNIX command window. Applications . Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. when saving files in PFE.3 file format used by DOS. It could then be edited.. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. and then renamed back to its original name. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. multiple file editing. saved. and look at the option in the dialog box. and block delimiting with the mouse. yet powerful X Windows editor.exe (look under the r: drive). It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. For this reason. Very nice. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu.nedit is a very simple to use. undo. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. Therefore. It features pull-down menus. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab..

over a modem. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show.. To start ANSYS. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). Press Enter to continue.. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. two methods are avialable: 1. From this menu.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. heat transfer and fluid problems. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home.x11c /menu. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. item. Press Enter to continue. From the next dialog box that appears. If you've got some time. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. check . ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Then choose GUI configuration. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. Once this is done. select your desired font size. you may enter ANSYS commands. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. it is necessary to select the Interactive . as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. 2.

Pro/Mechanica. For more information about this program. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. A companion program. like that shown above. For further information on this program. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. For further information on using ANSYS. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. see Dr. . check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. see Dr. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. Yokota. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. Fyfe. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. and design optimization. Toogood. including static analysis. click on the car figure. check out the Fluent Web page. performs finite element analysis. see Dr. sensitivity studies. If you've got some time.out the ANSYS Web page.

cshrc file.f sub3. Note that the ./a. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. redirecting it). Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.e. type the command.f Normally no options are required. e. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. . If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. To change the executable's output name to test.out.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output.f.f >& errorfile will compile main. This program would be run by entering . we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. for example.f sub1.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. and output is the name of the file to which the output .out (logical. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. your file must be named something like test. xlf by itself. such as error messages. For example: xlf main. you now type. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main. isn't it?).f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.F./test.f sub1. see Configuration Files).f sub2.f and not test.' is in your path (this is changed in your .f and sub1.for or TEST. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f To run this program. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. i. to a file. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. For learning about the compiler's many options.

Note that it is only necessary to save the file. you simply type: . So. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. The keyboard will still accept the input. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. This is accomplished by means of the diary command.m files.will be sent. The resulting text file may then be edited. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. Note that the text . Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. you can still run your program this way. and what data to enter. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. printed and even imported into a word processor. symbolic and plotting functions. if you know when to enter data. In this way you will have one window to edit your . Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. because it too is being sent to the output file. If the program normally prompts the user for input. however.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks).m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. From the Matlab prompt. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. and not actually exit the editor. the prompt will not appear on the screen.

However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. For example. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. For example. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. by issuing the command. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. . rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. The workstations are named mec01. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.labs. Once the job is completed. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you will need to acquire and run an X server program.labs. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up.labs through to mec30. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations.ualberta. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. you must have an X server running on your local machine.

. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer.txt. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. see FTP. type. but GPU does. You can enter the mail program called pine. To use it. In this command. Pine is based on the pico editor. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. The mecxx. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). or by typing pine at the prompt. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. newsgroups and WWW.ca. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. either through lynx. If your CNS login id is jblow.srv. This file is printed in the small room. free of charge. Many applications. To do this. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address.ualberta. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. To use E-mail then. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. just outside the main part of the lab.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. for example.

145 (see FTP). issue the command: plotpostscript filename. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building.20 per page. If you fail to do so. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. getting started. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing).eps scale c where filename. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. room 240. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. room B-111). see table of contents.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. Prints are $0. From a GPU account login. For further information. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. or appendices. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. your job (but not your file) will be deleted.128. . you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color.85.

0. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. width. A. 0 ! keypoint. x. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. p.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Note that Young's Modulus. width/2.123) ! /title. y K. E. reaction forces. #.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.3. height .4. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. and stress for the truss system shown below.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. 3*width/2.height K.2. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. 0 K. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.1. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.

FY.6.7.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK. .5.5 L. ! ! define lines ! L. K.5 L.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .FY.4.1.3 L.4.3250 MP.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.3.1.1.LINK1 R.1.UY.1. 3*width. 2*width.EX.4 L.K.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.200e3 ! element type #1.1.U. 5*width/2.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.ALL.5.1.3.2.7. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.1.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.-210e3 FK.0.2 L.-280e3 FK.6 L.6 L.F PLDISP.2.SUM.5.ALL.FY. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.2 PLNSOL.3. K.4 L.5.7 L.6.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.7.3 L.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.1. . spring element ! real constant #1.FY.

1 PRETAB.SAXL PLETAB.SAXL.ETABLE.SAXL.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .LS.

0 K. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.5.3 L.3. 3*width. 0 ! keypoint. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.1. #.123) ! /title. p.2.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.4.2. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.1. 5*width/2. and stress for the truss system shown below. x. 0.1. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 3*width/2. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. width/2.2. 2*width.3 L. 0 K. A. height K. y K. height K.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.7.height K. Note that Young's Modulus. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. reaction forces. width.www.6. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.ualberta. E.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

2.0 SFL.4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.ALL.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .PRES.mece.ualberta.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.www. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.0 DL.

and uniform pressure loading.20.20 BLC4.0.20. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.50 CYL4.20.50. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).20 CYL4. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.80.80.-20.0.0.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.0.60 ! Enter the pre-processor . A figure of the plate is shown below.80. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4. plane stress.100 CYL4. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.

ALL.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.value ! mp.material number.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.1.80.EX.9. DL.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .PLANE82 KEYOPT.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .20.ALL.3.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.10.force ! Solve the problem . 7.1.0 .6.0 .keypoint.30 CYL4.50.1.Young's modulus.PRXY.material number. DL. DL.0 .10 ASBA.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.ALL.ALL CYL4. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.12.ALL.real set number.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE. 9.Poisson's ratio. 8.80.13.14.AADD.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 .0.0.FY. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP..direction.all areas.0.20 ! r. DL.10 CYL4.5 ! lesize.1.3 ! mp.ALL. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.0 .200000 MP.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL..11.0 .ALL. DL. DL.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.ALL.1. DL.0 .ALL. .0 ! amesh.

SUM.EQV.10.S.340000.10..4.2..OFF /WIND.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.4. PLNSOL.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.0.8 /CONT.0.EQV.0.10..0.4.1.05e-3 /FOC.2.ALL.0.-0.0. PLNSOL..0..2 /GCMD. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .0036 /CONT.3.1 /replot PRNSOL.3.U.3.ALL.LBOT /WIND.LTOP /WIND.1 /CONT. PLNSOL.1.0.DOF.2. PLDISP.1 /GCMD.1 /GCMD.RTOP /WIND.EPTO.

www.0. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.ualberta. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.mece. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. plane stress. A figure of the plate is shown below. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. and uniform pressure loading.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.80.

www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.material number. DL.0.0 .EX.1.12.material number.5 ! lesize.20 ! r.direction.80.Young's modulus.ALL.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.13. DL.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.80. 9. 8.20.0 . .20.keypoint.0.mece. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.50 CYL4. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.9.ALL.ALL.1.value ! mp.20 CYL4.1.50.200000 MP.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.0.PRXY.all areas.ALL ! Boolean Addition .3.80.ALL CYL4.10 CYL4.50.3 ! mp.Poisson's ratio.ALL.html CYL4.10 ASBA.. DL.ALL.0 .11. DL.20.ALL.1.0 .0.PLANE82 KEYOPT.10.80. DL.0 .ualberta. DL.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once..add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.6.-20.FY.-1000 (fk command) !fk.0 .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.14. 7.20.1. DL.20 BLC4.30 CYL4.0 ! amesh.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.0 .60 AADD.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.real set number.ALL.

1 /CONT.www..0.05e-3 /FOC.EPTO. PLDISP.mece.0036 /CONT...LBOT /WIND.0.1 /GCMD.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.0. PLNSOL.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.10.0.RTOP /WIND.1. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3.ALL. PLNSOL.EQV.S.SUM.1.0.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.2.U.4.-0.4.0..LTOP /WIND.3.3.DOF..340000.8 /CONT.4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.10.ALL.0.ualberta.1 /GCMD.10. PLNSOL.OFF /WIND.2 /GCMD.EQV.1 /replot PRNSOL.2.2.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Filleting. copying.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. . We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. extrusion/sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.

0.5 AADD.10.5.ALL CYL4..6.2 ASBA.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4..0. .1002.0.22.0.5 AADD.1.9 lines 9.8.3.0 K.0.5.ALL LFILLT.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0. 1001 and 1002 K.11) AL.2002.2. .1002.5. AL.1 BLC4. .0.2.0.2..2.2. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.1001.26.8.1 AGEN.6 AGEN.1.0 K.5.360.1.0.14 AADD.5. . .3.-0.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .2001.4.0.2..5.0.10.0.1.3.ALL ! Sweep K.0 VROTAT.5 BLC4.4.7.5 CYL4.1.3..11.7..3.1001.0.3. ..5.

0 K.8.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.5. . .6.0.2.6 vsbv.6.2.2001.6.102.0.9 vsbv.20 K. .2002.sqrt(3)/0.1 VGEN.102 K.7.4.109.2.100.-20.8 vsbv.2 CYL4.7.6.20 LARC.11 vsbv.180 CYL4.20 L.26 VOFFST.5.0.3.82 K.1.13.101.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.0.-20.5 CYL4. .8.5. .1 KWPLAN.0.0.2003.all.180.102.4.25. .1.5.8.2.02 KWPLAN.51 AADD.100.0.82 K.51.5.27.4.1.6 AL.109. .-1.101.0.all.10 vsbv.0.7 AADD.159.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .all.1.109.45.10 AGEN.26 VADD. .3.all.2003 CSYS. .5.1.2. . .69 AGEN.ALL VOFFST.102 BLC4.20.1.K.20 LARC.0 K.5.2. .102.5 vsbv.5.26 K.102.62 ASBA.0.7 vsbv.

202.36.34.30 KWPLAN.32.0 A.0.180.2. . .32.200.0 system K.26 K.-20.51.3 CYL4. .200.180.5. .57735*26).AADD.201.18.20.0.-20.204.1.61.-1.0 K.1 WPCSYS. sqrt(3)/2*76.202 CSYS.7.200.33.129-(0.203.-1.51.203.201. .60 VSBV.38 AADD.60 VADD.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K. VADD.37 CYL4.26 K.61. .61.204 VOFFST. 129-(0. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .57735*26) + 38.

html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. extrusion/sweeping. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Filleting. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. copying.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.ualberta. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.

1..0 K.5.360. .4.2.4.5. .0.1.0 K.0.9 AL.0.2003.6 AGEN.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .2 ASBA.5.2.8.10.8.0.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL LFILLT.7.0.26. .7.1 BLC4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.3.14 AADD.11.2002.ALL ! Sweep K.3.2. ..1001..ualberta.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.1.22..1 AGEN.0.5 AADD.1002.3.5.0.-0. .mece.1.3.1002.0.5 AADD.0.0.0 K.0. K.1.2.www..1001..0.5.2001.5.5 CYL4.5 BLC4.0.2.0 VROTAT.6.2.ALL CYL4. AL.5. LFILLT.3.3.3.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4..

2 CYL4.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .20 LARC.-20.101.0.2 AADD.www.180.109.0.all. .7 vsbv.26 VOFFST.10 AGEN.11 vsbv.5.13.0.0.ALL VOFFST.1.62 ASBA.109.0 K.26 K.6 vsbv.5 vsbv.4.51 AADD.180 CYL4.109.82 K. .0. .20.82 K.36.5.5. .2.2003 CSYS.5.100.2. .27.102. .100.1.-20.33.102.7 AADD.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4. . . .6.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.1.34.20 LARC.html KWPLAN. .1.5.all.20 L.4.2.2001.69 AGEN.3.6.26 VADD.45.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.159.102 K.-1.102 BLC4.51.1.0.6.2.1 VGEN.7.25.5.5.38 AADD.0.9 vsbv.8.7. .5 CYL4.8.8 vsbv.5.all.8.20 K.02 KWPLAN.102.6.all. .6 AL.102.2.32.4.2.1.101.0.0 K.10 vsbv.sqrt(3)/0.0.2002.

3 CYL4.18. .26 K.60 VSBV. . .20.1 WPCSYS. sqrt(3)/2*76.61.60 VADD.51. .0.-1.-20.30 KWPLAN.2.1.0 K.201.200.32. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .204.html CYL4.202 CSYS.57735*26). VADD.26 K.mece.180.ualberta.www.202.0 A. .204 VOFFST.61. 129-(0.7.5. .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .200.203.180.-1.0 K.57735*26) + 38.0.61.203.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.200.51.129-(0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.201.-20.

Length. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2 ET.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.EX.2.0 K.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.0 L.1.Height MP.1.1.Width*Height.1. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0.Width*(Height**3)/12. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.

ALL.0.0.DENS. ACEL.ALL.MP.1.86e-6 LESIZE.0 DK.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .3 MP.1.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP. LMESH.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..Length/10.7.1.PRXY.9.

ualberta.ALL.www.1.1.2. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.Height MP.7.0.Width*Height.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.mece.EX.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.Length/10.Width*(Height**3)/12.1.2 ET.1. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. LMESH.1.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.DENS.0 K.0 L.PRXY.BEAM3 ! Set element type R. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Length.

.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.html DK.9.1.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.ualberta.www. ACEL.0.

1. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0.2. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.1000. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0 L.1.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0 K.0.

UY.SMAXJ.SMAXJ.333.area.0 SFBEAM.2.I.0 DK.NMISC.BEAM3 R.UY DK.1.EX.33 ESIZE.200000 MP.0.10 MP.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .PRXY.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1..1.SMAXI.NMISC. 1 ETABLE.100.2 ETABLE.1.UX.PRES.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP..100 LMESH.833.ET.1.SMAXI.0.1. 3 PLLS.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .ALL.

0.mece. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.2 ET. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ht.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..ualberta. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0 L.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..1.0 K.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1000.1.0.www. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.1.

SMAXJ.0 DK.UX.0 SFBEAM..1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.www.1.1.I.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SMAXI.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .NMISC.PRES.333.33 ESIZE.1.PRXY...EX.100.0.1.UY.ualberta. 1 ETABLE.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.UY DK.area.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.2.200000 MP. 3 PLLS.SMAXJ.ALL.SMAXI.100 LMESH. R.833.10 MP.ht.0 ! Real constants .mece.NMISC.1.2 ETABLE..

10. In this model there are two blocks.5.. plane stress w/thick.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . /title.1. one above top of the other.0.4 aplot ! define element type ET.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0.5. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG.plane42. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground. strs out type.01 ! thickness 0.3. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.7...2 ! element type 1.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.2. nodal. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block.1 ! activate element type 1 R. with a small separation. 0. 1.2.

20e3 MP.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .y.0...0.contac48.3 MP. 0.2.2.35 mat.20e3.5 mat. 200e3 MP.3 ! meshing esize.s.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.0.7.mat.EX.! define material properties MP..10 TYPE.99.2.1 amesh. 2.2.s.1 real.r.1 ! nsel.1 ! defines second element type .005. 0.loc.NUXY.NUXY.1 r..source.2.2D contact elements keyo.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.area.1. 1.2 amesh.2 ! nsla.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.1.2 /pnum.EX.01 ! cm.1 esize.

all.r.y.full.loc.s.r.on pred.3 finish /solution antype.target.s.all.loc.1 nsel.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .r.loc.1 nsla.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.1..all.y.all.1 nsubst. a small tolerance is used d.01 cm.asel.99.x.100 autots.on nropt.s.s.loc.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.fy.4 fk.5 ksel.20.2.4 dk.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).s.stat.x.source.node gcgen.2.-100 allsel time.5 ksel.all.area.7.y.y.loc.loc.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.target..

1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor . There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.1. the load will added incrementally.0e6 mp.125 mp. To solve this problem.0. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.2 et.ex.30.1.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.prxy.beam3 r.1.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0.1. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.1.0.0 k.0.3 esize. After each increment.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0.03125.4. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1 lmesh.2. izz.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 l.069e-5.5.0.1.

1./solu antype.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .all.2.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.-100 solve /post1 pldisp. min # substeps=1 outres.5.all fk. max # substeps=1000.1 PRNSOL.all ! save results of all iterations dk.U.mz.1000.static nlgeom.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.

03125.4.30.1. To solve this problem.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1 lmesh. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.ex.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.beam3 r.prxy.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.3 esize. izz.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.0e6 mp.ualberta.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 et.125 mp.0.0.mece. After each increment.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0 l. the load will added incrementally.1. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0 k.5.0.0.1.1.0.0.2.069e-5.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .

max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.static nlgeom.mz.all dk.all fk.on nsubst.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .on autots.ualberta.html /solu antype.5.U.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.2.1000.1 PRNSOL.1.www.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.all.1 outres.mece.

this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. in reallife. ie. However. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. . 2. static analysis to predict buckling loads. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. real-world buckling prediction analysis. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. material nonlinearities and gaps.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. load perterbations. This method is not recommended for accurate. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. largedeflection. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. For this type of analysis.

1.1.2 ESIZE.10 MP.200000 MP. area (mm^2). ANSYS .STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.333.100.100 L.1. will be calculated. rigidly constrained at the bottom. applied at the top-center of the beam.2.1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.1.BEAM3 R.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX. I (mm^4).0.0.PRXY.10 LMESH. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1.ALL.0.3 K.0 K.833. The required load to cause buckling.

since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.333.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.0.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.EX.ALL FK.ON DK.1.PRXY.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).2.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .100. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.LANB.2 ESIZE.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .0.1.1.10 K.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.3 R.ON MXPAND.0.LIST SET. I. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .FY.0 L.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .833.1.BUCKLE BUCOPT. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .0 K.1 LMESH.1. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.200000 MP.0.subspace.100.2. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PSTRES.

-50000 FK.1.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .ON /ESHAPE.1.Y XVAR.ALL.Y NSOL.F.ON LNSRCH.2.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.FX.20 NEQIT.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.X.2.2.FY.1000 AUTOTS.3 /AXLAB.ON OUTRES.2.0 FK.NLGEOM.ALL NSUBST.Y.3.1 DK.U.ALL.2 PLVAR.

The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ie. in real-life.www. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. static analysis to predict buckling loads. load perterbations. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. large-deflection. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. For this type of analysis. 2. However. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0 to solve a simple buckling problem.ualberta. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. This method is not recommended for accurate. real-world buckling prediction analysis. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). material nonlinearities and gaps.mece. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable.

2.EX. area (mm^2). I (mm^4).www. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.10 MP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.1.mece.BEAM3 R.10 LMESH.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.2 ESIZE.1.0.200000 MP.100 L.ualberta.100.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.0. The required load to cause buckling.ALL.333. rigidly constrained at the bottom.3 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.833.1. will be calculated.0.0 K.1.PRXY. applied at the top-center of the beam.

necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .2.1.EX.ON MXPAND. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ALL.0.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . I.10 K.1.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.BUCKLE BUCOPT.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.STATIC NLGEOM.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1.ualberta.333.1.ON DK. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.2 ESIZE.ALL FK.0.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0 K. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.0.subspace.html ANTYPE.FY.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.STATIC PSTRES.3 R.100.PRXY.200000 MP.833.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.mece.LANB.0. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .LIST SET.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.1.1 LMESH.0 L.ON OUTRES.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.

FY.3.U.mece.ON LNSRCH.X.0 FK.2.1 DK.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.20 NEQIT.1.www.ualberta.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.F.ALL.html NSUBST.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y XVAR.1.3 /AXLAB.2 PLVAR.2.ON /ESHAPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1000 AUTOTS.2.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .-50000 FK.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.Y NSOL.2.FX.Y.

0.1.1.PRXY.1.. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".001. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.0. For this analysis.2 ET.100 l. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. For instance.3 TB.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. In such a case.75 . ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.1.75000 MP.LINK1 R.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.12.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.2.0 k.MELA. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used..1. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).1.EX.0.25 MP.

X.150 TBPT.20..5 LMESH.390 TBPT.225 TBPT.ON NEQIT..DEFLECTION /AXLAB.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .ALL AUTOTS..15..025.Y.Y.275...1 PLNSOL..ALL.ON NSUBST.2 PLVAR.F.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.420 TBPT....450 ESIZE.449 TBPT.002.004.355 TBPT.1..Y NSOL.U..2.005..250 TBPT.FY.1000.1000 ANTYPE.2.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.25..3 /AXLAB..06.TBPT.240 TBPT..300 TBPT..2.U.ON LNSRCH.3.2.0 DK.1.Y XVAR.1 OUTRES..1.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE...all FK.0..003.435 TBPT..

0. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.1. For instance.. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. In such a case.1..100 l.1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.LINK1 R. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).2. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0 k.0. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".2 ET. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.www.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. For this analysis.

275.mece..003.2...0.1000..20.U.ALL AUTOTS.025.Y.U.1.75 TBPT.0.2 PLVAR..250 TBPT.F.75000 MP.25.ALL.ON NSUBST..1..1.Y.004..all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.435 TBPT.12. MP..001..Y NSOL..X.all FK.ON LNSRCH.2.1.3 /AXLAB.002.3.PRXY..1000 ANTYPE..06...EX.Y XVAR..ualberta.2.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.1 PLNSOL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.225 TBPT..5 LMESH.420 TBPT..150 TBPT.ON NEQIT...240 TBPT.15.2.1 OUTRES.0 DK.www.390 TBPT.FY.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3 TB.. TBPT.1..1.300 TBPT.MELA.449 TBPT....1..DEFLECTION /AXLAB.355 TBPT.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .005.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.450 ESIZE.

8.EX.0 /PREP7 K.01 MP. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. /TITLE.1.0.0 K.7830 LESIZE.1.0.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.DENS.0001.1.2 ET.ALL.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .068e11 MP.1.2.1.1..33 MP.Dynamic.PRXY.1..33e-10.BEAM3 R.10 LMESH.0.0 L.2.0.1.

Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. .

. 3. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.y) 1 2 5. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. Open preprocessor menu 2. Define Lines (0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0) . 1..0) (1..

Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.33e-10 iii. With only 3 degrees of freedom.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8. enter the following geometric properties: i. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.0001 ii.. 8. 6. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. > Add.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.068e11 ii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.01 m.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Young's modulus EX: 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0... Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.3 To enter the density of the material. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. 10. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. 9. and rotation about the Z axis). 7.01 m x 0.

1.0 K.068e11 MP.DENS.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .2.BEAM3 R.0.PRXY.2.1.1.0.I.33 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.01 MP.0.8.2 ET.EX.0001.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.1.0 L.1.33e-10.1.0.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.

5.ALL..SUBSP. . 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .FRONT MXPAND.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.5 DK.5 EQSLV.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.10.LESIZE.1..LIST SET.2 MODOPT.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.10 LMESH.

height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .I.PRXY.2.1.0.mece.1.1.DENS.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.EX.068e11 MP.BEAM3 R. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0001.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 ET.ualberta.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.0.1.0 K.0.0 L.1.33 MP..1..01 MP.33e-10.1.2.ALL.7830 LESIZE.8.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.10 LMESH.0.

ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.2 MODOPT.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.FRONT MXPAND.1.5 EQSLV.www.mece.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.5 DK.10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.ualberta. . 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .SUBSP.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LIST SET.5.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.100 Hz. These 3 methods are the Full .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. .

01 MP.1.1.2.2. NSUBST.2.10 LMESH.0.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.33 MP.2 PLVAR.100 HARFRQ.0 L. However.1.7830 LESIZE. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.EX.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.3 DK.0.Y.1..068e11 MP.I.0.1.2. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.ALL FK.1.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data . UY_2 STORE.1.0 K.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRXY. KBC.33e-10. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.100.MERGE PRVAR.8.0.1.DENS.1.100..1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.FY.0.ALL.2 ET.0001.U.2.BEAM3 R.

html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. These 3 methods are the Full . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 Hz. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .mece. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.ualberta. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.www.

33 MP.10 LMESH.0.U.. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2.0. UY_2 STORE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.068e11 MP.1.2.2 ET.MERGE PRVAR.mece.1.2 PLVAR.I.0. However.1.1.2.100.1.2.1.BEAM3 R.0.. KBC.2.www.100.0. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.3 DK.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . NSUBST.FY.Y.01 MP.ualberta.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.PRXY.1.0001.0 L.ALL FK.100 HARFRQ.1.1.7830 LESIZE.8.33e-10.0 K.DENS.EX.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. for example. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead.

we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. All types of non-linearities are allowed. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. In other words. However. The smaller the time step.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. . q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Therefore. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. In ANSYS. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. After the application of the load. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.

01 MP.S.1. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). However.PRXY.2.8. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE..2.EX. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.1.0 K..068e11 MP. It is the quickest of the three methods.2.33e-10. the calculations are much quicker.0.BEAM3 R. TRANS TRNOPT. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.1. .33 MP. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL. However.REDUC.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .2.0.10 LMESH.0. if stresses and forces are of interest than. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.11.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0 L.All.1.DENS.0..UY.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).FY.0.7830 LESIZE. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.0001. DELTIM.ALL.2 ET..ALL F.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .1.1. . as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.Dynamic. NSEL.ALL D.1.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 /PREP7 K. M.

replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.!At time equals 0. . if you are using a later version of ANSYS.0 FDELE.0.001s TIME.2.3.Y.2.'rdsp'.'.MERGE PLVAR.0 !* LSSOLVE. time !Please note.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. ! Sets time to 0.1.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME. In this case.2. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. UY_2 STORE.2.001 KBC.U.'Dynamic'.1 KBC.' NSOL.

Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. for example. Copyright 2003 . where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.mece. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. For our case.http://www. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.ualberta. a static analysis may be used instead. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.University of Alberta .

The smaller the time step. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Copyright 2003 . It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. In ANSYS.http://www. After the application of the load. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.University of Alberta .ualberta. However. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In other words. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically.mece. Therefore. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency.

0 /PREP7 K.mece. DELTIM.S. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.1. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.0. All types of non-linearities are allowed.. the calculations are much quicker.PRXY.Dynamic. .1.University of Alberta .ALL.2 ET.http://www. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case)..UY.1.1.7830 LESIZE.01 MP.068e11 MP. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).0.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.10 LMESH.REDUC.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. However. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.0.ALL F.33 MP.2. TRANS TRNOPT. It is the quickest of the three methods.1.2. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response..BEAM3 R.8.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.0 L.2. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. NSEL.0 K.2.ALL D.0001. However.EX.DENS. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.1. ..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.0.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.FY.33e-10.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ualberta.11. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. if stresses and forces are of interest than. M.All.

ualberta. ! Sets time to 0.2.1.2.html !At time equals 0. time !Please note.2.0.MERGE PLVAR.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001 KBC.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.Y.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.0 FDELE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. In this case.1 KBC.' NSOL.U.'. Copyright 2003 .001s TIME.mece.'Dynamic'.University of Alberta .http://www.3.'rdsp'. UY_2 STORE.0 !* LSSOLVE. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.

0 blc4.0.1.one corner. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 height=1. then width and height . PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area . ANSYS Command Listing /title.length. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.

LOC.KXX.A.X.0 D.A.length/20 AMESH.0. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .TEMP.1.Y.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.MP.length NSEL.0 NSEL.LOC.LOC.TEMP..height D.10 ESIZE.ALL.100 NSEL.S.S.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.Y.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.X.ALL NSEL.500 NSEL.TEMP.

ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area . PLANE55 MP. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10 ESIZE.1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0.length/20 AMESH.KXX.0. ANSYS Command Listing /title.one corner.0 to solve a simple conduction problem..0 blc4.length.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.www. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.ualberta.0 height=1.1.h. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print..mece.

X.0.TEMP.length NSEL.100 NSEL.LOC.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.height D.ualberta.h...ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.mece.S..0 D.500 NSEL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Y.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.A.TEMP.www.LOC.A.X.S. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL.TEMP.0 NSEL.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y.LOC.

10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .Thermal .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0 blc4.0.0 height=1. PLANE55 MP.length.0.KXX.1.one corner. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.1. then width and height . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0 to solve simple thermal examples. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.

0 SF.500 NSEL.TEMP.S.ALL.height D.Y.10.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.S.ALL.100 NSEL.LOC.LOC. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.S.ALL.1 TYPE.CONV.ALL NSEL.100 NSEL.S.ALL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.0 D.length/20 AMESH.1 ESIZE..length SF.TEMP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 NSEL.CONV.Y.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0.X.TEMP.MAT.X.

ualberta.10 MAT. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1.1 TYPE.0 to solve simple thermal examples.1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.http://www. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.mece.KXX.html Thermal .University of Alberta .length.0 height=1. PLANE55 MP.0 blc4.one corner.0.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .1 ESIZE. then width and height Copyright 2003 . Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.

height D.TEMP.10.CONV.TEMP.CONV.LOC.0.X.Y.ualberta.TEMP.0 SF.S.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.Y. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .ALL.S.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.X.ALL NSEL.100 NSEL.S.0 D.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.ALL.S.html AMESH.ALL.0 NSEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.length SF.LOC.500 NSEL.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.100 NSEL..University of Alberta .ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.mece.http://www.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Also. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry .040 kJ/kg*K.

0 nsubst.100 autots.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.0 height=1.0.on outres.0 blc4.500 NSEL.LOC.0.TEMP.1.4 time.0.0 D.500 PLNSOL. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ALL.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.0.1.s.length.20 neqit.off lnsrch.05 AMESH.5.20.all. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.full lumpm.5 ESIZE.TEMP ANTIME.c.LOC.S.ALL.height D.one corner..1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.Y. PLANE55 MP.040 mp.ALL IC.length=1.100.Temp.0.1. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .kxx.300 nropt.all..8.1.ALL NSEL.all kbc.920 mp.2.2.500 ! area .Y.100 NSEL.Dens.TEMP.

0 blc4.0.one corner. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.ualberta. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.mece.040 kJ/kg*K. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.length.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Also.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.0.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. height ! area .

Dens.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.Temp.TEMP ANTIME.Y.1.S.1.20 neqit.100 autots.LOC.2.500 NSEL.s.5 ESIZE.c.ALL.5.all.all.0.ALL IC.20.kxx.www.0 D.920 mp.0.500 PLNSOL.100 NSEL.1. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.100.ALL.on outres.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.8.0 nsubst.2.040 mp.Y.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all kbc.05 AMESH.off lnsrch.mece..full lumpm.height D.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ualberta.1.. PLANE55 MP.TEMP.0.TEMP.0.300 nropt.4 time.ALL NSEL.

so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. In this case. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. As a warning.

symm lsel.0.45.prxy.12.20. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.5 rectng.all et.fy.0.2 amesh.1.all finish /solu antype.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .15.loc.-100 fk.3.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.s.fy.0.y.s.95.200000 mp.s.100 rectng.uy.1.1.20.all nsel.all.ex.plane2 keyopt.all fk.3 esize.0.1.s.0 nsel.0.100 aadd.0 dl.50 d.1.55 prnsol.loc.0 lsel..y.x.20.loc.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.off rectng.all.1 mp.

nsel.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .all /expand.10 /view.1.2.1.axis.27...

Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. As a warning. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. In this case.mece.ualberta.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel... so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.

100 solve finish /post1 nsel.100 rectng.1.2 amesh.20.20.0.fy.20.12. /prep7 /triad.axis.all finish /solu antype.45.15.all /expand.s.0.0.symm lsel..loc.s.ex.x.s.y..50 d.1.s.fy.3.all et.200000 mp.all.comp nsel.0.prxy.1.plane2 keyopt.all nsel..loc.-100 fk.5 rectng..3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .loc..all fk.3 esize.55 prnsol.2.95.0 lsel.27.1.ualberta..0 nsel.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.1.1 mp.www.1.all.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .uy.100 aadd.off rectng.0.10 /view.0 dl.y.1.

A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.7. ANSYS Command Listing . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. a wall thickness of 10.1.

1e9. 0 N. 4 E. 1. 3 E. 5. 1. 0. 7.PIPE16 ET.COMBIN7 ET.1000. 700. MP.3. 6.1000 N. 6 E.200000 MP.12.1 MAT.11. 500 N. 500 N.2. 0 N.12.13.1e9.13.12. 9.0. 3 E.1000.3. 500 N.1000. 5 E.13 E. 0. .10. 2. 0.10. 0./title. 2.1500 N. 0.1. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 7. 0. 0. 6.5. 700. 400. 0. 5 E. 0 N. 8 E.1 E.1000 N.2.1000 N. 6 E. 400.1 REAL.1000.1000 N. 2. 0. 4. 9. 3. 1. 3. 0. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 8 E.PRXY.10 R.1.-500 TYPE. 0 N. 4 E.1e9 R.COMBIN14 R.1. 5. 8 E. 0. 0.EX.1. .33 N.40. 0. 0. 0. 8. 0. 0. 0.

ELEM.5 D. 11 E.12.7.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.3.5.13 F. 1.13 ! Load node 7 .12.VERT7.0 NLGEOM.0.2 REAL. 10.2 E.3 E. 9.7.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..0 /PNUM. 11 TYPE.NODE.4.U..3 REAL.6 /PNUM.TYPE.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.8.2 *GET.ON NSUBST.4.KP.FY. 2.8 E.ALL.

7.ualberta.1.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2. a wall thickness of 10.COMBIN7 ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.40.1. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.COMBIN14 R. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. ANSYS Command Listing /title.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. Catapult /PREP7 ET.1.PIPE16 ET.www.mece. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.

8.12.1000.1000 N. 2.2. 0. 0.www. 5 E.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 3.10.33 N. 0. 2. 3.mece. 5. 11 E. 4 E.12. 6 E. 0.0 NLGEOM.8 E. 0 N. 10.KP. 0 N. 0.1000.200000 MP. 700. 9. 0.1. 4.10.ualberta. 8 E.5.3 REAL.1 MAT.1 E. 0. 0. 3 E. MP.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 0.1e9. 0.5.1000 N.1500 N.13 E. 0 N. 11 TYPE. 2.-500 TYPE. 0.12.6 /PNUM.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 0 N.2 REAL. 9.1 REAL. 1. 8 E. 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 0. 0. 6. 5 E.1e9 R. 1. 0. 1. 1.ELEM. 500 N.EX. 9. 400. 7.html R.1000.3. 0. .0.PRXY. 7.3 E. 0. 6.1000 N. 2. 6 E. 3 E.1000 N.2 E. 500 N. 700. 500 N.11. 8 E.8.1e9. 5. .1. 4 E.1000.0 /PNUM.13. 4 TYPE. 400. 0.13.

FY.NODE.3.2 *GET.12..7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.ALL.4.html NSUBST.5 D.www.12.U.VERT7.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.4.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .13 F.7..mece.

.0.H.. However. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.2 HPTCREATE. height MP.LINE.100 LMESH.(W*H**3)/12.2.1.0.0 L.1.I (note '**'. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.20 K. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .1. deciding which variables to use as design.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.1.. not '^'). Design Optimization *set.1000.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.W.1.W*H. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.PRXY.H.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area. ET. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.RATI.3 ESIZE.0 K.75.20 *set.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..BEAM3 R.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.0.200000 MP.EX.

MAX ETABLE.3 node ESORT.W.UY.0 FK.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.DV. max 200 ! Volume as object variable.100..DV.200.optimize.10. tolerance 0. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .SMAX_I.0. max 50 mm.1.1.0.0.0 DK.SORT.NMISC.001 mm.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.SMAXJ.UX.Y.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.H.EVOLUME ETABLE..30.NMISC.0.Volume.FIRS OPFRST.0 DK.0. *GET..'optimize'.W /AXLAB.txt ! Assign optimize.SMAX_J.MAX *SET.001 MPa. max 50 ! Width design variable.SMAX.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL. tolerance 0.SMAX_I. min 10 mm.OBJ.txt.SSUM.0.VOLUME.0 DK.SORT.SMAX.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.. ! Height state variable.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.SV.ETAB..3..'txt'. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.SMAXI.ITEM.50.SMAX_J. SSUM *GET. min 10 mm.H.1.EVolume.1 node ESORT. Percent step size.200 OPTYPE.001 MPa OPVAR.001mm OPVAR. *GET.50.X.ANTYPE.UY..ETAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.195.1.VOLU.10.FY.2.2. min 195 MPa.001mm OPVAR.001 tolerance 0.

1000. Design Optimization *set..(W*H**3)/12. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PRXY.ualberta.75..I (note '**'. ET.0 L.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.2 HPTCREATE. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. deciding which variables to use as design..2.20 *set.EX.200000 MP.H.0. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.LINE.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.mece.W*H.W. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.20 K..RATI. However.0 K. not '^'). It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.0..BEAM3 R.1. MP.H.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.1.1.1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.1..

*GET.SMAX_I.SMAX.3 ESORT.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SORT.2..NMISC.3.200 OPTYPE.txt ! Assign optimize.001 OPVAR.200.EVOLUME ETABLE.SV.100 LMESH.2.SMAX_J. min 10 mm.EVolume. tol Height state variable.mece.UY.ETAB. SSUM *GET. ESIZE. to Width design variable.VOLUME.Y.1.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.SORT.0 FK.X.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.optimize. Percent step size.SMAXI.UX. min 10 mm.'txt'.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.FIRS OPFRST.0 DK.0 DK.1.. max 200 MPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.MAX ETABLE. min 195 MPa.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.50.UY.ualberta..SMAXJ.SSUM.195.0. max 50 mm.DV.0.10. *GET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.txt.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.'optimize'.50.0.1..SMAX_I.www...University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .VOLU.FY..SMAX_J.0 DK.SMAX.MAX *SET. OPEXE PLVAROPT.1.H. Volume as object variable.0.W /AXLAB.W.30.Volume.DV.NMISC.0..txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable..0.1 ESORT.H.10. max 50 mm.ITEM.100.OBJ.001 OPVAR.. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.ETAB.001 OPVAR.

Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Apply remaining loads to the model. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. however. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. ANSYS Command Listing . 3. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. For this example. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Apply loads to the super-element 2. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. substructuring will be used for the wood block. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. v = 0. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.5 MPa.

SUBST SEOPT.PRXY.ALL.EX.10.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.LOC.1.S.40.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.0.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.0 F.1.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.db ! GEN.0.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.100.100.GEN.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .LOC.ALL NSEL.5 MP.EX.0. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.Y.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL NSEL. 2.PLANE42 TYPE.0.S.2.2.140 NSEL.PRXY. START /FILNAME.2 MP.0. amesh.2.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .R.1.FX.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname..2 NSEL.X.ALL.5 NSEL.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.EXT M.1.

RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS..1 ! Superelement ET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.U.1 ESEL.1.ALL ESEL.GEN2 NSEL.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.STATIC NSEL.S.1.Y.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .ALL NSEL.1. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.GEN2..MATRIX50 TYPE.ON.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.NUM. mat.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.0 D.ALL.SUM.10.! Meshing AESIZE.S.Y.1.MaxNode.GEN.2 real.SUM.GEN2 SE..40 CPINTF.1.0.SELV..NODE.S.ALL.ALL.TYPE.2 amesh.0.U.1 SFE. superelement solution written to GEN.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.1 *GET.MAX SETRAN.MaxNode.0 NSEL.LOC.

A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). substructuring will be used for the wood block. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.5 MPa.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. For this example.www. however. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). 3. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Apply remaining loads to the model. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element..mece.ualberta. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. v = 0.

2 NSEL.FX.SUBST SEOPT.40.ALL NSEL.100.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.S.R.EXT M.ualberta.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS ..ALL. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.PRXY.LOC.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).ALL NSEL.0 F.www.0. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.Y.0..ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.1.mece.S.1.10.0..2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .EX. amesh.X.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.ALL.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.LOC.100.PLANE42 TYPE.140 NSEL.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.GEN.1.db ! GEN.1.5 NSEL. START /FILNAME.0.

Y.0 NSEL. MP..S.1.PRXY.1.www.MaxNode.TYPE.Y.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.1 ! Superelement ET.10.S..0 D.MAX SETRAN.S.2 amesh.. mat.EX..ALL.GEN2.STATIC NSEL.GEN2 NSEL.ALL ESEL. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .GEN.LOC.ALL.40 CPINTF.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution. 2.GEN2 SE.MATRIX50 TYPE.1.1.NUM.ALL.2 real.MaxNode.NODE.1.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS..YES SEEXP.2.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 ESEL.LOC..ALL NSEL.SELV.ualberta.0.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.2.0.1 *GET.U.1 SFE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .USE EXPSOL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.U.5 MP.SUM.mece.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.SUM.ON.

only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . the geometry is kept constant. However.. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. stress is created in the link.. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. the element types can change. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. For convenience. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. with no internal stresses. the link will attemp to expand. where the thermal effects will be applied. For instance. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. and write them to memory. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. However. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. a thermal conductivity of 60. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). A steel link. Loads will not be applied to the link.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. For a listing. and using it with any following coupled environments. the analyses are coupled. It is important to note. Although the geometry must remain constant. For our case. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis." Thus. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.

273 dk.read.UX.0 solve finish /post1 etable.2 et.write.read.all physics..clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.alpx.struct ldread.temp.2.60.1.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .1.struct physics.link33 r.all.1.tts mp. mp.LS.1 lmesh.write.0 l.5 esize.0.temp.CompStress.0 dk..thermal physics.ex. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1.rth environment tref.4e-4.0.0 k.kxx.0 physics.1.analysis.thermal dk.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.0.200e9 mp.1.1..12e-6 physics..1.prxy.3 mp.2.clear finish /solu antype..1.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

the link will attemp to expand.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. a thermal conductivity of 60. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis." Thus. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. with no internal stresses.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. For convenience.ualberta. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. and using it with any following coupled environments. where the thermal effects will be applied.www.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Loads will not be applied to the link. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. However. However. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). stress is created in the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. For our case. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the geometry is kept constant. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . A steel link.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). the analyses are coupled. . When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.

5 esize.UX.1. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. and write them to memory.ex.struct physics.273 dk.mece. mp.3 mp.0 k.348 solve finish /solu physics...0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .2.4e-4.all.1. It is important to note.html Although the geometry must remain constant. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.0.tts mp.1.. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.0 physics.1. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.write. For instance.1 lmesh.0.1.0 l.temp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.12e-6 physics.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. the element types can change.prxy.alpx.clear finish /solu antype.struct ldread.www.1.60.1. For a listing.write.2 et.thermal physics.all physics.0 dk. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.1..ualberta.rth tref.2.kxx.link33 r.temp.200e9 mp.read. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.read.1.clear etchg..thermal dk.1.

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.LS.www.html solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .CompStress.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 PRETAB.mece.

By keeping mesh density rather coarse. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Thus.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. rather than increasing mesh density. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. .

7.12 et.100 k.55.8.loc.100. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.prxy.0.3 r.2.20.45.plane145 keyopt.0 dl.3.100 k.55. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .0 a.3 esize.5.1.5.10.1 lsel.1.3.all lsel.1.1.80.s.6.10.all lsel.10 mp.52 k.6.20.0.20.11.12.on /prep7 k.48 k.100 k.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .80..loc.all time.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.100.4.100.20 outres.8.52 k.2.100 k.0 k.all.9.45.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.1.1.4.all finish /solu antype.3.ex.x.5 amesh.x.200000 mp.11.7.9.0 k.s.1.all.0 nsubst.0.0 k.48 k.

last plesol.pres.sfl.all.s.all solve finish /post1 set.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .-100 lsel.

This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Thus.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ualberta.mece. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5.20.10.0 dl. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .8.x.0 k.100 k.9.100.20 outres.48 k.5 amesh.ualberta.52 k.-100 lsel.48 k.html /prep7 k.0.55.3.5.100 k.6.1.1.20.100.2.prxy.3 esize.all solve finish /post1 set.80.100.1 lsel.all lsel.pres.200000 mp.2.55.x.20.10 mp.0 k.all.1.1.12.all time.0.s.loc.all finish /solu antype.11.7.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.3.all.s.1.mece.80.4.3.4..52 k.ex.loc.6.100 k.7.100 k.0 nsubst.1.10.3 r.0.11.8.all lsel.0 a.all.last plesol.100 sfl.s.45.plane145 keyopt.1.0 k.9.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.45.12 et.

03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor .1. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.0.0. rather than increasing mesh density. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Thus. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.3.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0 k.03. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.03.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 k.

1.1 IC.all esel.k.melty.off lnsrch.all.temp.4 time. not ramped ! Initial conditions.full lumpm.60 nropt. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.1.0005 amesh. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .s.0 nsubst.kxx.100 autots.1.off solve finish /post1 set.Dens..0.last etable.etab.0.Plane55 MP.all /gst.3.s.all.10.conv. 20 Max no.all finish /solu antype.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .2.03 a.1.1.ext sf.melty. esel.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.368 nsel.8 esize.1.920 mp.20 neqit.rest ekill.2040 mp.all.c.on outres.all kbc.temp.0.273 finish /solu antype.268 nsel.4.

s.live plnsol.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .last esel./post1 set.

Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.2.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Thus. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.03.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0.03 k.0.0.1.03 a.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.4.3. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0 k. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0.ualberta.3.mece.03.0 k. rather than increasing mesh density.2.www.

esel.2040 mp.60 nropt.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .last etable.1. 20 Max no.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.rest ekill.etab.full lumpm. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.melty.live plnsol.0005 amesh.ualberta.1.s.mece.s.all.Dens.8 esize.all finish /solu antype.conv.273 finish /solu antype.1 IC.Plane55 MP.all esel.melty.temp.20 neqit.www. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .920 mp.temp.ext sf.all kbc.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.1.4 time.kxx.all finish /post1 set.all.0.on outres.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .last esel.off lnsrch.0 nsubst..c.368 nsel. not ramped ! Initial conditions.all.268 nsel.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.1.10.all /gst.100 autots.s.off solve finish /post1 set.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

-2500 KSEL.0.0 DA.0.R.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.8 WPCSYS.1 /TYPE.EQV.0 ASEL.Z.43.5.ALL KSEL.14.0.Width FK./SOLU ANTYPE.1.LOC.0.FY.2 ! Animate the slices .Z.LOC.-1.S.1.Width/2.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.0.7.All.ALL.SUM.1.R.S.1 WPOFFS.Height KSEL.0 ASEL.1.0.90 /CPLANE.S.LOC.U.05.X.LOC.0.Y.All.0.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.0 WPROTA.0.Length KSEL.0.1 /TYPE.0 WPOFFS.5 PLNSOL.

etc.FAST ET.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Width.200000 MP.000000. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.3 esize.PRXY.mece.Height.Length /ANGLE.60.EX.) of the following example.1 /REPLOT. Stress.1.YS. 1 .0.0.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.20 vmesh.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.SOLID45 MP.www.

05.5 PLNSOL.R.0 DA.0 ASEL.S.1 /TYPE.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.All.0.0.1.5.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 WPROTA.7.Z.0.X.1/16*Length /CPLANE.ALL KSEL.0.SUM.0.All.14.1.1.-1.S.LOC.www.mece.Y.0.LOC.Height KSEL.ALL.1 WPOFFS.FY.0 WPOFFS.U.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.Length KSEL.Z.8 WPCSYS.Width/2.0 ASEL.1 /TYPE.-2500 KSEL.Width FK.0.LOC.43.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.R.S.90 /CPLANE.LOC.EQV.0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0.

10 cyl4.100.50.150. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.100 cyl4.0. In this tutorial. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.50. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.1. For example.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.10 cyl4.50. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.10 asba. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.50.200.all . distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.

10 mp.SEQV.1000 ppath.s.2...s.100 SFL.AVG nsel.PRES.loc.200.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.all nsel.0..50 PDEF.all PLPAGM.5 amesh.cutline.bot nsel.0 dl.1.1.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window..1..200.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .all.S.200000 mp.0.y.plane2.2..top /POST1 PLNSOL.loc.eqv.eqv.y.s.off /noerase /window.1.1.S.1.y.all.2.3 R.50 path.3 esize..loc.1 /window.2.et.50 ppath.ex.1.prxy.

The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. For example.ualberta. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.200. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.. In this tutorial. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.www.0.0.

eqv.S.1.3 esize.5 amesh.SEQV.1000 ppath.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.loc.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta ..all nsel.plane2.www.s.0.cutline.s.y. cyl4.all PLPAGM.3 R.AVG nsel.eqv..50.0.all.50.10 cyl4..bot nsel.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .50.1.all.y.150.100 SFL.50 path.10 asba.1.2.mece.200.s.50.prxy.10 mp.10 cyl4.200.all et.loc..1.PRES.top /POST1 PLNSOL.S.y.ex.1.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel...50 ppath...1.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.off /noerase /window.1.100.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.0 dl.200000 mp.loc..50 PDEF.2.1.2.2.1 /window.

with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.2400.40 mp. Length of the following beam using tables. finer resolution can be achieved.I.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.2.prxy.ex.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .1. By plotting this data on a curve. a special type of array.0 k.length. rather than using a contour plot.1. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.elementsize lmesh.1. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.0.3 k.1.320e3.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.beam3 r.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.200000 mp.1.0 l. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.0.2 esize.

loc.graph(rows.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.TABLE.y *set.Length /axlab.u.fy.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.2.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.graph(1. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .rows.graph.0 400 *vget.2.node.graph(rows.y *vplot.u.antype.x *vget.2) /axlab.graph(1.graph(1.y.1).2).all fk.x. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.x *vget.graph(2.all.node.0 *set.1).2).2.1).graph(2.1).1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.graph(1.loc.2.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.static dk.1.all.node.2).node.

ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. By plotting this data on a curve.length. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. finer resolution can be achieved.prxy.2.2400.2 esize.40 mp.I. a special type of array.3 k.0 l.320e3.1. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.www.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..ex.1.0 k.ualberta.0. rather than using a contour plot.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.1.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.200000 mp.1.h.beam3 r.mece. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Length of the following beam using tables.

.h.TABLE.graph(1.graph.2)..1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.node.1).graph(1.y.all fk.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.2.x *vget.graph(1.2).x.0 *vget.graph(2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400. lmesh.u.static dk.1 *vget. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .loc.1).node.graph(rows.x *vget.all.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.u.Length /axlab.all finish /solu antype.0 *set.y *set.1).graph(1.graph(2.1.ualberta.2.loc. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.node.y *vplot.2.node.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.mece.2.fy.2).graph(rows.all.2) /axlab.1).rows.