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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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Index

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Index

Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. Prompting the user for parameters. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. . Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

2D.e. axi-symmetric. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. heat transfer and fluid problems.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. 2. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). 3D). as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 1. Solution: assigning loads. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). In general. 3. Preprocessing: defining the problem. constraints and solving. 1D. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages.

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as it automatically starts this application when booting. do this. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. If you don't see this minimized program. you should see something labeled X-Win32. Windows NT application 2. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece.. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. you can may want to reboot the computer. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. be sure that your local drive has space for it..

don't select this icon. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. but rather.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. . you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.

Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. selections.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows.7. . graphic controls and parameters.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. such as file controls. 1. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7.

2. e. d. organized by preprocessor. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. c. . However. design optimizer. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. general postprocessor. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. More push buttons can be added if desired. such as listing of data etc. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. while the versions appear different.b. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. the menu structure has not changed. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. solution.0.

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typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The second is by means of command files. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. however. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach.

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General Models . we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. it will only slow the calculations down. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. If the results are nearly similar. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. In general there are no real firm answers on this. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix..e. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. When point loads are used. For simple models it is of no concern. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. If the results differ by a large amount however.. but for a larger model. loading and constraints.

so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. In a solid mechanics problem. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. In general.In general however. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. for example. .

. 2. ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. loads. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. solution. etc) that you previously saved. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from.. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. There are two methods to do this: 1. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point.. Or. In that way. To save your model. Using the Launcher. you will at least be able to come back to this point. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. if you make some mistakes later on. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .db. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry.. and select your job from the list that appears.. r Then when you get ANSYS started. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems. r In the ANSYS Launcher. select Interactive.db..db . and specify the previously defined jobname. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname.

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etc. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. frame.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. q If you will always be using the GUI. starting with an existing log file. Once the ANSYS has started. Depending on the operations carried out. This file stores the geometry. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. and the jobname has been specified. boundary conditions and any solutions. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. If you plan to use the command mode of operation.dbb Backup of the database file (binary).db Database file (binary). Frame again with various extensions: frame.. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. frame. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. This file stores the geometry.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). Listing of all error and warning messages. These files may contain results. say Frame.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). the name of all the files created will be FILE. If you plan on using ANSYS command files. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. frame. then the created files will all have the file prefix. That file may be rerun as is. from another ANSYS run. then you only require the . or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). etc. If you specified a jobname. or move things from the /scratch directory.err Error file (text).* where the * represents various extensions described below.. frame. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs).db file. other files may have been written. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. boundary conditions and any solutions.

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select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . In the window that appears. 'Monochrome'. You can pick multiple items. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.'. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. 1.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. to get displacements.. 1. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'.. 'Reverse Video'.0 Better Quality Plots . it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. choose 'List Results'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 3. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. Then enter the file name of your choice. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. However.' and give a file name to store the results. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. while the second is a scalable vector plot. Select 'Elem Table Data'.. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. Select 'File'/'Save As. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. and choose what you want to list from the menu. 2.. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2.

Load your plot file with the following command: file. This is performed by running a separate program called display. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.n where n is plot number. a large graphics window will appear... because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. To save some plots to a file.pic'(with a comma). Display wants 'plots. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. Either way.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file.pic if your plot file is 'plots. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. Decrease the size of this window. Type in a filename (e. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: .. Note that although the file is 'plots.: frame. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. you have a couple of options: 1. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. but rather they will be written to the selected file.pic' (with a period)..'.pic'. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. To do this. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see.g. Now that the plots have been read in.frame. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. or HPGL for example.

Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. 3.1. the postscript image will appear as blank box.3 /show. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. and then issue the other commands as before pscr. To do this. For subsequent plots. The printer information is still present. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. starting at 00. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.pscr plot.hpgl plot.e. as above. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. . but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.n where n is the plot number. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. the postscript image will appear as blank box.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display.grph. where xx is a number.pscr plot. i. The printer information is still present. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. overheads or even posters! 2. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. issue the following commands: /show.n command as the other options have now been set. you set the postscript color option to '3'. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.color.2 /show. enter the following commands in display: pscr. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.color. you only require the plot. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.

In a similar way. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. exit display by entering finish .

Of course. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Also. mesh control. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated.W. you will want to leave it. analysis types will not be covered. etc. many modeling options for constraints. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. if the feature is critical to your design. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. Step 1.. loads. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. holes.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. chamfers. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. by suppressing them in Pro/E. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time.

Model units are inches. . the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. Several edges are rounded. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. For this model. So. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. the plate and the loading hole are removed.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration.

This is where we specify modeling information.Step 2. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. Basically. curves. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. surface regions. and so on. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. idealizations). Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. We proceed in a topdown manner. loads. .

Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). For our solid model. and Z. For each direction X. Y. and a specified material. Prescribed. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. Select Surface. For beams and shells. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. only one set can be included. . edges. Fixed. loads. and surfaces). The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. A dialog window opens as shown above. In the final computed model. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. rotational constraints are active if specified. all we need are constraints. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). and Function of Coordinates).Defining Constraints For our simple model. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model).

Leave the defaults for the load distribution. Loads are also organized into named load sets. another a temperature load. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. Then select OK. These can be solved at the same time.For our model. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. another might contain the support forces. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. and select the OK button. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. Enter the force components at the bottom. For example. The load should be . in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. Note these are relative to the WCS. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings.

displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. Step 3. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . In the STRC MODEL menu. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. loads. you could now assign this material to individual parts. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. material). In an assembly. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. you will see the properties of the chosen material. If you select the Edit button. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. At this point.

Select the type (Structural or Modal).Specify a name for the analysis. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. The MEC STRUCT window. Step 4. . Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. like "ansystest". Now select OK. Enter a short description. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis.

you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below).This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. The results are indicated in columns on the right. Select Close. Here is an image of the default mesh. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. . shown in wire frame. evaluated for the model.

Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. . Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. maximum mesh size. you can select the Controls option. For example. This will allow you to select points. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. edges. and so on.

loads.Step 5. In the MEC STRUCT menu. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. select Run . materials. mesh).

Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . Select OK and read the message window. We are now finished with Pro/E. loads. Copy the . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. . You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. In the Analysis list. select ANSYS. select Structural. and material) is listed. The analysis we defined (containing constraints.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS.ans). In the Solver pull-down list at the top.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. mesh.

select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Step 7. Step 8.. you will be informed that the solution is complete.ans file you created previously. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. This will read in the entire model. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. and select Apply. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. Select the .Step 6..

reaction forces. A = 3250mm2).0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. p.

select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. these keypoints are the ends of each truss.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. For this example. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin.

Note: When entering the final data point. and enter the x.y coordinates: 0. If you first press r . click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.

elements. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. lines. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. The following window will then appear: . you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. volumes. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. thus making any conversions where necessary. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. 3. areas.

e. Left click and a permanent line will appear. When you're done. r r r . A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. click on it).r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method.

This is called 'meshing'. However. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. they have most likely NOT been deleted.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. The following window will then appear: . ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4.

' button.r Click on the 'Add.. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: . The following window will appear: r For this example. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r 5..

select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.. . and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'OK'.. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.r In the Preprocessor menu.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. 7. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'.0'. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner.We are going to give the properties of Steel. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . Click 'OK' on the window to continue.

we have simply defined the element sizes. enter the desired number of divisions per line. For this example we want only 1 division per line. 8. therefore. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window .r In the size 'NDIV' field.

node numbers.Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. keypoint numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q ..... q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.

Define Analysis Type . Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu').. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. you will at least be able to come back to this point.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. 1. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. so if you make some mistakes later on. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.. To do this.

pinned and roller-type connections.e. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. In mechanical structures. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. As shown above. r 2. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . for example. these constraints will typically be fixed. i. Click 'OK'. r In the Solution menu.

. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. ROT on KPs' window. Therefore. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.

r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints.ROT on KPs" window. 5. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. r Using the same method. and 360kN at keypoints 1. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Therefore. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). and 7 respectively. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. 3. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. 3. this is consistent with the previous values input. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Note that we are using units of N here. there are four downward loads of 280kN. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. 210kN. 280kN. .You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.

. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS.4. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).

r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. . Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'.r The above windows will appear. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description)..

r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' . Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.2.

.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. The following window will appear. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu.

r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. The following window will appear.409). . One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7.

r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window. Leave the other selections as the default values. . Click 'OK'.

you may want to use more useful intervals. r . Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.r Looking at the scale..

.You should obtain the following.

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. .

while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. spars. strains). From Table 1.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.' r . If you wanted to save these results to a file. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.2 in the Help file. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links... beams. The Element Table is different for each element. using the item 'LS. therefore. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line).1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . Then enter 1 after LS.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Comp' boxes. in the 'Item. Next.r As shown above..'.. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" . enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. .

Again. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' . you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..9MPa as predicted analytically.. Open the .Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82..PDF version is also available for printing. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. A .HTML version.' and select the file.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. In the dialog box that appears.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification .

scale factors. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. etc. units. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model').The first step is to simplify the problem. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

The following window will appear: r . Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. A permanent line will appear. r r r 4.. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Click on the 'Options.. click on it).Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Click on the 'Add.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Now pick keypoint #2. When you're done.' button. The following window will appear: r r For this example.e. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window.. Pick keypoint #1 (i. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. r From the Preprocessor Menu.

r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). This gives us extra force and moment output. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm.. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'OK'.. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. r 5. . and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'.

we have simply defined the element sizes. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. therefore. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. 8. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field.. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). r r r 7. For an element length of 2cm.r Click on 'OK'. r 6. enter '20' (i. enter the desired element length. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. (Alternatively. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. However. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box..e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models. Saving Your Work .

.Utility Menu > File > Save as. r 2. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Therefore. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.ROT on KPs' window.. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. r r 3. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Select the name and location where you want to save your file.. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. . The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.

2mm as shown above.4. .we need to calculate what we should find. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. Hand Calculations Now. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). 2. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. r r . Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. In this menu you will find a variety of options.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.

Leave the other selections as the default values. r . This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). Click 'OK'. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.

General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example.. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below..r You may want to have a more useful scale. r . select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution.

strains). use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. the right end of the rod. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.. spars. If you wanted to save these results to a file... the maximum deflection occurs at node 2.r Are these results what you expected? Again.' r . Click on 'Add. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams..

Comp' boxes in the above window. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.r As shown above. ... in the 'Item. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.

First. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. I and J.Again.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. . a bending moment diagram can be created. as shown in the following image. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element.

we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data.' in the 'Element Table Data' window..'.this will give a name to the data B.. r Again. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C... Enter SMISC. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . First.. this will give a name to the data B. Same as above .6 in the second Comp box E. A. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. A. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Click 'Add. r In the window. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. the Element Table must be used.. .To obtain the bending moment for this element. click 'Add.again.

r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window.C. Same as above D. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. enter SMISC. Click 'OK'.12 in the second Comp box E.. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu.. . For step D. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.

Table 1. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. r Before the explanation of the above steps. Sequence Numbers.Now. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). you can double check these solutions analytically. PIPE16 Item. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition .

70000 MP. y. y. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.2.1. Material 1.0. Major Poisson's Ratio. all of the lines.0. Note that the text following the "!" are comments. .6.the Member moment for node I.1 !* R. then hit enter. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS.0.25.0 !* DK.1.1.FY. /PREP7 K.PIPE16 KEYOPT. Material 1.1.0.PRXY.0.EX. 1. 2. !* MP.1. L. x. z Keypoint.33 !* LESIZE. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.1.ALL FK. K. Outside Diameter.2.ALL. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.2 !* ET.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .1. .0.2. 0.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. Wall thickness ! Material Properties. Material 1.0. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant. Copy the following code into the command line.0. x. Young's Modulus.20 LMESH. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction .33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.1.500.

Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New .SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail./STATUS. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.

2. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Alternatively. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. these keypoints are the frame vertices. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . Notice that by using variables like this. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. First. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model.

to enter the first keypoint type: K. Y. y=y2. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint. you may need to add comments. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation.0 r ! keypoint. Z where.0 into the command line followed by Enter. As with any programming language.0. #. Reference number for the keypoint. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE. ie .2. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.for the second keypoint you might type: K.1.y2.y1. simply re-enter the code. X. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. However.0. NPT.follows: K. type help k into the command line For example. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. x=0.# .

Zoom. z = 0.. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. s 6. Zoom. for example. y = 325. translating and rotating it on all three axes. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. To get an isometric view. you have many controls. You can either leave the 'Pan. 5. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. This was simply used for convenience.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). To define keypoint #1.. Rotate. Try experimenting with them. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . In this example.

And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. P2 Line. Keypoint at the end of line For example. to obtain the first line. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.1. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. we will use the command line to create the lines.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. P1. I would write: ' L. Again. Keypoint at the beginning of the line.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line.

(ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . C0 25 2 . MAT. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output. we will again use the command line. As in the verification model. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. 8. define the type of element (pipe16). LAB.7.

For example. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. KPOI. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example.... K #. KEXPND. to pin the . we will use the command line. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. type: ' MP. Expansion key..70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). DK. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty.33 ' r 10. Apply Constraints Once again.PRXY. VALUE2. DOF label. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. 1. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Lab5. Material Reference Number. Lab4.1. value. Lab3. Lab6 Displacement on K.0. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. VALUE. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11. Lab2. Mesh Size As in the verification model. type ' MP.Material Property. > Static 2.Valid material property label. Lab.1.EX. value2.

Again. the command line code is: DK. FZ).. KPOI.0. UZ.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. K #. value2 (if req'd) . Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE..UY and UZ). value.UY.0. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4).UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5..first keypoint enter: DK.5. Lab. FY. value2 Force loads at keypoints. K.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.UY. UX is not constrained. value1. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty.1. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. FK. UY.1. Force Label directions (FX.UX. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.

FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. 4. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. the code should look like this: ' FK. K. 'Def + undef edge' .3.3.FY..-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. If you need to delete one of the forces.

etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. 'Back'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

Note the node numbers of interest. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model.. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.2. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.').. so we know what node(s) we're after. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Turn everything else off. and turn on 'Node numbers'. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations...

.. Then close the 'List Results' menu. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . Close this list window when you are finished browsing. 3. For each element in the model. 4. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.. Click on 'OK'. . use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed..' from the 'List Results' menu.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals.

Plot Results > Line Elem Res..r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again..12) And. to define the table (remember SMISC. Select Element Table > Define Table.6 and SMISC.. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. to plot the data from the Element Table . the bending moment diagram can be produced.. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.

Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.HTML version. A ..'. Open the .. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. In the dialog box that appears.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. click on 'Save .

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A figure of the plate is shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. and uniform pressure loading. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. plane stress. ANSYS Inc. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.

This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. units. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . scale factors.

many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. however. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. a. Subtraction will used to create this model. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners .

100. (Alternatively.0.s Fill in the window as shown above.0.100) b.0. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle . the command line code for the above command is BLC4.200.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.0. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.

50. (Alternatively.20 ) c. Prior to this operation.50.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.100. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. your image should resemble the following: . This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.s Fill in the window as shown above.

s To perform the Boolean operation. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. s . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.

s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.1. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.2) . Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.

Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. For this example. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. four-node element (PLANE42). therefore Click on the 'Options.3.' button. as shown in the above figure. as shown below. Click and hold the K3 button. we need a plane stress element with thickness. r . and select 'Plane strs w/thk'... PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries.

the command line code for the above step is R.1. the command line code for the above step is ET.EX. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.3.3 (Alternatively.3) 4.1. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.PRXY. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .1. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is MP.1.3) 6.0.200000 followed by MP. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.1.(Alternatively.20) 5. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.

r Select an element edge length of 25. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.25. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.) 7. (Alternatively.ALL) You should now have the following: .

0) 2. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. r r . (Alternatively.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Apply Constraints As shown previously.ROT on Lines' window. 1. Fill in the window as shown below.. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).. r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. the left end of the plate is fixed. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.

Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. therefore the last field is left blank. (Alternatively. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram.4. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears.. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Therefore.ALL.0) 3. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. the command line code for the above step is DL.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). r r r .

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

4. 2.9 MPa.we need to calculate what we should find. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3.just a flat plate).neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Convergence using ANSYS . The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.001 mm . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0. Hand Calculations Now.

#49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question.. we will check the stress at this point. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. (as shown below in red) . Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged..

Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . To change the element size. r Resize Elements a. we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.9141 MPa at this point.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free).

5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. Click 'OK'. (note . . This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. the values converge towards a final solution.8 MPa. d. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . This is a mere 2.the element edge length decreases). Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).c.

3. 4. Then select DOF solution. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.. USUM in the window.0012 mm. r Observe the locations of deflection. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. However. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. .The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.. Therefore. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.

r 5. . obtain these results as a list... Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.r Alternatively. Then select Stress. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution..) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.. von Mises in the window.

HTML version. Bracket Example . Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. Select Stress. Open the .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results.

Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. Form Geometry Again. Create the main rectangular shape . a. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A figure of the plate is shown below.

Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. XCENTER.50.80. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Y coord (bottom left). X coord (bottom left). WIDTH.0. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 .100 b.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. the command line for this circle is CYL4. width. XCORNER. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. Y coord for the center. X coord for the center. YCORNER. Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. RAD1 CYL4.80. height s s Therefore. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4.50 c.0. YCENTER. radius s Therefore. HEIGHT BLC4.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm.

Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area.ALL) s . e. s To perform the Boolean operation... the command line code for the above step is AADD. Boolean Operations . click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.You should now have the following model: f.

6..3.3) r . Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'. (Alternatively. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.1. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.. the command line code for the above step is ET.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.s Next select the three circles that we just created.1.

1. (Alternatively.PRXY.EX.3) 6. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Again. we will need to make sure the model has converged. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.) r 7.200000 followed by MP. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. the command line code for the above step is R.ALL.5.0. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. 4.1.1.20) r 5. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.ALL) . (Alternatively.

Apply Constraints . (Alternatively.. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. 1.0) 2.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.

For this case. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. r 3. Repeat for the second bolt hole.ROT on Nodes' window.. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side.As illustrated. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. Apply Loads .ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. polygon.. you have the option of creating a box. Rotate. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Zoom.

there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured.As shown in the diagram. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. 4. . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results.

3. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection.1.USUM in the window. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. . 2. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution .

r 4.. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. Then select von Mises Stress in the window.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.. .. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. obtain these results as a list.r Alternatively.

HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Select Stress... Quitting ANSYS .r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file.

click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit.. .To quit ANSYS. In the window that appears. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'..

Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. extrusion/ sweeping. ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . copying. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Filleting.

Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. XCORNER. YCORNER. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. WIDTH. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1.

Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. 3.XCENTER.RAD .Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2.YCENTER.

5 0.2 4. The following window will appear.SUBTRACT 5.6 and then click OK.5 Circle 2 8. Enter the y offset as 4.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. It asks for the x.BASE. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.5 0.2 0.y and z offset of the copied area. r .

Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD. Add the smaller circles to the large area. .ALL 7.5 You should obtain the following 6.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.

Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.8. Create the fillet areas r As shown below.

Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

0. Then select the following two keypoints r r .Y. (K. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .#.5. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.Z) 2. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints.X. 1.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively. Plot Areas 3. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.10. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.0) and (0.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.

.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. Click on OK.

There are several ways to define a working plane. However. Create Bolt Holes 1. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . Change the Working Plane By default. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. we need to use a different working plane. for us to define the bolt holes.You should now see the following in the graphics screen.

r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. 2. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER.

Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. By default those values would be 0.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. .note the origin of the working plane.5 y=0 r=0. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.0. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK.0. The following window will appear. fill in the blanks as shown. 3. 4.

Youi should obtain the following model. .

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. ..PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .' and select the file.HTML version. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from..

Create the Base 1. Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2.Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: .

type LARC. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.7.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.6.1.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.4.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r . Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.8.5.20 followed by LARC.5.5 into the command line) when prompted.

DZ) r .6. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0. YCENTER=20.# Copies (include original).Area#. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.DY.5.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.1.4.DX.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.

Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .3.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.

(Alternatively. type VOFFST. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). Change the working plane As in the previous example. the first keypoint defines the origin. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. Again. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.1. we need to change the working plane. (Alternatively.101.100. Note.6. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. type KWPLAN.102 into the command line) . Therefore.

RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0.1.27.2.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. . YCENTER=180. WIDTH=102. YCORNER=0.26 4.

Area 3 5.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51.180. YCENTER=180. . . Area 2.51. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib .32. .r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. RADIUS=32. Area 1. YCENTER=180. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. RADIUS=18. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.5.

1.4 3. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.57735*26) 129-(0. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. 203.201.202 into the command line) 2. type KWPLAN.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. 204 . type WPCSYS. the first keypoint defines the origin. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0.200.-1. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.1. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. (Alternatively.

. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. In the dialog box that appears.'.204 4.200. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit..203. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'..

Harmonic Dynamic . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. /title. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

> Add. and rotation about the Z axis).. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. K.z) 1 2 (0. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i...y.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.x.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L..0) 4.y.1. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.ANSYS Inc.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. 6. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) (1000... Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.#. 7. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. 3.67 iii.

r . Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.81m/s2 in the y direction. The following window will appear.ii. Density DENS: 7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.86e-6 9..3 8.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. enter the following density for steel: i.. 10. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears.. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.0 2.

.1.0.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction. ACEL. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). .ALL.9. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. DK.

777mm 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.2 . > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .4..

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .777mm. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .' and select the file.. This is in agreement with the theortical value. A .HTML version. the maximum displacement was found to be 5..As observed in the upper left hand corner. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.

. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (1000... /title. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Distributed Loading 3.. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. > Add. 6. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.ANSYS Inc... With only 3 degrees of freedom.0) 4.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element.y) 1 2 (0. and rotation about the Z axis). Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.K#.#. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. 5. enter the following geometric properties: i. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.333 iii..3 8.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. 9. . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm.. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. 7.ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .

As shown in the following figure. . 3. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. over the entire length of the beam.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings.2 2. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements.. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. . In the window that appears. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section.. 4.

we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. click 'Apply' 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d.. In the window that appears a. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. For this example.1. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. 8.. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. ' d.' 3. 9. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window.. select 'NMISC. For this problem. r As shown in the plot below. Click 'OK'.. In the second window of the same section. (ie. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. 3 for the 'J' nodes. 6. Click 'Add. 7. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. . In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .. .HTML version.

Modal Dynamic . After each increment.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . the load will added incrementally. contact elements).0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. To solve this problem. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.

0) (5. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 4.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 2. 6. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.y) 1 2 (0.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.25 x 0. With only 3 degrees of freedom. > Add. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.03125 ii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . and rotation about the Z axis). 1.125 inches. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0....ANSYS Inc.069e-5 iii. 5. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . enter the following geometric properties: i.0) 3.

. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.. for example.. The following image will appear: . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. If we were considering a block of wood. we would have to consider non-linear material properties.i.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. not non-linear material properties. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. 7. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry..3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 8.

The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. however. C. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in .Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. this takes time.

By default. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. For some special nonlinear cases. stress stiffening is automatically included. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. This command controls the solution data written to the database. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. For more information about these commands. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. By default. the load is ramped. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. However. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. D. the modified Newton-Raphson. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . By default. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. the previously computed matrix. type help followed by the command into the command line. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. F. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. By default.Now. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. E. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

Y. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.U. UY PLNSOL. > DOF solution.0.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.1 2.1 . > Def + undeformed PLDISP.....

Modeling the system non-linearly. these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. this is not realistic for large deflections.. However. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. However. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. Define Variables . stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load.> DOF solution. As you recall. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. the load was applied in steps.3.

. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction..r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add..

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copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.' and select the file. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..PDF version is also available for printing.. Open the .

0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. For more information regarding setting the time value. In this example. and many other solution control option. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1.Harmonic Dynamic . This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. see Chapter 8.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

as expected. For each parameter. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. In the case of a structural analysis. However.5 in the help file. For ease of explanation. such as this. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps.001). The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. Generally. the curves may be for temperature. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. you can see Chapter 8. for more information about changing iteration settings. or is not converging. many iterations will be required. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). As can be seen in the graph above. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. In the case of a structural example. Again. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. If the problem is relatively linear. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. Once this occurs. For each substep. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. which is discussed in the help file. Thus. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. 2. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. which this graph is taken from. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. For instance. . These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. if the solution is highly non-linear. This is what will be explained next. In simpler terms. there are two curves plotted. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20.5% for loads. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces.ANSYS Inc. we will look at the force curves. Some analyses use normalized values. this graph relates to forces and moments. which ever is greater. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. etc) that iterates to find a solution.

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For this type of analysis. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This method is not recommended for accurate. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. ie. . static analysis to predict buckling loads. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. 2. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.Modal Dynamic . structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. material nonlinearities and gaps.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. load perterbations. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . large-deflection. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. in real-life. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. real-world buckling prediction analysis. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. However.Harmonic Dynamic .

Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. rigidly constrained at the bottom. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. The required load to cause buckling. applied at the top-center of the beam. Define Keypoints . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. /title. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.ANSYS Inc.. will be calculated. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm..... 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS .333 iii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.0) (0. 6. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.1.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.100) 4. enter the following geometric properties: i. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.3 . and rotation about the Z axis). Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. > Add. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.. K.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.X..y) 1 2 (0.#.

If you are looking at the abridged menu. select the unabridged version.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). r r . prestress effects must be activated. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. 9. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line)..0 2.8.. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. 4. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained).3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load.

However. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6.1 8. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. 7. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. 5. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options .The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly.

An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s).. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. 11. and ensure that it is on. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. r . as shown below. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . The 'Subspace' method could also be used. however. 9. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase.r Complete the window which appears. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver.. is for an expansion pass.. This time. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. /POST1 SET. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . which is in Newtons for this example. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12.LIST 2. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.123).

Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.Y .X. /TITLE..#.

Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Mesh Size .1. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. 7.y) 1 2 (0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.2 5. 6...3 8. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.. > Add. With only 3 degrees of freedom.333 iii. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. L. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0) (0... and rotation about the Z axis). In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.100) 4.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.... Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.1 9.. ESIZE. The following image will appear: .ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.0 2.

This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. E. D. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 .Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. F. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. this takes time. however. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. C. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. B. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.

For more information about these commands. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. . This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. 3.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. The model should now look like the window shown below.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). type help followed by the command into the command line.

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. .

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.1 ..

1 . UY PLNSOL.U.r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.Y.0.. > DOF solution..

you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. . However. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. 1. The following window should open automatically.

If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. . r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. This will make the reaction force the x-variable.r To add another variable. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. click the add button again. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. On the Time History Variable window.

2. so you must change them manually. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. . Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.

Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force. Now go to 'File > Read input from.123 N. ..HTML version. A . which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.000 N.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". In such a case. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. For instance. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .

X.0) (0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .1. > Add. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters...y) 1 2 (0.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. 5. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties: i.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.#. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis. NonLinear Materials 2. /title. 6..2 4.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. L.100) 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element....

004 0. It should look like the one shown above.003 0.001 0. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. click Add Point to add another. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 .i. click Graph to see the curve. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii. When the data for the first point is input. When all the points have been inputed.005 0. Then click OK.002 0. the stress-strain data must be included. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above.

8.250 0.150 0.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.060 0..200 0.0 2..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The following image will appear: .100 0. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line)...8 9 10 11 12 13 0. /REPLOT 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.

data for every load step is written to the database. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. this takes time. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. F. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. however. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. C. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. you can plot certain parameters over time. D. E. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Therefore. . This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge.

3.B. For more information about these commands. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 5. 4.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. type help followed by the command into the command line.

This shows the convergence of the solution. . To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

U.1 . > DOF solution.. UY PLNSOL.Y.. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.2.0.

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. The following window should open automatically. . you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. 1. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. However.

If it does not open automatically. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. . Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. On the Time History Variable window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. . The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2.r To add another variable. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force.

and subsequently the stress. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly.HTML version. as the force increased.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Open the . was low (in the linear range). A . However. you will see the solutions are very similar.' and select the file. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations..PDF version is also available for printing. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. When you verify this example analytically. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.Harmonic Dynamic . .

ANSYS Inc. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The following window will appear ..2 2. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.

The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.r As shown. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). . select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. It is therefore more exact but. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No.

. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. we will use the default options so click on OK.r For this problem. 3. 4.. The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained)..

As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .64 285.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8. 2.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i. Select 'Def + undef edge'. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .e. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .01 145. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .0 0.22 ANSYS 8.51 472.69 472. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.68 285.2 0.1 0.54 Percent Error 0.0 0.300 52.94 145.311 51. r To view the next mode shape. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). instead of 10 elements.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. By default. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. select Utility Menu > List > nodes).. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. which is node #2. and the following window should pop up. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. In our case it is assigned Frequency..

Click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .

Plot UY vs. . 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.4. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

3 and 51 Hz.94Hz. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear . view the log scale of UY. To get a better view of the response.311 and 51. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

100 Hz. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.. r For ANSYS version lower than 7.0. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. See the help file for instructions.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 .HTML version.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. A . .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

.

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . for example. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. For our case.Harmonic Dynamic . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.

the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The smaller the time step. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. However. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).ANSYS Inc.

as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. However. All types of non-linearities are allowed. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. if stresses and forces are of interest than. r . this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). In ANSYS. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). In other words. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Select 'Reduced' as shown. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. However. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. It is the quickest of the three methods. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Therefore. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. the calculations are much quicker. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. please use the links below. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.

Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs).2. . see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). 3. The following window will open.

s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). two sets of initial conditions are required. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes.Time Step . for this example we can skip this step. Therefore. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). s set [DELTIM] to 0. However. both default to zero. initial displacement and initial velocity. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . We can also solve for each load step after we define it. ii. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution.001. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. a.. Note that for the reduced method. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps. Load Step 1 .4.001 seconds to be used for this load step. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. This will specify a time step size of 0. .Initial Conditions i.

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

ii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N..s01 b.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. and set a time of 0. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Specify Time and Time Step Options .001 for the end of the load step iii.Time Step . ii. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Load Step 3 i. Load Step 2 i.

1. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). . which is node #2.. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear.Time Step . In our case it is assigned Frequency. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). By default. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.

.. and the following window should pop up. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .2. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

3. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. . Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

. However. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. if stresses and forces are of interest. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We also see another response at a higher frequency. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. We did not specify damping for our system.

and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .08 and 0.08 and 0. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. For this case. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.11 seconds.. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded..Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3.11 seconds r r r 2. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). 1.

0. 0.0. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.00000000 .UX .00000000 .00000000 TINTP. . D. We will now re-run our transient analysis. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.500000000 .000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 DCGOMG. /GOPR 1. 0.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.01 in all three load step files.000000000E-03. 0. 0. 0.00000000 0. 0. -1.00000000 DMPRAT.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. q . 0. 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.R5. 0.00000000 .00000000 .We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam. 0. 0. .TEMP.. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.DAMP BFUNIF. 1._TINY DELTIM. 1.00000000 BETAD.UY .R5.00000000 0.00000000 .00000000 ERESX.00000000 CGLOC.00000000 ALPHAD. 1.00000000 TREF.DEFA ACEL.00000000 . /COM.ROTZ.REDU. 0. 0.00000000 . 0.00000000 . TINTP. 1.7..00000000 . 0.00000000 . 0.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 .. 0. 0.00000000 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 0.00000000 .00000000 NCNV. 0. -1. 0.00000000 .s01. 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. but now we will consider damping. 0. 0.00000000 OMEGA. 0. 0. 0. 4 TRNOPT.00000000 .00000000 .. The file should look like the following.00000000 0. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. 0. 0.00000000 .00000000 D. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.00000000 .ANSYS RELEASE 5. 0 DOMEGA. D. 5.

q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs.' . Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1... The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. After the results have been calculated. After selecting MDOFs.

.PDF version is also available for printing.and select the file. A .

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.KXX. 1.0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0.0.0 2. Height=1 BLC4.1 4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.. Apply Constraints .ANSYS Inc. Quad 4node 55). Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.10 6. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Give example a Title 2.ALL.1.PLANE55 For this example.05 7. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.1.1.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.05 AESIZE. Y=0. Width=1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP.. 5.

all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. Heat Flux. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line.For thermal problems.options cannot be selected. Heat Generation. or Radiation. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. Convection. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Heat Flow. In this example. r r The following window will appear: .

Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution.. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. r 3.. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A . however. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners.' and select the file. followed by the side and bottom constraints. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect.. .HTML version. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first.PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 to solve simple thermal examples. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Modal Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

05 AESIZE.0.1.KXX. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.0. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.1.1 4. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4node 55).ALL. Y=0.1. Width=1.ANSYS Inc. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.05 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. 6.. Height=1 BLC4. 5. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3.0 2. 1. Give example a Title 2.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..0. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Apply Conduction Constraints . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.In this example. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. The following window will appear: r . all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. 4. This is because we have uniform convection across the line.r Fill in the window as shown. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. r .

This will eliminate convection through the side. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ..r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > DOF solution. Temperature TEMP .

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .' and select the file. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from... .

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.040 kJ/kg*K.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.Harmonic Dynamic . the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Modal Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Also.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.ANSYS Inc. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Y=0.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Width=1.ALL At this point. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.2.1. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.C.0.0. 5. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .KXX.05 AESIZE.1.PLANE55 For this example.1.1.DENS.1 4.1.ALL.920 6. /Title. Height=1 BLC4. Quad 4node 55). Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0..05 7. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.04 MP..Transient Thermal Conduction 2. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.

4 The window shown below will pop up.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . We will use the defaults. so click OK. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.

Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.2. .

of substeps to 20. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Max no. of substeps to 100. Min no.

refer to the help file. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. By writing the data at every step. r r . Convection. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.D) Set Line search to ON . Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. or Radiation. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.options cannot be selected. Basically. Heat Flow. For a complete description of what these options do. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. In this example. 3. Heat Generation. Heat Flux. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly.

The following window will appear: .

> DOF solution.. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . r 4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints..

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.. with 8 contours. specify the contour range. Fill in the window as shown. user specified.. from 100 to 500.Animate Results Over Time r First. .

DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 . Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames..300 Time Range. Auto contour scaling OFF. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.r Then animate the data..

you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Also. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. . Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. As can be seen. the curves are practically identical.

Analytical Solution .

Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Creating the Temperature vs. The following window should open automatically.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. .

Pick the center node on the mesh. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. node 261. .If it does not open automatically.

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

From experience. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Instead. will cause the solution to converge. This is because the solution has not completely converged. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. so you must change them manually. . one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. To cause the solution to converge. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.2.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Open the ..' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.Modal Dynamic . point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Harmonic Dynamic . In this case.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. As a warning.

Y2 . Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .ANSYS Inc. Axisymmetric Tube 2..X2. /title.X1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.Y1.

click the Options. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. 6. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. we must define a U-shape. Solid. axisymmetry is not supported.. to create the geometry mentioned above. Many elements support axisymmetry. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. 5. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. .. Therefore. Triangle 6node) element..For an axisymmetric problem. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. button..

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.3 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. 9. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.7.

command. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. at x=0. . Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.C.0 2. By using the symmetry B. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. as shown below. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. then click OK. .r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus.

Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). . click on Cancel to close the window. 3. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Therefore. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. This is required to constrain the model in space. 4. Once you've clicked Sele All. these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory.

Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. r 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. .. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45.55 in the Min. as shown below and click OK. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities..182 MPa. 2.Max box.

it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.182 MPa. 3.. matching the analytical solution. . By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. The following window will appear. such as corners.18552 + 0. Thus. The average is used because in the analytical case.17866)/2. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. the stress in the tube is 0. (0.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up.. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. to approximate the analytical solution. we must average the stress over the thickness.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .4. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. as expected due to the change in geometry. Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. The rest of the commands remain the same. If this is done.. Thus. . but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. the model is a flat. rectangular plate.PDF version is also available for printing..HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. with a rectangular hole in the middle. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically.' and select the file.

a wall thickness of 10. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Y and Z axis). . Define Element Types For this problem. 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Catapult 3.. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.. Y and Z axis. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . /title. and rotation about the X.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

a. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. ROTY). > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'.. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. UZ. ROTX. For this example. s Select 'Combination'. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. UY. b.. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.a. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. Click 'OK'. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. c. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. s Select 'Combination'. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'.. 4. there should now be three types of elements defined. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. UY). Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure..

z) (0.1000) (1000.y. In the window that appears. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.33 6.0) (0. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.#. c. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis.1000) (1000. Define Element Material Properties 1.0.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. Click 'OK'. there should now be three types of elements defined.x.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.y. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4.0.. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3. 5. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.0) ..0. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. N.0. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.

500) (0. Then click 'OK'. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .0) (0..500) (0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.0) (700.. The following window will appear. Create PIPE16 elements a.0.1000. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.500) (400.-500) 7.700.1000) (0. .0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0. 'Material number' is set to 1.400.1500) (0.0.0.0.1000.1000) (0.

Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 .6).b. node a.1. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. the first entry would be: E.

Create elements When defining a joint. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. three nodes are required. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . Then click 'OK' b. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a.

Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. Then click 'OK' b. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. 10.node a. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. node b. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. you can list all the elements defined in the model. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . 11. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table.E. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.node a. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. we do not need to mesh our model. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. To do this. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9.

. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. we need to include the effects of large deformation.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably.0 2.. 3. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

In this case the maximum values for each are the same. > Add..1). In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. This will give you the max stress at the j node. Comp selection box r r r 6. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file. However. Fill this table as done previously. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File..3 (instead of NMISC. .. 1. However.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define... select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. fill it in as shown previously . this is not always the case.. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX.. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.. however. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC. 8.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. r r 7. we can now solve the optimization problem.

...1. .(W*H**3)/12.H. .0..r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.1.UY.ans.txt’ Click ‘OK’. .2 .1.P51X.1.1.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input..BEAM3 !* !* R. .0..LINE. K.1.2.UX. . . .0.start70.. LMESH.ORDE.100.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.3.3.2.EX. . . .. .1. !* ET.2. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.0..PRXY... L.1. FLST.1..RATI. ..... Design Optimization *SET...W*H. 2 !* HPTCREATE.ANSYS RELEASE 7.. MPTEMP..2.1 FITEM. . !* !* MPTEMP. 20 /PREP7 K.1000.1. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.. 1.W ..0 FLST.1 !* /GO DK.ALL.75.3 !* LESIZE..1. 20 *SET.1 FITEM.H .1 /title. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.ORDE..0..2. ..0 MPDATA.200000 MPDATA.0...

!* *GET. . However. ETABLE. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 .SORT.0.1.UY.0.DK. .1 FITEM. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.NMISC. If you created the geometry etc. most of these changes will already be made. .EVolume.P51X. . ..3. Change this to: DK. .1.0. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.0. . .COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization. .SMAX.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.0.SSUM. .0. Therefore.SMaxJ.UX. 3 !* ESORT.SMAX_J.0.ITEM.1.-2000 ! /STATUS.2.EVOLUME AVPRIN.0.UY.3 !* /GO FK.SMax_J. . .SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. . Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.2.SMaxI.. ETABLE.MAX *SET. using command line code. . FLST. . 1 !* ESORT. .optimization.0.SMAX_I. .SORT. .. !* SSUM !* *GET.P51X.Volume.0.SMax_I. !* *GET. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.MAX AVPRIN. ETABLE.ORDE.NMISC.1.UX.0.VOLU.C:\Temp\.P51X.ETAB. .!* /GO DK.UY.ETAB.0.FY. .0.

0.P51X.UY. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. . ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each.3. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. Change to: DK. To define variables. . you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . .0. Now that we have decided our design variables. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. r Click ‘OK’.FY. . In this example.0. 3. .2.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file.FY. In this example. For the width and height. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. In our problem. NOTE: As previously stated. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero.-2000 Change to: FK. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears.FK.UY. . the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized.P51X.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. . State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. If you are comfortable with command line coding. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. .DK.0. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. Without this SV. 2. .

we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.. we do not need to define an allowable range. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm).. For the stress variable. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.. Because the volume variable is the objective variable.on the volume of the beam. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.... > Add.. a.. we will select a tolerance of 0. > Add. . Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b.01MPa. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.01mm.

6. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Under Convergence Tolerance. Percent forward diff. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method. . Click ‘OK’. Defaults to 0. enter 200... To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. confirm that the analysis file. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window.. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient.2% 7.001) c.. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. DELTA = 0.. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. Percent step size SIZE = 100.2 Click ‘OK’. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Defaults to 10.. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.

Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r ..83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’.24 mm.. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. C.. and the stress is equal to 199. 2. height=29. You will probably see that the width=13.16 mm.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. View the Results 1. B. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’.

. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.. . In the window.. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.

displacement. use whichever variable is necessary to plot.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. .. Open the .. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps.. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu.HTML version. all of the results data (ie stress. Alternatively. In addition. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .

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A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. v = 0. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. however. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.5 MPa. substructuring will be used for the wood block.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply loads to the super-element . For this example. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.

WIDTH.. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.YCORNER. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2.. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Apply remaining loads to the model.. . 3.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.XCORNER. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).2.

. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. r . For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.SUBST 2.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. This element has 4 nodes. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).29 6. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. 5. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0..For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .

r . In this case. With the option SEPR. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. 3. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. 5.4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4.. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. FILNAME.YCORNER.WIDTH.. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 .. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass..XCORNER.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.

We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid).6. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas ..1 10. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm.). Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Select Model Data. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements.. The following window will appear. Young's modulus EX: 2. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. 7.. For Selected set as shown. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers.. . Therefore. 9...5 (MPa) ii.41 8. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data .

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

.. 40 as shown..r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Select Nodes.SUB File. Y coordinates. . The following window will appear. By Location..

click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. In the window that appears..0 2.. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Apply super-element load vectors .

SUM. Translation USUM PLNSOL..U... Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. r 4.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.. > DOF solution. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector.0.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear.1 . Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .

Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. FILNAME. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ..

ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Type 'EXPASS. r 3.. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1..3. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem .. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. The following window will appear. r . Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.. The following window will appear. r 2.db .. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step..

Translation USUM PLNSOL.0.4. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .U. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution.SUM.1 ...

Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0). . This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A .PDF version is also available for printing. .HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file..

. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the link will attemp to expand.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. However. stress is created in the link. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. a thermal conductivity of 60. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. with no internal stresses. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7... is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.the solutions and . Loads will not be applied to the link. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. A steel link. For convenience. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Thermal Stress Example 2. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.z) 1 2 (0.. However." Thus.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. /title.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.y.x.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.2 . Thermal Environment . see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. where the thermal effects will be applied. For a listing..1. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.0) (1. and using it with any following coupled environments. Although the geometry must remain constant. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . the geometry is kept constant. It is important to note.. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.#. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. and write them to memory.y. For our case. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. the analyses are coupled. For instance.0) 4. K. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. the element types can change. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.

This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes.. 7. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2.. 9.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..5 8. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. KXX: 60. representing a link 1 meter long. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.. enter the following geometric properties: i.1 meters. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.. 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. > Add.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. . Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. 5..

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. 2. Structural Environment . material properties. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. all that is required is to detail the structural variables.11. In this case it is LINK 8. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. see the help file. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In this case. 1. It does not clear the geometry however.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. etc.3 . such as the element type. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. which is defining the structural environment. so it can be used in the next stage. For more information on this element.

0 2. ALPX: 12e-6 3. enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. .

Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK.rth.rth. enter the file name File. . This should make it visible. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname.rth is the thermal results file. 6. as expected. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. were . to 348 Kelvin. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. The thermal solution has now been obtained. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination.rth. you will get error messages. 3. 8. If this is not done. 4. 7. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. this data can be found as file. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. the left-most point. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5.If the Physics option is not available under Solution.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. 10. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .9.

the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression.1 3. an element table must be created first. List the Stress Data . General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below.CompStress. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS.As shown. the stress can't be listed in the normal way. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. 2.LS.1 ETABLE. Instead.

or 180 MPa in compression as expected. Note the stress in each element: -0.180e9 Pa. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB.CompStr The following list should appear. .

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. A ..HTML version. Open the .This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . computational time can be kept to a minimum. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.0. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Thus. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.

ON Select p-Method Struct. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. P-Method Meshing 2... as shown below . /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

3.100) (45.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. K.52) (80.52) (55. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.x.y..0) (0.100) ..z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.y.100) (20.#. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.

0) (80.3. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below.9. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.48) (20.6.48) (45.5..10.2.8..0) 5.0) (55. . 6.11.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.1.7.4.100) (100.

and Plane145. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window. Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's. 7. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. shown below. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. Solid147. to open the keyoptions window. After clicking OK to select the element... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type.. Plane146. For now we will leave them as default. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . click Options. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. > Add.. go to the Element Library in the help file.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element.. 8. For more information on these elements. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes).

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.0 2. 10. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.ii.3 9.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. .A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. Max no. Min no. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. of substeps to 20.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.5. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2.

.The following stress distribution should appear.

3. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear. .

these orders may go as high as 8. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. For more complex geometries. As a comparison. . a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.

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You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse.As one can see from the two plots. thus computational time will be low. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Open the . However.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. A .HTML version.. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. and still get reasonable results. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This is the benefit of using p-elements. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. For further information. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. but will not be discussed here.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Element birth is also possible.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. The elements are still technically there. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".

we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears. For this example. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0.03 Height = 0. enter the following properties: .. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .03.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.03 BLC4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.. enter the following properties: i. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0. 5. enter the following properties: i. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. /title.0. Quad 4node 55). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears..0. Element Death 2.03 4..

4 2. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. you . Density DENS: 920 6. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.i. ANTYPE. Therefore. We will use the defaults. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 7...0005m. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. so click OK.

C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. 3. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .FULL into the commmand line. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used.must type NROPT.

Basically. refer to the help file. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.D) Set Line search to ON . For a complete description of what these options do. 4. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. By writing the data at every step.

5. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. Heat Flux. Heat Flow. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. In this example. Heat Generation. or Radiation. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. . Convection.

The model should now look as follows: .

Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. elements to create the desired effect. or turn off. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. ..LAST 2. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. Here. the user can manually kill. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1.. Assume the material melts at 273 K. For instance.

with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK..' Fill the window in as shown below. 3. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.r Click on 'Add.. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. . Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

this will kill only those elements. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Click OK to restart the analysis. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. .all into the command line. 2. and close the warning message. which this analysis doesn't call for. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. thus it is just warning the user. This is much too time consuming in this case.

With the window still open. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK. .

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

using command line code. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . . more accurately modelling the heating process. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. Open the . to more accurately model element death over time.HTML version. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed...This procedure can be programmed in a loop.PDF version is also available for printing. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. That way.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. as shown below. are 100mm long. The beams. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. /title.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. causing it to bend and contact the lower. Contact Elements 2.

... 100.. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. 10) (50. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 5. click Options. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X.. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4..WP X.. 15.WP Y. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid... . Quad 4node 42) element. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. 0. 100./PREP7 3.Height) 1 2 (0. Width.Width. r While the Element Types window is still open. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y). WP Y. 10) 4.

. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. 8. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. This way. This is an important step. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. pt-to-surf 48) element. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. enter the following geometric properties: i..3 7. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. click Options.. incremements slowly when contact is immenent.. r While the Element Types window is still open.. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. 6. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window.

. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. such as CONTA175. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. > Add. In this situation. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. Since this "spring" is so stiff.. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. given in %. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. such as TARGE169. rather than node to element edge. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. require a target element. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. you should increase KN. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. 10. enter the following properties: i. As the surfaces approach each other. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. ii. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. resulting in convergence difficulties. When using contact elements in your own analyses. you should decrease KN. . If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep.. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants. This will be covered below. If there is too much penetration. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. A small value of TOLS. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two.It is important to note. Other contact elements. to function. be sure to understand how the elements work.. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. Thus.

etc. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. However.. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Select the top beam and click OK. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus.. In this simple case. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. . contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. the source nodes will be selected. First. when the geometry is complex... Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. 11. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. tolerances. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. In this case.

This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam..100. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.. . s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK.

. .s Now if you list the selected nodes. you should only have the following nodes remaining. Utility Menu > List > Nodes..

the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. Now we can use this component. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. . In this case. If you have a lot of contact elements. This can be very useful in other applications as well. and click OK. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. Source.

Utility Menu > Select > Entities. clicking the Also Select radio button. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. . Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others... These values will be the ones you'll use. When creating the component this time.. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing.Now select the target nodes. 12. clicking the Also Select radio button. Using the same procedure as above. This is done by opening the entity select menu. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. This is done by opening the entity select menu.. enter the name Target. and click the Sele All button. and click the Sele All button... select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100.

.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. The rest of the selections remain unchanged. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).

If you wish. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . your model should look like the following.At this point. Unfortunately.

The following image will appear: . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE... Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. If you zoom in on the contact areas.0 2. The preprocessor stage is now complete.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. shown below.

however. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. E. B. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. this takes time. C. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. D.

leave these relatively high at first. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. 3. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. type help followed by the command into the command line. For more information about these commands. Once everything is working.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. Also. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. Again. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. If you have too few substeps.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. Note. this is a point load on a 2D surface. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. However.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. 5. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis.

Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . If you leave the scaling as default. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. then click ok. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1.2.0 (true scale) radio button. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. 3.

Now go to 'File > Read input from.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.As seen in the figure.HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the ..PDF version is also available for printing. . the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. A . producing a stress distribution in both. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

DIVISION. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.20 *ask. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.100 *ask.HEIGHT.How tall is the truss. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.2 . To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. using a length of 200 m. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.How many cross supports even number. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).How long is the truss. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry. Variables including length. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL.LENGTH.

X_COORD.(KEYP+1) *if.1 .i.NUM_K.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.0 *else k.DIVISION.0.0.j.KEYP.LE.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.1.(DIVISION-1).i.ex.1.KEYP.KEYP.link1 r.THEN k.prxy.200000 mp.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.THEN L.i.1.1.OSCILATE.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if..1.100 mp.GT.X_COORD.1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.3 esize.

IVAL.all finish 1. Par. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. For example.. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. or a mathematical expression. Thus in later parts of the code. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.9. *ask. This argument can be a single value. 4.How long is the truss. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. In this case. INC.OSCILATE. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. see the help file.8.". The syntax for the expression is *DO.3.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. 2. in the code above there is a statement: *if. *do.2. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. This translates to "if the variable.i. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. is greater than zero.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. However. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.10). Command File Mode of Solution . It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. OSCILATE..lmesh.1.. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending.10_K. the most intutitive method is to use "=". As seen above. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers.THEN.GT. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. determining if a certain case has occured. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. FVAL. For more information on this command. (ie 1. then.. For example.0.LENGTH.

' and select the file. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing..The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Open the . A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2. /title.) of the following example. etc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Stress..

3 6. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.Height. 7.0.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. 5. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static .3. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4..0. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Y and Z directions).Width. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume.0 2. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. 4.ANTYPE. 5. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. 3. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . For this example we are trying to display a section. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). options 1. therefore.

q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. let's view deflection of the entire model.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. offset the working plane to the desired position. To illustrate how to take a cross section.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

let's view stresses within the entire model.SUM. simply use: WPCSYS. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.8 PLNSOL.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.This can be repeated for any slice..90 /CPLANE. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises . select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).Width/2. however. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.0.0.1 /TYPE.0 WPROTA. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options.0.-1.0.U.. Equivalent Stress Again.0 2.1.

EQV.1. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS. You should now see the following: .0.5 PLNSOL.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.1 /TYPE.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). Because it is much easier.S.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.0.

so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). type help ancut into the command line. select the node in the back.3. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. In the graphics window. Next. the sweep direction. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. the sweep direction is in the Z direction. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there)... For more information on how to modify the animation. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. the origin. but please bear with me. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. for something a little more impressive. Unfortunately. and the Y axis. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Finally. Animation Now. r r .

. A .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. For example. . a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.

0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively.. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. the rectangle) and click OK. select the area to remain (ie. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Then.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. r . /title. the circles) and click OK. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.WP Y.200.. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. 4.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.WP X. The remaining area should look as shown below. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4.0.

r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.... In the 'Element Types' window... Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. > Add. click 'Options.6. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. enter a thickness of 10.. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.3 . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i..' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.

3. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant.0 2. . uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area..9. The model should now look like the figure below. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.. 10. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

However.4. if the stress near the holes are of interest. you could create a normal contour plot. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. 1.

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

r r 2. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. Turn window 1 'off'. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. shown below. To keep window 1 visible during replots. meaning this function off. you must make a couple of changes.

equivalent stress is desired. what results should be available to the path. or in other words. For this example. you must choose what to map to the path. 3. r . Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK.

so disregard the warning. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. This is of little concern though. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. 4.r The warning shown below will probably pop up.

. Note. Due to resolution restrictions. these dots are not shown here.The display should look like the following. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations.

HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file.. A . Open the .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. /title. rather than using a contour plot. By plotting this data on a curve. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. a special type of array.. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Length of the following beam using tables. finer resolution can be achieved. Use of Tables for Data Plots .. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.x. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3..y. and rotation about the Z axis). enter the following geometric properties: i. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. 7.y. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii... Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm.1..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.0) 4. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.2.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. > Add. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.#. Define Element Material Properties .. K.z) 1 2 (0..0) (400..

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The model should now look like the figure below.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.. 9. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.3 8. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.0 2. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2.

are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.. but they can be used for much more.. Therefore. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. 1. a special type of array. For this example there are 21 nodes.4. > OK. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Tables. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. Create the Table . This example is a simplified use of tables. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. 2.

The reason for this will be explained below.. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . one more than the number of nodes. In the window shown below.1]. 3.. Note there are 22 rows. Enter Data into Table First. select Model Data > Nodes r . Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.2.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22.

.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X]. r . column 2.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. and continues down the column. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. and continues down the column.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . the vertical displacement will be recorded. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.. Next.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. column 1.

and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left.4. This causes problems during plotting. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. Thus. to provide room to move this data. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. as it is keypoint 1. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit .

with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. r . Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400.833) is in row two. UY = -0. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. Fill it in as shown. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V).

r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes .. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. To see the changes to the labels.. r r .

. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from...HTML version. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.

0 dk. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.833.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.100.ex.2.0 L. finish /clear /title.prxy.100. For instance.200000 mp. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.333.1.5 lmesh.0. etc.1.10 mp.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1.all.0.beam3 r. changing the background colour.3 esize.0 K.all finish /solu antype.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . numbering the nodes.2 et.1.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.1.

The following window will appear: .fy.fk..2..-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

select the node numbering and plot the nodes. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. However. You should get the following: . This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. When you click OK.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. To remedy this problem. sometimes the numbers won't show up. For instance.

2. These extra symbols may not be necessary.As shown. the nodes have been numbered. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols .

In our case.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. . so those sections won't be used. there are no Surface or Body Loads. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. or Initial Conditions. Under the Boundary conditions section.

Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .The result should be as follows: 3.

. it is things associated with the window background. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. To turn off the triad. In this case. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. As shown in the window. The following output should be the result. etc. the legend or title can be turned off.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off.

.4. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape...

To aid in this process. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. If there is no change in output. The following should appear. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. . thus elements are not going to show up. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. such as BEAM3.When using line elements. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. don't be alarmed.

. you can change the view orientation.. but they have volume according to the real constants. 5.. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate.As shown. To get a better 3-D view of the model. the elements are no longer just a line.

such as isometric or oblique. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. translate the view and zoom. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. . it's easy to see the elements in 3D. Basic rotating. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. Using these options. You can also select predefined views.This window allows the user to rotate the view. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen.

6. plot the deformation contour for the beam. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. they can be changed. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. If you don't like the colours of the contour. Under non-uniform contours. Under uniform contours... . be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. those can also be changed. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. Changing Contours First.

. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. and we'll set the background colour to white. Here we are only using Window 1.. .The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. 7. but don't want a black background. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire.

If there is information that needs to be added. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. Under the File heading. This is because the text colour is also white. select Save As. . such as contour values. this can be done in other graphic editors... Notice how all the text disappeared.The resulting display is shown below. To save the display.

the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. If you are looking for a specific option. . these are just a few. as is the help file.

This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. see the next item in this list. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. select Read Input from. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. e.cmd) is stored and select it.. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. 2. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). You may need to select Plot -> . GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. When it is complete. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. frame. or if you'd like to save the whole file. Then before you are finished. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. to a text file.g. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window..

but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. mode). make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. X11c. Save those changes to disk. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. stress.frame.. At this point you could type in /menu. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show.) between frame and cmd.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired. etc. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS.. . you would use the following syntax /input. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.frame. Assuming that the analysis worked properly.on.. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. Select File -> Clear & Start New.. If the file was in the directory. you may need to point it to the proper directory. type /input./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file... To rerun the command file. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. then from the ANSYS input window.cmd.cmd and yes that is a comma (. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line.

a1.zcoord l. a10 see online help see online help rectng. applying loads and constraints..x2.z2.. l10 v. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.kp#. .rad1.ycoord. kp6 a.xcoord.. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.theta2 sphere.kp2 larc. . .rad2.kp2.y1.x1. .x2..z2 cylind.kp1..theta1.kp1.l1.rad2..kp2.kp3..x1.kp2.z1.z1..ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry. kp8 va.theta1. kp18 a.l2..rad1.kp1. .kp1.y2.y1.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus ..a2.kp2.kp1.y2 block.

. .Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd. a9 asba..label.a1.r2.number esize.a2.a1.line1.. current type is set by mat mat.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .number.area1.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.area2..all amesh.line2. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.a2. .c1.a1.a1.type may define as many as required. current type is set by real real.number..inc or lmesh.number r..a2 aina.. . c4 may define as many as required.number.r1.size.number mp.. .a2. current type is set by type type.inc or amesh. r6 may define as many as required.. a9 aglue.c0. ..

UZ.FZ.MX. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .vol2.kp#.ALL dl.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.ROTX.label.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.vol1.area#.UY.label.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).MZ f.FZ.ROTY.ROTZ.MX.inc or vmesh.MY.value labels: UX.UZ.ROTX.ALL d.kp#.label.FY. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.value labels: UX.ROTY.node#.ROTZ.value labels: FX.UY.node#.e.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.value labels: FX.label.line#.FY.MY.

1.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs".ndivs+1.1. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).else .x2.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.then .ndivs.x.x1. if only is entered.0 k.ndivs.1.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.GT.i. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .0.Enter number of divisions (default 5).0 *ENDDO *ELSE k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 ! do i = 1.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.i. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.2.0. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters. a default of "5" is used ! *IF. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.

.1 kplot klist.all..! /pnum.kp.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .

extrusion. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Boolean operations. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. ANSYS 7.

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Dynamic Analysis . This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Modal Dynamic Analysis .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials. A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations).0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc.Pure Conduction . The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Transient Thermal Examples . In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.

Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.Thermal Examples . Analysis of heat conduction over time. Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Modelling Using Axisymmetry .

The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Using element death to model a volume melting. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. ANSYS 7. Additionally. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem.

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ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. a special type of array. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

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0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.0. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.5.7.6.0254 rout=8*0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.8.7 emis2=0. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0 k.0.0.0.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.0 k.-1 k.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.1.1 k.699*10**(-8) k.

.1 csys.rin.all MP.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.2.1.2 lsel.1 ESIZE.1.KXX.TEMP ET.2.s..ndiv CIRCLE...1.1 STEF.6.loc.8.1.2 SE..1 R.2.1 TYPE.s..rout LMESH.arc.LINK32.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .rout.circle.1 MAT.emis1 EMIS. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.1.MATRIX50..x..rin LMESH.7.ndiv ET.offset ! inner cylinder.5.arc.all csys.emis2 VTYPE.0 GEOM.1 MAT.ALL lsel.loc..VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.all lsel.stefbolt WRITE.x.1 MP.7.KXX.1 lsel.1. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.VM125 TOFFST..

rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.s.T2 nsel.ITEM.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.T1 nsel.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.loc.rout D.CHAR.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.csys.s.x.LABEL.loc.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.HEAT *DIM.all nsel.x. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.ALL.ALL.x.rin D.loc.FSUM.1 nsel.loc.1.0.all csys.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM. K /POST1 csys.VALUE.s.1 nsel.3 LABEL(1.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .all nsel..all *GET.s.TEMP.1.Q.TEMP.2 *DIM.x.

Q *VFILL.3) /COM.*VFILL.F10.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.' '.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.F10.VALUE(1.1.LABEL(1.1.------------------------------------------------------/COM.1).' '.DATA.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.3) (1X. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM. *VWRITE.' '. /COM.VALUE(1.3). FINISH .A8.exact *VFILL.--------------.VALUE(1.1).1F5.1).DATA.DATA.2).2).VALUE(1.

one simply types pico test.dat. so they are always available. The first three mentioned below are text based. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. press this key. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. but the backspace key does work normally. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. In pico. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. but have a steep learning curve.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. for example.dat at the UNIX prompt. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. To use pico to edit the file test. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. nedit . The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them.

Very nice. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager.3 file format used by DOS. For this reason.nedit is a very simple to use. multiple file editing. and look at the option in the dialog box. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. and block delimiting with the mouse. It could then be edited. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. undo. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name.. type wabi or win. It features pull-down menus. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. when saving files in PFE. saved. Applications . yet powerful X Windows editor. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format.exe (look under the r: drive). It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. and then renamed back to its original name. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files.. Therefore. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. From a UNIX command window. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home.

Press Enter to continue. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. check . heat transfer and fluid problems.. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. From the next dialog box that appears.. you may enter ANSYS commands. If you've got some time. Once this is done. two methods are avialable: 1. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. select your desired font size.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Press Enter to continue. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. Then choose GUI configuration. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands.x11c /menu. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. To start the X-Windows portion of the program. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. 2. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). item. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. over a modem. it is necessary to select the Interactive . To start ANSYS. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. From this menu. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop.

Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. see Dr. check out the Fluent Web page. Toogood. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. For more information about this program. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. Fyfe. including static analysis. performs finite element analysis. . If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures.out the ANSYS Web page. For further information on using ANSYS. see Dr. see Dr. Pro/Mechanica. sensitivity studies. For further information on this program. A companion program. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. and design optimization. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. click on the car figure. Yokota. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. If you've got some time. like that shown above.

These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.out.f and sub1.f To run this program.f sub1.' is in your path (this is changed in your . Note that the . for example./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.f Normally no options are required.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. the name of the resulting executable will default to a. isn't it?). such as error messages.out (logical. For learning about the compiler's many options.cshrc file. For example: xlf main. and output is the name of the file to which the output ./a.f sub3. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance. redirecting it).f sub1. see Configuration Files).FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. e.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. to a file. your file must be named something like test.e. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.f >& errorfile will compile main./test. type the command.F. To change the executable's output name to test. you now type. This program would be run by entering . xlf by itself.f and not test. . For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. i.f.f sub2.for or TEST. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files.

The resulting text file may then be edited. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. you simply type: . MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. and what data to enter. and not actually exit the editor. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. So.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). From the Matlab prompt. because it too is being sent to the output file. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. printed and even imported into a word processor. If the program normally prompts the user for input.m files. if you know when to enter data. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. you can still run your program this way. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . The keyboard will still accept the input. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started.will be sent.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. symbolic and plotting functions. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. however. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. the prompt will not appear on the screen. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. Note that the text . In this way you will have one window to edit your . Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt.

rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. The workstations are named mec01. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. but is very slow when running it over a modem.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. by issuing the command. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine. For example. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. you must have an X server running on your local machine.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30).labs. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application. Once the job is completed. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. . For example. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files.labs through to mec30. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation.labs.ualberta. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*.

but GPU does. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. or by typing pine at the prompt. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. newsgroups and WWW. just outside the main part of the lab. To use it. type. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail.txt.srv. To use E-mail then. Many applications. To do this.ca. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. for example. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. free of charge. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. see FTP. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). Pine is based on the pico editor. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. You can enter the mail program called pine. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. If your CNS login id is jblow.ualberta. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. either through lynx. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. The mecxx. In this command. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. . The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. This file is printed in the small room.

eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster).eps scale c where filename. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing).20 per page.85. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. or appendices. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. . To print from Windows applications in Wabi. It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. issue the command: plotpostscript filename. From a GPU account login. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price.145 (see FTP). see table of contents.128. room B-111). There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. If you fail to do so. getting started. room 240. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. Prints are $0. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. For further information.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file.

(Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. height .1. 0. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. y K.2. Note that Young's Modulus. and stress for the truss system shown below.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. A. #.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. width/2. 0 ! keypoint. 3*width/2.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. x.123) ! /title.4. reaction forces.height K. 0 K.3. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. E. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. width. p.

0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.3.FY. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.7. K.FY.2 L.5 L.U.3 L.7.1.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL. .4 L.4.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.1. ! ! define lines ! L.4 L. 3*width.-280e3 FK.3.UY.6 L.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.1.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.200e3 ! element type #1.5. 2*width.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.1.SUM.K. K.3250 MP.ALL.5.1.FY.5.1.6 L.2.ALL.2 PLNSOL.6.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.F PLDISP.2.4.-210e3 FK.3.6.1.1.LINK1 R.5. .7.1.0.3 L. spring element ! real constant #1. 5*width/2.FY.7 L.EX.5 L.

SAXL.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL.ETABLE.SAXL PLETAB. 1 PRETAB.LS.

x.height K.1.7.ualberta. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.1.www. 0.5. 5*width/2. #. 3*width/2. height K. width/2.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. 3*width.1.123) ! /title.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.3. 2*width. 0 K. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. width. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.2.4. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. and stress for the truss system shown below. Note that Young's Modulus. reaction forces.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. E. y K. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. p. 0 K.mece.2.3 L.6.2. 0 ! keypoint. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. A. height K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3 L.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
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! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

S.ALL.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2.0 DL.mece.ualberta.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .4.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.PRES.0 SFL.

ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.0.20 CYL4. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).-20.20.20 BLC4.60 ! Enter the pre-processor . 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.50. plane stress. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.100 CYL4. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. A figure of the plate is shown below.50 CYL4.80.20.80. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0. and uniform pressure loading.80. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.20.0.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.0.

0.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.0 .direction. DL. 7.0 .material number. DL.ALL.ALL CYL4.0 .9.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL. DL. .6.10 ASBA.1. DL.11.all areas.13.ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.1.ALL.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 ! mp.1.14.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .0 .0 ..Young's modulus.3.FY.1.200000 MP.20.force ! Solve the problem . DL.ALL.0.value ! mp.PRXY.ALL.PLANE82 KEYOPT. 9.AADD.30 CYL4.80.20 ! r.ALL.5 ! lesize.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.80.0 .10.0 ! amesh. DL.real set number.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition . all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type. 8.10 CYL4.material number.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.0.1. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK. DL.EX.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.50.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.0 .ALL.12.Poisson's ratio.ALL.keypoint..

LTOP /WIND.4.0.3.1.2 /GCMD.EQV.OFF /WIND.340000.0.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.ALL.10.EPTO.DOF.05e-3 /FOC.10.3..0.1 /GCMD..8 /CONT..2.S.ALL.0..EQV.3.RTOP /WIND.2. PLNSOL.0.1 /CONT.0.LBOT /WIND. PLNSOL.0.0. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .10.0036 /CONT..RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.4.-0.1.1 /replot PRNSOL.2. PLDISP.4.1 /GCMD.U. PLNSOL.SUM.

www. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). plane stress. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. and uniform pressure loading.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.0.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . A figure of the plate is shown below. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.80.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.mece. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.

mece. 9.13.10 CYL4.0 ! amesh..FY.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.20 ! r.60 AADD.1.ALL.1.14.-1000 (fk command) !fk.0.50.0 .3. DL.20.ALL CYL4.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.direction. DL.all areas.material number.Poisson's ratio.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.1.value ! mp.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.11..ALL. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.80. DL.0 .6.80.20.0 .Young's modulus.PRXY.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction . .1.5 ! lesize.ALL.0 .keypoint.50.0 . DL.ALL.50 CYL4.200000 MP.80.20.ALL.material number.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL. DL.0.0 . 8.10.0 .html CYL4.10 ASBA.PLANE82 KEYOPT.ALL. DL.www.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.real set number.EX.3 ! mp.9.ALL ! Boolean Addition . ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.1. 7.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.12.80. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.20.20 BLC4. DL.20 CYL4.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.ALL.ualberta.30 CYL4.ALL.0.-20.

0.2.2.1 /GCMD. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.LBOT /WIND.8 /CONT.1 /GCMD.www.ualberta.mece..U.0. PLNSOL.EPTO.4.05e-3 /FOC.S.RTOP /WIND.10..0. PLNSOL.LTOP /WIND.EQV.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .OFF /WIND..0036 /CONT.2..1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.EQV.0..3.0.4.2 /GCMD.0.DOF.4.340000.1 /CONT.RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.3.1.3.10.ALL.10.-0. PLNSOL.1 /replot PRNSOL.SUM.0. PLDISP.ALL.

We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. extrusion/sweeping. . copying.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Filleting.

.10.0 VROTAT.6 AGEN.0.1.0.11) AL.1002. .5. .5. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0 K.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .3.0.5.360.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0.7. .1.3..11.26.1001...3. .3.2.0.1 BLC4.5 AADD.5 AADD.0 K..-0. .2 ASBA..1001.0.ALL LFILLT.14 AADD.5 CYL4.5.0.5.2.5.10.8.ALL ! Sweep K.3. AL.5..2.4..2.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.3.2.6.0.1.0. 1001 and 1002 K.7.9 lines 9.0.5 BLC4.ALL CYL4.1.1 AGEN.2002.2.2001.22.0.8.0.1.4.1002.

3.5.3.26 VADD.K.7 vsbv.25.7.109. .109.1 VGEN.5.-20. .102.100.-1.0.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.13.11 vsbv.0 K. .0.2.02 KWPLAN.10 vsbv. .2002. .101.5.0 K.7 AADD.2001.all.180.5.45.10 AGEN.ALL VOFFST.180 CYL4.5.1 KWPLAN.0.6 vsbv.2003.-20.4.2.2.27.0.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .20 K.20.5.2.69 AGEN.20 LARC.5 CYL4.20 LARC.82 K.5.6 AL.6.5 vsbv.0.8.5.1. .0.all.4.2 CYL4.all. .51 AADD. .101.1.51.8. .0.2.2.26 K.7.1.26 VOFFST.6.20 L. .8. .4.109.159.0.8 vsbv.102 BLC4.102. .all.100.102.102 K.82 K.6.2003 CSYS.0.sqrt(3)/0.0.62 ASBA.9 vsbv.102.6.1.1.1.

61.201. sqrt(3)/2*76.26 K.129-(0. VADD.180.0 K.37 CYL4.-1.3 CYL4.-1.0. . .57735*26) + 38.2.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.32.180.57735*26).51. 129-(0.-20.33.36. .5.203.60 VADD.203.AADD. .204.51.202.200.38 AADD.200.26 K.-20. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .32.60 VSBV.34.61.61.200. .20.18.1 WPCSYS. .204 VOFFST.1.30 KWPLAN.202 CSYS.0 A.7.201.0.0 system K.

Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.www. copying.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.mece. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.ualberta. Filleting. extrusion/sweeping.

html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.0.-0.1002.1.ALL CYL4.2.7.14 AADD.8.5.ALL ! Sweep K. AL.0..5 BLC4.0 VROTAT.6.11.10.9 AL.7.2001.2 ASBA.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.2.0.0.ualberta.1001.2003.2.1001.0.0 K.1.0.6 AGEN.3..5 CYL4.1.0 K.5 AADD.2002. .0.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..5.360.3. K.0.5. LFILLT. . .1.3.5..5 AADD.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.ALL LFILLT. ..0.1. .4.1 BLC4.3.mece.8.0.5.2. .5.4.0.3.5..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.1002.2.3.0.0 K.26.2..22.1 AGEN.www.3.

101.6.0.0.20 LARC.5.109.100.6.5.100.2 AADD.2.11 vsbv. .3.102.7.4.mece.1.51.0 K.8. .0. .102.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. .180.109.7 vsbv.02 KWPLAN.1.2.0.-20.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5.6 vsbv.8.5.82 K. .20.2002.102 K.8. .0.7.10 vsbv.82 K.33.ALL VOFFST.45.101.26 K. .4. .all.0.102.2001.2. .0.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.6.32.5.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .10 AGEN.8 vsbv.2.20 L. .0 K.4.all.html KWPLAN.www.5.2.38 AADD.-1.109.5.62 ASBA.7 AADD.all.2 CYL4.159.5.1 VGEN.102.1.27.25. .all.1.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.20 K.102 BLC4.-20.2003 CSYS.sqrt(3)/0.ualberta.20 LARC.26 VOFFST.5 vsbv.9 vsbv.13.36.51 AADD. .6 AL.0.34.180 CYL4.26 VADD.69 AGEN.2.0.1.5 CYL4.6.1.

-1.-20.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.51.200.0 K.0 K.60 VADD.18.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .201.3 CYL4.1.26 K.26 K.204.201.202.0.61.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.-20. VADD. .5.30 KWPLAN.mece.57735*26).60 VSBV.203. .129-(0.7. sqrt(3)/2*76.203.1 WPCSYS.61.51.204 VOFFST.32. .ualberta.200.html CYL4.2.180. 129-(0.61.20. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .200.www.57735*26) + 38.180.202 CSYS.-1. .0.0 A. .

0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.Height MP.Width*Height.1.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.EX.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.2.0.0 K.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.1. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.1.Length. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.2 ET.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .Width*(Height**3)/12.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0 L.

9.1.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.ALL.PRXY.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .7.3 MP. ACEL.1..ALL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.DENS.0.Length/10.MP.0.1. LMESH.86e-6 LESIZE.0 DK.

Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1.1.PRXY.0 L.ualberta.www.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Width*(Height**3)/12.mece.2.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.2 ET.0.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . LMESH.DENS.ALL.1.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.1.1.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Width*Height.0.0 K. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Length.7.Length/10. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.EX.Height MP.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.

html DK.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .9.0.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.ALL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.ualberta.mece.www. ACEL.

1.0 L.2.0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1000.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line . The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0 K. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.

height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .area.SMAXI.1..333. 3 PLLS.33 ESIZE.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .1.100 LMESH.UY DK.BEAM3 R.NMISC.PRES.0 DK. 1 ETABLE.833.UX.0 SFBEAM.1.PRXY.2.100.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP..SMAXJ.10 MP.200000 MP.1.SMAXI.EX.0.ET.NMISC.SMAXJ.0.1.I.ALL.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ETABLE.UY.

Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.mece.2.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..1000. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. ANSYS Command Listing /title. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.www.1.ht.2 ET.1.ualberta.0 L.0 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.0..1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .

height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .100.333.UY.200000 MP.33 ESIZE.0...1.833.ualberta.ALL.NMISC.UY DK.UX.0 DK.1. R.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0 ! Real constants .EX.PRES.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.www.1.10 MP.SMAXI.2 ETABLE..0 SFBEAM..1.SMAXI.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.NMISC.100 LMESH.0.I.SMAXJ.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SMAXJ.1. 1 ETABLE.mece. 3 PLLS.1.2.PRXY.ht.area.

plane stress w/thick.10.plane42.3. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.5.. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied. 0. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. one above top of the other. strs out type. /title.1.4 aplot ! define element type ET.7. with a small separation.1 ! activate element type 1 R.2.2 ! element type 1. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground..0. In this model there are two blocks.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block. nodal. 1.2.5.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .01 ! thickness 0.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC..

mat.source. 2.2.NUXY.1 esize.1 ! defines second element type .005.2 ! nsla.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything ..r.2.1 real.2D contact elements keyo.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.s..20e3.area. 20e3 MP.01 ! cm.s.2 amesh.2 /pnum.2.0.1..0.99.2. 200e3 MP.y.loc.3 ! meshing esize.7..2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.10 TYPE.3 MP.5 mat.1. 1. 0.2.35 mat.EX.0.EX.contac48.NUXY.1 ! nsel.! define material properties MP.1 r. 0.1 amesh.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.

0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).s.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.r.full.loc. a small tolerance is used d.all.node gcgen.7.all.5 ksel.100 autots.y.target.4 fk.s.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.3 finish /solution antype.1 nsubst.asel.2.s.1 nsla.loc.x.r.99.loc.y.all.loc.1.2.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.on nropt.area.5 ksel.20.loc.all.-100 allsel time.1 nsel.on pred.y.s..4 dk..all.stat.01 cm.fy.s.x.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .y.r.source.loc.target.

0.0.0.2.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.5. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. the load will added incrementally.1.1.0.4. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.prxy.1.0 l. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . To solve this problem. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.0e6 mp. After each increment.ex.3 esize.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status. izz.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .125 mp.1 lmesh.0 k.0.beam3 r.30.1.03125.069e-5.0.2 et.

5.all.static nlgeom.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.all fk.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.mz.1.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.U. min # substeps=1 outres.1 PRNSOL.2./solu antype. max # substeps=1000.1000.all ! save results of all iterations dk.

www.2.0. the load will added incrementally.0.125 mp.1.prxy.1.1 lmesh. izz.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.4. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.beam3 r. After each increment. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .3 esize.03125.0.1.0.5. To solve this problem.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2 et.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.30. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0.1.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0 k. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0.ualberta.0e6 mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).ex.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.069e-5.0.0 l.mece.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

1 outres.mece.on autots.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .all.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www.U.2.1000.on nsubst.1 PRNSOL.ualberta.5.html /solu antype.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.static nlgeom.all fk.1.all dk.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.mz.

This method is not recommended for accurate. . structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. in reallife. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. 2. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). For this type of analysis. However. material nonlinearities and gaps. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. load perterbations. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. ie. real-world buckling prediction analysis. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. static analysis to predict buckling loads. largedeflection.

PRXY.10 LMESH. I (mm^4).2 ESIZE.100.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0.ALL.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.0 K.1. ANSYS .1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.EX.0.2. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.0. applied at the top-center of the beam.BEAM3 R.10 MP.1.833. will be calculated.3 K. The required load to cause buckling. area (mm^2).100 L.333.1.200000 MP.1.1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis. rigidly constrained at the bottom.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .1.100.0.EX.0. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.10 K.333.1.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .PSTRES.1.1.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.100.ALL FK.2 ESIZE.FY.ON MXPAND. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.subspace.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .0 L.1. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.0 K.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).LANB. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.3 R.1.833.PRXY.2.200000 MP.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.LIST SET. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .1 LMESH.2.BUCKLE BUCOPT. I.ON DK.

LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.20 NEQIT.1 DK.Y XVAR.F.X.ALL NSUBST.NLGEOM.1.2.3 /AXLAB.2.ALL.Y.FX.2.2 PLVAR.0 FK.1000 AUTOTS.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.3.ON /ESHAPE.ON LNSRCH.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.ON OUTRES.Y NSOL.U.-50000 FK.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .FY.1.2.ALL.

mece. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. material nonlinearities and gaps. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. For this type of analysis. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.www. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. static analysis to predict buckling loads. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. ie. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. This method is not recommended for accurate. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. However.ualberta. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). large-deflection.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. 2. in real-life. real-world buckling prediction analysis. load perterbations.

I (mm^4).100.833. area (mm^2).0.10 LMESH. The required load to cause buckling.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. will be calculated.3 K.1.1.0. rigidly constrained at the bottom. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.200000 MP.ualberta.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.ALL.0 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1.1. applied at the top-center of the beam.PRXY.EX.mece.10 MP.2.333.1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .2 ESIZE.0.www.BEAM3 R.100 L.

100.1.ON DK.200000 MP.2.0.10 K.0.STATIC PSTRES.2 ESIZE.www.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .100.ON MXPAND.1.333. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.1 LMESH.1.ualberta.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.0.LANB. I.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).STATIC NLGEOM. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.1.ALL.ON OUTRES. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.html ANTYPE.FY.BUCKLE BUCOPT.subspace.PRXY. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.LIST SET.0 K.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.0 L.mece.3 R.0.833.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EX.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.ALL FK. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.1.1.

2.www.ALL.1000 AUTOTS.3 /AXLAB.ON LNSRCH.1.2.3.2 PLVAR.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.1 DK.X.20 NEQIT.2.Y NSOL.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.Y.1.F.FY.U.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .ualberta.FX.html NSUBST.-50000 FK.Y XVAR.0 FK.ON /ESHAPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.2.

Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".25 MP. For this analysis.1.100 l. In such a case.1.1.PRXY.1.MELA.0.. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.75 .1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.12.0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.0. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.2 ET.75000 MP. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.3 TB.EX. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.2. For instance.1.LINK1 R..0 k.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.001.1.

1000.Y.X.1000 ANTYPE.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.ALL.0 DK....1 PLNSOL..LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label ...ON NSUBST.450 ESIZE.275.20.150 TBPT.1.1.U.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.25.Y NSOL..Y XVAR...004..2.355 TBPT...TBPT.ALL AUTOTS.3..225 TBPT.ON NEQIT..1.1 OUTRES.390 TBPT.06.003.250 TBPT.all FK.0.449 TBPT.435 TBPT.2...2 PLVAR.002..all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.300 TBPT.420 TBPT..025.2.240 TBPT..10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.FY.005.U..Y.ON LNSRCH..F.5 LMESH.3 /AXLAB..15.2.

ualberta.LINK1 R. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). For this analysis. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.100 l.0.mece. In such a case.0 k. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model..2.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .www. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear..2 ET.1. For instance. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k.0. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.

250 TBPT.3..Y.3 /AXLAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..1.0.005.2.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE..449 TBPT.0 DK..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.all FK....275.150 TBPT.MELA..F.450 ESIZE..240 TBPT.3 TB...2 PLVAR.003.ALL.1..390 TBPT.ON NEQIT.ON NSUBST.X..1.355 TBPT.ON LNSRCH.Y XVAR.2.004.Y...5 LMESH.Y NSOL.001.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .20.1.mece.FY. TBPT.1 OUTRES.ALL AUTOTS.300 TBPT.06.1 PLNSOL..U.420 TBPT.435 TBPT.25.15.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.025.PRXY..DEFLECTION /AXLAB..2.0..75000 MP.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.12..1..1000.www..EX.2.1000 ANTYPE..U.ualberta.1..75 TBPT.002..225 TBPT. MP.1..

DENS.0 L.10 LMESH.1.2.1.1.0.2 ET.8.ALL.0001.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .1.EX.7830 LESIZE.BEAM3 R.0 K.33 MP.33e-10.068e11 MP.1.0..0 /PREP7 K. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.0.01 MP..1. /TITLE.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0.1.PRXY.Dynamic.1.2.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

0) . Open preprocessor menu 2. 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . 3..Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.. Define Lines (0. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ..y) 1 2 5..0) (1.

10. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. 9.0001 ii.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials..01 m x 0. . With only 3 degrees of freedom. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Young's modulus EX: 2. 6..068e11 ii. enter the following geometric properties: i. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.. 8. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. and rotation about the Z axis).3 To enter the density of the material.33e-10 iii. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.01 m. 7.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0...

1.BEAM3 R.0.DENS. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.EX.1.1.1.1.33 MP.PRXY.I. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.068e11 MP.2 ET.2.33e-10.01 MP.2.0.0 L.1.0.0 K.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .1.0.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.8.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.0001.

5 EQSLV.10..0.ALL.1.5.5 DK.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.10 LMESH. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .2 MODOPT..ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. .FRONT MXPAND.LIST SET.SUBSP.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.LESIZE.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

10 LMESH.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.0.0001..1.1.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.068e11 MP.2.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .8.DENS.www.0.1.7830 LESIZE.33e-10.PRXY.BEAM3 R.ualberta.1.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0 L.1.0.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2.1.0.ALL..EX.I.1.01 MP.33 MP.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.2 ET.0 K.

ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.5.2 MODOPT. .10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.0.5 EQSLV.5 DK.1.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .LIST SET.mece.FRONT MXPAND.SUBSP.

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. .

DENS.U.33e-10.I.1.100 HARFRQ.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.0.7830 LESIZE.MERGE PRVAR.2. KBC.068e11 MP.1.10 LMESH. UY_2 STORE. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.1.0 K.1.1.ALL FK.0..100. However.1.Y.ALL.33 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0001.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.3 DK.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.2.FY.2 ET.1..BEAM3 R.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EX.0 L.0.PRXY.2 PLVAR. NSUBST.8.0.2.0.2.100.01 MP.2.

ualberta. These 3 methods are the Full . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.100 Hz. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.mece. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.www. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .

1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.BEAM3 R. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.3 DK.DENS.0 K.2.Y.0001.100. UY_2 STORE.01 MP.0.U.2.100.8.1. However.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods..ALL FK.1.0.PRXY.FY.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0 L. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2.MERGE PRVAR.ualberta.0.ALL.EX.0.www.7830 LESIZE. KBC.10 LMESH.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .068e11 MP.I.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.2 ET.2 PLVAR.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.0. NSUBST.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .33 MP.100 HARFRQ.2.2.33e-10.mece..1.1.

The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. . Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. For our case. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. for example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. a static analysis may be used instead.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.

All types of non-linearities are allowed. The smaller the time step. However. Therefore. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In other words. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. In ANSYS. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. . the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). After the application of the load. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.

Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. .BEAM3 R. DELTIM. the calculations are much quicker.DENS.1.068e11 MP.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .2. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.S. It is the quickest of the three methods. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). However.0 K.0.2 ET.PRXY.33e-10.7830 LESIZE.ALL F.11.. M.0.ALL D.Dynamic.10 LMESH.EX. if stresses and forces are of interest than. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.1.2. TRANS TRNOPT. However. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.0 /PREP7 K.FY.2.1.All.0.01 MP.. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. NSEL.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.8.1.0. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. .0 L.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end . Because of the reduced size of the matrices.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0..0001.UY.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.1.33 MP.REDUC.ALL.1. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.1..

1.'.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001s TIME.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.0 !* LSSOLVE.3.2.2. ! Sets time to 0.001 KBC. time !Please note.U.2.!At time equals 0.1 KBC.MERGE PLVAR.0 FDELE.2. .'rdsp'. UY_2 STORE.'Dynamic'.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. In this case. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.Y. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.' NSOL.0. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.

a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. Copyright 2003 . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. for example.http://www.mece. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. For our case.University of Alberta .ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.

html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. In ANSYS. After the application of the load. Copyright 2003 . The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. The smaller the time step. In other words. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). Therefore. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. the higher the mode frequency we will capture.University of Alberta .http://www.mece. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. However.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.ualberta.

It is the quickest of the three methods.10 LMESH. All types of non-linearities are allowed.1.1.ALL F.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.2 ET.0 /PREP7 K..1.UY.1.1.ALL. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. NSEL.. DELTIM.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. However.EX.http://www. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).0.PRXY.REDUC. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.0001.All. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME. if stresses and forces are of interest than.068e11 MP. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). the calculations are much quicker.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .1. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.BEAM3 R. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.2.2.S..0.0.0 L. M.0.0 K. TRANS TRNOPT..01 MP.8. .7830 LESIZE.0.ualberta.33 MP.11.University of Alberta . However.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE. .33e-10.ALL D. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.2.FY.Dynamic.mece.DENS.

University of Alberta .ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.2. time !Please note.mece.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.'.0.html !At time equals 0. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.001 KBC. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.0 FDELE. In this case. UY_2 STORE.0 !* LSSOLVE.http://www. ! Sets time to 0.2.1.ualberta.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.'rdsp'. Copyright 2003 .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.U.001s TIME.'Dynamic'.3.1 KBC.' NSOL.2.Y.MERGE PLVAR.2.

ANSYS Command Listing /title. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 to solve a simple conduction problem. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. then width and height .0 height=1.0 blc4.0. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.length.0.1.one corner.

500 NSEL.A..MP.0 NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 D.ALL.A.TEMP.1.LOC.length/20 AMESH.TEMP.X.Y.KXX. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .10 ESIZE.LOC.100 NSEL.0.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.Y.ALL NSEL.height D.S.ALL.LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.TEMP.S.X.length NSEL.

ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .. PLANE55 MP.mece.one corner. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 height=1.1. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.www. ANSYS Command Listing /title.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.length/20 AMESH..KXX. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.10 ESIZE.1.length.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.h.0 blc4.

.0.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y.height D.X.LOC.A.www.h.S.100 NSEL..Y.TEMP.LOC.mece.A..0 NSEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.X.ALL.ALL NSEL.0 D.ualberta. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .TEMP.LOC.500 NSEL.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.LOC.S.TEMP.length NSEL.

Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0.1.0 blc4. then width and height .0 to solve simple thermal examples.length.0. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX.10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .Thermal .0 height=1. PLANE55 MP.one corner.

ALL.LOC.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .LOC.1 ESIZE.100 NSEL..length/20 AMESH.LOC.1 TYPE.Y.LOC.CONV.0.ALL NSEL.100 NSEL.500 NSEL.0 SF.X.S.0 D.TEMP.0 NSEL.10.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.MAT.length SF.Y.ALL.height D.ALL.S.S.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.TEMP.S.TEMP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.CONV.X.

length.http://www.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.mece.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.1.0 height=1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0.1 TYPE. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.html Thermal .1 ESIZE.ualberta.University of Alberta . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.KXX. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.1. then width and height Copyright 2003 . PLANE55 MP.0.0 blc4.one corner.0 to solve simple thermal examples.10 MAT.

length SF.LOC.html AMESH.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.S.ALL.S.100 NSEL.0 SF.Y.TEMP.CONV.LOC..ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.Y.ALL.TEMP.CONV.500 NSEL.http://www.ALL.mece. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .ALL NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100 NSEL.ALL.X.height D.0 D.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.LOC.0.LOC.TEMP.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.University of Alberta .S.S.10.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.X.0 NSEL.ualberta.

Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Also. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.

.2.Y.040 mp.full lumpm.all kbc.c.0 blc4.off lnsrch.0.1.0.2.kxx.500 PLNSOL.100 NSEL.20.LOC.500 ! area .on outres.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0 height=1. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.5 ESIZE. PLANE55 MP.0 D.TEMP.1. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.20 neqit.5.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.500 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.s.length.05 AMESH.all.920 mp.length=1.TEMP ANTIME.ALL.4 time.Y.height D.0.LOC.S.1.one corner.100 autots.0 nsubst.100.1.8.0.. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .ALL NSEL.all.0.300 nropt.Dens.ALL.TEMP.0.ALL IC.1.Temp.

It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.ualberta. Also.0 blc4.www.one corner.0. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.mece. height ! area .length.0 height=1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.040 kJ/kg*K. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.

full lumpm.Temp..ALL IC.ALL.100 autots.0 D.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.all kbc.05 AMESH.20 neqit.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.Y.0.ALL.1. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .all.20.Dens.500 PLNSOL.100.040 mp.LOC.1.2.2.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.5.1.www.300 nropt.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.5 ESIZE.0.ALL NSEL.mece.TEMP.920 mp.on outres.0 nsubst.S.s.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.1.kxx.TEMP ANTIME.500 NSEL.height D.LOC.8.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .c.TEMP.ualberta.4 time.Y..100 NSEL.all.0. PLANE55 MP.off lnsrch.

If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. As a warning. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. . A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. In this case.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.

2 amesh.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.200000 mp.fy.prxy.all.s.0 dl.0.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .0 lsel.3 esize.1.all fk.loc.0.1.all et.95..all nsel.0.x.s.0.0 nsel.1.ex.45.s.0.y.1 mp.55 prnsol.all.fy.plane2 keyopt.20.50 d. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.-100 fk.loc.15.5 rectng.y.off rectng.3.s.20.all finish /solu antype.symm lsel.1.uy.1.20.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.100 aadd.100 rectng.12.loc.

nsel..axis.1.1.10 /view.27..2.all /expand.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .

.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling..ualberta. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.. In this case. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . As a warning. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.mece. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.

fy.y.20.100 aadd.1.2 amesh.0.comp nsel..0.1.15.1.0 lsel.s.0.symm lsel.loc.12..all.all /expand.1..55 prnsol.0.y.200000 mp.0 nsel.0.loc.mece.all fk.s.1 mp.100 rectng.ex.1.prxy.uy.s.20.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .20.1.ualberta.plane2 keyopt.all finish /solu antype.all nsel.2.s.www.27.x.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.1..all et.fy.all.0 dl.45.axis.-100 fk. /prep7 /triad.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .50 d.off rectng.10 /view.5 rectng.3 esize..3.95..100 solve finish /post1 nsel.loc.

a wall thickness of 10. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. ANSYS Command Listing . The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.1.7. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.

2.10. 0 N.1.1000 N. 9.EX. 9. 700.5. Catapult /PREP7 ET. 0. . 0.12. 5 E. 6.1000 N.200000 MP. 0 N.10.1500 N.2. 4 E. 6 E.1000 N.13. 8 E. 0. 0. 0.1. 5. 8 E.1e9.1e9. 0.1. 2.2. 3 E. 7./title. 0.1000 N.40. 0. 0.COMBIN7 ET. 0. 0. 8. 0.1e9 R.1000. 500 N. 2. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity . 400. 7.1 E. 6 E.3. 0. 0 N.1.1000. 0 N. 500 N. 400. 0. 8 E.11.10 R. 1.PIPE16 ET.13.13 E. 1. 3 E. 5.1000.COMBIN14 R. 6. MP.1 REAL. 4.PRXY.-500 TYPE.1000. 0.1 MAT. 3. 1. 500 N. 700.3.0. 0. 4 E.12.33 N. . 0. 5 E.12. 0. 3.

8 E. 11 E.8. 10.ALL. 2.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.7.VERT7.5 D.2 *GET.0.ELEM.ON NSUBST.3 REAL.2 E.NODE.12.FY.4.7.13 F.5. 1..6 /PNUM..TYPE.U.0 /PNUM.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.13 ! Load node 7 . 9.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.3 E.KP.12.2 REAL.4.0 NLGEOM.3. 11 TYPE.

ualberta. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.COMBIN14 R.COMBIN7 ET.2.40. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .mece. a wall thickness of 10.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.1.PIPE16 ET. Catapult /PREP7 ET. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.www.3.7.

1. 4 TYPE. 0.1000 N.1000.1000 N. 8 E. 4.0 /PNUM. 500 N. 3. 0.1000. 0.13.3 E. . 11 E. 0.EX. 7. 500 N. 0.12.0 NLGEOM. MP.1e9.1000. 8 E. 5 E. 9. 4 E.1.3 REAL.1000.8 E. . 3 E. 10. 0.10.1500 N.1 MAT. 11 TYPE. 0 N.11. 0.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 0.6 /PNUM.12. 0.33 N.1000 N. 2. 0. 5 E. 2.2 E.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10. 1. 400. 8. 0 N. 1. 0. 9. 6 E.PRXY. 1.5.13 E.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 0.0. 2.2.html R. 1. 9. 0 N. 4 E.ELEM. 700. 6. 3. 0 N.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 5. 700.2 REAL. 6 E.www. 6. 0.13. 0.1e9. 5.-500 TYPE. 8 E. 3 E.1 REAL. 400. 7.8.12.KP.1 E. 2. 0.3.5. 0.1000 N.200000 MP.mece. 0.ualberta. 500 N.1e9 R. 0.

html NSUBST.12.7.7..U.ualberta.3.4..4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.5 D.VERT7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.2 *GET.FY.13 F.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .NODE.mece.ALL.www.12.

1.H. ET. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.3 ESIZE.0 L.(W*H**3)/12.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.100 LMESH.BEAM3 R. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables. deciding which variables to use as design.0 K.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.1000. However. not '^').Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7..0.RATI.W.W*H.1.1. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.LINE. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.20 *set. height MP. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.PRXY.0..EX.2. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .H.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.1. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.75. Design Optimization *set.200000 MP.1..20 K..0. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.2 HPTCREATE.I (note '**'.

200.001 MPa.VOLUME.MAX ETABLE.SMAX_I.ANTYPE.'txt'.001 mm.UY.001mm OPVAR. ! Height state variable.2.. Percent step size. *GET.W /AXLAB.001 tolerance 0.NMISC.MAX *SET.50. tolerance 0.Number of Iterations /AXLAB. SSUM *GET.UY. min 10 mm. min 10 mm.SSUM.X.195.UX.EVolume.1.200 OPTYPE..001mm OPVAR.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.SMAX.W.0.0.SV.SMAX_I.50.30.SMAX_J.0 FK.optimize.EVOLUME ETABLE.0.3. max 50 ! Width design variable.SMAXI. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.0.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.1.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.NMISC.Y.FIRS OPFRST. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.0 DK.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.1.H. max 50 mm.ITEM.SMAX.SORT.2.10. tolerance 0.'optimize'. max 200 ! Volume as object variable.OBJ.txt ! Assign optimize.ETAB.DV.10. min 195 MPa..SMAXJ.FY.VOLU.txt.3 node ESORT.. *GET.1 node ESORT.0..001 MPa OPVAR...SORT.H.100.0 DK.0 DK.Volume.DV. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .1.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.SMAX_J.ETAB.0.

W.0. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.H.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.20 *set. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.(W*H**3)/12. MP.RATI. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.. not '^').ualberta.www. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables. However.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.1000. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. ET.3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.20 K..mece.. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.W*H.0 L.H.1.PRXY.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.LINE.2.1.75. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.200000 MP. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.EX.BEAM3 R..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.1... deciding which variables to use as design. Design Optimization *set.2 HPTCREATE..0 K.I (note '**'.0.1.1.

ualberta.OBJ.W.SMAX_I.FIRS OPFRST.EVOLUME ETABLE.200.1.SSUM.'optimize'.optimize..Y.VOLUME.VOLU.0 FK.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .3.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.0 DK. max 200 MPa.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.001 OPVAR..0.SMAXJ.DV. *GET.www.X.001 OPVAR..FY. max 50 mm. tol Height state variable.ETAB..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.EVolume.SMAXI.1..10.ITEM.100 LMESH.MAX *SET.Volume. SSUM *GET. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .txt ! Assign optimize.NMISC.SMAX.H.txt. to Width design variable.50.SORT.0.W /AXLAB..UX.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE. Volume as object variable.1.SMAX.SMAX_J.50. min 10 mm. OPEXE PLVAROPT.UY. min 195 MPa.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.0 DK...3 ESORT. Percent step size.'txt'.0.NMISC.10.SV.001 OPVAR. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.mece.1 ESORT..195.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize..0.MAX ETABLE.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR. ESIZE.1.H. max 50 mm. *GET.0 DK. min 10 mm.SMAX_J.UY.SMAX_I.ETAB.30.100.SORT.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.2.DV.0.200 OPTYPE.2.

please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. however. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. v = 0. 3. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.5 MPa. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Apply remaining loads to the model. For this example. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply loads to the super-element 2. ANSYS Command Listing . substructuring will be used for the wood block.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.

5 NSEL.1.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.0 F.S.0.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .PRXY..USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.LOC. 2.EX.ALL.2.1.5 MP.100.2 MP.X.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.ALL NSEL.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.2.SUBST SEOPT.ALL.LOC.S.Y.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .R.ALL NSEL.GEN.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.EX.140 NSEL.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.PLANE42 TYPE.100.0. START /FILNAME.0.0. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP. amesh.40.1.10.FX.PRXY.db ! GEN.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 NSEL.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.EXT M.2.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.

STATIC NSEL.1 ESEL.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.S.NODE..SELV.1.ALL NSEL.S.10.U. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.40 CPINTF.LOC.LOC.1 *GET.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .GEN2 NSEL.GEN2 SE.MaxNode.1.NUM.0 D.1.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.GEN2.1.1 ! Superelement ET.GEN.MaxNode.1 SFE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 NSEL.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1.! Meshing AESIZE.2 amesh.U.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.0.Y..ALL..MAX SETRAN.SUM. mat.ALL.ALL.TYPE. superelement solution written to GEN.SUM.ON.Y..ALL ESEL.0.2 real.S.

41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Apply remaining loads to the model. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. For this example. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 3. Apply loads to the super-element 2. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.www. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.mece. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). substructuring will be used for the wood block. however. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.5 MPa...ualberta.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. v = 0. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element.

EXT M.EX.ualberta.1.mece. START /FILNAME.1.2.ALL NSEL.5 NSEL.S.100.2 NSEL.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.PLANE42 ! Element type MP..40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.FX.40.LOC..USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.PRXY.140 NSEL.1. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.SUBST SEOPT.10.0.0 F. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).ALL.0.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.100.PLANE42 TYPE.1.X.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .GEN. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .0.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4. amesh.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.ALL NSEL.S. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.db ! GEN.Y.LOC.ALL.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.0.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.R.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..

ALL.1.2.1 ESEL.ALL ESEL.PRXY.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.GEN2.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SELV.2.mece. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 NSEL...1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.MaxNode..0.ALL NSEL.STATIC NSEL.Y.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.1.U.GEN2 SE.MAX SETRAN.NODE.S.S.0..YES SEEXP..1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution. mat.0.0 D. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 SFE.1.USE EXPSOL.ON. MP.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.10.ALL.1.SUM.2 amesh.S.MATRIX50 TYPE.GEN2 NSEL.1 ! Superelement ET.U.LOC.GEN.Y.LOC.1.EX.TYPE.NUM.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.SUM.ualberta.ALL.40 CPINTF.1 *GET.2 real. 2.5 MP..MaxNode.

As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. For convenience. the geometry is kept constant. For a listing.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Loads will not be applied to the link. Although the geometry must remain constant. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. a thermal conductivity of 60. However. the analyses are coupled. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. and write them to memory. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. For our case. However. with no internal stresses. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. and using it with any following coupled environments.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K).. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. stress is created in the link.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. the element types can change. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.. the link will attemp to expand. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. A steel link. For instance. It is important to note. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide." Thus. where the thermal effects will be applied. . "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.

0 k.0 physics. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k..1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .temp.CompStress.3 mp.ex.1.1.1.write.0 solve finish /post1 etable.thermal physics.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.clear finish /solu antype.2.273 dk.2 et.1.read.struct physics. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2.1.prxy.all.12e-6 physics.200e9 mp.0.0..struct ldread.0 l.read.link33 r.1.thermal dk.1 lmesh..348 solve finish /solu physics.1.1.tts mp.1.LS..1. mp.UX.write.1.alpx.0 dk.0..4e-4.60.temp.analysis.rth environment tref.kxx.5 esize.all physics.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. a thermal conductivity of 60.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. the link will attemp to expand. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . the analyses are coupled. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.ualberta.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. with no internal stresses. However.. . the geometry is kept constant. Loads will not be applied to the link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. and using it with any following coupled environments. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). However. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. For convenience. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. For our case. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. stress is created in the link. where the thermal effects will be applied. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steel link. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model." Thus..mece.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius.

.60.clear etchg.3 mp.thermal dk.read.1.2 et. For instance.tts mp.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.1.prxy.5 esize.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .write.0. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link..all.www.. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.0.ex.kxx.1 lmesh.1.12e-6 physics.2.1.temp.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .struct ldread.ualberta..struct physics. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.348 solve finish /solu physics.4e-4.0 l. For a listing.1.0 physics.1.1. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.1.2..thermal physics. the element types can change.0 dk.temp.0 k.alpx.1.write. mp.link33 r.clear finish /solu antype.200e9 mp.273 dk.read.rth tref. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.1. It is important to note.0.html Although the geometry must remain constant. and write them to memory. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.1.UX. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.mece.all physics.

ualberta.html solve finish /post1 etable.CompStress.1 PRETAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .www.LS.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.mece.

Thus. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. .

plane145 keyopt.45.8.1.0.9.100 k.0 k.1.20.9.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .all.10.0.3 esize.6.48 k.s.0 k. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.loc.11.5.45.100.3.1.3.12 et.0 k.52 k.100 k.8.0 nsubst.all finish /solu antype.4.55.100 k.1.4.6.100.s.10.all time.100.x.all.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .200000 mp.2.20.20 outres.0 dl.on /prep7 k.loc.1 lsel.1.52 k.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.80.prxy.1.all lsel.20.x.10 mp.all lsel.7.5 amesh.48 k..0 a.55.100 k.5.1.12.0.3 r.80.7.2.ex.3.11.

sfl.pres.all.all solve finish /post1 set.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .last plesol.-100 lsel.s.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.mece.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.www.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. P-Method Meshing /pmeth. Thus. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. rather than increasing mesh density. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ualberta. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum.

0 dl.6.0.x.0.all lsel.8.100 k. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.0 k.45.5.loc.10.0.1.all.x.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all time.10.3.all solve finish /post1 set.20.100.1.0 nsubst.20.100 sfl.20 outres.prxy..100.2.1.4.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .www.11.0 a.s.1.9.1.52 k.48 k.20.s.3.12 et.3.4.all.80.52 k.all lsel.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.100 k.-100 lsel.12.1 lsel.loc.6.100.48 k.7.all finish /solu antype.200000 mp.plane145 keyopt.pres.7.html /prep7 k.8.last plesol.0 k.100 k.80.mece.ex.55.all.s.ualberta.100 k.0 k.10 mp.5 amesh.1.5.2.45.1.3 esize.9.55.11.3 r.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0.0. computational time can be kept to a minimum. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.1.0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . Thus. rather than increasing mesh density.0 k. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.2.0.0.3.03. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.03. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0 k.

20 Max no.1.1.0005 amesh.3.0 nsubst.273 finish /solu antype.100 autots.kxx.368 nsel. esel.Dens.1.60 nropt.4 time.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .1.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.0.all esel.1.1. not ramped ! Initial conditions.Plane55 MP.c.8 esize.all kbc.all.off solve finish /post1 set.full lumpm.on outres.10.4.etab.all.rest ekill.conv.268 nsel.all.temp.s.1 IC.all finish /solu antype.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps..k.all /gst.2. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.melty. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .temp.20 neqit.ext sf.s.off lnsrch.03 a.920 mp.0.melty.2040 mp.0.last etable.

/post1 set.s.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .last esel.live plnsol.

03.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.www. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.mece. rather than increasing mesh density.3.0 k.0. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.1.1.2.4.3.0.03 a.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0 k.03 k. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.03.ualberta.0. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0. Thus.0.

all.kxx.off lnsrch.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.0005 amesh.Dens.1.all finish /solu antype.920 mp.temp.1.conv.all.1 IC.last esel.melty.temp.273 finish /solu antype..all /gst.www.all esel. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.0 nsubst.ualberta.8 esize.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .268 nsel.melty.c.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.100 autots.all.368 nsel. not ramped ! Initial conditions. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .10.full lumpm.all kbc.s.0.Plane55 MP.mece.2040 mp.60 nropt.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .1.all finish /post1 set.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.20 neqit.last etable.1.4 time.off solve finish /post1 set.s. esel.on outres.etab.rest ekill.s.live plnsol.ext sf. 20 Max no.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

All.Length KSEL.14.All.Z.1/16*Length /CPLANE.1.EQV.ALL.Z.90 /CPLANE.LOC.LOC.8 WPCSYS.Width FK.1 WPOFFS.X.0 WPOFFS.0.-1.0 DA.SUM.1 /TYPE.R.7.1.0 WPROTA.LOC.05.0.0.LOC.R.S.0.0.U./SOLU ANTYPE.1.0.0 ASEL.0.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.5.S.Height KSEL.Y.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.0.2 ! Animate the slices .1.43.0.0 ASEL.0.ALL KSEL.-2500 KSEL.1 /TYPE.Width/2.S.5 PLNSOL.FY.0.

html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.60.200000 MP.1.0.1. 1 .0.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Length /ANGLE.FAST ET. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.) of the following example.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print. Stress.EX.mece.000000.PRXY.0.Width. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.Height.www. etc.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.YS.1.3 esize.20 vmesh.1 /REPLOT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SOLID45 MP.

14.0 ASEL.7.ALL.Length KSEL.5 PLNSOL.0 ASEL.5.S.1 WPOFFS.Width FK.0.-2500 KSEL.R.Z.0 DA.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.ALL KSEL.43.1.LOC.Y.R.1 /TYPE.Z.0.All.0 WPOFFS.0.0.SUM.S.EQV.0.8 WPCSYS.LOC.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.05.U.0.ualberta.0.mece.All.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.1.S.X.FY.www.0.LOC.LOC.1.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.-1.Height KSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 /TYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 WPROTA.1.Width/2.0.90 /CPLANE.0.

10 cyl4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.50. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.10 asba.50.50.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.200. In this tutorial.1. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.100.150. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0.100 cyl4.all .50.10 cyl4. For example. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.

1 /window.s.1..100 SFL.ex.2.y.off /noerase /window.1.all PLPAGM.all.y.S.1.loc.eqv.cutline.top /POST1 PLNSOL.10 mp.2.eqv.et.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.SEQV.5 amesh.2.3 esize..prxy..s.1.y.loc.50 path.S..0 dl..s..plane2.PRES..bot nsel.50 ppath.1.loc.1.200.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .all nsel.AVG nsel.1000 ppath.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.3 R.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.2.200000 mp.0.all.0.50 PDEF.200.1.

a plot of the stress along that path can be made.. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.www. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.mece. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. For example.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0..200. In this tutorial.

2.S..1.0 dl.200..50.top /POST1 PLNSOL.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.SEQV..3 R.50.200000 mp.AVG nsel.s.200.0.1 /window.2.www.all nsel.all.bot nsel.eqv.10 cyl4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .50.ualberta.100.50 ppath.ex.mece.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.y.y.1000 ppath.cutline..loc.s.100 SFL.loc.10 asba.150.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50 PDEF.loc.2.1.3 esize.s..1..1.eqv.50 path.10 mp.all.all et.1.1.1.off /noerase /window.1.S...PRES..50.all PLPAGM.10 cyl4.y.plane2.prxy.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .5 amesh. cyl4.2.

1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .2.2400.ex.3 k.1.prxy.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.0 k.length. Length of the following beam using tables.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.2 esize. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0.1.1.I.0. a special type of array.40 mp.320e3.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. finer resolution can be achieved.elementsize lmesh.1.beam3 r. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. By plotting this data on a curve. rather than using a contour plot.0 l.200000 mp. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.

u.static dk.all.1).y.loc.x.y *set.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.graph(2.x *vget. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .node.graph(1.rows.2) /axlab.1.2).graph(2.graph(1.all fk.loc.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.y *vplot. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.x *vget.graph(1.2.1).2).node.node.Length /axlab.2.graph.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.node.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.1).2).TABLE.graph(rows.2.0 *set.graph(rows.1).u.0 400 *vget.graph(1.all.antype. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.fy.

3 k.mece.h.2. a special type of array.40 mp. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta ..1.beam3 r.1. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. finer resolution can be achieved. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.320e3.0.1.length. rather than using a contour plot. By plotting this data on a curve.ualberta.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.1.1.200000 mp.2400.0 l.ex.0 k. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.prxy.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.www.I..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 esize.0. Length of the following beam using tables.

static dk.graph(2.u.rows..graph.graph(rows.graph(1.fy.loc.graph(1.1).2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.1 *vget.ualberta.1).all.all.graph(2.y.node.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.2. lmesh.node.2).2.2).all fk..all finish /solu antype. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .x *vget.graph(1.www.2.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.1).loc. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.x.2) /axlab. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.1).Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.0 *vget.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.x *vget.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2).graph(rows.Length /axlab.2.h.1.node.mece.graph(1.0 *set.y *set.node.y *vplot.TABLE.u.

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