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1 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

EE3CL4:

Introduction to Linear Control Systems

Section 2: System Models

Tim Davidson

McMaster University

Winter 2012

EE 3CL4, §2

2 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Outline

1 Modelling physical systems

Translational Newtonian Mechanics

Rotational Newtonian Mechanics

2 Linearization

3 Laplace transforms

4 Laplace transforms in action

5 Transfer function

6 Step response

7 Transfer function of DC motor

8 Our ﬁrst control system design

9 Block diagram models

Block diagram transformations

EE 3CL4, §2

4 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Differential equation models

• Most of the systems that we will deal with are dynamic

• Differential equations provide a powerful way to

describe dynamic systems

• Will form the basis of our models

• We saw differential equations for inductors and

capacitors in 2CI, 2CJ

• What about mechanical systems?

both translational and rotational

EE 3CL4, §2

5 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Translational Spring

F(t ): resultant force in direction x

Recall free body diagrams and “action and reaction”

• Spring. k: spring constant, x

r

: relaxed length of spring

F(t ) = k

_

[x

2

(t ) −x

1

(t )] −x

r

_

EE 3CL4, §2

6 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Translational Damper

F(t ): resultant force in direction x

• Viscous damper. b: viscous friction coefﬁcient

F(t ) = b

_

dx

2

(t )

dt

−

dx

1

(t )

dt

_

= b

_

v

2

(t ) −v

1

(t )

_

EE 3CL4, §2

7 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Mass

F(t ): resultant force in direction x

• Mass: M

F(t ) = M

d

2

x

m

(t )

dt

2

= M

dv

m

(t )

dt

= Ma

m

(t )

EE 3CL4, §2

8 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Rotational spring

T(t ): resultant torque in direction θ

• Rotational spring. k: rotational spring constant,

θ

r

: rotation of relaxed spring

T(t ) = k

_

[θ

2

(t ) −θ

1

(t )] −θ

r

_

EE 3CL4, §2

9 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Rotational damper

T(t ): resultant torque in direction θ

• Rotational viscous damper.

b: rotational viscous friction coefﬁcient

T(t ) = b

_

dθ

2

(t )

dt

−

dθ

1

(t )

dt

_

= b

_

ω

2

(t ) −ω

1

(t )

_

EE 3CL4, §2

10 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Rotational inertia

T(t ): resultant torque in direction θ

• Rotational inertia: J

T(t ) = J

d

2

θ

m

(t )

dt

2

= J

dω

m

(t )

dt

= Jα

m

(t )

EE 3CL4, §2

11 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Example system (translational)

Horizontal. Origin for y: y = 0 when spring relaxed

• F = M

dv(t )

dt

• v(t ) =

dy(t )

dt

• F(t ) = r (t ) −b

dy(t )

dt

−ky(t )

M

d

2

y(t )

dt

+ b

dy(t )

dt

+ ky(t ) = r (t )

EE 3CL4, §2

12 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Example, continued

M

d

2

y(t )

dt

+ b

dy(t )

dt

+ ky(t ) = r (t )

Resembles equation for parallel RLC circuit.

EE 3CL4, §2

13 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Example, continued

• Stretch the spring a little and hold.

• Assume an under-damped system.

• What happens when we let it go?

EE 3CL4, §2

15 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Taylor’s series

• Nature does not have many linear systems

• However, many systems behave approximately linearly

in the neighbourhood of a given point

• Apply ﬁrst-order Taylor’s Series at a given point

• Obtain a locally linear model

EE 3CL4, §2

16 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Pendulum example

• Torque due to gravity: T = MgLsinθ

• Linearize around θ = 0. At that point, T = 0

• Linearized model

T ≈ MgL

d sinθ

dθ

¸

¸

¸

¸

θ=0

= MgLθ

EE 3CL4, §2

18 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Laplace transform

• Once we have a linearized differential equation we can

take Laplace Transforms to obtain the transfer function

• We will consider the “one-sided” Laplace transform, for

signals that are zero to the left of the origin.

F(s) =

_

∞

0

−

f (t )e

−st

dt

• What does

_

∞

mean? lim

T→∞

_

T

.

• Does this limit exist?

• If |f (t )| < Me

αt

, then exists for all Re(s) > α.

Includes all physically realizable signals

• Note: When multiplying transfer function by Laplace of input, output

is only valid for values of s in intersection of regions of convergence

EE 3CL4, §2

19 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and zeros

• In this course, most Laplace transforms will be rational

functions, that is, a ratio of two polynomials in s; i.e.,

F(s) =

n

F

(s)

d

F

(s)

where n

F

(s) and d

F

(s) are polynomials

• Deﬁnitions:

• Poles of F(s) are the roots of d

F

(s)

• Zeros of F(s) are the roots of n

F

(s)

• Hence,

F(s) =

K

F

M

i =1

(s + z

i

)

n

j =1

(s + p

j

)

=

_

K

F

M

i =1

z

i

n

j =1

p

j

_

M

i =1

(s/z

i

+ 1)

n

j =1

(s/p

j

+ 1)

where −z

i

are the zeros and −p

j

are the poles

EE 3CL4, §2

20 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Visualizing poles and zeros

• Consider the simple Laplace transform F(s) =

s(s+3)

s

2

+2s+5

.

• zeros: 0, −3; poles: −1 + j 2, −1 −j 2

• Pole-zero plot (left) and magnitude of F(s) (right)

EE 3CL4, §2

21 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Visualizing poles and zeros

• F(s) =

s(s+3)

s

2

+2s+5

; zeros: 0, −3; poles: −1 + j 2, −1 −j 2

• |F(s)| from above (left) and prev. view of |F(s)| (right)

EE 3CL4, §2

22 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Laplace transform pairs

• Simple ones can be computed analytically;

often available in tables; see Tab. 2.3 in 12th ed. of text

• For more complicated ones, one can typically obtain

the inverse Laplace transform by

• identifying poles

• constructing partial fraction expansion

• using of properties and some simple pairs to invert

each component of partial fraction expansion

EE 3CL4, §2

23 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Some Laplace transform pairs

Recall that complex poles come in conjugate pairs.

EE 3CL4, §2

24 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Key properties

Linearity

df (t )

dt

←→ sF(s) −f (0

−

)

_

t

−∞

f (x) dx ←→

F(s)

s

+

1

s

_

0

−

−∞

f (x) dx

EE 3CL4, §2

25 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Final value theorem

Can we avoid having to do an inverse Laplace transform?

Sometimes.

Consider the case when we only want to ﬁnd the ﬁnal value

of f (t ), namely lim

t →∞

f (t ).

• If F(s) has all its poles in the left half plane, except,

perhaps, for a single pole at the origin, then

lim

t →∞

f (t ) = lim

s→0

sF(s)

Common application: Steady state value of step response

What if there are poles in RHP, or on the j ω-axis and not at

the origin?

EE 3CL4, §2

27 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Mass-spring-damper system

• Horizontal (no gravity)

• Set origin of y where spring is “relaxed”

• F = M

dv(t )

dt

• v(t ) =

dy(t )

dt

• F(t ) = r (t ) −b

dy(t )

dt

−ky(t )

M

d

2

y(t )

dt

+ b

dy(t )

dt

+ ky(t ) = r (t )

EE 3CL4, §2

28 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

MSD system

M

d

2

y(t )

dt

+ b

dy(t )

dt

+ ky(t ) = r (t )

Consider t ≥ 0 and take Laplace transform

M

_

s

2

Y(s)−sy(0

−

)−

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

t =0

−

_

+b

_

sY(s)−y(0

−

)

_

+kY(s) = R(s)

Hence

Y(s) =

1/M

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

R(s)

+

(s + b/M)

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

y(0

−

)

+

1

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

t =0

−

EE 3CL4, §2

29 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Response to static init. cond.

Spring stretched to a point y

0

, held, then let go at time t = 0

Hence, r (t ) = 0 and

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

t =0

−

= 0

Hence,

Y(s) =

(s + b/M)

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

y

0

What can we learn about this response without having to

invert Y(s)

EE 3CL4, §2

30 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Standard form

Y(s) =

(s + b/M)

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

y

0

=

(s + 2ζω

n

)

s

2

+ 2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

y

0

where ω

n

=

_

k/M and ζ =

b

2

√

kM

Poles: s

1

, s

2

= −ζω

n

±ω

n

_

ζ

2

−1

• ζ > 1 (equiv. b > 2

√

kM): distinct real roots, overdamped

• ζ = 1 (equiv. b = 2

√

kM): equal real roots, critically damped

• ζ < 1 (equiv. b < 2

√

kM): complex conj. roots, underdamped

EE 3CL4, §2

31 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Overdamped case

• s

1

, s

2

= −ζω

n

±ω

n

_

ζ

2

−1

• Overdamped response: ζ > 1 (equiv. b > 2

√

kM)

• y(t ) = c

1

e

s

1

t

+ c

2

e

s

2

t

• y(0) = y

0

=⇒ c

1

+ c

2

= y

0

•

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

t =0

= 0 =⇒ s

1

c

1

+ s

2

c

2

= 0

• What does this look like when strongly overdamped

• s

2

is large and negative, s

1

is small and negative

• Hence e

s

2

t

decays much faster than e

s

1

t

• Also, c

2

= −c

1

s

1

/s

2

. Hence, small

• Hence y(t ) ≈ c

1

e

s

1

t

• Looks like a ﬁrst order system!

EE 3CL4, §2

32 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Critically damped case

• s

1

= s

2

= −ω

n

• y(t ) = c

1

e

−ω

n

t

+ c

2

te

−ω

n

t

• y(0) = y

0

=⇒ c

1

= y

0

•

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

t =0

= 0 =⇒ −c

1

ω

n

+ c

2

= 0

EE 3CL4, §2

33 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Underdamped case

• s

1

, s

2

= −ζω

n

±j ω

n

_

1 −ζ

2

• Therefore, |s

i

| = ω

n

: poles lies on a circle

• Angle to negative real axis is cos

−1

(ζ).

EE 3CL4, §2

34 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Underdamped case

• Deﬁne σ = ζω

n

, ω

d

= ω

n

_

1 −ζ

2

. Response is:

y(t ) = c

1

e

−σt

cos(ω

d

t ) + c

2

e

−σt

sin(ω

d

t )

= Ae

−σt

cos(ω

d

t +φ)

• Homework: Relate A and φ to c

1

and c

2

.

• Homework: Write the initial conditions y(0) = y

0

and

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

t =0

= 0 in terms of c

1

and c

2

, and in terms of A and φ

EE 3CL4, §2

35 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Numerical examples

• Y(s) =

(s+2ζω

n

)

s

2

+2ζω

n

s+ω

2

n

y

0

, where ω

n

=

_

k/M, ζ =

b

2

√

kM

• Poles: s

1

, s

2

= −ζω

n

±ω

n

_

ζ

2

−1

• ζ > 1: overdamped; ζ < 1: underdamped

• Consider the case of M = 1, k = 1. Hence, ω

n

= 1,

• b = 3 →0. Hence, ζ = 1.5 →0

• Initial conds: y

0

= 1,

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

t =0

= 0

EE 3CL4, §2

36 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 3

EE 3CL4, §2

37 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 2.75

EE 3CL4, §2

38 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 2.5

EE 3CL4, §2

39 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 2.25

EE 3CL4, §2

40 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 2

EE 3CL4, §2

41 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 1.95

EE 3CL4, §2

42 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 1.75

EE 3CL4, §2

43 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 1.5

EE 3CL4, §2

44 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 1.25

EE 3CL4, §2

45 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 1

EE 3CL4, §2

46 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 0.75

EE 3CL4, §2

47 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 0.5

EE 3CL4, §2

48 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 0.25

EE 3CL4, §2

49 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and transient response,

b = 0

EE 3CL4, §2

51 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Transfer function

Deﬁnition: Laplace transform of output over Laplace

transform of input when initial conditions are zero

• Most of the transfer functions in this course will be

ratios of polynomials in s.

• Hence, poles and zeros of transfer functions have

natural deﬁnitions

Example: Recall the mass-spring-damper system,

EE 3CL4, §2

52 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Transfer function, MSD system

For the mass-spring-damper system,

Y(s) =

1/M

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

R(s)

+

(s + b/M)

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

y(0

−

)

+

1

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

dy(t )

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

t =0

−

Therefore, transfer function is:

1/M

s

2

+ (b/M)s + k/M

=

1

Ms

2

+ bs + k

EE 3CL4, §2

54 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Step response

• Recall that u(t ) ←→

1

s

• Therefore, for transfer function G(s), the step response

is:

L

−1

_

G(s)

s

_

• For the mass-spring-damper system, step response is

L

−1

_

1

s(Ms

2

+ bs + k)

_

• What is the ﬁnal position for a step input?

Recall ﬁnal value theorem. Final position is 1/k.

• What about the complete step response?

EE 3CL4, §2

55 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Step response

• Step response: L

−1

_

G(s)

1

s

_

• Hence poles of Laplace transform of step response are

poles of G(s), plus an additional pole at s = 0.

• For the mass-spring-damper system, using partial

fractions, step response is:

L

−1

_

1

s(Ms

2

+ bs + k)

_

= L

−1

_

1/k

s

_

−

1

k

L

−1

_

Ms + b

Ms

2

+ bs + k

_

=

1

k

u(t ) −

1

k

L

−1

_

Ms + b

Ms

2

+ bs + k

_

• Consider again the case of M = k = 1, b = 3 →0.

ω

n

= 1, ζ = 1.5 →0.

EE 3CL4, §2

56 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step response, b = 3

EE 3CL4, §2

57 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 2.75

EE 3CL4, §2

58 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 2.5

EE 3CL4, §2

59 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 2.25

EE 3CL4, §2

60 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 2

EE 3CL4, §2

61 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 1.95

EE 3CL4, §2

62 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 1.75

EE 3CL4, §2

63 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 1.5

EE 3CL4, §2

64 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 1.25

EE 3CL4, §2

65 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 1

EE 3CL4, §2

66 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 0.75

EE 3CL4, §2

67 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 0.5

EE 3CL4, §2

68 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 0.25

EE 3CL4, §2

69 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Poles and step resp., b = 0

EE 3CL4, §2

71 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

A DC motor

• We will consider linearized model for each component

• Flux in the air gap: φ(t ) = K

f

i

f

(t ) (Magnetic cct, 2CJ4)

• Torque: T

m

(t ) = K

1

φ(t )i

a

(t ) = K

1

K

f

i

f

(t )i

a

(t ).

• Is that linear?

• Only if one of i

f

(t ) or i

a

(t ) is constant

• We will consider “armature control”: i

f

(t ) constant

EE 3CL4, §2

72 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Armature controlled DC motor

• i

f

(t ) will be constant (to set up magnetic ﬁeld), i

f

(t ) = I

f

• Torque: T

m

(t ) = K

1

K

f

I

f

i

a

(t ) = K

m

i

a

(t )

• Will control motor using armature voltage V

a

(t )

• What is the transfer function from V

a

(s) to angular

position θ(s)?

• Origin?

EE 3CL4, §2

73 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Towards transfer function

• T

m

(t ) = K

m

i

a

(t ) ←→T

m

(s) = K

m

I

a

(s)

• KVL: V

a

(s) = (R

a

+ sL

a

)I

a

(s) + V

b

(s)

• V

b

(s) is back-emf voltage, due to Faraday’s Law

• V

b

(s) = K

b

ω(s), where ω(s) = sθ(s) is rot. velocity

• Remember: transfer function implies zero init. conds

EE 3CL4, §2

74 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Towards transfer function

• Torque on load: T

L

(s) = T

m

(s) −T

d

(s)

• T

d

(s): disturbance. Often small, unknown

• Load torque and load angle (Newton plus friction):

T

L

(s) = Js

2

θ(s) + bsθ(s)

• Now put it all together

EE 3CL4, §2

75 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Towards transfer function

• T

m

(s) = K

m

I

a

(s) = K

m

_

V

a

(s)−V

b

(s)

R

a

+sL

a

_

• V

b

(s) = K

b

ω(s)

• T

L

(s) = T

m

(s) −T

d

(s)

• T

L

(s) = Js

2

θ(s) + bsθ(s) = Jsω(s) + bω(s)

• Hence ω(s) =

T

L

(s)

Js+b

• θ(s) = ω(s)/s

EE 3CL4, §2

76 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Block diagram

• T

m

(s) = K

m

I

a

(s) = K

m

_

V

a

(s)−V

b

(s)

R

a

+sL

a

_

• V

b

(s) = K

b

ω(s)

• T

L

(s) = T

m

(s) −T

d

(s)

• T

L

(s) = Js

2

θ(s) + bsθ(s) = Jsω(s) + bω(s)

• Hence ω(s) =

T

L

(s)

Js+b

• θ(s) = ω(s)/s

EE 3CL4, §2

77 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Transfer function

• Set T

d

(s) = 0 and solve (you MUST do this yourself)

G(s) =

θ(s)

V

a

(s)

=

K

m

s

_

(R

a

+ sL

a

)(Js + b) + K

b

K

m

¸

=

K

m

s(s

2

+ 2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

)

• Third order :(

EE 3CL4, §2

78 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Second-order approximation

G(s) =

θ(s)

V

a

(s)

=

K

m

s

_

(R

a

+ sL

a

)(Js + b) + K

b

K

m

¸

• Sometimes armature time constant, τ

a

= L

a

/R

a

, is

negligible

• Hence (you MUST derive this yourself)

G(s) ≈

K

m

s

_

R

a

(Js + b) + K

b

K

m

¸

=

K

m

/(R

a

b + K

b

K

m

)

s(τ

1

s + 1)

where τ

1

= R

a

J/(R

a

b + K

b

K

m

)

EE 3CL4, §2

79 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Model for a disk drive read

system

• Uses a permanent magnet DC motor

• Can be modelled using arm. contr. model with K

b

= 0

• Hence, motor transfer function:

G(s) =

θ(s)

V

a

(s)

=

K

m

s(R

a

+ sL

a

)(Js + b)

• Assume for now that the arm is stiff

EE 3CL4, §2

80 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Typical values

G(s) =

θ(s)

V

a

(s)

=

K

m

s(R

a

+ sL

a

)(Js + b)

G(s) =

5000

s(s + 20)(s + 1000)

EE 3CL4, §2

81 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Time constants

• Initial model

G(s) =

5000

s(s + 20)(s + 1000)

• Motor time constant = 1/20 = 50ms

• Armature time constant = 1/1000 = 1ms

• Hence

G(s) ≈

ˆ

G(s) =

5

s(s + 20)

EE 3CL4, §2

83 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

A simple feedback controller

Now that we have a model, how to control?

Simple idea: Apply voltage to motor that is proportional to

error between where we are and where we want to be.

Here, V(s) = V

a

(s) and Y(s) = θ(s).

EE 3CL4, §2

84 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Simpliﬁed block diagram

• What is the transfer function from command to

position? Derive this yourself

Y(s)

R(s)

=

K

a

G(s)

1 + K

a

G(s)

• Using second-order approx. G(s) ≈

ˆ

G(s), and K

a

= 40,

Y(s) =

200

s

2

+ 20s + 200

R(s)

• What is the response for R(s) = 0.1/s?

• Does it meet our design criteria?

Within 1µm within 50ms?

EE 3CL4, §2

85 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Step response

Response to r (t ) = 0.1u(t )

EE 3CL4, §2

87 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Bock diagram models

• As we have just seen, a convenient way to represent a

transfer function is via a block diagram

• In this case, U(s) = G

c

(s)R(s) and Y(s) = G(s)U(s)

• Hence, Y(s) = G(s)G

c

(s)R(s)

• Consistent with the engineering procedure of breaking

things up into little bits, studying the little bits, and then

put them together

EE 3CL4, §2

88 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Simple example

• Y

1

(s) = G

11

(s)R

1

(s) + G

12

(s)R

2

(s)

• Y

2

(s) = G

21

(s)R

1

(s) + G

22

(s)R

2

(s)

EE 3CL4, §2

89 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Example: Loop transfer function

• E

a

(s) = R(s) −B(s) = R(s) −H(s)Y(s)

• Y(s) = G(s)U(s) = G(s)G

a

(s)Z(s)

• Y(s) = G(s)G

a

(s)G

c

(s)E

a

(s)

• Y(s) = G(s)G

a

(s)G

c

(s)

_

R(s) −H(s)Y(s)

_

Y(s)

R(s)

=

G(s)G

a

(s)G

c

(s)

1 + G(s)G

a

(s)G

c

(s)H(s)

• Each transfer function is a ratio of polynomials in s

• What is E

a

(s)/R(s)?

EE 3CL4, §2

90 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Block diagram transformations

EE 3CL4, §2

91 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Using block diagram

transformations

EE 3CL4, §2

92 / 92

Tim Davidson

Modelling

physical

systems

Trans. Newton.

Mech.

Rot. Newton. Mech.

Linearization

Laplace

transforms

Laplace in

action

Transfer

function

Step response

Transfer fn of

DC motor

Our ﬁrst

control system

design

Block diagram

models

Block dia. transform.

Using block diagram

transformations

**EE 3CL4, §2 2 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Outline

1 Modelling physical systems

**Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics
**

2 Linearization 3 Laplace transforms 4 Laplace transforms in action 5 Transfer function 6 Step response 7 Transfer function of DC motor 8 Our ﬁrst control system design 9 Block diagram models

Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models

Block dia. transform.

Block diagram transformations

**EE 3CL4, §2 4 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Differential equation models

• Most of the systems that we will deal with are dynamic • Differential equations provide a powerful way to

Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models

Block dia. transform.

**describe dynamic systems
**

• Will form the basis of our models • We saw differential equations for inductors and

**capacitors in 2CI, 2CJ
**

• What about mechanical systems?

both translational and rotational

**EE 3CL4, §2 5 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Translational Spring

Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models

Block dia. transform.

**F (t): resultant force in direction x Recall free body diagrams and “action and reaction”
**

• Spring. k : spring constant, xr : relaxed length of spring

F (t) = k [x2 (t) − x1 (t)] − xr

b: viscous friction coefﬁcient F (t) = b dx2 (t) dx1 (t) − = b v2 (t) − v1 (t) dt dt . Mech. • Viscous damper. Mech. Newton. transform.EE 3CL4. §2 6 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Translational Damper F (t): resultant force in direction x Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton. Rot.

Mech. Newton. Mech. §2 7 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. • Mass: M F (t) = M d 2 xm (t) dvm (t) =M = Mam (t) dt dt 2 . transform. Newton.EE 3CL4. Mass F (t): resultant force in direction x Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

k : rotational spring constant. Mech. Rot. Newton.EE 3CL4. Newton. transform. §2 8 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. θr : rotation of relaxed spring T (t) = k [θ2 (t) − θ1 (t)] − θr . Rotational spring T (t): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. • Rotational spring. Mech.

transform. Rotational damper T (t): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.EE 3CL4. Newton. • Rotational viscous damper. §2 9 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. b: rotational viscous friction coefﬁcient T (t) = b dθ2 (t) dθ1 (t) − = b ω2 (t) − ω1 (t) dt dt . Mech. Mech. Newton. Rot.

• Rotational inertia: J T (t) = J d 2 θm (t) dωm (t) =J = Jαm (t) 2 dt dt .EE 3CL4. Mech. Newton. Rot. transform. §2 10 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. Rotational inertia T (t): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton.

Mech. Example system (translational) Horizontal.EE 3CL4. Newton. Mech. §2 11 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. • F = M dv (t) dt • v (t) = dy (t) dt • F (t) = r (t) − b dy (t) − ky (t) dt M d 2 y (t) dy (t) +b + ky (t) = r (t) dt dt . Origin for y : y = 0 when spring relaxed Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. Newton. transform.

Example. Newton. transform.EE 3CL4. continued Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. M d 2 y (t) dy (t) +b + ky (t) = r (t) dt dt Resembles equation for parallel RLC circuit. . Rot. Newton. Mech. §2 12 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.

Newton.EE 3CL4. Newton. transform. • Stretch the spring a little and hold. Rot. • Assume an under-damped system. Mech. Example. §2 13 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. continued Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. • What happens when we let it go? . Mech.

transform. Taylor’s series Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech.EE 3CL4. Rot. many systems behave approximately linearly in the neighbourhood of a given point • Apply ﬁrst-order Taylor’s Series at a given point • Obtain a locally linear model . Newton. Mech. • Nature does not have many linear systems • However. §2 15 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton.

Mech. At that point. • Torque due to gravity: T = MgL sin θ • Linearize around θ = 0. §2 16 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Mech.EE 3CL4. Newton. Pendulum example Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform. Newton. T = 0 • Linearized model T ≈ MgL d sin θ dθ θ=0 = MgLθ .

EE 3CL4. transform. Newton. Laplace transform • Once we have a linearized differential equation we can take Laplace Transforms to obtain the transfer function • We will consider the “one-sided” Laplace transform. signals that are zero to the left of the origin. §2 18 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. ∞ F (s) = 0− f (t)e−st dt • What does ∞ mean? limT →∞ T . output is only valid for values of s in intersection of regions of convergence . Newton. Mech. Rot. Mech. • Does this limit exist? • If |f (t)| < Meαt . then exists for all Re(s) > α. Includes all physically realizable signals • Note: When multiplying transfer function by Laplace of input. for Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

e. Newton. Mech. §2 19 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. F (s) = nF (s) dF (s) Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. a ratio of two polynomials in s. Poles and zeros • In this course. where nF (s) and dF (s) are polynomials • Deﬁnitions: • Poles of F (s) are the roots of dF (s) • Zeros of F (s) are the roots of nF (s) • Hence. transform. i.EE 3CL4. F (s) = KF KF + zi ) = n j=1 (s + pj ) M i=1 (s n j=1 pj M i=1 zi M i=1 (s/zi n j=1 (s/pj + 1) + 1) where −zi are the zeros and −pj are the poles .. most Laplace transforms will be rational functions. Newton. Rot. Mech. that is.

Visualizing poles and zeros • Consider the simple Laplace transform F (s) = ss(s+3) . Rot. .EE 3CL4. 2 +2s+5 • zeros: 0. Newton. §2 20 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. −1 − j2 • Pole-zero plot (left) and magnitude of F (s) (right) Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. poles: −1 + j2. Newton. −3. Mech. transform.

−3. Rot. Mech. transform.EE 3CL4. zeros: 0. . Newton. §2 21 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Visualizing poles and zeros • F (s) = ss(s+3) . −1 − j2 2 +2s+5 • |F (s)| from above (left) and prev. view of |F (s)| (right) Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. poles: −1 + j2. Mech.

Newton. Rot. Mech. 2. often available in tables. of text • For more complicated ones. transform. one can typically obtain the inverse Laplace transform by • identifying poles • constructing partial fraction expansion • using of properties and some simple pairs to invert each component of partial fraction expansion . Newton. • Simple ones can be computed analytically. see Tab. Laplace transform pairs Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. §2 22 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.EE 3CL4.3 in 12th ed.

Some Laplace transform pairs Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton. transform. . Mech. Newton. Mech.EE 3CL4. §2 23 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Recall that complex poles come in conjugate pairs.

Mech. Mech. F (s) 1 f (x) dx ←→ + s s −∞ t 0− f (x) dx −∞ . Key properties Linearity df (t) ←→ sF (s) − f (0− ) dt Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. §2 24 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton.EE 3CL4. Rot. transform. Newton.

Consider the case when we only want to ﬁnd the ﬁnal value of f (t). Newton. Final value theorem Can we avoid having to do an inverse Laplace transform? Sometimes. namely limt→∞ f (t). transform. except. §2 25 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. for a single pole at the origin. Mech. Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. or on the jω-axis and not at the origin? . perhaps. • If F (s) has all its poles in the left half plane. then t→∞ lim f (t) = lim sF (s) s→0 Common application: Steady state value of step response What if there are poles in RHP. Mech. Rot.EE 3CL4. Newton.

Newton. Mech. Rot. §2 27 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Mech. Mass-spring-damper system Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform.EE 3CL4. • Horizontal (no gravity) • Set origin of y where spring is “relaxed” • F = M dv (t) dt • v (t) = dy (t) dt • F (t) = r (t) − b dy (t) − ky (t) dt M d 2 y (t) dy (t) +b + ky (t) = r (t) dt dt .

Mech. Consider t ≥ 0 and take Laplace transform M s2 Y (s)−sy (0− )− dy (t) dt +b sY (s)−y (0− ) +kY (s) = R(s) t=0− Hence Y (s) = 1/M R(s) s2 + (b/M)s + k /M (s + b/M) + 2 y (0− ) s + (b/M)s + k /M 1 dy (t) + 2 s + (b/M)s + k /M dt t=0− . Rot. Mech.EE 3CL4. §2 28 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. transform. Newton. MSD system M d 2 y (t) dy (t) +b + ky (t) = r (t) dt dt Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

Spring stretched to a point y0 . Mech. r (t) = 0 and Hence. Mech. Newton. Y (s) = s2 (s + b/M) y0 + (b/M)s + k /M dy (t) dt t=0− Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton. cond. then let go at time t = 0 Hence. =0 What can we learn about this response without having to invert Y (s) . §2 29 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. held.EE 3CL4. Response to static init. transform.

underdamped . b < 2 kM): complex conj. b = 2 kM): equal real roots. critically damped √ • ζ < 1 (equiv. roots. Standard form (s + b/M) y0 + (b/M)s + k /M (s + 2ζωn ) y 2 0 + 2ζωn s + ωn b √ 2 kM Y (s) = Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. overdamped √ • ζ = 1 (equiv. transform. s2 = where ωn = s2 k /M and ζ = Poles: s1 . Newton. b > 2 kM): distinct real roots.EE 3CL4. Newton. Mech. §2 30 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. s2 = −ζωn ± ωn √ ζ2 − 1 • ζ > 1 (equiv.

Newton. b > 2 kM) √ Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. small • Hence y (t) ≈ c1 es1 t • Looks like a ﬁrst order system! . Rot. transform. = 0 =⇒ s1 c1 + s2 c2 = 0 • What does this look like when strongly overdamped • s2 is large and negative. Overdamped case • s1 . Hence. Mech. s1 is small and negative • Hence es2 t decays much faster than es1 t • Also. c2 = −c1 s1 /s2 .EE 3CL4. §2 31 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. s2 = −ζωn ± ωn • y (t) = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t • y (0) = y0 =⇒ c1 + c2 = y0 • dy (t) dt t=0 ζ2 − 1 • Overdamped response: ζ > 1 (equiv.

**EE 3CL4, §2 32 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Critically damped case

Block dia. transform.

**• s1 = s2 = −ωn • y (t) = c1 e−ωn t + c2 te−ωn t • y (0) = y0 =⇒ c1 = y0 • dy (t) dt
**

t=0

= 0 =⇒ −c1 ωn + c2 = 0

**EE 3CL4, §2 33 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Underdamped case

Block dia. transform.

• s1 , s2 = −ζωn ± jωn 1 − ζ 2 • Therefore, |si | = ωn : poles lies on a circle • Angle to negative real axis is cos−1 (ζ).

**EE 3CL4, §2 34 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Underdamped case

Block dia. transform.

• Deﬁne σ = ζωn , ωd = ωn

1 − ζ 2 . Response is:

y (t) = c1 e−σt cos(ωd t) + c2 e−σt sin(ωd t) = Ae−σt cos(ωd t + φ) • Homework: Relate A and φ to c1 and c2 . • Homework: Write the initial conditions y (0) = y0 and

dy (t) dt t=0

= 0 in terms of c1 and c2 , and in terms of A and φ

**EE 3CL4, §2 35 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems
**

Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. Newton. Mech.

Numerical examples

Block dia. transform.

• Y (s) =

(s+2ζωn ) 2 s2 +2ζωn s+ωn

y0 , where ωn = ζ2 − 1

k /M, ζ =

b √ 2 kM

• Poles: s1 , s2 = −ζωn ± ωn

**• ζ > 1: overdamped; ζ < 1: underdamped • Consider the case of M = 1, k = 1. Hence, ωn = 1, • b = 3 → 0. Hence, ζ = 1.5 → 0 • Initial conds: y0 = 1,
**

dy (t) dt t=0

=0

Rot. Newton. Newton. Poles and transient response. .EE 3CL4. transform. Mech. b=3 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. §2 36 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.

75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. b = 2. Newton. Poles and transient response. Newton. transform. Rot.EE 3CL4. . Mech. Mech. §2 37 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.

§2 38 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. b = 2. Mech. transform. Rot. Newton.5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Poles and transient response. . Mech.EE 3CL4.

Newton. §2 39 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. b = 2. Poles and transient response. Newton. Rot.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. . Mech. transform.EE 3CL4.

Newton. Mech. Mech. §2 40 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. transform. .EE 3CL4. Poles and transient response. Rot. b=2 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

Mech. Newton. Rot. §2 41 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.95 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform.EE 3CL4. . Newton. b = 1. Poles and transient response.

Rot. b = 1.75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. . Mech. Newton. transform.EE 3CL4. Poles and transient response. Newton. Mech. §2 42 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.

b = 1.EE 3CL4. transform. Poles and transient response. Newton. §2 43 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Rot. . Newton. Mech.

Poles and transient response. Mech. Rot. transform. Newton. b = 1. . §2 44 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. Newton.EE 3CL4.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

EE 3CL4. §2 45 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Poles and transient response. . transform. Mech. Rot. b=1 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Newton.

75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. . §2 46 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4. Newton. Mech. Mech. transform. b = 0.

§2 47 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.EE 3CL4. Poles and transient response. Newton. b = 0.5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform. Rot. . Newton. Mech.

EE 3CL4. Rot. b = 0. Poles and transient response. transform. Newton. . §2 48 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Newton. Mech.

§2 49 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Newton. Poles and transient response. Mech. transform. . b=0 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Newton.EE 3CL4.

• Hence. §2 51 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Transfer function Deﬁnition: Laplace transform of output over Laplace transform of input when initial conditions are zero • Most of the transfer functions in this course will be Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. poles and zeros of transfer functions have natural deﬁnitions Example: Recall the mass-spring-damper system. Newton. Newton. . Rot. Mech. transform. ratios of polynomials in s.EE 3CL4. Mech.

Transfer function. Newton. Rot. §2 52 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. t=0− Therefore. transform. Y (s) = 1/M R(s) s2 + (b/M)s + k /M (s + b/M) + 2 y (0− ) s + (b/M)s + k /M 1 dy (t) + 2 s + (b/M)s + k /M dt Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton. transfer function is: s2 1 1/M = 2 + bs + k + (b/M)s + k /M Ms . Mech.EE 3CL4. MSD system For the mass-spring-damper system. Mech.

is: L −1 G(s) s • For the mass-spring-damper system. Mech. the step response Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. step response is L −1 s(Ms2 1 + bs + k ) • What is the ﬁnal position for a step input? Recall ﬁnal value theorem. Newton. • What about the complete step response? . Final position is 1/k . Mech. Step response • Recall that u(t) ←→ 1 s • Therefore.EE 3CL4. Newton. §2 54 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. transform. for transfer function G(s).

transform. using partial Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. ζ = 1. .EE 3CL4. step response is: L −1 1 s(Ms2 + bs + k ) 1/k 1 Ms + b = L −1 − L −1 2 + bs + k s k Ms Ms + b 1 −1 1 = u(t) − L k k Ms2 + bs + k • Consider again the case of M = k = 1.5 → 0. Step response • Step response: L −1 G(s) 1 s • Hence poles of Laplace transform of step response are poles of G(s). b = 3 → 0. ωn = 1. • For the mass-spring-damper system. plus an additional pole at s = 0. fractions. Mech. §2 55 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Newton. Newton. Mech.

Mech. §2 56 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. b = 3 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. . Newton.EE 3CL4. Poles and step response. Rot. Newton. transform. Mech.

. Newton. Rot. . Poles and step resp. transform.EE 3CL4. Mech. §2 57 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. b = 2. Mech. Newton.

Rot. Newton. Newton.5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech.. b = 2. transform. . Poles and step resp. §2 58 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.EE 3CL4.

Newton. Poles and step resp. Mech.. Newton. Mech. . b = 2.EE 3CL4.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform. Rot. §2 59 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.

§2 60 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.EE 3CL4. Poles and step resp. Newton. transform.. Mech. b = 2 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. Newton. Mech. .

Newton. Poles and step resp. transform. §2 61 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot.EE 3CL4.95 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton. . Mech. Mech.. b = 1.

Poles and step resp. Newton.75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. §2 62 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. b = 1..EE 3CL4. Mech. transform. Newton. . Mech.

EE 3CL4. Rot. transform. §2 63 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.. Mech. Poles and step resp. b = 1. Newton.5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. . Newton.

. §2 64 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.EE 3CL4. Rot. Mech.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.. Mech. Poles and step resp. transform. Newton. b = 1. Newton.

. §2 65 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. Rot.. transform. Mech. Poles and step resp.EE 3CL4. Newton. b = 1 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton.

.EE 3CL4. Mech. Newton. §2 66 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Poles and step resp. Rot. . b = 0. transform.75 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech.

. Newton. Newton. b = 0. Mech. §2 67 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. transform. Rot. Poles and step resp. Mech..5 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.EE 3CL4.

Mech. Newton. transform. Newton. . §2 68 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Poles and step resp. Rot. Mech.25 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.EE 3CL4. b = 0..

. b = 0 Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.. transform.EE 3CL4. Rot. Mech. Newton. Newton. Poles and step resp. Mech. §2 69 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.

Rot. §2 71 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.EE 3CL4. Mech. Newton. transform. Is that linear? Only if one of if (t) or ia (t) is constant We will consider “armature control”: if (t) constant . Mech. Newton. • • • • • • We will consider linearized model for each component Flux in the air gap: φ(t) = Kf if (t) (Magnetic cct. 2CJ4) Torque: Tm (t) = K1 φ(t)ia (t) = K1 Kf if (t)ia (t). A DC motor Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

• if (t) will be constant (to set up magnetic ﬁeld). Newton. §2 72 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.EE 3CL4. Mech. Rot. Mech. if (t) = If • Torque: Tm (t) = K1 Kf If ia (t) = Km ia (t) • Will control motor using armature voltage Va (t) • What is the transfer function from Va (s) to angular position θ(s)? • Origin? . transform. Armature controlled DC motor Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton.

transform. velocity • Remember: transfer function implies zero init. Mech.EE 3CL4. where ω(s) = sθ(s) is rot. Rot. • Tm (t) = Km ia (t) ←→ Tm (s) = Km Ia (s) • KVL: Va (s) = (Ra + sLa )Ia (s) + Vb (s) • Vb (s) is back-emf voltage. conds . Newton. §2 73 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. due to Faraday’s Law • Vb (s) = Kb ω(s). Newton. Towards transfer function Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.

Mech. transform. Often small.EE 3CL4. Newton. §2 74 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. • Torque on load: TL (s) = Tm (s) − Td (s) • Td (s): disturbance. Newton. Towards transfer function Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Rot. unknown • Load torque and load angle (Newton plus friction): TL (s) = Js2 θ(s) + bsθ(s) • Now put it all together .

Towards transfer function Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform. §2 75 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Mech. Newton. Mech.EE 3CL4. (s)−V • Tm (s) = Km Ia (s) = Km Va R +sLb (s) a a • Vb (s) = Kb ω(s) • TL (s) = Tm (s) − Td (s) • TL (s) = Js 2 θ(s) + bsθ(s) = Jsω(s) + bω(s) • Hence ω(s) = TL (s) Js+b • θ(s) = ω(s)/s . Rot.

Mech. Newton. Newton. (s)−V • Tm (s) = Km Ia (s) = Km Va R +sLb (s) a a • Vb (s) = Kb ω(s) • TL (s) = Tm (s) − Td (s) • TL (s) = Js 2 θ(s) + bsθ(s) = Jsω(s) + bω(s) • Hence ω(s) = TL (s) Js+b • θ(s) = ω(s)/s . Mech. §2 76 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Block diagram Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia.EE 3CL4. transform.

Mech. Newton. Newton.EE 3CL4. transform. Rot. §2 77 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. • Set Td (s) = 0 and solve (you MUST do this yourself) G(s) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s (Ra + sLa )(Js + b) + Kb Km Km = 2 + 2ζω s + ω 2 ) s(s n n • Third order :( . Transfer function Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech.

Mech. Rot. Second-order approximation Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. transform. τa = La /Ra . Newton. Newton.EE 3CL4. §2 78 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. is negligible • Hence (you MUST derive this yourself) G(s) ≈ Km Km /(Ra b + Kb Km ) = s(τ1 s + 1) s Ra (Js + b) + Kb Km where τ1 = Ra J/(Ra b + Kb Km ) . G(s) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s (Ra + sLa )(Js + b) + Kb Km • Sometimes armature time constant. Mech.

Model for a disk drive read system Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. motor transfer function: G(s) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s(Ra + sLa )(Js + b) • Assume for now that the arm is stiff . • Uses a permanent magnet DC motor • Can be modelled using arm. transform. model with Kb = 0 • Hence. Rot. §2 79 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. Newton.EE 3CL4. contr. Mech. Newton.

EE 3CL4. Newton. Newton. Mech. Typical values G(s) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s(Ra + sLa )(Js + b) Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. G(s) = 5000 s(s + 20)(s + 1000) . transform. §2 80 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Rot. Mech.

§2 81 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. transform. Newton. Rot. Mech. G(s) = 5000 s(s + 20)(s + 1000) • Motor time constant = 1/20 = 50ms • Armature time constant = 1/1000 = 1ms • Hence ˆ G(s) ≈ G(s) = 5 s(s + 20) . Mech. Time constants • Initial model Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Newton.EE 3CL4.

Mech. Here. §2 83 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. . Rot. Newton. V (s) = Va (s) and Y (s) = θ(s). transform. Mech. Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. A simple feedback controller Now that we have a model. how to control? Simple idea: Apply voltage to motor that is proportional to error between where we are and where we want to be.EE 3CL4. Newton.

§2 84 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech. Newton. transform. Rot. Newton. Y (s) = s2 200 R(s) + 20s + 200 • What is the response for R(s) = 0. Mech.EE 3CL4. Simpliﬁed block diagram Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. G(s) ≈ G(s). and Ka = 40. • What is the transfer function from command to position? Derive this yourself Y (s) Ka G(s) = R(s) 1 + Ka G(s) ˆ • Using second-order approx.1/s? • Does it meet our design criteria? Within 1µm within 50ms? .

transform. Mech. Step response Response to r (t) = 0.EE 3CL4. Newton. Newton.1u(t) Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. . §2 85 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Mech.

• In this case. Rot. Newton. and then put them together . a convenient way to represent a transfer function is via a block diagram Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Bock diagram models • As we have just seen. Newton.EE 3CL4. §2 87 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. transform. U(s) = Gc (s)R(s) and Y (s) = G(s)U(s) • Hence. Mech. Y (s) = G(s)Gc (s)R(s) • Consistent with the engineering procedure of breaking things up into little bits. studying the little bits.

Mech. transform.EE 3CL4. Newton. Simple example Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. §2 88 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton. Mech. Rot. • Y1 (s) = G11 (s)R1 (s) + G12 (s)R2 (s) • Y2 (s) = G21 (s)R1 (s) + G22 (s)R2 (s) .

Newton. Mech.EE 3CL4. Newton. §2 89 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Example: Loop transfer function Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. Rot. transform. • Ea (s) = R(s) − B(s) = R(s) − H(s)Y (s) • Y (s) = G(s)U(s) = G(s)Ga (s)Z (s) • Y (s) = G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s)Ea (s) • Y (s) = G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s) R(s) − H(s)Y (s) Y (s) G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s) = R(s) 1 + G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s)H(s) • Each transfer function is a ratio of polynomials in s • What is Ea (s)/R(s)? .

EE 3CL4. Block diagram transformations Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. . Mech. Mech. Rot. §2 90 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. transform. Newton. Newton.

Using block diagram transformations Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Mech. . §2 91 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans. Newton.EE 3CL4. Rot. Newton. Mech. transform.

Using block diagram transformations Linearization Laplace transforms Laplace in action Transfer function Step response Transfer fn of DC motor Our ﬁrst control system design Block diagram models Block dia. Rot. Mech. .EE 3CL4. transform. Newton. Mech. Newton. §2 92 / 92 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Trans.

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