ENGINNEERING KNOWLEDGE MOTOR (MA 3016

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Learning Outcomes
• • • • Discuss materials used for liners Explain heat transfer and strength of liner Explain how Sealing in liner achieved Discuss how expansion on liner is accommodated • Describe wear and wear rate on liner

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Learning Outcomes
• • • • Sketch and describe a modern liner Discuss surface treatment of liner Describe procedure in renewal of liner Discuss running-in of liner

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Form part of combustion chamber Forms cylindrical space in which piston reciprocates

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• Alloying elements help resist corrosion and improve wear resistance at high temperatures • Liner will wear with use. and therefore may have to be replaced • Cylinder jacket lasts the life of engine. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 5 .Cylinder Liner…Introduction • Cylinder block is made from grey cast iron • Liner is manufactured from cast iron alloyed with chromium. vanadium and molybdenum.

liner is a lot hotter than the jacket • Liner will expand more and is free to expand diametrically and lengthwise. • If liners were cast as one piece. difficult to produce a homogenous casting Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 6 . then unacceptable thermal stresses would be set up • Complex casting.Cylinder Liner…Introduction • At working temperature.

Wet liners – medium and slow speed engines cooling by water Dry liner – small engine cooling by air e.g life boat engine Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 7 .

3 –PIECES LINER (DOXFORD’P’) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 8 .

COOLING WATER OUT EXHAUST PORTS EXHAUST BELT UPPER LUBRICATION COOPER RING STEEL SHRUNK RING UPPER LINER UPPER LINER VALVE POCKET COMBUSTION BELT COMBUSTION BELT COOLING WATER IN LOWER LUBRICATION LOWER LINER SCAVENGE PORTS TRIPARTITE (3 PARTS) CYLINDER LINER AND JACKET (DOXFORD ‘P’TYPE Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 9 .

CYLINDER OIL SUPPLY GROUND FACE COOLING WATER OUT TO COVER CYLINDER LUBRICATION OIL 8 POINTS JACKET COOLING WATER IN TELL TALE LEAK OFF UPPER COOLED PART ABESTOS PACKING Copper ring EXHAUST PORTS SCAVENGE PORTS CYLINDER LUBRICATION OIL 2 POINTS SOME COOLING OUT WAVE JOINT SUPPLEMENTARY CYLINDER OIL SUPPLY LOWER UNCOOLED PART BOLTED TO JACKET MAN KZ LINER (2 PIECES) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 10 .

RND SULZER (ONE PIECE) HYPERBOLIC COOLING PASSAGES C/W OUT TO CYL HEAD THICK COLLAR COMBUSTION SPACE ABOVE JACKET GROUND FACE CYLINDER OIL SUPPLY ANGLED C/W DRILLINGS JACKET FREE THERMAL EXPANSION DRILLING PASSES CLOSE TO LINER SURFACE LEAK OFF LINE / TELL TALE HOLE EXHAUST PORTS SCAVENGE PORTS LEAK OFF LINE / TELL TALE HOLE SECOND ADDITIONAL CYLINDER OIL SUPPLY BORE COOLING VIEW C/W INLET LEAK OFF LINE / TELL TALE HOLE PLUG RUBBER RINGS Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 11 .

Mechanical stress – pressure Thermal stress .temperature Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 12 .

Supercharged engines.supercharged is about 75-85 Bar This pressure produces circumferential (hoop) stress and longitudinal stress Hoop stress is twice longitudinal stress so only hoop stress is considered Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 13 . maximum firing pressure is about 90 – 100 Bar or more Non.

P = GAS PRESSURE D = LINER DIAMETER t = LINER THICKNESS Thus hoop stress will increase if bore size and firing pressure increase Cyliner Liner CRACK DUE TO HOOP STRESS 5/26/2011 14 .HOOP STRESS h =PxD 2t CYLINDER HEAD WHERE.

T = ∆T where ∆ T is temperature gradient Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 15 . where: thermal stress.Resistance to heat flow through liner metal produces a temperature gradient across liner Liner wall expands more relative to outer wall.

Thicker liner will increase temperature gradient hence thermal stress Thicker liner have good resistance to mechanical stress. Liner design becomes complex Inner liner surface temperature should be sufficiently low to retain oil film and high enough to avoid acid-dew (sulphur) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 16 .

• • • • Next to liner wall 500oC On liner wall 140oC due to oil film. carbon deposits Outer liner wall 75oC due to thickness of liner wall and cooling water Lower part 40oC due to expansion Cylinder cover o 1650 oC 500 C Piston Cylinder 140 oC jacket 75 oC Cooling water space Cylinder liner Cyliner Liner 40 oC 5/26/2011 17 .

THERMAL STRESS OPTIMUM METAL THICKNESS HOOP or MECHANICAL STRESS METAL THICKNESS Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 18 .

Cooling water space was sealed from scavenge space using 'O' rings Telltale passage between 'O' rings led to outside of cylinder block to show a leakage.Older lower powered engines had a uniform wall thickness Cooling was achieved by circulating cooling water through space between liner and jacket. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 19 .

Tell-tale passage Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 20 .

without compromising strength tangential bore cooling is used. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 21 .To bring cooling water closer to the liner wall.

TANGENTIAL BORE COOLING Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 22 .

Holes are then bored radially around top of liner so that they join with tangentially bored holes. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 23 .Holes are bored from underside of flange formed by increase in liner diameter Holes are bored upwards and at an angle so that they approach internal surface of liner at a tangent.

W Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 24 .One piece liner & Tangential Drilling for C.

In some long stroke engines undercooling further down the liner was taking place. Condensation of water vapour on liner surface wash away lube oil film. Condensation of sulphuric acid vapour into acid contribute corrosion Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 25 .

Insulating tube minimize condensation of vapour Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 26 .

Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 27 . Latest engines liner is only cooled at the very top. Once oil film has been destroyed then wear will take place at an alarming rate Insulate outside of liner so that there was a reduction in cooling effect.Sulphuric acid if this condenses on liner surface corrosion can take place.

Inside surface is subjected to rubbing action of piston rings Subjected to high combustion pressure and temperature at upper end. Takes side thrust of piston caused by the connecting rod angularity

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Modern liners employ bore cooling at the top Pressure stress is high and liner wall thickness has to be increased. This brings cooling water close to liner surface to keep liner wall temperature Efficient cooling lead to no breakdown in lubrication or excessive thermal stressing. Although liner is splash lubricated cylinder lubricators may be used on larger engines
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Cooling water space is formed between engine frame and jacket Danger is water could leak down and contaminate crankcase if ‘O’ rings failed As a warning, "tell tale" holes are led between ‘O’ rings to outside of engine.
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MAN-B&W L58/64 Liner

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This stops any risk of leakage of water from the cooling space into crankcase Provides the cooling at the hottest part of the cylinder liner. Instead a separate water jacket is mounted above the cylinder frame.Modern engines tend not to use this space for cooling water. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 32 .

If carbon is build up it will rub against liner wall.Liner is fitted with a fireband also known as an anti-polishing ring. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 33 . polishing it and destroying its oil retention properties. It is slightly smaller in diameter than liner Purpose is to remove carbon which builds up on piston above top ring.

• • • • • Grey Cast iron is used because… Castibility is good for intricate shapes Good wear resistance large surface of irregular shaped graphite flakes and semiporous surface to retain oil Good thermal conductivity Good internal vibration damping properties Cost less relatively Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 34 .

Liner Materials • • • • Nodular or spheroidal cast iron is … Tougher More resistance to crack formation (less stress raising matrix) Less self lubrication properties * For higher power. shock loading due to combustion pressure Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 35 .

Alloy Element Nickel… • Chromium… • Copper or molybdenum – wear resistance to corrosion • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 36 .

00% Sulphur .3.0.10% Phosphorus .0.15% Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 37 .25% Vanadium .00% Silicon .0.0.70% Manganese .• • • • • • For large bore cylinder liners generally the cast iron contains: Carbon .1.

Two methods • Sand casting Centrifugal casting • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 38 .

thus lubricating properties. slow speed engines Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 39 . due to slow cooling rate Normally used for large.• • • Better wearing properties due to better grain flow produced in cast material Better graphitisation.

Stronger liner • Homogeneous in structure • Poor wearing quality (fast cooling rate) • Normally used for medium and high speed engine • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 40 .

drilled.old practice Nowadays they are marked.machined and hydraulically pressure tested ~ 7 Bar Ports are formed in casting . inside surface is honed to improved surface finish ~ 3. liners are rough.5λm or surface treatment Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 41 .• • • • • After casting. shaped and machined finish Then outside and inside surface is finalmachined Sometime.

0 mm Chrome surface must be porous for oil retention This can be achieved by etching with acid or a patented “porus-krome” Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 42 .2 to 1.• • • • Normally used an electrolytic deposition of hard chrome sometime nickel Chrome layer is ~ 0.

corrosion resistance.• • • • Advantages Hard surface and improve wear-resistance. uniform surface finish Disadvantages Expensive since reduction in wear rate cannot offset cost Plating can peel-off. must use only with cast iron piston rings Running-in action may be delayed .leading to rings collapse or scoring of liner Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 43 .

liner is ground or honed It is then replaced in the bath together with a screen attached to its surface. The current is then reversed and smallhemispherical cavities are produced Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 44 .• • • • • Plated liner is immersed into a special bath and current (for electroplating) is reversed This forms minute pits and channels in the chromium plating After plating.

Hoop stress crack due to poor liner support 3. poor cooling. poor fitting of rubbing sealing ring etc Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 45 .1. Circumferential crack along wear ridge due to SCR or new rings hitting the ridge 4. Crack across liner flange due to uneven or excessive tightening of cylinder head studs 2. Star or crazy cracking caused by flame impingement 5. Star cracks around lubricator quill due to water leakage 6. scavenge fire. Cracks across port bars due to overloading.

Crack 6 Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 46 .1 2 4 3 5 Liner Fault .

Three main causes of damage/wear to the liner material.caused by solid particles breaking through the lubricant film • Corrosion – caused by acidic products of combustion • Friction or scuffing . • Abrasion .Break down of lubricating oil film leading to metal to metal contact • Note: Normal and abnormal wear Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 47 .

• • • Hard particles combined with cylinder lubricant to form light abrasive paste causing liner wear In crosshead engine. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 48 . abrasive wear is the major contributor for liner wear. cylinder lubricant is limited and thus flushing of abrasive paste is not effective compared to trunk engine Thus in crosshead engine.

Source of hard particles can originate from… • Air borne dirt. • Carbon from combustion • Piston rings wear Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 49 . • Ash in fuel.

• • • Dirty air filter Dirty scavenge ports Scavenge manifold dirt Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 50 .

Fuel consists of vanadium. sodium silica and scale (iron rust) • It can be reduced by effective centrifugal separation • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 51 .

• • • Difficult to achieve perfect or complete combustion Bad combustion results in more carbon produced as abrasive particles To minimise carbon in cylinder: Efficient oil purification Good combustion Correct injection and pump timing Maintain correct fuel temperature Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 52 .

Produces wear dust from rubbing • Increases wear of both liner and rings • Use good quality ring material and lubrication • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 53 .

SULPHUROUS ACID SO3 + H2O --------.• • Marine fuel contain sulphur After combustion… sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide SO2 + H2O --------.SULPHURIC ACID UNBURNED FUEL (SULPHUR) + UNPERFECT COMBUSTION (O2 + H2O) ------.SULPHURIC ACID Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 54 .

Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 55 Pressure (bar) 40 .0 Sulphur in fuel %wt 2.RELATION BETWEEN H2SO4 DEWPOINT TEMPERATURE & FUEL SULPHUR CONTENT AT DIFFERENT PRESSURES 180 H2SO4 dewpoint temperature oC) 170 80 160 150 140 1 130 120 110 1.0 3.0.

• Dew point of sulphuric acid is around 110oC to 180oC depending upon : • Pressure in cylinder • Sulphur concentration • Acid is present especially during slow steaming .temperature around that boundary Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 56 .

by pass such system when engine is on light load • Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 57 .Used alkaline oil for cylinder lubrication • Control condensation in air cooler • Keep cooling water temperature in jacket as high as practicable • Keep quantity of starting air minimum Note: to protect waste heat system from corrosion.

• Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 58 .Occur when lubricant failed to separate rings and liner surfaces • Subsequent contact caused microwelding or micro-seizure.

• • • • • Too smooth liner surface resulting in too little lube oil retention Water on liner surface repelling oil film Blow past and thus removing oil film Poor or inadequate oil distribution around the liner surfaces Deposit on the piston absorbed oil film Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 59 .

in port-starboard direction and around scavenge and exhaust ports Reason for above wear pattern: High temperature region reduces oil viscosity and thus oil thickness High gas pressure increases ring loading causing penetration of oil film Slow movement of piston results in ‘oil wedge’ to break-down (reversal of piston movement) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 60 .• • Maximum normal liner wear occurs at top of the liner.

• • • • • Alkali in cylinder oil is used to neutralize acid. used cylinder oil TBN of 20 or 30 To obtained perfect distribution of cylinder oil is difficult Surfaces get either more alkalinity or less depending on position from cylinder lubrications quill and TBN used Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 61 . For fuel with 4-5% sulphur -cylinder oil with TBN (Total Base Number) of 70 For fuel with 1% sulphur.

CLOVERLEAFING Lube oil Wear due to exhausted alkalinity before cylinder oil spreads across liner surfaces Lube oil Lube oil Wear due to excessive alkalinity in cylinder oil Lube oil Measured by profilograph an instrument Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 62 .

Surfaces further from quills will have alkali neutralized by then and thus minimum wear is experienced Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 63 .• • • If TBN use is more. surfaces near quills will get excessive alkalinity leading to hard calcium compounds formed. Alkaline compounds are burnt and formed heavy deposits which caused abrasive wear.

If insufficient oil used.• • • If TBN used is less. This will lead to acidic corrosion (since insufficient alkalis to neutralize acid) and thus experienced maximum wear. the effect will be exchanged (TBN) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 64 . surfaces near quills will have minimum wear but surfaces furthest from quills will be starved of alkaline compounds when reaches there.

cooling. hardening 5/26/2011 65 .MICROSEIZURE – OIL FILM LINER WALL LINER WALL LINER WALL RING RING RING Asperities meet Frictional heat and welding Cyliner Liner Tearing out.

OIL .WEDGE OIL FILM LINER WALL PISTON SKIRT LINER WALL PISTON SKIRT OIL – WEDGE OIL FILM (1:150 TAPPER) Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 66 .

Gauging a Liner Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 67 .

.Gauging a liner on a large bore RTA engine.

Liner Wear Pattern .

05 0.8 . Liner should be replaced as the wear approaches 0.• • • • Wear rates vary. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 70 .1% of liner diameter.1mm/1000 hours is acceptable. The wear rate for a medium speed liner should be below 0.015mm/1000hrs. but as a general rule. Liner is gauged at regular intervals. for a large bore engine a wear rate of 0.

WEAR RATE TEMPLETE Cyl No A B C D Date fitted Total hours Position A B E C D E F EXHAUST PORT SCAVENGE PORT G F G H Max wear Mean Max Wear Wear rate since new Wear rate since last gauging Remarks H Date Date of last gauging Hours since last gauging Forward and After Port and Starboard TOP RING POSITION LINER WEAR LINER WEAR RECORD SHEETCyliner Liner 5/26/2011 RESULTS 71 .

Thus :Wear rate since last recorded measurement Increase in O since last record • Running hours since last record = = mm/1000 hrs Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 72 X 1000 .• • • • Related to time in order to put these figures into useful form of comparison Form of diameter increase per thousand running hours.

Wear rate since new : Total increase in O (diameter) = Total running hours since new = mm/1000 hrs X 1000 Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 73 .

• Discuss Overhauling of liner Liner Disassembly • Safety Procedures Tools required Spare parts Work plan Measurements to take • Liner Assembly Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 74 .

1 GRAUDAL WEAR STARTS WEAR RATE INCREASES DUE TO WORN RINGS AND LINERS RUNNING-IN PERIOD 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 5/26/2011 75 ENGINE RUNNING HOURS x 1000 Cyliner Liner .3 0.2 0. Liner wear rate mm/1000 0.Max.4 MAXIMUM CYLINDER LINER WEAR RATE PER RUNNING HOURS 0.

rusting Inefficient combustion – carbon Use of low sulphur fuel (less than 1% sulphur) in conjuntion with high alkaline cylinder oil and vise versa Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 76 .• • • • • • • • • • • • Improper running in – smoothing and geometry Misalignment of piston or distortion of cylinder – thermal stress and uneven tightening Inadequate oil supply or unsatisfactory oil supply Lube oil too low in viscosity or too low in alkalinity Incorrect piston ring clearances Unstable cylinder liner material – phosphorous / silicon Contamination of lube oil by extraneous abrasive material – 4stroke engine Cylinder wall temperature too high or too low – oil film breakdown or corrosive wear Overloading of engine – overheated. form acid.distorted and lube oil destroyed Scavenge air temperature too low – wash oil film.

Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 77 . Rubber ring cross-sectional area is 75 to 90% of grooves area.8d where “d” is diameter of rings section.7 to 0.• • • • Depth of groove = 0. Sealing parts smooth and guiding edges tapered and rounded. This is because the sealing effect is best when ring is in deformed state. Rubber rings and sealing parts applied with tallow or soft soap. (due to rubber being flexible but incompressible) Di (inside Ø of rubber rings) is 2% less than DG (diameter of the bottom of groove) – for prestressing effect when fitted in liner.

98 DG Di 0.8d d Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 78 .DG Di = 0.7 to 0.

Injection of oil is timed using inputs from crankshaft position. Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 79 .Oil is of high alkalinity which combats acid attack from sulphur in fuel. Correct quantity oil injected by opening valves from pressurized system. as piston ring pack passing injection point. load and speed.

Cyliner Liner 5/26/2011 80 . Another set of holes are drilled to meet up with these vertically bored holes at the point where the oil is required at the liner surface Other engines may utilise axial drillings as in a two stroke engine. Straight engine is similar) Lubricator drillings are bored from bottom circumferentially around liner wall.Sulzer ZA40 Liner (4 Stroke Vee Engine.

Summary • • • • Discuss materials used for liners Explain heat transfer and strength of liner Explain how Sealing in liner achieved Discuss how expansion on liner is accommodated • Describe wear and wear rate on liner BEDPLATES 5/26/2011 81 .

Summary • • • • Sketch and describe a modern liner Discuss surface treatment of liner Describe procedure in renewal of liner Discuss running-in of liner BEDPLATES 5/26/2011 82 .

Exercises • Explain the causes of liner wear • Explain the meaning of wear rate of liner • Sketch and describe procedure in renewal of liner • Discuss running-in of liner • Discuss the causes of excessive wear on liner BEDPLATES 5/26/2011 83 .