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Heat and Flow 3 Fluid Mechanics 3
Friday 24th April 2010
1400-1600 (2 hours)
The following will be supplied with this paper: Compressible flow charts Formula sheet
PLEASE TURN OVER
Page 1 of6
96atm. What should the area of the exit be? What is the range of back pressures over which the nozzle is choked? What is the range of back pressures over which there will be a normal shock standing in the diffuser? Calculate the mass flow rate for a back pressure of O. Find the speed of the aircraft? (9 marks) (c) A body is re-entering the earth atmosphere at Mach 5. The nozzle throat area is lOcm2• i.9atm static pressure and 2000K static temperature.a) sketch the shocks or flow structures according to their upstream Mach number.Section A Q. iv. (9 marks) Q.2 (a) For each of the body shapes shown in Fig Q. (10 marks) (b) A DeLaval nozzle is designed to operate isentropically with an exit Mach number of 3. iii.1 (a) Describe the structure of the flow at the exit of this space shuttle.2. The nozzle is supplied from an air reservoir in which the pressure is 5bar and the temperature is 500°K. In front of the body stands a normal shock wave. (7 marks) (b) A Pitot tube on board of an aircraft registers a pressure of 3. The pilot is uncertain about his speed but knows that he has passed the speed of sound while atmospheric conditions at his altitude are O. Determine the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure that the body leading surfaces are subject to if atmospheric static temperature and static pressure are respectively lkPa and 220oK. ii.3bar (1 bar=100 000 N/m2) (15 marks) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 2 of6 .
Q.8 Ma=5 - - Fig.2 a) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 3 of6 .Ma=14 - Ma=2A - Ma=2.
32. Sketch the structure of the expansion and find the downstream Mach number.a) 0 Q. i. ii. Assuming no losses other than shock losses. Using Rayleigh flow in the duct.Q. Q3. calculate the Mach number.3 (a) A supersonic air intake is designed to have a structure as shown on fig. (13 marks) A constant-area duct is connected to high pressure air reservoir through a (b) supersonic converging-diverging nozzle in which the air flow is fullydeveloped (isentropic). The walls of the duct are heated to supply 3S0kJlkg to air passing through the duct. Estimate the minimum wind speed to maintain the balloon at least Sm above the floor if the drag coefficient of such balloon is 0.3-a).1 (with respect to air) is anchored to the ground with a thin weightless wire 15m long.7. Reservoir pressure and temperature are respectively 7bar and 4S0°K.4 (a) A supersonic flow initially at Mach 2. Find the static temperature and pressure across the expansion. determine the Mach number at the duct inlet and the static back pressure when the system is chocked (sonic flow at the duct exit.S and with static properties of 400 K and 10kPa is expanded around a I2°-sharp corner. iii. (13 marks) (b) An 8m diameter balloon with relative density 0.) (12 marks) Fig. Calculate the angle covers by the expansion fan.8m1J) (12 marks) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 40f6 . total pressure and static temperature at the inlet of the intake (behind the final normal shock) at an altitude where static pressure and temperature are SOkPa and 2000K and upstream Mach number of 2. (Take gravity 9.Q.
05. that maximum speed is given by U max iii. The plates are separated by distance 2h.Section B Q5 (a) A film of lubricant is driven between two surfaces analogous to two parallel plates in a configuration as shown on Fig. iv.a) is a part of a device that is now enforced to operate in a configuration where the two surfaces are oriented vertically (Gravity force is no longer to be ignored) '" r+ I.lU~ . 2 h2 dp dx f. Derive an equation of motion and a velocity profile assuming the flow fully developed and in steady state.5. ii.a) i.b) i. ______________________ U&=~=Uw ______________________ U(y=-h)=-Uw Fig. What well-known flow configuration is this similar too? Sketch a diagram representing all forces involved to analyse the flow profile using a differential control volume. dp/dx. Properties of the lubricant are viscosity p and density p. Q5. Derive the new equation of motion and conclude on the velocity profile.l dx (15 marks) (b) The film of lubricant in Q. The upper plate moves with speed Uwand the lower with -U. exists along the plates. (UW >0). Obtain the position of the maximum speed between the plates and show that. Y Fig.!. (10 marks) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 50f6 . ii. It is believed that a pressure gradient.a). Q5.s: dp 2f. = _. Make an inventory of the forces acting on a fluid element in this new case.
and its dynamic viscosity to be O. (12 marks) (c) A metallic flat plate 10m long and 6m wide speeds under water with velocity 5m/s. Based on equations derived in Q. is the freestream velocity. D the boundary layer thickness and u(y) is the local velocity at a distance y normal to the plate surface.Q. (Use two-dimensional reference frame with y normal to the surface and x in streamwise direction) (5 marks) (b) i. estimate the drag force and drag coefficient on this plate.OOlNslm2. show that the local shear stress DD at the plate surface (y=O) is given by: 1: a (x) = P [T2 ~ 00 15 dx d6(x) (where x is the distance from the plate's leading edge). iii.) (8 marks) ENDOF PAPER PLEASE TURN OVER Page 6 of6 .6 (a) Sketch a general flow profile in a laminar boundary layer while specifying the various conditions to be satisfied by the velocity profile. Using Vonkarman mometmum integral. Drag force is only due to skin friction and boundary layer is laminar all over the plate. (Take density of water to be 1 OOOkglm3 . ii.6.b). Deduce an equation and expression for the boundary layer thickness and full expression of the shear stress at the place surface. Calculate the values of a and b in the following equation if it is to be used as a velocity profile in a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate: u(y) = a y2 +bY U 62 s 00 where U".
Department of Mechanical Engineering Heat and Flow 3 Fluid Mechanics 3 Wednesday 12 January 2011 1400-1600 (2 hours) The following will be supplied with this paper: Compressible flow charts Formula sheet PLEASE TURN OVER Page 1 of5 .
2 (a) A supersonic De-Laval nozzle has a throat cross sectional area of 0.1 m2 and exit cross sectional area of 0. Obtain the duct exit-to-inlet total temperature ratio and the duct inlet Mach number.1. the air properties at the nozzle exit. (14 marks) (b) A constant-area duct is connected to a high pressure air reservoir via a fully operating isentropic supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. (10 marks) (e) The spaceplane of 0. (8 marks) Q. the mass flow rate at the nozzle exit. .1 (7 marks) (b) A spaceplane is re-entering the Earth atmosphere at Mach 4. To choke the system. i. ii. iii. Obtain the back pressure of the system. Fig. In front of the plane stands a normal shock wave. the air properties at the throat. Obtain the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure that the plane leading surface is subject to if atmospheric static temperature and static pressure were 200 K and 1 kPa respectively. walls of the duct are heated to supply 350 kllkg to air passing through the duct.1 (a) Give a short description of the phenomena observed around the aircraft shown in Fig Q.Q. Assuming the nozzle to operate at design condition calculate: i. (11 marks) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 2 of 5 ii. Q.1 (b) has a frontal cross sectional area of 10 m2 • Estimate the force exerted by this normal shock wave on the body.175 m2• The supply pressure and temperature from the air reservoir are 68 kPa and 40 DC respectively. Reservoir pressure and temperature are respectively 7 bar and 450 K.
Find the static temperature and pressure across the expansion. total pressure and static temperature at the exit of the intake (i. (b) A supersonic flow initially at Mach 2. Assuming no losses other than shock losses.e. Fig. calculate the Mach number. Based on the final Mach number and total pressure. behind the final normal shock). iii.3 (a) A supersonic air intake is designed to have a flow structure as shown on Fig.Q.5 and with static properties of 400 K and 10 kPa expands around a 12°-sharp comer.4 .. (13 marks) ii. Q 3(a). at an altitude where static pressure and temperature are 60 kPa and 220 K and upstream Mach number of 2. Calculate the angle covered by the expansion fan. i. Q 3(a) represents an efficient air intake. (12 marks) Ma1=2. i. justify whether or not the sketch of Fig.4. ii. Sketch the structure of the expansion and find the downstream Mach number. Q 3(a) PLEASE TURN OVER Page 3 of 5 .
Bulk modulus of the flowing liquid is 5. Assuming the flow is incompressible calculate the mass flow rate through the pipe and the average velocity.001 0) 01=o~ Page 4 of 5 Fig. i. valid? (13 marks) ii. (Take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m'. Determine the value of constant c for the flow to satisfy a no-slip boundary condition at the walls. Is the assumption of an incompressible flow made in question ii. as: i.4 (a) A liquid of density 800 kglm3 flows through a circular cross sectional area pipe of radius R=40 mm. The local flow velocity varies only with radius. r. Determine the maximum mass flow of water in a 25 mm diameter pipe that can be achieved with the flow remaining laminar. Q. (b) There is laminar flow in pipes as long as Re --'2000.001 Nslm2) (12 marks) I· 0 Po= 200 kPa 2m ·1 f=0.Q. and its dynamic viscosity to be 0.8 x ](/Nlm2. iii. What is the pressure drop along a 2 m length of this pipe? ii.5 PLEASE TURN OVER .
The upper plate moves with speed Uwand the lower with -U. Q. Derive an equation of motion for this flow configuration. a. Friction in the duct is not negligible and the average friction factor is 0.Q.77 (See Fig. A constant pressure gradient. Stagnation pressure in the supply reservoir is 200 kPa. Assuming isentropic supersonic flow in the nozzle.04 m. iii. The plates are separated by distance 2h. a.6 A film of lubricant is driven between two surfaces analogous to two parallel plates in a configuration as shown on Fig. iv. dp/dx exists along the plates. U(y=-h)=-Uw What well-known flow configuration is this similar to? Sketch a diagram representing all forces involved to analyse the flow profile using a control volume.5). Obtain the new Mach number at the duct inlet and the Mach number at the exit of the duct. (UW >0). Properties of the lubricant are viscosity f1 and density p. Length of the duct is 2 m and the diameter of the duct is 0.5 A circular adiabatic duct of constant cross-sectional area A is fed with air by a supersonic DeLaval nozzle of throat area A'" given by that AlA'" =1. U(y=h)=Uw ___________ Fig. END OF PAPER Page 5 of 5 . Obtain an expression for the velocity profile assuming the flow is fully developed and boundary conditions as given on Fig.6 i. (25 marks) iii. i.6. Q.6. ii. what will be the maximum allowable duct length? A normal shock occurs just at the exit of the nozzle (duct inlet). a. What back pressure would allow the duct to operate at design condition? (25 marks) ii.001.