This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Session Builders Series 100
60 Exercises for Management and Supervisory Training Volume II Exercises 26 – 60 TRC Interactive, Inc.
HRD Press, Inc.
Copyright © 2010, TRC Interactive, Inc.
The materials that appear in this book, other than those quoted from prior sources, may be reproduced for educational/training activities. There is no requirement to obtain special permission for such uses. We do, however, ask that the following statement appear on all reproductions: Reproduced from Session Builders Series 100, by TRC Interactive, Inc. Published by HRD Press, Inc.: Amherst, MA, 2010. This permission statement is limited to reproduction of materials for educational or training events. Systematic or large-scale reproduction or distribution—or inclusion of items in publications for sale—may be carried out only with prior written permission from the publisher.
HRD Press, Inc. 22 Amherst Road Amherst, MA 01002 800-822-2801 (U.S. and Canada) 413-253-3488 413-253-3490 (fax) www.hrdpress.com
Editorial services: Sally Farnham Production services: Jean S. Miller Cover design: Eileen Klockars
Guidelines for Improving Your Session To the Leader
Experiential exercises are fundamental components of nearly every live training program. This is particularly true in the topic of management and supervisory training. Many of the concepts are demonstrable. Exercises "bring home" points better than nearly any other method. Session Builders Series 100 is a unique collection of exercises that will enhance your training design. The exercises can be used as icebreakers, discussion stimulators, content demonstrators, attitude and feeling indicators, or as closing activities. Each Session Builders exercise is complete and includes:
• Stated purpose and objectives • Convenient review of the exercise • Up front important information like group size, time required, type of exercise,
and materials needed
• Facilitator notes, organized step by step for easy facilitation • Discussion points to maximize the benefit of the exercise • Options/variations for added value
Session Builders Series 100 is a collection of exercises in the quality tradition of the Session Builders Series. It's a standard of excellence unparalleled in the training industry.
Guidelines for Improving Your Session Leading a Discussion
Trainers, managers, and team leaders need to be skillful discussion facilitators. As a trainer, you need to keep the participants focused on the subject, solicit everyone's ideas, keep the discussion moving, and bring it to a conclusion. The discussion portion of a training session is a critical component. During discussion, you can elicit participants' opinions and discern their knowledge level. After completing an activity, such as a role play or simulation, the discussion brings out what each participant discovered and learned from the activity. Being a successful discussion facilitator is important and it isn't a difficult skill to master. Like any other skill, improvement comes with practice. The following are some guidelines that will help you facilitate discussions:
• Facilitate, don't dominate. The participants should do the talking. Your role is
to lead or facilitate, not dominate the discussion. If you forget or ignore any other guideline, remember this one.
• Involve everyone. Try to get as many people involved as possible. Ask questions
of the quieter participants. Questions like, “Fred, what do you think of Rita's point?” or, “Lori, has anything similar ever happened at your office?” If possible, avoid questions that may be difficult for shy people to answer.
• Use open-ended questions. Make sure that your questions cannot be answered
with a simple yes or no. For example, say, “How has the new policy changed your job?” rather than, “Has the new policy changed your job?”
• Maintain focus and control. By having the participants direct their comments
and observations toward you, you can follow up on their answer or ask the next question. This way you can keep the discussion focused on where you want it, rather than on some tangent or pet issue. Just as important, by maintaining control, you can avoid having one or two people dominate the discussion.
• Clarify and summarize participant comments. Often participants will make an
observation that is appropriate and valuable, but is not clear and concise. The best way to handle it is to summarize and clarify the point. Use expressions like, “So, you feel that...” or, “If I understand you correctly, you're saying that...” Repeating their comments in your words can also serve as a reinforcement of an important point.
• Use the flip chart. Many discussions lend themselves to this technique. After an
exercise or activity, you'll want the participants to talk about the experience. And, you'll want them to come to several conclusions or make some salient points. During this process, the participants will also make comments that are extraneous to your purposes. Jot the salient points or conclusions on the flipchart. This reinforces what you want reinforced and ignores the rest. question or point. Don't drag a discussion beyond its natural time limit. If the issues have all surfaced, the points have been made, and each participant has had a chance to convey his or her thoughts, bring the discussion to an end.
• Keep it moving. Before interest and attention start to diminish, go to the next
• Conclude by summarizing. This is the only part of the discussion that you can
dominate. Briefly review and reinforce each of the important points that you want the participants to remember. The flip chart is a valuable aid during your summary. After you've summarized, conclude by asking if there are any questions. Usually there won't be any questions, but it's courteous to ask before moving on to the next exercise or activity.
Guidelines for Improving Your Session Using Handouts
Handouts should be prepared carefully. They should have been clearly identified. Reproducible handout masters are provided with Session Builders. You will need to have them reproduced for the appropriate number of participants prior to your session date. One of the most significant problems associated with handouts is that people begin looking through them instead of paying attention to you. If you want participants to refer to a handout, you should distribute it just before it is being used rather than have a stack of papers waiting at their seats when they arrive. As soon as the handout has served its purpose, tactfully ask participants to set it aside. Sometimes, you have a handout you want to give the participants that is not actually used in the session. In that case, you may want to distribute it just before the session ends. Depending on its content, you may want to refer to it during the session and tell participants you'll be distributing that handout at the conclusion of the session.
Guidelines for Improving Your Session Handling Questions
Responding to questions is an agonizing situation for many trainers. It's very hard to be prepared. It requires stepping out into the unknown. Like walking a hiking trail at night—you’re not entirely confident the ground will be there under your next footfall. Here are some suggestions you can follow to make responding to questions more effective. Begin by trying to anticipate as many questions as possible ahead of time. Discuss your subject material with other people. Find out what questions they might ask. Try to second-guess what the participants are likely to ask during your session. Following these guidelines will help you answer questions effectively:
• Understand the questions. If there's any doubt as to what the participant is
asking you, restate the question to be sure you understand; or simply say, “I'm not sure I understand what you are asking. Could you rephrase it another way?” If you understand the question, repeat it so that it's clear to all participants in the group. You might want to say something like, “You're concerned about...” or “What you're asking is...”
• Test the purpose of the question. Most questions will be pretty
straightforward. If you feel a participant has a hidden agenda or ulterior motive, test the purpose of the question by asking, “Why do you ask?”
• Pause to gather your thoughts together. • Answer briefly and concisely. Use care to avoid launching into a long detailed
• Check back. Check back to ensure you've answered to the participant's
satisfaction. Phrases like, “Does that answer your question?” or “Is that what you wanted?” work well for this step.
they begin by asking what appears to be a question.. If you don't know the answer. Sometimes a person will make a speech rather than ask a question. Perhaps there's someone here today who does.questions that take a long time to answer or ones for which there is no good answer.. Rarely. “Don't you feel.” If you make such a promise. Sometimes. be sure to keep it.” For the most part. you may get a question which is genuinely loaded or argumentative. “That's a very interesting question... there are questions that are loaded or argumentative. “I really would like to discuss it with you further at a later time. members of the audience may have a strong opinion about the topic.. viii . You should restate using the same words he or she used when asking the question so that the questioner is satisfied. I really don't know the answer.. simply say. You can maintain control of such a situation by tactfully interrupting and indicating that you understand what the questioner is saying. It may begin something like. turn it back to the questioner by saying something like. the questions participants ask will be genuine and easy to handle.Please tell me why you feel that way.” Or. I appreciate your input. In order to interject their own opinions. Frankly. You're saying. “You're suggesting. I see. participants may ask difficult questions. I'll try to find out and get back to you..” Once in a while.?” It's best to handle them just about the same way you would handle a question that requires a long explanation. but what turns out to be a talk of their own.On rare occasions.. “Oh. If not.Is that right? Thank you.
Some of your participants. role plays can provide a valuable learning experience.) • Often. role play groups include an "observer. and perhaps you as well. may have had a negative experience in the past with role plays. ix . Role plays allow participants to incorporate techniques into their own styles and to make them "fit" their own approaches." If you are using observers. participants can readily see a number of ways to apply these techniques and get positive results. Urge participants not to refer to their role play briefing sheets during the actual role play.) Make sure observers realize the importance of their role. (This encourages them to act more naturally. However. Encourage observers to begin the small group discussion after each role play. then (in the hallway or corner of the room) call each set of role players aside to quickly review and reinforce their roles. (Note: You'll need one Observer's Sheet for every participant in the group if you plan to rotate roles and give each participant an opportunity to be an observer. Allow each person a few minutes to study the role. Session Builders Guidelines for Improving Your Session Role Play Guidelines Role play exercises give participants an opportunity to practice all of the training techniques much as they would in an actual on-job situation. provide them with an Observer's Sheet. You'll want to encourage participants to use their newly-learned skills as much as possible. When feedback techniques are applied in these practice situations. Urge them to play the role as though they were the person in the case. when properly set up and run. not as they think that person would act. This allows you to set the stage for the role play and to make sure all participants understand how to proceed. They are able to see and hear more objectively and to identify the specific techniques each role player is using. Here are some suggestions for getting the most out of role play exercises: • Begin the role play exercise by distributing copies of the role play briefing sheets to each person playing a role.
During the exercises. If one group finishes before the others. encourage them to replay the situation in a different way until all groups have finished. You'll need enough for every group to have one of each. • Before the session begins. signal for the role play to begin. circulate around the room to assist groups who are having problems understanding or carrying out the exercise.• When all groups are ready. make enough copies of the role play sheets (from x . your handout masters).
simulation. Be sure to check the Options/Variations section of the exercise to see if an alternative approach with the exercise may better suit your needs. discussion stimulator. time required to run it.. For the exercises you have chosen. Scan down the list of topics in the first column to the subject area you want. Information listed includes the name of the exercise.g. Session Builders How to Find the Right Session Builders Exercise 1. the last digit is the handout page number.g. xi . Check the exercises you have selected on the list at the end of this index. Types include assessment. 2. and recommended group size. 126) have a secondary relationship to the topic. 4. use the code number in the lower right-hand corner of the handout. and application exercises. Read across the line to the type of exercise you want. the first three digits indicate the Session Builder number. case study. 150) relate directly to the topic. 3. In each code number (SB 101 Handout 3). Exercises with numbers in bold type (e. pull out and review the appropriate folders. role play. Note: To locate the handouts you need for a specific exercise.. 5. Numbers in regular type (e. Eliminate exercises that don’t meet your basic criteria.
Topic 126 126 150 151 156 157 133 149 118 101 104 112 102 126 128 134 144 145 126 132 146 122 122 145 147 104 112 118 103 159 102 108 109 114 122 123 126 145 102 113 103 122 141 155 115 127 102 109 114 122 126 145 154 140 156 137 141 152 153 155 102 121 126 154 110 111 159 102 151 156 160 121 112 118 160 141 144 145 129 102 108 109 114 115 126 129 145 148 118 102 Assessment Discussion Stimulator Case Study Role Play Simulation Application Active Listening Assertiveness Career Development Communication Skills Creativity Delegation Discipline/Termination EEO/Affirmative Action Interviewing/Selection 126 132 155 126 128 133 158 144 145 158 124 135 140 146 156 120 122 123 149 105 116 120 122 123 149 129 130 117 124 125 131 136 141 144 145 156 157 105 125 129 125 Leadership Skills 130 147 117 125 136 141 157 158 148 114 115 121 126 127 154 xiii 117 136 146 158 105 116 133 143 125 137 138 153 155 125 Meetings/Discussion Motivation 121 105 114 121 126 127 129 145 154 Organizational Structure Performance Appraisal/ Coaching and Counseling 104 112 101 107 110 111 112 Policies/Procedures Problem Solving/Decision Making 105 114 122 123 127 129 105 114 122 123 127 129 106 Recognition/Rewards Resources 159 142 105 121 127 105 121 127 139 159 119 Stress Team Building Time Management Training/Orientation .
Number 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 Session Builder Blue Monday A Behavior Problem Enhancing the Motivational Climate Snowflake The Marty Incident Getting to the Root of a Problem A Natural Disaster How should I handle it? Are these reports really necessary? Space Tower Lookers and Runners What are we doing? Setting Objectives and Standards Leadership in Action You’ve Got What It Takes to Do It Time Flies The Big Turn-Ons Making the Meeting Meaningful Job Breakdown Analysis What’s the problem? The New Project The Case of Mr. Y Reactions to Errors and Failures You Could Do This Job in Your Sleep What horseplay? Decision Making in Practice Measuring a Problem Sensitivity to Others What’s it worth? Motivators and Satisfiers Supervisory Styles The Errors We Make What do you know about EEO? Chocolate or vanilla? The Best/Worst Decision Maker Time (minutes) 60 20−50 30−45 60 60 30−60 90 60 60 90−120 60−90 60 60 90 45 60 30−45 70−90 60−90 60 60 60 90 60 60 30−45 60 60 60 30−45 60 60 15−30 30 30 45−60 Group Size 2 to 15 5 to 25 5 to 25 10 to 40 up to 25 5 to 15 10 to 50 10−unlimited 6 to 30 12 to 24 12 to 30 5 to 25 5 to 25 unlimited up to 15 unlimited 6 to 60 unlimited unlimited 5 to 35 15−unlimited 5 to 30 2 to 15 5 to 40 unlimited 5 to 30 5−unlimited 5 to 30 5 to 35 unlimited 5 to 25 10 to 50 unlimited unlimited 35 maximum 6 to 30 Handouts 11 2 1 4 2 1 2 9 7 3 1 3 7 9 2 3 0 3 3 3 5 4 8 1 4 3 5 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 0 2 xiv . Z The Case of Mr.
. . I’m Okay—You’re Not Okay Finding the Right Applicant A Selection Interview Can I take Friday off? Become a Better Speller Less Is More Big Words What do you mean? The Gruff Manager One-Way/Two-Way Communication Impossible Things Heroes and Heroines Task Force Defining Your Role Saying It Assertively Time (minutes) 45−60 45−60 20 30 30 90 45 60 30−60 60 30−60 60 60 20 60 30−45 15−30 60 60 150−180 30−45 60 minimum 60 60 Group Size 40 to 50 10 to 40 unlimited 8 to 50 unlimited 10 to 20 2 to 25 5 to 45 5 to 35 10 to 48 10 to 50 10 to 50 6 to 48 unlimited 10 to 30 up to 20 up to 20 6 to 36 6 to 40 5 to 20 unlimited 10 to 40 unlimited 6 to 30 Handouts 0 0 4 0 2 10 1 1 1 2 4 3 1 1 5 8 1 11 3 0 0 0 2 2 xv .Number 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 Session Builder Fogging the Message I’ll Never Forget It Painless Time Log Three-Letter Words Getting Through the Sound Barriers Work Pressures If I Had Known There’s Another Way to Say It What you’re really saying is.
Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise asks participants to assess a manager’s counseling skills in handling a behavior problem. Participants are presented with a case example where a manager is having difficulty talking with an employee about a problem. favoritism. or threats. A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and act as a lead-in to the discussion on the subject during the session. Participants are asked to identify the improper counseling style used by the manager and to indicate the type of error by choosing a suitable error description from a list. participants come to realize that effective counseling is counseling without sarcasm. • . It provides participants with an interesting and humorous discussion and review. Although many of these phrases and sayings in the case example may sound familiar. Type: Assessment (with Role Play option) Time Required: 30 to 45 minutes Group Size: 5 to 30 126 – What horseplay? Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise at the end of a unit on counseling techniques.
The explanation or interpretation the participants give for their choice may be entirely justified.) 3. • Allow participants 10 to 15 minutes to complete this part of the exercise. and they’ll generally not identify with the approach. suggested answers are provided. Discussion • Have participants discuss each statement the manager makes.) 2. • Explain that not everything on the list of what to avoid in counseling will be used in the case study. An example might be when the manager tells Donnelly in the first sentence to “cut out the horseplay.Preparation • Make copies of Handouts 1 and 2 for each participant. hurt. In fact. etc. What emotions are indicated by the exchange? (Anger. Process • Distribute the handouts to participants. try some of the following questions (suggested responses are also shown): 1. What results does sarcasm bring about? (It cuts off communication. there may be times when more than one answer will be given for a manager’s error.” This could be interpreted as being sarcastic (G) or as prejudging the situation (J).) SB 126-1 . Differences in analysis will arise and should be encouraged. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available during the discussion (optional). Participants will readily agree that what the manager is doing is not okay. disgust. • For the convenience of the facilitator. The choices will depend on how participants read and interpret the manager’s remarks. aggression. Allow for these individual differences. ask participants what the manager has done to encourage the employee to discuss the problem. For each response. In order to stimulate thinking about how the situation could have been handled more productively. How is constructive participation encouraged? (There isn’t any. stops action effect. • Provide pencils for participants. and allow them a few minutes to read the directions.
4. Why is it unwise to threaten or bluff an employee? (You lose respect; it may result in legal problems.) 5. Of what use is profanity in a counseling situation? (There are no positive points other than shock effect under severe conditions.) 6. What effect does publicly scolding or humiliating an employee have? (Loss of motivation, respect, commitment to goals.) 7. How can prejudging the situation be harmful to both sides? (You arrive at a wrong solution, produce negative feelings, lose commitment.) Use these questions to stimulate discussion for the next 15 to 20 minutes to get the participants more deeply involved in the case study. This helps them realize their own responsibility regarding negative exchanges between themselves and their people.
• If time permits, instruct participants to rewrite this counseling exchange
focusing on positive and helpful responses from the manager. The tone of this case study as well as specific responses from the manager will change drastically.
• Another alternative for discussion purposes centers on the list of things to avoid
during a counseling or disciplining session. Without becoming too personal or giving too many specifics, have participants recall instances from their own experiences involving an item improperly handled. Analyze what effect each instance had on the people involved. Usually no positive outcome results from a manager using these approaches. In fact, ill will would be created.
• Depending on the length of the session, two participants act out two role plays:
1. The case study as presented 2. A modified or appropriate version of it
• Being able to visually view the case increases participant awareness of the
difference between the two counseling styles.
126 – What horseplay? HANDOUTS
126 – What horseplay?
In the following case study, a manager is handling a behavior problem. As you read the case, underscore any examples you find the manager handled improperly. For each item underscored, indicate the type of error you feel the manager made by writing the corresponding letter from the list below. First, read this list of what you should avoid in any counseling or disciplining session: A B C D E F G H I J Showing favoritism Using profanity or abusive language Humiliating the employee Scolding the employee publicly Losing your temper Being apologetic or too familiar Being sarcastic Failing to give adequate warning Making idle threats or bluffing Prejudging the situation
SB 126 Handout 1
126 – What horseplay? Case Study
Read the case study below and remember to underscore errors made by the manager as you read. From the list of what to avoid in a counseling or disciplining session, indicate the letter of each type of error. Manager: “Donnelly, how many times do I have to tell you to cut out the horseplay?” Type of Error
Employee: “What horseplay?” Manager: “Don’t give me that ‘What horseplay’ nonsense! You know what I’m talking about.”
Employee: “You just don’t understand my sense of humor.” Manager: “Your sense of humor, as you call it, is causing me and everybody else around here problems. I don’t care what you think you’re doing, but in my book, you’re just wasting time.”
Employee: “What do you mean ‘wasting time’? I get more than my share of work done around here.” Manager: “The *#@% you do! You’re nothing but a goof-off. I’ve a good mind to give you a suspension.”
Employee: “Go ahead, see if I care.” Manager: “I wish I could, but they won’t let me. But I’ll tell you one thing, you can consider this your first and last warning. Straighten up, or I’ll find a way to get you out of here!”
SB 126 Handout 2
126 – What horseplay? Answer Sheet (for Facilitator only)
Manager: “Donnelly, how many times do I have to tell you to cut out the horseplay?” Type of Error G
Employee: “What horseplay?” Manager: “Don’t give me that ‘What horseplay’ nonsense! You know what I’m talking about.” E
Employee: “You just don’t understand my sense of humor.” Manager: “Your sense of humor, as you call it, is causing me and everybody else around here problems. I don’t care what you think you’re doing, but in my book, you’re just wasting time.”
Employee: “What do you mean ‘wasting time’? I get more than my share of work done around here.” Manager: “The *#@% you do! You’re nothing but a goof-off. I’ve a good mind to give you a suspension.” B C I
Employee: “Go ahead, see if I care.” Manager: “I wish I could, but they won’t let me. But I’ll tell you one thing, you can consider this your first and last warning. Straighten up, or I’ll find a way to get you out of here!”
SB 126 Handout 3
Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise presents participants with a complete decision that must be made spontaneously and decisively. Participants are able to see the effect a manager has on his or her employees in motivating them to work as a team through the method chosen to “sell” them on an assignment. . Their roles establish numerous ways they can resist the work. The role play involves a manager and three employees of a Budget Section in a major organization. The manager’s role sets up circumstances that require extra work on the part of employees. An introduction to the kinds of problems that managers can encounter in the subject area and a lead into a discussion on the principle points. The group has the opportunity to see how several people handle the same situation. Type: Role Play Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 15 to unlimited 127 – Decision Making in Practice Use this Session Builder as: • • A reinforcement exercise to build on key points of the subject.
At the last minute. Each employee has a personal reason why he or she cannot help at this time. you are to determine how the differing approaches of the three managers affect the outcome of the role play. the manager has been asked to prepare a presentation of future budgets for an important meeting. • Arrange an office-like setting in the front of the room if It is not already set up. • Arrange a secluded area where role players can study their parts before Process • Select six participants to play the various roles: three people to portray the accountants. You will get an opportunity to observe the role play three times because three different participants have been chosen to portray the role of manager. Needing assistance. and three people to portray the manager. Prepare name cards at each position so that the group can easily identify each individual. such as Accountant #1 (include participant’s name).Preparation • Make copies of each role play for the six participants—three for the manager and one each for Accountant #1. SB 127-1 . Suggest that each person portraying an accountant use his or her own name. • Have the participants playing the roles of the three accountants enter the room and take their positions in front of the group. Provide an area for the accountants to sit as if they are at their desks. The role play will pose an interesting problem for each of the people who play the manager. They’re not to discuss their roles with each other. • Read or paraphrase the following to the remainder of the group: You are about to observe a role play involving three accountants and their manager from the Buffington Corporation. and Accountant #3. As observers. the manager will ask the employees to assist in the project. • Make copies of Observer Sheets for the remaining participants. Accountant #2 (participant’s name) etc. • Give role players a copy of their roles. • Arrange an office-like setting in the front of the room. Then ask them to go to the secluded area to study their characters. Accountant #2. • Provide pencils and sufficient writing space for participants to complete the observation sheets. starting. This procedure will help personalize the role play and make participants feel more comfortable.
• At the conclusion of the first role play. a last-minute request. • This exercise is designed to illustrate a variety of ways to handle a complex situation. Ask employees for their reactions. problem solving. The purpose of this session is to create an environment in which each participant can practice expertise in handling various management skills. participants can examine many forms of motivation. This normally does not interfere with the effect of the exercise. perhaps the first manager will try to appeal to the accountants’ sense of teamwork. For example. • Overcome this problem by reminding the group that this is a learning experi- ence. in fact. Repeat the procedure with Manager #2. SB 127-2 . Discussion • When all role plays have finished. be sure the comments concerning the managers do not turn into pick- ing on the one who really did the worst job. When individuals in the session are all from one organization and know each other well. because the support characters have had an opportunity to practice. the role play begins. accountants in order to accomplish the task. However. stop the role play and move on. ask the observers to express their observa- tions based on their handouts. The manager may say this is. Have the participants playing the managers discuss the feelings they had while playing the role. You may see the managers encouraging cooperation or displaying more authority. But with the combined talents and assistance of each of these people. • Often. if one of the managers becomes stumped. delegation. • However. be careful that the group does not leave the session feeling that the person playing Manager #1 is a better manager back on the job than Managers #2 and #3. • The second and third managers may offer something quite different to the three • With each approach taken. The employees may comply with or deny this request based on their own plans and needs for the evening. decision making. leadership styles. and teambuilding techniques. You may see the employees changing their style with each manager who confronts them. • Most of the role plays will come to a natural conclusion.• As one of the individuals playing the manager enters. details and examples of current projects can be included without wasting a lot of time. Have it continue until they reach an outcome. and again with Manager #3. Manager #1 joins the observers. the second and third managers have a more difficult time.
the group will make many observations and generate much discussion on problem-solving styles. the three players will display a number of motivation and team-building techniques. At the same time. change the roles so that the manager also has a previous commitment and has to get the work done entirely through the employees. This requires more skill in getting the people to stay but often parallels what actually happens in organizations.• Due to the variety of ways these roles can be played. The exercise can then illustrate the effects such techniques have on employees and the long-range consequences that may occur. • By using the Observer Sheets as reference for the discussion and having three different people play the part of manager. SB 127-3 . the group can observe and comment on the varying styles of decision making. Options/Variations To make the role of manager more difficult.
Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice HANDOUTS .
you must hurry to talk with your people. including appropriate examples of current projects. Primarily your section is involved in budget projection for new company products. you feel confident you can prepare a good presentation with the aid of your staff. but do not have sufficient details on any current projects. you will have enough time to develop an impressive talk. and you have received a call from your manager. This is time-consuming. You have plans to design some visual aids to enhance your presentation. You are familiar with all of their areas. but if each of your employees helps. Obviously. You have been asked to make a presentation at a breakfast meeting tomorrow morning with division managers in your company. It is now 15 minutes before your normal leaving time. You may wish to suggest alternative time off and/or the possibility of future promotions to help persuade your employees to stay and help. a breakfast meeting with company executives is important. you can finish in plenty of time. Your topic includes discussion on new product budgeting procedures. SB 127 Handout 1 . If each of your three people assists you in their respective areas. Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice Role for the Manager You are the manager in the Budget Office of the Buffington Corporation. Since it is near the close of your workday. Although this is a last-minute request.
In essence. the company is quite clear about reporting moonlighting. Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice Role for Accountant #1 You are an accountant in the Budget Office of the Buffington Corporation. but right now your manager is hurrying in to talk with you. and you have promised to meet one of your clients after work this evening. the company does not mind moonlighting as long as it does not interfere or conflict with your regular job. To supplement your income. The Buffington Corporation has a policy about moonlighting. It is now 15 minutes before you finish for the day. you will find the right opportunity to talk about it sometime next week. You have been meaning to talk about it but first wanted to see whether your outside tax work would be substantial enough to even mention. and you are eager to get going. SB 127 Handout 2 . As yet. you have been doing some tax work for a few friends of yours. However. Because you work on new product budgets. you have not mentioned your tax work to your manager. you see no conflict between your normal job and your tax work. Hopefully.
and your manager is hurrying in to talk with you. You are even prepared to look for another job if your request is denied. and you do not feel adequately rewarded. You primarily work on the development cost of new products. Even your manager does not realize how much extra work you have. SB 127 Handout 3 . and Buffington has nearly doubled its new products in the past year alone. It is now 15 minutes before you finish for the day. You have been working at Buffington for over a year and have been greatly disturbed about the amount of work required of you. Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice Role for Accountant #2 You are an accountant in the Budget Office of the Buffington Corporation. You have had to spend many evenings working on “crash” programs. You have talked it over with your spouse and have decided to ask for additional salary or a job change.
Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice Role for Accountant #3 You are an accountant in the Budget Office of the Buffington Corporation. You enjoy working for the company and have a good relationship with your fellow workers and your manager. which is to start early so that all the children can get home at a decent hour. You want to leave early to pick up the party favors. Primarily you are involved in the budget accounting for production of new products. Your daughter is having her fourth birthday party. SB 127 Handout 4 . but you are often called upon for extra assignments because of your experience. and your manager is hurrying in to talk with you. It is now 15 minutes before you finish for the day.
How did Accountant #1 handle the three different approaches? 4. Session Builders 127 – Decision Making in Practice Observer Sheet During the role play. How do you think each manager felt about the situation? 3. How did Accountant #2 handle the three different approaches? SB 127 Handout 5 (continued) . Compare each manager’s approach to the problem. 2. carefully observe and be prepared to discuss the following: 1.
Are there any “downstream effects” created in the role plays? SB 127 Handout 5 (concluded) .5. How did Accountant #3 handle the three different approaches? 6. How does each manager’s approach affect the outcome of the role play? 7.
Can the problem be measured objectively or subjectively? 3. A learning aid pursuant to discussing employee job performance and counseling needs. if any. participants determine if a given situation or behavior is a problem and rate the relative need for counseling or discipline in that situation. • . Type: Assessment Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 5 to 30 128 – Measuring a Problem Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise to point out key concepts involved in evaluating behavior problems and counseling needs. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: In this exercise. Does a problem exist? 2. This exercise asks participants to study specific behavior situations and decide the following: 1. What. decide when to take corrective action. action needs to be taken? Managers and supervisors can identify how to sort out problems. and get feedback from others on how they would handle the same situation.
In Part I. • Have whiteboards or flipcharts and markers available for participants to summarize Part II. It is important to air different views so that participants can share and understand how others deal with the situations. Process • Because of the nature of this exercise and the controversy surrounding many of its issues. This method often helps overzealous and experienced managers already set in their ways to see other points of view. Many of the behavior problems are intentionally vague and nonspecific. you’re given a list of words typically used to describe employee behavior. In Part II. You’ll have 30 minutes to complete this assignment. It also provides the opportunity for all participants to share their ideas and perceptions of similar problems. SB 128-1 .Preparation • Make copies of Handout 1 for each participant. • Read or summarize the following instructions: In this exercise. At the end of that time. a spokesperson should be prepared to summarize the answers for Part II. The spokesperson should use the whiteboard or flipchart to summarize comments. • Allow groups to begin. • You may want to make copies of the Breakdown of Issues in Part II to give to the participants at the end of the session. • Divide participants into small groups of equal size. it’s the job of each group to interact and determine how the item should be defined. you’ll discuss the relative need for counseling or discipline and rate this need according to the given scale. • There will probably be lively discussion and disagreement. • The room should be flexible enough for separate small group discussions. This may be somewhat frustrating. You’ll find that these behaviors are not specifically defined. directing discussion back to the issue when it strays too far. However. Then try to reach mutual agreement on each behavior listed for both Parts I and II. each group is to decide whether these behaviors are indeed problems and if they’re measured objectively or subjectively. But the group must reach some consensus. • Provide pencils for participants to complete the exercise. you may want to use a small-group approach. and distribute the handout. The definition of a problem for one person may not be the same for someone else. You may wish to walk from group to group.
• All of the behaviors listed can be. but the relative importance of an issue revolves around two factors: 1. Both of these key issues are interrelated. • The answers for Part I are: 1. 2. When a counseling or disciplining session is in question. Have each group spokesperson use a whiteboard or flipchart to present results and underscore differences in technique or approach to the issues. employees’ problems. 8. The real issues are how they are measured and what the manager does about them. 2. 6. 3. • How much counseling or discipline is needed generally depends upon how much the problem affects the job. 4.. to some degree. 10. all problems on discipline and counseling come back to these issues.. SB 128-2 . S O S O O S O S O S • Expect discussion for Part II to be particularly intense. • Allow each spokesperson three to five minutes to summarize the group’s results for Part II. 7. there may be a variety of reasons for not confronting the problem. Group members should focus their discussion on clearly defined problems. stop group discussions. • Differing views will abound. Is the behavior affecting job results (productivity)? If it is. 5. This is particularly significant due to the variety of responses that occur. • Allow some questions and explanations here. and ultimately. 9. The degree of attention to give to the problem. Discussion • After about 30 minutes. but do not get bogged down in what should have been discussed in the small groups. They should limit their options for counseling to those given in this exercise.
• Participants may also want to discuss the answers with their managers for additional input.• The focus of the discussion at this point should center on two issues: 1. Peer interaction is important and should be a priority in selecting the method you use to present it. you can make two small groups. and techniques because sharing information is vitally important in the learning process. if the total group size is 10 or fewer. ideas. have the participants work out the answers independently and bring them back to you for discussion. pass out copies of the Breakdown of Issues in Part II Options/Variations • Variation in the exercise depends on the group size. This reduces the chance of “groupthink” or accepting ideas of the group due to peer pressure. • Once the discussion is over. How much attention should this problem and the employee receive? • You may find it convenient to use information presented on the flipchart or whiteboard to provide your summary or closure of the exercise. How much is the behavior affecting the employee’s productivity or the productivity of other employees? 2. Allow them to freely exchange information. SB 128-3 . This gives them a chance to think about the questions and form a basis for their own answers before becoming involved in the group. Therefore. or you may want to work with one group of 10. so that participants can take them back to the job. • As a learning aid where peer interaction cannot take place. Follow the same procedure in the sections under Process and Discussion. • Another variation is to have participants rate the exercise before breaking into groups.
Session Builders 128 – Measuring a Problem HANDOUTS .
Part I—Measuring Employee Behavior Below is a list of employee behaviors. May be a need for action if the behavior continues or gets worse. On the line for Part I. SB 128 Handout 1 Relative Need for Counseling or Discipline Calls for immediate action. There is little that counseling or discipline can do to correct the behavior. place the letter that corresponds to a rating below: Letter Choice A B C D E PART I Tardiness Horseplay or practical jokes Falsifying records Unusually high errors Frequent bickering Insubordination Retired on the job Undercutting others Failure to meet deadlines Prepare your summary of Part II for presentation to the group. write an S beside those issues that are measured subjectively and an O beside those measured objectively. Counseling or discipline will probably be necessary. Session Builders 128 – Measuring a Problem Discuss the following issues and reach a mutual decision on each part. No call for counseling or discipline ISSUE Wasting time PART II . Part II—Assessing the Need On the line provided for Part II.
Session Builders 128 – Measuring a Problem Breakdown of Issues in Part II Objective Issues Tardiness Subjective Issues Wasting time Is it… • • • Measuring Guide Lowering productivity? Offending or disrupting others? Lowering morale? Falsifying records High errors Insubordination Failure to meet deadlines Frequent bickering Is it… • Offending and disrupting others? • Lowering morale? • Causing absenteeism? • Lowering productivity? Has level of productivity dropped? How does it measure up to the standard set? Is it causing problems with others? Is it… • Offending and disrupting others? • Lowering morale? • Causing turnover or absenteeism? • Lowering productivity? Horseplay/practical jokes Is it offending or disrupting others and/or causing a drop in job results? Retired on job Undercutting others (These items are easily measured by records and direct confrontation. needs to be taken.) (These items are hard to measure.) SB 128 Handout 2 . if any. look at measuring guide to help determine what action.
Participants begin to realize that opportunities to give recognition can occur at any time. or recognition of others. They are to assess each participant’s ability to recognize and use opportunities to stimulate motivation in the employees. Once these opportunities are identified. Type: Role play. A learning aid for managers and supervisors who need assistance with techniques to build and support a motivational climate in their given areas. case study Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 5 to 35 129 – Sensitivity to Others Use this Session Builder as: • A warm-up or an opening exercise to a discussion about motivation. participants are asked to analyze the dialogue between a manager and employees. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise will help managers and supervisors understand the effects that recognition and rewards have on an employee’s motivation to continue to perform well. • . participants then write what they think might have been a more appropriate response to improve the motivational climate. active listening. Through a case study or role play of a situation in an advertising firm.
cross out his response. ongoing process based on your sensitivity to the needs of your employees and the many opportunities you’ll get to meet those needs. Then have them role play it. Then. has left his office to casually check the work being done by some of his staff. the manager. Jack Adams. ask for volunteers to play Ted. If you think Jack’s response is okay. you’ll be reading a dialogue that illustrates a kind of routine. • Provide pencils for participants. While many organizations have formal systems for recognition and appraisal. place an “X” on the transcript each time you feel one of these opportunities is presented. Process • Introduce the exercise by paraphrasing the following information: Building and supporting a motivational climate through recognition and rewards can come both from what managers do and how they do it. It’s not something you can schedule or take care of every once in a while. • When everyone is finished. It takes place in the advertising department of a major manufacturer. continue reading. repeat the role play using the version of Jack’s role that was modified by the person who is playing it. It must be a continuous. continue looking for the next opportunity. the sum of all the little things a manager does or fails to do every day is much more significant. Write what you think he should have said in the right margin. That’s why it’s so important for you to understand how recognition and rewards motivate people. Jack. You may wish to read over the entire dialogue first to get acquainted with the situation. There will be many opportunities. • Afterward. • Allow 10 minutes for participants to read the dialogue and write their answers. and Bill. SB 129-1 . • Have the volunteers study their parts as written in the case study. As you read the dialogue. • Distribute copies of the case study. • Arrange space in the room for a role play. He doesn’t seem to be aware of the opportunities to support a motivational climate. In a few minutes.Preparation • Make copies of the Role Play/Case Study for each participant. If not. You should be alert to your opportunities and use them. day-to-day situation. but they come quietly and without warning—buried in the flow of everyday activity.
he refuses to even give Bill the chance. The first time occurred when Ted told Jack he had made some changes to make the Times ad a little more alive. how would you feel when Jack refused your request to visit engineering? − What active listening responses improved Jack’s part of the conversation? − In what other small and routine ways can a manager give appropriate recognition to employees? − How is employee motivation affected by the suggested changes in Jack’s role? • You may wish to guide the discussion toward identifying and analyzing every time Jack Adams missed an opportunity to promote a motivational climate.” • In the second example. “Great.” Instead. • When Jack spoke with George by phone. “Sure. • In addition to discussing the differences in responses. He neglected to share George’s compliment about that “really fine piece of work” with Bill. and Ted? − How did the tone change when Jack’s responses changed? − How do you think Ted felt about Jack’s responses to his changes in the ad? − If you were Bill. Jack kept Bill entirely uninformed about his work and the revisions by taking care of the changes himself. By developing active listening skills and awareness of others’ motivational needs. if you think it’ll help you. he missed several other opportunities to create a motivational climate. Jack could have easily given Ted credit for taking initiative by saying something like.Discussion • Many opportunities for improving motivation and giving recognition exist in this dialogue. Bill. a manager can take advantage of the routine opportunities as they occur. In fact. They become obvious as participants role play and demonstrate the differences between Jack’s responses to Ted and Bill. • All of this can contribute to a negative motivational climate rather than a positive one. I’m glad you took it upon yourself. SB 129-2 . you may want to focus on other questions such as: − What tone was established in the first dialogue between Jack. Jack could have reinforced Bill’s confidence and willingness to get more knowledge from engineering by saying. Bill.
SB 129-3 .Options/Variations Participants may vary the exercise by discussing the widely different responses they all created for Jack’s role. The responses that best indicate a positive motivational climate will reflect the manager’s openness and commitment to keep employees involved and informed about problems and decisions.
Session Builders 129 – Sensitivity to Others HANDOUT .
you mean the ad on the new model? Bill: Yeah. Got a minute? Jack: Sure Bill. I’ll be right with you. notice I made some changes that I thought would make it more alive. isn’t it? SB 129 Handout 1 (continued) . If it’s alright with you. (Turning back to Ted) Okay. let me know when it’s ready to send to New York. that’s the one. I’d like to spend some time in engineering so they can really walk me through it. I’ve been working on the ad we’re putting in before the trade show. what’s up? Bill: Well. Jack: Oh. you put the photo in that position. When do you think it will be finished? It has to be in New York by the 25th. Bill. Jack: (Manager) Oh. Bill: (Writer) Oh. I’ve been meaning to talk to you. Jack: Well. That will be alright. By the way. While Jack and Ted are having this discussion. Here’s the layout for the Times ad. it’s all in the product spec. It’s just about finished. Jack: Okay. Jack walks over to where Bill is working. Jack. Jack. but I’m not sure I’ve really represented all the benefits of some of the features on the new model. a writer interrupts the scene. I’ve got it down basically. Session Builders 129 – Sensitivity to Others Role Play/Case Study Ted: (Graphic designer) Glad you stopped by.
Hangs up the phone and turns to Bill. George: Jack. and all the detail is there. They review the copy anyway. I found a couple of minor technical fixes we need to make. Bill: I’ll put it on your tab. At this point. Thanks for the use of your phone. it’s Jack Adams. Jack: Uh huh. okay? Jack: Yeah. Jack steps over and picks up the phone. but I’d like to see it firsthand. George: Try to make the changes and get it back to me as soon as possible. It doesn’t seem to be worth the time. Jack: Excuse me. Jack’s pager beeps. George Lentz is an executive with Jack’s company. so I’m sending it back down to you with my remarks. Hey George. I’ve just finished crawling through that feature article Bill wrote. SB 129 Handout 1 (concluded) . But it’s really a fine piece of work. Jack: I don’t know. It really looks good! The copy flows well. they’ll pick it up. sure George. It has to go out on Monday.Bill: Yes. Bill. I’ll take care of it myself. if you miss anything. let me use your phone. Bill: Okay.
. this point is brought home very readily when participants are asked to become the manager and consider the cost of making these decisions. In this exercise. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 30 to 45 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 130 – What’s it worth? Use this Session Builder as: • An introductory exercise to stimulate thinking and serve as a lead-in to a discussion on interviewing or the effective use of manpower. Since a manager often spends more time selecting new equipment. • A reinforcement exercise to build on key points of the subject area. participants compute the cost and time spent in buying a piece of new equipment and in hiring a new employee. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise helps participants realize the difference in the amount of time involved between selecting a new piece of equipment and selecting a new employee.
• Arrange space in the room for a role play. Assume your time is worth $23 an hour. SB 130-1 . Consider each item and again. but make sure participants have sufficient space to complete the handouts. Process • Introduce the exercise by reading or paraphrasing the following paragraph as you distribute Invoice #1: Suppose you’re the manager in a department that’s about to select a new piece of equipment worth $39. As the manager.Preparation • Make copies of the handouts for each participant. honestly appraise your time at $23 an hour. • Provide time for participants to finish. though it may not be comparable to what the participants actually earn in their present positions. Then carefully estimate the time you’d spend on each of the items listed on the invoice. Indicate the amount to the right of each item and total the invoice. interview them. the invoice you’d send would look similar to the one I’m handing out. you must consider the candidates. then continue by saying something like: You now have the total dollar amount that it costs your company for your time and consideration in making a new purchase. • Allow participants sufficient time to finish their calculations.000. the figure of $23 an hour is used. If you billed your company for the time it took you to consider and purchase that piece of equipment. Let’s look at the cost of another purchase • Distribute Invoice #2 as you read or paraphrase the following instructions: Your department requires a new employee whose salary will be about $39. • For ease of calculations. have them estimate the time they think it would take. your invoice would look similar to the one I’m handing out. • If participants have never been in charge of purchasing equipment.000. if you must bill your company for the time it takes you to select an employee. and total the invoice at the bottom. and select one for the job. Again.
compare the figures of the groups that estimated the cost of the equipment. Have one set of groups estimate the cost of purchasing a new piece of equipment while the other set of groups estimates the cost of hiring a new employee. Let the groups brainstorm the figures.Discussion When participants have finished working on the second invoice. SB 130-2 . divide them into groups roughly equal in size. average invoices were calculated for both purchases. When they have finished. Make the same comparison between those groups that estimated the cost for hiring a new employee. • For comparison purposes. but they. begin a discussion using the following questions: − Which of the two invoices is higher? − Would you expect this to be true? − Why or why not? • Usually participants find that they have billed more money for considering the purchase of a new machine than they have for hiring a new employee. in fact. • Discussion should center on these differences and why they exist. for ease of comparison. However. • If participants are relatively new to supervising.” Also it is important that you help participants realize that an employee’s potential and value to the company are immeasurable. • Another variation is dividing the session into an equal number of groups. They’ll feel more comfortable coming up with the figures when sharing feedback with each other. Stress the Options/Variations • As an alternative to the prepared invoices. the prepared lists provide a more standard base. Have them brainstorm their ideas and put them on individual lists. cost the company a great deal more money than the machine’s “initial investment. Explain that by combining the invoices of a number of managers. point that new employees don’t always receive the same treatment as a machine. distribute the Average Invoice Figures Sheet. Allow them about 20 minutes to come up with their answers. have participants come up with their own list of items to follow when selecting a new piece of equipment or in choosing a new employee. Use the questions provided in the Discussion section.
Session Builders 130 – What’s it worth? HANDOUTS .
Session Builders 130 – What’s it worth? Invoice #1 Hours Review sales information (talk to salesperson/review literature) Survey equipment (visit trade shows/manufacturing sites) Write specifications Get appropriate approvals Get equipment proposals Negotiate prices Analyze proposals Make decision Get final approval Total Dollars SB 130 Handout 1 .
agencies Review résumés Interview candidates Compare candidates Make decisions Extend offer Total Dollars SB 130 Handout 2 . Session Builders 130 – What’s it worth? Invoice #2 Hours Write job description Get appropriate approvals Contact HR.
00 46.00 Dollars 69.00 23. agencies Review résumés Interview candidates Compare candidates Make decisions Extend offer Total Hours 3 2 2 4 8 2 3 3 $ Hours 16 10 2 3 1 2 8 3 2 $ Dollars 368.00 69.00 46. Session Builders 130 – What’s it worth? Average Invoice Figures Sheet Invoice #1—Average Review sales information Survey equipment Write specifications Get appropriate approvals Get equipment proposals Negotiate prices Analyze proposals Make decision Get final approval Total Invoice #2—Average Write job description Get appropriate approvals Contact HR.00 230.00 69.00 184.00 46.00 92.00 184.00 621.00 $ SB 130 Handout 3 .081.00 69.00 $ 1.00 69.00 46.00 46.00 46.
By comparing the two lists. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 5 to 25 131 – Motivators and Satisfiers Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise to build on key points and stimulate thinking about motivational factors. it becomes increasingly clear that. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise helps participants identify some of the company factors that affect an employee’s motivation on the job. in most cases. • An action plan to reinforce the principles of motivation as interpreted by Herzberg. the manager is the key figure in providing job factors that are motivators. Then participants choose which ones are normally controlled by the organization and which ones are controlled by the manager. Participants are asked to classify the factors according to Herzberg’s motivators and satisfiers. .
salary. • Let the groups work by themselves as much as possible. Then in Part II. working conditions. Explain that some factors may be considered to be both the responsibility of the organization and the manager. • Explain that according to Herzberg. they will identify the factors that are generally controlled and influenced by the organization or the manager. participants will classify company factors as either motivators or satisfiers according to Herzberg’s theory. Process • Start by explaining the parts of the exercise. In Part I. 3.. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion period. and advancement are motivational factors. 2.e. Then write down the answers as follows: 1. • Be sure there is ample writing area for participants to complete the handout. 6. recognition. 4. • Divide the participants into groups of roughly equal size. Explain that you want them to agree on all parts of the exercise. • Provide pencils for participants. satisfiers are factors that must be satisfied before any motivation can occur—i.Preparation • Make copies of the Motivators and Satisfiers sheet for each participant. but monitor them to make sure they don’t wander to other subjects not related to the material. • The room should be flexible enough to accommodate small group discussions. and distribute a copy of the handout to each participant. by listing the numbers 1 to 12 vertically on the flipchart or whiteboard. 5. you will need to allow about 15 to 30 minutes for participants to process the exercise. Job elements like achievement. • Depending on the size of the groups. M M S S S M SB 131-1 . Your presentation on this material will be a lead-in to the exercise. Discussion • Begin the discussion process.
Point out when comparing those factors that are motivators with the “controlled by” list that participants should see a parallel. etc. SB 131-2 . They will cite cases where they know people who have changed jobs because they were motivated by a higher salary. 9. 2. 3. 8. The answers that participants give in this exercise may vary slightly with the type of organization. the manager is a key figure in providing job factors that are motivators. 12.000 a year to shovel manure. but generally this will not affect the outcome of the exercise. 8. Explain that employees must feel satisfied that their salary is sufficient to do those things. 9. but there will be some exceptions. Both M O O O M O Both O Both Both O • Give participants a chance to see how their answers compare to the general answers. 7. S M S M M M • Ask how many participants agree with the answers to each item. 11. home. Participants will have covered this point and will feel quite strongly about it. Use as an example. The item involving salary (#9) will probably bring arguments as to whether money or salary is definitely a motivator. 6. 4. “If a person is truly motivated by money and was offered $100. 11. list the general answers for Part II as follows: 1. Tell them employees must be satisfied that their salary is equal to their abilities. would he or she be motivated to do a better job?” • Point out that money represents a means to gain something else—clothing. 10.7. 5. a • Opposite the answers for Part I on the whiteboard or flipchart. • You will notice that there will be general agreement on most of the items. 12. A salary must maintain their life style and pay their bills before they can be motivated to work harder at their jobs. In nearly every case. 10.
that using this option takes time away from your second session. You need about 45 minutes to handle the group exercise and the discussion on this carry-over material. Have each group go over their collective answers and arrive at a mutual decision for each answer. Ask them to bring their answers back to the next session. however. The interaction between participants produces the greatest learning experience. • At the next session. • If you’d like more information about Herzberg’s Theory. SB 131-3 . Keep in mind. consult any standard management textbook. divide the participants into groups roughly equal in size. Then proceed with the instructions in the Discussion section.Options/Variations • As an action plan. Notes • This exercise is most beneficial when done as a group exercise. ask participants to take the exercise home and complete the items individually.
Session Builders 131 – Motivators and Satisfiers HANDOUT .
Then indicate which ones are normally controlled by the organization and which ones are normally controlled by the manager. 3. 12. 6. 2. Session Builders 131 – Motivators and Satisfiers Here are some things that affect an employee’s motivation on the job. 4. Item Flexible work schedules A merit salary increase A retirement plan A promotion policy based on seniority A safe working environment Employee decision-making committees A major medical health insurance plan Clearly defined responsibilities and authority A “cost of living” salary increase A promotion policy based on achievement Satisfying work assignments A company softball team Controlled by SB 131 Handout 1 (continued) . Part I In the space to the left of each of the following factors. S or M 1. 5. 11. Not all of them are under your direct control as a manager. 8. identify with an S those generally considered as satisfiers (maintenance factors) in Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Use an M for those generally classified as motivators. 9. classify them according to Herzberg’s motivators and satisfiers (maintenance factors). Even though some of the items on this list may not apply to you or your organization. 10. 7.
SB 131 Handout 1 (concluded) .Part II Now in the space provided to the right of each item. Then identify with an M those items you feel a manager generally has considerable influence and control over. identify with an O those items you feel are generally controlled by the organization with little input from the manager. Use Both only if you feel responsibility for that factor is equally shared by the organization and the manager.
• A learning aid to provide managers with different perspectives on factors that affect motivational climate. A total of all responses gives an indication of which supervisory style each participant may predominantly use. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: The effect managers have on their staff partially depends on their assumptions about those people and their work. Participants also learn how different styles may be a more realistic approach to the changing needs of the work force. Type: Assessment Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 10 to 50 132 – Supervisory Styles Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise following a discussion of supervisory styles and/or motivation. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and lead into a discussion on motivation. . Participants are asked to read a number of statements representing managers’ opinions. This exercise gives participants a rough measure of their assumptions. On a scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. participants indicate how they feel regarding each statement.
and enter the grand total on Line C. There aren’t any. you won’t be able to analyze your score. Multiply these totals by the specified multiplier on Line B. This instrument will give each of you a rough measure of your own assumptions. Go with your first impulse.Preparation • Make copies of the Statement Exercise and Line Diagram for each participant. • Provide pencils for participants. Feel free to strongly agree or strongly disagree. This figure represents a rough measure of each participant’s assumptions regarding motivation and why people work. Don’t look for right or wrong answers. Work quickly. Try to avoid thinking of specific individuals. Process • Distribute a copy of the Statement Exercise to each participant. Don’t dwell on any statement or try to analyze its implications. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available during the discussion. • Have participants score the responses by completing the following three steps: 1. Try to respond based on what you truly believe. • If there are no mathematical errors. Please choose one of the four responses for each of the 15 statements. It will be the best measure. • Read or paraphrase the following instructions: The effect we have on others depends somewhat on our assumptions about them. SB 132-1 . To be of any value at all. Don’t respond the way you think you ought to respond. Total the numbers on Line B. you have to be true to yourself. • Allow participants 5 to 6 minutes to mark their answers. Add the number of checkmarks in each column. Think of people in a general sense. Otherwise. the figures will fall somewhere between 15 and 60. however. and record them on Line A. 2. 3.
creativity. and techniques for telling people what to do. rather they’ll lean more toward one or the other. assumptions are somewhat mixed. Participant scores will not generally break down neatly into categories. and self-direction. with highly intelligent. SB 132-2 . procedures. • Participants with scores between 45 and 60 lean toward a more autocratic type • If an individual’s score is somewhere between 30 and 45. You may find that once the scores are interpreted. People with scores between 15 and 30 lean toward using a more participative supervisory style. independent. • After participants have taken the self-assessment tool and analyzed their scores. Communication here is usually closed and secretive. On the other hand. Communication with employees is more open and direct. participants may engage in a general. it may be necessary to give commands without asking for other opinions on what to do or how to do it. The person who holds these scores may tend to think people need to be controlled in their work. You may want to ask the following questions: − Is one style of supervision always appropriate? If not. that person’s • Don’t force participants to share their scores if they object. This approach emphasizes an efficient approach where much effort is directed toward determining whether or not people are following proper procedures. and that they want to be told what to do. self-reliant. that they try to avoid responsibility. that they have little ambition. using a more participative style often produces the best results. This type of management emphasizes positive relationships and a creative environment that encourages support for company goals. In a crisis situation. They tend to be more people-oriented and attempt to provide opportunities for individuals to exercise initiative. Many jobs require flexibility of style to meet changing conditions. One concept is that autocratic styles seem to work best with dependent or inexperienced workers. Provide copies or simply summarize differences using a whiteboard or flipchart. it is highly unlikely that anyone’s assumptions on this test are purely at one end or the other. amicable comparison among themselves. Indeed. of supervision. discuss how these results may affect an individual’s actions in a given situation. why? There are many opinions on this subject. • You may find it helpful to use the Line Diagram to interpret and compare scores. or experienced workers. Emphasis is on control.Discussion • Help participants analyze their scores.
Give assignments. − What can a supervisor do to change a particular style? If autocratic. Note An interesting tie-in to this discussion on motivation involves Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. etc. Distribute the Line Diagram. Ask participants to compile it. − How does a supervisor deal with a manager who has a dramatically different style from his or her own? One way is to meet with the manager to identify expectations. and discuss reactions as outlined in the Discussion section.− What are some symptoms that indicate that a supervisory style may not be working? Decreased production. and then give them the Line Diagram to discuss the pros and cons of the different styles. It’s only through meeting the manager’s expectations that it will be acceptable for the supervisor to use his or her style to get the job done.. absenteeism. • As a warm-up or opening exercise. and bring it to the session. are some signals that communication is no longer taking place and a new approach may be necessary. It often leads to a lively discussion on what style is “best. give the Statement Exercise to managers or supervisors who need self-assessment. begin the session as outlined in the Process and Discussion sections. enter the totals. If you lean toward an autocratic supervisory style. Distribute the Statement Exercise to participants one week ahead of the session.” • As a learning aid. turnover. antagonistic attitudes. then work to find common ground on which those expectations can be met. Use it to lead into your discussion of the topic material. SB 132-3 . and let the employees have more flexibility to complete the work on their own. A Theory Y manager leans toward the more participative approach to management. Have them complete it. begin by delegating additional simple tasks and work up to more complicated jobs as confidence increases. you are classified as a Theory X manager. Options/Variations • If time is limited. use this exercise as a pre-session assignment.
Session Builders 132 – Supervisory Styles HANDOUTS .
Almost all people could probably improve their job performances quite a bit if they really wanted to. disagree. Test your own assumptions regarding people and their work 1. very few people show the desire to improve on the job. the motivational climate may depend on how the manager perceives people’s attitudes toward their work. they are less likely to worry about such intangibles as status or recognition. SB 132 Handout 1 (continued) . Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. 4. 5. or strongly disagree (check only one). check whether you strongly agree. Session Builders 132 – Supervisory Styles Statement Exercise On the job. Because most people don’t like to make decisions on their own. 7. Usually when people talk about wanting more responsible jobs. A good way to get people to do more work is to crack down on them once in a while. they really mean they want more money and status. it’s hard to get them to assume responsibility. Test your own assumptions regarding people and their work. Each of the following statements represents an opinion some managers may hold. 8. 6. For each one. agree. 2. If you give people enough money. Even when given encouragement by the boss. It’s unrealistic to expect people to show the same enthusiasm for their work as for their leisure activities. Being tough with people will usually get them to do what you want.
Your answer should fall somewhere between 15 and 60 if no mathematical errors are made. 14. A __________ B (x1) ______ C __________ (x2) ______ __________ (x3) ______ Grand Total __________ (x4) ______ __________ Scoring Instructions A Total each column. 10. 13. regardless of the methods they use in handling people. It’s only human nature for people to try to do as little work as they can get away with. 12. it’s probably because relatively few people have much of either. It’s too much to expect that people will try to do a good job without being prodded by their boss. 15. and enter this figure on Line C. C Add all column products (Line B) together.Test your own assumptions regarding people and their work 9. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 11. One problem with asking employees for their ideas is that their perspective is too limited for their suggestions to be of much practical value. It weakens a supervisor’s prestige to admit that an employee was right and that he or she was wrong. SB 132 Handout 1 (concluded) . The boss who expects people to set their own standards for superior performance will probably find they don’t set them very high. B Multiply each column total by the specified multiplier shown on Line B. If people don’t use much imagination and ingenuity on the job. The most effective supervisors are the ones who get the expected results.
experienced workers People-oriented 45 30 15 Session Builders Task and procedureoriented Closed communication and secretive with information 132 – Supervisory Styles Believes people do not like to work and generally avoid responsibility Believes people are motivated by fear of punishment Places emphasis on control. new. and techniques for telling people what to do Works best with: Dependent. procedures. or inexperienced workers SB 132 Handout 2 . Autocratic Style Mixed Style Participative Style Line Diagram 60 Mixture of characteristics from both groups with degree depending upon placement on the scale Open and direct communication Believes people find work satisfying and generally seek responsibility Emphasis is on nature of relationships and creation of an environment that encourages support for company goals Group decision making Works best with: Independent. self-reliant.
Type: Assessment Time Required: 15 to 30 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 133 – The Errors We Make Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise to build on key points. . In this timed exercise. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise helps managers and supervisors understand that it may be more realistic to look for an “expected error rate” on some assignments than to insist on 100 percent accuracy in all work performance. The exercise shows participants how easy it is to make errors on what we perceive to be a simple task. • An opener to introduce the point that not all assignments. can be produced with 100 percent accuracy. the range usually remains the same. and scores range anywhere from 25 to 40. Participants should begin to take another look at how they presently rate accuracy standards on assignments delegated to their employees. When this exercise is repeated. participants are asked to read a paragraph and find all the Fs within its content. no matter how simple they appear. Participants do not see the same number of Fs.
what kinds of error rates do we expect and when? SB 133-1 . This may not always be possible. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available for the end of the session. distribute the handout to all participants. and ask them to keep it face down. • In some areas of our jobs. Process • Without instruction. • When most of the participants have finished counting. tell them to stop. Discussion • One-by-one. but not a race. • Explain that this is a timed exercise. • Use the following questions to stimulate discussion: − What similarities do you see between the results of this exercise and your real job situation? − What factors account for the differences in scores? − What additional factors account for errors made on the job? − What are typical reactions of peers and managers to similar errors made on the job? − In training or assigning a task. we tend to look for 100 percent accuracy on what appear to be simple tasks. ask each participant to tell you the number of Fs he or she found.Preparation • Make enough copies of the handout for each participant for the number of times you want to run the timed exercise. • Surprise and laughter about high or low scores usually follow. Record these figures on the whiteboard or flipchart. • The room should be flexible enough to allow participants to complete the exercise and take part in the discussion. It might be a good idea to look more closely at the task and analyze it before prejudging the employees who’ve been unable to obtain an accuracy rate of 100 percent. Focus the discussion on the “expected error rate” on a comparable task. Have participants begin at the same time and work steadily.
but results usually remain the same. SB 133-2 . Also have them note if they shared this information with the employees during their training period. Options/Variations Ask participants to list any assignments they have delegated that did not require 100 percent accuracy. This exercise can be repeated a second or third time. Then ask them to rate the accuracy they expect from their employees. Ask them to share some of these assignments with the group. There are 36 Fs.• Usually the scores range from 25 to 40 with very little consensus on any one number.
Session Builders 133 – The Errors We Make HANDOUT .
counting the number of Fs. The necessity of training farmhands for first-class farms in the fatherly handling of farm livestock is foremost in the minds of farm owners. Total number of Fs: _______________ SB 133 Handout 1 . Session Builders 133 – The Errors We Make Read through the following paragraph once. Since the forefathers of the farm owners trained the farmhands for first-class farms in the fatherly handling of farm livestock. the farm owners feel they should carry on with the family tradition of training farmhands of first-class farms in the fatherly handling of farm livestock because they believe it is the basis of good fundamental farm management.
By challenging participants’ EEO knowledge at the outset. • A pre-assignment to test knowledge and understanding of EEO laws before presentation of the subject material. Participants may then make any changes they think are necessary before checking against the correct answers. this exercise heightens interest and suggests directions for future individual learning by identifying gaps in their EEO knowledge. but they may not check their responses for accuracy until after a presentation on EEO-related material. . Participants individually respond to 10 true or false statements covering a variety of EEO issues. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise is designed to help participants assess their current knowledge of laws governing EEO and fair employment practices. Type: Assessment Time Required: 30 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 134 – What do you know about EEO? Use this Session Builder as: • An opener to a session on EEO/Affirmative Action to test participants’ knowledge of EEO laws and to act as a gauge for changes in their understanding.
they are raised by the participants. These answers are provided on Handout 2. make a visual aid with the correct answers on it. Explore ramifications and practical realities of the issue by asking questions such as: − Who enforces the law? − Are other companies doing it? − Why don’t victims speak up? SB 134-1 . and continue the discussion along your specific topic. Mention that their answers are their own and will not be collected or reviewed by anyone else. • Provide pencils for participants. Present your material on EEO. • After the allotted time. • Prior to the session. being sure to include information on the areas mentioned in the inventory. for a conflict can occur when the legal answer to a statement is different from the practice actually being followed by the employer. Tell them they are to circle T (for true statements) or F (for false statements) based on their present knowledge of EEO laws. 2. Caution needs to be taken so that you do not get caught in the middle as an arbitrator or mediator on these issues if. and when. Do not pursue the issue. but keep the answers covered until you are ready to use them at the end of the session. • If such a situation occurs. • Allow 5 to 10 minutes for participants to complete the true and false inventory. • Let participants know that the statements will be reviewed later in the session after they have had a chance to evaluate and reconsider their answers. Bring your visual aid along to the session. Process/Discussion • Begin the session by passing out the true and false inventory sheets. • It would be a good idea (ahead of time) to be aware of your company’s situation regarding the true or false statements. you may want to use one of the following options: 1. have participants put the inventory aside.Preparation • Make copies of the true and false inventory sheets for each participant. Ask partici- pants to individually complete the inventory. Simply acknowledge the statement made by the participant. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the exercise.
• Ask if anyone feels unclear about any of the answers. racial discrimination. making any changes they feel are necessary. Give them about 2 to 5 minutes to do this. etc. Introduce the exercise to the session as outlined in the Process/Discussion section. have them complete it individually on their own. it is suggested that the statements be checked against possible changes that may have occurred since the printing of this Session Builder. By electing to use one of the options previously mentioned. • When the lecture is completed.3. Options/Variations • As a pre-assignment. compensation practices. recruitment practices. since the information will stimulate their thinking. An example of this would be to have all 10 questions related to one area such as sex. Do not become a judge of what is correct within a given organization. • After the allotted time. you can choose the most viable method to deal with participant questions yet maintain credibility and interest in the key points to be emphasized. Let this be okay. such as the Personnel Manager. Defer the issue to an expert within the participant’s company. • The content of the true and false questions on the inventory sheet may be varied to fit the emphasis of your lecture. etc. This show of hands is an indication of their prior knowledge of EEO laws. have participants turn to their inventory sheets. • Participants will probably be changing their answers as you go along. however. age. Be prepared to maintain objectivity and detachment. Also. give participants the inventory form one week ahead of your session. This. (Answers are provided on Handout 2) Ask how many participants made changes to their answers after the material was presented. Note Material on EEO/Affirmative Action is often a sensitive issue in organizations. and it is suggested that this type of exercise be cleared with the appropriate people within an organization before it is presented. would necessitate creating your own handouts as opposed to using the ones provided in this Session Builder. reveal the correct answers on your visual aid. SB 134-2 . because laws are constantly changing. The purpose of the exercise is to help them develop an awareness of current EEO laws. Tell them to review the statements again.
Session Builders 134 – What do you know about EEO? HANDOUTS .
An employer must give women applying for a physically demanding job the opportunity to show they can do the work. 2. 10. If a married couple requests to work in the same department or small business. An employer may make medical benefits to a woman on maternity leave conditional on her return to work. 9. An employer can generally use a job applicant’s personal credit rating as a basis for nonemployment. An employer may not take retaliatory actions against an employee who has filed a discrimination charge. 4. 3. 8. Session Builders 134 – What do you know about EEO? EEO/Fair Employment Inventory Sheet Read each statement given below. or sex directed at minority employees on the job. 7. Fair employment rules apply equally to all employers. An applicant’s lack of English language skills cannot be used as a basis for nonemployment unless those skills are required to successfully do the job. An employer cannot be expected to control prejudicial comments about race. ethnicity. 6. Then. labor unions. T T T T T T T F F F F F F F 1. Only intentional discrimination by an employer may be considered unlawful. and employment agencies. An application form that requires applicants to name friends or relatives in the employer’s work force may be discriminatory. place a check next to the T if you agree with the statement or a check next to the F if you disagree with the statement. based on your knowledge of EEO and Fair Employment Laws. 5. an employer must allow them to do so. SB 134 Handout 1 T T T F F F .
The questions that may be asked of a job seeker on an application form generally are subject to the same restrictions as those pertaining to preemployment inquiries. although unbiased on its face. Proof of intention. might be required where disparate treatment is alleged. are in fact jobrelated. In Griggs v. however. Under the law. the assumption that females are less capable of performing strenuous physical work than males has been viewed as wrongfully foreclosing many job opportunities to women. it was decided that an employer must be ready to show that criteria used to make an employment decision that has a disparate impact on one sex or the other. 2. 3. For example. all candidates for a position requiring physical strength must be given opportunity to demonstrate their capability to perform the work. The unlawful employment practices in question can be a current employment practice or a practice that. An application form that requires applicants to name friends or relatives in the employer’s work force may be discriminatory. Any employment practice that has the effect of screening out members of a protected group at a disproportionately higher rate than persons not belonging to the group is viewed as discriminatory.. Discrimination need not be intentional to be unlawful. False. SB 134 Handout 2 (continued) . Session Builders 134 – What do you know about EEO? Answers to EEO/Fair Employment Inventory 1. a requirement that applicants state the names of friends or relatives in the employer’s work force may also have an unlawful discriminatory impact on minority job seekers if hiring preference is accorded to friends or relatives of employees and minority group representation in the employer’s work force is disproportionately low. perpetuates past discrimination. True. Only intentional discrimination by an employer may be considered unlawful. True. Duke Power Co. An employer must give women applying for a physically demanding job the opportunity to show they can do the work. The disparate treatment of male and female workers is often based on stereotyped characterizations of the sexes. such as minimum physical or educational requirements. For example.
If the percentage of minority group members with poor credit ratings is significantly higher than the percentage of nonminorities with poor ratings. The practice of screening applicants on the basis of the number of times they have suffered wage garnishments in the past also falls within the proscription. labor union. can have a disproportionate impact on workers whose status is protected under the federal employment practices laws. the selection should be made on some nonsexual basis such as seniority. True. from early civil rights laws. SB 134 Handout 2 (continued) . Constitution. and from the authority of the federal government to place restrictions on businesses selling its goods and services. 6. of course. Whether the employer is operating in private industry or is performing a public function can bring into operation a different set of rules. If a married couple requests to work in the same department or small business. unless an employer can demonstrate that the policy is warranted by an underlying business necessity. If solicited in good faith. An employer can generally use a job applicant’s personal credit rating as a basis for nonemployment. However. These rules derive from the federal authority to regulate interstate commerce. Fair employment rules apply equally to all employers. an inflexible policy of rejecting job applicants (or discharging current employees) solely on the basis of adverse reports from previous employers. In the event they cannot choose between themselves. 5. sometimes tainted by that employer’s own prejudices. The source of the money used to finance a project or operation may also be the basis for applying an additional set of rules. an employer must allow them to do so. as well as on the U. given appropriate weight. from constitutional amendments. nor do they equally treat all of the types of prohibited discrimination. such a policy will be considered unlawful racial discrimination.4. amount to unlawful sex discrimination when men are not treated similarly. any rule against husband-wife employment should provide the two individuals with a choice as to which one will stay. The rules against discriminatory employment practices are based on a number and variety of legislative enactments and executive orders. False. and not used to accomplish a discriminatory result. The laws and constitutional commands do not apply equally to each employer (private or public). or employment agency. To avoid a charge of sex discrimination. Rejecting women for employment because they are married or terminating them because of marriage would. Therefore. False. and employment agencies.S. an employment policy of screening job applicants on the basis of their credit references or records has a foreseeably disproportionate adverse impact upon minorities as a class. labor unions. a previous employer’s assessment of a job applicant can provide a lawful basis for a prospective employer’s decision to hire or reject that applicant. Sound business reasons may exist for a rule against the employment of husband and wife in the same department or in a small business operation.
childbirth. On the other hand. An employer may not take retaliatory actions against an employee who has filed a discrimination charge. working hours. and promotion policies. or related medical conditions be given a leave of absence on the same basis as other employees temporarily disabled. assisted. It is unlawful for an employer to take retaliatory action against any individual who opposes employment practices that are prohibited by law. investigation. True. or to discourage women from terminating after availing themselves of disability benefits. is expressly prohibited. or participated in any way in any proceeding. Unlawful discrimination occurs when an employment decision is based on the national origin of the person adversely affected by that decision. or hearing under the provisions of the age discrimination law. 8. testified. The incidence of unlawful national origin bias is not confined to discriminatory hiring.7. 9. and the like. SB 134 Handout 2 (continued) . Retaliation against persons who have filed charges. requiring a Spanish-speaking applicant for carpentry work to take a civil service examination in English has been viewed as proper when the use of English was found to be related to job performance. assignment. Any restrictions on leave privileges would have to be applied even-handedly to all other employees. An employer may make medical benefits to a woman on maternity leave conditional on her return to work. The 1978 amendments to Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act added the requirement that women affected by pregnancy. Adverse employment decisions based on an applicant’s or employee’s lack of English language skills have been considered violative of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act where the language requirement bears no demonstrable relationship to the successful performance of the job to which it is applied. seniority. There are ways in which the law may be violated other than by a denial of job rights. Unlawful reprisal actions often entail the assignment or transfer of workers who have filed discrimination charges against their employers to “undesirable” positions in terms of pay. or under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. however. The refusal to hire a job applicant solely because he or she has previously filed charges of discrimination against an employer would constitute an act of unlawful retaliation. an employer could condition the benefits on a return to work when the maternity leave expires. For example. An applicant’s lack of English language skills cannot be used as a basis for nonemployment unless those skills are required to successfully do the job. True. job security. employees could be required to submit medical evidence of continued disability. Employers may take actions to prevent possible abuse of these leave privileges. True.
Miss. such as Mr. an employer should take steps immediately to correct the situation.10. while addressing Black employees by their first names. Chicago. ethnicity. a policy prohibiting employees from speaking in their native tongue during working hours can constitute a form of unlawful harassment on the basis of national origin. False. or Ms. Upon becoming aware of any such conduct. has been considered to be racially discriminatory. Illinois. Answers taken from the 1981 Guidebook to Fair Employment Practices. This duty has been viewed as extending not only to workers who are the objects of unlawful harassment. SB 134 Handout 2 (concluded) . or made in the presence of. but also to those who are offended by the harassment of others. 1980.. slurs or jokes directed at. Inc. when addressing Caucasian employees. Mrs.. Segregation of customers on the basis of their race or national origin and other forms of discrimination against clientele have been considered unlawful on the theory that those practices have an adverse psychological impact on minority employees and derogate their right to work in a nondiscriminatory environment. Commerce Clearing House. Racial and ethnic epithets. An employer may not allow its clientele to harass or otherwise cause undue mental distress to its employees in a discriminatory manner. While an employer cannot be held accountable for the prejudices of its workers or clientele. Also... or sex directed at minority employees on the job. Sexual harassment of employees by either supervisors or other employees may be considered unlawful. it is under a duty to take reasonable measures to control or eliminate the overt expression of those prejudices in the employment setting. An employer cannot be expected to control prejudicial comments about race. minority group employees are not to be tolerated as a condition of employment. The use of courtesy titles.
The facilitator begins by asking a volunteer two questions: first. “Chocolate or vanilla. participants learn that choices are based on whim and intuition and decisions are based on data and experience. . • A reinforcement exercise for material in the same subject area. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 30 minutes Group Size: 35 maximum 135 – Chocolate or Vanilla Use this Session Builder as: • An introductory exercise to a session on decision making/problem solving for managers at any level. which do you choose?” and then. Many managers believe a course of action based on data is more likely to succeed than one based on intuition. “Why did you pick that one?” In the discussion that follows. This exercise helps participants see that there’s usually an element of intuition in most decisions (as well as some hard data in most choices). Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise stimulates participants to consider the differences between decision making and choice making and to examine how these differences affect the job.
choose? • Ask this volunteer the following question: Chocolate or vanilla. follow up with the second question: Why did you pick that one? Use a style and voice tone that says in a friendly way. • To help you prepare. • Generally. 2. jot down the volunteers’ responses as participants call them out to you. SB 135-1 . responses from the volunteers include phrases such as “Because it’s my favorite. • Repeat this questioning procedure until you get an answer to the “Why?” question such as. Responses based on data or experience.” or “It tastes so good!” • Inform participants that these responses can be divided into two types: 1.” Don’t sound as if you are confronting the volunteer nor speak in a way that might put your volunteer on the defensive.” or “I just do.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. jot down some examples of choices and decisions that you have made recently and how they turned out. “Just because. Process • Tell participants you need a volunteer who is willing to answer a simple question that will help the group begin to see the differences between decisions and choices. Discussion • Ask the group to take a closer look at the “chocolate or vanilla” choice.” “Because I’m a fiend about chocolate. If you are using a whiteboard or flipchart.” call on a second volunteer to answer the same two questions. Responses based on intuition or whim.” • End the dialogue at that point. • Once the volunteer states his or her reason “why. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available for documenting group responses (optional). The point is not to test your volunteer’s debating skills but to draw out some of the thoughts that go into making a decision. which do you • After the volunteer responds. “Tell us why you chose that one.
offer some of your own examples regarding decisions and choices you have made recently (either at home or on the job). Recalling those comments will help participants realize that both data and intuition were involved. evaluating whether to keep or dismiss a problem employee.Examples of data-based responses could be “I’ve always liked chocolate” (experience) or “Vanilla gives me a stomachache” (data and experience). deciding what to order for lunch. vanilla’s just my favorite” or “I pick whichever flavor seems to match my mood that day. Involve participants in a discussion about job-related situations where knowing the difference (and the overlap) between decisions and choices is important. Examples of data-based decisions might include determining whether or not to introduce a new product or service. Indicate to what extent data or intuition influenced your final selection. participants should be recognizing the differences between decisions and choices. • Some suggestions for stimulating this discussion might be to ask participants the following questions: − What can happen when you make a choice instead of a decision in job- related matters? − Is there ever a decision that’s based purely on data or a choice that’s based purely on intuition? SB 135-2 . or selecting just one from among a number of equally qualified job applicants that “feels right” for the job. on-the-job level so this does not look like a purely “academic” point. They will also see the sometimes unclear distinctions between the two or the overlap of data and intuition in the same decision. Examples of intuition-based choices could be choosing a pair of pants to wear. • By this time. Refer participants back to the comments that were given by the volunteers.” • Go on to further explain that it is useful to look at decisions based on data and experience and at choices based on whim and intuition. • Ask participants if picking “chocolate or vanilla” constitutes a choice or a decision. deciding which supplier to contact for a certain material that is needed. • At this time. or selecting a product line or service you can cut back on because of current budget problems. • It is important at this point to bring the difference between decision and choice down to a practical. Examples of intuition-based responses usually come at the end of the questioning: “I don’t know why.
Then they can determine if their decision-/ choice-making pattern presents a problem for them. Then make your point about data and intuition. Tell them to note when they rely on data and when they rely on intuition. ask participants to individually jot down one choice or decision they have made in the past 24 hours. SB 135-3 . After the “chocolate or vanilla” questioning with the volunteer. suggest that participants track the decisions and choices they make in the next work week. Ask them to share a couple of these reasons. Options/Variations • Begin the discussion another way. Add any of your own points that will further clarify the differences and areas of overlap in decisions and choices. • As a follow-up to the session.− Are decisions more likely to lead to a successful outcome than choices? (Are facts always better than feelings in determining a course of action?) some examples? − Can choices that go against the data still net positive results? Can you share − What roles do intuition and feeling play in situations where all the possible data has been gathered. and there is still no clearly superior alternative? − Do you think the best managers are the ones who are able to sift through the data to determine a course of action or the ones who have an “intuitive genius” for knowing what to do? − Do you personally rely more on data or on intuition in job-related situations? Should you be relying a bit more on the neglected one than you presently do? • Wrap up the discussion by restating important points made by participants. Then have them list the reasons for that choice.
Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise dramatically demonstrates the effect good and poor decision making has on productivity. self-awareness. Participants are divided into two groups that identify characteristics and behaviors of good and poor decision makers and how they affect productivity in different types of organizations. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 45 to 60 minutes Group Size: 6 to 30 136 – The Best/Worst Decision Maker Use this Session Builder as: An introductory or warm-up exercise for use in seminars on team building. management. The discussion should clearly reinforce how good communication and decision making can increase productivity through a “team spirit” approach. . or training effectiveness to identify and define those skills/ qualities that constitute good decision making. leadership.
Preparation • Make copies of the question sheets for The Best Decision Maker and The Worst Decision Maker. ask participants to individually jot down the answers to each question. • Before they begin working in their groups. • Decision Maker for each participant assigned to those groups. • Then each group is to work together to come up with a general response for each question. • Allow approximately 10 minutes for participants to complete their individual question sheets and the small group discussion. inform Group B that they will be discussing the best decision maker they have ever known. • Next. they are to share them with the others in their small group. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to process the discussion. Hand them the question sheets for The Best Decision Maker. • Groups relate well in this exercise because the qualities being sought have often left them with “good” or “bad” feelings. Hand them the question sheets for The Worst Decision Maker. Have them choose a spokesperson who will relate the small group response to the entire group. Explain that once they finish writing their individual responses. • The room should be flexible enough to allow participants to split up into two groups and discuss the traits of their decision makers. • Inform Group A that they will be discussing the worst decision maker they have ever known. Process • Divide the entire group into two smaller groups. • Provide pencils and paper for participants. depending on their experiences. designating one as Group A and the other as Group B. SB 136-1 .
To stimulate discussion. They can then take them back on the job to use as a refresher. list their answers on the whiteboard or flipchart. Steadily increase your pace by abbreviating the questions as the implications become clear to the group. • If they choose to do so. Work through Question #1 for both worst and best. ask the spokesperson for each group to present the group’s findings to the entire session.Discussion • When the small groups have reached general agreement for their type of decision maker. allow participants a few minutes to copy the notes from the flipchart or whiteboard. • As each spokesperson responds. you might want to ask the following questions: − What would be the worst decision maker’s effect on turnover? How about the best decision maker’s effect on turnover? − What effect would the worst decision maker have on absenteeism? − How about absenteeism under the best decision maker? − Continue asking similar questions for other criteria such as accident rate. You may also wish to write this summary on the flipchart or whiteboard. • Always begin with the worst and end with the best. focus the discussion by asking participants to consider what effect those qualities or tendencies might have on productivity. • When the list of best and worst decision-making characteristics is complete. Then follow that same process for Questions #2 and #3. • Make notes on the whiteboard or flipchart to facilitate comparisons and discussion. sales results. • Review the characteristics of the best decision maker and his or her effect on the organization as a summary of the answers to the questions above. product quality. benefit claims. SB 136-2 . etc.
a volunteer group.” “trainer. a nonprofit organization. you might want to divide them into four small groups instead of just two. Then ask all those holding The Worst question sheet to gather on one side of the room and all those holding The Best question sheet to gather on the other side.” “listener. SB 136-3 .” • You can also tailor the organizational behavior you are discussing to the needs of the group (for example. Then have two of the groups tackle the worst decision maker and two groups tackle the best decision maker. you can divide the group down the middle designating one side as Group A and the other side as Group B. • To reduce the amount of time necessary to complete this exercise. You can then follow the same procedure as listed for the two groups. or a group of trainers?). Then ask the questions of each group orally and have participants share their answers in groups of two or three. • Another option is to hand out the question sheets at random. Other options could be “supervisor.” or “fundraiser. This is a good way to facilitate mixing the group.Options/Variations • If you have a large number of participants. do they represent a business organization. if desired. • The title “decision maker” can be changed to suit the needs of the group.
Session Builders 136 – The Best/Worst Decision Maker HANDOUTS .
characteristics. SB 136 Handout 1 . and mannerisms of the worst decision maker you have ever known? 2. What were your feelings about working for the worst decision maker you have ever known? 3. Session Builders 136 – The Best/Worst Decision Maker The Worst Decision Maker Question Sheet for Group A 1. Describe your behavior when working for the worst decision maker you have ever known. What were (or are) the behaviors.
What were (or are) the behaviors. SB 136 Handout 2 . Describe your behavior when working for the best decision maker you have ever known. What were your feelings about working for the best decision maker you have ever known? 3. characteristics. Session Builders 136 – The Best/Worst Decision Maker The Best Decision Maker Question Sheet for Group B 1. and mannerisms of the best decision maker you have ever known? 2.
. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 45 to 60 minutes Group Size: 40 to 50 137 – Fogging the Message Use this Session Builder as: • A warm-up or opening exercise leading to a discussion on writing and communication or training. The objective of each team is to write a paragraph using as many acronyms as possible to make the paragraph difficult for others to understand. Participants are divided into teams. • An individual pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and act as a lead-in to discussion of the subject during the session. participants become instantly aware of the problems acronym usage can create for people who are unfamiliar with the terms. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise helps demonstrate how frequently people use acronyms and how confusing acronyms can be to people unfamiliar with the department or company in which they are used. When hearing the paragraph.
mental set. • Allow about 10 minutes for participants to write their paragraphs. above. You can have a short lecture on communication that stresses the importance of using clear and effective communication that is free of the many barriers of semantics. SB 137-1 .” − At the end of the time limit. • Usually participants will find this exercise humorous and enjoyable because they relate so easily to the paragraphs they are writing.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. Then introduce the exercise. Participants will then experience for themselves exactly how difficult effective communication can be when acronyms are overused. preconditioning. • Provide pencils and paper for participants. Quite often. depending on the size of the total group. one person from each group should be prepared to read the paragraph aloud to the entire group for discussion purposes. then lead into the discussion. “When QC called us up on a spec change.” Someone working in a manufacturing division might write. jargon. etc. Remember to point out the purpose of this exercise is to include as many acronyms as possible. each group is to write a paragraph that consists of as many acronyms and slang terms that you can think of relating to your specialty area. First have the participants write paragraphs filled with as many acronyms as they can. Here are two examples to get you thinking: − A college administrator might write. Process • Begin this exercise in one of two ways. • Have the groups begin. • The second alternative is to begin the exercise by reversing the order given • Divide the group into six or eight equal teams. Either way provides the necessary striking points for the group to dramatically understand how important clear and effective communication is to the receiver. emotions. perception. “We’re concerned about his cum average because he failed fundies. we were concerned because we never received a 10-26. In a moment. • Read or paraphrase the following: You’re about to participate in an exercise that’s designed to show how confusing the acronyms and slang you use appear to people who are unfamiliar with your department or company. a team will develop a paragraph with so many acronyms and slang terms that it is totally unreadable by anyone who is unfamiliar with the language represented by those acronyms or slang terms.
jobs and how frequently problems arise from their use. Divide the session into small groups of four or five participants each. have participants bring other examples of instructions or communications that overuse acronyms and obstruct understanding. You may want to allow time to explore these examples during the session. is improved by directness and clarity. or “handle” meaning total amount bet at a racetrack. Examples of this could be “speed” meaning light sensitivity of film. Options/Variations • Because participants easily relate to this exercise. ask each group to read its paragraph aloud to the entire group. writing. make a game of trying to “stump” the rest of the group by hav- ing a special meaning for a common word. • Have participants take a few moments to think about how acronyms affect new employees when they are being trained for a new job position. other communication barriers. you may want to broaden the discussion by asking the following questions: − What are some acronyms used in your company? − What potential problems are caused by using those acronyms? • You may want to ask how frequently participants use acronyms in their • In addition to having the participants read and discuss each group’s paragraph. Participants then bring their completed paragraphs to the session for comparison and discussion. can only add more confusion to the message. Or prepare a list of such words ahead of time. you may use this as an indi- vidual assignment to be completed before the session begins. SB 137-2 . Have each group come up with a common word to which they can attach a special meaning. Have them discuss how each paragraph can be confusing or misleading to people who are outside that particular department or company and do not understand the terminology. A wide variety of topics will usually follow. and speaking. If they choose to do so. and offer some of those suggestions to the group for their use. in its many channels of reading. • As a variation. There are enough hidden messages in our daily lives due to indirect language and nonverbal communications. such as the use of acronyms and slang words.Discussion • At the end of the 10-minute time period. Communication.
you will find that there will be confusion over what has been read. Allow about 15 to 20 minutes for the small groups to write their paragraphs. Based on a concept created and written by the staff of TRC Interactive. Then have each group present the paragraph by paraphrasing its content or reading it as prepared. Unless the remainder of the participants have had an opportunity to use the word in the sense that it is being presented.• Then have each group prepare a paragraph for a speech presentation about the subject using the common word. SB 137-3 . Ask the rest of the participants how many understand what is being talked about. Inc.
or some other organization. a club. . a neighborhood. This exercise is designed to identify the feelings and concerns of new employees and the importance of proper orientation techniques and procedures. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: The first few days in the life of a new employee can be a very critical period for both the employee and the supervisor. From these differing experiences. Through the discussion that follows. Participants are also asked to identify ways in which managers can avoid poor orientation procedures. participants gain a more thorough understanding of the effects on orientation—both good and bad. Participants are divided into small groups and are asked to reflect on and share their personal experiences of being the “new kid on the block”—whether it was in their own organization. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 45 to 60 minutes Group Size: 10 to 40 138 – I’ll Never Forget It Use this Session Builder as: An introductory or warm-up exercise to stimulate discussion of orientation procedures for new employees. each group is asked to compile a list of proper and improper orientation techniques.
one member might relate a story where he or she was not introduced to many people at a new club. This exercise asks you to use your personal experiences to reflect on the effects of good and bad orientation. the group might write “wasn’t introduced to people. For example.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. • The room should be large enough to provide adequate separation between small discussion groups. or a club. he or she felt uncomfortable for several meetings. if possible) on flipchart paper. • Read or paraphrase the following information to the groups: − All of us have been the “new kid on the block” at one time or another—new to an organization. • Then for each item listed as a poor orientation technique. • Ask each group to write at least 10 items (more. For that situation. • Provide flipchart paper and markers for each group to use when completing the exercise. • After the allotted time. Process • Divide the session into small discussion groups of four to six participants each.” Then work together in your small group to compile a list of items related to each member’s orientation. • If you have not already done so. therefore. stop the exercise and ask each group to share its results. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to help outline results and process the discussion. distribute flipchart paper and markers to the small groups. the group is to identify some positive action a manager could take to prevent that situation from occurring again. each of you should share a personal experience in which you were the “new person. SB 138-1 . • Allow about 20 minutes for the small groups to share their experiences and list their positive orientation procedures. a neighborhood. go back and identify a positive action a manager can take to avoid each of the problems listed.” When your group completes the list of items. − In your small group.
have participants compare and contrast the feelings of those who experienced proper orientation procedures as a new employee with those participants that feel they were improperly dealt with during an orientation. which one is most common in new employee orien- • Answers to these questions will vary. You can stimulate further discussion by asking the following questions: tation? − What can be done about that item? − Which item has the greatest affect on the new employee? − Of all the groups’ items. A new employee needs to be eased into the company emotionally. These personal experiences can be encouraged and shared by all. participants may also suggest that managers spread the learning process over a few days or weeks and that they use all the communication devices available—including oral and written material. participants find general agreement on effective employee orientation. Many participants have had personal experiences involving orientation or lack of it and will comment freely regardless of whether these experiences involve their own company or not. • At this point.Discussion • To begin the discussion process. • Through discussion. SB 138-2 . schedules. and responsibility for this falls directly on the supervisor or manager. and physical facilities getting information and background on the work itself finding out how the work relates to the company feeling “at home” in the new environment • In addition. • Participants will probably agree that the following are among the new employee’s needs: − − − − learning about compensation. benefits. • Common experiences between groups can easily be seen by the overall tally or orientation techniques. ask each group to display its list for visual inspection by the other groups. Verbally summarize their results.
new employees are deluged by endless forms. • You may find that this is a good beginning exercise for a workshop because participants can easily identify with the problem and can contribute many personal experiences. Have a common list typed and duplicated for each participant. Sometimes. Doing so gives participants the added benefit of hearing more information and of individually taking part in the process. these anxious and uncertain employees unhappily recall their day of “disorientation” with “I’ll never forget it!” Most managers recognize the importance of new employee orientation.Options/Variations • If the total size of your group contains fewer than 10 participants. and unfamiliar faces on that first day as a new employee. you may choose to evaluate orientation techniques as one large group. conflicting feelings. This proves to be a handy device. SB 138-3 . • You may wish to encourage participants to role play some of the positive actions • Have each group come up with a detailed checklist of all the things a manager Notes • In many organizations today. but many still overlook it. a manager can take to avoid the problems that occur with improper orientation procedures. or supervisor should cover with a new employee and a timetable for covering them.
Type: Application Time Required: 10 minutes to give instructions. . discussion optional Group Size: Unlimited 139 – Painless Time Log Use this Session Builder as: • An action plan for individual use on the job as part of a single session or series training program on time management. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Helping managers make more efficient use of their time has become one of the mainstays of management training. • A learning aid for individuals to sharpen their personal time management skills. It is an excellent tool for time management sessions. and sometimes amusing. effective. thoughtprovoking. The “painless time log” is very demonstrative. Using their own judgment. Participants are given the “painless time log” and asked to record their work activities each day on a log sheet (in 10-minute increments). Participants record their activities for three typical workdays and tally their times on the forms provided. This exercise is a simple. and interesting way to demonstrate personal time management. participants determine the reasonable time for each activity and compare it against the actual time spent.
• Suggest that participants use a separate Daily Time Log sheet(s) for each day logged and that they maintain the logs for two or three typical days. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to display your visual aid. SB 139-1 . Date it in the upper right-hand corner. • Next to each activity. Also provide participants with a sample of the Daily Time Log. Process/Discussion • Begin by emphasizing that one of the keys to good personal time management is to keep track of how time is being spent and that this is easily done by keeping a simple record for several typical days. Encourage them to make entries on the log as often as possible so that they don’t lose track of any activities. mark 2 Xs). There are no prescribed work activity “categories” that must be followed. • Explain that there is a painless way to do this on the job in just a few minutes • Using your visual aid of a Time Log Sheet Sample (see handout). each participant uses his or her own words and creates his or her own categories. It quickly points out how time is being spent each day.. plus have enough Daily Time Log sheets for each participant to make three time logs. 3. • Remind participants that entries are most helpful later if they include the subject of their activity and the name or position of the other person(s) involved (i. enter no X if less than 5 minutes or one X if the activity takes between 5 and 10 minutes. For activities that take a fraction of the 10-minute time unit.e. participants mark an “X” on the right side of the page for each 10 minutes spent on that activity (if the phone call in the example above lasted for 20 minutes. 2. Entries can be made on the time log at any time during the day.Preparation • Make one copy of the Time Spent Analysis Sheet and sample for each participant. “Phone call to purchasing department re: special order”). • Show participants how to note on the left side of the page each work activity as it occurs during the day. • Have a blank Daily Time Log sheet to illustrate its use. demonstrate how to set up the sheet by completing the information as shown on the Daily Time Log Sample handout. each day and that there are some advantages to this particular system: 1.
− With whom you do it: with supervisor. this helps them tally their logged activities and allows them to begin to see some patterns and areas where they can improve their use of time. outside contacts (resource people. If 50 minutes— 5 Xs—were spent handling customer contacts on Monday. − Next pick one of the listed categories. etc. − Repeat this step for each of the other categories until all the Xs have been counted on each day’s sheet. reading. tell them to be as specific as possible. phone calls.. SB 139-2 . but for the first few days while they are getting used to the process. This is a simple procedure and should not be difficult for participants to understand. customers. meetings. quality control activities. • Tell participants to refer to the Time Spent Analysis Sheet handout. pants should follow to complete the Time Spent Analysis Sheet. reports). creative thinking time. budgeting/finance activities. personnel supervision. other depart- ments. Explain that • Read or paraphrase the information given below to explain the steps partici- First you are to determine the work activity categories that are most useful to your own situation and list one on each line for the Time Spent Analysis Sheet in the “Category” column. You may first want to list on a separate sheet the major components of your job. Then do the same for the “customer contacts” category for each of the other days logged. Then turn to the first day’s log sheet. peers. − How you do it: through customer contacts. Reinforce the point that entries on the log may be as specific or general as desired. if the category is “customer contacts.” look down the left side of Monday’s log for activities in that category and tally up the Xs next to them).• Remind participants that tallying Xs after each entry helps account for as much of the time in the workday as possible.e. suppliers). writing (e-mails. employees. Or you may want to use some form of these suggested categories: − What you do: production/service. • Answer any questions participants have about filling in the log sheet. etc. enter 50 in the Monday column on the Time Spent Analysis Sheet. Count the Xs for activities that fall in that category (i.
” − Now. This is especially important for new or inexperienced supervisors who have yet to learn what their organization expects. − Percentages for time spent in each category are figured and entered on the appropriate line in the “Weekly Percent” column. it is important to stress that participants share the results of the exercise with their managers. To do so. add up the numbers across each horizontal “category” line. • One good way for participants to determine what is reasonable is to talk about their job assignments with their managers. results should be reviewed at the next session. Enter each total on the bottom line marked. and − The final calculation involves adding up figures in the vertical “Weekly Total” column and entering that sum on the bottom line. the exercise should also be shared with the manager to get maximum benefit. the exercise is a useful take-home assignment either as a follow-up or as a lead-in to the topic of time management.” enter each total on the same line under “Weekly Total. Regardless of how it is used. Note: This number should equal the sum of “Total Office Hours” listed across the bottom line. “Total Office Hours.− Then add up the numbers in all vertical day-of-the-week columns. they may complete the “Reasonable” column on the Time Spent Analysis Sheet. Options/Variations • When using the “Painless Time Log” as an action plan with a single session. • When used as an action plan with a series. Some job descriptions weigh assignments by percentages. indicating prime areas for concentration and effort. SB 139-3 . • If participants want to take the analysis a step further. Another aid for determining “reasonable” time is the job description for a particular position but only if it is current and complete in its scope of the job. Doing this helps ensure that both participant and manager have input in determining reasonable amounts of time spent on each work activity. Estimated reasonable times are entered in the “Reasonable” column under “Total. • When used as a learning aid. participants prioritize their job functions and estimate how much of their time is “reasonable” to spend in each activity. it is easy for participants to see which of their work activities are most or least time consuming and where adjustments in their personal time management might be made.” and percentages are figured as in the “Weekly” column. • With this data charted.
Experience shows that log sheets may suggest certain categories that are quite useful. the results of this exercise with their manager may be threatening. categorizing “after the fact” means that log entries have not been artificially modified to fit predetermined categories that may be irrelevant. Suggest that sharing results may produce a better understanding between participant and manager about what the manager feels the participant should do each day to be the most productive. Also. • As trainer/facilitator.” Still. It also clarifies assumptions on both sides as to what constitutes a “good job. some participants will avoid this confrontation no matter how it is presented. you should recognize that asking participants to discuss SB 139-4 .Notes • One further suggestion for helping participants determine useful work activity “categories” is to suggest that these categories be determined after logging activities for a few days.
Session Builders 139 – Painless Time Log HANDOUTS .
Session Builders 139 – Painless Time Log Daily Time Log Date __________________ Work Activity Time Spent SB 139 Handout 1 .
went over e-mail/voicemails 5. Met with assistant. Staff meeting 6. Met with accounting re: travel expense 7. Session Builders SAMPLE 139 – Painless Time Log Daily Time Log Date __________________ Work Activity 1. Client called re: product adjustment 4. Wrote first draft on company procedures 10. Checked work progress reports 12. Lunch 9. SB 139 Handout 2 . Organized work for day 2. Talked with supervisor about discipline problem 11. Talked with employee re: critical job 3. Inc. Set up monthly schedule XXX XXX X XX XXXXXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XX XXXX XXX Time Spent Based on a concept created and written by the staff of TRC Interactive. Talked with employee about projects 8.
139 – Painless Time Log Time Spent Analysis Sheet Weekly Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat Sun Total % Reasonable Total % Category SB 139 Handout 3 TOTAL OFFICE HOURS .
called by others Meeting and conf. as noted Miscellaneous SB 139 Handout 4 TOTAL OFFICE HOURS .139 – Painless Time Log SAMPLE Weekly Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat Sun Total % Time Spent Analysis Sheet Reasonable Total % Category Necessary routine work Worked alone—current contributive Worked alone—forward planning Meeting and conf. called by me Outside meetings Customer contacts Talk with individual employees Talk with supervisor Talk with other personnel Special situations/assignments Business and professional reading Lunch Travel (in-transit) time Business entertainment Non-contributive.
Participants are divided into small groups. eye.. lip) as possible. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 30 minutes Group Size: 8 to 50 140 – Three-Letter Words Use this Session Builder as: • An icebreaker or warm-up for a session on creativity or problem solving. They reconvene to compare lists and share observations about creativity and problem solving. . It energizes the creative side of the brain and promotes freedom of expression and group cohesiveness. Their task is to list as many parts of the body spelled with three letters (e. Participants are then better able to apply creative energies to more complex issues or problems. • An icebreaker or warm-up exercise for an actual on- job problem-solving task force or employee participation group. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Whenever people are asked to think creatively or apply creativity to problem solving. it may be necessary to get “warmed up.” This exercise does that and more. toe.g.
SB 140 1 . • Allow about 10 minutes for the small groups to prepare their lists. create small discussion groups that consist of four to six participants each. • Have each group select a recorder. and make sure each recorder has pencil and paper. • Move about the room to monitor progress and provide encouragement and stimulation.g. They are to list as many as possible as quickly as possible. • Provide paper and pencils for each group. Process • To prepare the group. I’m going to ask you to break into small groups and take part in a mind-stretching exercise. • The room should be flexible enough to accommodate simultaneous small group discussions.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. • Tell the groups that they are to make a list of body parts that are spelled with three (and only three) letters (e. But it’s sometimes difficult to just “jump right into” creative thinking. If a group seems to be stumped. It may seem somewhat frivolous. You need to temporarily abandon logical thinking and open up to new ideas and new ways of looking at things. toe). So. you really need to let yourself go. The recorder is to write each part down as it is named. in just a moment. • Expect some amusement as groups think of “street names” that fit the requirement. ear. Its purpose is to energize the creative side of your brain and help you get a better understanding of the creative process. don’t worry about that. • Using any convenient method. eye. read or paraphrase the following: In order to be really creative or apply creativity to a problem situation. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to record group responses (optional).. challenge them by indicating that there are nearly 30 parts of the body that are spelled with three letters.
not truly body parts. gas). SB 140 2 . groups with shorter lists will be interested in what groups with longer lists have written. Let the discussion flow somewhat freely back and forth at this point. Ask groups with shorter lists what seemed to block or inhibit their creative energies.• Other groups have compiled this list of three-letter body parts: arm leg ear toe lip eye hip lid pit gum egg ova rib gut lap fat sac oil bag tip gas rod pad wax ham H2 O jaw Note that some are substances (oil. While it is not necessary to call for or record all possible responses. • Begin to focus the discussion by asking groups with longer lists how they were able to do so well. Define “body parts” as broadly as you wish for your participants. Discussion • Reconvene the session by asking each group how many items they have listed. You may now wish to concentrate on either creativity in general or creative problem solving in particular.
Ask several participants. can you do to be more creative on the job? PROBLEM-SOLVING QUESTIONS • The following are some suggested questions for a discussion about creative problem solving: 1. or serious participant)? 2. What can each person do to improve group problem solving on the job? • Ask several members of the group to help you summarize the main points of the discussion. Did group members assume different roles in solving the problem (e. passive. How well do you listen to other people’s creative ideas? 3. go from group to group asking each recorder to share two or three from the list. eagerness to participate.g. leader. To what degree do you hold back ideas you feel may be unacceptable to the group? 5. You may wish to write the responses on a flipchart or whiteboard. you may sense a need to process the entire list of three-letter words. Did some or most members of the group feel any frustration during the exercise? Why? How did the group respond to and handle this frustration? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of working on a problem in a group as opposed to trying to solve it individually? 5.) 7. deferred judgment. if anything. “What role did you assume? Why?” 3. Use a dash or other symbol to avoid writing them out completely on the chart.CREATIVITY QUESTIONS • Here are some suggested questions for a discussion that is related to creativity: 1. SB 140 3 . Options/Variations With some groups. How is your own personal creativity affected by the ideas of others? 2. What. How do you feel/react when you suspect others are not listening to your ideas? 4. active. What are some of the requirements for a group to be creative? (The group should mention things such as freedom from status or ego threats and political positioning. Handle the “street names” delicately to minimize any potential embarrassment. and good listening. Are people more creative when working individually or as members of a group? 6. To do so..
. participants develop an awareness of the impact that each response is likely to have on the attitudes and feelings of their employees. • An introductory exercise to stimulate discussion and lead into a lecture on the subject material. the participants read situations where a manager is attempting to delegate tasks to an employee. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: The delegation process provides many barriers for most supervisors and managers.” By weighing the implications of each response during the discussion. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 30 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 141 – Getting Through the Sound Barriers Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise to build on key points being emphasized in the session. • A learning aid to help managers or supervisors seeking individual assistance in these areas. This exercise gives managers an interesting view of delegation barriers. Participants are asked to assess four choices and select an appropriate response for the manager to make to the employee’s “barrier. In each delegation attempt. the employee provides a barrier. In a series of mini-case studies.
however. • Provide pencils for participants. • The room should be flexible enough to allow space for participants to write their answers and to make viewing the visual aids possible for all participants. Discussion • After the allotted time. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available for your use during the discussion. tally the votes for each choice. • To help broaden the discussion of “answers. problems completing it. they are to use their best judgment as to how best to handle each situation. if the group is large. Or. You might need to point out that these situations are taken somewhat out of context. why? Would you do it differently today? Why? SB 141-1 . Explain that further explanation of the issues will be given during the discussion process. Use the explanations given on your copy of the answer sheet to support the most appropriate choices for each statement. Then ask one or two of them to explain why he or she chose that answer.Preparation • Make copies of the question and answer sheets for each participant. which makes it difficult to decide which answer is appropriate. ask participants to volunteer their answers to each statement. Process • Distribute a copy of the question sheet to each participant. For now. if any. This exercise is relatively straightforward and participants should have few.” you might want to use the following questions: − What do you think would be the likely results of this exchange when such a response is given by the supervisor? − How do you suppose that answer would make the employee feel? − Have you ever been in a situation where an answer like this was given? As the employee? As the supervisor? How did you feel about it then? How do you feel about it now? If your feelings about the incident have changed. • Tell participants that you will allow them a few minutes to review the state- ments and choose their answers. • Allow 5 to 7 minutes for participants to complete the handout.
distribute the answer sheet to the participants. often flip remarks are said in jest. the supervisor has a rush order on the project. generally speaking. If time permits. it is not in the best interest to allow familiarity to become a permanent part of the work scene. Though a supervisor or manager should get to know his or her employees. At the same time. answer. • Some participants may question that the relationship between a supervisor or • Extenuating circumstances may also change what would be an appropriate • In these discussions. or fear on the supervisor’s part of losing control. you might want to go through each set of choices. SB 141-2 . manager and his or her employee may change what would be the best response. • When the discussion is finished. explore what some extenuating circumstances might be for other answers. It is important to analyze all the data and make our decisions based on what we know is happening at the time. you need to actively listen and observe the outcome and make changes in your approach as necessary.• If time permits. If in Question #3. It is true that where employees know their supervisors well. new insights can be gained about what made it work (or not work). By sharing actual experiences. failure to listen to what the employee is trying to say. caution should be taken to watch for anything that would indicate a lack of respect for the employee’s feelings. have them share how they handled those circumstances. • Ask if any participants have experienced similar situations. If so. However. • In summary. the supervisor or manager should avoid trying to be “one of the guys” and should keep job assignments on a business basis. Answer A would let the employee know the urgency of such a request. listing the advantages and disadvantages of each response and explaining when those choices might apply. point out that how we deal with a particular circumstance may vary with each situation.
While this exercise is excellent for use with individuals in a private session. • As an individual learning aid. Give the answer sheet to the participant after you have discussed the various options that are available. what prevents managers from actively listening. help participants realize that how you deal with a particular situation may vary with each circumstance. SB 141-3 . the advantages of using it in a group situation are increased because of the feedback from coworkers who are willing to share their experience and expertise. or motivation. Point out the disadvantages and advantages of each choice and when those factors would apply. the benefits of delegation. and the necessity of planning how and what will be delegated. talk about the man- ager’s and the employee’s part in communication. Participants will undoubtedly point out personal experiences that will tend to change some of the answers. Let him or her read the answer sheet. the manager’s and employee’s part in resisting delegation. If the subject is delegation. • If the subject is communication. After discussion on these issues. go over the answers. Then answer any questions that might surface. emphasize the concept of delegation as a management tool. have the participant complete the handout. and the effect that communication/listening has on employee motivation. listening. you may want to distribute the answer sheet as soon as partici- pants finish answering all the questions. Let them read over the answers and compare them with their own responses. then Notes • Begin with a short lecture on the subject material. It is important to understand what is happening before making a decision.Options/Variations • To save time. Then open discussion by asking for volunteers to comment on their reactions to the answers.
Session Builders 141 – Getting Through the Sound Barriers HANDOUTS .
“Well. Listed below are three typical reactions to your attempt to assign the task. okay. and then finish the Benson project. but you’re the best person for this job. I’ll be available if you need me. For each one. “Why do you feel this is dirty work?” D. check the response you feel would be “best” to make under the circumstances. 1. I’m asking you to do it. “Yes. or I wouldn’t ask you to do it. Session Builders 141 – Getting Through the Sound Barriers You are a supervisor with a particular task that you have decided to delegate.” B.” SB 141 Handout 1 . “Why don’t you feel you can do it?” D. This is more important. Get this out first. “Can’t you find somebody else to do your dirty work?” A.” C.” A. I’m not sure I can do that.” B. “Gee.” C. “Sure you can. “Can’t you work on both of them at the same time?” C. “No. “But don’t you want me to finish the Benson project first?” A. “I really think you can. Give it a try. I’ll give it to someone else.” 2.” B. It is important. “This isn’t dirty work.” 3. “No. “Which do you feel is more important?” D. “Let’s see if we can find some way for you to work on them in parallel.
So that you can see the reason for each choice.” Response C is probably the most appropriate. “Gee. “Why don’t you feel you can do it?” D. I’m asking you to do it.” A. 1. directly below each situation. “Can’t you find somebody else to do your dirty work?” A. “No. It is important. direct response like that given in Response A may be necessary. SB 141 Handout 2 (continued) . Give it a try. “Well. but you’re the best person for this job. a firm. each supervisor statement and the possible employee responses are repeated below. “I really think you can. “Why do you feel this is dirty work?” D. Responses B and D provide reassurance. and. In some cases.” B.” neither Choice B nor D is likely to change his or her impression. I’m not sure I can do that.” ⌧ C. The “best” response appears in bold type. “Yes.” Response C is probably the best of those provided.” B.” ⌧ C. Response A avoids the issue. an explanation is given stating why that choice is “best” under the circumstances. okay. I’ll give it to someone else. The employee’s answer to your question. “Why don’t you feel you can do it?” will help you understand what assistance may be needed. If the employee thinks that it is “dirty work. “Sure you can. 2. but they don’t really get at the real reason the employee is hesitant. or I wouldn’t ask you to do it. I’ll be available if you need me. Session Builders 141 – Getting Through the Sound Barriers Answer Sheet You were asked to select the “best” response to overcome an apparent barrier to delegation. But that response doesn’t permit the employee to express his or her feelings about the assignment. “This isn’t dirty work.
it assumes that the employee can work on the projects just one at a time. like Response A. Managers sometimes select Response A because they feel it is their role to assign project priorities.” B. Get this out first. “Can’t you work on both of them at the same time?” C. “No. however. “Which do you feel is more important?” ⌧ D. This response. SB 141 Handout 2 (concluded) .” The best response is D. in some cases. Response C encourages the employee to participate in the decision and that’s good.3. and. that may be true. Response B puts the burden on the employee and might sound condescending. assumes that the employee is only capable of working on one project at a time. and then finish the Benson project. This is more important. “Let’s see if we can find some way for you to work on them in parallel. “But don’t you want me to finish the Benson project first?” A. however.
participants are asked to identify what things or activities on the job are stressful. Then participants use a questionnaire to analyze their own work environments. • An application exercise to focus on each participant’s own stress levels relating to his or her job environment. A bonus of this exercise is a greater appreciation of how stress affects others. after dividing into two groups. Type: Application Time Required: 90 minutes Group Size: 10 to 20 142 – Work Pressures Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise to illustrate key points on stress in the work environment. Then. the first group is asked to identify some psychological reactions to these stress factors. In this exercise. This application exercise highlights areas of stress in participants’ jobs and how to minimize that stress. and the second group to identify some of the physical effects that develop from continued exposure to these stress factors. • A learning aid for managers seeking individual help in stress management. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Managers and supervisors must be able to recognize the causes of stress and its effects on performance and productivity. .
If the chemicals produced to meet the challenge pour into a person’s system for an extended period. • Explain that stress factors can be both negative happenings (work overload. anger. How would a person feel when experiencing any one of these stress factors? What might happen to him or her internally when he or she is exposed to these stress factors? For instance. a desirable but difficult assignment.). and the Environment/Vulnerability/Stressor Factors handouts for each participant. Process/Discussion PART I • Divide a whiteboard or flipchart into three columns. etc. they can do more harm than good.) or positive happenings (promotion. etc. The listings on your visual aid would look something like this: Stress Factors On the Job Work overload Demanding boss Promotion Difficult assignment etc. • Participants may question how something pleasant causes stress. You can point Internal Psychological Reactions External Physical Effects out that the body calls on the same reserves to meet an exciting challenge as it does to meet an unpleasant chore. demanding boss. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to process the exercise. • When the list is fairly complete (about 10 items). divide the participants into two groups. etc. he or she might experience feelings such as anxiety. List these answers under the left-hand column as they are given.Preparation • Make copies of the Application Exercise. Ask the first group to think about and discuss what psychological factors might develop as a result of the listed stress factors. fear. the Stages of Life. • The room should be able to accommodate small group discussions with minimal disruption. SB 142-1 . if a person is given too much work to do. Ask the group what factors can cause stress in the job environment.
circulate among • Next. starting with the psychological reactions. them and give some of the examples suggested in the following chart (as appropriate to their group). record the responses in the appropriate column on your visual aid. hives. participants are able to see the relationships between their own physical and mental effects and their job problems. Monitor the groups to • If the groups are having trouble coming up with their lists. ask each group to read its list. keep them focused on the assignment. upset stomach. What happens physically to them when subjected to these stress factors for extended periods? The second group might develop such answers as headaches.• Ask the second group to discuss and list what bodily reactions occur in response to the stress factors. Note: Participants usually understand this exercise better when they can make visual comparisons. • Give the groups about 10 minutes to complete their lists. etc. if any. Confusion. • While the answers will undoubtedly vary from group to group. the chart should include at least some of the following items: Stress Factors On the Job Work overload Time pressure/deadlines Financial responsibility Decision making Conflicting demands Ambiguous instructions Unclear job responsibilities Loss of recognition Lack of supervisory/job skill training Internal Psychological Reactions Anxiety Tension Fear Aggression Guilt Anger Embarrassment Irritability Annoyance Boredom Extreme happiness External Physical Effects Headaches Gastric upset Increased heart rate Cold sweats Flushed face Digestive problems Blushing Facial tic Rashes Hives Elevated cholesterol SB 142-2 . As each list is read. By first listing the stress factors in the job environment on a visual aid and then listing the physical and mental relationships to stress on the same visual aid. generally occurs because participants do not understand what you are asking them to do. When talking about stress factors on the job. This will probably be sufficient to get them started. participants have a tendency to release pent-up feelings and spend considerable time talking about their problems rather than completing their lists.
Some may never have thought that pressure on the job could be causing their mental or physical problems. PART II • To develop the lesson further. Internal and external effects of stress only become a problem when they are experienced or felt over a long period of time. 2. Feeling these effects on a short-term basis can actually be a healthy occurrence. • Some points of discussion that will surface during this part of the exercise are: 1. ask the participants to return to their groups. They can help the person meet new demands. Some people can take on heavy financial burdens and not be bothered by them while others develop rashes or hives until the problem is alleviated. However. family. etc. As they do. Then ask the first group to list all the factors in the outside environment (any factors outside the person such as work. they will begin to relate how they are feeling with something that is happening on the job.• Give the participants an opportunity to look at these three lists for a minute or two. It is only when these physical and mental effects occur over a long period that they become damaging to our systems and affect our ability to perform on the job.) that would affect how a person performs in a particular job assignment. The length of time depends on the amount of stress felt and the physical and mental condition of the person. People do not all react to stress in the same way. These factors might be: Environmental Factors − − − − − − attitude of management toward its employees relationships with other employees relationships with friends working conditions job security economy • Ask the second group to list all the factors they can think of that might make them more vulnerable to stress. Some people are challenged by work overload rather than frightened or angered by it. caution participants not to be too hasty in their decisions about themselves and what is happening. These factors might include: Vulnerability Factors − − − − physical health mental health academic achievement particular stage of life (age level) SB 142-3 . Suggest they think about their conclusions for a day or two.
Please read the instructions for completing the checklists and totaling them when they are completed. while at other times that same thing may cause that same person to fall apart. Then put the • To demonstrate how environmental and vulnerability factors affect a person’s reaction to stress. • Allow the groups about 10 minutes to complete their lists. These sheets illustrate how the three factors—environment. they may relate what you are saying to problems they have been experiencing with their own employees. Read or paraphrase the following: On these pages are checklists that will allow you to analyze environmental support. and the stressors that may be affecting you right now. the person seeking the job will experience stress. The SB 142-4 . You may want to refer to that book for more information when discussing this subject in your session. • Allow about 30 minutes for Part II of this exercise. Or. First.) information on a visual aid. vulnerability. and stress—interrelate. you’ll complete the diagram on the last page. your own vulnerability. This diagram will give you an indication of the amount of stress you’re presently feeling and in what areas it’s occurring. Here you might want to point out that if a person does not have a high school degree or a college degree and that is required for a long-wanted job assignment. Examples of what people experience at various age levels during their lives from the study done by Gail Sheehy in Passages have been listed in the handouts. Be sure to place the visual aid off to one side at the front of the room so that it can be viewed while you are explaining these factors. They show why at times something will not affect a person.• Questions will arise regarding why academic achievement is a vulnerability factor. If you prepare appropriate visuals based on these handouts. By interrelating the factors. Using your scores from each of the three checklists. • Participants will also question what is meant by particular stages of life. they may apply this information to what is happening to them. PART III • Distribute the Application Exercise to each participant. (See Handout 5 titled Stages of Life. Add each checklist as you go along. Distribute copies of the handouts after you finish your explanation. participants can follow along with the discussion. • Participants become interested in this material for several reasons. use the illustrations in the handout titled Environment/ Vulnerability/Stressor Factors and Stages of Life. they understand why something is happening that paves the way for them to develop an approach to deal with it.
You might suggest that if the areas of concern are job-related. Generally speaking. this is a general indication of what is causing stress for you at the present time. • Part II and Part III can be used without Part I.more your circles overlap. It helps pinpoint those areas giving the most problems. Remember. participants will work quietly. When you recognize your stress areas. you can take action to correct the situation. • Allow 30 minutes for this final part of the exercise. • Remind participants that to have a true measure. appropriate action can be taken to minimize the stress. Options/Variations • Because of the complexity of this exercise. • Some participants may be concerned because their circles overlap considerably. • Part III can be used as a learning aid for a supervisor or manager experiencing stress in the job environment. • Allow participants about 20 minutes to complete their checklists and diagrams. As facilitator. SB 142-5 . you do not need to take on counseling responsibilities when such problems surface. Reassure them that this information is for their use only and that it will not be seen by anyone else. little. Be available to help those who are having problems completing the scores. Part I is easily adaptable to this need. Adjust your time frames accordingly when breaking up the exercise into individual parts. When he or she learns this information. their answers should be as honest as possible. the supervisor may still be able to suggest other sources for help where necessary. you may choose to use only one part to emphasize a particular point in a lecture on stress. direction will be needed. if any. the more likely symptoms will appear and become a problem in your performance.
Inc. especially in today’s fast-paced. Darien.Notes • Stress is a body’s nonspecific reaction to specific input. Coulombe. Among the most stressful occupations were office managers and supervisors. I. Reproduced by special permission of the copyright holder. M. Connecticut 06820. SB 142-6 .D. by Alan A. technological society. McLean. copyright 1976 by Management Decision Systems. • Addison-Wesley Publishing Company has also given permission to Session Builder Submitted by E. The ability to recognize the causes of stress and handle stress as it occurs is a necessary ingredient at all levels of business. The Stages of Life chart is based on an idea adapted from Passages by Gail Sheehy © 1976. A study done by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ranked 130 occupations according to the incidence of stress-related disease and death. purchasers to reproduce the handouts masters for use in their sessions. The checklists used in this Session Builder first appeared in Dealing with Job-Related Stress (cassettes and workbook). It is an inescapable part of life. This is particularly true at the management level..
142 – Work Pressures HANDOUTS
142 – Work Pressures Part II-1 Environment/Vulnerability/Stressor Factors
You feel stress when factors within your environment are creating pressure on you or when you are particularly vulnerable at a given time. To illustrate this, take a look at the circles below. They indicate the amount of pressure felt in each area at a given time:
The more pressure you feel, the more the size of the circles will increase. Eventually, they will overlap. The overlap represents the symptoms produced by the amount or degree of the stress.
SB 142 Handout 1
142 – Work Pressures Part II-2 Environment/Vulnerability/Stressor Factors
CASE #1 Conditions: Environment: Supportive boss Vulnerability: Feeling good about self Stressor: Overload of work Even though a stressor is present when your environmental factor is supportive and your vulnerability is low, you do not feel the symptoms of stress. Visually, it could be diagrammed this way:
No symptoms of stress
SB 142 Handout 2
142 – Work Pressures Part II-3 Environment/Vulnerability/Stressor Factors
CASE #2 Conditions: Environment: Good management attitude towards employees Vulnerability: Poor physical health, could be serious Stressor: Personality conflict with employee When you feel vulnerable but have a supportive environment, a stress factor may produce symptoms depending on how vulnerable you are and the length of the stress. Visually, it could be diagrammed this way:
Symptoms of stress
SB 142 Handout 3
symptoms may appear as follows: Low Stress: ENV: Poor working conditions VUL: Entering adult world STRS: Promotion denies ENV VUL STRS SYMPTOMS Medium Stress: ENV: No authority at work VUL: Mid-life crisis (age 40) STRS: Boss hires younger man at same level with less experience ENV VUL STRS SYMPTOMS High Stress: ENV: Threat of job loss VUL: Lack of education. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part II-4 Environment/Vulnerability/Stressor Factors CASE #3 When you have high vulnerability and a nonsupportive environment with varying degrees of stress. age 54 STRS: Spouse becomes terminally ill ENV STRS VUL SYMPTOMS SB 142 Handout 4 .
Age 30 transition (ages 28–33) “Restless vitality. Age 50 transition (ages 50–55) “Looking to the future. what do I want to do?” 4.” 3. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part II-5 Stages of Life 1. Early adult life (ages 17–22) “If I’m late. Entering the adult world (ages 22–28) “Learning how to hold on. start the crisis without me. makes ties.” 7. Mid-life transition (ages 40–50) “Frustrating/confusing/scared time.) SB 142 Handout 5 .” 6.” 2.” 8.” 5. Middle adulthood (ages 55–60) “What does retirement mean?” (Stages developed by Gail Sheehy in Passages. needs strong support from boss/family. Settling down (ages 33–40) “Sets goals. Middle adult years (ages 45–50) “Becoming more objective.
2. Select 1 of 5 answers that best suits how you feel about that statement. Follow the scoring directions that follow the checklist and enter your scores in the spaces provided. Below are instructions for completing the checklists and what to do when you have completed each of them. 3. Be honest with yourself. Read the summary of results that follows the space where you entered your score. Check the explanations for your results as given in the definitions that follow the scoring instructions. and the stressors that may be affecting you right now. Environmental Survey 1. Follow the directions listed at the top of the survey. SB 142 Handout 6 . Score your answers as described in the instructions following the checklist and enter the results in the spaces provided. Vulnerability Checklist 1. Read the summary of results that follow the scoring section. Stressors Checklist 1. No one will see the answers but you. 2. your environmental support. 3. Add the numbers as described in the instructions following the checklist and enter the results in the spaces provided. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part III-1 Application Exercise On the following pages are checklists that will allow you to examine your own vulnerability. Complete the checklist as indicated at the top of the checklist. 3. 2.
I treat other people as individuals and care about their feelings and opinions. I’m usually very active on weekends with projects or recreation. 4. not because I enjoy what I do. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part III-2 Vulnerability Checklist For each of the following statements. 9. I “roll with the punches” when problems come up. I enjoy meeting and talking with people who have different ways of thinking about the world.” 6. 11. 8. I work primarily to survive. 3. Often in my job I “bite off more than I can chew. 13. 2. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Quite True 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Somewhat True 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Not Very True 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Not at All True 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 SB 142 Handout 7 (continued) . I recognize and accept my own limitations and assets. There are quite a few people I could describe as “good friends.” 10. I prefer working with people who are very much like myself. I enjoy using my skills and abilities both on and off the job. circle the number in the column that best describes how you feel about the statement. 5. I get bored easily. 12. I spend almost all of my time thinking about my work. I believe I have a realistic picture of my strengths and weaknesses. Very True 1. 7.
10. 19. Often I’m not sure how I stand on a controversial topic. 1 1 1 1 1 1 Quite True 2 2 2 2 2 2 Somewhat True 3 3 3 3 3 3 Not Very True 4 4 4 4 4 4 Not at All True 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 Scoring Directions Listed opposite each of the five coping scales below are the numbers of four of the statements above. 18 2. 15 Your Score (write in) Add the five scores together for your overall total score Scores on each of the five areas can vary between 4 and 20. Scores of 60 or more may suggest some difficulty in coping with the dimensions covered. 15. Coping Scale Knows self Many interests Variety of reactions Accepts others’ values Active and productive Add your responses to these questions 4. I’m usually able to find a way around anything that blocks me from an important goal. I get upset when things don’t go my way. 14. I often disagree with my boss or others at work. 9. SB 142 Handout 7 (continued) . find the four statements and add your response. 8. 12. Often I get into arguments with people who don’t think my way. 20 6. 18. 16. Enter the total in the space provided. 13. 16 1. 17. 7.Very True 14. I’m interested in a lot of different topics. Often I have trouble getting my job done. 20. Scores of 12 or above suggest that it might be useful to direct more attention to that area. Knows himself or herself well enough to know those personality factors that can't be changed and those skills—social and professional—on which to capitalize. For each scale. 11. The overall total score can range between 20 and 100. 5. 19 3. Knows Self—Knows self at all levels and understands own strengths and weaknesses. 17.
©1979. McLean. MA.. ways of doing things. Variety of Reactions—Doesn't always react in the same way to factors he or she finds stressful. Reprinted from Work Stress by Alan A. and tends to accept this as a way of life without attempting to change others. M. Reading. Accepts Others' Values—Acknowledges that others have different value systems.Many Interests—Has developed a lot of interests outside the world of work. by permission of AddisonWesley Publishing Co. Doesn’t become hyperactive or frozen by incapacity under stress. Pursues these outside interests regularly (family and business). Has a variety of satisfactions in life and does not get all satisfactions from the job. Turn the page and complete the Environmental Survey. Active and Productive—Active and productive at work without sacrificing similar activity in the community and the home. SB 142 Handout 7 (concluded) .D. Bounces back quickly. Doesn’t develop a headache when angry with the boss or get depressed when faced with an apparently minor threat.
How satisfied are you with your pay. How satisfied are you with your advancement since you started to work with your company? 10. How satisfied are you with your job—the kind of work you do? 3. How satisfied are you with the job your immediate supervisor is doing in managing his or her “people” responsibilities? 6. How satisfied are you with your opportunities to move into a better job in your company? 1 Quite True 2 Somewhat True 3 Not Very True 4 Not at All True 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 SB 142 Handout 8 (continued) . etc. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part III-3 Environmental Survey For each of the following statements. How satisfied are you with the job your immediate supervisor is doing in managing functional responsibilities? 7. considering your duties and responsibilities? 8. How satisfied are you with your physical working conditions (heat.)? 4. How satisfied are you with the company you work for compared with other companies you know about? 2. How satisfied are you with your pay considering what other companies pay for similar work? 9. Very True 1. light. noise. How satisfied are you with the cooperation among the people with whom you work? 5. circle the number in the column that best describes how you feel about the statement.
How satisfied are you with the use your present job makes of your skills and abilities? 12. etc. Reprinted from Work Stress by Alan A. © 1979. You should also evaluate the specific items that you rated negatively.)? 13.. will you be working for your present organization five years from now? Circle one: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Certainly Probably I’m not at all sure Probably not Certainly not I’ll be retired in five years 1 Quite True 2 Somewhat True 3 Not Very True 4 Not at All True 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Scoring Directions Add the numbers you circled in the Environmental Survey and enter the total: ______ Scores can range between 14 and 75. McLean.Very True 11. How satisfied are you with the mental requirements of your present job (problem solving. how would you rate your overall feelings about your employment situation? 15. considering everything else. MA. How satisfied are you with the time demands of your present job (hours worked as opposed to mental demands)? 14.D. Now. technical knowledge. M. SB 142 Handout 8 (concluded) . judgment. Scores of 45 or more may suggest that the overall context of your work is less than satisfactory. If you have your way. by permission of Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading.
Not knowing what people you work with expect of you. Job Scope: 7. Not being able to get the information you need to carry out your job. 9. Feeling that you have too little authority to carry out the responsibilities assigned to you. Conflict and Uncertainty: 1. Thinking that you will not be able to satisfy the conflicting demands of various people over you. This factor is a problem.. Feeling that you have to do things on the job that are against your better judgment. 8. 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Never Seldom Sometimes Usually Always 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 SB 142 Handout 9 (continued) . Feeling that you have too heavy a workload. 5.. Not having enough time to do the work properly. Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part III-4 Stressor Checklist Circle one number for each factor. 2. 6. Being unclear on the scope and responsibilities of your job. one that you can’t possibly finish during an ordinary day. 3. Having the requirements of the job affect your personal life. Job Pressure: 4.
Reading. M. McLean.D. A score of 9 or above suggests that the area presents a problem that warrants your attention. Not being able to predict the reactions of people above you. 12. Reprinted from Work Stress by Alan A.Rapport with Management: 10. Not knowing what your manager or supervisor thinks of you—how he or she evaluates your performance. SB 142 Handout 9 (concluded) . MA. Scores of 36 or more suggest a more than desirable amount of stress in your job environment.. © 1979. 11. The overall score range can be between 12 and 60. by permission of Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Never 1 Seldom 2 Sometimes 3 Usually 4 Always 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 Scoring Directions Add the three numbers you circled within each of the four areas and enter them here: Conflict and Uncertainty Job Pressure Job Scope Rapport with Management Add the above for a total: __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Scores on each of the four areas can range between 3 and 15. Having ideas considerably different from those of your managers.
you will know to what extent stress occurs in your job environment. Using a darker color ink or pencil for each circle (so it will stand out from the circles already printed). the Vulnerability Checklist. After you see to what extent the three circles overlap. SB 142 Handout 10 . Session Builders 142 – Work Pressures Part III-5 Completing Your Own Diagram Environmental Survey Score 75 60 45 15 20 40 60 80 100 Vulnerability Checklist Score 12 24 36 48 60 Stressors Checklist Score For each of the three checklists—the Environmental Survey. The more the circles overlap. draw the circumference of the circle corresponding to each score. the more likely symptoms may appear and become a problem in your performance. and the Stressors Checklist—find the spot on the scale within the appropriate circle that corresponds to your overall total score.
• An opener or beginning of an exercise to lead into the presentation of the material. managers must choose what to include based on the time available. This exercise stimulates managers to discuss what is important to include and what can be left out of the new employee orientation meeting. it’s not possible for the manager to fit all of that information into one orientation session. As a result. The participants first read statements made by new employees shortly after their orientation took place—statements that indicate a question or a problem. however. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: New employees want and need to know everything about a new job. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking about the subject area. participants discuss whether or not that situation should have been addressed during the new employee orientation session. . Then. Type: Assessment Time Required: 45 minutes Group Size: 2 to 25 143 – If I Had Known Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise within a session to build on key points. in small groups.
but it is important to select only that information new employees need to know during the orientation period. visual aid. • Provide pencils for participants. first week. • Ask them to relate the questions on the handout to their own experiences as a new employee on a new job. first three months. • Divide participants into groups that are roughly equal in size with no more than five to a group. they will be unable to finish the task at hand. • Distribute a copy of the handout to each participant. • The room should be flexible enough to allow for discussion while viewing the Process • Begin the exercise by defining what you mean by the term “employee orientation. • Circulate throughout the room and watch for groups getting “bogged down” in too much discussion on what happened to them during their own orientation.” Does it include the first day. A great deal of information could be included. • Allow 15 minutes for participants to complete their evaluations. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion. Enter the numbers 1 through 6 in a vertical column on your visual aid leaving enough room to write the one-letter answer for each question. and if you allow them to do so. groups tend to spend large amounts of time on this. Though it is important to include these feelings. etc? Does the personnel department give a prior orientation before the supervisor gives his or her orientation? • Explain that the purpose of the exercise is to get participants thinking about what information is important enough to include in an orientation session and what is not.Preparation • Make copies of the handout for each participants. SB 143-1 . Explain that participants are to discuss and evaluate each question in their small group and reach mutual solutions to each statement.
4. 2. While a thorough employee orientation might not avoid this problem entirely. 3. • In Statement #4. An employee will understand the people he or she will be working with better if the orientation includes such constructive statements as. SB 143-2 . Generally speaking. the supervisor or manager should review key provisions after the employee has had a chance to read it. Discussion • A thorough employee orientation includes most of the details and background a new employee needs to feel comfortable and productive. • In Statement #5. the employee is apparently asking a coworker about using the telephone system. If the organization has an employee handbook. 6. in Statement #1. • Clearly. it certainly could have helped. New employees may feel uncomfortable asking about “common sense” items like using a phone. Encourage quiet participants to contribute to their respective groups. 5. point out that discussing personalities of other employees is a touchy matter. A A A or B A B A or B • For example. • In Statement #3. “When you’re working with Harry. The answers each group gives to the statements will vary depending on how the term “employee orientation” has been defined. The supervisor or manager should try to cover as many of these “little” things as possible.• Encourage any groups having this problem to finish the questions on their sheets and reach mutual consensus in their small groups so that they will be ready for the open discussion period that follows. A person doing the orientation can share such information if it will ease the work flow and if he or she does it skillfully. the employee should not have to ask a coworker why there are different starting times in different departments. the employee in Statement #2 should be aware of the scope of his or her benefits. • Be alert to participants within groups who tend to dominate the discussion and do not allow the other participants in the group to contribute to the suggestions and ideas. the employee is unclear about how he or she relates to other parts of the organization. the answers that fit most appropriately are 1.
It stimulates thinking and provides a lead-in to a short lecture on good orientation methods. so either A or B would apply. generally speaking. give the handout to participants one week prior to the session. this Session Builder serves as an ice- breaker when participants do not know one another well. • Regarding Statement #6. • A thorough employee orientation is not a cure-all. it has often been written that employees do remember what happens to them during those first few weeks on the job for the remaining time that they are employed by that organization. It does not guarantee that a new employee will be successful. supplying information on days off is important.” Negative comments about other employees are destructive and should not be shared. Based on a concept created and written by the staff of TRC Interactive. and they can obtain input from other sources if they so desire. It does. Then have each participant answer one of the questions and allow the other participants to offer feedback. but he’s always willing to answer your questions. When sharing this information verbally. However. he concentrates very seriously on what he’s doing. It does not guarantee there won’t be questions or problems. have participants work individually to complete the exercise. however. • As an opener to a session on orientation. This allows them time to think about the questions prior to the actual session.you’ll notice that he’s very dedicated to his work. it is unlikely that the question of attending an aunt’s funeral would be specifically mentioned. Tell them to complete it and bring it with them to the session. Notes • In management courses on the subject of orientation. while others share this information verbally. SB 143-3 . lay the groundwork for the new employee to become a productive and contributing member of the organization. • As a presession assignment. Options/Variations • If the group is small (six or fewer). some organizations supply employees with manuals outlining days off.
Session Builders 143 – If I Had Known HANDOUT .
Sally. Session Builders 143 – If I Had Known An employee orientation should be thorough. An employee orientation would have helped avoid this problem.” SB 143 Handout 1 . but it can’t cover everything. how do you dial out from this telephone?” 2. this problem would have been avoided completely. An employee orientation would not have helped much here. “Is Harry always so abrupt when you have a problem to discuss with him?” 6. “Mel just told me I can’t get an extra day off for my aunt’s funeral. “Mike. A B C D With an employee orientation. An employee orientation would not have helped this problem at all. “Who gets all these reports anyway?” 4. “Say. Assume that each of the statements below is made by a new employee. why is our starting time different from most of the other departments in this area?” 5. “John just told me our hospital plan doesn’t cover maternity!” 3. 1. Rate the effectiveness of the employee orientation by writing the letter corresponding to the degree to which employee orientation might have helped avoid the problem.
. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 5 to 45 144 – There’s Another Way to Say It Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise after a discussion on the subject matter. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and be a lead-in for discussion on the subject. • A warm-up or opening exercise to lead into discussion. this exercise provides several situations where managers respond inappropriately to employee statements. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: In order to identify common errors in counseling situations and suggest improvement. This gives participants an opportunity to think about how appropriately phrased statements can produce a positive motivational climate. Participants are asked to identify the errors made by the managers and to provide better responses.
• Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use when summarizing the small group discussions. This may not be the case. such as undue time pressure on the employee or perhaps there were errors in the source documents that were used to prepare the forms.” • In Situation 3. the manager might say. • Once in their small groups.Preparation • Make copies of the handout for each participant. “You just don’t plan very well.” This implies judgment about the individual rather than a description of the behavior. minimal disruption. the employee seems to be pointing the finger at someone else. The response should also be phrased in a way that would avoid any judgmental implications. • The room should be large enough to accommodate small group discussions with Process • Distribute copies of the handout to each participant. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for this part. • In Situation 1. The discussion in each group should center on the answering error and suggested improvement sections. the manager would do better to ask the employee to analyze the conditions under which the errors occurred. A better response here might be to reflect the content and feeling of the employee’s statement by saying something like. the error made by the manager involves the statement. that you feel are causing you to miss deadlines. • At the end of the allotted time. Here the manager accepts the statement and goes on to suggest the very idealistic solution of having one SB 144-1 . have participants discuss and compare individual responses to each situation. then. “It’s all the changes. Such a statement is rarely complete or totally true.” • In Situation 2. Tell me how the forms are processed—step-by-step. Other factors may be to blame. “Let’s talk about it. the manager seems to be guessing the cause of the errors as well as suggesting the employee is careless. For example. • Provide pencils and paper for participant. divide participants into small groups that are roughly equal in size. The employee’s reaction is likely to be very defensive. In this case. Have them work individu- ally on the errors in the dialogue and on the suggested improvements.
it is important for the manager to get all the facts. • When participants have finished small group discussion and have prepared their lists (allow them about 20 to 25 minutes). the manager seems impatient and judgmental as expressed in the statement. Get employee commitment to a specific action plan. but all should be characterized by objectivity and a genuine desire to help employees rather than to judge or accuse. ask participants to remain in their small groups and come up with a list of seven or eight potential errors that might occur in a counseling situation. After all groups have responded. and make a composite list on the board summarizing each group’s list. I’m surprised. A suggested improvement would be for the manager to respond by saying. ask for general comments and/or questions regarding the exercise. If one employee is having a problem with another.” • In Situation 4. the basic rules of good counseling remain the same: − − − − Avoid judgment.employee confront the other and talk it out between themselves. reach a consensus on appropriate responses. Do the same for Situations 3 and 4. • After discussing all four situations.” An improvement in this counseling situation would be for the manager to find out why the employee feels this case is a little different. One way to do this is to ask someone from each group to share their response to Situation 1. “I’m not sure I understand. Generally speaking. Tell me what you mean. the list should include the following points: SB 144-2 . have them reconvene into the large group. Maintain objectivity. For instance. • Though there will be a variety of individual answers. Have a genuine helping attitude. the problem appears to be a lack of planned follow-up. • At this point. Discussion • As a way of summarizing the small group discussions. move on to Situation 2 and repeat this process. . Using explanations in the Process section as a guide. Also. “Different? In what way?” • A variety of suggested improvements may evolve. ask for some of the potential errors. “Frankly. .
3. Options/Variations To vary this exercise. 2. 8. Failure to get employee commitment to the action plan. Using phrases that imply judgment rather than a description of the behavior. ask participants to role play the situations under both conditions (with errors present and then with suggested improvements). 4. Not actively listening to what is being said. Not suggesting a specific action plan. Failure to make a specific follow-up plan. Guessing or “fishing for” possible causes. SB 144-3 . 5. with participants supplying more information and details where necessary. This provides additional visual reinforcement as well as opportunities for increased counseling dialogues. 6.Potential Errors in Counseling 1. Suggesting solutions. Role plays can continue for three to five minutes. Failure to maintain objectivity. 7. Other participants may wish to comment or offer constructive feedback on the success of improved responses in the role plays.
Session Builders 144 – There’s Another Way to Say It HANDOUT .
” Manager: “Do you proofread the forms before you send them?” Employee: “Yes. describe the answering error and suggest an improvement. I know those errors are costly. Situation 1 Employee: “Well. Session Builders 144 – There’s Another Way to Say It In each of the following situations.” Manager: “But even some of the changes are predictable. We keep getting changes all the time.” Answering Error: Suggested Improvement: Situation 2 Employee: “Yes. the manager makes one or more errors when responding to the employee. you know things are hectic. You just don’t plan very well. In your own words. Do you double-check the codes?” Answering Error: Suggested Improvement: SB 144 Handout 1 (continued) .” Manager: “Maybe you’re missing something.
” “Frankly.” “Well.” Answering Error: Suggested Improvement: SB 144 Handout 1 (concluded) .Situation 3 Employee: Manager: “He just gets on my nerves. I’m surprised I had to call you in again. I’m sure you two can talk it out between yourselves. I assumed you took care of this problem months ago.” Answering Error: Suggested Improvement: Situation 4 Manager: Employee: Manager: “Didn’t we talk about this before?” “Yes. I think you ought to sit down with him. but that was a little different.
Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This role-play exercise helps participants sharpen their active-listening skills as well as makes them aware of the need for message clarification in a position of management. • A learning aid for managers/supervisors to improve their counseling style and the motivational climate in their areas. 60 minutes if role played Group Size: 5 to 35 145 – What you’re really saying is. By sharing information in the feedback stage. . • A warm-up or opening exercise to stimulate discussion on the subject. Use this Session Builder as: • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and be a lead-in to discussion of the subject. Examples of common statements often made by employees to their managers are given to the participants. . . participants are able to see what part they play in “getting all the information out” to reach a common understanding and a solution with their employees. Type: Discussion stimulator/role play Time Required: 30 minutes. The participants are then asked to respond in an active-listening style to open up thinking and stimulate further discussion.
Discussion • Begin discussion with general questions regarding active listening. If the exercise is used as a warm-up or opening exercise. • After the allotted time. Ask participants to complete them and bring them along to the session. and promote further discussion. Process • If the exercise is used as a pre-session assignment. SB 145-1 . • The group will be able to compare and contrast these different responses and get a better “feel” for this type of counseling technique. distribute copies prior to the session. Responses should be based on a genuine interest in the employee and on getting a clear understanding of what the employee is saying. clarify. Some examples follow: − What exactly is meant by an active-listening response? Answers will vary on this question. They are used to “open up” discussion rather than “close it off. They do not automatically feel “on the defensive” or that the manager is jumping to conclusions by assuming that they are causing the problem. • You may want to caution participants that active listening is not a game or trick to keep someone talking.Preparation • Make copies of the handout for each participant. begin discussion with general questions (see examples given in the Discussion section). but participants generally reach the understanding that responses are used to confirm. distribute the handouts at the beginning of the session. then have participants volunteer different active-listening responses for each statement. • Ask participants to write a response that they feel would be appropriate for a • Allow 10 minutes for participants to write their responses. • Provide pens or pencils for participants. manager to make to each of the statements given on the handout.” − How do these responses make others feel? Employees usually feel that managers are concerned and interested in getting at the real problem when they use active-listening responses.
A more caring and sensitive attitude is usually projected by the manager. • Once these questions are answered. continue with the individual statements and responses from the handout.” “You’re saying the conflict is inevitable or irresolvable?” Statement 4: Employee: Manager: “That old car of mine just keeps breaking down. and this can be advantageous for staff morale and motivation.” or “What kind of problems did you have?” Both of these responses tend to be too direct. but I’ve never done that kind of report before.” “You’re saying that your car is causing you to frequently be late?” SB 145-2 .” “Why do you feel they are stupid little jobs?” Statement 3: Employee: Manager: “It’s as simple as this—Jane and I just have a personality conflict. Analyze each response. Statement 2: Employee: Manager: “I’m always stuck with these stupid little jobs. staff motivation can only improve. “Let’s go over it to see if I can help.” “Then the mistakes were because you’re unfamiliar with the work?” Many participants respond. Sample answers follow: Statement 1: Employee: Manager: “I know there are a lot of mistakes on it. and try to bring out participant ideas as to how the employee might feel when such a response is given. Try to create an open atmosphere for discussion so that participants can share and compare a variety of responses for each statement. but I always make up the time after 5 o’clock.− What benefit to employee motivation is derived from active-listening responses? When these responses characterize manager/employee interactions in counseling situations.
the difference in style and attitude of the manager is quite dramatic. have part of the class write responses that demonstrate the above negative attitude. Options/Variations • This particular exercise can also show participants how to be uncaring and generally uninterested in the way others feel. Advise them not to be extreme in their remarks but to write non-active-listening responses that they may have actually experienced or heard before. Use this as an opening or warm-up exercise to stimulate discussion. As a variation to the original instructions.” Help participants understand that such a statement is too confrontational. Tell the “manager” to use an active-listening response. it’s just that I am concerned about the difficulty you’re having getting the work done. Discussion easily follows on how participants feel when involved in situations without active-listening remarks. give the handout to the participants. SB 145-3 . have them complete it. this attitude should usually be maintained. Allow about 5 to 10 minutes for this to take place. . .” “I’m sorry if you feel I was accusing you of goofing off. Ask for one volunteer to play the part of the employee and another volunteer to play the part of the manager. Ask other questions as time permits. Have the volunteers continue the dialogue to reach a common understanding. “We’re not talking about anyone else. They can then elaborate and try to use more active-listening responses as the role play progresses.Statement 5: Employee: Manager: “I don’t goof around here any more than anyone else does. When these are read and perhaps role played. Although specific answers will vary.” Many participants will retort. and review the answers with them. The criteria for appropriate responses is to demonstrate genuine concern and interest and. at the same time. • You may wish to ask participants to choose one or more of the employee statements and role play that situation. get a clear understanding of what the employee is saying. • When used as a learning aid for managers or supervisors needing assistance in these areas. Have the remaining participants observe and comment on how effectively the “manager” played his or her role.
HANDOUT . . Session Builders 145 – What you’re really saying is. .
Session Builders 145 – What you’re really saying is. Employee: “It’s as simple as this—Jane and I just have a personality conflict.” Manager: 5. but I always make up the time after 5 o’clock. Employee: “I don’t goof off around here any more than anyone else. . . Employee: “That old car of mine just keeps breaking down. Acting on the part of the manager and using active-listening responses.” Manager: 2. but I’ve never done that kind of report before.” Manager: 4. Employee: “I’m always stuck with these stupid little jobs.” Manager: SB 145 Handout 1 . how would you respond to each of the following statements made by an employee? 1. Employee: “I know there are a lot of mistakes on it.” Manager: 3.
participants can approach these highly charged issues openly and candidly. In addition. Participants are asked. they learn how others feel through group feedback and discussion. to discuss an aspect of discrimination that could be present in any organization. By using specific topic situations. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 60 minutes minimum Group Size: 10 to 48 146 – I’m Okay—You’re Not Okay Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise after examining rules and regulations related to the topic. By discussing the issues. through problem-solving/decision-making techniques. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise stimulates participants’ thinking about different attitudes surrounding EEO/Affirmative Action issues within an organization. participants bring into focus sensitive attitudes about discriminatory practices that the participants may or may not have experienced. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and be a lead-in for discussion of the subject. .
you will need to take a few precau- tions. • An example is given where a secretary applies for the position of public rela- tions assistant. • Due to the sensitive nature of these topics. tell participants to discuss their group choice. Exchanges between these two types of people can get heated. just being a secretary hasn’t given her enough business experience to know how to handle a job at that level. A participant might respond. • Using the questions on the handout as a guide. you will need to multiply the number of participants in your session times the number of small groups. Participants know such situations exist. Monitor the groups to watch for such exchanges. they are reluctant to speak openly about them.Preparation • Make copies of the topic situations for each participant. and offer advice such SB 146-1 . Process • Using any convenient method. (In other words. seven. “Well. Consequently. however. they are to choose one situation as their topic for discussion. She won’t present the right image or gain the necessary support from others who’ve known her as a secretary. Participants may be bothered by these discussions. and have that many copies available. Many feel guilty because they have done nothing to change these situations when they have occurred. participants become defensive when the issues are later discussed. • You will need to make enough copies of the Observer’s Checklist for each group’s presentation to be reviewed by the remaining participants in the session. when doing an exercise relating to these issues. The rest of the staff will feel the value of their position is diminished if a secretary can be put into a job that’s similar to theirs.) • The room should be flexible enough to accommodate small group discussion with minimal disruption. As a group. First. • Distribute the list of topic situations to each participant in each group. They may become very emotional or withdraw completely. divide the session into equal groups made up of six. or eight participants. the discussion becomes very charged with emotion.” • These are highly charged feelings that can evoke angry responses from women participants in the session who may have risen to their present positions after having been secretaries.
Instruct them to complete the checklist as they listen. • Allow about 10 minutes for each presentation. “Try using active-listening responses in order to draw out what it is that each of you is saying. Discussion • After approximately 30 minutes. reconvene the groups. • After the presentations have been given. You can then use the checklist as a focus of discussion for each group’s presentation. • Using the Observer’s Checklist for evaluating each group is one way to help control the discussion. • Before each group’s presentation. to show negative feelings about issues being discussed. and ask one member from each group to present his or her group’s discussion to the entire session. through tone and body action. • Again. distribute a copy of the Observer’s Checklist to each participant. you avoid the problem of having people work on issues they know nothing about or have never experienced.as. • Allow about 30 minutes for the small groups to complete their discussions. For example. You need to be aware of this possibility and be ready to deal with it if it occurs. This provides a good opportunity for participants to share ideas and gain insight into the variety of ways that these sensitive issues are viewed and can be handled. Participants will typically choose areas they can easily discuss. SB 146-2 . These tones and actions can set off emotionally charged feelings and defensive reactions in others. you need to exercise caution to ensure that each group’s discussion is as open and creative as possible. They won’t know what factors are critical when dealing with the topic. Participants will tend. • By allowing the groups to choose their own topics. they may not have the slightest idea of how to approach it. you need to be aware that carefully worded statements are important and can help minimize defensive reactions. you may wish to close discussion by having participants evaluate whether or not the main issues under each situation were carefully covered. You can do this by helping participants separate feelings from facts. logical reasoning for the conclusions they have presented. if you choose the topic ethnic discrimination and assign it to a group who has never experienced it. Participants should analyze how well each group came up with sound. Keeping the comments objective rather than subjective will help clear the air.” As facilitator.
” Try to keep a tight rein on the discussion by carefully planning questions that will adequately cover the topic. you may wish to introduce topic situations one by one.Options/Variations If the size of your total group is fewer than 15. Try not to personalize any situation. SB 146-3 . Participants can then share their feelings and experiences with the total group. Inc. Written by Esther I. Coulombe based on a concept from the staff of TRC Interactive. or participants may feel defensive or “put on the spot. you need to exercise caution when presenting this exercise. Note Because these discussion topics are so highly charged with emotion. then open discussion with the entire group.
Session Builders 146 – I’m Okay–You’re Not Okay HANDOUTS .
The company programs are generally geared toward company sports. SB 146 Handout 1 (continued) . The age level of the employees runs from 21 to 45. These new age-level figures are a result of two employees age 51 and 56 recently being terminated from the company. SITUATION D: TRAVELING POSITIONS Mary Worth was turned down for a sales position because she would have had to spend a good deal of time traveling to branch offices with Dennis Good. the supervisor condoned excessive flirting gestures and remarks that embarrassed the women workers. In another situation. you know. The general manager felt it was not in the best interest of the company to have a woman in a traveling position. “I don’t care what her qualifications are for being a public relations assistant. On one occasion. She wouldn’t understand how to do the job. another salesperson. and youthful activities. it was discovered that the second and third shift supervisors were not investigating claims that women were being sexually harassed during those two shifts. “It doesn’t look good for women to be out on the road traveling. And. “I just don’t know why women want to be truck drivers. During an investigation into why this was happening.” SITUATION C: AGE DISCRIMINATION The DEF Company has a payroll of 100 people. always a secretary. she’s a secretary. with the average age of managers being 30. He was often heard to remark. Session Builders 146 – I’m Okay–You’re Not Okay SITUATION A: POSITION STEREOTYPING A manager in the Public Relations Department was overheard saying. a section supervisor had threatened the girls with dismissal if they did not date him. once a secretary. They ought to be home cooking in the kitchen.” SITUATION E: SEXUAL HARASSMENT Women production-line workers on the second and third shifts were constantly leaving and being replaced by new employees.” SITUATION B: NON-TRADITIONAL JOBS A fleet manager of the ABC Trucking firm was notorious for “not being available” when women applicants applied for truck driving positions. The general manager was overheard telling a vice president. health fads.
The personnel manager was overheard saying. he felt he met the requirements for the position. When he reviewed his qualifications. effectively handle this situation? What strategy or plan of action would you recommend as being the most effective for an organization to use regarding this situation? SB 146 Handout 1 (concluded) . personnel. “Can you imagine my presenting a name like Winkelsnapper to the rest of the boys? They’d wonder which boat he had just arrived on!” DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What are some of the pros and cons that an organization must face when dealing with this type of situation? How can various areas of an organization such as upper management. first-level management. etc. middle management.SITUATION F: ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION John Winkelsnapper did not get a long-sought-after position in the Recruiting Section of the Personnel Department.. but a John Doe was given the job in place of him.
What problems might exist in the strategy or plan of action that the group suggested? SB 146 Handout 2 . Were there other positive or negative aspects of this issue that the group might have missed? 3. Did the group focus on the root of the problem? 6. Session Builders 146 – I’m Okay–You’re Not Okay Observer’s Checklist 1. Did the group consider the feelings of all who were involved in the situation? 4. Are there other ways different levels of management could have dealt with the situation that the group overlooked? 5. What was the group’s perspective on the discrimination issue? 2.
. noncommittal answers. • A learning aid for supervisors/managers who need out-of-session improvement on interviewing techniques. In Part I. Type: Discussion stimulator/application exercise Time Required: 60 minutes minimum (discussion only—30 minutes) Group Size: 10 to 50 147 – Finding the Right Applicant Use this Session Builder as: • A pre-session assignment when the questions and answers to Parts I and II are given to participants prior to the session. participants are asked to rephrase yes/no interviewing questions to make them open-ended. Part II shows how to improve follow-up responses on vague. Participants soon realize that it is only through careful questioning and responding that interviewers achieve their intended purpose—to determine whether or not an applicant adequately fits the job. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise is designed to help supervisors and managers improve their interviewing techniques. • A reinforcement exercise following a lecture or discussion on the skills of interviewing.
PART I • The first part of this exercise will take approximately 30 minutes. • Distribute Part II—Probing the Responses to each participant and assign a different set of statements to each group just as you did in Part I. Process This exercise is divided into two parts. have them reconvene to discuss the changes that they made. have group #1 take questions 1 through 3.) • Proceed to the Discussion section for Part I. Participants generally work well on rewording the questions. you will not need to allow time for them during the session and can move directly to discussion. allow equal time for the exercise and the discussion. and so forth. • Distribute Part I—Qualifying the Questions to each participant and assign a different set of questions to each group. • Have the groups review the yes/no questions as written in Part I. • Provide pens or pencils for participants. Allow about 15 minutes for completing the revised questions and about 15 minutes for the discussion.Preparation • Make copies of Handouts 1–4 for each participant. SB 147-1 . PART II • The second part of this exercise also takes approximately 30 minutes. (They will return to their small groups for Part II. have group #2 take questions 4 through 6. • Divide participants into groups containing four to six people each. If you have chosen to give the questions and answers as a pre-session assignment. but you may want to monitor the groups to see if they have clearly understood the instructions. however. For example. This will reduce the required session time to about 30 minutes. • When participants have completed rephrasing the questions. Explain that they are to rephrase the questions to make them open-ended in order to elicit more information from the applicant. Again.
• Have participants return to their small groups and have them write follow-up statements to the vague answers in Part II. particularly if they are not experienced interviewers. clarify. and the reworded questions will generally be on target. • After the small groups finish responses to the statements in Part II. find it interesting and beneficial to run through this exercise and hear what others have to say. SB 147-2 . • Participants have been asked to change yes/no questions into open-ended questions that will stimulate the applicant to provide more thought-provoking and complete answers. if the first response to an interview question is brief and sketchy. Follow-up skills are based on active listening responses. PART II • The second discussion period deals with probing the applicant for more com- plete answers. • Use the Part I—Sample Answers handout provided as starters for the discussion if necessary. Offer further explanation if questions or objections are raised. and/or promote further discussion. ask them to Discussion PART I • The first large group discussion focuses on probing to get the kind of information needed to determine how well the applicant fits the job. • Most participants will understand how to do this exercise. the interviewer may try to elicit more information. Monitor each group to make sure they have understood the instructions. • Have participants review the changes made in the assigned questions with the above criterion in mind. Participants usually get rolling on this part only after the first group has given its answers. This is often done with an active-listening response. Participants do. • Sometimes participants are confused as to what responses are required of them. • Use the Part II—Sample Answers handout provided as starters for discussion if necessary. Let the remaining participants comment as to whether the answers fit the guidelines for open-ended questions. Ask each group to present their revised answers to the original questions. reconvene for discussion. however. That is. Participants’ responses should be characterized by a caring attitude that seeks to confirm.
However. Coulombe. Options/Variations • As indicated in the Process section. Created and written by E. they will say they have changed their answers.You may find that by the time you reach the last group. • Participants generally agree that active-listening responses will open up discus- sion with the applicant without giving any judgment or accusation. You may also distribute copies of the Sample Answers handouts to the supervisor or manager to take with them. I. you can assign both exercises to be done and brought back to you at a specified time. This might include some of the techniques learned through the exercises and the ways they can be applied and reinforced on the job. improvement on interviewing techniques. participants really seem to enjoy hearing how their peers handled some of the statements. summary discussion following both parts. SB 147-3 . Discuss the completed exercises with the supervisor or manager in terms of how he or she reworded the questions and responses. discussion will normally take place immediately following each exercise. Again. It helps the participants put what they have learned into action through role playing an interview. you may wish to have a longer. in addition to the short discussion after Parts I and II of the exercise. • As a learning aid for supervisors or managers who need out-of-session Note Session Builder 148—A Selection Interview is a good follow-on for this subject area.
Session Builders 147 – Finding the Right Applicant HANDOUTS .
147 – Finding the Right Applicant Part I—Qualifying the Questions
When interviewing a prospective employee, you need to probe to get the kind of information that will help you determine how well the applicant fits the job. This requires skill in structuring questions. Below are questions that allow only a “yes” or “no” answer. Change these direct yes/no questions into open-ended questions that will stimulate the applicant to give more complete answers. 1. Do you know anything about our organization?
2. Have you thought about why you are leaving your present job?
3. Do you feel that you did well at your last job?
4. Do you feel that your salary increases in your last job were sufficient?
5. Did you have good grades in school?
6. Did you get involved in outside activities at school?
7. Did school live up to your expectations?
8. Did you continue your education after you left school?
9. Do you think you are able to do this job?
SB 147 Handout 1 (continued)
10. Can you work with limited supervision?
11. Can you work under the pressure of deadlines?
12. Do you organize your time well?
13. Do you think you will be challenged by this job?
14. Would you say that you have a good personality?
15. Do you work well with people?
16. Does handling conflict bother you?
17. Do you relax and enjoy yourself after work?
18. Do you get involved in many activities outside of work?
19. Do you have particular strengths and weaknesses?
20. Is there anything else I should know about you?
SB 147 Handout 1 (concluded)
147 – Finding the Right Applicant Part I—Qualifying the Questions Sample Answers
Question #1 Original: Do you know anything about our organization? Improved: Tell me what you know about our organization. Question #2 Original: Have you thought about why you are leaving your present job? Improved: Why are you leaving your present job? Question #3 Original: Do you feel you did well in your last job? Improved: How would you evaluate your job performance in your last position? Question #11 Original: Can you work under the pressure of deadlines? Improved: If your manager regularly brought rush jobs to you with little notice, how would you feel about it? Question #12 Original: Do you organize your time well? Improved: What are some of the methods you use to organize your time? Question #13 Original: Do you think you will be challenged by this job? Improved: What is it about this job that appears to be a challenge to you?
SB 147 Handout 2
147 – Finding the Right Applicant Part II—Probing the Responses
Actively listening to the way an applicant responds to your questions can lead you to a deeper understanding and give you further information about the application. As the interviewer, you must carefully listen to each answer and then formulate another question based on the information just given. Take a look at each response given by an applicant. Then, in the space provided, compose an active listening response that “probes” for more information. 1. I don’t know anything about your organization.
2. My supervisor was. . .well. . .he didn’t like me. But then, he didn’t like anybody else either.
3. There were some minor problems but nothing worth mentioning.
4. Oh, it was fun working at the XYZ Company. The pay was okay.
5. I did okay at school.
6. I was too busy to get involved in outside activities.
7. School was great.
8. I took a few courses after I left school, but they weren’t connected with my job.
SB 147 Handout 3 (continued)
9. My background qualifies me for this job.
10. I don’t need anybody watching me, I know how to get my work done.
11. Work pressure doesn’t bother me, doesn’t every job have pressure?
12. I get my work done, but there are always holdups because you have to wait for other people to come through.
13. I don’t want to do this kind of work forever. It’s okay for now.
14. People consider me fun to be around.
15. I get along with some kinds of people but not with everybody.
16. I don’t think there should be any conflict on a job; if you lay down the law there won’t be any problems.
17. I’m dedicated to my work; I usually keep the nigh lights burning.
18. I’m dedicated to my work; I don’t have time for outside activities.
19. Sometimes I get mad if work isn’t in on time, but I can’t think of any weaknesses.
20. It’s all in my résumé; there isn’t anything else to say.
SB 147 Handout 3 (concluded)
147 – Finding the Right Applicant Part II—Probing the Responses Sample Answers
Statement #2: Response: My supervisor was...well...he didn’t like me. But then, he didn’t like anybody else either. You say your supervisor didn’t like you or anyone else? What do you think was his problem? There were some minor problems but nothing worth mentioning. You feel there were minor problems...could you elaborate? Oh, it was fun working for the XYZ Company. The pay was okay. Sounds as though you enjoyed your stay there. Exactly what did you like there? I get my work done, but there are always holdups because you have to wait for other people to come through. How do you handle holdups due to other people. I don’t want to do this kind of work forever. It’s okay for how. What other goals have you set for yourself? People consider me fun to be around. What has led you to that conclusion?
Statement #3: Response: Statement #4: Response:
Statement #12: Response: Statement #13: Response: Statement #14: Response:
SB 147 Handout 4
Type: Role play Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 10 to 50 148 – A Selection Interview Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise following a lecture or discussion on the skills of interviewing and/or active listening. • A learning aid for individuals who might need help to improve their interviewing techniques. learn active listening responses. This exercise is designed to help supervisors and managers improve their interviewing techniques. the job applicant is usually not the only one somewhat nervous in an interview situation. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Interestingly. and become more comfortable in an interview situation. Participants are able to observe each other and receive valuable feedback about their own strengths and weaknesses. . helps them improve their ability to use a selection interview to determine whether or not an applicant adequately fits a job. in turn. This. Participants take part in a role play that focuses on skills that promote open-ended questioning and good follow-up questions. Many interviewers are nervous as well.
Process • Use any convenient method to divide the participants into groups of three. Reassure participants that you understand the time is limited and that the interviewers have had little opportunity to prepare. • Prepare the entire group by reading or paraphrasing the following: All interviews will take place simultaneously around the room. observers may not be able to evaluate all the factors on the sheet. to simplify distribution. distribute a new set of handouts to each group. This entire process should take approximately 40 minutes. one of each sheet. Each role play is to last only 10 minutes. and ask each person to select a different role. an applicant. and the observer’s sheet⎯for each participant. Then signal the role plays to begin. Each interview will be limited to 10 minutes. the applicant role. • You may wish to point out and discuss with the entire group the items listed on the observer’s sheet. Follow this process until all three persons in each group have played all three roles. This is a simulated situation. Those acting as observers are to carefully listen to the interview and make notes. and ask each person to take one sheet−each group will have an interviewer. have the remaining participants act as additional observers in other groups. and an observer. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion. The situation will be repeated three times so that each one of you has a chance to be the interviewer. • Assemble and paperclip the handouts in groups of three. using the observer’s sheet only as a guide. • The room should be flexible enough for multiple-group role plays to take place simultaneously with minimal disruption. Therefore. • Make a few extra copies of the observer’s sheet. • Allow participants only 2 or 3 minutes to study their roles.Preparation • Make one copy of each of the three handouts⎯the interviewer role. • Distribute a set of handouts to each group. SB 148-1 . Do your best to “step into” the situation even though you may never have had sales or sales management experience. When the time is up. If the entire group did not divide evenly into three-person groups.
try to draw out both positive and negative observations. Use the following questions to stimulate discussion: − How much were you able to accomplish in just 10 minutes? − What. Encourage them to do the best they can under the circumstances. ask participants to review their observer’s sheets and comment on what they observed. For each item. • Next. Some typical problems include: − − − − Too much time spent establishing rapport Failure to actively listen Failure to follow-up or probe applicant responses Using closed rather than open-ended questions SB 148-2 . Use the following questions to begin discussion: − − − − How did you feel about the way you were interviewed? To what degree did you feel the interviewer was genuinely listening? To what degree did you feel uncomfortable because of probing questions? If you actually were an applicant. It is a good time to “get their feet wet” and try out their skills. Participants become much more comfortable as the case is repeated and they learn from the role plays that have already taken place. • When all three role plays have been completed. “There wasn’t enough time to prepare. ask the entire group to Discussion • Begin discussion with the interviewer role. The response should be universally negative since 10 minutes is clearly not enough time to determine whether or not someone fits a job. if any.• Most participants will feel somewhat uncomfortable during this exercise. what would be your impression of the interviewer? Your impression of the organization? • Finally. you may wish to post their observations on the whiteboard or flipchart.” or “It’s difficult to relate to the given situation. They may offer a number of excuses like. turn the discussion to their role as applicants. what form of probing questions seemed to work best? You might want to conclude this part of the discussion by asking if any participants want to step back into the role of “interviewer” and make a decision on this applicant. reconvene for discussion. As you itemize a list of factors.” Reassure them that this is a learning experience. problems did you have with the interview process itself? − Why? What should you have done differently? • Try to focus the discussion on probing and listening skills: − Were you able to discover the applicants’ future plans or lack of participation in outside activities? If so.
Note Session Builder 147⎯Finding the Right Applicant works well in conjunction with this exercise. Use the observer’s sheet to provide immediate feedback on strengths or weaknesses. Submitted by E. • This exercise is an excellent learning aid if you are called upon to individually work with a supervisor or manager. SB 148-3 . • Using the roles given on the handouts as a model. develop additional role plays that better fit the circumstances in the participants’ organization. Explain that you will act as the applicant. They can briefly describe the position to the applicant and the observer before the role play begins. I. ask for ways in which the interviewer could have handled the situation. The purpose of this exercise was to practice interviewing and receive feedback. If this happens. This is most easily done when members of the group are from the same organization and are familiar with terminology and job responsibilities. Coulombe.• Participants often generalize their observations. learning points for them. If the observation indicates a problem area. You may also wish to point out at this time that it takes a great deal of experience to become a skillful interviewer. • Summarize the discussion. Give him or her the copy of the interviewer’s role. which is something that is not available in the normal work environment. have the observers of the role play give their comment sheets to the interviewers. It focuses on how to develop open-ended questions and refine active listening responses. probe for more specifics by asking for examples. and ask him or her to role play an interview. asking participants what they feel were the key Options/Variations • Rather than use the prepared role plays provided in this Session Builder. ask the group to rephrase it to make it open-ended. For instance. • Just before summarizing the discussion. have the interviewers in each group role-play an interview based on a situation in their organization. if an observer gives an example of a closed question. This provides immediate personal feedback.
Session Builders 148 – A Selection Interview HANDOUTS .
SB 148 Handout 1 . Since graduation. To keep your costs down. The amount of money the applicant now earns is in line with what you are planning to offer as a starting salary. He or she should take this new person out on the rounds to get him or her acquainted with the customers. the new person can come into the already established territory and learn your methods without upsetting the status quo. the applicant has been working for a local retail store of a large hardware chain. You have five employees working for you. In addition. and hot dogs to fast-food restaurants. This expansion will require opening a new territory. each with his or her own territory. You figure that with limited previous experience. Your company is expanding its product line to include processed. As your product line increases. This applicant has given no reason for leaving his or her present employment. The applicant you are now interviewing majored in business at college. french fries. Session Builders 148 – A Selection Interview Role Play Exercise—The Interviewer You are the sales manager for a firm that markets and distributes frozen food items such as hamburger patties. graduating two years ago with a high B average. you noticed this applicant does not list any outside activities. but not too much. such as involvement in community organizations. reshaped fish fillets for sandwiches. The salesperson formerly in charge of the territory will be expected to train the new person to become familiar with your techniques. or any hobbies on the application. Because you operate on a very small profit margin. although you expect whoever you hire to go on commission after six months to a year. Also. although you have heard that there have been layoffs at the local level. opportunities for advancement should continue to grow. you are considering moving one of your most experienced salespeople into the new territory and hiring a new person to take over your experienced salesperson’s old territory. you believe this will eventually lead to opportunities for all of your salespeople to expand their territories. you want to hire someone right out of school who may have had some previous selling experience.
and your pay is adequate. You had enough of that when you were in college studying to keep your grades up. just in case. you figure it can’t hurt to explore other opportunities. but because of the amount of extra work you have been doing. Since you graduated. and you feel a sales position will give you an opportunity to learn about many different types of businesses. Session Builders 148 – A Selection Interview Role Play Exercise—The Applicant You are applying for an entry-level sales position with a company that markets and distributes frozen food items to fast-food restaurants. you worked hard to keep your grades high because you plan to go on to graduate school for your MBA and then want to start your own business. SB 148 Handout 2 . that you do not allow much time for a social life. in fact. You majored in business at college and graduated two years ago with a high B average. It was that way in college. Most of your spare time is taken up with work and figuring out ways to improve how things are done. you have been working for a large hardware chain at one of their local retail stores. too! Also you do not feel your present position provides any room for advancement. While the hardware chain’s business is fairly solid. You do not know yet what kind of business you want to get into. and you enjoy talking to people. being tied down to a desk does not appeal to you. slumps in the local economy have forced your store to begin laying off. Your job is not in imminent danger. You are so dedicated to your goals. Although you have not told anyone outside your immediate family. Right now. You like sales work.
Control the interview F. Session Builders 148 – A Selection Interview Observer’s Sheet Interviewer _______________________________________________________________ Interviewing Skills Things to Observe How well did the interviewer: A. Listen E. Open the interview Strengths Comments Areas to Improve B. Probe D. Close the interview Comments: SB 148 Handout 3 . Establish rapport C.
Participants see that the case requires sensitivity and understanding along with a sense of fairness and consistency. The case depicts a manager who is facing a decision concerning whether or not to allow a worker an unscheduled vacation day on short notice. The situation is complicated by the manager’s previous decision to permit another worker a day off under similar yet different circumstances. . • A learning aid giving managers and supervisors practical experience in dealing with “touchy” human relations situations. • A reinforcement exercise to use after a discussion on communication policies/procedures or problemsolving/ decision-making skills. Type: Case study Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 6 to 48 149 – Can I take Friday off? Use this Session Builder as: • A pre-session assignment as a lead-in to discussion of the topic. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise is designed to encourage participants to debate and openly discuss a case study involving good human relations skills.
ask each team to choose one person to summarize the team’s discussion on the whiteboard or flipchart. the manager’s ability to perform and work well with people is seriously undermined when he or she is not seen in this light. some groups may not reach a consensus. This is not important. consistent. and honest. “How can he or she be?” Obviously. • Ask participants to read the case study and individually answer the questions. Ask participants to respond to the following question: − What are the dangers of managerial inequity? Participants will generally agree that a manager is expected to be fair. What is important is that participants gain insight into different approaches to this problem by freely sharing their ideas and perspectives. • The exercise is specifically designed to foster debate and discussion. SB 149-1 .Preparation • Make copies of the case study “Can I Take Friday Off?” for each participant. • Provide paper and pencils for individual answers. Discussion • When all teams have finished their presentations. But the question remains. The group will probably be divided on this issue. • Allow about 20 minutes for participants to complete the case study and partici- pate in team discussion. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available for groups to use when summarizing their answers. The result can be low morale. As they complete their answers. and poor performance. they can compare and discuss their responses with their team members. This will allow everyone to see and compare different approaches to the problem. rumors and gossip. Process • Divide the total group into three to six smaller teams that are roughly equal in size. • The room should be flexible enough to allow for small group discussions to occur at the same time with minimal disruption. Not all people will see the situation in the same way. • After the allotted time. Distribute a copy of the case study to each team member. reconvene the entire group. therefore.
− What are some examples of fair and unfair treatment of employees. An employee comes to see the manager as a dependable and fair decision maker. − Why is consistency important? Consistency in a manager’s judgments and decisions can bring about positive feelings in employees. and consistency. and managers often need feedback to find productive ways to deal with these situations. time off. and he or she tends to feel secure in the manager’s ability to make decisions. − What are some examples of inconsistent managerial behavior. if necessary. − What effect does unfair treatment have on the individual and on the group? Individuals or the entire group may believe the manager shows favoritism to certain employees. Answers generally focus on unfair treatment regarding job assignments. answers will vary. Answers to this question will vary considerably. Caution participants not to provide all the details of the situations. tardiness. etc. Again. and they generally feel insecure or “up in the air” regarding expected behaviors. − What effect does inconsistency have on the individual and on the group? Inconsistency in a manager’s decisions can have negative effects. SB 149-2 . These questions will help focus the attention of the group on the importance of good human relations involving sensitivity. Employees tend to question the manager’s judgment when inconsistency abounds. Have them share these examples in an anonymous and general way. break time. Some will point out this is especially true with less-experienced workers. fairness. to avoid specific details. Remind participants. Situations that require these characteristics are tough to handle.
a discussion can either precede or follow the actual case study. This provides a comparison of views for all participants to observe. and have them role play their approval one at a time without the other two watching. This could be done either as a single or multiplegroup role play. participants could role play this dialogue and continue with Senior Accountant #2’s request. SB 149-3 . Another option is to choose three different people to play the manager. Note Depending on the particular use of this exercise.Options/Variations For visual reinforcement and practical experience in dealing with “touchy” human relations situations.
Session Builders 149 – Can I take Friday off? HANDOUT .
would you have permitted Senior Accountant #1 to take Friday off? 2. would you permit Senior Accountant #2 to take a similar vacation day? 3. I’d like to take Friday off and get my act together. Senior Accountant #1 steps into your office and says. but I’ve been working late almost every night for the last two or three weeks. Senior Accountant #2 comes to you and says. I know that this is a very important project. take Friday off. you realize that Senior Accountant #2 will not finish all of her work for the week. Assuming Senior Accountant #1 took Friday off. “I don’t see why I should be expected to have everything done. Frankly. “Look. but the other stuff that won’t be done is extra work that I’m doing for the other senior accountant. and besides.” The following week. I’ll have my normal report finished. it’s okay with me.” Although vacations are to be scheduled in advance. Senior Accountant #1 is currently involved in an important project that will go directly to the Board of Directors. You have three employees who report directly to you. you feel Senior Accountant #1 does need the time off. Senior Accountant #2 is carrying out the normal workload and is also picking up some of the work that Senior Accountant #1 would normally handle. I know you’ve let others off with short notice. I realize this is short notice. As long as we get the project done on time. “Sure. A Junior Accountant is working with Senior Accountant #1 on the project as well. Would it be fair to deny Senior Accountant #1 an unscheduled vacation day? SB 149 Handout 1 . My wife is a bit edgy about all the time I’ve been putting in. Go ahead. Not only will that help my family situation. With little deliberation you say. and he does have vacation time coming. Is it fair to deny Senior Accountant #2 an unscheduled vacation day? 4. but I’ve never asked you before. I have a problem. Session Builders 149 – Can I take Friday off? You are manager of the Cost Accounting Department in a large. but she says. “Do you mind if I take this Friday off?” After some questioning. but I think I can do a better job when I come back on Monday. and I’ve had it up to here with this project anyway. Under the circumstances. multinational firm. One afternoon. you know your deadlines better than I do.” 1.
Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exercise is to show participants that many words are easily misspelled because we tend to spell them the way they are pronounced. and participants compare their results. Then the facilitator pronounces the same words incorrectly. Participants review a list of 10 commonly misspelled words and determine if they are spelled correctly or not. Type: Assessment Time Required: 20 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 150 – Become a Better Speller Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise in a session to build on key points. • An opener or beginning of an exercise to lead into the presentation of the principal material. then correctly. .
Before the session. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available for your use during the presentation. SB 150-1 .Preparation • Make copies of the handout for each participant. con tro versy min i ature sher bet govern ment envir on ment ath letic perf or ation correspon dence affida vit ac quaintance 1. • Then to the right of each word. • As you are distributing the handouts and pencils. • The room should be flexible enough to allow for general discussion and for viewing the visual aids. Keep them covered until they are needed in the discussion process. Then tell them to stop working even if they are not finished. 6. 7. 9. you’ll notice a blank line. You are to look at the word and determine if it is spelled correctly. tell participants you would like them to work individually and complete Part I. write the number of that word. If you think a word is spelled incorrectly. • Provide pencils for participants. write the words given on the handout on the left side of the whiteboard or flipchart (being careful to spell them correctly). 8. Process • Distribute a copy of the handout and a pencil to each participant. place an “R” on the line to indicate the spelling is right. Simply read or paraphrase the instructions given below for Part I: On the handout. Divide and emphasize the words according to the list given below. Across from each word. 5. min i ature 2. • Allow two to three minutes for participants to mark their answers. 10. For example: 1. con tro versy 1. place a “W” on the line to indicate wrong. you’ll notice a list of 10 words that are frequently misspelled. Cover the correctly spelled words with a blank piece of chart paper. If it is. Do not go into any explanation concerning the purpose of the exercise. 2. 3. 4. 2.
but for now. It is important that you pronounce the words clearly but incorrectly in order for participants to realize how easy it is to misspell words based on the way they sound. use the list below: con tra versy min a ture sher bert gov er ment envi orn ment ath a letic perf er ation correspond dance affida vid a quaintance • Have the participants look at their copy of the handout and explain that you are 1. Note that some of the answers will be correct even though you specifically mispronounced them. 10. but this time. 8. write it on the right side of the whiteboard or flipchart next to the correctly spelled words (still covered by the blank paper). if we are careful to sound out all the vowels. 9. For the time being. we will be able to spell most words correctly. do not acknowledge whether the spelling is correct or incorrect. • Tell participants you are going to go down the list of 10 words once again. • As each word is pronounced and then spelled. you will take care to pronounce each word correctly. • As you pronounce each word.Discussion PART I • Begin the discussion process by explaining the purpose of this exercise—to illustrate that many words are misspelled because people tend to spell them the way they are pronounced. To help you in your incorrect pronunciation. about to pronounce each word. 6. • When all 10 words have been listed on the whiteboard or flipchart. do not ask anyone to spell the word again. re-explain that often words are misspelled because they are incorrectly pronounced. 5. 7. Ask for a show of hands to see how many participants agree with the answer. ask for a volunteer to give the correct spelling. 4. SB 150-2 . Further explain that it is important to counter the tendency to spell words the way they are heard. 2. 3.
write any changes in the spelling that they feel are necessary. • When it appears that there are no more volunteers. the majority of the words will probably be correctly spelled. • Because most people do not want others to know that they cannot spell properly. Note any that are not. tell participants to follow along on their handout and. ask for volunteers to tell you if they think the • When you have given participants the opportunity to change all 10 words. • Taking just a few minutes. everyday words are misspelled because most people tend to mispronounce them. Then write the proper spelling beside the word (if it was incorrectly pronounced and spelled). Don’t take time to rewrite the word. SB 150-3 . To make sure your pronunciation is accurate. write them on the board exactly as they pronounce them to you. tell • At this point. then incorrectly): “disastrous” not “disasterous” “permissible” not “permissable” “specimen” not “speciman” • As participants say the words. If that happens. Again emphasize the fact that the way a word is pronounced influences the way it is spelled. .”). • Continue discussion by asking participants to share their answers to Part II. write an example or two on the whiteboard or flipchart to get them started by saying something like: Many times even common. carefully pronouncing them correctly and emphasizing the correct spelling. .• As you re-pronounce each word. simply write any change directly above the word. PART II • Have participants take a few moments to complete Part II of the handout. them that you are now going to uncover the other side of the whiteboard or flipchart to reveal the correct spelling of each word. spelling of any of the words listed on the board need to be corrected. use the list given in the Preparation section. go back and carefully pronounce each word correctly. participants may hesitate to volunteer. Quickly go down the list. reading the number only (“1 ? 2 ? 3 ? . next to each word. and ask for any change to that spelling. Take a look at these examples (pronounce the word just as you plan to spell it: first correctly.
Have the groups work together and reach mutual agreement on all the answers. Open discussion to participants by asking them to share words that give them particular trouble. If all the words are spelled correctly and a participant still disagrees. using a whiteboard or flipchart. handout. Write the word on the whiteboard or flipchart exactly as the participant spells it. you can significantly shorten the exercise by eliminating the SB 150-4 . When you are finished with all 10 words. List each response on the whiteboard or flipchart next to the first spelling that was given. just as important. Options/Variations • As an icebreaker at the beginning of the session. It is a good idea to reinforce the fact that participants should not be “afraid” or “feel stupid” when they are unsure of the proper spelling of a word. Begin by giving participants a brief lecture on the fact that many words are misspelled because they are mispronounced. It is much better to take a few minutes and look up a word in the dictionary than it is to turn in a report or paper that has misspelled words in it. ask if any participant disagrees with the second spelling. Follow the pronunciation list given in the Discussion section to make sure you mispronounce each word. • If time is limited. allow that participant to use the dictionary and look up the word for himself or herself. Then follow the same process outlined in the Discussion section. when a participant is giving an oral report. Allow 15 minutes for this part of the exercise. it is best to “confirm” pronunciation of any words he or she is unsure of rather than mispronounce them in front of a superior or a group of people. And. Give a few examples and then. ask participants to volunteer to give what they believe is the correct spelling of each word as you pronounce it. but this time be sure to pronounce each word accurately as shown in the Preparation section. Follow this process for all 10 words. Continue by emphasizing the importance of proper pronunciation to ensure proper spelling. Follow the process given in the Discussion section for this part of the exercise. divide the participants into groups of roughly equal size. Do not allow participants to refer to a dictionary for the correct answers. Then go back and repeat the process.• Don’t be afraid to use a dictionary to check on any word or words participants come up that you are not sure how to spell or pronounce correctly. Explain that they must use their current knowledge.
You should remind participants that although a Spellchecker is commonly used by nearly everyone who uses word processing and e-mail and is very convenient.” Do your best to keep the discussion on the subject—light.Notes • This exercise may remind participants of old feelings—hard. yet informative. • Participants will likely bring up the use of Spellcheckers on their computers and SB 150-5 . rigid tests or fun “spelling bees. the idea that they make printed dictionaries obsolete. Allow for as much group participation as possible. it should not be relied on to be available or correct 100% of the time.
Session Builders 150 – Become a Better Speller HANDOUT .
Sherbert 4. Aquaintance _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Part II List three words from your job that you encounter frequently that create a spelling problem for you. SB 150 Handout 1 . Goverment 5. Contraversy 2. or “W” for wrong if you think the word is spelled incorrectly. Part I 1. 2. Enviornment 6. Correspondance 9. 1. Session Builders 150 – Become a Better Speller Listed below are 10 frequently misspelled words. Minature 3. Affidavid 10. Place “R” for right if you think the word is spelled correctly. Perferation 8. Athaletic 7. 3.
This exercise is designed to help managers and supervisors improve the readability of their writing. participants easily see what obscures the message and how to make the necessary changes to improve understanding by the reader. Unfortunately. • A reinforcement exercise after a lesson on writing skills. They then apply the techniques to some of their own writing samples. and government lacks these two vital ingredients. . participants learn to measure the clarity of their writing using a quick. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Clarity and conciseness are important in any form of writing. Type: Assessment and application Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 10 to 30 151 – Less Is More Use this Session Builder as: • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking and be a lead-in to discussion of the subject. • A learning aid to give managers and supervisors a practical technique for finding and fixing readability problems in business writing. visual technique. Through it. Working first with a given writing example. much of the written material in business. industry.
make extra copies of the Answer Sheet so that participants can make and analyze their revisions of these job-related samples. First. it probably lacks clarity and will take more time than is necessary to get the message across to the reader. • Make copies of the Suggested Revision Sheet for each participant. Be sure to delete any references that identify the original author.Preparation • Make copies of the Instruction Sheet. You may want to ask participants to bring some with them or you may want to choose the samples yourself. but don’t staple them (participants will want to view two or more at the same time). It’s a fast. Each piece of writing should be at least two paragraphs long and cover more than one-half of an 8½" x 11" sheet of paper. Sentences should not exceed 25 words. Process/Discussion • Read or paraphrase the following to the group: I’m going to give you an easy way to measure the readability of a given piece of business writing. and then I’ll ask you to apply it to some of your own writing.): 75 percent of the words (3 out of 4) should be one or two syllables. to use it in the exercise. Paragraphs should not exceed 12 lines. the Exercise Sheet. If you like. SB 151-1 . The Answer Sheet is optional. • Collect three or four samples of documents used in your organization. The formula is as follows (Outline the following formula on a whiteboard or flipchart as you present it. if you choose • Provide pencils and paper for each participant. Gather or assemble them to simplify distribution. and the Answer Sheet for each participant. It’s a formula that has been patterned after the Gunning Fog Index. simple way of determining how concisely a message has been written. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion process. If the writing does not meet the standard. participants may use lined tablet paper instead. I’d like you to try out the formula on a writing sample I’ve prepared.
the rest of the words in your correspondence can be simplified to make the overall message clearer when using larger company-designated terms. • When discussing the revisions. If some still feel skeptical about using common words in place of more prestigious-sounding ones. several issues may predominate. Plan to call on these individuals if they fail to volunteer during the discussion. You can have them do this individually or in groups of two using the person sitting next to them as their partner. • At the end of 30 minutes (or less if most appear to be finished). The amount of detail does not obscure a message as much as how it is written. • Initially. many will want to verify their word count before they begin revisions. Though this is often true. and the Answer Sheet (or plain paper) to each participant. Shorter paragraphs with smaller words will convey any message better. gently suggest that in business. − What makes this formula a realistic guide to my writing? The formula is similar to the Gunning Fog Index. which was produced from studies and writing analyses. Work through the sample. circulate around the room to offer encourage- ment and to look for participants who are doing an especially good job rewriting the material. you will probably find that one of the principles in the SB 151-2 . Ask them to review the instructions and complete the exercise. there may be many participants who feel that simplifying somehow makes the writing unbusinesslike. • Plan to have your Explanation Sheet available. ask for volun- teers to read their revisions. the Exercise Sheet. people often fail to achieve this goal because their writing simply is not understandable. as in all writing. In business. comparing two or three versions of each paragraph.• Distribute the Instruction Sheet. As participants complete the • As the participants are working. If something you are writing doesn’t come across the way you want it to. It’s a fast and easy way to test the readability of your writing. − The nature of my work dictates that I use more detail in explaining a project or procedure. the main goal is to convey a message—not to impress the reader. these feelings disappear as participants discover how much clearer the message becomes when they use the formula. Allow about 30 minutes for participants to complete the analysis and revision of the sample. Usually. They are: − My organization insists that I use specific terminology in my correspondence. analysis. one paragraph at a time. You may even want to ask how many felt this way at first.
If their samples are handwritten. Allow approximately 15 minutes for this portion of the exercise. A disadvantage of this method is that participants do not have an opportunity to do an individual revision. distribute copies of the Answer Sheet • When most participants have completed revising this second sample. This option is not advisable if there are more than 15 in your group or if the room does not have space to hang the flipchart papers for viewing. Then have them put their revision on flipchart paper. When they have completed the exercise.formula has been violated. ask participants to write their revisions on flipchart paper. Submitted by Ann I. Wilchacky SB 151-3 . (or ask them to use a plain sheet of paper) to write a revision using the formula as a guide. • If you are using the Suggested Revisions Sheet. the writing will become clearer. This is an effective way to see which revisions are the most understandable. Since actual results will vary according to the creative abilities of the participants. “two handwritten lines equal one typed line” to find the number of lines in each paragraph. This will allow participants to read all the lists and easily see several different revisions. Distribute the handout sample. • If there are more than 15 in the group. and have them work on the exercise as a group. hang up the flipchart pages for visual inspection. but with no more than 5 to a group. hang their lists on the walls for visual comparison. When you change that section to meet the formula. you might want to divide the partici- pants into smaller groups that are roughly equal in size. Options/Variations • If time permits. • Once they have noted the problem areas. distribute copies to participants for their use during discussion. they can use the general rule. When they are finished. • Next tell participants you would like them to analyze and revise another job- related sample. • An Explanation Sheet has been included for your use as trainer or facilitator. ask for a few volunteers to read a short “before and after” example. They can then determine which revision is easiest to read. Suggest that they use the margins of the sample to count words and lines. it is not necessary for them to see it.
Session Builders 151 – Less Is More HANDOUTS .
Change words. 5. Using the Readability Formula: − − − − 75% of the words (3 out of 4) should be one or two syllables. Session Builders 151 – Less Is More Instruction Sheet 1. 4. Note the number of lines in each paragraph in the right column where indicated. 3. Read the letter on the next page. if necessary. Underline the words of three or more syllables in each paragraph and note the total number at the bottom of the sheet where indicated. 6. Paragraphs should not exceed 12 typewritten lines. and paragraph sizes. Rewrite the paragraphs if necessary to meet the standards in the formula. Check the readability factors in this writing sample. Sentences should not exceed 25 words. SB 151 Handout 1 . Use the Answer Sheet (or plain paper) for this purpose. Note the total number of words in each sentence in the left column where indicated. 2. sentences.
Here we are preparing material that will introduce basic management principles such as leadership skills. 206 50 ______________ ______________ ______________ Number of words in writing sample: Allowable number of 3 or more syllable words: Total number of 3 or more syllable words: SB 151 Handout 2 . and motivation artistry with the highest performance level courses covering the areas of strategy planning. One of our present assignments may be especially interesting to you as it is one of preparing numerous management programs for all management personnel in a large manufacturing institution situated in the Central States area. communication skills. and our proposal rates created to fit the requirements of all types of organizations. Session Builders 151 – Less Is More Exercise Sheet Number of words in sentence Number of lines in paragraph ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ We would like to inform you of our availability to assist your organization with its management and supervisory training requirements. Participants in our exclusive seminars will see demonstrated a broad range of principles being utilized in the industry today at all levels of the organization. that analyzes how we set up our seminars. training. problem solving. Our subject material encompasses the most up-todate topics in the field of management today. discipline. and human resource development. Enclosed in this letter is a circular that describes our extensive experience in the field of management and supervisory training—motivation. communication. We will be contacting your organization next week to make suitable arrangements for a conference to discuss your requirements. etc. leadership. the types of materials that we use.
Session Builders 151 – Less Is More Answer Sheet Number of words in sentence Number of lines in paragraph SB 151 Handout 3 .
One of our present projects is for a large midwestern manufacturing firm. 152 38 22 6 9 4 2 Number of words in writing sample: Allowable number of 3 or more syllable words: Total number of 3 or more syllable words: SB 151 Handout 4 . Enclosed is a brochure describing our broad experience in this field and the methods we use to set up our programs. Employees taking part in these programs will be exposed to a broad range of techniques being used in the industry today. The project requires management-level programs for three levels beginning with basic supervisory training and finishing with executive level training. Courses being prepared for this project range from leadership and communication skills and motivation techniques to strategy planning. Our subjects cover the latest information in the field of management today. Our price schedules are designed to fit all firms. Session Builders 151 – Less Is More Suggested Revision Sheet Number of words in sentence Number of lines in paragraph 15 21 9 12 20 24 12 21 18 Our staff would like to assist your company with its management and supervisory training needs. problem solving. We will call you next week to arrange a time to discuss your program needs at your convenience. and human resource development.
Session Builders 151 – Less Is More Explanation Sheet (for Trainer’s Information) Number of words in sentence Number of lines in paragraph 20 55 Too many words 35 38 14 25 19 We would like to inform you of our availability to assist your organization with its management and supervisory training requirements. One of our present assignments may be especially interesting to you as it is one of preparing numerous management programs for all management personnel in a large manufacturing institution situated in the Central States area. and human resource development. Enclosed in this letter is a circular that describes our extensive experience in the field of management and supervisory training—motivation. Here we are preparing materials that will introduce basic management principles such as leadership skills. discipline. and our proposal rates created to fit the requirements of all types of organizations. etc. communication. We will be contacting your organization next week to make suitable arrangements for a conference to discuss your requirements. the types of materials that we use. communication skills. 206 50 65 10 Too long 15 3 Number of words in writing sample: Allowable number of 3 or more syllable words: Total number of 3 or more syllable words: Too many words with 3 or more syllables SB 151 Handout 5 . leadership. problem solving. training. and motivation artistry with the highest performance level courses covering the areas of strategy planning. Participants in our exclusive seminars will see demonstrated a broad range of principles being utilized in the industry today at all levels of the organization. Our subject material encompasses the most up-todate topics in the field of management today.—that analyzes how we set up our seminars.
20 maximum Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise on word usage and its effect on communication. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking on word usage and work as a lead-in for discussion of the subject. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Purpose/Objectives: This exercise illustrates how the use of short. simple words in the job environment increases understanding of our messages to others. This exercise can be done over three sessions. simpler words. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: Varies—minimum 10 minutes per 20 words. add another 15 minutes for the discussion Group Size: No minimum. Participants are asked to change multi-syllable words into shorter. Participants discover how much clearer the message becomes when smaller words replace the harder-tounderstand large words. or a one-session version is outlined as an alternative under the Options/Variations section. • A learning aid for employees needing assistance in communicating more clearly in their written messages. Participants begin to break the habit of using long. . impressive words by replacing them with shorter. clearer words.
The purpose of this exercise is to show participants that shorter words are generally easier to understand and. simpler word for each one. It’s a good idea to make sure the shorter word has the same meaning as the longer word. If there is any question. we translate them into long. they should. • Select at least 15−20 multi-syllable words from the list. prepare copies of the Exercise Sheet and Sample Exercise Sheets for the number of participants in the session. • Provide pencils for participants. we have to de-program ourselves to use shorter. Most of us think with short. Using a multi-syllable word when a small one would do is a hangover from our school days. check a dictionary. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discus- sion period. impressive ones. • The room should be set up so that participants can write answers to the exer- cise and hold a discussion of the subject. of course. when they have a choice. list the shorter version from your list as another choice. follow the rule. “document” rather than “record. familiar words. Then. • Some participants may say their organization dictates by procedure that the longer words be used. • Ask the group to incorporate these words into their writing or speaking during the next week and bring their results back to the next session. The need to sound impressive is so deeply ingrained.Preparation • Make copies of the Word List handout for each participant. simpler words. • Have a thesaurus for your reference during the exercise. but once the pencil is in hand. Process/Discussion • Tell participants that the habit of using impressive words is one we have acquired. and ask the group to provide a shorter. for example. • If you choose to use the Exercise Sheets.” Assure them that when policies or procedures dictate the use of a particular word. • The main problem with using long words is that they make the reader work harder to grasp the meaning. SB 152-1 . • Have participants share the words they have written on their lists with the group. participants should use shorter words to make their messages clearer.
and the last 22 words during the third hour. Have them bring their completed work with them to the session. Have participants complete each exercise before you explain the shorter versions of the words. The best way to get the message to your reader is to use short. ask them to look for long words in their daily activities that can be changed. If there is any question. 2. then give them another 15−20 words to work on and use during the next week. and 3. 2. • You may wish to use the written Word List containing all 50 words (with their shorter equivalents) for testing. and/or 3 to the participants one week ahead of each session. Review by asking them to share their answers with the group. To do this. 16 words the next hour. use the dictionary as a quick reference. • As a pre-session assignment. the message would be the same. • If participants are having trouble finding ways to use the given words. • Summarize by explaining that the goal in writing is not to impress but to express a specific thought. Options/Variations • You may want to use this exercise in one three-hour session. Check to make sure the shorter words chosen for these new words have the same meaning as the longer version. simpler words. Then test the participants to see how well they retained the shorter. give participants 12 words the first hour. When all exercises have been completed.• Continue this process through all three sessions. Then. so check them to be sure the shorter words have the same meaning as the longer ones. give Exercises 1. If we were to look at many different books on business writing. Add these words to your lists. Have participants study the shortened versions. Answers will vary. SB 152-2 . Ask participants to share other words that have given them problems in their writing or speaking. simple words and phrases. Give them the Sample Exercise Sheets to use for comparison after they have completed the exercise. • If time is a limiting factor. use only one or two of the written exercises to reinforce the key points of the exercise. Introduce the words by using Exercises 1. give participants the written Word List and Sample Exercise Sheets for their reference. At each session check to see how the words were used. Ask them to share those words with the group so that they can be added to their lists. have them bring those variations back to the session.
Go over the Sample Exercise Sheets for comparison. Based on a concept created and submitted by Ann I. give the Exercise Sheets to an employee needing help in writing or speaking. then review it with him or her. Wilchacky SB 152-3 . It is important that participants be given time to use the new words in order to form the habit of using them later when they return to their work environments.• As a learning aid. or report using the shorter version of the words on the Exercise Sheets. Suggest that he or she write a letter. Note The key to this exercise is repetition. speech. Have him or her complete the work.
Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching HANDOUTS .
determine 43. compensate 10. initiate 20. anticipate 22. document 14. discontinue 15. influence 48. subsequently 44. injury SB 152 Handout 1 Use . commence 7. proceed 50. proficiency 12. capabilities 41. inquire 39. cognizant 16. additional 25. demonstrate 11. apprehension 17. optimum 29. increase 40. substantiate 9. initial 30. explicit 35. detrimental 34. apparent 32. modification 31. inaugurate 45. immediately 21. encourage 27. preference 6. facilitate 23. indicate 3. approximately 33. customary 4. contribute 28. ultimate 46. endeavor 19. superior 8. jeopardize 18. selection 47. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Word List Instead of 1. opportunity 42. inflexible 37. difficult 24. gratify 2. transmit 5. utilization 36. termination 38. function 13. assistance Use Instead of 26. habitual 49.
2. 8. 13. 27. 40. 43. 20. 39. 19. 50. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Word List Answers Instead of 1. 23. 37. 3. 46. 33. 17. 30. 22. 10. 49. 44. 9. 38. 7. 18. 25. 47. 35. 45. 4. 15. 48. 28. 24. 6. 12. 32. 5. 14. 34. 41. 11. 21. 29. 36. 31. 42. 16. gratify indicate customary transmit preference commence superior substantiate compensate demonstrate proficiency function document discontinue cognizant apprehension jeopardize endeavor initiate immediately anticipate facilitate difficult additional assistance Use please say usual send choice begin better support pay show skill job or duty record stop know fear risk try start now expect ease hard added help Instead of 26. encourage contribute optimum initial modification apparent approximately detrimental explicit utilization inflexible termination inquire increase capabilities opportunity determine subsequently inaugurate ultimate selection influence habitual proceed injury Use urge give best first change clear about harmful clear use rigid end ask grow talents chance decide next start final choice affect usual go harm SB 152 Handout 2 .
Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Exercise Sheet #1 In the e-mail below. Therefore. I would have the new people come to the home office to commence their training program. I cannot compensate you for your expenses to visit our offices. June 19. simpler words that will clarify the message. the company will not substantiate this action. change the italicized words to shorter. and you will be an asset to our team. Congratulations on your assignment. if it were my preference.com] Thursday. 20XX 10:32 AM Kelly Chase Training Assignment Dear Kelly: I was gratified to learn that you have been assigned to my project. Sincerely. As I have indicated in the past. You have demonstrated a great deal of proficiency in your prior functions. However. Until I can show management that it is a superior way to handle the program. Joe Winchester Department Supervisor SB 152 Handout 3 . E-Mail Training Assignment From: Sent: To: Subject: Joe Winchester [mailto:jwinchester@icorp. our customary procedure is to transmit the necessary training information to our people through the mail.
the company will not support this action. 20XX 10:32 AM Kelly Chase Training Assignment Dear Kelly: I was pleased to learn that you have been assigned to my project. Until I can show management that it is a better way to handle the program. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Sample E-Mail Training Assignment From: Sent: To: Subject: Joe Winchester [mailto:jwinchester@icorp. You have shown a great deal of skill in your prior job. and you will be an asset to our team. Sincerely. Joe Winchester Department Supervisor SB 152 Handout 4 . Congratulations on your assignment. However. our usual procedure is to send the necessary training information to our people through the mail.com] Thursday. As I have said in the past. if it were my choice. June 19. I would have the new people come to the home office to begin their training program. Therefore. I cannot pay you for your expenses to visit our offices.
20XX 8:02 AM Department Managers Meetings Department Managers: Our documents show that the weekly meetings in your departments will be discontinued as of March 1. we have endeavored to find an alternative plan. In order not to jeopardize the loss of their support. September 15. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Exercise Sheet #2 In the e-mail below. Sincerely. We encourage you to contribute your optimum efforts to this exciting new company project. simpler words that will clarify the message.com] Monday. We intend to initiate quality circles in each section immediately and anticipate this new approach will facilitate the transition. Interdepartmental E-Mail Meetings From: Sent: To: Subject: Jennifer Kinder [mailto:jkinder@icorp. change the italicized words to shorter. It will no doubt be difficult for you to find the additional time. We are cognizant this will cause some apprehension on the part of your employees about airing their problems. but we are asking for your assistance to make this program a success. Jennifer Kinder Division Head SB 152 Handout 5 .
but we are asking for your assistance to make this program a success. In order not to jeopardize the loss of their support. Jennifer Kinder Division Head SB 152 Handout 6 . Sincerely. We urge you to give your best efforts to this exciting new company project. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Sample Interdepartmental E-Mail Meetings From: Sent: To: Subject: Jennifer Kinder [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] Monday. It will no doubt be hard for you to find the added time. September 15. We know this will cause some fear on the part of your employees about airing their problems. We intend to start quality circles in each section now and expect this new approach will ease the transition. we have tried to find an alternative plan. 20XX 8:02 AM Department Managers Meetings Department Managers: Our records show that the weekly meetings in your departments will be stopped as of March 1.
it does not utilize all levels of knowledge in our organization. our subsequent proposal would be to inaugurate profit centers to put the ultimate responsibility of the operation into their hands. it is our initial reaction that modifications should be made in this list. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Exercise Sheet #3 In the report below. It appears to be too inflexible in the use of authority to terminate projects that are not productive. simpler words that will better express the message. Through their selection of services and expenditures. We would like to inquire why this cannot be changed to allow for more individual control. Our employees will not increase in their management capabilities if we do not give them the opportunity to determine which projects are profitable and which are not. is detrimental to the morale and motivation of our employees. Though it has been our habitual practice to get approval on projects and expenditures. Therefore. It is apparent that one of these policies. we suggest we proceed to this plan. To do otherwise would be injurious to the growth and development of our employees. Report to a Meeting Management Meeting From: Sent: To: Subject: Department Managers [mailto:deptmanagers@icorp. they will become directly responsible for their entire area. It is important to these people that they influence the outcome of their efforts. Our section feels that as the policy is now written. according to approximately five of the staff. 20XX 12:14 PM All Employees Management Meeting Regarding the management policies listed here for discussion. change the italicized words to shorter. SB 152 Handout 7 .com] Wednesday. We would like to take this time to explain more explicitly what we mean. October 8.
Through their choices of services and expenditures. according to about five of the staff. they will become directly responsible for their entire area. Therefore. Session Builders 152 – Big Words: Use Them More for Catching than for Pitching Sample Report to a Meeting Management Meeting From: Sent: To: Subject: Department Managers [mailto:deptmanagers@icorp. Our section feels that as the policy is now written. it does not use all levels of knowledge in our organization. SB 152 Handout 8 . It is important to these people that they affect the outcome of their efforts. It is clear that one of these policies. is harmful to the morale and motivation of our employees. We would like to take this time to explain more clearly what we mean. It appears to be too rigid in the use of authority to end projects that are not productive.com] Wednesday. Though it has been our usual practice to get approval on projects and expenditures. To do otherwise would be harmful to the growth and development of our employees. 20XX 12:14 PM All Employees Management Meeting Regarding the management policies listed here for discussion. October 8. We would like to ask why this cannot be changed to allow for more individual control. our next proposal would be to start profit centers to put the final responsibility of the operation into their hands. Our employees will not increase in their management talents if we do not give them the chance to decide which projects are profitable and which are not. it is our first reaction that changes should be made in this list. I suggest we go to this plan.
e. with many possible meanings) contributes to communication problems on the job. Then they compare answers and discuss the potential problems created by inexact words. • A pre-session assignment to stimulate thinking about how words mean different things to different people.. . 20 maximum 153 – What do you mean? Use this Session Builder as: • A reinforcement exercise within a session to build on key points. Participants hear or read 12 statements that each include an inexact word and try to determine what the statement means. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 15 to 30 minutes Group Size: No minimum. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This short exercise shows how the use of inexact words (i. • An opener to a session to spark discussion and introduce the subject area.
000 of these words have multiple meanings. ask participants how they answered each statement. do your best to avoid using inexact words. Simply suggest they use their own judgment. In each statement. • Point out that the purpose of this exercise is to show what can happen when inexact words are used: the sender attaches one meaning to these words. When precision is especially important in training someone to do a job. • Participants will tend to become curious and confused because you have not given them more information.000 words in the English language. Note that out of 800. and the receiver attaches another. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion period. By not mentioning the purpose. • It is important that you do not explain the purpose of this exercise. over 650. Call on three or four participants at random to give their response to each statement.” Participants may ask you for help or suggestions. Participants will read the statement and then write what they think the statement means. Proceed without further explanation unless specific questions are asked. In such a situation. Since participants were to use their own judgment. problems are created due to “misinterpretation” of those inexact words. This will increase the variety of answers given. Jot the answers on the flipchart or whiteboard as they are mentioned. a variety of answers to each statement will be given. Discussion • After the allotted time or when all participants appear to be finished.Preparation • Make copies of the handout for each participant. an inexact word will be used. SB 153-1 . you are looking for what they think the statement means. you will eliminate the tendency toward “groupthink. • The room should be flexible enough to allow for discussion and for viewing the visual aids. • Distribute a copy of the handout to each participant. Process • Introduce the exercise by telling the group that 12 statements will be presented to them.
I recently saw an article on this subject. they are situations to which all participants can quickly identify. Improved: The proposal was approved by 95 percent of those attending. give the handout to participants one week ahead of class. Personal identification increases the impact of the key points you want to make. I saw an article on this subject. Introduce the material. • Though the 12 statements on the handout may not appear to be job-related. The process of finding out whether words and phrases mean the same things to different people is the same in both methods. Improved: My neighbor just bought a car that cost over $60. using the same procedure outlined in the Discussion section. Original: 2. If you choose this option. Wilchacky SB 153-2 . you will need to provide paper and pencils for participants to write their responses. you may wish to read the 12 statements aloud to participants. Improved: Two weeks ago. One problem with pre-session assignments is that participants may compare answers. • As a pre-session assignment. You may not get the variety of answers expected. Ask them to suggest ways to make each one clearer and more precise. then have them bring their completed work to the session. Original: 3. Some examples might be: Original: 1. which could diminish the effect of the session. ask the group to share examples of inexact words used on their jobs that caused confusion and misunderstanding. Based on a concept created and submitted by Ann I.• Refer the group back to each statement on the handout. Options/Variations • Instead of distributing the handout. Ask them to also share some problems that resulted when those words were used. My neighbor just bought an expensive car.000. To bring the content back to the job situation. The proposal was approved overwhelmingly.
Session Builders 153 – What do you mean? HANDOUT .
(How old is he?) 5. (What percentage of the vote was in favor of the proposal?) 2. I saw several movies this summer. My boss is an older man. The proposal was approved overwhelmingly. Session Builders 153 – What do you mean? Read each statement. 1. Use your best judgment to determine what each statement means. (How long ago was it?) 4. I recently saw an article on this subject. then answer the question following the statement. My neighbor just bought an expensive car. (How many movies did I see?) SB 153 Handout 7 (continued) . (How much did it cost?) 3.
A mechanic looks at your car’s engine and says. (How much weight did I lose?) 8. In a letter. (What is their annual income?) 11. Many people were standing in line. My in-laws live very comfortably. The assailant was described as a white male of average height. I filed my income tax early. (How many people were in line?) 12. In the past year. “This will take a while. (How long before the due date did I file?) SB 153 Handout 7 (concluded) . “You will hear from us in the near future.6. I have been moderately successful on my new diet program.” (How long will it take?) 9. you write. (How tall was he?) 7.” (When will this be?) 10.
• A reinforcement exercise to focus on human relations techniques. In the case. Finance. Type: Role Play Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 6 to 36 154 – The Gruff Manager Use this Session Builder as: • An introductory exercise to stimulate thinking and lead into discussion of the subject. The role play creates a situation in which the superior must describe good human relations techniques and convince the manager to use them. participants are asked to demonstrate their knowledge of human relations and how it may affect performance. . Choose the one that best fits your organization or group. Five versions of this exercise are available: Manufacturing. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: A counseling situation is used to focus on the need for positive human relations skills. a manager with a harsh and insensitive attitude toward his or her employees is counseled by his or her superior. Sales. Engineering/Technical. and IT. Through a multiplegroup role play.
3. This provides less-experienced participants with an opportunity to observe a “pro” in action. Allow about 8 to 10 minutes for the role plays to take place. tell the Observer to make some suggestions or call time.” etc. Tell them to face the front of the room for the discussion process. • Have the Observers act as the timekeepers and facilitators of the role plays. • Give the Superior’s role to #1s.Preparation • Make copies of the Manager’s role (for the version you have chosen for your session). Ask them to evaluate their approach to the situation and the feelings that this approach aroused. 2. It is likely that those who played the Superior felt some pressure to convince the Manager to be more sensitive to people. • Have each group proceed with the exercise according to the instructions given on the handouts. • After the role plays are finished. They may even SB 154-1 .” Less sensitive (or more aggressive) participants will “play” the role better. “1. • The room should be flexible enough to accommodate simultaneous role plays Process • Divide participants into groups of three by counting off. have participants remain with their role-play group. Discussion • Begin discussion by getting feedback from those participants who played the role of the Manager and the Superior. At the same time. • Or. the Manager’s role to #2s. you may want to suggest that those with the most experience as manager or supervisor play the role of Superior first. ask those participants who played the role of Manager for their reaction/ feedback. and the Observer’s role for participants working in groups of three. If they did not succeed. Participants who are already aware and sensitive to people may have had some difficulty relating to the role of “The Gruff Manager. 2. • Next. this also gives the less-experienced people a chance to think about how they are going to handle the role when it is their turn. with minimal interference. • Allow a few minutes for participants to study their roles. 3. they will feel frustrated. 1. the corresponding Superior’s role. and the Observer’s role to #3s. If a participant becomes stumped in the role and cannot think of anything else to say.
the good human relations “pointers” the Superior suggests may include some or all of the following: − − − − − − − − use a participative style encourage an open attitude show no favoritism exercise self-control foster problem-solving approaches reinforce and recognize the ideas and suggestions of employees avoid ethnic humor. It may be wise to explain that each situation is unique and the similarity between the two experiences should be explored for better understanding. − What elements of good human relations did the Superior point out? Answers to this question may vary according to the individual groups. participants can begin to see the negative aspects of insensitivity and its effect on productivity.become defensive during this part of the discussion. SB 154-2 . cynicism. you will find some possible responses. communication. but group morale and motivation are probably low. use reflective listening to avoid being put on the defensive yourself. − What is the Manager’s perspective on human relations? The Manager in the role feels that human relations is secondary to productivity and efficiency. Below each question. The following questions are the same ones that are suggested for the Observer to use on the handout. and motivation. and sarcasm help employees with personal problems that affect their work − How did the Superior handle himself or herself during the discussion? Note use of open-ended questions to stimulate communication and actively listening to what the Manager had to say. • Throughout the role play and discussion. ask the Observers to summarize. His or her “crack the whip” philosophy may be seen as hard and callous by the Observer. • Finally. The participants may relate personal experiences in which they encountered this type of supervision and how they felt about it. − What do you think the Manager’s people think of him or her? The people under the Manager’s direction are described as efficient. If a participant continues to challenge the need for human relations. performance. This may be a reaction to the learning experience or a reflection of their still unchanged beliefs. Generally.
The questionnaire in Session Builder 131—Motivators and Satisfiers provides a rough measure of these assumptions. This time the discussion need not follow the same pattern. Reports will generally be shorter and more concise. call on the Superiors first. instead. • After 8 to 10 minutes. so does the Manager. “overplay” their roles. Suggest that the Superior and Manager avoid parroting the previous players. Instead of multiple-group role plays. have members of each group change roles and replay the exercise. in part. have the group focus on one role play with different volunteers alternating in the given roles. Caution Managers not to Options/Variations • If time and the number of participants in your session are limited. • If there is time. you may wish to change the role-play method. You may call. Rather. the Superior will need to use greater counseling skill. Note that while the second person playing the Superior learns from the first. and finally the Observers. then the Managers. encourage them to step into the roles from their own perspectives. For example. Different ways of handling this situation could then be compared.• When all Observers have had a chance to report. have participants change roles again. Again. The second is likely to be more “hard-nosed” than the first. reconvene for discussion. SB 154-3 . Ask participants to describe any differences between the two role plays. • You can get sharp contrasts by altering the approach of each succeeding Supe- rior. ask the second Superior(s) to be hard-nosed and insensitive to the Manager. Note A manager’s attitude toward people is. related to his or her basic assumptions about motivation (McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y). for general comments and summarizing observations. explaining why one was more (or less) successful. This provides input from a variety of people. Tell the third to be indifferent. As a result. Direct specific attention to the effects of poor human relations on the job.
Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager HANDOUTS .
SB 154 Handout 1 . The Manager of Office Purchases reports to you and manages six people. While the Office Purchasing Manager’s section seems to be quite efficient. You want to suggest a number of good human relations “pointers.” so you have asked the Manager to come see you. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Superior—Manufacturing You are the Director of Purchasing for a major manufacturing firm. you have observed the Office Purchasing Manager being unnecessarily gruff and harsh toward his or her employees. you feel compelled to talk to the Manager about the manner in which he or she treats the employees. You have received no direct complaints.” After some deliberation. but one administrative assistant quit for “personal reasons. you feel the employees may be afraid of their manager. In the past few months. He or she is on the way now.
The Director has called you in for a conference. The administrative assistant is new because your former administrative assistant suddenly left for “personal reasons. and you intend to keep it that way.” Most of your people. It has been your experience that a productive organization is one that is tightly controlled. You manage six people. You have no idea what it is about. Ever since you entered management. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Manager—Manufacturing Youare the Manager of Office Purchasing for a major manufacturing firm. You have one of the most efficient departments. but you put up with it because he or she is your superior. The “keep ‘em happy” philosophy of the Director of Purchasing irks you. including five buyers and an administrative assistant. you’ve realized that people will take advantage of you unless you “crack the whip. When you are ready. SB 154 Handout 2 . need some firm nudging from time to time to get the work out. including your administrative assistant.” You report to the Director of Purchasing for the company. stand up as though you are on the way to his or her office for your appointment.
Recently.” After some deliberation.” so you have asked the Manager to come see you. but one administrative assistant quit for “personal reasons. You want to suggest a number of good human relations “pointers. The Retail Division Manager reports to you and manages six people. He or she is on the way now. but you feel the employees may be afraid of their manager. SB 154 Handout 3 . you feel compelled to talk to the Manager about the manner in which he or she treats the employees. you have observed the Retail Division Manager being unnecessarily gruff and harsh toward his or her employees. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Superior—Sales You are the Regional Sales Director for a sales corporation. This division is quite efficient. You have received no direct complaints.
The “keep ‘em happy” philosophy of the Regional Sales Director irks you. You manage six people— five salespeople and an administrative assistant.” Most of your people. It has been your experience that a productive organization is one that is tightly controlled. need some firm nudging from time to time to get the work out. you have realized that people will take advantage of you unless you “crack the whip. The administrative assistant is new because the former secretary left suddenly for “personal reasons.” You report to the Regional Sales Director for the company. SB 154 Handout 4 . Ever since you entered management. You have no idea what it is about. including your administrative assistant. The Regional Sales Director has called you in for a conference. You have one of the most efficient divisions. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Manager—Sales You are the Retail Division Manager for a sales corporation. When you are ready. but you put up with it because he or she is your superior. stand up as though you are on the way to his or her office for your appointment. and you intend to keep it that way.
The Manager of the Newton Branch Office reports to you and manages six people.” After some deliberation. You want to suggest a number of good human relations “pointers.” so you have asked the Branch Manager to come see you. but one teller quit for “personal reasons. You have received no direct complaints. you feel compelled to talk to the Branch Manager about the way he or she treats the employees. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Superior—Finance You are the Vice President of the First County Bank. you have observed the Newton Branch Manager being unnecessarily gruff and harsh toward his or her employees. In the past few months. SB 154 Handout 5 . The branch office is quite efficient. but you feel the employees there may be afraid of their manager. He or she is on the way now.
You have no idea what it is about. The Vice President has called you in for a conference. Ever since you became the Branch Manager. but you put up with it because he or she is your superior. SB 154 Handout 6 . The “keep ‘em happy” philosophy of the Vice President irks you.” Your superior is the Vice President of the First County Bank. It has been your experience that a productive bank needs to be tightly controlled. One teller is new because the former teller left suddenly for “personal reasons. When you are ready. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Manager—Finance You are the Manager of the Newton branch office of the First County Bank.” Most of the people at your branch office need some firm nudging from time to time to get their work done. and you intend to keep it that way. including three tellers. you have realized that people will take advantage of you unless you “crack the whip. You have one of the most efficient Branch Offices. stand up as though you are on the way to his or her office for your appointment. You manage six other bank employees.
The Design Department is quite efficient. you feel compelled to talk to the Design Manager about the manner in which he or she treats the employees. SB 154 Handout 7 . In the past few months. but you feel the employees there may be afraid of their manager.” so you have asked the Design Manager to come see you. but the administrative assistant quit for “personal reasons. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Superior—Engineering/Technical You are the Director of Engineering for a major firm. You want to suggest a number of good human relations “pointers. He or she is on the way now. including an administrative assistant. you have observed the Design Manager being unnecessarily gruff and harsh toward his or her employees.” After some deliberation. The Design Manager reports to you and manages six people. You have received no direct complaints.
You have one of the most efficient departments. Ever since you entered management. The “keep ‘em happy” philosophy of the Director of Engineering irks you. need some firm nudging from time to time to get the work out. You have no idea what it is about. The Director has called you in for a conference. SB 154 Handout 8 . and you intend to keep it that way. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Manager—Engineering/Technical You are the Design Manager for a major firm.” You report to the Director of Engineering for the company. When you are ready. stand up as though you are on the way to his or her office for your appointment.” Most of your people. but you put up with it because he or she is your superior. including your administrative assistant. You manage six people. you have realized that people will take advantage of you unless you “crack the whip. It has been your experience that a productive organization is one that is tightly controlled. The administrative assistant is new because the former administrative assistant left suddenly for “personal reasons. including an administrative assistant.
you feel compelled to talk to the IT Manager about the manner in which he or she treats the employees. but the administrative assistant quit for “personal reasons. The IT Manager reports to you and manages four people—three programmers and an administrative assistant. He or she is on the way now. you have observed the IT Manager being unnecessarily gruff and harsh toward his or her employees. SB 154 Handout 9 .” so you have asked the IT Manager to come see you. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Superior—IT You are the Vice President of a small publishing company. You want to suggest a number of good human relations “pointers. In the past few months.” After some deliberation. While the IT Department is quite efficient. you suspect the employees may be afraid of their manager. You have received no direct complaints.
The “keep ‘em happy” philosophy of the Vice President irks you. SB 154 Handout 10 . You manage four people— three programmers and an administrative assistant. The Vice President has called you in for a conference. you have realized that people will take advantage of you unless you “crack the whip. but you put up with it because he or she is your superior.” Your superior is the Vice President of the company. When you are ready. It has been your experience that a productive organization is one that is tightly controlled. The administrative assistant is new because the former administrative assistant left suddenly for “personal reasons. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Manager—IT You are the IT Manager for a small publishing company. You have no idea what it is about. including your administrative assistant. Ever since you became a manager. need some firm nudging from time to time to get the work out.” Most of your people. stand up as though you are on the way to his or her office for your appointment.
The Superior has decided to talk to the Manager about his or her manner. look for the following: 1. How did the Superior handle himself or herself during the discussion? 4. The Superior has observed the Manager being gruff and insensitive to the needs of his or her people. During the role play. Session Builders 154 – The Gruff Manager Role for Observer You are about to observe a role play between a Superior and a Manager. The Manager is a “hard-nosed” employee who believes in a tightly controlled operation. What elements of good human relations did the Superior point out? 3. What do you think the Manager’s people think of him or her? SB 154 Handout 11 . What is the Manager’s perspective on human relations? 2.
Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 6 to 40 155 – One-Way/Two-Way Communication Use this Session Builder as: • A warm-up or opening exercise that stimulates discussion on the subject. The communicator can only relay the message verbally. one participant is asked to describe a complicated diagram so that the other participants can draw it on paper. 2. and the group is not allowed to ask questions. and second to demonstrate the differences between one-way and two-way communications. and the communicator may answer questions from the group. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exercise is two-fold: first to demonstrate the potential problems that result from using one-way communication. The frustrations that result when you are trying to complete a project without adequate information. How specific information helps get the job done right. Participants experience two things: 1. During this exercise. Then the exercise is repeated. . • A reinforcement exercise to emphasize key points and summarize the topic area.
• Read or paraphrase the following to the group: The communicator is about to describe a diagram. Do not ask questions. Once participants become lost or confused by the communicators instructions. • Provide paper and pencils for participants. Seat him or her in the chair facing away from the group. • Because participants are not allowed to talk or ask questions. You may wish to place a screen between the communicator and the rest of the group if the room cannot be rearranged. Make sure no one views the diagram except the person acting as communicator. and please refrain from making any noise at all. Based on that description. Again remind participants not to make any noise during the exercise. • Arrange the room so that one chair or desk in the back of the room faces away from the group. they will probably be unable to regain their direction to complete the diagram. have several copies of Diagram #3 available for the communicators to use. tell him or her to recreate what is on the paper using any words he or she feels will do the job. Simultaneously. If that happens. • Distribute paper and pencils to participants. • Be aware that the communicator may experience confusion when describing the diagram. • Tell the communicator to begin describing Diagram #1 to the group. the group should attempt to recreate the diagram on paper. • If you are using the option described in the Options/Variations section. you are to recreate the diagram on your paper. SB 155-1 . they will probably feel puzzled and frustrated as the communicator continues with the verbal description of the diagram. • Give a copy of Diagram #1 to the communicator. Process/Discussion • Select a participant to act as the communicator.Preparation • Make copies of Diagram #1 and Diagram #2 for each participant.
There will probably be a great deal of talk and laughter as the participants compare their results with the original diagram. The communicator can answer your questions. Have them compare the actual diagram with their own version of it. • Give Diagram #2 to this new communicator. • Focus the discussion on the following questions: − How did the communicator feel during the exercise? Depending on the previous experience and communication skills of the communicator. you may ask questions as appropriate. SB 155-2 . • At the conclusion of this discussion. he or she probably feels the overview was accurately presented and that the diagram was described from start to finish in a logical. however. and loss of dollars to an organization. the majority will have produced forms vastly different from the original diagram. begin the discussion process. Be sure to allow time for this. confusion. distribute copies of Diagram #1 to all the participants. Again. Ask him or her to take a position in front of the group. • Read or paraphrase the following to the group: You are about to work on a similar exercise. organized way. you will attempt to draw a diagram as described by the communicator. Despite the communicator’s feelings during the description. He or she may have felt insecure as to whether or not the message was getting across. Then. Also. he or she may have felt confident or ill at ease when describing the diagram. frustration. This time.• As soon as the communicator finishes the verbal description. you’ll find general e-mails that go to all employees and directives that originate from two or three levels up in the organization that are examples of one-way communication. However. choose another member of the group to be a second communicator. − How did the individual group members feel during the exercise? Answers here may range from confusion to frustration to self-assurance. information that comes from field offices is more one-way than two-way communication. but cannot gesture or draw the diagram for you. − What are the potential hazards of one-way communication? The hazards of one-way communication include misinformation. − What forms of company communication are one way? Occasionally. but there will be a few changes in the role. inaccuracy.
seminars. Participants will generally experience more positive feelings in the second exercise. workshops.• Pass out a clean sheet of paper to each participant. and counseling sessions all involve opportunities for management and staff to interact and communicate using a two-way communication technique. etc. building morale. When the communicator finishes. SB 155-3 . Because questions are permitted. and increasing team commitment to projects. Even though two-way communication takes longer. − How did the accuracy of the second diagram compare to the accuracy of the first diagram? The second diagram generally is more accurate because participants had a chance to ask questions and check their progress. ask them to compare Diagram #2 with their own version of it. − Ask how the group felt during the second exercise as compared to the way they felt during the first exercise. this disadvantage is usually outweighed by reducing errors and misunderstanding. and tell them they are to again draw the diagram based on the verbal description given by the communicator. instructions and orders. However. he or she will know exactly where to amend the instructions. The communicator in this second exercise will probably feel much more confident of his or her overall directions and the success of the group. • The group may now ask questions of the communicator. • Ask the communicator to begin verbally describing the diagram. distribute copies of Diagram #2 to the participants. when to slow down. The communicator who is involved in the two-way communication will generally have a more positive experience. meetings. − What are the advantages and disadvantages of two-way communication? The biggest disadvantage of two-way communication is its tendency to become time-consuming. E-mails to employees. Just as in the previous exercise. it is much less frustrating and generally produces more successful results. • Discussion of two-way communication may then follow using questions similar to those given below: − Compare and contrast the feelings of the two communicators. and answers are permitted. when to continue. − What kinds of communication vehicles are two-way in your company? Company communication should ideally be two-way communication.
• When participants finish working at the whiteboard. some things the communicator may forget to say include the following: 1. When using this diagram. Place five (or more/fewer) people at the whiteboard or flipchart to draw only what he or she hears described. When using the whiteboard or flipchart. The two circles are on the top or bottom. You can change communicators and see five more versions. The importance of saying precisely what is meant becomes very evident to observers as they see five different versions appear on the board. if you choose. All circles intersect. SB 155-4 .Options/Variations • This exercise can be more effective if a whiteboard or flipchart and markers are available. The circles are equal in size. 3. 2. have the communicator show them the copy of Diagram #3. it is suggested that you use a less-complicated diagram such as the one shown in Diagram #3. etc.
Session Builders 155 – One-Way/Two-Way Communication HANDOUTS .
Session Builders 155 – One-Way/Two-Way Communication Diagram #1 SB 155 Handout 1 .
Session Builders 155 – One-Way/Two-Way Communication Diagram #2 SB 155 Handout 2 .
Session Builders 155 – One-Way/Two-Way Communication Diagram #3 SB 155 Handout 3 .
Purpose/Objectives: Do you want to spark new ideas about goals and capabilities on the job and rekindle burned-out enthusiasm and motivation? This exercise is designed to create conditions of openness and awareness so that generating alternatives to problems becomes an easier process. By doing the “Impossible Things” exercise, participants break their blocks to creativity. They short-circuit their old way of thinking by letting it be okay to be “wrong” before being “right” in a game of working with new ideas. They begin to see how the free flow of ideas helps generate more positive solutions to old problems, and how to understand how this process can assist in developing new methods for projects, preparing for expansion and change, and reducing rigid value judgments relating to assignments back on the job. Type: Discussion stimulator/role play Time Required: 2½ to 3 hours Group Size: 5 to 20
156 – Impossible Things
Use this Session Builder as: • An opener or warm-up exercise to stimulate thinking and break through the barriers that block creativity.
• A reinforcement exercise to emphasize the key points
of developing new goals and capabilities in organizational programs.
• No handouts are required for this exercise. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers and masking tape on hand to record
the free flow of ideas.
• The room should lend itself to easy conversation and discussion by the entire
• You may find it helpful to rehearse topic areas ahead of time and prepare a set
of note cards showing the sequence of topics.
• The session should be informal and guided in a relaxed and easy manner. • The sequence of topics goes from general to specific so that participants
become accustomed to extraordinary possibilities and begin to shift to personal identification.
• During the exercise, every contribution is valuable as a part of the process, and
derogatory remarks such as “That’s a stupid idea” should not be allowed. Freedom to be spontaneous and innovative without fear of criticism from others is vital for creative flow.
• When participation in any discussion segment becomes less than enthusiastic,
decide whether to inject some inspiration or move on to the next topic. Inspirational ideas are mentioned under the individual topic discussions.
• Realize that at first, the group may hesitate to offer creative ideas, so the bur-
den will be on you to draw them out.
• Some people listen, and some people talk. Try to have everyone contribute
some of the time, but do not force anyone. Listeners are learning, too, but in a quieter way.
• Time limits for each topic are determined by the size of the group and the level
of interest and enthusiasm. However, generally speaking, allow 20 to 30 minutes for each topic #1 through #4. Topic #5, which deals with current workrelated situations, is the last topic to be covered and you probably should allow about 30 to 45 minutes. The other topics are flexible according to your discretion. (See Options/Variations for suggested ways to shorten the time needed to do the exercise.)
SB 156 1
• Begin the discussion by reading or paraphrasing the following to the group:
We’re going to work on our abilities to think more creatively. In doing this, we’re going to discuss a sequence of events from five topic areas ranging from general to specific topics. We’ll work on each topic individually before moving on to the next topic. It’s important to remember that each contribution is a valuable part of the process, and no derogatory remarks are allowed. Any idea is okay. Freedom to be spontaneous and innovative without fear of criticism is vital for the process to be effective. Don’t be afraid of sounding ridiculous, let your ideas flow naturally.
• Begin with discussion of the topics.
Topic #1—Impossible Things in History
• Ask participants to suggest favorite stories from history about impossible things
made possible. You can list these on a whiteboard or flipchart. At least five events should be listed. Suggestions might be the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk or inventions such as the telephone, camera, and printing press (see Notes). It may be that the company to which your participants belong had its origin in a historic event. If so, you may want to develop a discussion around that information.
• Ask for volunteers to perform mini skits to re-enact the difficulties encountered
in following through with the idea that was met by adversity or unacceptance. Someone may want to do a monologue—a “thinking out-loud” version of an inventor’s progression of feelings from doubt and questioning to strength and confidence.
• Allow the group time to fully explore the feelings associated with recreating
impossible things that actually happened in our history. Usually 30 minutes is sufficient. Topic #2—Impossible Things in More Recent History
• Discussion here focuses on developments during the past 50 years. Ask each
participant which invention he or she feels has been the most important and why. Discuss obstacles that were overcome, circumstances leading up to the invention or event, and the necessary courage of the people or person involved. Ideas for discussion might be the VCR, computers, liposuction, contact lenses, etc.
• The discussions are to stimulate thinking about all kinds of developments, not
just the most important to humanity and progress. For instance, indoor flush toilets were at one time an innovative idea. SB 156 2
• Participants will begin to think about innovations over the past 50 years and to
recall their amazement when these new inventions appeared. Again, allow about 30 minutes.
Topic #3—Impossible Things Today
• When entering this topic area, you may want to talk about the pace of progress
and how it has accelerated. Suggest the possibility that we take many things for granted that were once unheard of—the Ambio artificial heart, the DVD, the hybrid car, etc. participants in the group explains a modern invention to someone from history. For example: Benjamin Franklin has been transported here in a time machine, and he’s very curious to know what’s changed since his time. One of the participants (or more than one) attempts to explain computers or video games.
• A good lead into this area would be to improvise a scenario in which one of the
• Other innovations can be discussed with the same historic character, or other
characters can be invited into the 21st Century. Participants generally have fun with this informal way of expanding their thinking. By the time they reach the third topic area, they are really into the roles, and examples are usually good ones. Again, allow about 30 minutes.
Topic #4—Personal “Impossible” Triumphs
• Ask for volunteers to share any personal experiences in overcoming limitations,
resistance, and/or challenges. The group may appear reticent here because of a need for privacy.
• Any sort of achievement is appropriate—an invention, overcoming a handicap,
reaching an “unattainable goal,” succeeding against adversity, etc. This discussion should emphasize the courage, creativity, and insight involved when rising above ordinary limitations. Participants may want to share accomplishments of someone else instead. This is okay.
• It is essential that everyone receive support from the group. Personal
accomplishments are special. This is a safe time for self-praise. It is a time for reinforcing self-esteem and self-worth, for regaining vigor, and for energizing the drive to achieve.
• Again, no one should be forced to contribute, especially in this segment. It
could be embarrassing to some to state their achievements. However, hearing stories related by others reminds participants of their own triumphs and helps them share those experiences with the group. Again allow about 30 minutes.
SB 156 3
Topic #5—Impossible Work Things—Right Now!
• Ask participants to volunteer to explain a challenge at work...a situation with
an unclear solution. Let other participants contribute suggestions. The person presenting the challenge situation should accept all suggestions without becoming defensive or insulted. You might want to point out that new minds have new points of view. (As presenter, you may simply be locked into one perspective and not be able to easily shift to new ideas.) shift perspective to find a solution. Topic #5 is not to be used as a dumping ground for frustrations or grudges nor is it an excuse to expose weaknesses or limitations. It may be advisable to explain this at the outset of this topic area. A participant might want to introduce his or her problem by saying, “This is a challenge I’m dealing with right now. I’d like to open up a new market for our product, but I’m spinning my wheels. Outside opinions may give me a new perspective.” Remind participants that they are supposed to be giving solutions that are helpful and not condescending. stirs imagination and helps reorganize thought patterns. You can suggest that when the discussion is finished, participants put it out of their minds. “Sleep on it” can be very good advice.
• The reason for presenting current challenges is to receive objective input and to
• A ready solution may or may not come out of this kind of discussion. Fresh input
• It is helpful to remember that definitive results are not usual or necessary. The
creative process is ongoing. The purpose here is to create certain conditions of openness and awareness so that new ideas can flourish, to counteract the burnout syndrome, to prepare for expansion and change, and to extend beliefs about the limits of possibilities.
• People who work on machines or who are in research and development tend to
talk about inventions; others may want to talk about extraordinary people. As long as the participants keep to the topic at hand and are not boring or overbearing, anything goes.
• You may want to add another topic area—The Future—Nothing Is Impossible!
Today’s science fiction is tomorrow’s reality. Here, participants would talk about what they think the world will be like 100 years from now. What kinds of homes will people live in? What kinds of appliances, transportation, communication, lifestyles will prevail? What will be the top careers, sources of food, water, fuel? What about sex roles, physical capabilities, medical advances? What will happen to the family, to education, to Monday Night Football? This can spark ideas of new areas of expansion and/or exploration. It can help participants feel comfortable working with new, untried ideas that seem “impossible.” SB 156 4
• Rather than work on the material as a total group, another option is to divide
the session into three groups that are roughly equal in size. Have each group work on one of the first three topic areas. Give them about 30 minutes, and then have them present their material to the general session. For instance, the group dealing with the first topic area could plan a role play of their event, the second group could present a lecture, and the third group could present today’s information to someone from history. Then have the group deal with the last two topics as a whole. If time is limited, this reduces the time needed for the session to about 2 hours. handle three periods—impossible things in history, impossible things today, and impossible problems in the work scene. The impact of working on awareness will not be as great as presented in the original exercise, but the general point will be made. Handle these three sections as outlined in the Discussion section. This shorter version should take only about half the time of the original version.
• If there is a time limitation, you can shorten the exercise by having the group
• It is important that the rule of “no evaluations” be strictly followed. Partici-
pants need to feel free to contribute any or all ideas no matter how ridiculous they may sound. It would also be wise to apply this rule to self-deprecating remarks as well.
• It may be helpful to become familiar with “Right Brain/Left Brain Research.”
This exercise has been designed to increase access to right brain activity. As right brain access becomes easier, more “aha!” moments will occur as new insights and understandings are reached.
• Just as background, here are some other “impossible” things! − Commodore Vanderbilt dismissed Westinghouse and his new air brakes for
trains with the remark that he had no time to waste on fools.
− Those who loaned Robert Fulton money for his steamboat project stipulated
that their names be withheld for fear of ridicule were it known that they supported anything so “fool-hardy.”
− In 1881 when the New York YWCA announced typing lessons for women,
vigorous protests were made on the grounds that the female constitution would break down under the strain.
− Men insisted that iron ships would not float, that they would damage more
easily than wooden ships when grounding, that it would be difficult to preserve the iron bottoms from rust, and that iron would deflect the compass.
SB 156 5
Depew confessed that he warned his nephew not to invest $5. SB 156 6 .− Chauncy M.” − When in 1907.000 in Ford stock because “nothing has come along to beat the horse. Created and written by Joan Chiarelli. he was not able to sell his patent and let it lapse rather than pay $25 for its renewal. Lee de Forest put the radio tube in workable form.
They are then asked to list the outstanding qualities that made those people special motivating forces in their lives. Participants are asked to name heroes and heroines who have inspired them to build their careers and work harder at their goals in life. As similar characteristics are mentioned over and over again. . Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise helps supervisors and managers identify those motivational characteristics that make a person a leader of others. participants become aware of the leadership qualities that make one person more outstanding than another as a leader. Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 30 to 45 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 157 – Heroes and Heroines Use this Session Builder as: An introductory exercise to stimulate thinking about leadership skills and develop career potential with employees.
but you knew that person made a difference in your life. your goals. idols. they’ve influenced and inspired us. work the exercise as one unit. What were some of the qualities that made that person stand out from others around you? • As participants relate qualities of their heroes and heroines. By their actions and their advice. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion process. you might want to stimulate thinking by asking the following questions: − How did this person affect your life? Your self-confidence. a relative. Take a moment to think of someone special in your life. teachers. or a coach. The people we admire give us courage and direction. read or paraphrase the following: As all of us grow up and become older. break the session into small groups that are roughly equal in size with no more than 7 participants in a group. If the group is larger than 10. • The room should be flexible enough to accommodate small group discussions occurring at the same time. list them on the whiteboard or flipchart. Perhaps it was a parent. we have our own personal heroes and heroines—friends. your ambition. a neighbor.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. Common qualities often mentioned include the following: − patience − knowledge about his or her particular field − ability to deal with and understand others SB 157 1 . • To introduce the exercise. Process/Discussion • If your group has 10 or fewer participants. development of your talents? − What do you admire most about this person? − What’s the most important contribution this person made in your life? − How is your life affected right now by this person? − What was this person’s favorite saying (if any)? • The contributions being made by the participants will become repetitious. a teacher. Perhaps it was someone who didn’t know you very well. your attitudes. • As people talk about their heroes and heroines.
divide participants into small groups that are roughly equal in size to discuss how the participants can apply those qualities to their own jobs. Others will feel that their hero or heroine recognized their capabilities when others did not. or a supervisor might set up monthly meetings to actively listen to his or her employees concerning current problems. • Answers here will vary. Some will feel that without this particular person. have participants also think about people who decreased their motivation to succeed at or do a job. • Through the discussion. SB 157 2 . Written and submitted by Joan Chiarelli. a manager might show more patience when instructing an employee on a new task.− being an active listener − taking an active interest in life − helping me understand myself • Ask those making contributions to explain what impact these qualities had on their thinking. They seem to go through an awakening process when comparing the qualities in their own heroes and heroines. Then have them report their ideas back to the entire group. Options/Variations • As a variation to the above exercise. Still others will remember the patience shown by their hero or heroine when they were learning a skill that was particularly hard for them. they would not have been able to achieve their present position. they see what actions produced positive feelings and motivated them to achieve their goals and their objectives. List the “bad” qualities of these people in a column next to the column of “good” qualities of the heroes and heroines. Make a visual comparison of what “turns people on” and what “turns people off” in getting a job done effectively and productively. Through their own personal experiences. Participants experience new insight into what makes a person an outstanding leader. Allow them about 15 minutes to complete this discussion. participants recognize that the qualities possessed by their heroes and heroines are the same leadership skills that help managers and supervisors deal more effectively with their employees on the job. For instance. Note This exercise builds positive feelings about what motivates others. • As an addition to the exercise: following the discussion of good qualities.
Type: Discussion stimulator Time Required: 60 minutes minimum Group Size: 10 to 40 158 – Task Force Use this Session Builder as: A reinforcement exercise to emphasize the organizational as well as the managerial role in affecting motivational climate. . Participants are asked to discuss how these factors both encourage and discourage motivation. Each task force discusses executive policies and individual manager style and presents suggestions for improvement in each of these areas. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise demonstrates how the motivational climate in any organizational unit is affected by both executive policy and management style. Participants are divided into small groups or “task force” teams to analyze the motivational climate in their organization (see Notes).
Remember. Process • Divide the session into small groups of four to six participants each. • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available if you wish to summarize the task force suggestions for the group to see. The second part is for all managers regardless of level suggesting specific things they can do to improve the motivational climate. they should evaluate company policy improvements. this “task force” exercise can be sensitive.” In some cases. Then compile a list of five or more suggestions for improving employee motivations.Preparation • No handouts are required for this exercise. Then ask if there are any other “ideas. As facilitator. It may become a vehicle to voice frustrations and easily criticize executive policy.” SB 158 1 . depending on the organization and the participants. • Remind participants that the task forces are not to deal with specific individuals or sections of the company. • The room should be large enough to provide adequate separation between small discussion groups. Indicate which ones you feel encourage motivational feelings. Read or paraphrase the following: Your teams are task forces appointed to examine your organization’s policies and procedures and to look for ways to improve their motivational impact on the employees. Rather. I suggest you first list as many policies as possible. this list should be in two forms: one as if it’s to be presented as recommendations to top management and one to be distributed as recommendations to all managers. Your objective is to prepare a two-part list of recommendations. The first part is to top management recommending specific policy changes. • Allow about 25 minutes for all groups to make their “suggestions to top manage- ment” and their “lists for distribution to all managers. stop the exercise. • At the end of this time period. Go around the room asking each task force to read one of its top management suggestions to the other teams. you should be aware of this and try to establish a climate of positive contribution and discussion.
problem solving. and decision making observe individual needs. SB 158 2 . But it’s what the manager does or fails to do every day that has the greatest impact. The manager should: be a careful listener involve employees in planning. attention. and morale be open in communication set a proper example note curiosity. and eagerness − not stifle employees with negative feedback − show interest. pension plans. cooperation. interest. and insurance. It includes what managers do as well as how they do it. enthusiasm. Be aware of this and try to maintain a time limit for each group’s summary. attitudes.Discussion • The following questions may help stimulate discussion among the participants: − Which has a stronger role in motivation—organizational policy or the individual manager? Building and supporting a motivational climate is a very complex issue. and appropriate recognition − − − − − − • This exercise can become a very long session if discussion by each group generates more questions and comments. and benefits help provide security—but all of these are lower-level needs. The higher-level needs of self-esteem and self-fulfillment must be met by the individual manager. − What specific actions can the participants take to help encourage a better motivational climate? A motivational climate must be developed and supported by day-to-day behavior. and it includes the formal organizational system of recognition and appraisal. dedication. clothing. − How do company policies and individual manager’s actions relate to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? The upper-level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are self-fulfillment and creativeness. Policies and company benefits do not satisfy these needs. Wages and salaries buy food. and shelter.
motivation isn’t so much what you do to people. In addition. Notes • What is it that makes people like their jobs and want to work? What makes people motivated? More has been researched and more has been written in this area than perhaps any other in management. the discussion of motivational climate can be further encouraged by a volunteer role play of a manager’s style.” motivational climate of any given department or section. discussion on the executive policy helps participants understand both the encouraging and discouraging attributes of a motivational climate. consult any standard management textbook. SB 158 3 .Options/Variations • If the number of participants is small (fewer than 10 or 12). • Participants involved in this exercise will see how a manager easily affects the • If you would like more information on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Participants may enjoy setting up impromptu situations that demonstrate both positive and negative effects of executive policy and day-today manager interaction. but rather it’s something people do for themselves. But. in fact. Many practical suggestions can be taken back to the participant’s own area of control. It seems to be the catch-all and cure-all of management difficulties. What managers need to understand is their role in creating a motivational climate in which employees are encouraged to “do for themselves.
. In addition. After comparing them. clarification dramatically improves both productivity and job satisfaction. • A pre-session assignment to lead into a discussion of the key principles of assertiveness and role responsibilities. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: This exercise enables employees and superiors to compare expectations about the content of a job and the relative importance each places on the individual assignments. and rank the items as he or she sees their importance. the employee can now better negotiate for those items that will meet his or her own needs and those of the organization. Type: Application Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: Unlimited 159 – Defining Your Role Use this Session Builder as: • An action plan to put into practice principles of role clarity and assertiveness. • A learning aid for those employees and superiors who are having trouble clarifying expectations of a job position. First. The superior is then asked to review the first list. lists them by importance. and places a personal and organizational value on the more important items. the employee writes a list of the job responsibilities. make any necessary changes.
This list will help participants word their descriptions and can be especially helpful to supervisors or managers who have never had experience writing job descriptions. • Encourage participants to be specific. Encourage them to refer to the Suggested Assignment Areas list to help them generalize the information. • Allow participants about 20 minutes to complete their lists. This time.Preparation • Make copies of the Instruction Sheet and the Suggested Assignment Areas list for each participant. Process/Discussion • Distribute a copy of the Instruction Sheet. a pencil. The Suggested Assignment Areas list will help them group their ideas under more general headings. ask to see what they have written. but not too detailed. ask each person to write a job description listing all of his or her duties and responsibilities. SB 159-1 . You will generally find that hastily finished lists are too general.” • If you monitor the process. This is Step 2 on the Instrument Sheet. they may have listed one assignment as “Supervise staff. If you notice that some have finished writing in 5 to 10 minutes. • To stimulate thinking and to help make their lists more inclusive. In Step 1. and plain paper to each participant. distribute the Suggested Assignment Areas list. when writing their assignments. ask them to list the most important items first.” Encourage them to be more specific by breaking down the job of supervision and clearly defining “staff. followed by those items that are less important. exercise. For example. • The room should be flexible enough for small group discussions to occur (if that option is chosen). • When the lists of duties and responsibilities are complete. Have them write down on paper everything the job requires them to do (as they see it). • Provide pencils and plain paper for participants to use when completing the • Have a whiteboard or flipchart and markers available to use during the discussion. you may also notice that a few participants are using too much detail in their descriptions. ask participants to list the items again on a separate sheet of paper.
they • In Step 3. they set priorities quickly. Most participants have some difficulty with this step. After some amusement. of their assignments from which they get any real satisfaction. Since some jobs of low value take much of a person’s time. (Suggest that they do this in pencil so that they can adjust the percentages as necessary to total 100%). they may not know how to weigh the high priority items. if any. Percentages initially assigned usually total well over 100%. suppose Item #1. • Allow participants about 5 minutes to complete this step. participants will be tempted to rank jobs according to time required rather than value. participants are asked to go over the items and determine the value of the most important ones. For example. Suggest that they make the best assumptions they can. Others. Have them look for those assignments that make their job satisfying and fulfilling. Initial reactions more closely simulate this. This exercise is to develop awareness of what activities or assignments have meaning to people and to encourage the participants to act assertively to make their job more satisfying. If participants are new in their jobs or are relatively inexperienced. using their first reaction as to what is important rather than taking a lot of time deciding where to place each item. when completed. try to avoid assuming a counseling role. As facilitator. makes up 40 percent of the value of the entire job.• Suggest that participants work rapidly. Under day-to-day job pressures. • Some participants will find many satisfying parts of their jobs. may say that they find few. Generally. If that happens. The purpose of this step is to clarify their feelings about their present job. complete it without any problems. In Step 4. Suggest that they use a percentage rating system. you want participants to look over their jobs and decide which assignments are important to them. These percentages will be of particular value later when they are compared to those that their superiors complete. They would write 40% beside this item. Suggest that they try to avoid this. SB 159-2 . however. encourage them to review with their superior what they do and to think about new assignments that could be incorporated into their present position. • Allow participants about 10 minutes to complete this step. participants become aware (perhaps for the first time) how many duties they have that are of little real value. • Now the participants are ready to make a personal value judgment about their assignments.
An alternative suggestion is provided in the Options/Variations section. and do a percentage rating of the most important ones. • One way to handle these concerns is to turn them back to the group for their consideration. For some. • Some participants may find these instructions threatening. − The superior doesn’t think the project is worthwhile or necessary. During this time. − The job is well defined. If your superior has eliminated or down-rated some of those assignments. the variations may be as high as 50%. Explain to him or her that you want to clarify your assignments. Set up a time in about five to seven days to meet with your superior and go over the assignment list. other participants will have experienced these types of problems before and will offer ideas for handling them. Remember you’re looking for how he or she sees your job. Often. read or paraphrase the following to the group: When you’re satisfied that your list of assignments is complete. rank the assignments. SB 159-3 . However. Since you know what assignments are important to you. When you meet with your superior. look over your list and generally review different ways to handle some of the assignments that have importance to you. compare all three lists. The priority and value ratings are likely to need adjustment and clarification. He or she may have deleted some assignments and added others. Ask your supervisor or manager to make any changes necessary to meet his or her expectations of the job. you’re ready to negotiate with your supervisor or manager to keep those assignments. take this list to your supervisor or manager.• When the first four steps are completed. − The superior would be offended if they started suggesting what their job should consist of. negotiate with him or her for what you’ll accept as the “bottom line. and request that he or she take a few minutes to review the list you’ve put together. This is what you wanted.” Assert yourself to help make the content of your job one that will be meaningful to you and productive for the organization. you may have lost some assignments that had special meaning to you. Do not show your superior how you have ranked or rated the items yet. You’ll probably discover that his or her expectations and yours are significantly different. so there isn’t room to negotiate for changes. Explain that you want to know if he or she sees your position the same way you do. They may voice numerous concerns such as: − They cannot get their superior to meet with them.
SB 159-4 . Finally. Write the suggestion on a flipchart or whiteboard. Coulombe. give the Instruction Sheet to the participants in advance. you could assign the exercise at the close of • This is also an excellent tool as a learning aid for individual managers or super- visors who need help clarifying their job responsibilities. If any problems were encountered. • If your sessions run continuously. break the group into small groups that are roughly equal in size (about five participants each). Allow about 15 minutes for small group discussion. Simply give the manager or supervisor a copy of the handout. Ask each group to come up with at least three ways a person can overcome the barriers to getting desired changes made in their present positions. one session and then have it discussed at a later session after the participants have had an opportunity to put it into practice. • As a pre-assignment. and have the groups come up with ways a person could have handled a situation differently. Then reconvene and ask each group to give you one of their ideas. break the session into groups. Created and written by Esther I.Options/Variations • To provide the best possible feedback on problems. and go over it with him or her briefly. ask for any further suggestions. Have them complete the steps as outlined and be prepared to report back to the session how the action plan worked out. You may also want to set a follow-up date to check results.
Session Builders 159 – Defining Your Role HANDOUTS .
5. Break down broad responsibilities into duties and tasks. 2. 4. He or she may have eliminated (or assigned a low priority to) duties and responsibilities you find rewarding or satisfying. Copy your list on another sheet beginning with those duties and responsibilities you feel are most important and continuing in order down to the least important. First. Check those that have the most meaning and satisfaction for you. Try it! 1. meet with your supervisor to compare these lists. give the job description from Step 1 to your supervisor for his or her review and comment. Use percentages to weigh the high-priority items according to their value to the organization. but try to avoid getting bogged down in detail. Look for those you like the best⎯those you would not be willing to give up. Negotiate with your supervisor or manager.) Ask your supervisor to add any items you may have omitted and to rank and weigh the most important just as you have done. If so. 6. Work quickly⎯your first reaction is probably your best. After a few days. take the initiative in an attempt to restore those assignments that are important to you or replace them with an alternative. Many people have found it really helps. Talk to your supervisor or manager. Session Builders 159 – Defining Your Role Instruction Sheet These six steps are designed to help you clarify your duties and responsibilities and negotiate for better job satisfaction. 3. make a list of everything you are required to do in your job. Rank the items. (Don’t give your supervisor or manager the list that shows the items ranked by priority yet. SB 159 Handout 1 . Try to state each item briefly but accurately. Estimate the value of what you do. Write a job description. That is.
Create a motivational climate to stimulate employees to superior performance. monthly. 7. 15. 4. SB 159 Handout 2 (continued) . 8. relationships. Outline programs for projects step by step. 5. Session Builders 159 – Defining Your Role Suggested Assignment Areas Here is a list to stimulate your thinking about the particular assignments in your job. Train and develop employees. Delegate assignments and assign responsibilities and accountabilities. Define qualifications for job positions. Set work/company objectives—yearly. Determine strategies. deciding how and when to achieve goals. It is not meant to be an actual written job description. 11. 13. Recruit candidates for job positions. 17. Define scope. 12. and issue procedures. Write and update job descriptions. weekly. Forecast projects to anticipate problems and ensure success. write. Develop. and authorities for all assignments. 9. Develop weekly work plan. 1. 3. responsibilities. 16. Handle discipline and counseling problems. 14. Orient new employees. Use your own words when writing your job assignments to make them more specific and unique to your job. Establish and maintain line and staff functions. 10. Do planning and scheduling. 2. Allocate personnel and budget requirements. 6.
Develop and review safety programs. conduct monthly meetings. Establish and maintain an appropriate data reporting system (attendance. etc. Interface with staff to coordinate project needs (establish company policies. 21. 22. SB 159 Handout 2 (concluded) . etc. keep boss informed. Develop performance standards to determine when key duties and functions have been completed. remunerate. Encourage use of creativity and innovation of ideas among staff to meet changing needs. Take corrective action by adjusting plans. Measure results to determine deviation from original goals (review overtime. budget analysis. etc. and repeating cycle. 24. do weekly work scheduling. production. Analyze personal work habits.).). counseling. 25. 19. 23.18. Hold performance appraisals to praise. 20. and/or discipline employees. 26.).
In Part II. participants are asked to compare an assertive response to a personal situation. • A learning aid for an individual who is having difficulty responding assertively. People often resort to either passive or aggressive behaviors. assertive. Type: Application Time Required: 60 minutes Group Size: 6 to 30 160 – Saying It Assertively Use this Session Builder as: • An application exercise to build skill and confidence in circumstances requiring assertive behavior. This three-part skill-building exercise helps participants become more confident and self-assured in situations requiring assertive responses. participants are asked to identify passive. Session Builders Purpose/Objectives: Assertiveness is commonly defined as defending one’s own rights without infringing on the rights of others. they apply the skill by composing assertive responses to additional situations. But. In Part I. it is hard to act or respond assertively under the pressure of a difficult or frustrating situation. • An assessment of current assertive skills. In Part III. . and aggressive responses to given situations.
Passive Passive Aggressive Assertive Aggressive (Some participants will feel this is passive depending on the responder’s tone of voice. • The room should be flexible enough for small group discussions to occur simultaneously (if that option is chosen). C. Process/Discussion • Prepare participants for the exercise by briefly summarizing the Purpose/Objectives paragraph. E. Follow up with questions like: − Why? − Did anyone have a different answer? Why? • Continue this pattern for each response in each situation or until there is clear agreement and understanding of passive. B. D.” • Allow about 5 minutes for participants to complete this part.Preparation • Make copies of each handout for each participant. • Begin the discussion by asking the group as a whole (or an individual) how they answered Response A in Situation 1. Reassure participants that this is not a test and that it’s not necessary for all to agree on the “right answer.) SB 160-1 . PART I • Distribute copies of the handouts. and ask participants to complete Part I. • Provide pencils for participants. aggressive. • You’ll probably find that the most common answers are as follows: Situation 1 A. and assertive responses.
• Give participants a few minutes to read the instructions. E. Some examples are “being asked to run errands” or “go for coffee. D. begin the discussion by asking three or four participants to volunteer to read their responses to Situation 1. • Again. • After the allotted time. allow about 5 minutes for this part. PART II • Distribute the handout for Parts II and III.” SB 160-2 . “Let’s highlight some of the best parts of each one. E. Then allow them about Aggressive (There’s likely to be some debate on this one.” “indecisiveness.Situation 2 A. Reassure them that they will not be asked to share their own personal experiences if they don’t want to do so. B. Some participants may have difficulty recalling a personal situation. If so.” PART III • Tell participants to move on to Part III. D. C. C. “I think they’re all very good.” follow up with.) Aggressive Assertive Passive Passive 5 minutes to write their responses. B. Then call on other members of the group to compare and contrast those that were read.” or “annoying personal habits.” “frequent interruptions. Aggressive Assertive Passive Aggressive Passive Situation 3 A. encourage them by suggesting that they think of little everyday things that annoy or frustrate them. Use questions such as: − Which one did you like best? − Why? − Do you have any concerns about how a person might react to any of those responses that were read? • If a participant responds.
Use a question like. • There are several ways to turn the situations in Part II and Part III into mini role plays. For instance. Then combine the discussion for these two parts. Note The three parts of the exercise are designed to build one upon the other. form small discussion groups to collectively prepare responses to each of the situations. SB 160-3 . Most likely this will elicit a variety of responses from the other participants. • Instead of working individually on Part II. • Call on the group as a whole to help you summarize the exercise. suggest that they go directly to Part III. • This exercise can also be used as a learning aid for individual coaching and counseling.• Ask for three or four volunteers to briefly describe their personal situation and read their assertive response. Some participants may be reluctant to share. Options/Variations • There are a number of interesting options and variations to this exercise.” Then ask participants to switch roles and try again. assertive responses. that there may be a strong tendency for the discussion to turn into a gripe session. • As participants complete Part II. Be aware. however. you can play the “offender” in the situation. Try to keep the discussion focused on positive. Use of any one part alone is not recommended. Or. and some will share amusing situations. “What reactions did you get to your assertive response?” to stimulate discussion of the role plays. calling on participants to respond assertively. you can form diads with one participant as “offender” and one as “responder.
Session Builders 160 – Saying It Assertively HANDOUTS .
” “I know it’s important. I can’t stay tonight. place a “P” if you feel the response is passive. and some are assertive. place an “A” for aggressive responses. _______ E. but you have made a personal commitment for a couple of hours immediately after work. You realize the report is important and must be accurate. _______ C. each with a number of possible responses. Some of the possible responses are passive.” “Does it really have to be done tonight?” “I’m sorry. some are aggressive. “Well. _______ A. _______ B. okay. Session Builders 160 – Saying It Assertively Part I Below are several situations. In the space provided for each. or a checkmark or “OK” for responses that are assertive.. but I’ve already made plans for right after work.. I guess I can stay. I’ve made other plans. _______ D. Would it be okay if I came in later this evening?” “Again!?!” SB 160 Handout 1 (continued) . SITUATION 1 You have just been asked to stay after normal working hours to review a report that is due tomorrow morning. Some possible responses are.
Some responses are. _______ E. _______ D. _______ A.” “Everyone’s got their own pet idea. Some possible responses are.” “Can’t you see the signs!?!” “Pardon me. _______ B. “Can’t we get this show on the road!?!” “We’ve done a lot of talking. but I’m concerned about what seems to be a lack of progress.” “Can’t we just put this off until tomorrow?” _______ C. I really have a problem with your cigarette. This is my stop. Could you put it out until we get off the elevator?” “Pardon me. slow-moving elevator that is making frequent stops. Let’s just pick one so that we can finish. SITUATION 3 You are on a crowded. isn’t it?” Please do not move on to Part II until you are told to do so... the meeting has dragged on for some time. SB 160 Handout 1 (concluded) . The purpose of the meeting is to discuss several problems and make appropriate recommendations. _______ E. In spite of the “No Smoking” signs. and you’re becoming frustrated by an apparent lack of progress. (faking) “Cough..” (Get off the elevator even though it isn’t your destination. _______ B.SITUATION 2 You are one of a half-dozen people attending a meeting. the passenger beside you has just lit a cigarette. Cough.. However. _______ D.) “Sure is crowded in here today. _______ A. Could we summarize where we’ve been and refocus on our objectives?” “May I be excused? I just remembered I have another meeting. _______ C.
SITUATION 1 Your supervisor has just asked you to again “cover” for another person at your level who has been “out sick” a number of times recently. You will have to be well prepared. the frequent double load has put you behind in your own work. Please do not move on to Part III until you are told to do so. SITUATION 2 You have just been called upon to make a presentation about a project you are working on to a steering committee of top management. but the committee is likely to be skeptical. Unfortunately. You strongly believe in the value of the project. While this would be the usual practice under ordinary circumstances. His or her quick moves in and out of traffic at a speed somewhat above the limit are making you extremely nervous. you have been scheduled for the committee’s next monthly meeting—tomorrow! SITUATION 3 You are a passenger in a car driven by your supervisor. Session Builders 160 – Saying It Assertively Part II Compose an assertive response to each of the following situations. SB 160 Handout 2 (continued) .
SB 160 Handout 2 (concluded) . regardless of what you actually said. Then. write what would have been an assertive response under the circumstances.Part III Briefly describe an actual situation that you were confronted with that required you to make an assertive response.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.