This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In my Literature review I discovered the key barriers which can impact boys learning; lack of engagement, ability to reflect, self esteem, and lower teacher expectations. The literature review revealed the aspects of synthetic phonics which can be seen to combats these specific barriers, and which aspects are viewed negatively influence these barriers increasing their impact on the boys¶ learning.
Collecting and analysing this data will show whether using the synthetic phonic approach to teaching literacy to boys which will address any barriers they have to learning and thus aid in improving their literacy skills. The aspects of synthetic phonics which can combat these barriers can be concluded from the collection and analysis of the data.
This research will be useful in education because there has been an ongoing gap between girls and boys achievements in literacy. Therefore finding a method which can address these barriers and help to support boys learning so that they can reach the levels achieved by girls will be an important piece of information for their teachers in order to aid in their development in literacy.
The basic research questions I wish to answer are;
What are the main barriers to boys learning?
How does the use of synthetic phonics address these barriers to aid in boys¶ development of literacy?
After researching for the Literature review I was able to see what the main barriers to boys learning were; a lack of engagement and attention, difficulties reflecting on the knowledge
the use of questioning and speaking and listening as well as other aspects gave me ideas as to what to look for during my observations (see appendix ?) and what sort of questions to ask during interviews and for questionnaires. setting. µIt attempts to study the whole situation in order to evaluate the complexity and ensure that their conclusion take account of both unique and general factors. Using qualitative research in a.¶ (Patton 2002:39) For this reason I felt that an interpretivist paradigm using qualitative data collection would be the most appropriate choice for my research as. Form my research I decided to use a holistic approach. µreal world setting the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the phenomenon of interest. for example the short structured and fast paced delivery of the lessons. or institution to observe or record behaviour in its natural setting. enjoying detailed interviewing and the other focuses on the apparent compatibility of the research methods. This approach to research uses detailed observation.¶ (Atieno 2009:13) In order to understand whether or not synthetic phonics addresses the barriers boys have to learning. By combining both methods I can gain a range of results which is beneficial as qualitative and quantitative methods produce different types of knowledge. the research needed to take into account the setting where this learning would take place. This is because µone party argues from the underlying philosophical nature of each paradigm. and explanation. I used an 'interpretivist' research paradigm which is essentially qualitative data (Denzin and Lincoln 1998). site. The Literature review showed me potentially how Read Write Inc could address these barriers. µthe researcher physically goes to the people. low self esteem and teachers¶ expectations.¶ (Golafshan 2003:600) Therefore to gain a variety of results I decided to look not only at the quantitative assessment .¶ (Atieno 2009:13) I also decided to use a quantitative method to collect the results allowing me to compare the achievements of boys and girls who are taught using synthetic phonics.they had gained.
For this reason I felt that using qualitative data would also be appropriate as it would allow recordings and response to any changes or new ideas which came up during my research. interviews and my statistical data to influence. Interviews I decided to use a semi structured interview. which the researcher should be present for in order to include these changes in their analysis of any data gained.results but also to use methods such as interviews and observations where the researcher is more involved in research itself. µProbing is a way for the interview to explore new paths which were not initially considered¶ (Gray. To conduct my research I used a variety of methods to combine different forms of data. which I was able to change depending on the direction of the interview (David and Sutton 2004). µTriangulation refers to the use of multiple methods to cross check and verify the reliability and validity of the data collected. support and compare to each other in order to produce valid and reliable results to. semi-structured interviews have more freedom than using methods such as a structured interview (Kajornboon. I was able to use the information gained from my literature review. observations. and to establish his own style of conversation. to prompt the respondent to elucidate further if necessary. I had a list of questions and themes to cover. in order to answer my research questions.¶ (McNeil and Chapman 2005:23). 2004:217). I . I chose to use this type of interviewing because. to give explanation and ask for clarification if the answer is not clear. the interviewer is free to ask the questions he/she deems appropriate in the words he/she considers best. 2004) Corbetta (2003) states that using a semi structure interview. Patton (2002) supports researcher¶s immersion in the research stating that when investigating real world situations there are often changes.
I was then able to . Through these questions I was able to see whether the teachers considered these issues to be a key barrier towards the boys¶ development in literacy.´ Patton (2002:343) By using a semi structure interview I was able to ensure the clarity of my questions resulting in more valid results. I was also able to probe for additional information. (which I had investigated during my literature review) by asking the teachers for their perceptions on aspects such as boys concentration and self esteem. and ask questions that will elucidate and illuminate that particular subject « and to establish a conversational style but with the focus on a particular subject that has been predetermined. Patton (2002) recommends to ³ « explore. I chose these particular staff members as I wanted to investigate whether there were different perceptions depending on the level of the boys as well as discovering the reasons for implementing this scheme from the co-ordinator and any other key information she could provide on the effectiveness of RWI on the boys in the school. therefore gaining more detailed data. All of the participants had been teaching RWI for five years after the school introduced the scheme. The information I gained from my literature review helped me to create appropriate questions to ask the staff members for my interview. For my research I interviewed three individuals from a model school teaching the scheme Read Write Inc.chose to use this type of interview as it gave me the opportunity to ask specific questions when new views or ideas came up so I could gain addition information which I may not have previously considered. a class teacher who worked with the lower ability levels and the co-ordinator for RWI. probe. I decided to interview the deputy head (who had been teaching the higher ability levels for 4 years). I included questions to gather information on specific barriers to boys learning.
When designing my questions for the interview I had to ensure that they were not leading and that they would elicit a valid response from the teachers. This made it easier for the teachers to focus on and consider one barrier at a time. An observation is a process used to learn about the activities of the participants under study in a natural setting (DeWalt & DeWalt. Schensul. Schensul and LeCompte 1999:97). and whether they were appropriate. The questions I used for the questionnaire and the interviews were presented in sections of the different barriers to learning I had decided to focus on. conformity. 2002). Schensul and LeCompte (1999). Harris and Judd 2002:144) To ensure my questions were appropriate I conducted a pilot interview. clarity. grammar. define participant observation as µthe process of learning through exposure to or involvement in the day-to-day or routine activities of participants in the researcher setting¶ (Schensul. Observations Another qualitative method I decided to use to collect data was an observation.¶ (Hoyle.continue from these ideas leading to my second research question of whether synthetic phonics can address these barriers by asking the teachers questions about their experience of teaching Read Write Inc in regard to the situations discussed as barriers in previous questions. when new ideas occurred that linked to another theme I was able to quickly proceed onto the appropriate section keeping the conversation organised and flowing well. or other constructs of disinterest. . bias. I then asked the interviewee to evaluate my questions on. Hoyle et al (2002) suggest that questions have µ « dual goals of motivating the respondent to give full and precise replies while avoiding biases stemming from social desirability. By sectioning the interview into themes. I then edited my interview to improve it prior to interviewing the teachers.
By using this method it allowed me to observe events which participants in the interviews may have not noticed or been able to explain. Angrosion and DePerez (2000) define this as an observation which is supported by previous research. Dewalt and Dewalt (2002) also suggest that observations can aid to the quality of results. literature review and statistical data in order to make the results I gained more valid. which guides the researcher¶s decisions about what to observe. DeMunck and Sobo(1998) state that one advantage of using observations is that they provide rich and detailed description of situations. In this case I used the knowledge I had gained from my Literature review on what the key barriers to learning where as well as the consideration of how synthetic phonics may or may not address these barriers to inform what I was looking for in my observations. 1997). which gave me additional information (Marshall and Rossman 1995) DeWalt and DeWalt (2002) state that "the goal for design of research using participant observation as a method is to develop a holistic understanding of the phenomena under study that is as objective and accurate as possible given the limitations of the method" (DeWalt and DeWalt. From this information I created an observation . This is supported by Kawulich (2005) who states that observation can be used to increase the validity of research. I chose to include observations as well as my interviews. For my research I decided to use a foucsed observation. DeWalt and DeWalt (2002) state that using a variety of strategies increases the validity of a study.I decided to use an observational method for my research as it provided the opportunity to monitor nonverbal expression of emotions and to look at interactions between peers and pupils interactions with their teachers (Schmuck. Angrosion and DePerez (2000) discussed the different types of observation which can be used in research. 2002:92). because observations give the researcher a clearer understanding of the context of previous information.
engagement. in a model school for Read Write Inc. where the research observes and records everything they see and experience during the data collection. to then focusing on the overall situation (Merriam 1998). I listened to and observed pupils interactions in their pairs and with the teacher. I broke the key themes down into specific questions to help me to focus on the different aspects of each of my main themes. (DeWalt and DeWalt 2002) I also observed their behaviour during the lesson. Kawulich (2005) suggest µkeeping organised. The disadvantages to this method are that the research is assumed to know nothing of what they are observing which can result in the collection of a large amount of information which is not useful to the research. I observed three Read Write Inc lessons. One of the classes was a higher ability group. another was of a class of average ability and the third was of a class of lower ability pupils.¶ (Kawulich 2005:21). reflection.sheet to use during my observation to ensure I was focusing on the key aspects of the lesson which were relevant to my research. structure field notes. During the observation I considered the themes which I discussed in both my interviews with the teachers and the literature review. Another type of observation which I decided not to use for my research was described by Angrosion and DePerez (2000) as a descriptive observation. whereas the method I chose to use ensured all the information gained was key to answering my basic research questions. Wolcott (2001) supports the use of interviews used to aid in informing observational research. Merriam (1998) suggests that when observing the researcher should shift from focusing on individuals or activities. Quantitative results . By placing these questions into a chart on an observation sheet it made it easier to record the data clearly and also ensured that no sections were overlooked. self esteem and teacher expectations.
due to their standardized nature. I assured the teachers that the pupils achievement data. Jackson (2009) expresses the need to acquire informed consent before conducting this type of research (Jackson. observations and literature review. Other methods I decided not to use questionnaires for my research although they are a more reliable method than an interview. The benefit of this was that I was able to put this data into a table (see appendix?) which presented the results clearly. observations and interviews would be confidential and neither their names nor the name of the school would be included (Gray. The teachers were made aware of their right to withdraw from the interview at any time (Gillham 2000). collect data on results and asking if the teachers would take part in my interviews and explained the purpose of the research (appendix ?). which can help to uncover cause and effect relationships between the various variables of the barriers and achievement of boys¶ literacy skills (McNeil and Chapman. I informed the teachers of roughly how long the interview would take. and that I would be recording it (Patton. 2009). as well as comparison to the national averages of boys¶ and girls¶ achievements in literacy. 2004). µEveryone who fills one in is subjected to . 2005). µStatistical data can be converted into tabular or graphical information¶ (McNeil and Chapman 2005:17). This data can then be used to find correlations or trends. 2000). Ethics Before the interview and observation took place I wrote a letter to the school requesting permission to observe the classes.Whilst conducting my research I consulted secondary statistical data to use to compare to and support my findings from my interviews. I collected results of boys¶ and girls¶ results in reading and writing.
the challenge for investigators. µAll observational studies have built-in bias.¶ (Grimes and Schul 2002:249) Observations are subjective in that the results recorded are affected by how they are interpreted by the researcher.the same stimulus. µBias undermines the internal validity of research. Similarly a disadvantage to the interviews is that the teachers may have had a bias toward the Read Write Inc scheme. Although the other methods I used during my research such as looking at the quantitative data of the assessment results provided the study with highly reliable data which could not have been impacted by any form of bias. as it was used in their school (Jackson. 2002).¶ (McNeil and Chapman 2005:17) . McNeil and Chapman (2005) state that positivists see quantitative data as µmore reliable than other methods because they are normally organized in standardized and systematic ways. editors. and readers is to ferret these out and judge how they might have affected results.¶ (McNeil and Chapman 2005:44) Another advantage to a questionnaire is that they allow for the possibility of gaining results from a larger sample.¶(Grimes and Schul 2002:249) Therefore the data I gained from undergoing observations could have been impacted by a subconscious bias. (McNeil and Chapman 2005) Despite these advantages of using questionnaires I chose not to incorporate them into my research because participants will have their own interpretation of each question which may differ to the intended meaning. resulting in less valid data (Popper. Evaluation of methods Similarly one disadvantage to an observation is that researcher bias can impact the results. 2009).
allowing me to record detailed descriptions of their interactions and non verbal expressions. . If I were to redo this research I would take this into account when observing the groups. McNeil and Chapman (2005) argue that a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods as part of a triangulation approach produces the most practical results (McNeil and Chapman. 2005) During my observations I found it difficult to keep changing my focus between the individuals and the lesson as a whole. Whereas the qualitative data from my interviews and observations were descriptive therefore the results gained reflected the process. I would then observe the class interaction and situation as a whole during the second observation. which would allow me to reflect on the context and the teachers¶ interaction and teaching methods. while I was focusing more on specific conversations. Therefore the combination of the results from both the quantitative and qualitative methods provided valid and detailed information in order to answer my research questions. which could have impacted on the data I gathered. meaning and understanding through the words of participants and descriptions of observations (Golafshan 2003). After considering this difficulty I could have addressed this issue by observing each group twice. 2009). I feel they may have missed key interactions. The focus for the first observation would have been on the individuals.On the other hand the quantitative data gathered from the assessment results did not reflect the reasons behind the difference between the boys and girls literacy achievements (Jackson.
Word count 2.978 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.