The Pursuit of Signs

Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction
J ona than

Professor of English Cornell Liniversih)


& Kegan



and Henley

defines apostrophe as 'a diversion of our words to address some person other than the judge'. speaking of oratory. This minor embarrassment that d fH1stl'Ophcs pl'Odll('e l1l. an apostrophe seems to mark a ddledion of tile me~5age: (1 mysterious apostrophe. teach us to unde-rstand your workings! Show us your varied talents here! Such . '1 The effects here cited to justify apostrophe do not. Apostrophes are forbidden on the funicular Wallace Stevens I. whose title might have prepared listeners for occasional . bill above all they are embarrassing: embarrassing to me and to you.1 postrophe is different in that it makes its point by troping not on till' meaning of a word but on the circuit or situation of communication be taken as a sign of a larger and more 135 ~. of course.1 post roplu-s.ipostrophes may complicate or disrupt the circuit of nJl1IlnunicJlinn. distinguish it from other tropes. . 'since it would certainly seem to be more natural that we should specifically address ourselves to those whose favor we desire to win. and though he cautions against it. Quinlilian. 'Apostrophe. If we posit for this essay.' But .7 Apostrophe ~ . will provoke titters. raising questions about who is the addressee.' a rommunicative process linking an 'authorial voice' and the t·c. Even an apostrophe delivered during a lecture on apostrophe.' he allows that occasionally 'some striking expression of thought is necessary ..hll'rs of Tlu: Pursuit lI( SigHS. which can be given point and vehemence when addressed to some person other than the judge. which also are said to seek 'greater point and vehemence..

: to identify apostrophe with lyric itself.ise l1ld)' illustr. This meaningless convention is also. Abrams's 'Structure and Style in lilt. This might seem wilfully the ode was a lyric characterized by a note of address ~'[)lldll'din rl'l. a personal friend.. but a Single central c. d purl'ly '. but from the outset Shuster engagl's ill instruct ive maneuvers to exclude apostrophe from his domain: '11w element of address. . oru: pernicious effect of Wordsworth's ode 'Intimations pf lmrnortality was to have given currency to tile misconception tll. I l interesting embarrassment which lends [iter. thou being! .~ Subtler Lallgllag" to write fifty pages on the highly apostruphic Adonai« without addressing the problem. it seems.' Greater 1~IlI1l<lIllk Lyric' do not discuss apostrophe.IS~I\. Nor is apostrophe an important Iorrnal Ie. Earl Wasserman round it possible in in the classical period.ltly i1 convention: the traditions of Slltlg and recitation required cI recipient. The poet... 'i.irt "f this book... its forms and meanings.rl nile c. _.. so t~ \ speak. Such a project would confront at the outset complex problems of definition and delimitation. And if UIW asks whnt signifi. H.I!)" "riliL'~ 10 turn aside from the apostrophes they encounter in poetr). embar. argues in the Anatomy a/Criticism ! that genre theory is essentially based on 'the radical of presen. even seeking . a Muse. it is d f.lckr uf this evasion.. turns his back on his listeners. Classic es~"lys surh .ld t h." ~ This suggests that if we would know something of the poetics of the lyric we should study apostrophe.' it h. always seeks to deny or evade the vocative. personified abstraction. Shuster arglll's.I tation' and that in this schema the lyric is defined by John Stuart Mill's aphorism: the lyric is not heard but overheard. which I here leave aside in order to focus on cases which will be apostrophic by any definition: breath of Autumn's Thou still unravished bride of quietness. () rna douleurl o Rose. Whether this is because writing. being merdy ." Thus dpost['uphe is insignificant because conventional: an inherited c-lcnu-nt now devoid uf significance.. though it is a feature of most of the poems mentioned..: to repress them or rather to transform apostrophe intu description. .l rdlpctron 01 the . All the verse of antiquity WdS addressed to somcbndv. and we of the present are so remote from it that it seems a thing established in its own right. for virtu. a nd he SlIggl'S\s th. . The fact that it is systematically repressed or excluded by critics suggests that it represents that which critical discourse cannot comfortably assimilate.l Keats. 1.. It can always be ignored. a lover.(1 rassing." 0111' could multiply examples of this sort. poetry \1S~'S apostrophe repeatedly and intensely.. a god. thou art sick! o wild West Wind. . 4 forms of ancient antiquity Proximity and distance are..itc ruore effectively the systematic and non-accidental CilM. one might be justified in taking apostrophe as the figure of all that is most radical.' he noll'S in the introduction.m read vast amounts of critir ism without learning th.uur« of the ode. and mystificatory in the lyric. to us it is wholly artificial and insignificant. since it is the central feature shared by tIll' plil~tllS he discusses. Shuster's Tlu: [IlSIi~!J ()"l' fit 'III :\·lii/wl /. but there is good reason for j it. .. Sob sage. of was addressed to someone. prillldrily because it was either sung Of' read and the traditioIls of song and recitation required that there be a recipient.tI intluence. a .llivd\' dilgU~t terms. \Ne have seen tll. The problem of apostrophe ought to lie right . though for changing reasons. The lyric poet normally pretends to be talking to himself or to someone else: a spirit of The Romantic poets were so dose to the classical tradition that they accepted the element of address as a matter of course. in some innate hostility to voice.It no <'spcci. .'r.. or a natural object. Northrop Frye.IS M. Shuster's evasions identify apostrophe as a genuine embarrassment. primarily because the rhetoric and music required it.IL till' he..II" cidental characteristic' of the genre. equally good excuses for denying significance: to the Romantics apostrophe was natural and insignificant. one is told that then it was alrl'. pretentious. Consider George N..]i significance.illv all tlw n u-lir \·.

As Geoffrey Hartman writes about Blake's four poems to the seasons. [lim Thine angel e)'l's upon our weste-rn i~"'. mntwlied. as images of invested passion.IKs out <llld spreads itself about on the outside. IdS if it were) the spontaneous impulse ot a powerfully move-d soul!'> Apostrophe.pusll'llphic .lth ul l u-r.ictiuns.::. including '0 Rose. will doubt less prove central to any systematic account of apostrophe and \ they are themselves an interesting and problematic case.. And let thy holy feet visit our clime. but fur 111dllY apostrophes.1Sif .'. the passion th. mctonyrnically.Ktll1g on its UWIl. What role do apostrophes plily in poems? Most obviously they serve as intensifiers.Ill' IUI"Ill'd I. repressing uncs suspicion that few things are more a rl ifici.uh. or ahstr. thou art sick. in the days when he thought that poetry was (.lching intensified emotion 10 what is described.ltjon dl'SITibl'd '0 Hose. .1\vay only be tn'ling.! "1"11<. I: .IS a world of sentient forces. I~ these terms the function of apo?trophe would be to make the objects of Ilic u n iver-«: potentially responsive forces: forces which can. for the poem evokes not a love for an empirical seaso~ of t~e year so much as an intense feeling for the act of addressing this season..: o deck her forth with thy fair only the feeling stirred up within thv Ill'.ippro. by this tale. I Iaruld Bloom. 1l11)rnillg.'eing they invoke a rudimentary psycholugy to naturalize the figure: to explain its meaning by treating it . a rti lur ts . . 139 Such invocations. I"< 1Il1. wh~ch turn .to apo~trophize i~ to will il stall' of affairs.itc. And even in exuberant poems it mil)' be difficult to .iistl!llers by addressing natural objects. and it signifies.'d by passion.' hills tdll.the speaker's feelings about that season would be too u nt il it bn:. let us taste Thy morn and evening breath.lIlel thl' lislclliJlg V. The answer would seem to be th~t .' the modcr.lI) -. thou art sick' differs from 'The ruse IS sick' in th. Consider BI<lke'siuvor.uur. () Sprint. and put Thy golden crown upon her languished ctfcct l)i an unexceptionable cause. Whose modest tresses were bound up for thee!" To intense that the act of addressing spring signifies .:ys hear. There may be some truth in this. scatter thy pearls Upon our love-sick land that mourns for thee. TheIr n:ood IS never purely descriptive but always optahve or imperative: what description enters is ritual in character. The apostrophizing poet identifies his universe . Which in full chuir hails Ihy . I2mpiriC'li.miers cl.ition ut Sprlllg III till' [JUI'lICiIISkdciJ{. This is a matter on which rhetoricians seem to agree.ugue thell apostrophe reinforces description. be dskl'd to act or refrain from acting. is a figure sp(ll1tan\'ou~ly .Ap(!~lropi1l' Apostroplu: Up to thy bright pavilions: issue forth. Come 0' er the eastern hills and let our winds Kiss thy perfumed garments. It evokes an epipha ny so strongly as to carry the poet towards it ~ see why this might be the case if we ask why rhetshould claim that passion spontaneously seeks apostrophc. If one were to accept Font.hipptl. will) look es t duvvn Through the clear winduws of till. or even to continue behaving ciS Ihey usually behave. pour Thy soft kisses on her bosom.111 We uricions o thou with dcw)' illcks.uldresses to inanimate objects.rl Ih.111our iUI1gil1g ey'. to attempt to call It into being by asking inanimate objects to bend themselves to your desire. one might c()llclulk that dPI)S~ trophes indicate intense involvement in till' sttU.lUsl'd outburst of or admonitory tone dues not justify tales 01 .lII. . and in sn dgrl.'s .ll the Iurrner marks iI powerful outburst of c. . Thus Fontanier in his }(~lIn's"II di-cour«: 'But what can giVe rise to apostrophe? It r..1S the n. dtt. SilY We feci at once their intensely vocative nature-that the prophetic or speaking out and the invocational?r callin~ upon a~e more important than their conventional s~lbJect.

an ultimate Thou: 'To invoke tlu: Spirit that is in the west wind is not to invoke the wind or the autumn only. do you have a soul?]. so the presuppositions of ~postrophe a~e a force ~o ~e reckoned with. t o be an event: the moment of apostrophe. it is in my own heart which Wishes to draw everything hack III itself.1Il unseen power behind them. interpreted Shelley's major poems as manifestations of an I-ThOll relationship to the universe.e ih . Whntever sort of pantheism the poems embody. for the poems themselves display considerable interest in a pervasive unseen power.urassment by treating apostrophe as a poetic convention .! 1 ! ! ! A way of happening. Apostrophe reflects this conjunction of mouth . when they address natural objects they formally will that these particula r objects flll1dl<)Il . Quun granit entoure d'une vague epouvante IIIenceforth. WhICh presupposes a form of that which it asks about. J j. and fear!" This Keatsian claim makes apparent the connection between apostrophe and embarrassment.-11 will be read by an audience. Poetry makes Jlnthing h. ce channe n'est point en vous.]. What is the effect of introducing this third term? A prosaic example may assist reflection here. of mystery.lYOi Auden. however. I L animate presuppositions are deeply embedded.du:.t:. he I I ".. hut the simpl« uppusitional struclure of the 1-T1l01l m. '. and there soon appc.'? Doctrinally.1 till' calling of spirits as a relic of archaic beliefs.lppell but. but he insisted that in addressing Mont Blanc or the West Wind Shelley is invoking . 0 matiere vivante.o~el iL'.lf the sentence denies the animicity of what is addressed.iccouut thc fact that a poem is a verbal composition 1\111. it survives. avez-vous d~nc une arne?' [0 inanimate objects. as In Baudelaire's apostrophe to a portion of the self: Desormais ttl nes plus. they perform the radical act of Keat's chdl'iotecr: The charioteer with wondrous gesture talks To the trees and mountains. A nicely self-reflexive example 1S Lamartine s apostrophic question. all m you.I The animicity enforced by the ilpOStillphe is independent of any claims made about the actual prop['rties of the object addressed. Il1ldgine a man standing on a corner in the rain cursing b. a mouth.. The vocative posits a relationship between two subjects even. damn yuu! It's been ten minutes!' If he continues d f1oslrof1hically when other travellers join him on the corner. l i i :1 :1 " I about poets' relationship to the world as well as their relationship to Milton. 'Poetry makes nothing happen: S. the critic identifies the true addressee as a divine spirit.:j 1 I :! I. Or consider Rousseau's complaint to inanimate objects: 'Etres insensibles et morts. It cnuld not be there. . you are no more than a piece of granite shrouded in vague horror[P The assertion of the sentence contradicts its presupposition. asserted the more forcefully because they are not what the s~ntence assert~. il n'y s~ur~i~ eire. this charm is ~ot at. 0 living matter. constitutes an event against which he must struggle. spc'lking for an ironic age. 'Objets inanimes. The student of apostrophe must resist this reduction. this is d thoroughly plausible interpretation.Nhat is really in question.111<.1tll'l11f.140 Apostrophe Apustruplle 14 I .uses: 'Conn' on. Auden admits.ur wife? thrusts its presuppositions on the listener w~th som~thmg of the force of an event. is the pOlVer of p<lelry to ruakc something happen.H Shapes of delight. subjects. 1 objects. .l\"'S out of . It can express an attitude--Sll we speak ut tlupantheism of apostrophic poems. 12 . reducing vocative In dL'~ujp' tion and eliminating precisely that which . But in defining this ultimate Thou as the true auditor the critic reduces the Sll-'lllgenl'SS of dpUS· trophe: while the poems directly address natur . Just as the question 'Have you stopped ?eahng YO. At this second level of reading the function of apostrophe IS to ('Ilnslitllte encounters with the world as relations between subjl'ds. The vocative of apostrophe is an approach 10 the cVL'nL bL'.uid hdf1f)L'l1lilh. Readers temper this ernb. c'est dans mon propre coeur qui veut tout rappor~er a lUi: [Insensitive and dead beings.

)lIy gratuitous action. postenlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object.ilions specifically related to the poetic voc.l p. we can see why apostrophe should be embarrassing. deceiving elf.:cts tor it.. When we as critics reduce apostrophe to description we can state the alternatives which confront the subject in a poem like the 'Ode to the West Wind: but we eliminate the vocative.) subject. 01 its p()\wr so as to establish its identity as poetical and prophetic voice. plddk'.lllil stitutcd as poetical spirit.lsuns III st. Shelley's 'Ode to the West Wind' is perhaps the clearest example of the way in which the apostrophic mode.1 dcvile which the poetic voice uses to establish with an object a relationship which helps to constitute him. 1<1 ". so mclny poems. ~tnlll).l11 to dramatize or constitute an image ot self..lll"l' till' II'int! b" comes a thou only in relation to a poetic act. visionary.ivc Me Ubj. The 'Ode to a Nightingale' affirms the deceptive power of fancy: Ad ieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well As she is famed to do. It is the pure embodiment of poetic pretension: of the subject'S claim that in his verse he is not merely an empirical poet.tll says that 'I .1I1e1 tmtlliJ1g ligllrl's \ (lill' better than the pure () of lJlldifkn'lllidkd vlIiling. It l-'lI1111dKehe SIlL'.il» lish an /. d leaf.lS d problem uf t h e vvinci's relation to him.Thou relation between him and the absent bus Ih.j~2 Apl)st rop/II: Apustruphe He. VVhitl11. Poems which contain apostrophes often end in withdrawals and questions.\ phr. to summon iIII <1gP'. I? i~<1ncy deceives by not deceiving as effectively as it is said to.IS . Apostrophe is perhaps always an indirect invocation of the muse. But one must note that it figures this reconciliation as an act of will.. invo.ull tancous impulse of .itu.1k. rnakinj. or else he can attempt tn call UPOIl the wind to l.uion. the 0 of apostrophe refers to other apostrophes and thus to the lineage and conventions of sublime poetry. a writer of verse. to dramatize its calling. it is in his ability effectively 10 sust. in its turn. poses the problem of the poetic subject .o'dll nut convince by arguments. then a postrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relationship. as something to be accomplished poetically in the act of apostrophizing. as the leaf.Iv. Tile pod rn.' I. Thus. a third level of reading where the vocative of apostrophe is ."lS and s.' . This is obvious when one thinks how often invocations seek pity or assistance for projv<. the wind <l tho«.. If asking winds to blow or se. impetuous OLwt') l)1 course. Sllllik~. his apostrophes work less to cst. If. an J which implies a certain type of . Apostrophe would figure this reconciliation of subject and object.' II..1 ritu. 50 Bloolll writvs.' l'I'L'111. which is precisely the attempt to bring about the condition to which it alludes: the condition of visionary poet who can engage in dialogue with the universe.t wave. to enter into him and he into the wind.. that emphasizes that voice calls III Ol"liL'rto be calling. \\Il' COil vince by our presence. speak. Ill' makes himself poet. If the wind is spirit.. rhyuu-». cloud. Devoid of semantic reference..ilistic.1Ild mime vvl uch i.lJld i.I ~tdlld in relation to him. only in the moment when poetic voice constitutes itself.. This problematic structure leaves open the questions with which the poem concludes: Was it a vision or a waking dream? Fled is thai music:--Do I wake or sleep? .1/011 its tum.lY their coming or mountains to hear one's cries is .lsL' li]. a cloud").ir]. ('lit' thou.llvedully moved soul. 'lilt.ui disc) b<. but it v. If we think of what the vocative represents in this process. as we tend to assume. The object is tn'ated . then. '{ ) wild \Vest Wind' evokes pudiC preielHl' bl.i kcs himself d flllctil presence through (11"1 image ut voice. OIW in who successfully invokes nature is one to whom nature might. Spirit fierce! My spirit! Bt' thou mu.'rl'itllL'r t an it or a tltou to its l .:ation is a figure of vocation.un Ihis af'()~lnJl'hil' discourse that the speaker produces the [l0di. .b ..J makes a spectacle of himself. and w. "f.'l.IKl' up . and apostrophic poems display in various ways awareness of the difficulties of what they purport to seek. but the embodiment of poetic tradition and of the spirit of poesy. We might posit. 'Ill' can eithe-r surrende-r himself to the wind as an object for it to experil'lll"e ("l) litt rue . inferred from the functionally W\ltuitOliS invocations which m. poetsc.

dass du sic riihmst.Andrornaque. verganglich. Erde. .' Tell him things. like all subjects. But . was du willst: unsichtbar in uns erstehn?-Ist es dein Traum nicht.1i.Sur 5<)11 cou convulsif tendant sa tete avide). werin Verwandlung nicht. einrnal unsichtbar zu sein? Erde! unsichtbar! Was.rquc. who already sees the swan as a 'my the etrange ct fatal. [e pense it VOllS: tells of a swan who. l1l)stalgic.III!. [e pe!l3\.111 IS identified with an apostrophizing poet.\11 '0' apostrophizing nature: 'Eau. Wollen. EI rouge dun desir sans treve. .. within our invisible hearts. du liebe. 'Sag ihm die Dinge. the poem embraces the apostrophic thot the things of earth function as thous when addressed. ridicule et sublime.. l(lll:'.O Ill' l1()tluIlg (l r). Other poems. instead of posing questions about the dticac)' of the apostrophic act.1)' of suspending the referential aspect of the poem and focusing 011 a poetic event.JIH Ridiculous II think ge~tlln:s.jShl~d to affirm this conclusion would have to contend with tilt: f. Auftrag? .let that insistence on the futility of the sW<IIl'S. they aspire to transcendence. Earth. In these terms. von Hingang lebenden Dinge verstehn. thunderbolts?] The coincidence of '()' and Euu Ciln he variously interpreted: the nostalgic quest tor a moment O[ place of origin. parody their own apostrophic procedures. to transcend a material .. made the 5\\.. are subjects they seek. endlessly--into ourselves! Whosoever we are.ind tunneras-tu. which IJ). I will!JI9 fiction: If they purely can be Addressing Earth. YOLI darling.lposll"llphil" gestlln'. the most fleeting ot all. the opening apostrophe.. In so far as till' SII'.·\. zu. wir sollen sie ganz im unsichtbarn Herzen verwandeln in-o unendlich-s-in UIlS! wer wir am Ende auch seien.ill's. ist es nicht dies. the result is a foregrounding of apostrophe . the 'eau' of a 'beau lac natal: yields only an '0' of a trope: or the pun identifies the potential addressee of every apostrophe as the apostrophic '0' itself and makes every a postrophe . which is ridicule as well as sublime: when it sl'ck~ s\lIlH'lllIllg othe-r th.rn itself (cIW).ipostrophi. supplie-.·olllpll"ht:" what It states. isn't this what Y0tl want? an invisible the poem offers a critique of the . foudre?' [Welter. Je pense a mon grand cygne. quand done pleuvras-tu? qu.Apostropllc The question about the status of the event is a \\. it finds only itsclt (OJ. of my greill SIV<111with his trcnzicd and sublime like dlll·:. Baudelaire's 'Le Cygne: which begins with the apustroph« . Und diese.m invocation of invocation.1[lt us to change them entirely. traun sic ein Rettendes uns. is a demystified apostrophe. The feeble apostrophic ClJgPle becomes a powerful apostrophic Si.· a YOUS.". when will YOll tJII? when wi] l you sound.\ verbal equivalent of the Cygne's ineffective writhing (. 'Andrum. .111 d powcrrul symbul ul rearising in us? Is it not your dream to be one day invisible? Earth! Invisible! \Vh. they look for rescue th rough something in us.: gl·~tllrl· h. ich will. [These things that live on departure Understand when you praise them: fleeting. roo! 145 nostalgia for many readers (of whom the poem's narrator.11 is your urgent command if not transformation? Earth.IS tmpl': . int o-i-o h. When you speak to the angel. However one develops the implica tiullS of the pun. den Verganglichsten. \\'. If Earth :1 . ist de in drangender Erde.' was only the first). A last instance of subtle and self-conscious commentary on apostrophe comes at the end of Rilke's ninth OilinG Elegy.llly seeking his 'beau lac natal' in a "ruisseau sans eau'.l". by adding to the pathos. avec ses gcsll's Comme les exiles. Gnawed by an unremitting dl'~Irl:.' which seeks nothing but merely a. as readers adopt the emotion which the futility of the swan's apostrophe seems to be exposing.1Il)'<l1le whu \\.

14b Aposf IOp"t' Apostrophe Ich liebe dich..' 'Mon l'sprit. tlil/PHI':.'d . darin sich fluchtcnd die Gefiihle fangen.msform. en ['l' gr.11'05 trophes to his p. gentlest law.111d reflect on the crucial though par.-and we beneath your suns such ripeness have been winning have ~rown so broadly and deep-rootedly.uiun . the agents of this 'rescue.111 ilWlsibll' rc.1 \[11\ (such d~ till' e..lJld the utile!' can in fact be read as an act of radical interioriz.ln' lIt thL' 11. through which we yet were ripening while with it we contended. hi~ II\·ill)-'. . lu It' lI1l'lIS . was wir dir dunkel« it invisible.' . du Lied. That we. '\\. Let your right hand on heaven's slope repose and mutely bear w"hat darkly we irnpose. an dem wir reiften.lln.]t T nu. it seeks rearising in treating the earth as a subject the pocm has in f. das wir nicht bezwangen. into ourselves'). Lass deine Hand am Hang der Himmel ruhn und dulde stumm. S. v.' 'I kSOl'llid is t \ I 1\' I'S plus.iv« been thought external (things.!. This clIH.").md sulipsism: Either it parcels out the self III fill the world.IlI'l"~ . III 11<1l11l. Du hast dich so unendlich gross begonnen an jenern Tage.lgl\ () rna douleur. . madonnas inning.11l1l'.u you. dass du in Menschen.ulv "I'"slr<)l'hll 1 f' . lyric from 1'11(' Bopi. th. () matiere vivautt-. peopling the universe with fr. da du uns begannst."js s.11/"11 (ill this has actually 'your l'i~'li-l'IS illlt:lld~ ltimsvIf '). ThL' tvrh niqucs lit till' Iirst Its lOI1S"'1ll"lln~s. To read apostrophe as sign of a fiction which knows its uwn fictive nature is to stress its optative character. to be spirit. in angels.!'l' what can only fill that role thlllugh '. can now complete yourself quite tranquilly. his sou]. you somber net where fL'e1in!!.Igilik: 'Rcrucil le-toi.\111 1 k. at which apostrophe \V.'r l{ilJ. his mind.s taking flight are apprehended. so breit geworden and so tief gepflanzt..'11.IS ill 1I. It has led to a fourth level at which one must question the status so far granted to the thou of the apostrophic structure .uisuu. is only as a product 01 p(ldic intervention occupy Illl' places !If till' dddn!sSl'l'. Engeln und Madonnen dich ruhend jetzt vollenden kannst.1111 liS til Lh"nge them entirely . not You made yourself a so immense beginning the day when you began us too.n'l'. you forest out of which we never wended. pLlcing th. men. i 1. ~ d 11011 "OlllV' thing which in its cmpiriral sl.15 a \Vol)' of consti tuting c1 poetical persolld by taking 1I p d special rclatiun to objects.I!'e 'the most fleeting uf all' is an irony which gives the tr. But the poem goes further: wha: the narrator boldly agrees III do is III produce an invisible e. you great homesickness we have not transcended.und wir sind so gereift in deinen Sonnen. aus dern wir nie hinausgegangen.1(i(lXi(.lle i. da wir mit ihm rangen du grosses Heirnweh.. 14/ addressed and has desires.e I'lll'lll.. This line of thought has . [I love you.'rges trom . it wants to be invisible..lct m.1lready led beyond the third level of reading.rrth) is <1 way ot pncTlnpting the pl.' . in u-. das wir mit jedem Schweigen sangen.ll fact that this figure which seems to establish relations between the self .1IHltlil.1S tollovv«: Illllnplh'~ . but one can never maintain with confidence th.ue in lh. or L'lse It intern. rnon .y be explained . this poem is a series of apostrophcs that name an addressee in various metaphorical ways.lyS RilKC. its impossible irnpera tives: commands which in their explicit impossibility figure events in and of fiction.1gnwnts ()! till' self'.l \'l' munun t..lIlJH)1 be' .' . du sanftestes Cesetz.: th.iucr (':-.]?" Following cnnveu lions of the ode. .lli/l's whdtlllight h. m.!t <Ill till' obj. you song that from our silence has ascended.uion of earth a fictional quality.llJdd.uth·-which is not the easiest claim to verify. du Willd. du dunkles Netz. One uHdd <1I'). <Ln' obvious TIll' second m.' It though procedure.

J sinul. Urania! WCl'p . However. Apostrophes displace this irreversible structure by removing the opposition between presence and absence from empirical time and locating it in a discursive time. . but the poelll has.]IlLis.1 reVl'rslblt.lgdinl contrasts between age and youth form a structure from which the poem suddenly turns in the penultimate stanza with an apostrophe: o Presences That passion. The temporal movement from A 10 B.lSe to The !ll'pnsition is no tonger an irreversible temporal move from vouth it) dge but . Ye.ll-1. tuclising on these tWD apostrophic C()IlIl11.lgl'S. like time itself. substitute a fictional.' call bl' shown lu Iollovv .2() Bllt hv . 111.lllLl abselln' gllvl'l'llL'd not by time but by poetic power. make the transient projects of human life seem paltry indeed.ll Iliss .l'S tilt' POII'l'r (llih ()\\. poems which.1ddrl)~sin~ Peele Castle. tlw POl'Ill displaces the temporal pattern of aelll. becomes . which replaces an irreversible temporal disjunction. The question of whether we can indeed choose between these alternatives and 11rl'cisdy what such a choice would entail is extremely difficult.ind. weep for Adonais he is dc. as instances of the triumph of the apostrophic. the blossom.hulli Children.15 presences by apostrophes. l Iow can we know the dancer from the dance? Mourn not for Adunai-.u p.ltI! Wake. for example. non-temporal opposition fur il temporal one.lndHlly Mother.1S thy neighbour once. A poem of a very different sort.ittcru.11 issue. or the bole? o bodv swayed to music.150 Apostrophe Apostrophe l::d might identify. 0 brightening glance. through its apostrophic turn.u ion between A' and B': a play of presence . in a very common move.' LIS an alternation which is reversible in the tL'lnpllrality of discourse: 0.. piety or affection knows. . Wordsworth's 'Elegiac Stanzas' recount a loss: A power is issue . VV. thou rugged Pile! l-our summer weeks I dwelt in sight of thee: I SdW thcv every day. mel. !{"itt'ldlvd . the move from life to death.! . Are you the leaf. internalized by apostrophe. substitute a temporality of discourse for a reterentinl temporality. Most musical of mourners. In Shelley'S AdolUJis.' . the images which are objects of strong feelings that generate them.\II a-temporal [uxtapnsition of two sorts of illl. evoked . great-rooted blossomer.1h. In lyrics of this kind a temporal problem is posed: something once present has been lost or attenuated. I \\'. evocations of absence and presence. A deep distress hath humanized my SouJ.v The transceudcntal presences evoked here. The clearest example of this structure is of course the elegy. 1110. Ye caverns and ye forests. Cl'. Lament anew. the apustroplws giv. this loss can he narrated but the temporal sequence is irreversible. And that all heavenly glory symbolizeo self-born mockers of man's enterprise.lJI!"j Moving back and forth between these two 11ostllres. which nothing can restore.II l'VOC<l ti ve Jli~SS J l'l'n tr. FV('11 poems which explicitly narrate a loss which they know to be ilTl'vl'rsible mily find this knowledge undermined by the apostropill's they lise. with a dialectical alternation between attitudes of mourning and consolation. made this the cell t 1'.iltorn.lh's 'r\IlHlllg S. a second apostrophe calls forth against these images another set of presences which seem to be both empirical and transcendental and which are presented as possible examples of organic unity: o chestnut tree. for weep! Yet wherefore? Quench within their burning lwd Thy fiery tears ' .

the other is the creation of actions according to the unchangeable forms of human nature as existing in the mind of the creator. for they are inserted in the poem as elements of the event which the pocm is attempting to be.' This is a time of discourse rather than story. The 'you' is d projection of til. '2! The fact that apostrophe involves a dr.SI. One . So located by apostrophes. people a dct em poralivcd space with forms and forces which have pasts and futures but which are addressed as potential presences.l Ijtlll emerges with special clarity in POCIllS with multiple apostrophes. The object of the apostrophe is only addressed in terms of an activity that it provokes in the addressing subject: it it is s. that a story is a catalogue of detached facts which have no other connection than time. hills and groves. The domin. A poem can recount a sequence of events.lhdlllst narra tive and its ilCCOIl1P" ninunt«: Sl·'llll'!l ti. that which governs our behavior. is present in the poem Dilly to delegate.\11 I und . per definition. as 1\1U1de Man argues in his reddill~ of the poem. there is this difference between a story and a poem. or qUd lilies of objl'ds. this becomes the explicit theme of thc' p<ll!m in the twu concluding lines. a few blessed creatures. its potential activity to the spcaking voice. teleologicdlll1~aning. As Sh"lh'\' put tlw I1ldtkr wilh hif!. 23 This puts the case for apostrophic poetry against narrative. ul 'the (Jill' mind':>. as the great Romantic mk~ amply demonstrate. thl. boys.JH but the variety of designations makes the addressee mysterious and impalpable.' for example.. . which is itself the image of all other minds. Wordsworth wrote lyrical ballads: anecdotes which signify. Avoiding apostrophe. As Shelley S.' voice. disdain. YOIl.ilert the rCdder to the fact that the apostrophic postulation oj addressees rL'lefS one to the transforming and .' 'ye blessed creatures. so to speak. the events which form ask to be temporally it.l! voice. This internalization is important because Jl work» . Alternatively. resist being organized into events that can be narrated. Wordsworth's 'Immortality Ode..kllSioll between the narrative and the apostrophic can be s~"n . the net exists only as all obstacle to our flight.icl ual difft'rell('l! SLll. Such considerations suggest that one distinguish two forces in poetry.u id hr"I"l:~' Brought together by apostrophes. law is. The metaphors thorofore do not connote objects. ye birds. Moreover. the narrative and the apostrophic.. a poem may invoke objects.<'Ii.I\'S. they are immediately associated with what might be called a timeless present but is better seen as a temporality of writing. ("Ilh. to apostrophize them as 'ye birds' is to locate them in the time of the apostrophe-a special temporality which is the set of all moments at which writing can say 'now. lllll<". m~ddlJ\\'s.' 'ye birds: and 'ye rountains. between the assemblage of thoughts thus indicated but are merely marks employed to denote the diffL'rl'nt l1lodificatillllS of the one mind.IS lllldl'S III concretizations of stages in a drama of mimi. circumstance.hip between . modifications more than a relallun::. it is only with reference to our behavior toward this forest. llu.dit).IS the gellt'r. and that the lyric is characteristically the triumph of the apostrophic. soon one has a poem which would provoke Shelley's strictures.ud tll be a forest. 21 The strange series of predicates in this poem l1l. Nothing need happen in an apostrophic poem.n-i: v..I. but refer to an activity of the spcilking subject.rt ing center. Even if the birds were only glimpsed once in the past. sensations. creatures. meadows. and the song is at once identified as our song (or silence).. cause and effect. Nothing need happen beCdllSl' the POl'1ll itself is to be the happening.h 1'. 'til<' words J. some birds. etc. hil]".' 'Thou whose exterior semblance dost belie thy Slllll'~ irnnu. the 'du' of the poem.. and some mountains. they are not signs of . one tends to place them in a narrative where one thing leads to another. which acquires the significance lyric requires when read synecdochically or allegorically. But if one puts into a poem thou shepherd boy. If one brings together in a poem a boy.till~.1ting 'l(ti\'it~' nt tlw p( .ltive turrc behind a whole series of lyrics. place. birds. bnllgs together ill a single unreal space Thou child of joy.1Ililll. ye blessed creatures.'Y function .ty .un.'.

'dlY would be demeaned if it were allowed thut . Painted by Sir George Heaurnont.lrl'S its strallgl'l1eSS is crucial. But if apostrophe works In produce this dk'ct. of \'t'rslli. if it works. The fiction of address.'27 The problem of apostrophe may be elucidated by (he study of poems that exploit this si~ister reciprocity. .md slKn~ssfttl l'x.1Ilt.n has suggested in a discussion of Wordsworth's Essays upon Epitaph». 'thus acquires a sinister connotation that is not only th. '5uggl'sted by a Picture of Peele Castle.J 11011' of discourse.lses··--I"ecollectionsthat acknowledge its claims. of course.ihle relation bel\\('l'll d si~.152 I11'0SI ropt« Apost roplll: IJJ the narrator places it beyond the movement of temporaluv: the poem denies temporality in the very phr.llilil'r . .' The fact that It eschews apostrophe for direct address makes it pos:. Apostrophe resists narra live because its !11m' is lHI( a moment in a temporal sequence but . here It IShi v\' it the speci.111. . as de Ma.l1 is:'lll'I:-'IH. in his poetic ability to invoke it . 'This Living Hand. . .1pf. here it isI hold it towards you. as the subtitle says. So haunt Ihy days and chill thy dreaming nights That thou wouldst wish thine own heart dry of blood So in my veins red life might stream again. .111y delighted til proclaim that poetry tra nsrnutes the tern pur. d 1111111 dnd ih me.ipostroph»? :\pllstmplll' must be repressed precisely because this high (.1ptlStrophes produce a fictional and o-tvmporal castle th. And thou be ronscicnce-calmd-e-see. the condition which Keats describes in 'Ude on .in t) This lrupv l'll'\' 1"1'\: pi . it produces a fictive.lllllS ils artificial character rather t(l(l lllH'illll~ly. Far from experiencing embarrassment at muves which ."Wdl' 10 neutralize or transcend time.lppel1~ hu ull'·. De Man notes 'the latent threat that inhabits prosopopoeia. dlld 1lie n. .llllJi.iuse the . would. as in the 'Stay.'1<:111.ible speak with more confidence about its effects and the way In which they are produced. but t trophe is not the representation of an event. but this poem. l~. namely that by making the dead speak. now warm.'''' . diffiruit to think.ind the narrator accomplishes the same movement in his turn Ihrough his apostrophes. there S~:l'111Sto be no reason why criticism should seek 10avoid or repress it.: 'one eternal P.'r who wrote '0 table' were appruaching the curulition o! sublinu: definition calls the lyric a monument (0 immediacy. The tad that the stanzas are.kd.\pustfllpl1l' .lIldinl:-i here sublime' and find. Proverbi. lik into the same t~ken.11 tcmporniity of apostrophic lyric~: is a ~aring .j .III . or in Keats's phrase from 'To J. the \'(. an immediacy ot fiction. However.I prcdirt.11 is.\).llt (>I 1'.' 'see.' TillS is. To follow the complex play of mystification and demystification at work in the neutralization of time through reference to a temporality of writing.m ing. discursive event.1 . it is hec.]1 \\11. as 1I1di'-'lllonlh. poems which capture the time of the apostrophic /lOW and thrust it provocatively at the reader: = Th is living hand.rt the narrator ca 11 identify with the 'huge ~·.mscuude nt presence. which presumably means a detemporalized irurrn diacv.IY brazenness with whuh . that there is an intimate relation between apostrophes addressed to the dead or the inanimate and prosopopoeia that give the dead or inanimate a voice and make them speak. if it were cold And in the icy silence of the tomb. now warm and capable Of earnest grasping.lJllpk of the attempt to produce In fiction an h:1l0W We h. in fact. It may be.! I into IIll' eternal.]Iling (If 1'"Il'lrr must not be seen 10 dqwnd on d Irope. frozen 111 their own death.Islle sl. Indeed. a sense of his own transcendent continuuy. that the living are struck dumb.21l too little about apostrophes to assert what actually when <111 apustrophe succeeds. in a Storm. one might consider what is perha~s Keats's most fascinating poem. traveller' of an epitaph. but it seems to be that toward which the lyric strives.I sll~njll!'d. Why then avoid discussions of .W~l(:5e dl'idit's-'This living hand.l his temporality of writing is scarcely understood. critics are gl'lk'r. the symmetrical structure of the trope implies..] Grecian Urn': a fictional time in which nothing happens but which is the essence of happening.1S d tr.e prefiguration of one's own mortality but of our actual entry into the froze~ world of the dead.' reinforces rather than attenuates the apostrophic moveme-nt: the painting makes the castle a transcendent presence.

We thus came to read romantic poetry as a reflection of the projects AbrLlJ11S had described: expression rather than imitation. not by seeking actually In sacrifice nul' lives that Keats might live. quantity. but it also. enabling us to gr<lsp its relation to other theories of poetry and to see romantic literature as a comprehensible historical phenomenon. We do not hO\V c V~'L Whether read aloud to audiences or read silently to oneself. but by losing our empirical lives: forgetting the temporality which supports them and trying to embrace a purely fictional time in which we can believe that the hand is fedlly . an expression of personality rather than an impersonal and comprehensively ironic form.SHc'(l':. We might expect 8 The Mirror Stage to smile ironically at the speaker's naivete.. so that the poem would be a pathetic document testifying to misplaced poetic pride. dares us 10 resist it. Ihe poem does not provoke this response. prolepticaJ1y predicting that when he is dead the reader will seek to overcome his death. There is here a complex play of mystification and demystification. Seeking to understand the assumptions of a literary tradition very different from the one we prized. I Tlu: Mirror atu! tire I. one wlws . 65). that we can see it. present and perpetually held toward us through the poem. we turned to it for I 155 . we see no hand. The poem predicts this mystification. which would judiciously explain romantic theory. and if we imagine the hand of a speaker it will be one which we know is in the tomb. we had heard. We needed precisely such a guide as The Mirror and the Lamp. warm and 'capable. which one might describe as follows. On the contrary. will blind himself 10 his death by an imaginativ c act. Natura voluit orationem esse speculum animi Erasmus Tlte Mirror and the Lamp is now such a classic that it is easy to forget the peculiar power it had for many readers in its first decade. The poem baldly asserts what is false: that a living hand. and shows J that its power is irresistible.' This is till' I kind of elfect which the lyric sl'eks. I hold it tow. Those of us who had been nurtured on the New Criticism and though t Donne and the Moderns the supreme examples of pO:tic achievement were inclined to find romantic poetry the aberration of an age and sensibility out of tune with our own. and 'an attempt to overcome the cleavage between subject and object. between the vital.154 ApostropllC event by replacing a temporal presence and absence with an apostrophic presence and absence..ud» vou. value-full world of private experience and the dead postulated world of extension. readers seem to do precisely what the poem predicts. We fulfill this icy prediction. One might expect our reaction to be an ironic smile. The narrator contrasts his life with his death. claimed to show us ourselves.S\~S ~IHlldd be celebrated and explained.. unexpectedly. here it is. The Romantics. thought poetry a spontaneous overflow of feeling rather than a verbal construct.alllp became the glass in which we saw Rllllhlllticism. is being held towards us. and motion' (p.. 'See. purposeful. It knows its apostrophic time and the ! indirectly invoked presence to be a fie linn and says so but ell~ I forces it as event.

. 2. Callimard. .1ll. 8 Kristeva. Abr. p.. 262. Geoffrey Keynes.: Writillgs. 'The Notion o Blo. Princeton University Press. S/L.' in [lsycll(l'lIwlysis 11".lltl Valery.uv Press. Sl'lt·Ctlllslrlllil!g Artitacts. 5 h.<'llltre>. 30: 17 Nuil lIertz. COIII/. Seymour . 112.'in J~tllllllJIiICi"m lind CtllrsL'ioIiSlless. ed. Mass.'. 63.'IsilillJlI11 N. PJri~. "!l ( I'r. 25 Keenan. St'1t:clni 1)"<'1/1). lu 1~':(!tJ/lIllIll! . Laurent Jenny.c 11.!'md Unin. 6 Ibid.)[k.~ i j'. TI. 15 Bloom. p.\rrnt'll( "t 111011<'11. It> 18 Edward L.'. New Haven. ~l'l' ~t. 71f. ScIf-COIISilJJlll1g Literature. pp.. 12 Kristeva. Johns Hopkins University ]'re:.lilt! 5". I'C!. J Iartm.lflilcs. i. 6 Stanley Fish and the Righting of the Reader ~ ranley (millry 387·-H. . 22 Ted I lu~hes. 193. I'ari». 7. p. 27 (197b) f) 257. I. 'What is Stylistics and Why are They Saying Such I. IY59. New Haven. 'Structure and Style in the GreaterRomanticLyric. Pichois. 343.. 20 Charles Baudelaire.1.lIl1r.. Fish. 14 Harold Bloom. p. ). p. J '1 2: 1\1.' .r. pp. :1 :' ~t 'f [ I I t I 1 r I I f ~ . 1977.'. 11~ 12. Nl'\\ Y. Ch. HS. 24 Baudelaire. I'J7{). ! i ~. . Ilult. Indiana University Press. New York. I%Y. New York. LIller. ed. Hil\ch. 11.'Ii /'1118 1Ig<' /". Jack ~til"!lger. I. ed. 27 l'. 1%11. SL'lIi!. p. 4. 372. Semiotik».ivcn. p.1tltl l\ t"IY 2 . Ot'lwrt'. Shuster. 2()1--·29. 72. 1957. 32. P: I--Ib. 'How to Do Things with . London. (0 Ibid. A Mill' of MisrcfltilllX.11'11.lIl.lloard II Speed: Act Theon) of Literature. 1'.11<> Uni\'<'roily Press..II'lin Bl. Keenan.232 Refcrcl 3 (Fail l~eferellCCS to pp. New l i. I\"lti· more. pp. l() )111111 Kl_'<lts~ 'Sle~p . e olumbia University Press. lb. ('Omplt'l. Berkeley.. Bloomington. New York.. 1972.' I~. pp..:1 ~ .ike.11\. pp.! /~i'J>rL'S'I'III. p 21--1.St<lIlley Fisl:. p. AmllmllY ojCnlici911."t. p. New York. Artifacts: The Experience of SeventeenthUniversity of California Press. O. l'il'lTL' lont. Cailim.IYI16.1V:-'d111l'k". The English Ode from Mil/OIl /0 Kents.ulc» lilmorv tlntl D. p. lustitutio Omtorin. l hl. S Northrup Frye. 5 Ibid" p. 1975.' The Poems of [ahn Keats. 1957.Austin . 7 Julitl Kristeva. }. [4'-).nl & \\. 255. Bloom. ed.' Approaches to Poetics. 3 (j'~llrgt: N. C.H. Hamrnarion. 'J l Lirold Bloom.gic de 1. Columbia University Press. 1'.. 2 Roland l3. IV. 1959. p. ::-1 . pr . p. Norton.1 Iorrnc. L'd 'i . 'De loeuvn: . 1')/'2. ~Clltl.uns.'" p..iu Iv:\le. New York.iI I "fli.1l1kl "Ihl (. Oxford LJllIVlTSlty I'ress.Id. Baltimore. 11 Ibid. Earl Wassennan. p..111.J6·H. p. juhns I lopkins University Press.r('~I"l'II'I"" (1'17l) p. i. 2nd edn.'li'I"". Podry mid Rq". ed. Terence Langendol'll. 7 SI. Beyond ForlllaliSIlI.: 7 Apostrophe QlIinlili.lnd Poetry.. 5 Presupposition and Intertextuality Louise Pratt. Yale University Press.\l( theory.11Hl'l'''/II tioll <Iii JailS". llerkeley. (h. 1976. 257. I Roland Harthes. Cambridge. 151. p. PI'· 388~9. --l Ibid. 117-40 233 5 See Michael [{iff. t ~I ld !>! :1 1 t . I. I j' ! .ity Press. ]973." 1'1'.\ 11 . Se1rliollke. Paris.1II11. I larvard University Press.lllIl'tll Language: in 51udles ill Ilngliistlc 5.ui. -l06. .-).d lnuvcr-. (. IY7H. Yale University I'n-ss. pp Hb. cd.lIllcy Fish.2·IY5(). PU<!tIY all. 13 Harold Bloom. 225. p. p. 2~3. '[.o). ''I 1973) pp. Ocullreo. 1959. p.11. 'Two types of Pn'sup!. 148. Ceottrey I(l'}'!ws. p.1111.'''\"t"".llelTe. (111<. 39-45. SilfI/clj's MytIJJllllkil1g.'kdgV in the lill'Jdlun: 1>1 ll u: SlIbl"lIl'. Seuil.. ed.cs Figure's <ill di~c()llrs (1830). University of California Press. 19 Sec ibid.emble Things About It?. Paris. p.lI")~L': I' ·1') 26 For discussion of the relcv. 3 Julia Kristeva. /. 263. p.ssi. 1940. Surprised Ily Sin: The Reader in Paradise Lost.. 1'1 23 William Blake.-". 1. 1978. Pf)· 1:)7 ~K. p..\I1Ic-\· !-I "II. 9 Ibid" p. 1Y71. Paris. 1. -lS. H. p. line" J36·K. iur di:'ClI""IOIl .1I1. J. l. 1')6<'1. 1--13.h.1 ris.229. 75. Hytier. 7 \vil.'. p." 1"'dil]1I.\11111. ·1 lbid. J Ibid.ince of SpVC(]l-. 16 Harold Bloom.' I Ii' ::1 1~: ~ : i t I I! :'1 ~. 1973. n (. nil! .(11111<'./11111 III 111l' i'nl. 1')71. ()t'lil'rt'~ '""lIplt'It~. SCllliotilil.'/111111/1(" vd.. COJllpll'lL' IVrilIlIXs. 'La Strat'. 11)70. l hltJrd l Juiversity Press. Wt 10 Kristeva. "1'\\0 Types uf I'n. vol.s..c Subtler Language.'~lIppll"itl'lJl in N. 1 1 .\i. 21 Ibid.

_ ' .' Till' /. Yeats. ed. 'Spleen. II. Fab"l'. 2 For discussion see Jacques l. ed.1rd. 26 William Wordsworth. Oxford University Press.. London. B. 'Inlroduction: Boston.S(ll'h". 1'01'at) acute analysis of the theological nature of the freedom that isat st.1 commentary by I'rentke-Hall. l. 1~ 1'_01' further discussion see Derrida. II. 55·-71. New York. 1970. p.lgnalb.I6J. Abrams.l\ qlll\' Ih'rridd. Abrams. :1I/''8. 'A Defense of Poetry.-1.II. 27 Paul de Man. Yeats. 2 I\. 167. 13 Charles Baudelaire. I. 1977. B. B. HI:! '. 82. New York. Quotations from this wor). 3 (1978).J'J()b.! (1'!7'1) p. Paris. Yeats.\ I'ivturv ill Peele Castle. f'o... 'Le Cygne: Lrs n'w's dllivl.' Collected Poems of W. Scuil.' \1111"1"111111rdlllllli 01 tlu: /"'<'111> "I W. 1978. 'Monuments de l'histoire d.. Selected Works.:t'. and Richard Rand. 15 Bloom. 223. T Hutchinson. Pari». l. Rilke.172.rl«: in :pllrpo~ive wholes without purpose.u'cmcut. 1%0. will be 1. 11. Ithaca.lHO) and 2:2 (1')81).. 9 Story and Discourse in the Analysis of Narrative rlll. J. (llJ/iO). 195~. B. 'Adonais. 14 Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Shakespeare Criticism. see Seymour Chatman. 'Geraldine. Antoine Adam.lnivcrsuy Press. UII Deconstruction: LitemnJ Theory ill lilt' 19705.IIIl' A!. p.ln. 1907. Il. M. 'Ode 1\1 a Nighlinb. J Ibid. Norton. see the three Issues of Poe! in. 'I'II" ["'<'111" ed. '15 'no Arnon].'1 . Clark.i vie.' t) I with .'. Yeats.~i$ de" Cll"lini/. 11:I (Spring 1(711) pp.led by . pp. Macmillan. T. Avon 1965 p. 74. p.ilGIII.l . 322.' ibid.' see Derrida. '12 W. Tlu: /J!iilosol'liy of the Enlightellment. Sl'e j. 'Econo1l11111eSlS. Constable. 1'IJ'.iL-ntilil'd l. Auden. Klincksieck. B. London.lIl.. 1'1il' luterprctation of Dreams. Paris."'111>1111 mcsis. Hlogml'ilill Llteraria.38.') \11/(. xxxiii. lY30.' Wordsworth's Literary ( 1I/I(Nn. 77. 1979.392. 1936. Aubier-Flarrunarion. ~:Jl:S4?-65.. p. Works.HI! I'aul de M. B. Yale University Press. 22 Percy Bysshe Shelley. M.i Ked!. 'In Memory of W. p. 18 (Winter 1979).dlim. Owen. p. New I lavcn.:. Oxford l. 'Among School Children. ']:. 'Le sl'lde till nuruir . M J I. The Statues. B. The Arcidents of r?~sfigllrati()n: Limits to Literal and Rhetorical Reading 111 Buok V of nrc Prelude. Cornell University Press/Routlege & Kegan Paul...'lIdd. 14 VVilli. I. NillTlllo/ugic: ('S51l. ·1 SlgJllllllll lrcud. ch. Oxford UniverslI)..u n s. Nvvv York. 'Essay on Epitaphs III. 'Le stade du miroir'. lines l.ll11 Wordsworth. 18 Baudelaire.i/. forthcoming.12 ·11 25 W.eishm. jl)hll Haydon. 2. 'i\utobi')graphy '1S Dcl. 1940.l1gll~wllOd (!ifls. Penguin. 'On Life.lit'kl' B.)('111. rlCllr~ <ill 11-1111.' J\1i1Il .1t Whitman. N..Il'hy. 1'1' '11 Ilk) :1 Jacques Dcrrid. 3/2. p. Garnier. Sugge:. p.' 1(llm. H Ernst Cassircr. 12 Alphonse de Lamartine. &11.1. p.lnd. ed.'s: (J<"liJ!lI~ tlie KillS. 19 R. Albuquerque. This Livinj. vol.. 21.ondon.IIs. Aliegori(.-].y I'dEe numbers in the text. Cornell U III \'l'I'SII Y Press. W. luishrn. Yeats. New York. p.J. Shelley's Mljtlwwklll:S. 1961. 4.Il'Ill<llll!s"urth. PI'. ).' I. . 2SI. 13 See L1Gll1.. 19-32. [Jllill" [/CXies.'sofHt'adiIIS. B. 'l.u: and Skplwn Spender. l. 1979.'.1(unction du Je. p. p. p. 20 Rilke. vol. 1()75.'lIb. 140-58 Reierences to pp.e.' AllN. vol . 1'171.hlllfd LJ'1i\"r~II\' Press. Story Narrulioc Structure rll Fiction alld FIlm. Today devoted to narrative: 1:3 1:-1(j'. . ~t)::.d ct al. p.iti'III~. ('. I'.aius's Many Murderers: Sn' S. p. 1974. Cynthia Chase. 9~1l.Jn. 1956. 'I W'. J: C~le['I(~ge. IY6tl. Dent. Nut urul Supernaturalism. pp. 10 Ibid. p. 1953..' S/Idley'~ ['ro.' The i'<1t'IIiS "11"/111 II "lIJ. Paris.llldor C(]odh. 124. 21 Paul de Man.. J. 'Economimesls. B.j"I.' Glyph. ~.m. """I".IS (.'. Macmillan. Routledge & Kegan Paul.. xxvii-xxx.'lll'IfS IJtJeti'llH'~.i. 190-1.!" teur de 1. Beacon ' Oxford Book of Modem Verse. 65-6.ll't. ')2K. pp. Y. For more recent discussions and further bibliuhl'. 15. p. IH. I. Natural Supernaiuraiism. London.' Jeril. Press.Sill' la signification lIarrative dans quaire n'IUilll~ III(I<I<'IIIS. 17 John Keats.. Raysor. O.I"lullslruc·ti\·e I"\hl ings of romantic literature . p. pp. London.1'.234 Reierencc: to pp. Funk & \N.~ m.. p. 8 The Mirror Stage M. . part II. 1979. hi! d""Jlhlllll'· tive readings of romantic tlwlll'Y. C oleridge. 1'. "I /"Iul f. 1'.1111.' CU/llplde /\)l'II<'(l1 IVo. C. trans. J'.b. Yeats. 24 Percy Bysshe Shelley. 16 W. trans. 17·L 23 Shelley. 1956.HiJl"I. 158-74 235 11 W. translated J IIl'jll. 11 Abr." and Jonathan ( uller.[)mlt)l\. 5. 'Oedipus and I lld"III'".-:. pp." Sdl'ckd PO. Th« Mlnol'lIl1d Ih(' 1111111'. I.293. pp.d.'''1111)1.lllb<I'III't". Minuit. Sl~lId.1e Universily I'rcss. 4 ') 6 7 Haven. 29. Paris. 6. New York. Ithaca. 154.HI"I1'" cd S).L U L. ed. p. 1977. 'Elegiac Stanzas. PailS. University of New Mexico Press. 79. Faber. p. 1%6. Nt'\\' I'm 'll)jbli()~r~phy and IJs_eflllsynthesis.' (1l'1l1lt'C5 Iwto/JiograllliiqJlcs.145 6.' Studies in Romanticism. H.

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