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The Climate Gap via Ella Baker Center

by Hayes Morehouse

While most Americans would now agree that climate change is real, a new report by the USC Program for Environmental and Regional Equity and UC Berkeley's College of Natural Resources uncovers what researchers call a "climate gap" or hidden pattern revealing that poor people and people of color in the United States suffer more from environmental changes than other whiter and. wealthier Americans. Some key findings from the report: • Extreme beat leads to increased illnesses and deaths-particularly among the elderly, infants and African Americans. in a study on nine California counties from may through September of 1999-2003, researchers found that for every lOoF (5_6°c) increase in temperature, there is a 2_6% increase in cardiovascular deaths. Risk factors for beat-related illness and death are higher for low-income neighborhoods and people of color. African Americans in Los Angeles are nearly twice as likely to die from a heat wave There is nearly a three-fold difference in the proportion of income that goes towards water between households in the lowest income bracket versus households in the highest income bracket.

• • •

Those are the problems. The report also offers some solutions:

• •

Close the climate gap by auctioning permits or establishing a fee and invest revenue in communities that will be hardest hit Coordinate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions with opportunities to reduce toxic pollutants in neighborhoods with the dirtiest air. Anticipate and address inevitable job shifts and retraining needs to maximize opportunities for low-income communities of color to successfully transition to and benefit from anew, clean energy economy Ensure that revenue generated from climate policy will help high-poverty neighborh?ods absorb the higher prices for energy and other basic necessities .. I

Read the full report or the executive summary

Menial

illness and Minorities

Minorities Have Trouble Getting Help
Although depression, percenj;:.;pe depression minorities are Just", !ikeiy ss non-minorities snc schizophrenia. receivrrrq appropriate

tCJ

experience

severe

mental

disorders treatment.

sucn as anxiety For instance, the with

QL!:)olar disorder

they ere far less likely to receive care is only half that of whites, to 34,}"

ot f\fr\CdiJ Amencans ;;,:d anxiety receive

ll"eGed

and 24'+;, of Hisparlics

care compared barriers.

or whitcs

with tile same di;;Gnos1s. Reao-ons lnciude

a laCk Of access minoritjes

to services,

cultural

and language

and limited

research

conc,~rninL mental

health anq

Many Slu(iI",·s have found that I3ck d access medica! InSUl8l1u; HaCial and ethnic

10 services

!s

associated rates of poverty level compared mrnoritics
!E

wilh one's levei oj pv:;nme and access to
and a much grc&ter
to 22°;'_,of Arne;;!)

mlncrlties

have higher

likelihood

of being and 27% of

UliinSUfHi

"·'3 i0stance

8('" of INhites live below the poverty The perccntaqe of uninsured

i\rnericans

Llexlczvi rnd Nati'fe Americans

over half ~hat 0' 'vi)itt:s

IndiViduals

c:

~pelierl'~lnrj "Yl-;lptont

of a mental drsorder are 1110stlikely to seeK help 'ron: theH pr!lwu',j <:2Vf, pl'iv8idsfl,
Americans do not have a usuat ,;owce of tlealthLatf::' trt'atll'enL
E-X/i,,y'y,n

but eros - to 'K"': nunonues minoriiies

of HI,;\;::1!,ics Ded 20% of African care physIcian, access

SEek GWS from a primary five in rural, isolated

they are less lIkely ;0 r(~cciVe appropnate to mental health services is limited.

Abc many

areas where

Language disorders

is a significant greatly depends

barrier

to

receiving

appropriate

mentai

healthcare_

Diagnosis

and treatment

of mental steps

on the ability 01 the patient barrier

10 explain

their symptoms

to their physician Thiriy~five

and understano of Asian

for treatment. Americans Hispanics

The language

often deters individuals iive in households Englisl1.

from seeking

tr-eatment.

percent

and Pacific

isbnders

where the primary

language

is not EnGlish and 40'}1;I of

.Iiving in the U.S, do not speak

Culture,

a system Culture

of shared

meanings,

is defined

as a common

heritage

or set of beliefs, of mental African illness,

expectations affecting

lor behavior,

and vaiues. describe uncommon

Significantly

influences

the definition they exhibit

and treatment For instance.

the 'Nay indi.viJiuals symptoms; or J",aking and see' treatment. a

iheir symptoms among

and the symptoms

Americans

experience

other groups experience

such as isolated symptoms

sleep paralysis, th-at include

or the inability uncontrollable affect whether to mental

to move while falling asleep screaming, or not some illness_ crying, people

up. Some Hispanics seizure-like person's

of anxiety

fainting_ Cultural styles

beliefs

about mental

health strongly

coping

,jpe

social supports,

and the stigma

they attach

Many pi)opie

from different The culture

cultures

see mental

illness as shameful health

and delaytreatmenl influences

until symptoms

reach

JSiS
2nd

of physicians

and mental

professionals

how they interpret

symptoms

internct

with patients.

Research!o

evaluate

different of certain

minority

groups'

response

to treatment

is limited.

few studies suggests

exist that inve~tigate Americans ieading

the appropriateness metabolize psychiatric

types oftreatment.

For example,

some research

that African

medications

more slo\\~y than whites, research

but often receive

higher dosages receive

than do whites.

to more severe

side eftects.

More extensive

is needed

to insure minorities

appropnate

treatment.

while 211groups

experience

menial

disorders,

mlnorities

are over represented

in populations

at high risk for

experiencmq mental illness lnc'udlng peq:le who

WE

exposed to violence homeless In prison or jail, tester care.icr

the child weifsF" ,,;:,;8111 /It ri~,i' opulsnons. Drs Ta' 'ess likely to reCSke services than U"" \Jeneral populauon >0 mer", p

inionnatiOn on thl:,

'OPIC,

read

11;8

Surgeon General's special report on culture. race and ethnicity

Third World bears brunt of global war-ming impacts
Nov. 16, 200S by Parorna Basu http:((www.news.wisc.edu!11878

In a recent chilling assessment, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that human-induced changes in the Earth's clfmate now lead to at least 5 million cases of illness and more than 150,000 deaths every year. Temperature fluctuations may sway human health in a surprising number of ways, scientists have learned, from influencing the spread of infectious diseases to boosting the likelihood of illness-inducing heat waves and floods. Now, in a synthesis report featured on the cover of the journal Natu re, a team of health and climate scientists at UW-Madison and WHO has shown that the growing health impacts of climate change affect different regions in markedly different ways. Ironically, the places that have contributed the least to warming the Eartfil are the most vulnerable to the death and disease higher temperatures can bring. "Those least able to cope and least responsible for the greenhouse gases that cause global warmi ng are most affected," says lead author Jonathan Patz, a professor, at UW-Madison's Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. "Herein lies an enormous global ethical challenge."
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rm~! C'lJ.l f mi>.,.-i '!~i~ Iml'llt"""" ,;i( t(lrt${,.ypVl rt-1Q 10,·100 H1O· JOO 500-1{X)(1 tOOO,1/J00

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This map shows total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and ~as flaring for the world's countries in 2000. Emissions are expressed in million metric tons of carbon. The map was created by a team of climate and health scientists led by Jonathan Patz, associate professor of environmental studies and population health sciences at UW-Madison. Map courtesy the Center for Sustalnabilitv and the Global Environment.

E:.tim<ltl"d Del!ltns Attributed

10 Climate ChangE' in the Year 2000. by Subregion"'

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The health effects of global warming vary markedly at the regional scale. This map shows the estimated numbers of deaths per million people that could be attributed to global climate change 'in the year 2000. Drawing from data from tile World Health Organization, the map was also created by Patz's team. Map courtesy the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment.

According to the Nature report, regions at highest risk for enduring the health effects of climate change include coastlines along the Pacific and Indian oceans and sub-Saharan Africa. Large sprawling cities, with their urban "heat island" effect, are also prone to tem perature-related health problems. Africa has some of the lowest per-capita emissions of greenhouse gases. Yet, regions of the continent are gravely at risk for warming-related disease. "Many of the most important diseases in poor countries, from malaria to diarrhea and malnutrition, are highly sensitive to climate," says co-author Diarmid CampbellLendrum of WHO. "The health sector is already struggling to control these diseases and climate change threatens to undermine these efforts." "Recent extreme climatic events have underscored the risks to human health and survival," adds Tony McMichael, director of the National Centre for Epidemiologyand Population Health at the Australian National University. 'This synthesizing paper points the way to strategic research that better assesses the risks to health from global climate change." The UW-Madison and WHO assessment appears only weeks before global leaders convene in Montreal during the first meeting of the Conference of Parties to the! Kyoto Protocol, which came into effect in February 2005. Patz will also deliver tI~e keynote address at a parallel WHO/Health Canada event. The United States - the world's top emitter of greenhouse gases - has yet to ratify the Kyoto treaty. Patz and his colleagues say their work demonstrates the moral obligation of countries with high per-capita emissions, such as the U.S. and European nations, to adopt a leadership role in reducing the health threats of global warming. It also highlights the need for la rge, fast-growing economies, such as. China and India, to develop sustainable energy policies.

"The political resolve of policy-makers will playa big role in harnessing the manmade forces of climate change," says Patz, who also holds a joint appointrnent with the UW-Madison department of Population Health Sciences. Scientists believe that greenhouse gases will increase the global average temperature by approximately 6 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the century. Extreme floods, droughts and heat waves, such as Europe's 2003 heat wave, are likely to strike with increasing frequency. Other factors such as irrigation and deforestation can also affect local temperatures and humidity. According to the UW-Madison and WHO team, other model-based health risks from global climate change project that: -Climate-related disease risks of the various WHO will, more than double by 2030. health outcomes forecasts of

assessed

by

- Flooding as a result of coastal storm surges will affect the lives of up to ZOO million people by the 20805 . • Heat related deaths in California could more than double by 2100.

• Hazardous ozone pollution by 2050.

days in the Eastern U.S. could increase

60 percent

Aside from research and the needed support of policy-makers worldwide, Patz says individuals can also play an important role in curbing the health consequences of global warming. "Our consumptive lifestyles are having lethal impacts on other people around the world, especially the poor," Patz says. 'There are options now for leading more energy-efficient lives that should enable people to make better personal choices."

At the elite colleges - dim white kids
by Peter Schmidt Printable Version Originally published by the Boston Globe on September 28, 2007 AUTUMNAND a new academic year are upon us, which means that selective colleges are engaged in the annual ritual of singing the praises of their new freshman classes. Surf the websites of such institutions and you will find press releases boasting that they have increased their black and Hispanic enrollments, admitted bumper crops of National Merit scholars or became the destination of choice for hordes of high school valedictorians. Many are bragging abol~t the large share of applicants they rejected, as a way of conveying to the world just how popular and selective they are. What they almost never say is that many of the applicants who were rejected were far more qualffied than those accepted. Moreover, contrary to popular belief, it was not the black and Hispanic beneficiaries of affirmative action, but the rich white kids with cash and connections who elbowed, most of the worthier applicants aside. I Researchers with access to closely guarded college admissions data have found that, on the whole, about 15 percent of freshmen enrolled at America's highly selective colleges are white teens who failed to meet their institutions' minimum admissions standards. Five years ago, two researchers working for the Educational Testing Service, Anthony Carnevale and Stephen Rose, took the academic profiles of students admitted into 146 colleges in the top two tiers of Barron's college guide and matched them up against the institutions' advertised requirements in terms of high school grade point average, SAT or ACT scores, letters of recommendation, and records of involvement in extracurricular activities. White students who failed to make the grade on all counts were nearfy twice as prevalent on such campuses as black and Hispanic students who received an admissions break based on their ethnicity or race. Who are these mediocre white students getting into institutions such as Harvard, Wellesley, Notre Dame, Duke, and the Universitv of Virginia? A Sizable number are recruited athletes who, research has shown, will perform worse on average than other students with similar academic profiles, mainly as a result of the demands their coaches will place on them. A larger share, however, are students who gained admission through their ties to people the institution wanted to keep happy, with alumni, donors, faculty members, administrators, and politicians topping the list. Applicants who stood no chance of gaining admission without connections are only the most blat~nt beneficiaries of such admissions preferences. Except perhaps at the very summit of the applicant' pile that lofty place occupied by young people too brilliant for anyone in their right mind to turn down colleges routinely favor those who have connections over those who don't. While some applicants gain adrnisslon by legitimately beating out their peers, many others get into exclusive colleges the sarre way people get into trendy night clubs, by knowing the management or flashing cash at the person manning the velvet rope. leaders at many selective colleges say they have no choice but to instruct their admissions offices to reward those who financially support their institutions, because keeping donors happy is the only way they can keep the place afloat. They also say that the money they take in through such admissions preferences helps them provide financial aid to students in need. But many of the colleges granting such preferences are already well-financed, with huge endowments. And, in many cases, little of the money they take in goes toward serving the less-advantaged.

A few years ago, The Chronicle of Higher Education looked at colleges with more than $500 nullion their endowments and found that most served disproportionately few students from families with: incomes low enough to qualify for federal Pell Grants. A separate study of flagship state universities conducted by the Education Trust found that those universities' enrollments of Pei'! Grant reciPielts had been shrinking, even as the number of students qualifying for such grants had gone up,

in

Just 40 percent of the financial aid money being distributed by public colleges is going to students with documented financial need. Most such money is being used to offer merit-based scholarships or tultlon discounts to potential recruits who can enhance a college's reputation, or appear likely to cover the rest of their tuition tab and to donate down the road. Given such trends, is it any wonder that young people from the wealthiest fourth of society are about 25 times as likely as those from the bottom fourth to enroll in a selective college, or that, over the past two decades, the middle class has been steadily getting squeezed out of such institutions by those with more money? A degree from a selective college can open many doors for a talented young person from a hurnble background. But rather than promoting social mobility, our nation's selective colleges appear to be thwarting it, by turning away applicants who have excelled given their Circumstances and offering second chances to wealthy and connected young people who have squandered many of the ' advantages life has offered them. When social rnobilttv goes away, at least two dangerous things can happen. The privileged class that produces most of our nation's leaders can become complacent enough to foster mediocrity, and I,essfortunate segments of our society can become resigned to the notion that hard work will not get them anywhere, Given the challenges our nation faces, shouldn't its citizens be at least a little worried that the most selective public universities - state flagships - dominate the annual Princeton Review ran kings of Ithe nation's best party schools, as measured largely by drug and alcohol consumption and time spent skipping class and ditching the books? Should Harvard, which annually turns away about 2,000 valedictorians nearly $35 billion, be in the business of wasting its academic offerings the basis of pedigree? and has an endowment of on some students admitted

on

Peter Schmidt is a deputy editor of The Chronicle of Higher Ed ucation and a uthor of "Color a nd Money: How Rich White Kids Are Winning the War Over College Affirmative Action."

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