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Research 1

Research 1

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Published by: Julie Araojo on Feb 26, 2012
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INTRODUCTION In statistics, it is possible to have summary statistics to denote the nature of a data set.

These summary statistics we can have a more precise nature of the data than we can have from data and graphs. These numbers can help us to make quicker and better decisions, because with these summary statistics, we don’t have to refer to the original data set every time. For the study of the relationship between weight loss and change in Triglyceride(hereafter, TG) level, we can calculate the summary statistics, such as the measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. For the prediction of changes in TG level with change in weight we can also use, correlation and regressions analysis. Hence, this study of the two variables uses various statistical techniques to clearly understand the relationship, which are presented in the following pages.

2 92.5 82.4 114.7 89.4  9.7 95.9 80.5 93.2  0.8 77.2 104.8  2.1 115 90.9 95.5  3.6  2.4 90.8 99.4  2.1  1. 1: weight loss and change in TG level.6 84 127.5  1.7  7.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENTS INVOLVED From the information provided. The tabular column showing the change in weight loss and change in the triglyceride levels is shown below: Table no.4 124.5  1. the patients taken up for study .no Weight at Baseline (kg) Weight at Week 8 (kg) Triglyceride level at Baseline (mg/dl) 446 143 188 96 64 90 176 276 57 72 84 124 111 142 146 132 143 268 115 182 163 143 187 255 137 212 Triglyceride level at Week 8 (mg/dl) 795 213 255 157 114 131 215 313 63 72 84 123 107 135 138 117 126 250 88 152 131 102 144 204 82 156 Change in weight Ch.4 85 90 87 106.6 81.8  1.5 69. diet and drug treatment.9  0  1.2 102 98.4 and 133.4 95.2  3.9 106 88.5 87 130.3 103.6  2.5 104.9 83. After 8 weeks of exercise.7 102.3 69 80 87.4  5.8 133. have their body weights within the range of 69.1  8  2. discreet data Patient ID s. it is observed that there is decrease in weight and also a decrease in the triglyceride levels. In Triglyceride level 231 211 209 206 216 201 229 213 224 204 214 208 221 215 230 222 205 220 207 203 225 212 234 233 202 219 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 113.6  5.4 83.2 103.2  6.9 88.7 86.8 103.1 Kgs.7 75 105.2  8.8 ‐1.9 99.7  2.6  4.5 84.2 104.5 103.4  5  2.3  ‐349 ‐70 ‐67 ‐61 ‐50 ‐41 ‐39 ‐37 ‐6 0 0 1 4 7 8 15 17 18 27 30 32 41 43 51 55 56 .8 102 88.

0  8. median and mode.1_4.0  1.1 107 78.5 103.9 96 94. we can calculate the mean.1_3. The median analysis.55 is the modal class for change in TG level.2 123.0  ‐349_‐305  ‐304_‐260  ‐259_‐215  ‐214_‐170  ‐169_‐125  ‐124_‐80  ‐79_‐35 ‐34_10 11_55  56_100  101_145  146_190  1  0  0  0  0  0  7  7  10  9  0  1  The analysis of discreet data from table No.8  57 58 59 68 69 74 79 80 169 Table no.0  4.8 is the median for change in weight loss and 18 is the median for change in TG level.2 95.9 97.0  6. .1_1.8  3.8  8.0  7.2 111 154 300 192 165 226 199 167 232 54 96 241 124 96 152 120 87 63 2.4  1.0  2.2  7.1_10.0  ‐0.1_5. 1.2 73.9 99.9_0  0.1_2.6  2.5 100. shows that 2.0  5.9_‐1.7 108.1_9. class for weight loss frequency   1    1    1    6    Weight loss modal  9  class  3    2    3    Change in TG level  1  modal class  5    2    1    class for change in TG level frequency ‐1.1_8.93 and the change in TG level is 11.2  7.1 – 3 kgs is the modal class for change in weight and 11.4 96.37.8 126 103.1_7.6  7.1_6. continuous data. The mean weight loss of the 35 patients is 3. 2: Weight loss and change in TG level. as we have the maximum number of patients in this class.0  9.5 103 76.6  5. 2.0  3.226 235 227 228 223 217 218 210 232 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 81.

5  9.5 10. But not including the median class fm w = = frequency of the median class class interval width = = = 9 9 1 = 35 .1_7.5 136.5  1.0  3. X = ∑ (f * x) / n and the answer is 3.1_2. we can use the formula.1_6.5  8.5 6. m m n F = = = = [{(n + 1)/ 2 – (F + 1)}/ fm] w + Lm.0  7.0  1.1_4.5 37.0    ‐1. where sample median total number of items in the distribution sum of all the class frequencies upto.1_8.0  8.5  3.5  6. median and mode for continuous data.1_1.5  7.1_9.5 0.5 17 9.1_5.5  0.1_3. to calculate it more exact.9 for the change in weight level and 11.0  5.14 for change in TG level Median = (n + 1)/ 2 = 18th item .1_10.9_‐1.5  ‐0.0  4. the data from table 2 has to further arranged as follows: class (grouped data) weight loss(x) freque ncy(f) cumula tive frequen cy f * x class (grouped data) change in TG level(x) frequen cy(f) cumul ative freque ncy f * x ‐1.0  2.0  9.5 ‐349_‐305  ‐304_‐260  ‐259_‐215  ‐214_‐170  ‐169_‐125  ‐124_‐80  ‐79_‐35  ‐34_10  11_55  56_100  101_145  146_190    ‐327 ‐282 ‐237 ‐192 ‐147 ‐102 ‐57 ‐12 33 78 123 168   1  0  0  0  0  0  7  7  1  1  1  1  1  1  8  15  25  34  34  35  ‐327 0 0 0 0 0 ‐399 ‐84 330 702 0 168 390 10  9  0  1  35    The formula used for calculating the mean.5  TOTAL  1  1  1  6  9  3  2  3  1  5  2  1  35    1  2  3  9  18  21  23  26  27  32  34  35  ‐1.5 9 16.0  6.5 ‐0. median and mode of grouped data is as follows: Mean .5  5.When we want to calculate the mean.9_0  0.5  4.0  ‐0.5 9 22.5  2.

988 .Lm = lower limit of the median class interval = 2.8 To calculate the mode.0. Their weights and the change in the TG level are shown.76 for weight loss and similarly we can calculate the mode for change in TG level we get an answer of 22. The graph showing the frequency and cumulative frequency of the continuous data with respect to change in weight loss and change in TG level is shown below: Change in weight Change in TG level   This graph shows clearly the nature of the patients. Similarly.1 – 3.1 frequency of the modal class-the frequency of the class directly below it = 9 – 3 = 6 frequency of the modal class-the frequency of the class directly above it = 9 – 6 = 3 width of the modal class interval= 2. this means that most number of patients have lost 2. Median = [ {(35 +1)/ 2 – (9 + 1)}/ 9] x 1 + 2.1 + {6 / 9} 1 = 1 Mode = 2.1 = (16. for the change in TG level. It can be seen from the graphs that majority of the patients being to the class of 2.988 Kgs over a period of 8 weeks. the median is 19. where lower limit of the modal class = 2. then the formula is Mo LMo d1 d2 w = = = = = LMo + {d1 / d1 + d2 } w.1 Hence.1 Median for weight loss = 2. this .88/ 9) x 1 + 2.

And the maximum number of patients have change in TG level of 11 – 55 mg/dl. but the TG level changes to a wider range and hence.1 – 3 kgs weight loss. The line graph that shows the changes of weight and TG level are shown below: The purpose of the line graph is to show the changes in the weight loss and TG level comparatively.means that maximum number of patients have lost 2. The change in weight is does not show a wide range and hence. . when taken in a scale of 100 shows almost a straight line. the graph shows sharp differences. Also the pie chart of the continuous data is presented below: Change in weight Change in TG level The pie chart shows that maximum number of patients are between the class of 2.1 – 3 kgs in the eight weeks and the change in the TG level for maximum number of patients is between 11 – 55 mg/ dl.

whether there is any relationship between the change in weight and change in TG level. To answer the question. The various types of graphs show the same point as mentioned above.From the data given. To carry out the correlation analysis. but these graphs help in understanding the pattern of the data given which is very crucial for identifying the relationship between these two variables. correlation analysis has to be carried out. we have to develop a scatter diagram for the discreet data on change in weight and change in TG level and straight line to fit maximum number of data is drawn as follows: . we have constructed three types of graphs.

∧ where. which is a mathematical formula that relates the known variable to the unknown variable. The term regression. . ∧ Y = a + bX. Hence. Y = dependent variable that is estimated a = Y intercept b = slope of the line X = independent variable From the table. we develop a estimating equation. is a process of predicting one variable from another known variable(1). there is a decrease in TG level also. In regression analysis. The estimating equation is.The line that fits the best shows that there is a linear relationship between the two variables. using a calculator. there is also a decrease in TG level. we have to find out the mean values and then estimate a and b values. though not proportionate. This means that when there is a decrease in weight. But for the data table. it can be recorded that when there is a decrease in weight. we can know that the change in weight and change in TG level are not proportionate. It is quiet possible to predict the changes in TG level when there is a change in weight using the regression analysis.

5 ‐65.76 7.6 ‐55.6 ‐164.4  17  1.6  69  3.76 6.29 5.8  74  2.no  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35      Change in weight9(X) Change in TG level(Y) XY  523.25 6.5  51  2.2 102.24 70.76 5.96 13.8 127.2  30  5.2  80  7.8  ‐39  3.4  27  2.04 33.5 0 6.56 3.8 344.2 ∑X2= 801.44 2.41 51.2  32  3.84 7.6  ‐41  1.6  59  1.4 412.7  ‐61  2.4  ‐67  2.33  ∑XY=   5069.8 ‐160.64 34.2  79  8.56 2.6  1  2.6  ‐6  1.8 64.81 38.7  ∑Y = 491.81 25 27.4  41  9.4 99 128.8 9.4 248.84 54.8  68  5.5  ‐349  0  7  0.16 1.4  58  7.7  ‐70  4.29 7.3  56  2.76 60.25 0 0.01 .7 207.76 6.9  4  6.6 94.84 64 67.2 ‐109.2 0 647.8 X2 2.1  ‐50  7.2  15  7.6  43        ∑X = 137.8  55  2.1  0  5  18  5.25 2.24 12.4 23.8  169  8  0  8.6 ‐9.44 50.6  57  2.16 ‐1.4 ‐259 0 90 156 394.24 5.6 93 ‐355 576 429.s.69 16.2 2.56 2.2 1318.84 10.2  8  1.5  ‐37  1.56 92.5 148.

bX a = = 14. b is the slope of the straight line.038 – (12. . we substitute 5 in the place of X. X = = mean value of weight loss ∑ X/ n = 137.5537 + (12. ∧ Y = a + bX To predict the change in triglyceride level for a patient who loses 5 kg over an eight week period.038)] / [801.038 / ∑X2 – n X2 Y = = b = = = ∑X Y – n X Y [5069.9295 To predict the change in triglyceride level for a patient who loses 10 kg in weight. we can predict the change in TG level for any given change in weight. if we draw a straight line which has the slope of 12.0966 x 10) = 87.33.0966 Y.5537 By substituting the values of a and b in the following equation.5537 + (12.0966 x 3.33/ 35 = 14.2 – (35x3.Here.33.01 – (35x3.9342) = . Hence.4130 In the above used formula.9342 mean value of change in TG level ∑ Y/ n = 491.0966 x 5) 26. ∧ Y = = .33.0966.9342x14. 7/ 35 = 3. we have to substitute the value of X as 10 in the estimating equation as follows: ∧ Y = = a + bX .93422) 12. then it is quiet sensible to use a straight line for predicting the change in TG level.

.14 Median 2. Grouped Weight loss Change in TG level Mean 3.• The marker points in black represent the prediction of change in TG level for change in weight by 10 kgs. it can be concluded that.8 18 2. 3. Hence.No 1. when there is a change in the patient weight. there will be a drop in the TG level also.9 11.4 0 2.37 3. he should first control his body weight though exercises.925 Decrease in TG level when weight is decreased by 10 kgs 87.988 19. Correlation and regression analysis can be used to predict the changes in TG levels.4130 Analysis Ungrouped Weight loss Change in TG level From the various analysis it is clear that change in patient weight and change in TG level have a linear relationship.93 11. 5. when a patient wants to control his TG level. But the change of these two variables in not proportionate.8 Mode 2. 4. 2. SUMMARY OF RESULTS The results obtained from various statistical techniques are listed below: S. proper food and drug treatment. When there is a decrease in weight level.76 22 Decrease in TG level when the weight lost is 5 kgs 26.

P (1971) Introduction to mathematical statistics. New York. McGraw Hill 4. John Wiley & Sons . New Jersey. I (1978) Statistics for management. Middlesex. Hoel. Prentice Hall 2. F (1969) Introduction to statistical analysis. Levin.J (2003) Facts from figures. Penguin books 3. R. W and Massey. Moroney. Dixon.REFERENCES 1. M. New York.

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