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114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

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# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

Table of Contents
ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

Page 1 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.sonker.com

2. (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. Tn = a + (n . [a + (n . or 8 2. A number is divisible by 11. starting from the RHS. A number is divisible by 8. arn-1 nth term. A number is divisible by 9. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . if its unit’s place digit is 0.rn)] / [1 .) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. (a3 + b3) 13. A Geometric Progression (G. A number is divisible by 4. (a + b)2 8. [(a + 2d)].ab + b2) = (a .b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. ar2.(a . An Arithmetic Progression (A. A number is divisible by 3. ar3. (a . Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . ar. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. [(a + d)].b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. … … ….1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms. (a + b)2 + (a .1)d] nth term. P.2ab + b2 9. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1.b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . 4.com .sonker. (a2 – b2) 12. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3.b) = (a + b)(a2 . (a + b)2 . A number is divisible by 2. P. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. if. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. … … ….b)2= 4ab 10.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16.r] 17.

C. . then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. (ab)m 24.F & L. 29. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. (a / b)m 25. then the increase in consumption.sonker.R] } % 36.C.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. am × an 22.M of Numbers 20. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. Product of two numbers = Their H. we have x% = x / 100 33. = a(m + n) = a(m . Surds & Indices 21. C.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. F. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. C. 27. then the reduction in consumption. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. a0 26. ( 31.com / 28. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . 30. M. am / an 23. × Their L. To express x% as a fraction. To express a / b as a percent.

then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. which is called the dividendo.p. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. then. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 51. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. Product of extremes = Product of means 43. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49. Mean proportion between a and b is 44.sonker. which is called the componendo & dividendo. b. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. then. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. (c : d). d are in proportion. c. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a.p. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. Also. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion. In a proportion. 50. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. If a : b = c : d.a is P / [(1 . If a / b = c / d. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 .c. 53.c. (a + b) / (a . 42.b) / b = (c . which is called the componendo.R/100)N] 40. If a / b = c / d. (a . the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46.b) = (c + d) / (c . while the second and third are known as means. x α y. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48.d) / d. If a / b = c / d.R/100)N 39. 52. then.d).com .a is P (1 . then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p.

If A is thrice as good a workman as B. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. If A can do a piece of work in n days.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54.sonker. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . Time & Work 59. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. u > v) in the same direction. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where. then on opening both the pipes. 58. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. then A can finish the work in n days. 60. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit.com . Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. 56.v)] hrs 65. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. 57. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. 61. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it.

) / ( P × R ). = ( 100 × S.I. Then. Speed upstream = (u . Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 72.sonker.I. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr.com . 74. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. c.I. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. Alligation or Mixture 71. P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d . = ( 100 × S. 70. 68. We represent the above formula as under: 75. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. then: : ).I. b.c) Simple Interest 76. Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67. ) / ( R × T ).114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then. . S. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. ) / ( P × T ). Boats & Streams 69. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. a. Let Principle = P.v) km/hr. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. 73.b) km/hr.m) : (m . Rate of stream = ½ (a . d.

When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. Present worth of Rs.e.loga y = 1 (i.e. When interest is compounded Annually. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. R3% for 1st. loga 1 e. loga x g. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. I. 82. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. it is taken as 10 i. say R1%. other than 1 and am = x. loga x h. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. Then.com . The logarithm of a number contains two parts. Then. Properties of Logarithms: a. namely characteristic and mantissa. and 3rd year respectively. but the time is in fraction. loga (xy) b. 2nd. When interest is compounded Annually.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . Then. Let Principle = P. say 3⅞ years. When Rates are different for different years. R2%. loga (x/y) c. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. When base is not mentioned. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number.sonker. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. loga (xp) f.

Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86. b.00234 III. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. II. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e.sonker. Area 83. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. e.456 2. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.0234 0.34 0. Area of a triangle = . c are the sides of the triangle c. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. then antilog y = x. Square: a. Antilog: If log x = y. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. where s = ½ (a + b + c). and a.234 0.g. IV. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d. we look through the log table. Triangle: a. In this case. Rectangle: a.56 23. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. In this case. Area of square = (side)2 b. Number 234. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85.com .

Surface Area c. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. Cuboid: Let length = l. where R is the radius of the circle: a. units . Circle/Arc/Sector. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. units = units d. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d.sonker. Area of a sector 91. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. units b. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. Area of trapezium 88. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. 92. Volume b. breadth = b & height = h units Then. units c. Then. Volume b. 90. Area of a rhombus c. Area of a circle = πR2 b. Surface Area c. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. a. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. Then. a. Volume = (πr2h) cu. a. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. Then.

800.com . l b. a. 800. Rs. 98.D. the payment of Rs. brokerage is added to the cost price. 100. a.W. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs.P. 100 stock is Rs. below par (or at discount). Surface Area 94.) = Rs. Volume b. Then.) = Rs. So. 100. is less than Rs. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. c. 99. 9% stock at 95’. if S. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. is more than Rs. b. units Stocks & Shares 95. 96. units 93. units d. Volume c. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. if S. True Discount 100. We say that: Sum due = Rs. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 97. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu.P. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. When stock is purchased. is Rs. When the stock is sold. Then. 100.P. 156 due 4 years hence.W. 156 due 4 years hence. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. The selling price of a Rs. if S. Present Worth (P. 156 in 4 years. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. units b. units c. 100 exactly.100) = (Sum due) – (P. Slant height. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. Clearly. By ‘a Rs. 100 stock is said to be: a. (156 .sonker. units = (4πr2) sq. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. above par (or at premium). 95. True Discount (T. at par.

) / (R × T) = (P.W. = = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) = (B.I.) = S. T.D. Amount 114. c.]) / ([S. Be sure to read the copyright information and terms of use of the documents at http://www. copy.)2 / P.D.G.D.D. grace days are not to be added 108.I. Let rate = R% per annum & time = T years. (S. = (T. When the date of the bill is not given.sonker. P. T.W.I. Banker’s Gain (B. Sum = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T. T.I.D.D. print. 112. a.) + (T.D. Amount = Interest on P. Copyright Notice: Feel free to share.D.) is the S. 102.D.D. Then.I. = Amount / (1 + R/100)T Banker’s Discount 105. T.htm before you share. 109.com .sonker.) = (B. 106.I. Banker’s Discount (B.D.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 101.W.W. 113.]) d.] – [T. × T.) 103. = (P.com.) – (T. distribute this document.G. copy. B.) – (T. e. distribute this document for free.W. on T.D. B.D.W. then P.G. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.D. – T.) – (T.] × [T.W.com/sagar/Copyright. Page 11 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.D. T. Interest is reckoned on R.D. Make sure to preserve this copyright notice alongwith the header and footer with the copyright note of www.D.D. on bill for unexpired time = (B. print.sonker.D.D. B.D.) / (B.) = (B. b. on T. 111.) for the unexpired time 107.D.D.) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) = ([S. × 100) / (Rate × Time) 110. = S.D. When the sum is put at compound interest.) = S. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104.I.

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