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Quenched and Tempered High Strength Steel Plates for Offshore Applications
RQT — Roller Quenched and Tempered Steel Plates
SPECIFICAT ION TYPICAL CHEMISTRY ANDPROPERTIES
2 3 4 4
PLATE SIZEAVAILABIL flY MANUFACTURINGTOLERANCES FABRICATION GUIDANCEON WELDING
Minimum Yield Stress
Minimum Impact Energy
N/mm 470 470 430 620 620 690 690 690 450 430 415 415
560-710 560-710 530-700
@ -40 41@-40 41@-40
0.41 0.41 0.41
790 -930 790 -930 790 -930 550-700 530-700
27 @-45 27 @-45
0.43 0.47 0.43 0.52 0.57
0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
25<l'40 40<t65 16<t25 25<t75 75<t100
27 @ -45 27 @ -45
BST191 . 45OEMand 45OEMZ
60@-40 60@-40 60@-40 60@-40
r This document contains
Date: February 1993
as stated in the table. whichever isthe greater. *530700 *530700 *530700 19 19 19 Grade 45OEMZ — Through Thickness Guarantee Grade45OEMZsteel is guaranteed to meet a minimum average Reduction of Areacriterion of 35 percent as measured on a setof six specimens taken inthe manner specified in Option B. testsare on samples as quenched and tempered.16 *015/060 1.00/1. Thickness Range Minimum Average Minimum Individual Tensile properties Thickness Range t mm Yield Stress N/mm2 450 430 415 415 Tensile Strength N/mm2 Elongation on GL % mm J@°C 60 J@°c 42 @ -40 12. 580°C (in the range 550°C-620°C) and at least25°C below the tempering temperature for 1 hourper25mm thickness or 4 hours. Mechanical properties For plate thicknesses t20mm.SPECIFICATION BS7191:450EM/EMZ Chemical composition limits (Ladle and Product Analysis) 450EM 45OEMZ 016 0.Charpy-V (Sub-surface fort40mm thick and at both sub-surface and mid-thickness fort>4Omm). Fort>2Omm.5mmthickness. The PWHT is.24 of BS7191 :1989. . Impact test requirements at lower temperatures canbe supplied by agreement.65/ 19 16<t25 25<t75 75<t100 6t16 550-700 For plates below 12.5t100 -40 5.00/1.65 *0 15/060 1. Elongation measured on a tensile specimen of different proportions may give a different value. Impact properties Transverse. If required this would be verified by testing. subsidiary standard Charpy specimens will be used with proportionate adjustment oftheenergyvalues. tests are on simulated postweld heat treated samples.B. N. typically.25% but this grade is normally supplied. by agreement as stated in the table. by agreement. *Theminimum tensile strength shown in the current version of BS7191 is 550 N/mm2but this grade is normally supplied.65 *The minimum silicon level shown in the current version of BS7191 is 0.
02 0. Chemical analysis Thickness Range mtm C Si °'/° Mn °'/° S °'/° P °'/° Cr °'I° Mo Nb V °'/° Ti °'/° Ni °'/° Cu °"° Al °'/° CEV °"° 50<t75 75<t100 15t50 6t<15 0.003 0.04 0.002 0.003 0.02 0.09 0.004 0. 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 230 270 300 IMPACTENERGY (J) @ -40°C 0.30 1.01 0.30 0.02 0.20 a: LL 10 0 395 415 435 455 475 495 515 535 Th-i 10 555 0 510 530 5b0 570 590 610 630 650 YIELD STRESS (N/mm2) TENSILE STRENGTH (N/mm2) 500 >- 0 z 0 w 400 >- w 300 a: 200 U100 I I 0 z UJ 0 w a: U.40 0 z w 0 w a: 30 >0 z w 0 w 60 50 40 30 20 U.011 0.40 0.02 0.05 0.004 0.003 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.TYPICAL CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES TheSpecification statestheguaranteed limits ofchemical analysis and of mechanical properties.05 0.03 0.41 CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV) 3 .02 0.011 0.003 0.004 0.38 0.25 0.50 0.02 0.10 0.17 0. To help the user toevaluate the suitability ofthe steelfor the proposed application.02 0.003 0.37 0.12 0.45 1.38 80 50 70 >.38 0.02 0.25 1.02 0.30 1.17 0.011 0.17 0.30 0.002 0. typical product analyses and histograms showing typical distributions of mechanical properties and product CEV for one thickness range (5O<t8Omm) are shown below.011 0.30 0.003 0.004 0.50 0.02 0.38 0.39 0.05 0.03 0.
relative to mild steel and otherstructural steels. shape and mass for hot rolled steelplates3mm and above': except for flatness.5 8. . Thesurface quality ofthe ROTseries of steels is in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 10163:1991. byagreement. where possible. In multiple cutting situations.5 10. 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 12.5 6't<8 t8 4.: * * 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 * : 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 11 Flame cutting Platesof the ROT seriescanbe cutsatisfactorily with standard oxy-gas equipment. expressed as multiples of plate thickness are given in the following table. BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel can be plasma cut. mm Plate Width. Bending and brake press forming should. Care shouldbe taken to ensure thatflamecut edges arefreefromsharp notches as thesewould be detrimental to subsequent cold forming operations.0 4.5 8 7. rolling direction Perpendicular Parallel Minimum inside bendingradius 3t 4t Minimum die opening 8.5 65 70 75 80 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11.5 9.5t W<2750 6. As with gascutedges. However.5 W2750 7. based on a measuring length of 1000mm. plasma cutedges should be ground backpriorto cold forming in regions to be bent. care is required to achieve a balanced arrangement ofcuttingtorches to minimise the possibility of distortion.5 10 9.5 * Available. Forthe samereason. It is recommendedthat sheared or gascut edges be ground to a smooth finish inthebend areas. Other plate sizescan be produced by arrangement. Forthicknesses exceeding 80mmplatesizes wifi be agreed at the timeof ordering.5 10 . Cold forming BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel plates can readily be TOLERANCES AND SURFACE QUALITY Themanufacturing tolerances for ROTsteel plates are in compliance with BS EN 10029:1991. W mm cold formed. Bend Axis vs. In viewof the highstrength level.5 Other tolerances can be offered subject to special agreement at the timeof enquiry and order. Because of the higherstrength level. proportionately higher shearing power is required for anygiven thickness.All plasma cutedges which form partofa weld preparation should be incorporated fully intothe weld.5 105 9.SIZE AVAILABILITY Maximum plate length (m) tar stated widths W mm Plate Thickness mm 1800 6 7 8 9 10 11 FABRICATION Shearing BS7191:450EM/EMZ steelcan be cold sheared.5 10.5 Plasma cutting Within the operating thickness ranges of available equipment. the power required for cold forming is proportionately greaterthan that required for mild steel plates of the samethickness. ROT platesare supplied tocomplywith the following flatnesstolerances(mm). greater springback will be experienced for which due allowance must be made. wide flats and sections:' A lot Customers with bending requirements more stringent than the foregoing are asked to state the requirement atthe time of ordering. be carried out with the axis of bending at right angles to the rolling direction. due attention must be paid tothe selection of appropriate gascuttingprocedures.5 10. Neither preheating nor postheating is normally required. W 2000 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2250 2500 2750 3050 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 :: 12 12 : 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11. 11.where fabrication codesstipulate maximum hardness levels. Minimum values of bending radius and of die opening for 90° bends. Nominal Thickness. if discussed at timeof initialenquiry.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 63. "Toleranceson dimensions.5 9 8.5 9. "Delivery requirements for surface condition of hot rolled steel plates.
28 OK 10. power requirements are likely to be greaterthan with highsulphur steels and tool life may be affected. Some ofthe consumables listed are more appropriate for positional welding and further details can be obtained fromthe suppliers. A graphical method forestimating the desired combination of preheat and weld heat input usingthe relationship between these properties and cooling timein the weld thermal cyclehasbeen developed and used in the later sections on HAZ hardness and toughness.62 P230 880 LincolnWeldro Hyrod 8018G Hyrod 8018C1 LAT5 Outershield Kryo 1 Kryo 3 LH1O18-C1-MR L 81-Nil-H lnnershied NR-450 5 . drilled and bored.11 ESAB/Murex OK53. wide.17 OK Tubrod 15. beyond which impact toughnessdeteriorates due to the inabilityto maintain adequately grain refined heat affected zones are indicated as are lower limitsbelow which practical procedures do not exist. it should be performed at a temperature below 550°C and at least50 degrees below the tempering temperature stated on thetest certificate. It should be noted that.25Mo OK Autorod 12. or a line heating operation. Because BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steels derive their properties from efficientquenching. There maybe cost and productivity implications in the selection of a particular weld procedure. British Steel is willing to discuss and advise on or specific applications developments which may encroach on these areas. WELDING Introduction Thefollowing guidance is intended to be used to identifythe approximate range of welding conditions whichcanthen be worked out in detail by a welding engineer. Where levels of impact toughness in the heat affected zone. should be restricted to less than 1 hour per 25 mm of plate thickness. The choice of consumables maybe dependent on factors otherthan matching mechanical properties. are essential. at the low sulphur level of thissteel. Consumables Therange of available consumables potentially suitable for welding quenched and tempered steels is Some examples of consumables for use with BS7191:450EM/EMZ steel Supplier MMA (SMAW) Solid MIG/MAG(GSMAW) Cored Wire SD3 lNi. compatible with the plate toughness.32 LNS16O LA9O SAW Flux OP122TT Oerlikon Tenacito JOB Tenacito 70 Carbotil Mo Fluxofil20 Fluxofil41 OK Tubrod 15. hot forming. Thetable listssome consumables produced by a few manufacturers whichmaybe found suitable forwelding BS7191:450EM/EMZ steels.62 OK 10. forsingle or multiple forming operations. Normal tool life would be maintained by a reduction of about 30% in cutting speed relative to values givenin tool manufacturers' tablesof machining and drilling parameters for steels at thisstrength level. Machining. British Steel would be happy to discuss and offerguidance. Thermal cycles occurring duringwelding exert a decisive influence on heat affected zonehardness and toughness. drilling and boring BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steels canbe machined. The data in the tablehave been compiled from welding consumable manufacturers' recommendations for matching thetensileproperties and it is emphasised that inclusion of particular consumables in the tablemustnot be interpreted as endorsement of the products by British Steel. Guidance in the useof consumables and onthe achievement of specificmechanical properties in suchcircumstances canbe provided by British Steel. re- quenching and tempering afterhot forming operations is not recommended.08 (Hytuf Ni) Fortrex 8018C1 OK Autorod 13.62 OK 10.0. Forfabrication with quenched and tempered steels.27 OK Autorod 13. Upper limitsof heat input.Hot forming and warm forming BS7191:450EM/EMZ steels are notsuitablefor Should it be necessary to consider a warm forming operation. low hydrogen practices should be employed to avoid cold cracking problems.34 OK Autorod 12. the listed consumables may be used but care should be taken to ensurethat weld dilution from the parent steeldoesnot unduly reduce the weld metal properties. Total heating times.
Theseestimates are indicative of the minimum heat inputsrequired to avoidexceeding thehardness limitsspecified and may be used as thestarting point for establishing appropriate weld procedures. To estimate the range of heat inputs likely to be used. Typical parameters for the various processes can be obtained fromthe suppliers of welding consumables and may differ in detailfrom those givenin thetable.0 2. weld heat input and plate thickness are defined in Diagram 1. Heat inputs for positional welding may be lowerthan those quoted in the table. Vertical straight lines through these intersections into Graphs B and Cwill indicate heat input levels appropriate to the range of thickness shown. Fillet Leg Length mm FCAW Heat InputkJ/mm FCAW* Rutile 1. restrictions of heat inputto limit maximum heat affected zonehardness may be required to prevent hydrogen cracking. Also.8) FCAW—flux cored MIG/MAG welding MCAW— metal cored MIG/MAGwelding MMA —manual metal arcwelding *Care must betaken inthechoice of appropriate consumables. E E F EBA G THE HEAT INPUT LEVELSARE REPRESENTED ON THE () Co w GRAPHSAS 30 FOLLOWS:- z I I0 20 HI 5kJ/mm %PAT 1 u HI 100 1000 4kJ/mm COOLING TIME(sec) 800/500°C HI 3kJ/mm CLI > 1400 —AND CAPPING PASSES BUTT WELDS FILLETWELDS HI 2kJ/mm Z300 HI lkJ/mm 1200 N < I A — 10 1 100 1000 Not practical COOLINGTIME (sec)8OO/5OOC F. ()Notrecommended.All heat inputconditions to the right of theverticallines drawn on the figures will give lower hardness values. the HAZ HardnessAssessment Diagram. 6 .5 2.6 1. The diagram consists of three graphs: — Graph A hastwo curves representing the range of HAZhardness whichwould be observed in welded joints. — Graph C shows combinations of heat input and platethickness for the 100°C preheat condition.1 MCAW MMA Basic 1.Co Cl) w z I Ui Q- 0 I- 10 100 1000 COOLING TIME (sec)800/500°C B Diagram 1 HAZHardnessAssessmentDiagram Filletwelds Various welding processes are appropriate for filletwelding of BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel and the following tablecontains guidance on the maximum heat inputsto be used for a range of fillet leg lengths. Therelationships between HAZ hardness.6 — 2.3 6 8 10 1.4 (3.2 2. The lower curveshowsthetypical levels of HAZhardness to beexpected in multipass butt weldsand the upper shows the pessimistic values appropriate tofillet weldsand the capping passes of butt welds. which also provides agraphical method of estimating the heat input appropriate to any specified HAZhardness limit. — Graph B shows combinations of heat input and platethickness fortheno preheat condition. draw a horizontal line on Graph A atthe desired or specified level of hardness to intersect both curves.HAZ hardness Fabrication specifications commonly set limits on the hardness levels permitted in the heataffected zone. Not recommended .0 — 1.
5kJ/mm AU HI 3kJ/mm GraphB shows the relationship between heat input and platethickness for 100°C preheat. Graph A shows the relationship range for Charpy impact toughness and has two curves. BE HI 2kJ/mm A HI C. A and B. the requirement forpreheat depends on the joint restraint as wellas combined joint thickness. preheat levels can be lowered if low hydrogen processes whch consistently achieve hydrogen levels below 5m1/lOOgm are used.HAZ toughness THE HEAT INPUT LEVELSARE REPRESENTED The relationships between HAZtoughness. to estimate the range of levels of HAZimpact to toughness be expected in weldedjoints using the of heat inputs shown. BOTH GRAPHS AS SCALEB OF BS5135 HYDROGEN LEVELOF 1O-15m1/lOOgm A &) C') LU E E 0 CRACK I IIz UNO NOCRACK PREHEAT 0 -. equivalent levels of HAZtoughness may be expected in jointsweldedwithoutpreheat. I I— LU COOLING TIME(sac) 8OOI5OOC B AssessmentDiagram Diagram 2 HAZToughness Avoidance of HAZ cracking The HAZcracking assessment diagram graphs illustrate the extent of cold cracking susceptibility of BS7191:450EM/EMZ steel. and therefore thefigures should be used for guidance only.Generally. In practice. lkJ/mm E E (I) p. The combined joint thickness is as defined in BS5135. weld heat inputand platethickness are shown in Diagram 2. Theminimum heat input required to avoid cold cracking is shown as a function of combined joint thickness forno preheat and 100°C preheat respectively. in the same way as the hardness assessment diagram. Not practical Not recommended C') LU z 0 -J a.Thegraphsin Diagram3 are derived from observations over the whole of the combined thickness and heat inputranges shown and are based on hydrogen levels (1O-l5mlIlOOgm) typicalofgood site welding practice. The upper represents typical levels to be expected and thelower curverepresents the minimum levels anticipated. This pairof graphs canbe used. range Provided a similar range of coolingtimesis employed. 0 F---1 0 B 2 HEATINPUT (kJ/mm) Diagram 3 HAZcrackingAssessmentDiagram 7 . which consists of two graphs. ON THE GRAPHSAS FOLLOWS:HI 3.
Before using products supplied or manufactured by British Steel plcfhe customer shoufd satisfy himself ottheIr suitabflity. If furtherasaisfance is required. but Britiah Steelplc and itu subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or tor intormation which is band to be misleading. Lanarkshire ML1 1AA Telephone:0698 266233 Telefax:0698 262020 Telex:777961 Care hae been takento eeaure that the conteets of thia publication are accurate.British Steel Sections.93 . Plates & Commercial Steels P0 Box 30. Motherwell. British Steelplc withinthe operational limits of its research facilities may oftenbe able fo help Reference No: P6E(1)/2. Suggestions for or descriptions ot the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and British Steel plc and its subsidiaries accept no liability in PLEASE NOTE respect thereof.
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