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© 1999 by Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for

Buddhist Translation Research
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means
-electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise-
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
First Printing, 1999
ISBN: 1-886439-04-4
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-079041
Published by
Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research
2620 Warring Street
Berkeley, California 94704
Printed in the United States of America
































BDK English Tripitaka 60 -I, II, III

THREE TEXTS ON CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY
Demonstration of Consciousness Only
by Hsiian -tsang

The Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only
by Vasubandhu

The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only
by Vasubandhu

Translated from the Chinese of Hsüan -tsang
(Taishó Volume 31, Numbers 1585, 1586, 1590)
by

Francis H. Cook

Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research
1999

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© 1999 by Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation Research

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means -electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwisewithout the prior written permission of the publisher.

First Printing, 1999 ISBN: 1-886439-04-4 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-079041

Published by Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research 2620 Warring Street Berkeley, California 94704

Printed in the United States of America

A Message on the Publication of the English Tripitaka
The Buddhist canon is said to contain eighty -four thousand different teachings. I believe that this is because the Buddha's basic approach

was to prescribe a different treatment for every spiritual ailment, much as a doctor prescribes a different medicine for every medical
ailment. Thus his teachings were always appropriate for the particular suffering individual and for the time at which the teaching was

given, and over the ages not one of his prescriptions has failed to relieve the suffering to which it was addressed.
Ever since the Buddha's Great Demise over twenty -five hundred years ago, his message of wisdom and compassion has spread throughout the world. Yet no one has ever attempted to translate the entire

Buddhist canon into English throughout the history of Japan. It is my greatest wish to see this done and to make the translations available to the many English- speaking people who have never had the opportunity to learn about the Buddha's teachings. Of course, it would be impossible to translate all of the Buddha's eighty -four thousand teachings in a few years. I have, therefore, had

one hundred thirty -nine of the scriptural texts in the prodigious
Taishó edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon selected for inclusion in the First Series of this translation project. It is in the nature of this undertaking that the results are bound to be criticized. Nonetheless, I am convinced that unless someone takes it upon himself or herself to initiate this project, it will never be done. At the same time, I hope that an improved, revised edition will appear in the future.

It is most gratifying that, thanks to the efforts of more than a hundred Buddhist scholars from the East and the West, this monumental project has finally gotten off the ground. May the rays of the Wisdom of the Compassionate One reach each and every person in the world.
NUMATA Yehan Founder of the English Tripitaka Project
v

August 7, 1991

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Editorial Foreword
In January, 1982, Dr. NUMATA Yehan, the founder of the Bukkyó Dendó Kyókai (Society for the Promotion of Buddhism), decided to begin the monumental task of translating the complete Taishó edition of the Chinese Tripitaka (Buddhist Canon) into the English language. Under his leadership, a special preparatory committee was organized in April, 1982. By July of the same year, the Translation Committee of the English Tripitaka was officially convened.

The initial Committee consisted of the following members:
HANAYAMA ShOyti (Chairperson); BANDÓ Shójun; ISHIGAMI Zennó; KAMATA Shigeo; KANAOKA Shüyll; MAYEDA Sengaku; NARA Yasuaki;
SAYEKI Shinko; (late) SHIOIRI Ryotatsu; TAMARUNoriyoshi; (late) TAMURA

Kwansei; URYUIZU Ryñshin; and YUYAMA Akira. Assistant members of the Committee were as follows: KANAZAWA Atsushi; WATANABE Shogo;

Rolf Giebel of New Zealand; and Rudy Smet of Belgium.

After holding planning meetings on a monthly basis, the Committee selected one hundred thirty -nine texts for the First Series of translations, an estimated one hundred printed volumes in all. The texts selected are not necessarily limited to those originally written in India but also include works written or composed in China and Japan. While the publication of the First Series proceeds, the texts for the Second Series will be selected from among the remaining works; this process will continue until all the texts, in Japanese as well as in Chinese, have been published. Frankly speaking, it will take perhaps one hundred years or more to accomplish the English translation of the complete Chinese and Japanese texts, for they consist of thousands of works. Nevertheless, as Dr. NUMATA wished, it is the sincere hope of the Committee that this project will continue unto completion, even after all its present members have passed away. It must be mentioned here that the final object of this project is not academic fulfillment but the transmission of the teaching of the

,

vii

Editorial Foreword

Buddha to the whole world in order to create harmony and peace
among mankind. To that end, the translators have been asked to minimize the use of explanatory notes of the kind which are indispensable in academic texts so that the attention of general readers will not be unduly distracted from the primary text. Also, a glossary of selected

terms is appended to aid in understanding the text.
To my great regret, however, Dr. NUMATA passed away on May 5, 1994, at the age of 97, entrusting his son, Mr. NUMATA Toshihide, with the continuation and completion of the Translation Project. The

Committee also lost its able and devoted Chairperson, Professor
HANAYAMA Shdyil, on June 16, 1995, at the age of 63. After these severe blows, the Committee elected me, Vice President of the Musashino Women's College, to be the Chair in October 1995. The Committee has

renewed its determination to carry out the noble intention of Dr.
NUMATA, under the leadership of Mr. NUMATA Toshihide.

The present members of the Committee are MAYEDA Sengaku
(Chairperson), BANDO Shójun, ISHIGAMI Zennó, ICHISHIMA Shóshin, KAMATA Shigeo, KANAOKA Shuyu, NARA Yasuaki, SAYEKI Shinkti, TAMARU Noriyoshi, URYUZU Ryñshin, and YUYAMA Akira. Assistant members are WATANABE Shogo and UEDA Noboru.

The Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research was established in November 1984, in Berkeley, California, U.S.A., to assist in the publication of the BDK English Tripitaka First Series. In December 1991, the Publication Committee was organized at the Numata Center, with Professor Philip Yampolsky as the Chairperson. To our sorrow, Professor Yampolsky passed away in July 1996, but thankfully Dr. Kenneth Inada is continuing the work as Chairperson. This text is the sixteenth volume to be published and distributed

by the Numata Center. All of the remaining texts will be published under the supervision of this Committee, in close cooperation with the Translation Committee in Tokyo.
MAYEDA Sengaku

July 10. 1999

Chairperson Translation Committee of the BDK English Tripitaka

ru_

Publisher's Foreword
The Publication Committee works in close cooperation with the Editorial Committee of the BDK English Tripitaka in Tokyo, Japan. Since December 1991, it has operated from the Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research in Berkeley, California. Its principal mission is to oversee and facilitate the publication in English of selected texts from the one hundred - volume Taishö Edition of the Chi-

nese Tripitaka, along with a few major influential Japanese
Buddhist texts not in the Tripitaka. The list of selected texts is conveniently appended at the end of each volume. In the text itself, the Taishó Edition page and column designations are provided in the margins. The Committee is committed to the task of publishing clear, readable English texts. It honors the deep faith, spirit, and concern of the
late Reverend Doctor NUMATA Yehan to disseminate Buddhist teach-

ings throughout the world. In July 1996, the Committee unfortunately lost its valued Chairperson, Dr. Philip Yampolsky, who was a stalwart leader, trusted friend, and esteemed colleague. We follow in his shadow. In February 1997, I was appointed to guide the Committee in his place. The Committee is charged with the normal duties of a publishing firm general editing, formatting, copyediting, proofreading, indexing, and checking linguistic fidelity. The Committee members are Diane Ames, Eisho Nasu, Charles Niimi, Koh Nishiike, and the presi-

dent and director of the Numata Center, Reverend Kiyoshi S.
Yamashita.

Kenneth K. Inada
July 10, 1999

Chairperson Publication Committee

ix

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Contents

A Message on the Publication of the English Tripitaka
Nu31AiA Yehan

v
vii

Editorial Foreword

MAYEDA Sengaku
Kenneth K. Inada

Publisher's Foreword

ix

Demonstration of Consciousness Only
Hsüan -tsang
1 -372

The Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only
Vasubandhu
373 -384

The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only
Vasubandhu
387 -408

Glossary

409
423 425

Selected Bibliography
Index

A List of the Volumes of the BDK English Tripitaka (First Series)

xi

DEMONSTRATION OF
CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY
by

Hsüan-tsang

Translated from the Chinese
(Taishó Volume 31, Number 1585)
by

Francis H. Cook

Translator's Introduction

The name of the text that I have translated as "Demonstration of
Consciousness Only" is Ch'eng wei -shih lun, number 1585 in the Japanese Taishó .shinshú daizakyo edition of the Buddhist canon. Its author was the Chinese monk- scholar Hsüan -tsang (600 -64), who also trans-

lated about seventy -five Sanskrit Buddhist texts. It is said that Hsüan -tsang decided to travel to India in search of answers to questions he could not find in the Buddhist texts available to him in China and to find more important texts to bring back. He set out for India in 629, arriving at the great Buddhist university of Nálandá in India in 633, after a long and hazardous land voyage through the deserts of Central Asia and the icy mountains of northwest India.

During the five years he spent at Nálandá, he discovered the
verse treatise Trimsiká- vijñaptimatratá by the famous monk - scholar

Vasubandhu, along with ten prose commentaries on these "Thirty Verses" by Dharmapala, Sthiramati, Nanda, Citrabhánu, Gunamati, Jinamitra, Jñánacandra, Bandhusri, Suddhacandra, and Jinaputra. The "Thirty Verses" and the ten commentaries became the basis for Hsüan - tsang's Ch'eng wei -shih lun. He returned to China in 645 and set about to translate this and a number of other texts he had brought with him. The Ch'eng wei -shih lun is presented simply as a translation of
Vasubandhu's "Verses" and the commentaries, but in fact Hsüan -tsang was selective in his use of the commentaries; he seems to have decided that Dharmapála's interpretation of the "Verses" was the correct one.

Consequently, of the ten commentaries, only three are consistently

1

Demonstration of Consciousness Only

used, with a fourth occasionally appearing. When Hsüan -tsang presents the interpretations, he usually gives those of Sthiramati, Nanda, and Dharmapála, occasionally including that of Citrabhánu. The interpretation given last, that of Dharmapála, is invariably considered

the correct one. Consequently, for all practical purposes, the text consists of the translation of the "Thirty Verses," generally referred to as the Treatise, plus the interpretation of Dharmapála as the cor-

rect view, with the supplementation of two or three divergent
interpretations. There is some question among Buddhist scholars whether Dharmapála's interpretation of the doctrine of consciousness only was what Vasubandhu intended in his "Verses." Hsüan tsang's disciple K'uei -chi created an independent school
based on the Ch'eng wei -shi.h lun, known in China as the Fa- hsiang School (School of the Characteristics of Dharmas) and as Wei -shih, "Consciousness Only." This school was one of the earliest to be introduced to Japan, where it is known as the Hossó (Fa- hsiang) School. The text and the school have had very important places in the devel-

opment of East Asian Buddhism, and the text is still the object of considerable interest and study.
In my translation, I have indicated the "Thirty Verses" by upper-

case print, both when the verses are introduced and subsequently when each term is defined and discussed by the commentaries.
Vasubandhu's "Verses" and the prose commentaries may be seen

as an attempt to clarify the question of how ignorance (avidyc) or delusion (moha) take place and how they are removed, since this is the Buddhist task par excellence. The question may be restated as
that of how deluded, erroneous perception and knowledge can he replaced with enlightened, unerring perception and knowledge. While all Buddhists agreed that the fundamental obstacle to the life of liberation and compassion was ignorance of the real nature of

events, there is a need to show systematically, rigorously, and in detail what the mechanism of ignorance is, as well as the process of
liberation. Hsüan - tsang's text is an attempt to answer the question of the mechanism and nature of ignorance by demonstrating that seemingly

2

Translator's Introduction

real external objects of perception (dharma) and the equally seem-

ingly real self (álman) who perceives these things are mental fabrications that do not exist apart from consciousness itself.
Consequently, there are no real external objects to crave, fear, dominate, be subject to, or otherwise be obsessed with. By the same token, there is no real, unchanging inner self that craves, fears, and so on. Both the grasper or knowing self (grahaka) and the grasped (grahya) are mere mental constructs. To believe that there is a self and really existing external things that are meaningful to the self is delusion and results in suffering, confusion, and the incapacity for benevolence and compassion. To realize that the self and apparently real things are only mental images results in the ability to endure suffering patiently, with clarity, and the Buddhist life of compassion. Thus liberation and Buddhahood result from the realization that selves and real external things are nothing but ideas (vijñapli- matra) or, as Hsüan -tsang expresses
it, consciousness only (wei- shih.). The theory of the Ch'eng wei -shih lun is that basic or fundamen-

tal consciousness (mala- vijñana) comes to appear naturally and
spontaneously in the form of a seeing part (darsana- bhaga) and a seen part (nimitta- bhaga). The seeming reality of an inner self perceiving

external events is nothing more than one aspect of consciousness
perceiving itself in the form of images. A third part of consciousness, the manas, or thinking aspect, interprets the two parts as a self and

an external world. This situation is also the basis for hatred, craving, fear, and other passions. In fact, the apparently real external
world of things is nothing but internal images perceived by conscious-

ness and grasped as a source of attachment by thought. The question of the origin of these images is answered by the theory of "seeds" (bija). The term "seed" is a metaphor for a potentiality that can become one of the images of consciousness, in the same

way that a real seed is the potential for the later mature plant.
Some of these seed - potentials are innate, while others are acquired through experience. They can be potentials for impurity and unwholesomeness or for purity and wholesomeness. They are all harbored in

3

Demonstration of Consciousness Only

root consciousness which, in its capacity of storing them, is referred to as "store consciousness" (álaya- vijñána). The process of becoming

enlightened and a Buddha is portrayed as a purification process
whereby the seeds of impurity and unwholesomeness are destroyed and the seeds of purity and wholesomeness are increased. This process is known as the "transmutation of the support" (dgraya- pardurtti),

referring to the total, drastic change in the nature of the root consciousness, the support of both kinds of seeds.

In the course of describing this transmutation, whereby one
changes from an ordinary, deluded being into a Buddha, the Ch'eng zvei -ship lien undertakes a long, detailed explanation of the nature and functions of eight kinds of consciousness, with particular emphasis on the eighth consciousness as storer of seeds. This discussion also involves a detailed description of the nature and functions of mental activities (caitta), such as craving, faith, sloth, samádhi, etc., divided into categories of good, bad, neither good nor bad, and so on. This cataloging, definition, and analysis of each mental activity makes the text an excellent source for exact knowledge of Buddhist technical terminology. There is also an important discussion of the "three natures" (trisvabadva), important for the way it clarifies the nature

of Buddhist enlightenment as the revelation of the ultimate truth (paramártha- satya), true suchness (tathatd), and the perfected nature (parinispanna- svabhcva) of things through the eternal separation of imagination from those things that occur simply through
co- conditioning, referring, of course, to the mental images. Final sections of the text are devoted to a lengthy and detailed description of the bodhisattva's traversing of the stages, states, and related accomplishments from the very beginning of the process to the culminating state of Buddhahood. In the course of this description, there are discussions of such matters as the ten obstacles to be eliminated, the ten kinds of true suchness to be realized, and other

related subjects, making the text a rich source of knowledge of
Mahayana doctrine and practice. Although I have translated almost all technical terms in the fol-

lowing pages, I have left a few untranslated, either because the

4

Translator's Introduction

original Sanskrit term always appears in Western works untranslated, such as Buddha, nirvana, and Bodhisattva, or because I can find no exact translation term that is acceptable in all ways. Also,
sometimes the term is untranslated (while being translated elsewhere here) because Hsüan -tsang specifies the original Sanskrit term by

simply transliterating it rather than translating it (as with ma -na for manas, elsewhere translated as "thought "). The following terms are usually untranslated: 1. dharma. Uncapitalized, it names an experiential datum. It might be translated as "object" or "thing," except that these words refer to such things as people, animals, plants, human artifacts, and
the like. These are not dharmas. The Fa- hsiang School has a formal list of one hundred dharmas that constitute what it considers to be real experiential data. The list includes matter (rúpa) such as eyes,

ears, noses, etc., with their corresponding objects, such as shapes with color, sounds, odors, etc. Also included is a long list of psychic factors included under mind and mental activities, such as attention, craving, faith, agitation, etc. 2. Dharma, spelled with a capital D, is the Buddhist term for what we would call "Buddhism." The Dharma is the teaching of the Buddha, the laws that characterize existence, the truth.
3. sanzsc ra. The opposite of nirvana. The world of suffering, death,

and rebirth. I have also translated it as "birth and death."
4. karma. Also translated in the following pages as "action," which is the literal meaning. It refers always to action that is morally good or bad or neutral. The results of karma are karma- phala, "fruits of action." 5. dharani. Usually refers to an incantation or spell. In this text, it seems to simply mean a "support" or "bearer," meaning a support for enlightened knowing and related wholesome mental states. From the Sanskrit root dhr, meaning "to support." 6. samadhi. Translated in some English works as "meditation." However, there can be meditation without sanzeidhi. The term is defined as "one- pointedness of mind" and refers to a focussing of attention on a single object to the exclusion of all other external stimuli.

5

and I have benefitted greatly from both it and Poussin's notes. California April 1 991 6 . The first is a French translation by the eminent scholar Louis de la Vallée Poussin. Both translations leave much to be desired in that they leave almost all Sanskrit technical terms untranslated. It is a faithful rendering of the Poussin translation. there is a very useful commentary on the text by K'uei -chi.object mode of cognition is overcome. The second is an English translation of Poussin's French translation by Wei Tat. There are two other translations of the Ch'eng wei -shih lun in Western languages. the Ch'eng wei -shih lun shu -chi (Taish6 No. It is a very careful translation. It is the name of the seventh consciousness among the eight recognized by this text. Francis H. It is indispensable for an understanding of many very difficult passages in the text.Demonstration of Consciousness Only It also refers to the oneness of subject and object in which the subject. Cook Riverside. copiously annotated and including comments quoted from the Chinese commentary of K'uei -chi. Lun: Doctrine of Mere Consciousness. published by Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner in 1928 as Vijñaptimátratá: La Siddhi de HivanTsang. Also translated as "thought" in the text. manas. 7. published in Hong Kong in 1973 by the Ch'eng Wei -Shih Lun Publi- cation Committee. Ch'eng Wei -Shih. 1830). Finally.

like consciousness. "Correct understanding" means eliminating the two heavy obstacles (duararia). By realizing the two kinds of emptiness. Purpose of This Book Vasubandhu composed the 'Treatise] "Thirty Verses" for those who are deluded about or deny the two kinds of emptiness (súnyatd). so that they may arouse correct understanding. one obtains two excellent results: by eliminating the obstacle of passions that lead to rebirth. one realizes true liberation. the obstacles are removed. Some grasp 7 . These two obstacles arise as a result of attachment to a self and dharmas. to permit them to reach the two kinds of emptiness and really comprehend the principle of consciousness only. and by removing the two obstacles. one obtains great awakening (rnahc bodhi). Also. Some are deluded about this principle of consciousness only. Vasubandhu composed the Treatise to instruct those who are attached to a self and dharmas and who are deluded about consciousness only. by eliminating the obstacle to the knowable that hinders true understanding. I shall explain what has been said for the benefit and joy of beings. Some grasp the external world as not nonexistent.Introduction Homage I render homage to those purified wholly or in part through consciousness only.

inátratr). 8 . Some grasp the various kinds of consciousness as being the same in substance but different in characteristics.Demonstration of Consciousness Only internal consciousness as nonexistent. Some believe that there are no separate mental functions apart from the mind. like the external world. This Treatise was composed in order to refute these views and to allow people to acquire a correct understanding of the profound and wonderful principle of consciousness only (vijñapti.

If these forms are based on metaphors. THE METAPHOR OF SELF AND DHARMAS EVOLVES IN VARIOUS WAYS UPON THE TRANSFORMATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS." "quality. The Treatise says that ordinary people and holy teachings say that selves and dharmas exist." "karma." "ag- gregates" (skandha).Chapter I Attachment to Self and Attachment to Dharmas 1." Here. and "sense fields" (dhc tu). why do ordinary people and holy teachings say that selves and dharmas exist? The "Thirty Verses" says. These take different forms. how can they be established? These forms are all metaphorical constructions based on the transformations of consciousness. THOUGHT. Various forms of selves include such things as "being" and "living being. CONSCIOUSNESS means "perception." and such things as "stream. AND PERCEPTION OF THE EXTERNAL REALM. because they are only metaphors. in the Treatise.winner" and "once returner." Various forms of dharmas are such things as "substance. EVOLVES means that these distinctions occur in accordance with conditions. THE TRANSFORMING CONSCIOUSNESS IS THREEFOLD: RETRIBUTION. but they do not really exist. "sense bases" (áyatana). DHARMAS are rules. Attachment to Self If nothing exists but consciousness. SELF means a controlling power. the word "consciousness" also 9 .

TRANSFORMATION means that the substance of consciousness evolves to resemble two parts. because these two images have no support other than these two parts. Even though these apparent selves and apparent dharmas that are evolutions of consciousness exist. still. However. the two extremes of increase and decrease are avoided. sentient beings consider them to be real selves and dharmas as a result of this grasping. includes mental activities. None of these selves and dharmas that the foolish believe in really exist.authenticating nature of consciousness. The external object is based on internal consciousness and therefore only exists from a worldly point of view. They are said to be METAPHORS because they are based on nothing but false delusions. Internal consciousness evolves resembling an external realm. they are like manifestations and for that reason are said to be metaphors. From beginningless time. when the consciousnesses are born. because of the power of the dream. Consciousness is the basis for the conventionally established realm and therefore exists in ultimate truth. due to imagination. As a result of the power of impressions Wu sand) from imagining a self and dharmas. they appear to be external. they are not real selves and dharmas. Self and dharmas originate from these two parts. How do we know that the external world does not really exist but that there is an internal consciousness that is born resembling external objects? Because a real self and dharmas cannot be found. An external realm is established on the basis of delusion and hence does not really exist in the same way that consciousness does. they change into a self and dharmas. Even though the images of this self and dharmas are within consciousness. because they are without doubt associated with the former. One is like a dreamer whose mind. In this way. 10 . Inner consciousness is necessarily generated from causes and conditions and therefore is not nonexistent in the same way that external objects are. consisting of internal images and perception' arise on the basis of the self .Demonstration of Consciousness Only Ii. because these two ' parts. appears in the form of various external things and who consequently considers them to be really external things.

if selves correspond to bodies. all must perform it. because the Dharma practiced and realized would be merged with all selves. they must be divisible. Also. because. it cannot move. It makes no sense that they belong to one and not another. on the other hand. universal. This is a big mistake! If. like space. and body must be united with all selves. and extended like space. because it expands and contracts according to the body's size. it performs actions and experiences pleasure and pain. because action. If one being obtains liberation. this is not reasonable. In all situations. then when one being performs an action. all must obtain it. If you claim that the action or result of action of beings is distinct and peculiar to the individual. all must experience it. so how can the substance of a self be unitary? Consequently. universal. and extended like space could not feel pain and pleasure through the body. like an atom. expanding and contracting like a bellows. where it moves about and performs actions. The second theory is likewise unreasonable. The first theory is unreasonable. this theory is simply childish nonsense. The second theory is that the self that is grasped is eternal but that it has no fixed extension. then all must act and receive the results. Why? A self that is eternal. then the selves of beings must merge together and their substances must be mixed. it cannot expand and contract in the body. and when one being experiences the results of action. when one acts and experiences the results. it must not be eternal. Also. Why? If the substance of the self is eternal. The third theory is that the self is eternal but extremely small. le 11 . all must obtain it. three theories of what a self is. you claim that each being has a distinct self.Chapter I Why can a real self not be found? There are. When one obtains liberation. is the self the same for all sentient beings or is it different? If it is the same for all. and thus no error occurs. since all selves occupy the same place. And if it is eternal and universal. It resides hidden in the body. The first is that the self is eternal. in short. result. so how could it perform actions through the body? Also.

because I being formless) like space. how can it make a large body move? If you claim that even though it is small. 12 . Therefore the real self that is grasped does not exist. Moreover. it travels through the body rapidly. it cannot act or experience the results of action. it is neither the same as nor different from the aggregates. The second theory. internal forms are not a real self because. like hands and feet. Also. like the horns of a rabbit. Therefore this self does not agree with reason. is also unreasonable. Therefore both theories about the self are invalid. Also. it cannot be said to be either a self or not a self. then.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The third theory is also unreasonable. the self would be something like a pot and not a real self. it is not eternal. does this real self that is grasped think or not? If it thinks. the aggregates. As for the first. they are unaware. it is different. If it does not act. because a self that is like the aggregates must not be eternal or unitary. is also unreasonable. it is not reasonable that the self is identical with the aggregates. then the self you are attached to is neither unitary nor eternal. Nor are mind and mental activities a real self. since it cannot be said that the self either acts or does not act. then. they are substantial. like space. If it does not think. because. then it is not eternal. that the self is neither the same as. because by saying that the self is based on the aggregates but is neither identical with them nor different from them. because thought does not take place at all times. Why? If the self is as small as an atom. then. that the self is different from the aggregates. like space. because that which comes and goes is neither unitary nor eternal. There are also three other theories about selves: the self is identical with the aggregates (skandha). Also. like external forms. does this self that is grasped act or not? If it acts. because they do not continue in an unbroken series but rather require a host of conditions to exist. it can neither act nor experience the results of action. Nor are other forms of karmic predispositions (samskára) a real self. Finally. nor different from. it must not be real. moving like a whirling torch. the third theory.

is this truly existing self the object of the "view of self (atma. It takes two forms. 2. The second form is intermittent and resides in the sixth consciousness. One actually sees only the aggregates that evolve from consciousness and.skandha) that evolve from consciousness. That is why it is said to be innate. innate attachment is always present in the individual and does not depend on false teachings or imagination but rather occurs spontaneously. Due to the power of the inner causation of false perfuming that has existed since beginningless time. because it is an object. because then it would be true knowledge. The perceived object of the view of self is definitely not a real self. The first form of innate attachment is constant and continuous and resides in the seventh consciousness. like any other object. It takes as an object the images of the five aggregates that are grasped (upadana. how can you say that there is a truly existing self? If it is the object of the view of self. and produces 13 . because they all have objects no different from any object of the mind. It takes as an object the eighth consciousness and produces an image that is natural to the mind which it clings to as a self. and resulting from imagination. then there must exist a view of self not included among the perverted views (viparyasa).drsti) or not? If it is not. in accordance with one's own delusions. how do you explain the fact that the supreme doctrine of those who presumably advocate a real self all denounce the view of self and extol the view of no self. Cessation of Attachment Attachment to a self takes two forms: innate.Chapter 1 Also. either individually or wholly. If that is the case. while those who are attached to a view of self transmigrate in the realm of birth and death? How can a person with a perverted view attain nirvana and one with a correct view transmigrate in the realm of birth and death? Moreover. interprets them in various ways. saying that those who see no self realize nirvana. none of the various views of a self has as an object a 2a real self.

" It only exists in the sixth consciousness. or nano. and hence 14 . perception. external conditions and is therefore not innate. clings to it as a real self. The self that is falsely grasped is an unreasonable speculation and therefore definitely is nonexistent. which are erroneously grasped as a self. and. The second has as its object the image of a self spoken of in a false teaching. When one first enters the path of insight (dai -donainaiga). However. They are only eliminated at a later time on the path of cultithrough the repeated cultivation of the vation (hhdvancz. and clings to it as a real self. and so forth? We reply that if the self that is grasped is eternal and unchanging. it must be the same before and after. Therefore attachment is always wholly directed to the images of the five aggregates that are clung to. Therefore a scripture says.Demonstration of Consciousness Only an image that is natural to the mind which it clings to as a self. the images of the aggregates are wholly produced from conditions and therefore have an illusory existence.me eminent contemplation of emptiness I of the self]. They always exist in connection with aggregates internal to mind. if there is no self. repetition. volition. These two forms of attachment are subtle and difficult to eliminate. hence the name "imagination. These two kinds of attachment are gross and therefore easy to eliminate. It derives from false doctrines and false imagination for its existence. that the view of a self of the Brahmins and sramanas originates in the five aggregates that are grasped." It may be asked. one contemplates true reality as the natural emptiness of all dharmas and eliminates this attachment. produces an image that is natural to the mind. It also takes two forms. through imagination and speculation. how do you account for such things as recollection. produces an im- age that is natural to the mind. The first occurs when the sixth consciousness takes as an object images of the aggregates discussed in a false teaching. monks. Thus all these attachments to a self exist in connection with aggregates within the mind but not to aggregates external to mind. Attachment to a self resulting from imagination is the result of the power of present. "You 2b should know.vijizana. anger.

because of the power of causes and conditions of the minds and mental activities of sentient beings. who transmigrates being born and dying in the various planes of existence? Who has a distaste for suffering and seeks nirvana? [We reply. it must not be eternal. all sentient beings possess a fundamental consciousness that is homogeneous. can exist.. this is unreasonable. and contains seeds [of all dharmasl. are in your tenets.] since the self that you grasp is itself birthless and deathless. it does change. if it is the same before as it is after. Also.contradiction.. if substance does not differ from function.Chapter I recollection must not exist. it must not be constant. these series turn toward various planes of existence. and so there is no contradiction with reason. who performs acts and experiences the results of action? We reply. [Or it may be asked. they seek nirvana. you should realize that there is 15 . etc. and due to the power of perfuming (vasanäl. continuous. Therefore difficulties concerning recollection. so how can it detest suffering and seek nirvana? Thus your claim turns upon itself in self. However.1 if there is no real self. I if the self is really nonexistent. on the other hand. it is like space. the performance of action and experience of results continues without cessation. since the self that you grasp is said to be unchanging. because its substance would be the same in prior and subsequent states. not in ours.. and by the power of passions and actions. This consciousness and all dharmas act upon each other. If it is claimed that although the function of the self changes from state to state the substance remains unchanged. because function is not separate from substance and therefore should always exist. how can you say that it transmigrates in the realm of birth and death? Your self must resemble space. etc. However. Also. perception. [Or it may be asked. etc. such things as recollection. Sentient beings are continuous series of psychical and physical states. It is not tormented by suffering. As a consequence of this. must already exist in the prior state. then recollection. Because they are tormented by suffering. How could it perform actions and experience the results? If.

something resembling a self appears. they are not eternal. etc. only various consciousnesses. are real and not fictitious. etc. The foolish mistake what is falsely grasped for a real self. the former I mental state] disappears and a succeeding [state I ap- pears.. 3.Buddhists nonexistent? The Sámkhyas believe in a self that is intelligent and that uses twenty -three dharmas. if Mahat. and lamas. etc... etc. are the same as Mahat.Buddhists and other vehicles of Buddhism] do not exist from the standpoint of reason.. and are therefore fictitious. are real. they must not be composed of the three quali- ties of sattva. Attachment to Dharmas Why is it that apart from consciousness. How can it be claimed that they are known by direct perception? Moreover. since there is no difference between substance and function. just as the latter themselves are not so composed.. and thus there is a continuous series of causes and results. Mahal. Since the three qualities. etc. From beginningless time. act in many ways and 2c therefore should have multiple substances.. because then their substance is no different from what it was prior to 16 . Although composed of the three qualities. such as Mahat. sattva. how can they combine and create a single characteristic I such as firmness. etc. which in turn are composed of the three qualities of rajas. then like Mahat. etc. since the three sub stances are all. This tenet is unreasonable..pervasive. they should change elsewhere. Also. no real dharmas can be found? Because the real dharmas grasped by non . they ought to be composed of the three.]? They must not be able to create a single characteristic when they combine. and are known by direct perception. etc. Why? Because Mahat. since they change. etc. By analogy. like an army or forest.. As a result of false perfuming I by false notions]. sattua. because their substances are not distinct. are made up of a plurality of things.. etc. then when they change in one place. the three elements of sattva.Demonstration of Consciousness Only no real self. Why are those grasped by non . Also. If it is admitted that the substance and characteristics of the three elements are different.

Character must be like substance. how do we know that each of the three is different? If each element possesses three characteristics. the general will be threefold. then the substance of each element must be tripartite. If the three elements do not com- bine and form a unity when they change. sense faculties. Though the world sees them as different. Nor can it be said that each of the three elements has a dual character. Also. obviously threefold. they can be neither one thing nor three. because you claim that substance and characteristics are the same. gross and subtle elements. this is self contradictory.. How then could they be perceived as a single color. then each must be able to create a color or the like. a particular character and a general one. are all synthetic I compounds of the three elements I.) are all distinct. etc. pure and impure. In that case.Chapter I combination. so that they appear as a unity. they lose their respective unique characteristics and accordingly lose their own substances. there will be no difference when they evolve. the three elements (sattva. Since the particulars and their compounds are the same. Substance must be like character. etc. one sense organ will perceive all objects. Thus there will be no difference between cause and effect. then since there are three characteristics. etc. direct perception 17 . obscurely one and the same. so why is it necessary for the three elements to unite? Also. Since the particular and general are the same. etc. or one kind of object will be perceived by all the different organs.? If the three elements do combine and form a single characteristic. so how can a unity be perceived? If it is claimed that the substance of each element has three characteristics. they must remain the same as before the change. while Mahat. If it is claimed that the substance of the three elements differs but the characteristics are the same. Therefore it cannot be claimed that three elements combine to form a single thing. since characteristics and substance are identical. and since Mahat and the others are each composed of the three elements. the animate and inanimate. but that it is difficult to distinguish the combined mixture. how do they appear as a unity? Again.

etc. in the category of substance there are things that are eternal and corporeal.. then they must not have any self nature apart from consciousness. Therefore there is no real earth. The Vaisesikas believe in many categories (padártha). Moreover. fluidity. although false notions and speculation take them to be real. because it is admitted that they are sensed by material organs. like an army. Earth. but if they can produce results.. water. and wind in their doctrine should not be included in the category of corporeal substances. water. If they do not produce results. such as substance (dravya). water. This doctrine is untenable. are. This is acknowledged as being green form. fire. And the solidity. etc. and wind apart from solidity. As for noneternal elements. Because they do accomplish actions. which really exist and which are known by direct perception. etc. because they are contacted by bodily organs. like consciousness and its activities. they must be extended and divisible. fire. [the four elements of I earth. must not have distinct self. like the horns of a rabbit. water. etc. because they are not 18 . and fire are visible to the eye as green form. Therefore the real dharmas of the Sámkhyas do not exist. If they are not corporeal. heat. fire.. a forest. water. and wind are. fluidity. Also. heat.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 3a and inference. they are like the results they produce. and motion that they grasp should not be included in the category of noncorporeal elements. This would be a huge confusion. just as earth. etc. and fire. they must be like gross earth and therefore not eternal. fluidity. nonsubstances such as qualities. Noncorporeal dharmas among these categories that are sensed by material organs must be corporeal.natures apart from consciousness. Also.. would not be different. etc.. water. they must not be eternal. and no one really sees such things as real earth. and therefore not real existents I but only nominal realities'. if they are corporeal and substantial. as solidity. Why? Among the categories are those things that are immutable and eternal. but since they are corporeal.nature apart from consciousness. then they have no self . because they are not contacted by bodily organs. just as earth. and motion are.

. and action. then there must also be a nature of nonsubstance distinct from nonsubstance.. etc. Similarly." just as quality and action do. because it is admitted that like substance. etc. there must also be a nature of nonexistence apart from nonexisting things. quality. Just as the nature of substance.. how can the former be so? Therefore this "nature of existence" is mere false speculation. they must not have distinct self natures apart from consciousness. and it is like a thing that absolutely does not exist. etc. if there is a separate nature of existence apart from existing things. can be understood by analogy with the above. substance. If existence exists apart from substance. like flowers seen in the sky I by someone with an eye defect'. in relation to earth itself. etc. like the son of a stone woman. quality. they are not categorized as existent things. because it is not categorized as being one of the dharmas that exist. Therefore the issue of identical and different natures is mere supposition.nature apart from substance. and action. If the latter makes no sense. just as quality and action do.. Since they are not real substances. If existence is not nonexistent and has no separate nature of existence in turn. The category of union (samauaya) of the Vaisesikas definitely does not exist. because it is admitted that it differs from substance..Chapter I categorized as substances. The category of "existence" maintained by the Vaisesikas must not possess a distinct self . is not distinct from substance. etc. like things that absolutely do not exist.. neither does the former. etc. etc. They claim that substance.." because they differ from substance. etc. Also. it must not really exist. quality. then why do substance and so on have to have separate natures of existence? And. and action" that differ from actual substance. it is not nonexistent. is known through direct 19 . If there is a nature of substance distinct from substance. These are not the "nature of substance.. the nature of earth. Also. If this is not so. it makes no sense to be attached to "nature of substance. quality. because. must not be distinct from the nature of substance. etc. substance is not substance because it differs from "nature of substance.

Other doctrines claim that there is a great Brahma. self . It is not included in the direct perception of the self . the deityl is eternal. 4. a Nature. Etc. that is eternal and really exists. are mere speculations based on false notions.Demonstration of Consciousness Only perception.nature of substance apart from consciousness. etc.pervading and eternal. is endowed with all powers. at all times. or according to conditions. and the producer of all dharmas. like substance. Conversely.pervading is not real.existent deity whose substance is real and who is all. a Space. Therefore the categories of substance. an Ether. up to the category of union. etc.. it still does not exist. According to one doctrine. a Starting Point. because they are admitted as being objects that exist in the same way as the hairs of a tortoise. and what is not all. This doctrine is unreasonable.e. there is a great. The Great Lord.nature of union apart from consciousness. a Time. the noneternal is not all pervading. and is able to 20 . How much less real is this category of union that they admit is not known by direct perception. desires and conditions would arise spontaneously. the [nine categories such as1 substance are not known through direct perception as really existing things apart from consciousness. because it too arises from the convergence of fictitious dharmas. for the same reasons given previously. held by the Vaisesikas. it is not eternal. In fact.. Even if they establish that union is known by direct perception. If the deity's substance is all. etc. it must contain all powers and be able to produce all dharmas everywhere.pervading. like the knowledge of qualities.. etc. since the cause [i. Or else. but we have demonstrated with reason that they are not real. because this knowledge arises from the convergence of fictitious dharmas. eternal. If he produces dharmas when a desire arises. If something produces something. and simultaneously. the 3b knowledge that has substance as an object is not included in the direct perception that perceives the self . this contradicts the doctrine of a single cause. We can say the same about all the categories. a Self.

then it must not be eternal. If they claim that the resulting form combines with quantity and thus resembles gross form. their substance nevertheless really exists. water. If they do not have parts. Neither opinion is reasonable. fire. like mind and mental activities. and wind are real and eternal. though not eternal. though it is actually not. then they are unable to produce gross matter through aggregation. since they produce a result. These give rise to gross forms. If it is claimed that the result pervades its own cause and.Chapter I produce all dharmas. because the cause is not single." then the substance of this result also 21 . We refute all these in the same way we did the concept of a Great Lord. like pots or clothing. and in this way can be perceived." and consequently the created form must not be graspable by material organs such as eyes. because. There are those I Mimámsakasl who hold the opinion that the sound of the Vedas is eternal. Why? Since it is granted that the sound of the Vedas can express. lithe atoms they cling to have parts. Also. being like what they produce. The gross forms thus produced do not exceed the quantity of the cause. they require a number of conditions to exist. This opinion is also unreasonable. and. like any other sound. like a column of ants. Its power acts as an unchanging quantity that reveals all dharmas. Or else. uncombined with the quality of quantity. etc. the result that is created does not exceed the quantity of the cause. The other sounds J of the second view I are also not the substance of eternal sounds. then this resulting form that they cling to must be coextensive with the cause and. Another opinion holds that all sounds are eternal and are revealed in dependence on conditions. like gross forms. the result may be called "gross. Thus it must be like atoms and not called "gross form. the atoms must be united with the quantity of grossness. This contradicts their own tenet. then the substance is not eternal. how can it be granted that atoms are eternal? Also. because there must be no distinction of location. like atoms. There is an opinion [by the Lokáyatikasl that the atoms of earth.

This theory is unreasonable. This contradicts the theory that the three qualities (sattva. Consequently.contradictory. is that actual dharmas and the nature of existence. that of the Vaisesikas. are definitely different in substance. you must perceive all parts. In this case. so of what use would such a result be? Since the result is formed of multiple parts. self (dtnzan).Demonstration of Consciousness Only must not be single. etc. just as two atoms cannot. then your reasoning is faulty. Moreover. It also contradicts the empirical distinction among dharmas. Why? Because it must not be that all dharmas are the same as existence. because all parts would be the same. The second theory. etc. This is unreasonable. like sand accepting water and drugs penetrating molten copper. sufficient to form the object of a sense organ. if you do agree. are all different in substance.Buddhists. without any dis- tinction of substance. then when you perceive one part. then you contradict fact. holds that actual dharmas and the nature of existence. for all would be like existence. who says that sand and molten copper accept water and drugs? I If this were to occur. it would not be sensed by a physical organ. if you do not agree. then the many causal atoms must not be subtle and fine. If the result combines many parts and forms a gross effect. that of the Samkhyas and others. However. if the substance of the resulting gross form is unitary. Also. l the 3c atoms would separate and alter. then there must be no distinction such as green. Why? Because it must not be 22 . it must not be eternal.. they all come down to four types. The first. are identical with the nature of color. and thus they would be neither eternal nor unitary. the result would not even be gross. etc. etc. and therefore your former and latter opinions are self . if colors. etc.). It is mere vain speculation arising from delusion. etc.... just as the causes in which it resides are not single. are identical. If it is claimed that the substances of both the cause and the result accept each other and interpenetrate. both causes and results are impenetrable as masses and cannot occupy the same place. Also. because the location of each must be different. yellow. Hence this opinion ends in dilemma and goes nowhere. though there are many theories of actual dharmas among non .

Why? Because the error of both identity and difference is the same as previous errors of each side respectively. Why? Because the doctrine of neither identity nor difference is similar to the foregoing doctrine of both identity and difference. This is unreasonable. Therefore this doctrine is merely a device to avoid problems.Chapter I that all dharmas are not identical with existence. and neither identity nor difference could be established if their substance were identical. holds that existing dharmas are neither the same as. This contradicts the Vaisesika theory that the substance of actual things is not nonexistent. The fourth theory. if colors. it contradicts the empirical fact that objects exist.. dharmas unassociated with 23 . Like something ruined and nonexistent. are not identical with the nature of colors. etc. etc.. etc.. etc. 4a Other schools of Buddhism maintain that there are such really existing dharmas as form that are external to consciousness. then it ought not to negate both possibilities. Also. actual dharmas and the nature of existence are both identical and different. then it has nothing to say. etc. this is frivolous talk. Moreover. and the wise do not accept it. that of the Ajivikas. like sounds. that of the Jains. Also. This doctrine is unreasonable. then. it may well be that such distinctions as identity and difference are fictions rather than realities. Does the state- ment "neither identical nor different" deny or affirm? If it just affirms. then the two sides cancel each other. Also. they would not be objects of sight. and if it neither affirms nor denies. the two characteristics are mutually contradictory.. According to the third theory. This doctrine of neither identity nor difference also contradicts ordinary understanding that there are things that are identical or different. If it just denies. nor different from. and it contradicts the Ajivikas' own tenet that real dharmas such as forms really do exist. because they differ in substance. etc. if it both affirms and denies. This principle is definitely not established. It must not be that all dharmas are of the same identical substance. although they are grasped as real. On the other hand. the nature of existence. their substance would be undetectable. Why do we deny this? Because form.

Also. auditory. how can they combine and receive light or cast shadows? When the sun rises and illuminates something like a pillar.Demonstration of Consciousness Only mind. and since they are extended they are divisible and therefore not real. I not have [material I supports or form as objects? It is just that they are not lacking in form as a support but that this form is a transformation of consciousness. olfactory. then if atoms are not extended. Otherwise. Therefore the reality of resistant form is inadmissible. they must have such differences as being above or below. clothing. they do not I form as a larger mass and I become gross form. if they interpenetrate. Therefore atoms definitely have extension. How can the five kinds of consciousness [visual. then. it cannot be said that they gather together and combine. form will not obstruct or separate things. the east side and the west side are illuminated and shaded respectively. Therefore the atoms clung to by these schools must have extension. it transforms 24 . they must be divisible and not real. or in one of the four directions. like pots. Since the side that receives light and the side that is shaded are not identical. wherever there are atoms. If this is not so. if atoms have extension. because the atoms of which they are composed do not really exist. etc. when you see or touch something such as a wall. the atoms must be extended. etc. The form grasped by these schools falls into two groups: those that are resistant and composed of atoms. not realities. If it is claimed that resistant form is identical with atoms. and unconditioned dharmas grasped by these schools do not really exist. you can only see one side and not the other. If they are unextended. through the power of internal causes. If atoms are mutually resistant. If they are not mutually resistant. it is neither obstructive nor resistant. Resistant forms definitely do not really exist. In this case. Also. and hence they could not gather together to form pots. and those that are not resistant and are not composed of atoms. since they are like nonforms. Since the wall and the atoms are identical. they are like nonforms. then they are fictions. the atoms are established as being extended. when conscious- ness arises. That is. etc. Also.

etc. because it must not be that conditions as cause (hetu. such as visual consciousness. cannot generate the five kinds of consciousness. and therefore it must be granted that the condition as object is the transformation of one's consciousness. because they are similar to the image. are not known by direct perception. etc. They are inferred by their ability to produce consciousness. Atoms do not 25 . is inadmissible. it cannot be claimed that it is the condition for the five kinds of consciousness. at. An external resistant form is inadmissible. for example.. etc. the visual faculty. etc. because something I illusory I.Chapter 1 and appears as images. They are only powers. and [external I forms. because in that case there is no image of atoms in consciousness. because when the aggregation is divided. being different from the atoms themselves.. and therefore it must be the mere transformation and appearance of internal consciousness. [We reply that] that [condition in the form of object] alone cannot generate consciousness. [The Sautrántikas claim that] when the five forms of consciousness. are to be called "condition in the form of object" I since they produce consciousness!. like a second moon.pratyaya). It is said by the Small Vehicle that that which generates consciousness similar to itself is a condition in the form of an object (álambana. not something produced externally [apart from consciousness]. and on the basis of these images there is a support [which is the organ] and an object [which is the apparent external form! for the senses. An external condition as object. etc." because it is the support that generates visual consciousness. they have as their object nothing but aggregates I of atoms]. However. it is called the "visual faculty. But the image of the aggregation.pratyaya). perceive a color.. Nor [according to another school of the Small Vehicle] do all the atoms combine and thus become the condition as object for the arising of each of the five kinds of consciousness. Since the image of this aggregation is not real.. such as eyes. has no real substance. external to visual consciousness. When it appears as visual consciousness.. a consciousness similar to the image definitely does not arise.. etc.

in a state of combination. There is a theory that individual atoms of form. divide forms of gross matter progressively to the point where it is no longer divisible and conventionally designate what remains 4c 26 . He did not mean that form is composed of real atoms. that characteristic does not exist. do the substance and characteristics of atoms have any difference. it suddenly produces a single image that may be large or small. etc. there would be no difference when consciousness has them as objects. and because in that case one kind of consciousness must take as its object that of another consciousness. Nor. are the condition as object for consciousness. atoms retain the same substance and characteristics.. we definitely know that images resembling form. Now. but it does not evolve in parts to form a multiplicity of atoms that then combine into an object. The reason the Buddha spoke of atoms was so that people would reject the notion. a pot or a bowl are the same.Demonstration of Consciousness Only have the characteristic of the aggregation. Nor can consciousness of gross form take as an object smaller forms. but when combined they evolve and assist each other to produce gross form.. are not the object of consciousness in an uncombined state. since the atoms of. But this is not so. and so. etc. the atoms of form. Also. and this is the object of consciousness. How much less are there any atoms external to consciousness. and therefore just as in an uncombined state.. The Yoga masters. because whether combined or uncombined. Consequently. a doctrine of Buddhism states that gross form is not a real object. because the seeing part of consciousness is generated thanks to that image and incorporates it as its own object. say. because it must not be that a certain consciousness can have as an object the object of another consciousness. when combined. Even admitting the existence of atoms. When consciousness evolves. these errors persist. either combined or uncombined. relying on conventional thought and wisdom. each atom loses its characteristics of minuteness and roundness. are not the object of the five consciousnesses. That form is real and is the object of consciousness. which are transformations of consciousness. etc. because when they are uncombined.

The same is true of color. and atoms of length. and because conditioned dharmas perish without need of a cause. it would not be perishing. Indicative and Nonindicative Form Do not indicative form (uijiiapti -rúpa) and nonindicative form (auijiïapti -rúpa) really exist? No. not having the characteristics of form. If it is the cause of movement. because. it is not real form. they do not really exist.Chapter I as "atoms. If it is claimed that there is form that is neither evident nor corporeal and is generated by mental activity to move hands. etc. How much less can nonresistant form. Or being like mind and its activities.. it again does not exist. then it would resemble the element of wind I which is responsible for movement). we have already rejected that previously. physical contact is neither good nor bad by nature [and thus cannot indicate'.. atoms would resemble space and could no longer be called "form. which has evolved from consciousness." They therefore say that atoms are the limit of form. Why? If we grant that bodily indicative form really exists. this is not reasonable. because if perishing required a cause. are not perceptible. be said to be real form! 5. what is its nature? If you say that it is form. If they were again divided. and that this is what is meant by indicative bodily form. etc. such as a hand. then it does not exist. because it perishes as soon as it arises and thus does not actually move. If it is movement. it is divisible. Form that is not resistant is like resistant form and is not real. and taste. as form. an image of form. As a result of this. and therefore bodily indicative acts do not exist. etc. you should realize that resistant forms appear from the transformation of consciousness and are not composed of atoms. smell. so it cannot be said to indicate.. If you say that its nature is movement. is born and perishes in a 27 . We must conclude on the basis of reason that resistant form that manifests the characteristics of real form does not exist apart from consciousness. but wind does not indicate. What is more." These atoms are said to be extended but no longer divisible. With mind as cause.

they are called "mental acts. and vocal action is an intention that produces words. Alternately. We speak of action as a "path" because it is traversed by the intentions of reflection and judgement. sound in a continuous series of instants is not real. vows or intentions of good and bad for a certain time could be metaphorically established as being nonindication. The form of the hand actually indicates mind f as its cause] and is therefore metaphorically designated as "bodily indication. Also. and because it is a path that leads to the production of the fruit of retribution of pain and pleasure. Now. Therefore intention is the essence of the first seven paths of karma. with no violation of reason. or in a situation in which the intention is actually active and stops physical or vocal acts during samddhi. [It is asked. Because the two intentions of reflection and judgement are con- 5a nected with mind and agitate it. However. We say that bodily action is an intention that moves the body. we merely deny that they are form. something resembling sound evolves from con- sciousness." The effect of physical and vocal intention is called "action" (karma). because sound during an instant does not indicate anything.Demonstration of Consciousness Only continuous series and changes locations as if it really moved. 28 . This means that it metaphorically exists in a situation in which seeds of good or bad volitions increase and grow on the basis of the expression of outstanding physical or vocal acts. appears and disappears in a continuous series. the reality of external resistant form has already been refuted. Also. how can nonindication be real? However. and seems to indicate or inform.] in the scriptures. we may also speak of physical and vocal indications resulting from intention as action. with mind as cause. Do you not deny this in denying physical and vocal action? [ We answer. the Buddha mentions three kinds of action." Consequently. if indication is not real." Vocal indication does not have the nature of real sound.] we do not deny them. you must realize that there is no real external form but only internal consciousness that evolves resembling form. and because they travel the path of intention we refer to them as "paths of action. and for this reason it is metaphorically designated as "vocal indication" without violating reason.

conquering monarch acquires the seven treasures. mind. and a worthy one does not acquire afflictions.Chapter I 6. mind. but how can one acquire the body of another or inanimate objects? If it means that the king exercises power over the treasures and in that sense "acquires" them.learner stage. because like other fictitious entities they are not included among other real dharmas. etc. forces not associated with mind (citta. mental activities. and besides. mind. they do not exist. if in clinging to a real acquisition. etc. The scripture in question does not say that acquisition and nonacquisition have real substances and functions apart from form. etc. so the proof is inconclusive." It is said that this language of "acquires" and "does not acquire" refers to acquisition and nonacquisition. "Ordinary people do not acquire noble dharmas. etc. Why? Because such dharmas as "acquisition" (prápti) and "nonacquisition" (aprápli) do not have substances or characteristics that can be perceived in the way that form. Or.. but the worthy one [the arhat] acquires (prápti) the ten dharmas of the post.. then how would you know that the good and bad dharmas that you 29 . form. How do [the Sarvástivádins. it is said that the treasures can be said to be acquired because they are actually present. and mental activities can be found. I know that acquisition and nonacquisition have real substances and functions apart from form. mind. Or. The scriptures say that a world . or unconditioned [dharmas J. and mental activities can. because they are not categorized as mind. etc." It also says. like things that are absolutely nonexistent. you must realize that they definitely do not exist. and mental activities. such as form. then is this not also so of such things as good and bad? Also.sarpskára) do not really exist. Consequently. They are established metaphorically on the basis of states of form. mind. they do not really exist.viprayukta. They definitely do not have real substances or functions apart from form. because they are admitted as belonging to the category of aggregates (skandha ).? Because a scripture says. Dharmas Unassociated with Mind Also. "Such a person acquires good and bad. mind. no function of their own distinct from form.

. because sentient beings attain these dharmas through acquisition. inanimate things would never be produced [because they lack acquisition]. If it is claimed that acquisition is the cause for the nonloss of dharmas. what has never been acquired or has been lost would remain forever unproduced. mind. In the case of someone possessing good. 51. If it is claimed 30 . we answer that dharmas that can be acquired are never separate from beings. we reply." "similarity of humans. But.] because a scripture speaks of "similarity of celestials. Also. and. acquisition serves no purpose with regard to dharmas because it does not exist. and so your proof is inconclusive. there is something we can provisionally designate as nonacquisition. how do you know that there is a real thing called "similarity" (sabhagata) apart from form.Demonstration of Consciousness Only can obtain exist apart from the present moment? In reality. these would be present instantly. The name is given provisionally to that state in which the seeds that are to be destroyed in the path of insight are not definitively destroyed. In contradistinction to acquisition. etc. then the two births would have no function. Again. bad. they could never be acquired.] the scripture does not say that there is real "similarity" apart from form. also. what are the specific functions of acquisition as far as dharmas are concerned? If it is claimed that [acquisition] produces dharmas. and if they require conditions to be present. then acquisition serves no purpose. Consequently. There are numerous types. and these present dharmas contain the seeds of good land badi. However." etc. etc. or indeterminate dharmas. If these were separate. and (3) that attained through actuality. real dharmas do not exist apart from the present. mind. it ought to be able to produce unconditioned dharmas. and neither does nonacquisition. we may conventionally establish three kinds of acquisition: (1) that attained as a result of seed impressions. in relation to states of dharmas that sentient beings may attain. Also. We call this the "stage of ordinary beings" because the dharma of sainthood has not yet been acquired. If the cause for birth I of dharmas I is an acquisition born with them.? I They answer. (2) that attained through sovereignty. we ask [the Sarvástivadins].

if the same knowledge or speech arises as a result of similarity. the evolving consciousnesses are suppressed.' in that state. etc. etc.' the scripture does not say that there is a real life substance apart from form. since this is not so. if a real vital principal exists apart from conscious- ness. but not the álaya I consciousness]. Also. Also. However. [we reply. then it must be like feeling.' but when one is in the trance state of unconsciousness. we have already demonstrated that there is no real form apart from consciousness. What is the need for some separate dharma that you call "similarity "? The fact is that by the term "similarity" we metaphorically desig- nate those physical and mental characteristics that are common to living beings of different kinds. then grass and trees should have it. I how do you know that there is a real vital principle (jivitendriya) apart from form. so you must assume by analogy that there is no separate vital principle apart from consciousness. and consciousness. and consciousness "? It speaks of these three in order to distinguish the meaning of consciousness. Also. heat. the six paths of existence. for instance.) does the scripture not say that consciousness does not leave the body? [They ask.] because a scripture speaks of "life.Chapter 1 that it exists because it is the cause for similar knowledge or similar speech. mind." and you should know that the vital principle is what is referred to here as "life. and not a real vital prin- ciple. just as it speaks. This consciousness is sufficient to act as the substratum for the three realms. then similarity ought to have a separate similarity." I The Sarvástivádins ask. must one not be without life and heat? [We reply. Why then does the scripture speak of "life. mind.. Moreover. so your proof is inconclusive. of the "four perfect relinquishments. heat. [we ask the Sarvástivádins. Later." But. this is unreasonable.. we shall discuss the reasons for the existence of this consciousness. Similar affairs and desires have as a cause the habits of former lives. etc. 31 .] then why does the scripture speak of an unconscious state? [We reply.? [They reply. how can you claim that it is real? If it is claimed that it is the cause for similar affairs and desires.

then they would be unable to suppress mind and its activities and 5c prevent their occurrence. f We reply] if in the state of no mind there are separate.] if they do not have real natures. is constantly continuing in a series. there is no need to cling to a separate vital principle. mind. When the mind is extremely fine. Prior to the attainment of no thought.. This state is such that gross and active thoughts become inactive. one makes mind and its activities become gradually finer and more subtle. mind. In cultivating meditation at the stage of equipment (sambheiramarga). real dharmas apart from form. can impede. named "formless attainments" that can obstruct form. The truth is that the term "vital principle" refers to powers or abilities of various kinds that result from action and that are supported by seeds that engender the eighth consciousness. Since this is not so. real dharmas different from form. The two saves dhis result from dividing this state. how can your statement be true? Also. active states of mind and mental activities. that can suppress the mind. the sameidhis are also said to be good. etc. etc. there must be separate. and this state is conventionally called "no thought. and. like dams and dikes. gross and active states of mind are for a time no longer present.. mind. then when one is formless I in the formless realm 1. and therefore the seeds created by perfuming provoke consciousness as retribution. one becomes disgusted with gross. as a result of putting forth a supreme resolution. and is the fruit of the maturation of causes. how do you I Sarvastivádinsl know that the two attainments of unconsciousness fin samádhil and the fruits of the meditative state of no thought have real natures apart from form. to endure for a time. no thought. Again. and these powers enable form. etc.. etc. it perfumes the con- sciousness as retribution and creates extremely potent seeds of thought of disgust.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and the I four forms of l birth. Because of these seeds of thought of disgust. Since the seeds are good. why are real dharmas necessary to suppress the mind? Objects of merely nominal existence. and other dharmas? [They reply. Because it is universal. etc." It gets the name "retribution" because it is 32 .. mind. one seeks the result.

[The Sarvástivádin replies. [We reply. etc. because the characteristics of conditioned dharmas. This must also be true of their function. and it continues to discuss them at length. then all the characteristics will always function simultaneously. If those things that are characterized are united with characteristics such as birth.] the substance of characteristics and what is characterized always coexist. If the characteristics of conditioned dharmas are different from the characterized substance. we ask. would serve no purpose.. how do you know that the various characteristics of conditioned dharmas have a real nature apart from form. etc." etc. are not different from earth.. Icessation. they cannot function simultaneously. etc. According to this scrip- ture. because it has no separate nature. so your proof is inconclusive. mind.? [They reply. The [grammatical) genitive relationship I between characteristics and dharmas] does not signify a different substance. and their substances always exist simultaneously.e. your concept of "birth. then those things that are unconditioned must also be provided on with birth. Moreover. If it is claimed that the characteristics are contradictory. etc. I because a scripture says so. Therefore these three dharmas Iof the attainments] do not really exist. then the substance of the characteristics of unconditioned dharmas will not differ from what is characterized.. mind. and extinction must not be simultaneous. [We reply. [duration.Chapter I founded on retribution [i. the store consciousness].] if it is claimed that their functioning requires causes and conditions. such as solidity. [We reply that] this scripture does not say that they have a real nature apart from form. [it is argued.] etc.l etc. there are three characteristics of conditioned dharmas. It is not clear why the one should require them and not the other.. You cannot clearly distinguish the substance of that which can characterize from that which is characterized. then the causes and conditions must not always exist. how can they exist simultaneously? Also.. because the substance of form and mind is identical with form and mind. change. the functions of duration.] if characteristics such as birth. I since their substances are contradictory. Again. But. 33 .

[it is asked. "Duration" means that this dharma is active for a while. how do they contain different times? Thus these theories pose dilemmas and are unreasonable. Therefore in accordance with their momentariness. The beginning of the dharma's career is 34 . "Differentiation" means that the dharma is not static. past and future times are neither present nor eternal. so it must not exist at present. or they can be conventionally designated as lasting for a period of time. duration." so how can it exist in the future [which does not yet exist)? Cessation is nonexistence." The change of the enduring dharma from earlier to later states is called "differentiation. how could they exist simultaneously? If duration does not contradict birth. To distinguish them from unconditioned dharmas. "Cessation" means that a present dharma will be nonexistent later." When the dharma endures for a while. we conventionally attribute four characteristics to conditioned dharmas. which do not exist. They endure for a while and then revert to nonexistence. we designate them conventionally as these four characteristics. I as claimed by the Sarvástivádins. and cessation that supposedly belong to all conditioned dharmas. But. they indicate differences !in their state]. we refer to this state as "birth. If cessation is not nonexistent. Birth is called "existence.] how can nonexistence be a characteristic of a dharma that] exists? [We reply.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Also. Therefore even though these four characteristics designate and indicate conditioned dharmas. and this state is called "cessation." After existing for a while. we refer it as "duration. since cessation contradicts duration. The last state is one of nonexistence and therefore is in the past. it reverts to nonexistence. I then I birth must not exist. dharmas that do not exist are brought into existence. The correct explanation is this: through the power of causes and conditions." The first three states are states of existence and occur in the present. [regarding the three characteristics of birth. like illusory flowers seen in the sky.] what is wrong with indicating I a future nonexistence as a characteristic? "Birth" means that a present dharma did not exist previously. Also. When a dharma that originally did not exist now exists.

and syllables really exist apart from sounds. and syllables apart from form. distinct substances.] this scripture does not say that there are real names. this sound must possess inflections of tone. phrases. they do not express. like color.. born. mind. Also. mind." Therefore we conventionally speak of four characteristics. [ We reply that inflections 6b of tone. [we ask the Sarvástivádins. so what is the use of names. If you say that sound can produce names." I We reply. 35 . then the sound of such things as wind -bells must have the function of expressing I which sounds unreasonable]. If names. then why not just admit that words alone can express? [The Sarvástivádin asks. all humans and celestials know. If you say that the inflections of tones in sound do not express. etc. and syllables. an apparent series is called "duration ". etc. phrases. Your proof is inconclusive.Chapter I called "birth ". we speak of "differentiation. there are really existing expressive entities called names. since the series evolves and changes. later nonexistence is "destruction ". and syllables. just as sounds of a lute string or a flute do not. etc. and that they exist separately from sound itself.] because a scripture says so. and syllables. phrases. I by what principle are you so certain that it is the words that express? [We reply. then. According to a scripture. Again. and syllables? [They reply.. we answer that like that sound.] if sound by itself can express. etc.? If you say that inflections of tone in sounds are themselves names. who says that the voice alone definitely does not express? [The Sarvástivádins reply. etc. phrases. and syllables. phrases. phrases. I how do you know that apart from form. He who grasps things that express apart from words must be crazy. phrases. "the Buddha acquired extraordinary names. must not separately produce real names.' how do you know that apart from words there exist separate entities that express? That words and expressers are the same. phrases. If only the sounds of speech can produce names. we reply that the modifications of shape and quantity in visible form would be different from form and have real.. inflections of voice do not produce names. and this alone suffices to express. just as with a flute. etc.

etc. phrases. since unconditioned dharmas can be 36 .. Furthermore. (2) dharmas that are clearly enjoyed.. such as pots. But the world does not know that real unconditioned dharmas exist. there is a difference in the objects of the two kinds of all. such as form and mind. and syllables as dependent on sound. etc. then they are not eternal. because they do not function in the way that eyes and ears do. sense bases. which we know exist because of the evidence of their functioning. Name expresses the essential nature of something. It is not the case in other Buddha -worlds. phrases. ears. along with names. but this can be refuted by the same principle as before.. Therefore unconditioned dharmas cannot be held to exist really. is unacceptable. There is also a theory among some Buddhists that the propen- sities (anusaya) differ from mind and its activities and are not included among dharmas associated with mind. taste. phrases express differences.Demonstration of Consciousness Only I The correct position is that I in accordance with different states of vocal sounds. and they do not have to be proved. The third consists of (3) active. Also. the theory that there are real unconditioned dharmas apart from form. is included in the aggregates. and sense fields (skandha. áyatana. the difference between conventional and real remains. if you say that unconditioned dharmas function. functioning dharmas. etc. because those passions that are also anusayas are not unassociated with mind. Even though these three have no distinct substance apart from sound. In our system. However. dhdtu) and differs in each. and therefore sound.pervasive analytical cognition.. and these three are not like sound [which is real I. everyone in the world knows that these things exist. etc. these three are established in dependence on light. clothing. There is also a theory that there are other dharmas unassociated with mind. and syllables are conventionally established. names. odor. Besides. such as eyes. etc. This is not reasonable. Dharmas that exist can be classified in three ways: (1) dharmas known by direct evidence. mind. it is only in this Buddha -world that we conventionally establish names. because in those worlds. and syllables are words that support names and phrases.

If. will not be unconditioned. then if this state is unitary one would obtain cessation as a result of discrimination of all bonds.. we may provisionally grant their existence as dependent on the transformation of consciousness. then all dharmas would interpenetrate. They are of two kinds.Chapter I known. is there a space within things or not? If there is there is confusion.nirodha).. etc. then since it harbors and receives forms.] is space unitary or not? If its substance is unitary and extends everywhere. as in the case of other unconditioned dharmas. When a single condition is absent. you say that space is not occupied by dharmas. if you claim that unconditioned dharmas have no causes or effects. then space is not pervasive. Finally. First. like form. The same is so of the cessation resulting from the absence of conditions (apratisanzhhyá. mind. then the substance of space must be multiple in accordance with the dharmas that occupy it. you cannot establish a real nature of unconditioned dharmas apart from form. on the other hand. then they will be divided into classes and types and. however. Scriptures say that there are I three] unconditioned dharmas: space [and the two kinds of cessation mentioned above]. If that is not so. and mental activities. Moreover. etc. That is. If. if there is not. space would not be pervasive and harbor and receive all things. because the location occupied by one thing is not occupied by others. [Also. Through the 37 . then they must be like the horns of a rabbit and nonexistent apart from mind. and since their nature is revealed through form.. then if this state is unitary all conditions would be absent. mind. etc. with reference to unconditioned dharmas. unconditioned dharmas are multiple.l when one division or class of bonds is severed I in the cessation resulting from discrimination (pratisamhhya. one has heard the name of space [and the other two dharmas]. arise through reflection. [With regard to the other two unconditioned dharmas. then it cannot harbor and receive them. Also.nirodha)I. etc. and the characteristics of space. Real unconditioned dharmas clung sc to by other Buddhist schools must be refuted in the same way.

so it is said to be real. Dharmas grasped by non . That is. of other schools. eternal dharma called "ultimate nature of everything" apart from form." The second kind is that which is conventionally accepted as existing on the basis of the true nature of things (dharmatd ). Or. they appear in the form of these unconditioned dharmas.. But "ultimate reality" itself is merely a provisionally granted name." Feelings of pleasure and pain are removed. appear. It is called "cessation resulting from discrimination" because through the power of discrimination it ends various impurities and one understands thoroughly. does not exist. These five unconditioned dharmas are provisionally established on the basis of ultimate reality." It is called "cessation of thought and feeling" (samjñá-c'editanirodha) because thought and feeling are not active. But it must not be thought to be empty and illusory. etc. To refute the idea that it does exist. Because this principle is not false or erroneous. we may conventionally speak of them as "permanent. Thus none of the above unconditioned dharmas really exists." It is called "space" because it is free of all impediments. because they are grasped in the same way that mind and mental activities are grasped by mind itself. mind. To refute the idea that it does not exist. it is said to exist. It demolishes the processes of thought and language and is neither the same as dharmas nor different from them. hence it is called the "true nature of dharmas. it is called "cessation resulting from the absence of conditions. so it is called "immovable. etc.. In the absence of change in the characteristics that appear in prior or subsequent appearances. the ultimate reality that is revealed by emptiness (súnyatd) and absence of self exists. both exists and does not exist. it is said to be empty. as a result of being revealed by the absence of conditions.Buddhist schools and other schools of Buddhism do not really exist apart from mind and mental activities. It is also called the "ultimate nature of everything" because it is not the same as the real. The apprehension 38 . It is the true principle of dharmas. and neither exists nor does not exist. when mind. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only power of habit. it is said to be the ultimate nature of everything.

Thus it is called "imagination. and it is of two kinds. But if one believes that consciousness only really exists. Innate attachment to dharmas results from an innate power of false perfuming existing from beginningless time and is always present in the individual. In order to refute the false attachment to a really existing realm exterior to mind and its activities. The second kind is discontinuous. they do not really exist." It is found only in the sixth consciousness. this is no different from attachment to external objects.Chapter I that grasps them does not have them as objects.yard). which. The first kind takes 39 . because it grasps. They can only be eliminated later in the ten bodhisattva stages (bhami) through the repeated cultivation of the most excellent contemplation of the emptiness of dharmas (dharma. external conditions. produces an image that is natural to the mind and grasps it as a real dharma. These two forms of attachment to dharmas are subtle and difficult to eliminate. Also. like the apprehension that takes as an object this same intellect. therefore it is not innate. 7a taking the eighth (álaya) consciousness as its object. just as magical illusions do not. 7. we teach that there is nothing but consciousness (vijñaplimdtra). Cessation of Attachment to Dharmas Belief in dharmas is of two kinds: innate. Attachment to dharmas through imagination results from the power of present. The first is constant and continuous. and grasps it as a real dharma. This in turn takes two forms. It does not arise from false teachings or imagination but evolves spontaneously. because mind and its activities arise in mutual dependence. sense bases. and sense fields that evolve from the eighth consciousness. wholly or in part. It results from the presence of false teachings and imagination for it to occur later. hence it is called "innate" (sahaja). It is located in the seventh consciousness (manas). It is located in the sixth consciousness and takes as its object images of the aggregates. It produces an image that is natural to the mind. and it remains attachment to dharmas. and resulting from imagination.

sense bases.." Consequently. like illusions. etc. produces an image that is natural to the mind. etc. etc. Therefore mind and its activities do not have external dharmas as their condition in the form of object.nature. because they are separate from consciousness itself. A certain present unit of mind and its activities are not the object of another unit of consciousness because they are categorized as being different units of consciousness. "You should realize.Buddhists and other Buddhist schools. Consequently. The second kind takes as its object images such as self. the images of apparently real dharmas are produced from conditions and are therefore like illusory phenomena. you must realize that there is no real external realm but only internal consciousness 40 . because the function of taking something as an object must [by definition] have a reality as an object. Therefore all attachment to dharmas has as an object apparently real dharmas that appear from the mind but are grasped as real dharmas. dharmas external to mind may or may not be grasped. the activities of one group are not the immediate condition for the consciousness of the same group. O Maitreya.. Also. and imagines and judges it to be a real dharma. These "real" dharmas as objects of attachment are falsely imagined and thus do not really exist. and judges such things to be real dharmas. do not really exist. taught in false teachings. They are eliminated upon entrance into the first of the ten bodhisattva stages when one contemplates the true state of things as the emptiness of all dharmas. However. taught in a false teaching. resembling other things that are not grasped.Demonstration of Consciousness Only as its object the aggregates. resembling dharmas that are not objects. that objects of consciousness are only the manifestations of consciousness and are dependent upon other dharmas for their appearance. These two forms of attachment are coarse and thus easy to eliminate. Therefore the Buddha has said. but all dharmas within mind are grasped. produces an image that is natural to the mind. Of these different kinds of attachment to dharmas. selves and dharmas apart from consciousness. such as are grasped by non .

Chapter I appearing as if it were an external realm. But if there are no real selves or dharmas. to speak of fire metaphorically. No external realm imagined by the ignorant exists. and we therefore know that metaphorical expression is not necessarily based on species. we speak metaphorically of fire in reference to people." etc." Likewise. because when a human being and fierceness and redness are present but not united. because qualities such as redness are not 41 . If you say that even though fierceness. so how can you claim that mind evolves resembling external objects? [ We reply. etc. you would metaphorically speak of water as fire. Thus a verse from a scripture says. this is wrong. and the common element of fierceness and redness. In order for there to be metaphors. and therefore the use of metaphor is legitimate. It is objected [by the Vaisesikas] that if there are no real selves or dharmas apart from consciousness. is unjustified in either case.' your objections 7b are not reasonable. Mind is agitated by perfuming and therefore evolves as objects. Also. because the qualities of fierceness and redness do not exist in the species (fire]. then there can be no metaphorical use of terms [because there would be no basis for the metaphor[. However. Nor can the principle of metaphorical expression based on sub- stance be established. you have a real fire. a man who resembles fire. because we have already refuted selves and dharmas that exist apart from consciousness. and common elements. there must be real things. are not qualities of a species but are never separated from the species. Thus you can metaphorically say.. the species [man' does not possess the qualities and the two remain distinct. If you establish a metaphor without any common qualities. you cannot establish resemblance. you can say. For instance. "This man is a raging fire. whether as a species or as a substance. This principle does not hold even in the case of species. how can terms be used metaphorically? There being no metaphor. "This man is an ox. something that resembles.

and therefore it cannot be claimed that metaphor necessarily has a real thing as its support. and it is not the object of conventional knowledge and expression. and so we say that metaphorical expression does not have a real entity as a support. metaphorical expression does not occur on the basis of substance. If you say that it is possible to speak metaphorically because the qualities of men and fires resemble each other. However. That is. 42 . then to speak metaphorically without a common substance is to be subject to the same error as before Iin reference to species]. They only function with regard to common characteristics (sárnánya. this is unfounded." in connection with the transformation of consciousness in order to refute the notion of real selves and dharmas. not a real characteristic. because "reality" means the distinct characteristics (svalaksana). so it is agreed that the distinct characteristic is the support of the knowledge and expression. conventional knowledge and expression do not reach the distinct characteristic of the thing. Consequently. But there is no other way of reaching the object apart from conventional knowledge and expression. Also.characteristic of superimposition. It only occurs when there is a quasi. If you claim that fierceness and redness are found in both fire and in men but the substance of each is different because the support is different. conventional knowledge and expression must occur on the basis of sound. "Quasi" means that [the entity] is a superimposition. However. not in his qualities. However. such as "dharmas. Sound evolves on the basis of the quasi . Thus a verse from the Ghanavyaha Sictra says.Demonstration of Consciousness Only common to both substances. it is not reasonable to say that a metaphor requires a real thing [as a basis for comparison]. the Buddha has employed metaphorical expressions. they do not occur if the sound does not reach the organ.laksana) of dharmas. Therefore these objections do not conform to proper principles.entity for the support of a metaphor. because you are speaking of fire in a man. Neither that which expresses nor that which is expressed are the distinct characteristic.

He spoke metaphorically of selves and dharmas in connection with the transformation of consciousness. 43 .Chapter I To refute real selves and dharmas grasped by the foolish.

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3771 shows that the first six consciousnesses form a single form of consciousness. Habit energy of retribution is produced and made to grow by impure good and bad perfuming in the first six forms of consciousness. that is. These three together are called the "consciousness that transforms. the seventh conscious- ness (manu. transformation as result (phala). that is. so called because its nature is that of many different results. The third is called PERCEPTION OF THE EXTERNAL REALM. The word AND [in the second stanza of the "Thirty Verses. bad." It is of two kinds. The first is called RETRIBUTION or DIFFERENT RESULTS (vipaka). The second is called THOUGHT. because the objects that they perceive are gross. Because habit energy of similar species is the cause. means that as a result of the power of the above two forms of causal energy. Habit energy of similar species is produced and made to grow by good. the eight forms of consciousness are born and exhibit their various characteristics. The second kind.Chapter II The Evolutions of Consciousness Though the forms of the evolutions of consciousness are many.uásaná) and habit energy of retribution (vipáka. 7c The first is transformation as cause. the substance and characteristics of the eight forms of consciousness are born in their diversity. because it constantly judges and thinks. the eighth con- sciousness. that is. that is." see p. The name "result of similar 45 . the two causal habit energies (uásaná) of the eighth consciousness: habit energy of similar species (nisyanda.uásaná).$). the first six consciousnesses. the consciousness that evolves is of three kinds. and indeterminate perfuming influences in the first seven forms of consciousness.

46 ." This does not mean that all forms of consciousness are retribution.karma) from past lives. and because it exists as a continuous series. only the conscious- ness that harbors self . It also stirs the first six forms of consciousness to repay karma that fills out the details (pariparaka.phala) derives from the fact that the result is similar to the cause. It is called "born of retribution" (vipahaja) rather than simply "retribution" (vipaka) because it is intermittent. That is. the above "retribution" and "born of retribution" are called "result of retribution" because the result differs from the cause.attachment.Demonstration of Consciousness Only species" (nisyanda. and transforms the results is called "retribution. It is called "retribution" because of its power to influence the eighth consciousness to repay karma leading to a specific form of rebirth (dksipaha. Habit energy of retribution is the dominant condition (adhipati pratyaya).karma) inherited from the past lives. holds the impure seeds. Here.

AND VOLITION. IT IS ALWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL CONTACT.Chapter III The Store Consciousness (Alaya. FIRST. What are the characteristics of the first transforming consciousness? The "Thirty Verses" says. because (1) this consciousness stores. THE MAYA IS ALSO RETRIBUTION AND THE HOLDER OF ALL SEEDS. FEELING. THAT WHICH IT GRASPS AND HOLDS. and (3) it is the store that is the object of attachment. IN IT THE ONLY FEELING IS ONE OF INDIFFERENCE. The first transforming consciousness is called dlaya by both the Great and Small Vehicles. IT ALWAYS EVOLVES LIKE A FLOWING STREAM AND IS ABANDONED IN THE STAGE OF ARHATSHIP. ATTENTION. That is. because its specific character is 47 . The term STORE shows the specific characteristic of this first transforming consciousness. CONCEPTUALIZATION. it and moral impurities act as conditions for each other. (2) it is subject to having seeds stored in it.Vijñána) We have already discussed briefly the names of the three forms of consciousness that transform. but we have yet to discuss their three characteristics. IT IS UNDEFILED AND MORALLY NEUTRAL. ITS LOCATION. and sentient beings grasp it as an inner self. AND THE SAME IS TRUE OF MENTAL CONTACT. ETC. AND ITS PERCEPTIONS ARE IMPERCEPTIBLE.

The Seeds Now we must specify what is meant by "all seeds. Although the states of the specific character of this consciousness are many [depending on the spiritual stage of development]." What are the dharmas that are called "seeds "? They are different energies in the fundamental consciousness that immediately engender their own fruit or results." Though the substance and characteristics of this transforming consciousness are many. the fundamental consciousness and their fruit. it is called HOLDER OF ALL SEEDS. [the eighth consciousness. Though there are many states and varieties of fruit of this consciousness. destination (gati). Although they are neither identical with. Because this I eighth consciousness] holds all seeds (bija) of all dharmas and does not allow them to be lost. 1. The term RETRIBUTION shows the characteristics of the fruit of this first transforming consciousness. and for that reason it is called "holder of all seeds. nor different from. and form of birth (yoni). no other dharma capable of holding the seeds of all dharmas can be found.Demonstration of Consciousness Only that of being both cause and effect. Apart from it. it is referred to broadly as "retribution" and "fruit" because the terms apply to all states. because the principle must be so regarding substance and function. though not common to all. These seeds are neither the same as. 48 . because of its serious fault [of storing seeds of future delusion]. there is no vital principle or other factor that always continues in an unbroken. It is called RETRIBUTION because it is the result of retribution for good and bad action (karma) that draws an individual to a certain realm (dhátu). Apart from it. series and is the dominant fruit of retribution.] they really exist. This term HOLDER OF ALL SEEDS 8a shows the causal aspect of this first consciousness. Though there are many ways in which consciousness is causal in its nature. it is said that it only has these three characteristics. nor different from. nothing else holds the seeds. the term STORE is used broadly for all its states. and cause and effect.

why does the Viniscayasamgraha I section of the Yogácarabhúmi Sástra I say that all twenty -two faculties (indriya) have seeds of retribution and are all born of retribution? Even though they are called "retribution. bad.Chapter III because a fictional dharma is as if nonexistent and cannot be a causal condition. 49 . The Origin of the Seeds There is an interpretation [by Candrapala) of the origin of seeds to the effect that all seeds exist naturally and primordially and are not produced by perfuming. etc. LAs Dharmapalal says. like pots. According to a scripture. worldly truth. etc. such as visual consciousness. this is because the seeing part always takes them as its objects. 2. but they are not retribution categorized as indeterminate by nature. then ultimate reality (talhatá) must also exist only conventionally. Since the pure seeds are not included in the nature of consciousness as retribution. and to concede that would mean that there would be no real ultimate truth.. They are called "seeds of retribution" because they are supported by the consciousness that is retribution. they must be only conventionally and not actually real. They can be said to increase and grow through the power of perfuming. they are not the same as ultimate reality. Different kinds of consciousness support each other. However. etc. the seeds are morally indeterminate. Even though the seeds are supported on the substance of the eighth consciousness. the seeds are only existent from the point of view of conventional. they are nothing but the seen part of this consciousness. Also. pure seeds get the name "retribution" or "maturation") because they mature and evolve through the power of perfuming. and they are therefore said to be "good." etc. But if this is so." they are not indeterminate. [Sthiramati says that) being neither identical with nor different from all dharmas. then they are said to be only good. Because there is no distinction in substance between impure seeds and consciousness as retribution. and since their causes and results are categorized as good." "bad. but their causes and results are good. But if this were so.

and are not born from perfuming. that exist by the nature of things. "Though the substance of the seeds exists from beginningless time in a natural and fundamental way. There is also an interpretation I by Nanda and Srisenal that all the seeds are born as a result of perfuming. actual dharmas exist from beginningless time.Demonstration of Consciousness Only "All sentient beings. "Beings predestined for nirvana possess all the 8b seeds. Also. the eighth consciousness] and that which perfumes [i.e.e. "elements" is another name for seeds. as a result of these proofs." A treatise says." Here. by the nature of things.. a scripture says. Since seeds are another name for "habit energy.. Consequently.atu). Thus cause and effect are established without confusion. "The minds of sentient beings are perfumed by pure and impure dharmas and consequently are accumulations of countless seeds. innate fami- lies of bodhisattvas. elements are the support of all dharmas.] that exist by the nature of things and continue in an unbroken series from beginningless time. Another text speaks of natural. pure seeds exist naturally. Also. which must mean that seeds must exist by the nature of things and do not result from perfuming. it is said [in the Lartkavatara Sutra] that sentient beings are naturally divided into five families lone of which cannot attain ni. but these exist as seeds and not as actual faculties." The Yogacarabhúmi Sastra says. etc." Also. like seeds in a myrobalan fruit. As a scripture says. they are perfumed and develop anew by pure and impure [actions I." "Elements" mean "cause. from beginningless time." habit energy must exist as a result of perfuming.rvanal. and therefore there is no beginning for the formation of seeds." Many other texts make similar statements. but are not born from perfuming. They increase and grow as a result of perfuming. Both that which is perfumed I i. just as the odor of sesame seeds is produced by the perfuming odor of the flowers. have within them diverse kinds of elements (dh. Impure seeds also must be seeds that exist naturally. beings in the purgatories are provided with three pure faculties (indriya). "From beginningless time. "Internal seeds 50 . etc. According to the Yogacarabhami Sastra. but if they are not predestined for nirvana they lack the seeds of awakening.

"To that class of beings who will not attain nirvana belong those who are obstructed by the seeds of the two obstacles to the realm of the ultimate I i. The ref- erence in the above text [to beings in the purgatories] having pure seeds refers to seeds that will be born. the three kinds of perfuming names. There is another interpretation I by DharmapálaJ. According to the Yogdcdrabhúmi Sash-a. "All sentient beings since beginningless time have within them diverse elements 51 . because it is said. 3. sense bases. words. Those who have the cognitive obstacle to the ultimate but not the [obstacle of the I passions belong either to the family of disciples (. it is the nature of seeds in the mind of one who has transcended the world. generally include all the seeds of impure dharmas. "When the True Dharma. moral and cognitive faults I.Chapter III must be perfumed. not to already existing seeds.Honored One has accordingly said. but external seeds are sometimes perfumed. which holds that seeds are of two kinds. This refers to different energies in consciousness as retribution that have existed since beginningless time by the nature of things." Thus the dis- tinction of families with different capacities existing from beginningless time is the result of the presence or absence of the two obstacles. sometimes not. Refutation The distinction of families of sentient beings existing primordially does not result from either the existence or the nonexistence of pure seeds but arises according to whether or not there are obstacles (dvarana).." Also. One without seeds of the obstacles to the ultimate belongs to the family of Tathágatas. etc. is heard." Also. The first consists of primordial seeds. which flows from the pure realm of the Dharma. The birth of pure seeds must also be the result of perfuming. not the presence or absence of pure seeds.e.-musks) or to the family of pratyekahuddhas. impure seeds must be born as a result of perfuming. perfuming that results from hearing is produced. and sense fields. and which give birth to aggregates. The World. Since these three result from perfuming.

According to a scripture. because in that case good and bad actions would be conditions as cause for the fruit of retribution. holy teachings say that there are seeds born of perfuming.Honored One accordingly said. The World.e." Various treatises say that pure and impure seeds are born as a result of perfuming by pure and impure dharmas. Therefore. they are accumulations of countless seeds. and that contradicts this interpretation. the 52 . The meaning of this verse is that at all times. Conditions as cause are found only in the relationship between seeds and álaya. the first seven consciousnesses I approach (álaya) consciousness. This means that they exist as a result of perfuming by actual dharmas. The Maheiyánasamgraha says. "Alaya consciousness and pure and impure dharmas are reciprocally conditions as cause. "Due to perfuming of the minds of beings by good and had dharmas. just as a candle and a flame produce heat. And always reciprocally of the nature of cause.Demonstration of Consciousness Only resembling seeds of the myrobalan fruit that exist by the nature of things. These seeds are called "seeds created by perfuming." The second kind of seeds consists of those that originate at some point in time. because no other conditions as cause can be found. Dharmas I i. the eighth consciousness. These seeds are called "naturally existing seeds.." These and other quotations are similar to [Candrapala's I earlier statement. Also. repeated over and over since beginningless time. the &laya consciousness and the first seven consciousnesses generate each in a steady process and are reciprocally cause and effect. [Alaya] consciousness approaches the dharmas. They are reciprocally of the nature of effect. the [first seven I evolving consciousnesses must not be con- ditions as cause of the álaya." If seeds were not produced as a result of perfuming. how could the first seven forms of consciousness act as conditions as cause for the alaya? These first seven forms of consciousness are not called conditions as cause because they perfume seeds and make them grow." Sc I We reply to Candrapala I that if seeds are only innate and natural. and just as bundles of reeds support each other.

4. if the minds of ordinary beings are basically pure. emptiness is not the cause of mind. To concede that they can would mean that Buddhas would produce impure dharmas again. then mind would be associated with such things as faith. pure dharmas. Is the nature of mind mind itself? This would resemble the theory of the Sámkhyas. because an eternal dharma certainly is not the seed of dharmas. The impure but good mind is called "defiled. If the nature of an impure mind is pure. and if you concede that. there would be no conditions as cause for conditioned. because it must not be that good and bad can be causes for each other. You could not say it is good. if seeds only originate with a beginning I and are not innate]. then pure dharmas would be active when s< one is still in the stage of ordinary beings. But if it is intrinsically pure. Therefore it cannot be the cause for pure dharmas. Also. because a pure seed must not be born from an impure one. r We ask. it is pure again. Originally Pure Mind The V ibhajyavádins say that the nature of mind is intrinsically pure and is soiled by adventitious defilements [not innate ones]. Therefore there is a cause for pure dharmas. which is that although the characteristics of mind change. What is more. the substance remains the same. If you do not concede it." and like a bad mind it is not pure by nature. much less pure. then the nature of a pure mind must be impure.súnyata). because its substance remains unchanged before and after.Chapter III idea that seeds are only natural and innate contradicts reason and scripture. and therefore they would not originate. because it would be impossible to distinguish causal conditions. and that for that reason it is called "soiled. Impure dharmas cannot be the causes of pure ones." When separated from the passions. and such ordinary 53 . bad or indeterminate minds would remain good.] what does "nature of mind" mean? If it refers to the principle of emptiness (. and good seeds would create bad ones. then mind does not have the substance of good mind.

and that they possess them by the nature of things. [ We reply that I when one hears the True Dharma. if you claim that the reason beings are said to be pure is that although the minds of beings are innately pure. in the spiritual stage of "Superior Progress. it can therefore be called "pure by nature. How can they be understood to deny natural seeds? However. they do not say that the seeds are produced as a result of perfuming. for that reason. Later. these natural seeds are made to increase and grow as a result of perfuming and can then produce results. it is referring to the ultimate reality revealed by the emptiness of the mind. Or. When pure dharmas come into being. but the nature of mind does not have these faults. The pure seeds that come into being have these seeds as their cause. However. these texts say that internal seeds are perfumed. For this reason. the characteristics are impure. innate pure seeds are made to increase gradually and develop to the point where they produce a supramundane thought." And. texts speak of these seeds as "perfumed by hearing. The seeds of impure dharmas can be understood in the same way. they subsequently perfume in turn and create new seeds." the pure seeds are made to increase and grow through perfuming." They do not mean that it is called "fundamentally pure" because the nature of an impure mind is pure. then the seeds of this mind are not pure." The impurity of perfuming by hearing is eliminated at the stage of 54 . Even though holy teachings say that the internal seeds are definitely perfumed. Why does your treatise say that there are ordinary be- ings who possess pure seeds? The nature and characteristics of seeds and dharmas in activity are the same. we may believe that from beginningless time sentient beings possess pure seeds that are not the result of perfuming.Demonstration of Consciousness Only beings would be called "holy ones. As a result. because ultimate reality is the mind's true nature. when the scripture says that mind is pure by nature. they mean that because the substance of mind is not afflicted. [The Mahayánasamgraha says that) perfuming produced from hearing [the Dharma I is not simply impure [when occurring in an ordinary person I.

This proper condition as cause is subtle. If it were not for pure seeds. obvious dominant conditions and therefore say. obscure. depends on the presence or absence of pure seeds. whether or not the (two ( obstacles can be removed 9t. 5. and difficult to comprehend. and one is assigned to the family of Tathágatas. These texts are only concerned with gross. Families and Seeds As for the idea of families being distinguished on the basis of obstacles. and difficult to comprehend. both obstacles can be destroyed. obscure. However. pure seeds are subtle. Who then will be able to destroy the seeds of the two obstacles. and that puts one in the family of those who will never attain nirvána. what other cause would there be for the destructibility of the obstacles? If you say that the obstacles exist naturally. and how could it be said 55 .pratyaya). then the holy paths will not arise. then why not admit the same possibility for the seeds of pure dharmas? If seeds of pure dharmas are fundamentally and wholly nonexistent. and it is a superior dominant condition (adhipati. and therefore this treatise distinguishes families on the basis of [the more obvious causes of] obstacles.Chapter III cultivation. On the other hand.pratyaya) of supramundane dharmas. This perfuming results in a superior retribution with respect to supramundane dharmas. Consequently. that these conditions are the seeds of supramundane thought. the purity of this perfuming by hearing is not to be eliminated I at the stage of cultivation] and is properly the condition as cause (hetu. That is. the seeds of the two obstacles can never be destroyed. if one is wholly lacking in pure seeds. the seeds of the obstacle to that which is to be known can never be destroyed. the Yogácccrabhr2mi Sástra says that families of beings are distinguished according to the presence or absence of pure seeds. as an expedient. If one possesses the pure seeds of the two vehicles. If one possesses the pure seeds of a Buddha. and part of this family is assigned to the family of disciples (firth :aka) and part is assigned to the family of pratyekabuddhas.

and all contradict this position of the YogdcárabhUmi Sástra. Therefore. 56 . seeds presently existing coexist with the generating power. cannot coexist. Only those things that are present with the fruit already functioning actively and in union with it can be seeds. as well as those that are not related to the fruit. to say that seeds are only born at some moment in time contradicts reason and scripture. still only those present can exert a causal function. you must understand that seeds are of two kinds: the innate. (1) They are instantaneous. it is said that there are innate seeds. until the Bodhisattva reaches the ultimate stage of development. This excludes dharmas prior to or anterior to the fruit. Even though the cause may or may not exist simultaneously with the result I in different cases'. 6. not to things that produce their own kind. (3) Seeds always continue in a series. it makes no sense to claim that it would. They are unlike seeds of the same kind. and hence it must be said that a seed exists simultaneously with its resultant fruit. which. being mutually contradictory. because they are eternal and changeless and therefore cannot be said to have the ability to generate activity. Consequently. This excludes the [first six] evolving consciousnesses that change and are discontinuous. Only those things are seeds that continue in a single species over a long time. present dharmas. seeds have six characteristics. (2) Seeds exist simultaneously with their fruit. Only those things can be seeds whose substance perishes without interval as soon as they are born and that possess superior power. and those that originate in time. The Characteristics of Seeds In summary. because dharmas that do not yet exist or that have already perished have no self nature. in place after place in the scriptures.Demonstration of Consciousness Only that families are distinguished on the basis of obstacles? Since the holy paths could not arise. This excludes eternal dharmas. Within an individual. But. Actualities and seeds of dissimilar species can coexist with no contradiction. The term "seed" applies to those things that produce actual.

The power of these seeds to attract distant and decaying fruits and prevent them from perishing immediately is called the "attracting cause" (avaháka. (4) The nature of seeds is determinate [as to moral species]. etc. These are the conditions as cause. are developments of consciousness itself and. etc. etc. in accordance with the specific type of causal seed. This expression shows that seeds of the same species are produced in a series.. Those things are seeds that produce good. without need for other conditions. mind.. This also excludes other Buddhist ideas to the effect that form.Chapter III because they are not associated with seeds. and therefore seeds do not always produce their fruit suddenly." are not real seeds. 57 . rice seeds.hetu).. such as wheat seeds. are causes for each other. Those. though referred to metaphorically as "seeds. Seeds external to consciousness. Only those things are seeds that require a number of conditions uniting so that their power is overwhelming. The power of these seeds to produce a proximate or true fruit is called the "productive cause" (abhinirvrtti. are seeds that exist as species of potentialities within the fundamental [store] consciousness and that satisfy these six requirements. Internal and External Seeds Internal seeds must be perfumed in order to arise and mature and for new seeds to produce fruits. This excludes the non Buddhist idea that a single cause may produce all results of all kinds. Those things are seeds that attract results such as form. 7.hetu). and only those. This characteristic shows that the required conditions are not always present. It also excludes other Buddhist doctrines to the effect that conditions are always present. mind. (5) Seeds require multiple conditions. and indeterminate factual dharmasl according to the power of the (seed] causes. This refutes the non . This excludes doctrines of other schools of Buddhism that hold that a cause of one nature can have a causal relation to a result of another nature.Buddhist idea that a spontaneous cause produces a result suddenly. bad. (6) Seeds attract their own results.

These are the dominant conditions for the fruit. which satisfies these four requirements. and is neither the same nor different. Consequently. it is enduring. This excludes mental func- tions and unconditioned dharmas. this excludes the purified eighth consciousness of a Tathagata. the dharma that is perfumable is indeterminate. which holds old seeds but does not receive new perfuming. shares the same place. is perfumable. which. A dharma is perfumable if it exists simultaneously with that which perfumes. as well as wind. It is perfumable if it is inde- pendent and not resistant and dense. it is perfumable by nature. it is in close union with the perfumer. respectively. etc. Perfumer and Perfumable On the basis of what characteristics can we speak of "perfuming "? We speak of "perfuming" on the basis of four characteristics of that which is perfumed and that which perfumes that cause seeds to be born and grow. because there is no union. which are not perfumable because they are. sound. 58 . being strong by nature. cannot hold perfuming and therefore are not perfumable. with regard to that which is perfumable. dependent [on consciousness per sel and immutable.Demonstration of Consciousness Only External seeds may or may not be perfumed. and holds perfuming. because they are fruit born of seeds of like characteristics [in the store consciousness]. These are not perfumable. The real causes of resulting dharmas are the internal seeds. not such things as mental activities. does not conflict with good or bad. 8. It is perfumable if it is neither morally good nor bad. This excludes the bodies of others. This excludes good and bad. Fourth. Third. They are not enduring by nature and therefore not perfumable. This excludes the [first six] consciousnesses. Only the I eighth' consciousness as retribution. It is perfumable if a dharma continues from beginning to end as a single kind in an unbroken series and can for that reason hold perfuming. and prior and subsequent moments. What are the four meanings of "perfumable "? First. Second.

it has a superior functioning. This excludes unconditioned dharmas. and is neither identical with nor different from it. is born from seeds. if it can function. it increases and decreases. hence the name "perfuming. can increase and decrease. It can perfume if it is born and perishes. they would not be perfect. loa Three dharmas [the engendering seed. exists in the same place. 'l'hird. it is capable of being a cause and perfuming and creating seeds.. Fourth. etc. and can hold and implant habit energy. Perfuming occurs when these seven forms of consciousness as perfumers are born with and perish with the consciousness that is perfumed." When the consciousness that perfumes. and if it produces and nourishes habit energy. This excludes other bodies and prior and subsequent moments.. This excludes the perfect. first.Chapter 111 As for the requirements of the perfumer. A dharma can perfume if it exists simultaneously with the perfumable. If they could perfume. and the created seeds] evolve together and act as simultaneous 59 . which possess a superior functioning and increase and decrease. Second. This excludes the [eighth] consciousness as retribution and mental activities. good dharmas of Buddhahood. The only things satisfying these four requirements and thus able to perfume are the first seven consciousnesses and their mental activities. where there is no union and hence no ability to perfume. A dharma can perfume if it possesses superior functioning. consciousness in action. because their power is slight and they are therefore unable to perfume. That dharma is able to perfume if it is impermanent. and the fruit of Buddhahood would consist of different grades of strong and weak in the beginning and later. etc. and can attract habit energy. has great creative power. which neither increase nor decrease and therefore cannot perfume. it is born and then perishes. it is united with that which it perfumes and evolves along with it. The seeds in the perfumed consciousness are made to be generated and grow. which never change and do not produce or nourish. like perfumed sesame.

or just as bundles of reeds support each other. because it is the supporting location of sentient beings. The perfumer creates seeds. To call something else a cause is merely a metaphorical use of the term. Both that which is grasped and the location are its objects. The Two Parts of Consciousness When." It is the world receptacle. "Body provided with organs" refers to physical organs and the support of the organs. PERCEPTIONS are its mode of activity. LOCATION means "place. ITS LOCATION. Cause and result are simultaneous. the substance of álaya consciousness is born. 9. and externally into the world 60 . Seeds produce other seeds of the same species. THAT WHICH IT GRASPS is twofold: the seeds and the body provided with organs. These are the characteristics of all seeds in summary. with no violation of reason.' THAT WHICH IT GRASPS AND HOLDS. and apart from them no other dharmas are causes. They are incorporated into the substance I of consciousness] and share its tranquility and dangers. 10.phala). the seeds create actual dharmas. These two are what is grasped by consciousness. which is similar to causes of the same species (sabhága -hetu) attracting results of similar species (nisyanda. because the mode of activity of this consciousness is to perceive. just as a candle wick produces flame and flame produces a burning wick. Mode of Activity and Perceptions What is the mode of activity and object [of perception] of this [álaya consciousness? [Vasubandhu says. names [or words]. just as the two reciprocal and simultaneous causes produce a result useful to man [according to the Small Vehicle].Demonstration of Consciousness Only causes and results of each other. AND ITS PERCEPTIONS ARE IMPERCEPTIBLE. "Seeds" refer to images. and the perfuming of imagination. due to the power of causes and conditions. These two forms of generation are of the nature of conditions as cause for the result. it transforms internally into seeds and the body provided with organs.

"Everything is consciousness only. because their mode of activity and objective images are similar. Three Parts of Consciousness As for the doctrine that there is an objective realm apart from consciousness. each would take as an object every kind of object. The term PERCEPTION means that the eighth consciousness as retribution has the function of perceiving its objects. or else we would have to concede that space is a knowing subject. this means that (I) the external realm is the object of consciousness. mind and its activities must have these two parts. etc. Mind and its activities have the same support and object..e. When the substance of this consciousness is born in an impure state. and one objective realm would be like all others. The same occurs with mental activities.. are different in their activity. but their characteristics are different." 11. As a scripture says. In short. The function of perceiving is the seeing part of this consciousness. Or. because its mode of activity appears in reliance on them. If mind and its activities did not have the seeing part. there is no I real I object of consciousness. Associated objects are equal in number I i. feeling. and as the apparent subject it is the seeing part. and (3) the seeing part of consciousness is the thing itself. 61 . because [activities of mind such as) consciousness. because [seeing] is the character of the very substance of mind and its activities. one to one].Chapter III receptacle. If mind and its activities did not have the seen part. they would know nothing. it appears [when transformed] as both dharmas and as cognition. just as space does not. Consequently. As apparent object it is the seen part. These things that are its transformations become its own object of perception (dlanzbana). thought. (2) the seen part of consciousness is its mode of activity. it appears resembling two parts: an apparent object or seen part and as the apparent subject or seeing part. they would not have the ability to take their own objective realm as an object. The subjective and objec10h tive parts of consciousness evolve naturally.

Mind and its activities have the same objective basis.) if we grasp the fact that there is no objective realm apart from consciousness.Demonstration of Consciousness Only [However. are diffèrent. The image that resembles an external object is the known object. consciousness and its activities( are equal in num- ber [one activity.authenticating part would have no fruit. and besides.. a ratio- nal analysis will show that each has these three parts. we can say that there are four parts. but their modes of activity differ. but their characteristics differ. are different. because the functions of perceptions. thought.e. and knowers must have results. 12. Three are as explained above. The substance of these three is not differentiated. one object'. because the substances of consciousness. and the fruit of knowing are different. If this did not exist. the image and the knower must have a supporting substance..bhága) of consciousness. self-authentication? The knowing part also must be authenticated! Also. and the fourth is the part that authenticates self. Four Parts of Consciousness If we make an even finer distinction concerning mind and its activi- ties. what would authenticate the third part. It cannot be said that the seeing part of consciousness is the 62 . That which grasps the image and that which is self authenticating Are the knower and the fruit of knowing. just as there would be no recollection of objects never perceived. there would be no recollection of mind and its activities.authentication (svasamvitti.samvitti. etc. etc. When mind and its activities are born one after another.bhága). The things in question I i.authenticating part" (svasamvitti. The characteristics of their objects are similar. the self.. the means of knowing. or fruit. If this fourth part did not exist. The substance that serves as support for both the seeing and seen parts of consciousness is called the "self. because the known. According to a verse in the Pramñ to samuccaya. then we must say that the seen part of consciousness is the object and the seeing part is the mode of activity.

because that which authenticates its own substance must be direct perception. Thus a verse from the Ghanavvúha Sútra says. The part that authenticates self authentication has only the third part as its object. All divided into internal and external. it may function as a means of knowing or it may not.Chapter III fruit of the third part. and therefore the principle of consciousness only (vijfiaptimeitra) is demonstrated. because the seeing part is sometimes categorized as nondirect perception. because the fourth io. all three are the seeing part. Or the four may be reduced to two. These four parts may be seen only as three. and the latter two are internal. The seeing part is distinguished in several ways. The first part [the seen partI is only an object of perception. They are neither identical nor different. part may be included in the third part. "Seeing" means having 63 . Here "seeing" refers to the seeing part of consciousness. while the last three are both subject and object. never the second part. Consequently. either direct perception or inference. that is. They are bound up with apprehending and being apprehended. and sometimes it knows through direct perception and sometimes through inference. The minds of being are of two natures. Although the second I seeing I part always has the first part as an object. without falling into an infinite regression. because the last three are all subjects with objects. which form subject and object. The third and fourth parts are both categorized as direct perception. The varieties of seeing include knowing or not knowing. The verse says that beings' minds are composed of the union of the two parts. Whether the parts are internal or external. Of these four parts. the first two are external. they are bound up with apprehending and being apprehended. Therefore the mind and its activities are formed from the union of these four parts. The third part of consciousness can have as its object both the second and the fourth parts. because there is no need for it to do so. the seeing part of consciousness does not authenticate the third part.

." We refute this by saying that if this were so. The Object of Perception in the "Thirty Verses" I means that as a result of the maturation of its common seeds. and perception is the seeing part of consciousness. then the consciousness of Buddhas and bodhisattvas would transform into this impure world. Why? A scripture says. so that there is no difference in the place I that they perceive I. Mind. Evolves resembling an external realm. attached to itself. and what would be the point of that? Therefore it is the consciousnesses of beings born in this world. The scripture quoted above means only a part of 64 . Also. or who will be born into it. the consciousness that is retribution transforms to resemble images of an external world. The word LOCATION I such as form. Or they all may be reduced to one.' etc. [sound. "One mind" also includes mental activities. the external great elements and their derivatives. Therefore the mode of activity of consciousness is perception. their characteristics are similar. would have consciousnesses that transform into this I impure] world.Demonstration of Consciousness Only objects. What is perceived by mind does not exist. 13. the holy ones. and the consciousness of ordinary beings would transform into the pure won- derful lands of this realm and elsewhere. And therefore there is nothing but mind. disgusted with the world of form and removed from it. because they are one in substance. born in the formless world and never departing it. A verse in the Lañikáoatára Sútra says. just as the light of many assembled lamps seems to be the same light. that transform into this apparent world. Whose consciousness as retribution transforms into these characteristics? One interpretation is that it is everyone's consciousness. that is. Thus in many places in the scriptures it is said that there is only the one mind. Although the worlds transformed by various beings are different for each. "They arise all together through the overwhelming power of the action of living beings.

then what would be the value of a consciousness in the formless realm transforming into one of these world receptacles? However. so this does not conflict with the principle of consciousness only. there is an objection.Chapter III sentient beings when it mentions "all. demons." because. Consequently.. With regard to this world being the support of. nor anyone to be reborn in it. they are not apart from it. beings in common. even without any sentient beings in it. and is for the use of. with no mutual support. their karma being the same. etc. If this were so. then when the world receptacle is destroyed lat the end of the eon]. celestials. between those with immaterial bodies and different world receptacles. Thus a world receptacle about to be destroyed or about to appear. and humans see the world differently and thus enjoy it differently. they are not included in its nature. However. and being used by. can exist I because of the transformation of consciousness in another world]. Although pure seeds are connected with this consciousness. 65 . beings who are disgusted with the realm of form and have left it to be reborn in the formless realm have immaterial bodies. and therefore the world evolves in such a way that it can support and be used by those bodies. we affirm that a consciousness born in a certain world ii" can be born in the same kind of world elsewhere by transforming into that world. those material bodies. but you can understand this on the same principle as above. whose consciousness as retribution would transform into this realm? Also. the transformation of consciousness is common to all. and no one is left. They are included in the nature of this consciousness and are therefore its object of perception. so of what use would it be for them to evolve a world in advance of rebirth? If we concede [with the Mahasamghikas] that there are distinctions of gross and subtle. "Seeds" refers to all the impure seeds held by the conscious- ness that is retribution. and therefore they are not its perceptual ob- ject. just as ultimate reality is not. the world receptacle that evolves is basically the support of. Even though they are not its object of perception.

self and others. The body and world receptacle that evolve in most cases continue in an unbroken series. there is another opinion: even though consciousness evolves as if it were a supporting body. etc. and transforming due to the power of imagination. etc. and spiritual stages is the result of the evolution of consciousness through the power of karma. the organs of someone else are of no use to oneself. one would not experience other people.e. There- fore when one is reborn in another world or enters nirvana. The distinction of internal body. world receptacle. This has been a brief discussion of the objects that evolve from consciousness. because the Madhyantavibhaga says that "it appears as the five sense organs of oneself and others. then there is nothing definite causing realms. consciousness evolves into the material organs and the place li. but light. the impure seeds. i. etc. If this were not so... realms. the internal great elements and their derivatives.. mental ac- tivities. stages.e. because their appearance is the result of contemporary conditions. Because of the power of the maturation of common seeds. and the real form that falls into the category of the sense base for dharmas (dharma.. There is an opinion that consciousness evolves into the apparent sense organs of others. body] that supports the organs." However. consciousness evolves into the apparent existence of other beings.Demonstration of Consciousness Only "Body provided with organs" means that because of the power of the maturation of seeds in the consciousness that is retribution that are not common to all individuals. and take them as objects? The transformation of defiled consciousness is of two kinds: transforming due to the power of causes and conditions. sound. If world receptacle and body evolve through the power of samadhi and the like. The first transformation must have a function. that evolve from consciousness often last only a short time.ayatana). the surviving corpse is still visible to us.dyatana). in other words. and 66 . The statement of the above treatise that "the five organs of oneself and others appear" means that oneself and others evolve the organs from their own individual consciousnesses. the ten "material" sense bases (rdpa. Why does this consciousness not evolve as mind.

etc. is born from the eighth consciousness. When this consciousness arrives at the stage of purity. as the seen part of consciousness. which also has no real function. Nor does this consciousness transform into unconditioned dharmas [such as space]. etc. they would have no perceptual objects.knowing. Therefore in the stage of impurity. I. still. Why are the objects it grasps and the mode of activity of this consciousness difficult to know.Chapter III the second is always an objective realm.. while the extent of the external world is hard to fathom. Because one is separated from form in this realm. Still. we say that it has no real function. because.dhátu). one has no form resulting from action. but one does have form resulting from meditation. If this were not the case. If consciousness transformed into mind I and its activities]. we may say that it is hard to know because the internal objects that it grasps and holds are extremely subtle. and although there is no discrimination. as well as impure seeds. Therefore consciousness as retribution does not have mind and mental activities as objects. While in the realm of desire (hama dhátu) or the realm of form (rúpa. it still has these three percep- 116 tual objects. that transform from it must have a real function. Buddhas would not be all . since it is pure. but the form. The eighth consciousness has this form as its perceptual object. The term IMPERCEPTIBLE [in Vasubandhu's verses] means that the mode of activity of this consciousness is extremely subtle and fine and therefore difficult to know thoroughly. Indeed. which makes sense. [and how do we therefore know that it even exists!? Like consciousness that does not depart the body during the samadhi of cessation [of perceptioni.. etc. In the formless realm (árúpya.dhátu). the real function of mind. it is associated with a superior wisdom. The transformation of consciousness that is retribution always obeys causes and conditions. however. it has as an object only the impure seeds. this consciousness as retribution takes as its object only the world receptacle and the body. Or. You must admit that during this samádhi there is a consciousness. it must be trusted to exist. because the meditator is 67 . it manifests those images [of unconditioned dharmas. they would have no real function.

" In a state of union. an object. 14.caitta). Being similar to the power lof the organ.. and this power is called "transformation. Its action is to serve as a support for feeling." and "transformation. and the resulting consciousness. in the "Thirty Verses. Thus the Abhidharrnasam uccaya. the alaya consciousness in all its states is always associated with these five mental activities. Mental Contact MENTAL CONTACT (spaisa) means the "union of the three. merely say that it is the "replication of the transformation of the organ. conceptualization. A. ATTENTION. it causes them to unite and is therefore called the "union of the three. they conform to each other and have the power to generate mental activity. From beginningless time up to the time of its final transformation. just as when the mind is functioning in a normal way." "rep- lica. Mental Activities Associated with the Store Consciousness With how many mental activities is this I store] consciousness associ- ated (samprayukta)? [Vasubandhu says.] 68 . FEELING. because it is similar in power to the three transformed things. because they are categorized as universal mental activities (sarvatraga. Contact occurs in dependence on these three factors." and it causes contact between mind and its activities and their object. volition. etc. etc. CONCEPTUALIZATION. "] IT IS ALWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL CONTACT." The nature of contact is to unite mind and its activities and cause them to come into contact together with the object. The power of the transformation of the organ predominates in the arising of mental contact. The "union of the three" refers to the conformability of an organ.Demonstration of Consciousness Only still classified as a sentient being. AND VOLITION. It is the same even at the final stages of the cessation of thought [in samádhij." Contact resembles the appearance of what is transformed and is therefore called its "replica" (pariccheda ). etc.

this is because volition is the dominant factor in the aggregate of the karmic predispositions. The Sutra of Birth and Extinction says. etc. because mind is the principal factor. grasped by feeling. B. conceptualization. because I in 69 . its name ATTENTION.. are born as a result of the union of two. and thus to mention it is to include the other karmic predispositions. and volition. but this is because contact is the proximate and principal factor in the generation of feeling. grasped through contact are extremely close to the characteristics of advantageousness. its activity is to be the support of feeling. and volition. It arouses and awakens the seeds of the mind that will come into existence and leads this mind and makes it approach its object.Chapter III to conform and produce mental activity. That is. The Abhidharmasamuccaya says that contact is the support of feeling. etc. feeling. etc. are. or four I factors. three. "Contact is the condition for such aggregates as feeling. because it is a mental activity included among the traditional six hexads. The nature of contact is real." This is why the scripture says that consciousness. it is only said to direct mind. contact is the most important factor pic in arousing feeling. because it is categorized as a form of nutriment. Another explanation is that it holds the mind fixed on a single object and therefore is called "attention. Even though it is also able to direct and generate the mental activities. and its activity is that of directing mind to the objective realm. and for that reason. hence. conceptualization.. not fictional. so it is not simply I a conventional name for] the union of three elements. just as feeling." Neither explanation is correct. the characteristics of agreeableness. As for the Yogdcdrabhz7mi Sastra saying that it is the support of only feeling. Attention ATTENTION (manashdra) has as its nature the arousing of mind... contact. etc. etc. respectively]. One explanation is that attention makes mind turn toward different objects. and because it is one of the conditions {among the twelve elements of conditioned arising (pratityasamutpáda)].

Feeling FEELING (vedance) has as its nature the experience of objects that are agreeable. because feeling certainly does not have as its object the contact that is born with it. because feeling the objective realm is shared by other characteristics [of consciousness I. you ought to call it "feeling its cause. is what we are calling "feeling the objective realm.nature. however. the feeling of the objective realm is not shared by other mental activities." not "feeling self. C. is not reasonable. because the feeling of agreeableness." and this is not shared by other mental activities. and I in the second case] it would not differ from .nature." Therefore this explanation of Samghabhadra only fools infants.nature.authentication. If you claim that it is called "experiencing contact" because it is similar to contact. If you call it the feeling of self.nature because it does not abandon its self.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the first case] it would no longer be omnipresent.nature. which means experiencing the object of perception. and its activity is that of arousing craving because it creates a desire for union. which means experiencing simultaneous mental contact. This theory. then all dharmas would be called "feeling of self. etc. and the feeling of self -na- ture. since feeling feels its cause.. your reasoning is faulty. which is unique to itself. Conceptualization The nature of CONCEPTUALIZATION (rasp rid) is that of grasping im- ages of objects. There is an explanation [by Samghabhadra) that says that feeling is of two kinds: feeling objects. disagreeable. and its activity is that of displaying and producing 70 ." If you claim that feeling experiences the nature of the feeling born from con- tact in the same way that a ruler consumes his kingdom and is therefore called I feeling of ] self. or neither. D." Also. separation. then all results resembling their cause would be called "feeling nature. However. because it goes against your own doctrine of the impossibility of self.sameidhi. or neither one. Only the second kind is real feeling.

These five mental activities are categorized as being universal activities and are therefore definitely associated with the store consciousness. are similar to it in terms of time of occurrence. etc. Volition The nature of VOLITION (cetand) is that of making the mind work. because it evolves in accordance with karma projected from a previous existence. how can this consciousness be retribution for karma? Since it is 71 . it is subtle and fine. etc. etc. These five mental activities. contact. object. When distinct characteristics [green. and evolves due to the power of good and bad action. and evolves in a continuous series. But if this is so.. If it were associated with the two feelings of pleasure and pain and thus changed. The characteristic of universality will be explained later at length. how could it be grasped as the [changeless] self? Therefore it is only associated with the feeling of indifference. When it grasps the characteristics of an object as causes of good.. E.. so there is only the feeling of indifference. of a single species. The mode of activity of this consciousness is extremely inacute. Since this consciousness is constant and always the same. its unable to discriminate the character of objects as agreeable or disagreeable. because they depend on present conditions and thus are not associated with this consciousness. The feeling associated with this consciousness is retribution only. then various names and words are produced accordingly. sentient beings always grasp it as an inner self. etc. etc. does not depend on present conditions. although different from the mode of activity of this consciousness as retribution. and for that reason are said to be associated.Chapter III various names and words.] of the object are established. and its activity is that of bending the mind toward good. etc. it urges the mind to create good.. support. The two feelings of pain and pleasure are born as a result of retribution but are not themselves retribution. and for these reasons it is said [by Vasubandhul that it is ONLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE FEELING OF INDIFFER- ENCE.

As for the four indeterminate dharmas. bad. Resolve comes from ascertainment of definite things. because this consciousness is by nature perfumable. defiled'. soiled.? Because these activities and this consciousness are opposed to each other. defiled dharmas. indeterminate and veiled i. bad action must be able to also. 15. then. these are intermittent and decidedly not retribution. because this consciousness is the support of good. etc. but this consciousness is dull and does not ascertain. Discernment occurs when there is an examination of such things as qualities. etc. it is not associated with such things as good. but this consciousness is unconcerned and has different objects of perception from instant to instant. and indeterminate and unveiled.Demonstration of Consciousness Only admitted that good action can arouse feelings of indifference. In which kind is the álaya consciousness included? It is only indeterminate and unveiled. such as desire. defilement. then rebirth in sainseira would not occur. but this consciousness is subtle and dull and cannot examine. Being nothing but retribution. etc. because its nature is that of retribution.. just as the indeterminate occurs along with good and bad.e. it and dharmas would be contradictory and it could not act as the support for these two dharmas. Meditation is the ability to keep mind fixed on a single object. Therefore this consciousness is not associated with mental activities with special objects. Desire arises from hope for something enjoyable. The Nature of the Eighth Consciousness Dharmas are of four kinds: good. If retribution were good. if it were itself good or defiled. Memory only occurs when one clearly remembers something known or practiced. like something with a very fragrant 72 . Also. The feeling of indifference is not opposed to the classes of pain and pleasure. such as shame.. but this consciousness is weak and dull and remembers nothing. if it were good or defiled. but this consciousness is unconcerned and hopes for nothing. nor would return Ito nirvana' and extinction occur. Why is this consciousness not associated with mental activities with special objects. etc.. Also.

This consciousness is neither good nor bad. This consciousness is not soiled. from what seeds would the results be born? Reason cannot allow that 73 . so how can they hold seeds in the way the eighth consciousness does? Also. and so it is said to be unveiled. being of exceptionally strong natures. can be determined I as one or the other]. If there were no perfuming. therefore. if contact. and also because it obscures mind and prevents purification. and are indeterminate and undefiled. There is another interpretation [by Nanda I to the effect that the similarity of contact." 16.. "Determinate" means either good or bad. would not sentient beings each have six kinds of substance? If that were the case. because good and bad have desirable or undesirable results and consequently. such as contact. are like the álaya consciousness in being retribution.. This is unreasonable. then impure or pure causes and results would not occur. attention. feeling.. etc. The Nature of Mental Activities I Vasubandhu's verses continue. it is called "indeterminate. Contact.. in having as object three kinds of things.. ETC.] AND THE SAME IS TRUE OF MENTAL CONTACT. Therefore this consciousness is morally indeterminate and unveiled only. it could not take perfuming. faith. conceptualization. and volition are like it because associated dharmas must have the same moral nature. and in being mor- ally indeterminate and undefiled. etc. to the álaya is that both are retri- bution and contain all the seeds. etc. in the way that their mode of activity and objects are unknowable. and thus the word SAME is unrestricted in its ref- erence. etc. are supported by the eighth consciousness and are not independent.Chapter III odor. Like covetousness. in being associated with five dharmas. the verse means that these five. Or. The term "veiled" refers to a soiled dharma. etc. because it constitutes an obstacle [like a veil] to the holy path. Why? Because contact. are not perfumable. can be perfumed. This means that contact is like the eighth conscious- 12b ness in being morally indeterminate and undefiled.

The five mental activities.. etc.. and what is more. because perfuming occurs simultaneously and has the same power. can be called "possessing all seeds" in the sense that these five mental activities have characteristics similar to seeds. etc..' if that is not so. that which they grasp and their place will be mixed with the eighth consciousness I which Vasubandhu says alone holds seeds]. etc. I I mean that contact. These quasi- seeds are not the causes that engender actual consciousness. just as contact. like visual organs. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only results can come from six different seeds.. such as contact. etc. and contact in the formless realm has an object. as objects.] a proximate objective condition I in the form of seeds I must exist. [Nanda replies.' I never said that contact. are incapable of discrimination. If that is not so. etc. have the images of quasi seeds. Consequently. are not the support of consciousness. like the eighth consciousness." not "in all cases. because if contact. we know that the expression "the same" means "in the appropriate cases. Consequently... contact.. the expression "all seeds" is to be taken as mean- ing that it takes perfuming and holds seeds. Also I Nanda's statement I that the words "the same" are not restrictive and lead to a mixture I of functions] is not proved. then how can contact. If you claim that the result is produced from only one seed. etc.. [Dharmapála replies." 74 . etc. in the formless realm. because no sentient being has six visual consciousnesses born at the same time in the space of an instant. I Dharmapála says. then what is the use of the other five? Nor can it be said that seeds produce results in succession. They have the same objects as consciousness. etc. can be perfumed and hold seeds. etc. would end up being associated activities of the same contact. then Vasubandhu's verse is guilty of needless repetition. because we never see a sprout born from six different seeds. be called "possessing all seeds "? [ Nanda replies. I that solution to your problem is unreasonable. Nor can you say that six results are born simultaneously. and [since there is no form. which has no function of burning. They are like the semblance of fire.

is neither constant nor discontinuous. The simile LIKE A FLOWING STREAM indicates the very nature of causation. and because its nature is that of firmly holding the seeds and preventing their loss. Just as a flowing stream is not interrupted when a wind whips it into waves. The word ALWAYS denies cessation. ALWAYS means that from beginningless time. etc. and carries with it floating and sinking sentient beings who cannot escape from it. from beginningless time the nature of this consciousness is such that from instant to instant the result is born as the cause perishes. The cause perishes and the result is born. r? EVOLVES means that from beginningless time. Just as the water of a flowing river is neither constant nor discontinuous. etc. That is. and therefore it is never the same. plants. carrying along its internal perfuming and external contact. and for that reason it can be perfumed by the other evolving consciousnesses and create new seeds. just as fish. which since beginningless time is born and perishes in a continuous stream. this consciousness has remained a homogeneous series. so does this consciousness always follow its evolving course. because it serves as the origin of the three realms. the five paths of rebirth.. Also. and continues for a long time along with things that float in it or sink in it. and the four forms of birth. so this consciousness.Chapter ITT 17. because 75 . this consciousness is born and perishes from instant to instant and changes from its former state to a subsequent state. Evolving Like a Flowing Stream Is the Maya consciousness constant or discontinuous? It is neither constant nor discontinuous. so does this consciousness always continue on in a stream even though it encounters various conditions and generates visual consciousness and the like. These similes show that this consciousness has been cause and effect from the beginning and is neither interrupted nor constant. float in the stream and follow it without being lost. constant. without interruption. because IT ALWAYS EVOLVES. while the word EVOLVES shows that it is not constant. there is no interruption. Because a result is born.

Incorrect Doctrines [The Sarvástivádins ask. but how can you affirm non constancy? If there is only continuity. 18.] if I according to you I past and future really exist. how can you hold to the notion of a result? If there are no causes or results. but how can you affirm noncessation? If there is only cessation. you can affirm nondiscontinuity. When the prior cause is in a state of cessation. the other side ascends. you may still affirm nonpermanence.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the cause perishes. because the causes and conditions that are required also would 76 . just as when one side of a scale sinks. how can you conform to the correct principle of conditioned arising (pratityasamittpada )? [We reply. I if [according to you] past and future do not really exist. the subsequent result is born. Thus cause and effect continue like a stream. what is the use for the prior cause? Since there is no meaning of cause.) our interpretation of cause and effect rests on the activity of dharmas. of what is the cause a cause? When the result is present and the prior cause is extinct. [ We reply.' if the subsequent result already exists when the cause still exists. there is no constancy. Why argue a fictional past and future in order to avoid the error of cessation? [The Sarvástivádins object:' When the cause is actually present but the following result does not yet exist. of what is the result a result? If there are no causes or results. then its activity must also. how can you conform to the correct principle of conditioned arising? [They reply. and therefore your objection does not compromise our teaching. how can you avoid the errors of cessation and constancy? [They reply.] it is difficult to demonstrate the truth without first refuting the false.' if the substance I of a dharma exists on its own in advance. who avoids the errors of cessation and permanence? [We reply. Therefore Vasubandhu says that this consciousness ALWAYS EVOLVES LIKE A FLOWING STREAM.) how do you affirm your own interpretation by merely reviling ours? [We reply. Its being neither discontinuous nor constant is the principle of conditioned arising. then since the result already exists on its own.

the cause and effect you advocate do not exist.] your words are just vain chatter and meaningless. All wise people should follow this principle. "Existence" is called "birth. In this way. that there is a present cause. 77 . it repays its cause. nor any of the problems cited earlier." so it must be in the past. When we contemplate an actual dharma that will later attract a functioning I. "Metaphorically" means that present consciousness appears with the character of past and future. with respect to it. Thus cause and effect are not metaphors. When we contemplate a present dharma as corresponding to a former characteristic. Who of the wise would reject this and believe the other? I We reply. practice it. I The Sthaviras say that] although past and future do not ex- 13a ist. subtle. Though the present stream of dharmas is extremely rapid." since it is in the present. a period of birth and a period of extinction. there are no errors of cessation and permanence. Such words as "cause" and "effect" are all metaphorical designations. there are causes and effects that continue in a series. then birth must be in the future. When it is born. and you should believe in the correct principle of conditioned arising as held by the Mahayana. still. and study it. it attracts a result. Just as the prior cause perishes.Chapter III exist on their own in advance. we metaphorically posit a future dharma and say. the principle of cause and effect is quite clear. and although substance and characteristics are distinct. However. Although there are these two phases or times. It avoids the two extremes I of cessation and permanence] and conforms to the Middle Way. and difficult to articulate. and "nonexistence" is called "cessation. when it perishes.dharmal. the substance of the dharma is unitary. How can instantaneous dharmas exist in two times? The characteristics of birth and cessation are contradictory. we metaphorically posit a past cause and say with respect to it that there is a present result. the subsequent result is born. Consequently. so how can they coexist? If cessation is presently occurring. The correct principle is profound. both occur simultaneously. still each dharma in the series has two phases of existence. a former state and a subsequent one.

"At the moment the bodhisattva attains bodhi. pratvekabuddhas. if the two characteristics are mutually contradictory. and because never again will they experience birth I and death I by allotment I due to karma I.ávara ¿za) utterly. and since birth is present existence. because it does not admit the existence of the álaya consciousness that holds the seeds. "Arhats. then birth must be nonexistence. and Tathagatas are not provided with an ellaya consciousness. If birth and cessation are different. say. The ARHAT refers to those of all three vehicles who have progressed beyond the stage of learning (saiksa). this consciousness has evolved like a stream. Also. they cannot occur in two different times. 19. quoting the Viniscayasamgraha. cessation must be present nonexistence. you should believe in the correct principle of conditioned arising as the continuity of cause and effect as taught by the Mahayana. Consequently. If birth and cessation are one. he suddenly cuts off the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known and becomes an arhat and a Tathagata. The Sautrántika principle of the continuity of cause and effect is also not established. how can you claim that their substance is the same? Therefore the principle that birth and cessation are simultaneously in the present and have the same single substance as support is certainly not established. because they are deserving of receiving the world's special veneration. They are said to ABANDON I álaya consciousness] because at that time." In the Abhidharnzasamuccaya it says. How do we know that this is so? Because some commentators." 78 .Demonstration of Consciousness Only If cessation is not nonexistence. Cessation of the Store Consciousness From beginningless time. how can their substance be unitary? We do not see such things with contradictories such as pain and pleasure. the coarse and heavy class of passions is forever removed. they are so called because they have slain the enemies who are the passions. At what point is it utterly abandoned? IT IS ABANDONED IN THE STATE OF ARHATSHIP Arhats are saints at the time when they terminate the obstacle of the passions (klesa.

They are categorized as arhats. never again grasp the store consciousness as an inner self. Also. there are no transgressions involved in these passions. and they evolve and progress from instant to instant. I hence they are said to be nonregressing I. this consciousness loses the name of alaya for good. named I "Immovable" on. But. and therefore they are not arhats. they are called "nonregressing bodhisattvas" and are not provided with alaya consciousnesses. Even though he produces various passions in order to benefit [other beings]. However. and he arouses various practices within a single activity. when they are aware of their own consciousnesses. the bodhisattva has realized the principle revealed by the two -fold emptiness [and is therefore said to be nonregressing I.] why does the Vinigcayasarygraha. I in bodhisattvas from the I eighth] stage I of bodhisattvas. That is. so these passages do not contradict our interpretation. say that the nonregressing bodhisattva is not provided with an dlaya consciousness? Because it says that those who have progressed beyond learning in the two [non. and because they do so they never regress or arouse the obstacle of passions. they are able to engender practice among all activities." There is another interpretation [by Nandal that says that from the very first stage on.Mahayanal vehicles 1. etc. he has eliminated the two heavy obstacles of discrimination. even though these bodhisattvas have not utterly terminated the seeds of the passions in the consciousness as retribution. He is also called that because he has acquired the two kinds of superior knowledge. the view of self and self -love. the pas- sions are never again active. As a consequence. and therefore it is said that these bodhisattvas are not provided with dlaya consciousnesses. They must be provided with dlaya consciousness. and for that reason he is called a "nonregressing 79 . the seeds of the passions are still not utterly destroyed. These bodhisattvas are what is meant by "arhats.. 3b have a change of heart and turn toward great awakening. I it is asked. They are also called "nonregressing bodhisattvas" because they proceed effortlessly in the rapid stream of the Dharma.Chapter III But if this is so. I according to Dharmapala.

and so they do not give rise to transgressions associated with passions. these passions are like poison that has been subdued by mantras and medicines." this explanation is unreasonable. he never again grasps the dlaya consciousness as an inner self.winners? Consequently. still the seventh consciousness in its state of impurity spontaneously acts and grasps the store consciousness [as a self]. Stream. I We reply that' in that case. the view of self and self -love never again grasps this consciousness as an inner self.apanna). so they are not transgressions. it contradicts all the treatises.] even though passions gener- ated in the sixth consciousness are the result of true wisdom and are not transgressions. etc. there remain innate views of self and self -love that grasp the store consciousness as an inner self. the name must be abandoned in connection with stream winners (srota. we know that [Nanda's] interpretation is not correct. and it is said that he is not provided with dlaya consciousness and that he is an arhat. so how can they be corn pared with bodhisattvas? [We reply. Consequently. because the arhat totally and completely eliminates the gross and heavy class of passions in this I seventh I consciousness.] it can be said that the name of dlaya is lost if the views of self and self -love arising from discrimination never again attach to the store consciousness. [Nanda replies. so how are these bodhisattvas not like stream ..Demonstration of Consciousness Only bodhisattva." Even though the bodhisattva has not eliminated innate passions utterly. and if you agree with that. Now. 80 . Consequently. I The two former masters reply to Nanda." passions in the bodhisattva in the ten stages are the result of true wisdom. when he recognizes his own consciousness. so how can that consciousness lose its name of dlaya? [Nanda replies. who are still in the learning stage. Therefore the Abhidharmasamuccaya says that even though the bodhisattva in the ten stages (bhúmi) has not forever exterminated all the passions. In the first seven bodhisattva stages. He is called an arhat because in all stages of the bodhisattva he is like an arhat who has totally exterminated the passions. this consciousness forever loses the name of dlaya. it loses the name dlaya.winners and 13e the like cannot have passions of this kind.

because among bodhisattvas. It may be called adana. because it is the result. and bodhisattvas. and these people have not yet acquired an eighth consciousness that is 81 . or "maintaining" consciousness. whether impure or pure. This name.vijñana).asraya). because it is the support of dharmas that are known. Names and Types of the Eighth Consciousness Even though all sentient beings are provided with an eighth consciousness. applies only to ordinary beings and learners. because it is the support of all unsoiled dharmas. It may be called "seed consciousness" (hija. because those beyond the learning stage. This name applies only to ordinary beings. because it universally holds mundane and supramundane seeds. 20.vijñana).vijñana). self -love. because it holds the seeds and material organs and prevents their destruction. and because views of self. and ordinary people. It is also called "consciousness as retribution" (vipaha. are not attached to impure dharmas. It may be called "mind" (citta) because it accumulates seeds perfumed by various dharmas. Finally. It is also called alaya. which is extremely pure. These names are suitable to all states I of spiritual development]. however. grasp the store as an inner self. etc.nirvana).. consciousness holds seeds and can be perfumed. because at the stage of a Tathagata there are no indeterminate dharmas in the form of retribution. and nonregressing bodhisattvas. [saints of the two vehicles. it has different names in accordance with the meaning. two vehicle saints. The arhat does not abandon the whole substance of the eighth consciousness. of good and bad action that attracts the cycle of death and rebirth. it is called "immaculate consciousness" (ainala. because it stores all defiled dharmas and prevents their loss. for it must not be that at the moment when he is without a consciousness holding the seeds he enters nirvana without remainder (nirupadhisesa. in the form of retribution.Chapter III which is said to be ABANDONED [in Vasuhandhu's verses]. This name only applies to consciousness in the stage of a Tathagata. It may be called "support of the knowable" (jñeya.

and because it is undistracted and unmoved.] it is [always associated with desire I because it desires to experience and know what is perceived. The substance of consciousness as retribution is abandoned by bodhisattvas as they are about to attain awakening and by disciples and pratyekabuddhas at the time they enter nirvana without remainder. apply generally to all states and should be used depending on the context. and [discernment. As a scripture says." etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only purified. and corresponding to perfect mirror knowledge.] because it always ascertains an object that is being contemplated. free of all obstacles. However. because it spontaneously evolves evenly at all times. five activities with special objects. 82 . which is indeterminate. and eleven good activities. This is because the universal activities are always associated with all minds." The name Maya is extensively discussed in this treatise because its transgressions are serious and because it is the first to be abandoned. I resolve.Honored Ones are never without unified minds. [samádhi. The second is its pure state. The first is its impure state. "The immaculate consciousness of a Tathagata is the realm of purity and nondefilement.] because it always clearly discerns all dharmas. It is associated with twenty -one mental activities: five universal activities.' because it always clearly records what has been previously experienced. generally speaking. j because the World.. It has as its object all the dharmas. Its nature is only 14a good. It is associated with eleven good mental activities because pure consciousness is always associated with pure faith. the eighth consciousness exists in two states. because it is lacking in impurity. etc. etc.. associated only with five dharmas. etc. such as contact. because there is no time when there is an end to benefitting beings and making them happy. location (sthäna). It is also associated with the feeling of indifference. and I regarding activities with special objects. and has as an object the aforementioned things it grasps and holds (upádil. I memory. because perfect mirror knowledge universally has all dharmas as its object. Terms such as "mind. At no time is immaculate consciousness abandoned.

they must. the second half shows it functioning as the support of flowing and evolving fin samsarai and returning Ito nirvanaI and cessation. the seed consciousness has evolved in a continuous series I of causes and effects I. That is." The word "support" means "condition. and it transforms into them. the eighth consciousness has a separate. it is a support because it maintains the seeds. being a form of consciousness by nature. "From beginningless time. "Is their support" means that it acts as a support for the other evolving consciousnesses. producing all the dharmas spontaneously. it has been the support of all dharmas since beginningless time. manas consciousness also evolves supported by it. it holds and maintains the five material organs. "Transforms into them" means that it transforms into a world receptacle and a body provided with organs. must also have a 83 . etc. From it come all the paths of existence and the attainment of nirvana. like visual consciousness. etc. Because manas and manas consciousness are forms of evolving consciousness. because it is the support of manas. active dharmas. First Explanation The eighth consciousness is very subtle by nature and is manifested only through its activity. and for this reason it is their condition.. evolve supported by it. independent substance? Through holy teaching and proper reasoning. The eighth consciousness.abhidharma Sútra." A. it is the support of ac- tual. etc. That is. The first half of the above passage shows that the eighth consciousness functions as cause and condition. Proof of the Existence of the Eighth Consciousness How do we know that apart from visual consciousness.. that is. the sixth consciousness. etc. be supported by organs existing simultaneously with them." As the "maintaining" consciousness.Chapter III 21. "Element" means "cause ". there has existed an element (clhatu) that is the support of all dharmas. and for that reason it is called a "cause. from beginningless time. and therefore the five kinds of consciousness visual. And. It says in the Mahayana.

Or the words "paths of existence" refer to both the places where one wanders in transmigration and to those things that cause one to transmigrate. 84 . As a result of the path that cuts off. and the realization all depend on this [eighth) conciousness. Even though delusion. the word "nirvana" indicates the cessation that is realized. consciousness. karma. The phrase "and the attainment of nirvana" means that as a result of this consciousness. Those things that accompany and assist the paths I such as the receptacle world] can also be called "paths of existence. and at the ultimate." Delusion. This means that the function of this consciousness is that of being a cause. Or it may speak only of the nirvana that is to be realized. the verse only refers to "paths of existence." "Come all the paths of existence" means "come good and bad paths of existence. because nirvana does not exist dependent on this consciousness. final stage. because both are in the category of returning and cessation." because they are the principal part of the result. because it is what the cultivator of the path really seeks. karma. one cuts off delusions that are to be cut off. Or it may speak of both nirvana and the path to it. That which cuts off. The expression "from it" in the verse means "from this consciousness." This means that the eighth consciousness is responsible for holding all the dharmas conforming to trans 14b migration in samsara and causes beings to transmigrate in samsara. and forms of birth are all transmigration. This means that an eighth consciousness exists that holds all the dharmas favorable to return and cessation. The passage says only that one can experience and acquire the path. In other words. and forms of birth are supported by this consciousness that acts as a support for transmigration.Demonstration of Consciousness Only simultaneous support in the manas. which performs the function of supporting the returning and cessation. that which is cut off. one fully attains nirvana. and the following "attains" refers to the path that attains. and that causes the cultivator of the path to attain nirvana. or seventh. there is the attainment of nirvana.

The reason for this is that the support and that which is supported are born and perish together.e. i. or nirvana and the path to it.nature of this consciousness is beginningless and always exis- tent. and karma and delusion. "Pure dharmas" means the truth of cessation and the path to cessation. birth. that which is realized and that which realizes. the first quarter (pada) of the above verse shows that the self .e. since this fundamental consciousness contains the seeds. i.áva). be- cause it makes no sense to think that they are supported by the other [seven] evolving consciousnesses. alternately. or.. These are the dependent on others (paratantra. fundamental consciousness]. it embraces and stores all impure dharmas. Third Explanation The first quarter of the verse indicates the substance of this consciousness as being beginningless and continuous. etc. Both dharmas exist in dependence on this consciousness. while the last three quarters of the verse indicate. It is not like the superior nature lof the SámkhyasJ evolving into Mahat. that this consciousness is the support of both impure and pure dharmas. in that order. because the seeds are not identical with the substance of the result [i. The name álaya comes from this. Now nothing mentioned in this verse can be found apart from the eighth consciousness. It is also called álaya because impure dharmas and it embrace and harbor each other.. I have revealed it to the superior ones. while the last three quarters of the verse indicate that it is the support of the "three natures" (trisvabháva)." That is. The Abhidharma Sutra says. "Impure dharmas" means the truths of suffering and the origination of suffering [in the four noble truths I.e. and sentient beings grasp it as a self. generally and specifically. 85 . "The consciousness that contains all the seeds is called álaya. the paths of existence and that which leads one into the paths... Second Explanation Also.svabheiva). and the perfected (parinispanna.svabh.Chapter III B. because it embraces and stores all dharmas. the falsely imagined (parihalpita.svabháva). C.

battered by the wind of objects and perpetually 86 ." It is the real seed of all dharmas. and for that reason our World. all bodhisattvas are called "superior ones. but it continues on without interruption. "Just as the ocean encounters the condition of wind and produces many waves but rolls on uninterrupted just as it is. and "fools" refers to those who seek rest. fearing they will discriminate and grasp it as a self. they are still capable of believing in. In the Samdhinirmocana Sutra. Moved by conditions. fall into evil paths of existence. On the other hand. and therefore it is said to be "extremely deep." Even though prior to the path of insight they are unable to realize and comprehend the ñlaya consciousness. and it grasps and holds the bond to rebirth and the continuity I of cause and effect].Demonstration of Consciousness Only The hosts of bodhisattvas who have entered the path of in- sight and obtained actual contemplation of reality (tatter abhisamaya) are called "superior ones" fin the verse)." This consciousness is called Adana ( "maintaining ") because it grasps and holds the seeds 14e of dharmas. In the harikduatära Sutra." Members of the family of those who seek rest !in nirvana] are unable to grasp it. our World.Honored One does not teach it to them.Honored One properly revealed it. understanding. it grasps and holds the support that is material organs. the Buddha says. the Buddha says. They have the ability to realize and comprehend the maya consciousness. Fearful that they will discriminate and grasp it. Other evolving consciousnesses do not have this meaning. and the Buddha was also referring to them. it produces the "waves" of the various evolving consciousnesses. or encounter obstacles to the holy paths. so is it that the ocean of the store consciousness. I do not teach it to ordinary people or fools. Beings without hope of nirvana (agotraka) cannot glimpse its depths. and seeking the transmutation of the support. "The Adana consciousness is deep and subtle. and all the seeds fin itl resemble a flowing stream. Only the eighth consciousness has these characteristics. It therefore says that this consciousness is called adana. "Ordinary people" are those who belong to the family of those not destined to be awakened. and therefore it is said to be "extremely subtle. like a flowing stream.

and even if they were taught. like the Ehottarágama. and thus these are included as orthodox in the ágamas. so how does one know that just the Great Vehicle alone is not the word of the Buddha? 3. and they have not been taught in their scriptures. as he predicted other calamities? 2. and Community of followers and condemn non Buddhist !methods I.Chapter III producing the waves of various forms of consciousness. All Mahayana scriptures conform to the teach- ing of no self and contradict the notion of persons. his Teaching. Also. If Mahayana scriptures were preached by someone else after the Buddha's nirvana in order to destroy the True Dharma. Those that adhere to the Mahayana affirm that these texts are among those that reveal the truth without distortion.Buddhists.. etc. it is said that this eighth consciousness exists. etc. why did the World." Visual consciousness. and they teach the aggregates (shandhas) and deny [the existence on originating beings. Not predicted at the beginning. They reject transmigration in sarnsára and turn toward returning [to nirvdnal and cessation. The teachings of the two vehicles have occurred together from the beginning. Mahayana teachings are totally established. they are not believed. In these various Mahayana scriptures. Mahayana teachings are not accessible to others. are not the domain of speculation by non . 15a 87 . and therefore we know that there is a separate eighth consciousness. the principle that Mahayana teachings were taught by a Buddha is totally established. Therefore. Mahayana and Hinayana have been active together from the beginning. is unlike a great ocean that always flows on in a stream while pro- ducing waves. The teachings of the Mahayana are vast and extremely profound. rolls on without interruption just as it is. it is false that Mahayana scriptures are not the words of the Buddha.Honored One not predict it.. etc. 4. Arya Maitreya demonstrates that the Mahayana scriptures are really the teachings of the Buddha by means of seven reasons: I . they praise the Buddha. If you claim that the Mahayana is the teaching of other Buddhas but not of the present Buddha.

not being accessible to others. If there is no Mahayana. then the teach- ings of the disciples must not exist either. The meaning cannot be construed simply by going by the letter of the text and then slandering it and denying its genuineness. being an antidote. using a hidden meaning. consequences of the ex- istence or nonexistence [of Mahayanal. Practitioners who make an effort based on Mahayana scriptures are able to obtain the nondiscriminatory insight that serves as an antidote to all the passions. because no Mahayana can be found apart from them. who would appear in the world to teach the vehicle of the disciples? Therefore that the vehicle of the disciples was taught by the Buddha but that the teachings of the Mahayana were not is not proper reasoning. because without the Mahayana." Scriptures of other Buddhist schools also teach the existence of an álaya consciousness that has a distinct self nature. It is the support of visual and other forms of consciousness in the same way that the roots of a tree are the foundation for branches. Scriptures of both the Sthaviras and the Vibhajyavádins. and differing from the literal meaning. In that case.vijñána). total establishment. 7. etc. If there is a Mahayana. I "The Mahayana is the word of the Buddha I because of lack of prediction. using a hidden meaning. simultaneous occurrence. It is an antidote. Visual consciousness does not function in this way. The meaning is different from the letter. Therefore the Maha- yana is truly the teaching of the Buddha. For instance.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 5. The purport of the Mahayana teachings is extremely profound. call this consciousness bhaváñga ( bhava + ariga) consciousness. Consequences of the existence or nonexistence of the Mahayana. no one would become a Buddha. 6. the ágama of the Mahásámghikas teaches this consciousness. then we must trust that these Mahayana teachings came from the Buddha." referring to the three realms of existence. Ariga means "cause. but they use a hidden meaning." and only this 88 . As a verse in the Sütralarnkcra says. and therefore they must be the teachings of the Buddha. Bhava means "existence. and calls it "root consciousness" (mala.

speak of this consciousness as an alaya. thinking. pleasant feelings are not the real basis of sensual attachment. Beings are not attached to the other five aggregates that are grasped as self!. they do not become attached to the other five aggregates that are grasped. mind. generally and specifically. the álaya consciousness is the object.. and therefore this [ álaya consciousness] is what is meant by the "aggregate that lasts up to the end of samsára. and we have already exhaustively established that apart from form. pleasure in álaya. using a hidden meaning. they still love the self. Nor is the view of real selfhood the real basis of sensual 89 . "When will I be rid of this life. The Mahisásakas call this consciousness the "aggregate that lasts up to the end of samsára. of desire during the past. etc. Sentient beings grasp it as a real inner self. and among the unconscious celestials (asamjñika -deva ). and it continues to gener151. this that is common to all bodies. etc.Chapter III consciousness. and delight in alaya. and be allowed to be free and happy ?" Nor are the objects of the five kinds of consciousness the real basis of sensual attachment. future. in which visual consciousness does not exist!. can be a cause for the three realms of existence. When they are born in circumstances exclusively painful. Therefore the alaya is the real basis of sensual attachment. and present. The Ekottaragama speaks of "love of álaya. form is disrupted. they still love the self. because even though l those who are detached from the impurities of the third trance state (dhyana) are disgusted with pleasure. joy in álaya.. Likewise. other forms of consciousness are extinct. ate sensual attachment up to the point when it is eliminated. being permanent and everywhere [including the formless realm." Apart from this consciousness. In the formless realm. the associated mental activities have no distinct substances of their own." That is. there is no other aggregate or dharma that persists without interruption up to the end of sanzsara. this suffering body and mind. because even though those who are free of desire do not desire or grasp after the five wonderful objects of desire. but only hate them." The Sarvástivádins also.

" 22. they still love the self. they cannot 90 . mind. who believe that the first six forms of consciousness contain the seeds. "It is that which has accumulated and created the seeds of impure and pure dharmas. and only this. and for that reason it is called citta I "mind. Therefore. Unassociated dharmas (viprayukta. because without this consciousness there is no mind to hold the seeds.samskara) have no distinct substance apart from form. and do not arouse any desire or love for the belief in a self. they cannot be perfumed. [different acts of] attention. they nevertheless still arouse love for an inner self. A scripture says.. When ordinary people and those still learning I the Way] arouse self -love." from the Sanskrit root ci. etc. Nor is the material body the real basis of sensual attachment. they do not endure. because even though those who are detached from the impurity of form are disgusted with the material body. etc. and being fleeting. and therefore cannot be the real basis of sensual attachment. Consequently. they are born from sense organs. we reply that] those evolv- ing consciousnesses are disrupted in the sanzcdhi of cessation (nirodha. when the Ekottarágama speaks of an Maya.samápatti).. A Sautrántika Position I In opposition to the Sautrántikas.learners and seeking the cessation of mind are disgusted with the other evolving consciousnesses. meaning "to accumulate "1. because even though those who are not yet beyond the stage of learning believe that there is no self. they still love the self. and therefore only this consciousness is the real basis of sensual attachment. they still generate a self -love with this Lálayal consciousness as its object. it is indicating this. and vary as to moral species. and they easily dissipate.Demonstration of Consciousness Only attachment. Nor are the I other I evolving consciousnesses the real basis of sensual attachment. cdaya consciousness. objects. like flashes of lightning. We have quoted the holy scriptures and now shall resort to correct reasoning. whether they love the other aggregates or not. because even though those who are not yet post.

Also. and do not accept perfuming. A Divergent Sautrántika Position Another ISautrantikal theory is that although the first six forms of consciousness have changed from state to state since begin ningless time due to the organs and their objects. Therefore reason demands that some other mind must exist that holds seeds. you also violate correct reasoning. are not mind. impure and pure causes and effects are created. As a result. If you do not admit the existence of a mind that can hold seeds. they have no self existence apart from consciousness itself. then. they remain unchanged as the species (jail) [consciousness] and are therefore perfumable and can hold seeds [since they remain unchanged as the species "consciousness "]. and they are not the mind that accumulates impure and pure seeds. if presently existing pure and impure dharmas are born without seeds as cause. are not of the nature of mind. easily appear and disappear.Chapter III hold seeds. so what need is there for insisting on an eighth consciousness? 91 . so how can they be considered to be the sup- port of internal seeds? IIn conclusion. like the sesame seed that endures and can be perfumed. The eighth consciousness is a single species and is not interrupted. 15c Form and other dharmas not associated with mind. and therefore corresponds to the mind spoken of in the scriptures. this would result in the spontaneous generation held by non . Active dharmas of the classes "pure" and "impure" could not perfume and create seeds I in the absence of a consciousness that is perfumable I.Buddhists. are not independent [of form and mind]. the existing dharmas would quickly lose their power.] the evolving consciousnesses and their associated mental activities are interrupted as consciousness [in the meditative states of cessation]. you not only contradict the scriptures. 23.. and if that were the case. etc. and in principle are not perfumed by internal pure and impure dharmas. like sound and light. cannot hold seeds. so how can they hold seeds? Also.

consciousness. because the perfumer and the perfumed must be simultaneous. and the species will be interrupted. I we reply thatl they are not perfumable. are not simultaneous.khyd. would be of the same species as other dharmas. To agree with this is a mistake. Finally. You will not admit this. etc. cannot be perfumed). Also. The Mahásámghikas As for the Mahasámghika opinion that the first six conscious nesses evolve simultaneously. the species cannot be indeterminate.. 24. and therefore they also do not qualify as being able to hold seeds. then it has no particular function and must not have the ability to hold real seeds of internal dharmas. Why? If your species (játi. in what category is your species. like the cessation resulting from discrimination (pratisam. A Dárstántika Opinion Also. and other organs. they do not perfume each other. If it is indeterminate. because you admit that it is determinate. this is the same as what non -Buddhists teach. this species definitely does not exist in the mindless states [of sarnádhil. If the actual mind is good or bad.Demonstration of Consciousness Only I We reply. If you admit that the species is a fiction. for reasons given earlier. such as visual consciousness. and since there is an interruption its nature is not firm and stable. there will be no nondetermined mind. so how can it be maintained that it holds seeds and takes perfuming? Moreover. 92 . I your position makes no sense. it is unable to take perfuming. 25. since the minds of arhats and ordinary people would be of the same species. and so you should not hold the opinion that the species "consciousness" takes perfuming. included? If you categorize it as good or bad. since two successive moments of the I first I six consciousnesses. like two separate moments. being good by nature. and would therefore perfume each other. which. whether as a species or as individuals.nirodha.) is real. they would be perfumed by soiled and pure dharmas. Also. organs such as the eye. then when mind is either good or bad. because the particular species must be the same as the particular thing itself.

28. Bhávaviveka There is an opinion that the Mahayana doctrine of emptiness as the denial of characteristics is absolute. The Sarvástivádins There is also an opinion that the dharmas of the three times [past. as previously mentioned. how can you maintain that the former becomes the seed of the latter? Also. the evolving conscious nesses and form are not perfumable. because it does not involve perfuming. and.] exist. they have no function. because past and future are neither eternal nor present. This opinion is unreasonable. like [imaginary] flowers in the sky. Since the species of those I form and mind I are not perfumed. because they cannot be held to possess the nature of causality. etc. Those of the two vehicles who have progressed beyond the learning stage will have no final aggregates. The Sthaviras There is an opinion that prior form or mind becomes subsequent seeds of their own species without interruption. Therefore the previously mentioned [eighth consciousness) is not established. they do not really exist. so what is the point of holding the opinion that there is a consciousness that holds seeds? When a scripture says that mind is a seed. You must not say that form and mind alternate as seeds for each other. because. I Bhávaviveka I denies the existence of this consciousness as well 93 . it means that it generates impure and pure dharmas and its energy is powerful. I the dharmal is not born again. Also. none of the causes and effects are established. This is not reasonable. Based on faulty inference. 1G 27. thus establishing the principle of cause and effect. because form and mind at the point of death become seeds for afterwards I when they cease in nirvana]. if there is an interruption. so that cause and effect move forward with no difficulty. If there is no consciousness that holds impure and pure seeds.Chapter III 26.

To hold as unreal knowledge I of suffering I. The six consciousnesses.." etc. that are agitated by karma. That is because visual consciousness. etc. then.]. extinction [of its causel. It must be granted that there is a real mind as retribution that repays projected karma. it is not mind as retribution. do not always exist. I We argue this I because (1) apart from mind.Buddhists.. are not like this. that is found in the three realms. such as the visual consciousness. and practice lof the pathl. The "life principle. 29. body and world receptacle are in fact nonex- istent.. and because it is not always the result of karma. That mind is the eighth consciousness. bodhisattvas would not energetically cultivate and accumulate the equipment for bodhi in order to abandon samsara.. as well as defiled and pure causes and results. what changes into a body and 94 . and (3) the evolving consciousnesses. resemble sounds. is to hold a terribly false view. not retribution per se. because they are not constant or continuous. Without this consciousness. and they are born of retribution. What wise person would seek out the sons of a stone woman to use as an army in order to repel phantom armies? Therefore you must believe that there is a mind that holds seeds and that defiled and pure causes and results are based on it. He is in strong contradiction with the above quoted scripture. influenced by good and had karma. because the non. slandering I the principle of I defiled and pure cases and results. also do not claim that I defiled and pure dharmasl are utterly nonexistent but only unreal. and acts as a support for sentient beings. is not interrupted. etc. is interrupted. If this consciousness does not exist. mind as retribution must not exist. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only as all dharmas. If none of the dharmas really exists. (2) dharmas not associated with mind have no real substance. that changes into the body and world receptacle. Mind as Retribution A scripture speaks of a mind that is retribution. being like a lightning flash. This is because I dharmas that are] retribution do not continue in a series after stopping. realization lof nirvana.

along with that which responds to action among the five forms of consciousness. Dharmas unassociated with mind have no real. in states of sarndrdhi. there is. because. because they are not Buddhas but sentient 1st beings. and it is the eighth consciousness. just as it is admitted that they generate them at other times. universal. how can these physical sensations exist in that state? When non Buddhists generate other thoughts that are good. etc. Good [ dharmasl that are innate or responding to actions in the I sixth I thought consciousness. the substance of those paths and forms of rebirth would not exist. and being unmixed. Paths of Rebirth and Forms of Birth A scripture teaches that sentient beings transmigrate in five paths of rebirth (gati) and four forms of birth (yoni). while abiding here fin one place]. do not always exist. or not in those states. and unmixed. because they do not exist in the formless realm. in fact. one would produce dharmas of other paths and forms of rebirth. there is always a real mind as retribution. whether or not there is discriminative thought.Chapter III world receptacle? Based on what dharmas can sentience be always established Iin samadhi. Dharmas such as these can be established as truly real paths and forms of rebirth. With dharmas that are not retribution. because if this conscious- ness did not exist. constant. Only mind as retribution and its mental activities are real. paths and forms of rebirth would be confused. 30. although constituting a universal I basis fort the paths and forms of rebirth.. the individual later would Iupon leaving samddhi I not experience well -being or fatigue. much physi- cal feeling. Form as retribution. do not constitute a universal (basis of I paths and forms of rebirth. If a real mind as retribution does not always exist. independent substance and cannot be said to constitute a real I basis for] the paths and forms of rebirth. and unmixed and thus the real [basis for the] 95 . universal. Consequently. they must be actually generating a real mind as retribution. Without it. etc. The paths and forms of rebirth must exist and be perpetual.]? Also.

If it is admitted that the paths and forms of rebirth comprise all impurities. then one born in the formless realm and generating an impure mind would not have a path or form of birth. Theory of Appropriation A scripture says that the body provided with organs is "appropriated" [i.e. it is a continuous series. it is of a single species. it is omnipresent I throughout the three realms]. because a Buddha has no indeterminate dharmas as retribution.hija). Since the [real basis for! paths of rebirth and forms of birth is mind as retribution and its activities. and it appropriates a body provided with organs.Demonstration of Consciousness Only paths and forms of rebirth. and therefore we know that there is a separate eighth consciousness. etc.. and do not appropriate their own internal body provided with organs. because he has no impurity. It does not mean that the 96 . because the World . one born in the formless realm and generating [a thought that is] good. Therefore the Tathágata is not included in the paths or forms of rebirth. and because he has cut off the seeds of idle discourse (prapañca. This statement means that the evolving consciousnesses such as visual consciousness are not omnipresent. grasped and held].. the five material sense organs and their support are appropriated. only in the present. Without this mind. That is. therefore only the dharma of retribution is the real I basis for the] paths and forms of rebirth. this must be the result of a mind that can appropriate them. no appropriator would exist either. it is neither good nor bad. are not a single species.Honored One has abandoned the truths of suffering and its cause. and this contradicts reason. If this consciousness did not exist. are not a continuous series. Nor is he included in the I three] realms. that mind and its activities cannot be established apart from the eighth consciousness. Even though mind as retribution is attracted by former karma. 31. The evolving consciousnesses such as visual consciousness do not have these characteristics. We must avoid both the former and the present errors. would not have a path or form of rebirth.

The material organs and dharmas unassociated with mind cannot appropriate a body provided with organs.. bad. Therefore there must be a separate mind that appropriates. Heat. etc. like sound. they cannot appropriate an impure material body. Is it reasonable to think that consciousness alone is not so? [It is objected. and Consciousness A scripture says that life. like life and heat. because it must not be that the material bodies of Buddhas are not appropriated. and consciousness persist in a series through mutual support. 32.! support each other and that life and heat are a homogeneous series. so they cannot be established as the consciousness that supports life and heat.. etc. etc. it also admits that only heat is not found throughout 97 . hence the statement in the scripture. and. because they are definitely associated with the mind. etc.Chapter III appropriator is nothing but mind as retribution.. This means that the evolving consciousnesses appear as a result of present conditions. are not universal supports. there would be no consciousness that could hold life and heat and cause them to be always present. and because when they are good. like sound. just as the words "consciousness only" I include mental activities]. Impure material bodies are appropriated only by the mind as retribution. etc..1 although the scripture says that the three dharmas support each other. like space. Consciousness as retribution alone is uninterrupted and unevolving. Because they are born of retribution and not retribution per se. The evolving consciousnesses are discontinuous.. and do not continue in a series. Without this I eighth I consciousness. heat. wind. The scripture says that the three dharmas Ilife. etc. Life. so that it can be established as the consciousness that supports life and heat. like lightning flashes. The words "mind" and "consciousness" include mental activities. 16e they have no objects. because. and do not have the function of perpetually supporting. and it is the eighth consciousness.. it supports perpetually. wind. like the cessation resulting from the absence of conditions. they are not created by karma.

When one is born in the formless realm and produces a pure mind. and 98 . we also know that consciousness. like them. they do not have the function of perpetually supporting each other. all kinds of beings are mentally distracted and not in the mindless samradhi. Because the real consciousness as retribution is extremely fine and subtle. If this I eighth] consciousness did not exist. is definitely not pure.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the three realms. and can support life and heat. mind would not exist at the moment of birth or death. as in the mindless state I of samádhi]. Moreover. what consciousness supports that life? Con- sequently. since life and heat among these three dharmas is only impure. Otherwise. we know that there is a consciousness as retribution that is a single species. its mode of activity and 17a objects cannot be discerned. and the sharply perceiving evolving consciousnesses do not operate. The existence of the activities and objects of the sixfold evolving consciousnesses must be knowable. as they are in a dreamless sleep or deep faint. they support each other constantly. are not actually present. the mode of activity and objects of these six forms of consciousness cannot be known. is perpetual. Mind at Birth and Death A scripture says that at birth and death. is perpetual and universal. just as they are at other times. so why not admit that consciousness by itself evolves intermittently I when heat is absent)? I We reply. and that is the eighth consciousness. so how does bringing up the matter of heat as nonuniversal conflict with our principles? Our former point is completely proven. It is the result of karma that leads Çto rebirth] and for a time continues in a series. 33. and therefore these consciousnesses.] your point does not contradict our former point. At the time of birth or death. The term "consciousness" that was used to make a logical point earlier as one of the three dharmas does not refer to the evolving consciousnesses. body and mind are confused and dull. In these states. Whenever these three dharmas are present and continuous.

[Nanda says. then the mental consciousness must not exist then either. and to refer to it as "mind at birth" or "mind at death" does not violate correct reasoning. the five [material forms of I consciousness and teachings by others do not exist in the formless realm. there is a kind of mental consciousness that is extremely subtle and whose mode of activity and objects are imperceptible. There is a theory [ by Nanda I that at birth and death the five [material I consciousnesses definitely do not exist. and because they are not active [at death]. a sensation of coldness gradually is felt at the top or bottom of the body as a result of good or bad karma.. etc. and since these causes are non- existent at the time of birth. and there is no cause for the appearance of the dispersed mind that brings about samddhi.jñdna) grasps its object as a result of the [functioning of the ] five I material forms of I consciousness. at the moment of death. It is a distracted mind. at the time of birth or death. I suppose that mind in samddhi suddenly appears later as a result of habitual repetition. I We reply. so why bother with some other theory? According to other schools. because each of the five forms of material consciousness. the mental consciousness ought to appear by way of habitual repetition in both the realm of desire and the realm of form when one is first born there. or as a result of samddhi.] why does it not appear as soon as one is born in the formless realm? Also. has a separate support [such as the material eye]. If it does not appear during the first moment due to dullness and confusion. because the mind in samddhi arises as a result of the dispersal of the mental consciousness. Also. because the evolving consciousnesses are unable to appropriate a body. The sixth I manas] consciousness is not in the body [ at 99 . then this is the same argument we made earlier. because the extremely effective mental consciousness is not like this. sentient beings born in the formless realm will be forever without a mental consciousness.vi.Chapter III is unchanging. This would not occur in the absence of the eighth consciousness. They should realize that this is [really] the eighth consciousness. [ We reply. such as visual consciousness. The mental consciousness (nano. as a result of teaching.' if this were the case.

17h The scripture itself explains in the following manner: name (náma) refers to the four nonmaterial aggregates [such as feeling. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only all times!. The area where the cold appears is no longer sentient. is constant. like two bundles of reeds supporting each other. such as visual consciousness. continues in a series. These two and consciousness persist through mutual support. Consciousness and Name . They perpetually evolve together. and even though I the eighth consciousness] changes and has [that part of the body I as an object. it no longer appropriates it. through the power of previous karma. consciousness. so the sensation of cold ought not to arise gradually because of it. and appropriates the parts of the body. 34. because in the early embryonic state. simultaneously. and never separate." the scripture means the sixth consciousness. so without this [eighth] consciousness. The evolving consciousnesses. I all six evolving consciousnesses are dis- continuous and therefore are without the power or continuity to appropriate name. and they evolve simultaneously. and when it leaves these areas of the body it appropriates. there are no five I material forms of 1 consciousness. etc. We therefore know for certain that the eighth consciousness exists. and when it fills the body it always continues in a series. In this way. it cannot be said that the aggregate of consciousness included in náma refers to the five [material forms of Iconsciousness and that by "consci. these two dharmas evolve by supporting each other.pervading. are included in the category nama. the substance of the other consciousnesses would not exist. In the absence of this [eighth] consciousness. what supports them? Also. and consciousness are not separated. like two bundles of reeds. heat. Also. so how can it be said that they 100 .]. Only mind as retribution. because life.and -form.and -Form (Nama -Rúpa) A scripture says that consciousness and name -and -form (namarúpa) condition each other. is all. and form (rapa) refers to the kalala [embryonic material body]. the sensation of cold appears. its objects are not fixed.ousness.

it especially holds the meaning of nutriment in connection with mental consciousness.Chapter 111 constantly support name and -form? Therefore the word "consciousness" l in the scripture I refers to the eighth consciousness. 35. because that consciousness especially aspires towards objects. Although this intention is associated with various consciousnesses. and consoling indifference are especially nourishing. the sense base of form (r7pa. and intention. A scripture lists four kinds of nutriment. because contact with gross. all serving as food when [the object( changes and deteriorates. The first is the nutriment we consume in mouthfuls. The second kind is nutriment as contact. obvious objects. because it is homogeneous. characterized by wish or aspiration. The Four Nutriments A scripture says that all sentient beings are sustained by nutriment.áyatana) is not categorized as food eaten in mouthfuls. It is impure contact that. which is characterized by change and destruction. but it especially holds the meaning of nutriment in connection with the first six forms of consciousness. and contact in the realm of desire. pleasure. Consequently. The fourth kind is nutriment as consciousness. which is characterized by contact with objects. which is characterized by grasping and holding. Impure intention and desire evolving together aspire to a desirable object and thus serve as nutriment. Also. It consists of flavors. smells. contact is associated with various consciousnesses. obtains satisfaction and serves as nutriment. at the mo- ment of grasping its object. the substance of nutriment in the form of consciousness would not exist. it especially deserves the meaning of nutriment in connection with the eighth consciousness. and serves as nutriment. 101 . contact. Although this kind of consciousness is common to the substances of various forms of con- sciousness. obtaining satisfaction. because form has no function when it is changing and deteriorating. The third form of nutriment is intention. It is impure consciousness that increases through the power of food eaten in mouthfuls. Without this [eighth] consciousness.

nature. etc.. it has no substance or function. because when one is unconscious. Like I imaginary) flowers in the sky.. like space. and is preeminent in grasping and holding Iseeds ¡. because they are not included in the list of the four nutriments. but all forms of nutriment depend on the evolving consciousnesses and may or may not exist depend- ing on whether the latter exists.deva). etc. realm of existence. [Refuting the Sarvástivádins. and its past is not nutriment. etc. these evolving consciousnesses change according to the support. For instance. Those who hold the theory that the eighth consciousness does not exist should explain what nutriment it is that the scripture speaks of in saying that all sentient beings are supported by food. and among the unconscious celestials (asamjfiika. as we have already amply demonstrated. deep sleep. The evolving consciousnesses such as visual consciousness are 17c intermittent and changeable and are not always and everywhere able to sustain body and life. and. Even if it had substance and function. Nor can it be claimed that mind. we say that' past and future consciousness.. etc. These four are called "nutriment" because they sustain the bodies and lives of beings and prevent their disruption and destruction. they are interrupted in unconscious samádhi. is not nutriment in the unconscious stales because it is neither present nor constant. Even in the state of consciousness. it does not function as nutriment. and eleven sense fields. and therefore they are not present everywhere or constantly to support life and body.Demonstration of Consciousness Only continues in a series. and the [spiritual) stage of the individual. object. Thus the Abhidharmasamuccaya speaks of four nutriments comprised in three aggregates. and nutriment consisting of contact and intention is found throughout the three realms.. it is not present. mind ceases to operate. of someone entering samádhi can be nutriment for sentience in the mindless state. five sense bases. such 102 . fainting. Nor can it be said that dharmas unassociated I with mind) serve as nutriment in the unconscious samádhi. Nutriment in mouthfuls is used only in the realm of desire.

the consciousness characterized as nutriment is the eighth consciousness. are lacking in real substance. In- asmuch as consciousness as retribution has a special nature as nutriment. constant. Also. because. because body and life are not included in the list of the four nutriments. and homogeneous existence (nikeiya. but that theory is untenable and will be refuted at length later. and omnipresent and that serves to sustain body and life and prevent their termination. speech.Honored One said..Chapter III as ordinary food. and because these dharmas have no real existence. life has no support. the Buddha is lacking in impurity I and hence the grasping aggregates' and therefore is not considered to be a sentient being. Nor can it be held that the bodies and lives of sentient beings in the two upper realms sustain each other as nu- triment. we know that apart from the evolving conscious nesses. you should understand that this is said concerning I the Buddha's] magical display (of being sentient and requiring nutriment]. "All sentient beings live by means of nutriment. and mind of someone in the samadhi of cessation (nirodha." Even though sentience is established on the basis of the existence of the aggregates that are grasped (upadana.samapeitti) are all 103 . There is a theory of the Sthavirasl that in the samádhi of cessation. a pure consciousness cannot hold impure seeds. Therefore the World. We need an explanation as to what the nutriment is for someone with a pure mind fin the realm of form or the formless realm]. When it is said that he is a sentient being and exists by means of nutriment. 36.sabhágata).shandha). Nor can it be claimed that impure seeds in the pure consciousness serve as nutriment. because pure mind crushes and destroys existence. Samádhi of Cessation A scripture says that the activities of body. there is a consciousness as retribution that is homogeneous. and therefore it cannot serve as food for that body and life. etc. no body exists in the formless realm. Consequently. like nirvana. the sixth consciousness still exists and serves as food for these beings.

Also. Apart from this [eighth] consciousness. homogeneous. and sense organs would be like consciousness I in leaving and reappearing]. subduing them gradually to the point where they cease completely. heat does not leave the body. and omnipresent and sustains life. lifeless. they would deteriorate and perish. these forms of consciousness cease. how can [the scripture I speak of a consciousness that does not desert the body? 37. it will not be born 104 . heat. One would be like a corpse. Forms of consciousness such as visual consciousness are gross and unstable in their activities and characteristics. no consciousness that does not leave the body would exist in someone in this samádhi. and heat? With- out something to sustain them. if consciousness as retribution does not exist in this state I of samadhil. Life. ( heat. there is fatigue and anxiety. The samádhi of cessation results from this state. then you must not claim that mental activity ceases. life. and that would be a great error.. In that case. and when they occur in relation to the objective realm. I the bodyl would resemble roof tiles or stones. and consciousness does not leave the body. in this samádhi. When a scripture says that consciousness does not leave the body. really does not leave the body. without heat. I etc. because consciousness appears and disappears with such things as thought. Therefore you must admit that conscious- ness. yet life does not end.Demonstration of Consciousness Only extinguished. etc. like life. and that it does not leave the body. consciousness could not return. the sense organs do not deteriorate. so how could you say that someone in samádhi was sentient? Also. not a sentient being. Refutation If you LSarvástivádins I claim that consciousness returns later I af- ter samádhi like a fever that returns after a day [of absence I. what sustains the sense organs. heat.. etc. If you do not admit the existence of a consciousness that is subtle. so one becomes disgusted with them and seeks 1 a to stop them for awhile. to what is it referring? When consciousness as retribution has left the body. therefore. if consciousness is completely absent in this state. constant.

I Other Sautrántikas I have a theory that the sixth consciousness (mano. life. and we have refuted the notion that they take perfuming and hold seeds. and that that is why [the scripture] says that consciousness does not leave the body.samádhi consciousness without seeds appear? We have already fully shown that past and future.. like . etc. and dharmas unassociated with mind. From this reasoning we conclude that someone in the samádhi of cessation has a consciousness that does not really leave the body. how can a post. Dharmas such as form do not exist apart from consciousness. is absent in the samádhi of cessation.samádhi.samádhi in which consciousness exists. we say. The sixth consciousness is included among the six evolving consciousnesses and. then mind and its activities either exist or do not. mindless states such as the samádhi of cessation. if the sixth consciousness exists in this state. do not have real substances. the scripture could not say that in this state mental activities cease completely. Also. I if there is no consciousness to hold seeds during this state. and heat. then. then all samddhi should be called "unconscious. it must resemble other states and not really be samádhi. heat. If they exist. Nor would it be referred to as the "samádhi of the cessation of 105 ." because all lack these five forms of consciousness." If you claim that the reason it is referred to as "unconscious" is that the five [sense] consciousnesses are absent. have consciousness provided with sense organs. it is not the sixth consciousness [that exists in this statel. However. like life. Also. because in this state the mode of activity and objects of this [sixth] consciousness are imperceptible. because this state is also called "unconscious .vijñána) exists in this state. I if the mode of activity and objects of this consciousness are perceptible in this state. This is not reasonable. [Finally. [In reply to a Sautrántika theory that holds that form holds the seeds. because the basic purpose for entering this samádhi is to stop those things.Chapter III again except in other bodies. like the [first] five forms. because those in these states are considered to be sentient beings.

" so what is the problem if we speak of the cessation of mental activities? f We reply that I in the sarnadhi of nonconceptualization. so should mind. as you admit. but you do not concede this. when the vocal activities of reflection and investigation cease. because the individual is only disgusted with conceptualization. the voice would not cease.. such things as faith must also not exist in this state. Since it is only feeling and conceptualization that are strong in assisting the mind. then when these two cease. why insist that mind perishes when its activities cease? I We reply. are not nonexistent in this state. then when feeling and conceptualization cease. one is disgusted only with feeling and conceptualization. are categorized as activities associated with all thought (mahcrbhiunika). How can it be said that they cease while mind persists? Also. When feeling and conceptualization cease. Reflection and investigation in speech are universal activities because if they cease there is no speech. and therefore there is cessation of only feeling and conceptualization in this state.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 1sb feeling and conceptualization. so must they. because when respiration ceases. etc. since you admit that volition.. When a universal activity ceases. When a nonuniversal activity ceases. like volition. so how can you claim that they exist? Since you admit that volition. because they 106 . because when universal activities cease." [The Sautrántikas say that( in the preparatory stage of this samadhi. Feeling and conceptualization are strong in assisting the mind and therefore are alone called "mental activities.. Feeling and conceptualization are also universal activities of mind. are activities associ- ated with all thought. the dharma it conditions ceases also. An example of nonuniversal activities is inspiration and expiration. the others cannot exist either. etc. the body may still exist. because. but will you admit this? Activities (samskára) of dharmas are either universal or nonuniversal. l just as physical activities cease I in samadhi] but the body itself persists. the same must be so of feeling and conceptualization. etc. the dharma may still exist. In that case. I in that case. only conceptualization must cease. mind must cease accordingly. I The Sautrántikas reply. they.

." 38. And. because no other mind is found apart from mental activity. "Mental consciousness is conditioned 107 . because they are never separated. If you admit this. The Buddha has summed it up by saying that "Feeling conditions and generates craving only when it is born of contact accompanied by ignorance. etc. and will resemble form more than mind. if you admit that contact exists [in this state]." and consequently lose the sense of "samddhi of the cessation of feeling and conceptualization. etc. And. then so must contact. Therefore when contact exists. etc. exist in this samadhi. and because this consciousness [argued by the opponents) would not be associated with anything. if volition. contact condi- tions feeling but not in all cases.] just as feeling conditions craving but not all feeling does so. likewise. "cessation of mental activities. then this consciousness also has no supporting objects. Mind without Mental Activities I In reply to a Sautrántika claim that mental consciousness without its activities exists in samádhi. because you maintain that in this state. If you admit this. because distinctions need to be made. This is incorrect. [The Sautrántikas reply. The principle that feeling occurs with conceptualization is certain.Chapter III are activities associated with all thought. so must feeling.. In other words. if you admit that feeling exists in this state. volition. because feeling is conditioned by contact.. because when universal men- tal activities cease. feeling and conceptualization must not cease. as in other states. exist. there will be feeling. because there are none of the other mental activities that are not born through the power of contact. would not be activities associated with all thought (mahábhiznzika). Also." Nowhere did he say that contact generates feeling. because feeling. a scripture says. and thus consequently your argument is not valid. then you reject the word [of the scripture I. Also. conceptualization must occur also. neither does consciousness. we reply] if the mental activities do not exist. so does the dharma I they characterize I.

(3) one cannot generate impurity. etc. with which one is disgusted. 1Rc conceptualization. you ought to call it the "samadhi of the cessation of mental activities. [We reply.] when disgust occurs.] in that case. the mind must cease in this samddhi. since it is not a 108 . thus feeling. which is itself categorized as "good. etc. then it should be associated with such roots of goodness as noncovetousness. This mind is not intrinsically good.. etc. Otherwise.. and (4) one does not give rise to discrimination by seeking stillness." (2) other impure and indeterminate minds must have mental activities. The name of the samádhi derives from the prior disgust with feeling and conceptualization. I We reply.] do not exist in samddhi.Demonstration of Consciousness Only by and generated by thoughts and dharmas. also do not occur. all other mental activities also cease. for these reasons: (1) these things [impurity.." not the "samddhi of the cessation of feeling and conceptualization. how can you have consciousness but not mental activities? [The Sautrántikas reply. generate feeling. J even though at other times the union of the three has power to produce contact and. what is the nature of] this mental consciousness that exists in samddhi? It cannot be soiled or indeterminate." [The Sautrántikas reply. [still] as a result of producing disgust with mental activities prior to entering samddhi.." If mental consciousness exists in samddhi. because mind is associated with the feeling. it is disgust with only feeling and conceptualization. conceptualization. and when these two cease. just like other mental activities. because that would contradict your own doctrines. through contact. etc. and volition. If you claim that [mental consciousness in samddhi I is I morally] good because its associates are good. and simultaneously with that arise feeling. in this state these three things have no power and so do not generate contact. nor is it good in the ultimate sense. The union of these three is contact.' in that case. and volition. the three must be united and must therefore include contact. how can it be called "mindless samddhi"? Also. by becoming disgusted with good. etc. Since contact is always united with feeling.

e. We conclude that in the state of sanzädhi. because." If this I eighth] consciousness did not exist. impure and pure minds would not exist. When one enters the sarnddhi of cessation.. your reasoning is invalid and you contradict your own tenets. Impure and Pure Dharmas A scripture says. karma. This means that impure and pure dharmas are rooted in minds. because mind is pure. 39. "Because mind is impure. sentient beings are impure. because it is attracted and aroused by the root of goodness of effort. and indeterminate]. generally speaking. the evolving con sciousnesses such as visual consciousness leave the body. There are. In this case. so why does a good mind result I necessarily] from a former good mind? Thus a mind is good by virtue of its associates. and results I of karma I. it must be associated with the roots of goodness. This is because no other dharmas 19a 109 . because they are born with mind as their cause and they perish with mind as their cause. and consequently the statement in the scripture "does not leave the body" refers to the eighth consciousness. How can you claim that this mind alone has no activities? Without mental activities.Chapter III root of goodness or nirvana.samápatti). because of the distinction of various kinds. Without this eighth consciousness to hold the seeds of the passions. like other good minds. If you claim that this mind is good by virtue of originating from a similar cause. good. sentient beings are pure. three kinds of impure dharmas: the passions (klea). there would be no causes for the chang- ing from one realm or [spiritual] stage to another or for the arising of passions after a pure thought. A good mind may produce three kinds of minds immediately [i. it is not generated by a similar cause. the mind itself would not exist. This can also be understood with refer- ence to such states as the sainñdhi of nonconceptualization (asarnjñika. and also because mind experiences their perfuming and holds their seeds. bad. the sainädhi does not end this extremely still and sustaining consciousness.

pure dharmas would arise without a cause subsequent to a mind of another kind. you are no Buddhist.. if you believe that [the path] arises without a cause.Demonstration of Consciousness Only can hold the seeds. because impure dharmas are of a different type and do not cause it to arise. because there would be no dharma I i. Also. And. Since this is impossible. (2) supramundane path. and its support [which is the physical body] would be born without a cause. In the absence of this consciousness that holds the seeds of mundane and supramundane pure paths. due to the differences of (1) mundane path. Also. and (3) results of elimination [of passions]. then they would occur again after one has entered nirvana without remainder. We have already made our objections to other kinds of causes. We have already refuted other seeds and causes above. Also. an impure consciousness bound by rebirth does not respond to karmic predispositions.and -form are conditioned by the karmic predispositions. If the two pure paths originate without a cause. If you say that passions occur without a cause. dharmas separated in time and space cannot act as conditions. Without this consciousness to hold the seeds of karma and its results. Pure dharmas are of three kinds.e. because we have already refuted the idea that the evolving consciousnesses can hold perfuming. And. the supramundane path would not initially occur. because one would have to say that name . the conditioning of consciousness by karmic predispositions would be impossible. the arising of karma and its results would occur without any cause after a change of realm or stage and after a dharma of a different species.learner (agaihsa). then you deny the fruits of learner (saiksa) and post . because [the passions] would appear among those who have eliminated them. If karma and its results are born without a cause. the passions would appear without a cause. Also. eighth consciousness] to hold supramundane seeds. if the first 110 . then karma and its results within the three realms will occur in one who has entered nirvana without remainder. and because past and future do not really exist. the following [becoming being conditioned by grasping] is also not possible. Also.

learner. the passions are not reborn.Chapter III supramundanel path does not arise. because only it can hold impure and pure seeds. the transmutation of the support or fruit of cutting off [of passions] does not occur. [but we reply that' in that case. one will become a post. just as nirvana is I different from the seeds'. neither will the later one. future. Since [then] there is nothing to be eliminated. when the path arises. present passions nor their seeds exist. Without this consciousness to hold the seeds of the passions. and as a result of what. because their respective natures are different. and i such dharmas asI acquisition do not really exist. can the fruit of elimination [ of passions] be established? I They object. there being no cause. when the path first arises. and therefore on the basis of what. There are innumerable reasons that prove the existence of this consciousness. but this discussion has been abbreviated out of concern for prolixity. no passions will be born henceforth. because impure minds and pure minds do not exist together. and it is not possible for any other dharma to hold seeds. neither is there any [path] that can eliminate. all problems are resolved. I past. neither actual. That this consciousness exists is shown in both the holy teachings and through reason. 111 . The path associated with the mind does not contain the seeds. because. I Replying to the Sarvästivädins. and in that case there will be no fruit of the paths of the three vehicles. However. That is. if you concede the existence of this I eighth] conscious- ness.] the fruit of elimination [of passions takes place because. as a result of the power of the path. All wise people should profoundly believe in it and accept it.

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consciousness as retribution. AND THE SUPRAMUNDANE PATH. SELF CONCEIT. IN THE ARHAT. THIS CONSCIOUSNESS IS CALLED MANAS. THE SECOND TRANSFORMING CONSCIOUSNESS.Chapter IV Manas Having thus explained the characteristics of the first transforming consciousness. IUb AND HAS THE NATURE AND CHARACTER OE THINKING. IT DOES NOT EXIST. How does its name differ from that of the sixth. IT IS ALWAYS ACCOMPANIED BY FOUR PASSIONS: DELUSION ABOUT SELF. THE SAMADIII OF CESSATION. mental consciousness? Its name " manas consciousness" is a [Sanskrit compound named I karma. ALONG WITH OTHERS SUCH AS CONTACT. IT IS DEFILED AND MORALLY NEUTRAL AND BOUND BY THE PLACE OF BIRTH. what are the characteristics of the second transforming consciousness? NEXT. This consciousness is given the special name of manas in holy teach- ings because it surpasses all other forms of consciousness in constantly thinking. IT EVOLVES SUPPORTED BY THAT [MAYA] AND WITH THAT AS ITS OBJECT. because the consciousness 113 . like the compound álayavijliana ( "consciousness that is álaya "). AND SELF -LOVE.dháraya. it is necessary to explain the characteristics of the transforming consciousness that is thinking (manas). VIEW OF SELF. Following the discussion of the first transforming consciousness.

vijñdna I is a tatpurusa I compound I similar to the term "consciousness of the eye. not the actual consciousness. fearful of confusing manas I with the other [mano. it does evolve easily and is referred to as an evolving consciousness. refer to the seventh conI sciousness simply as manias." because the consciousness is not the same as the manas I but means the "manas consciousness "]. and it is born through the simultaneous support of the actual consciousness.. The second is support in the form of a dominant condition. There is an interpretation [by Nanda I that this manas has the seeds of the other I store consciousness] as its support. It is also called manas in order to distinguish it from mind I that is calaya consciousness! and the [first six] consciousnesses. IT EVOLVES SUPPORTED BY THAT indicates its support. The first is support in the form of a condition as cause. because it grasps it as its object. EVOLVES refers to perpetual movement and indicates that this consciousness is perpetually supported by that I:calaya] consciousness. consisting of the six internal sense bases (ciyatana). There is another interpretation [by Dharmapála] that it is supported by both the actual [eighth I consciousness and by its seeds. All conditioned dharmas depend on this support.vijñcana]. All mind and 114 . because it is weaker than those in its power to accumulate [seeds) and discriminate.Demonstration of Consciousness Only is the Maya. 1.e. because it is not discontinuous and does not require a simultaneous support in an actual consciousness to be born. because the holy teachings say that this consciousness is supported by the store consciousness. Holy teachings. and these are. Malaya]. It is only named manas out of a need to show that it is the immediate support of mental consciousness. in general. THAT re- fers to the preceding transforming consciousness [i. The name of the other I mano. of three kinds. Meaning of "Support" Mind and its activities have supports. because they cannot occur in the absence of their own condition as cause. because even though it is not discon- tinuous. which consists of its own seeds.

"The seeds and their results must exist simultaneously. because the Abhidharmasamuccaya speaks of "already born without seeds. Also. However. because in the absence of simultaneous organs they do not evolve. The Mahayanasarngraha says." It also says. as for the meaning of "causal condition." the Yogácárabhúmi [Santa I says. "The store consciousness and impure dharmas act as causal conditions for each other. that the sprout appears when a seed has perished is not exhaustively demonstrated. and no other dharma. "Impermanent dharmas are causes of [things of] another nature and are causes of a subsequent moment of their own nature. and we have the example of I the flame and the torch being simultaneous causes for each other." and because seeds do not exist simultaneously with the sprouts. Mind and its activities depend on this support. The third is support in the form of a similar and immediately antecedent condition (samanantara. There is an opinion f by Dharmapálal that this does not prove the point.Chapter IV mental activities depend on this support. which refers to the extinct prior I moment of I manas. etc.pratyaya). Therefore. there is no simultaneity of cause and effect among seeds of the same species. because [the above text] says that the support attracts and engenders subsequent seeds." 115 . Support as Causal Condition As for the first support. the point that seeds pro- Esc duce sprouts is not an ultimate truth. it is said that the seeds must have already perished before the present result is born. have these three kinds of supports and are called "having a support. the seeds. but seeds and actual dharmas do generate each other and unquestionably exist simultaneously." "Own nature" shows that the prior seeds are causes for subsequent seeds of like kind. because they do not appear apart from the organ that opens up and guides. while the words "another nature" means that seeds and actual dharmas act as mutual causes. Only mind and its activities." 2. just as bundles of reeds [supporting each other) exist simultaneously.

" and there are no separate eyes. etc.. I Dignaga's Alambana. etc. Support as Simultaneous Condition Next is the simultaneous support (sahabhú. I Nanda says that] mind (manas) is the support of the five consciousnesses such as visual consciousness. 116 . The verse means that because the World.parihsá I says. Energies and objective form have been mutual causes from beginningless time. because they must have it as a support when they are present. Consciousness is born of its own seeds And evolves appearing as an external realm of objects. to generate the consciousness of form. and therefore the visual organs.. you must realize that these sources are con cessional. that are able. etc. The Buddha has said that there are ten. are referred to as "energies of form. Even supposing that some sources say that there is a sequence in seeds and their results. are seeds of the five forms of consciousness. This verse means that the seeds in consciousness as retribution. A passage from Vasuhandhu's "Twenty Verses" says. he speaks of the seeds of the five [ material] forms of consciousness as being the visual organ. etc. Thus leach of I the eight forms of consciousness and their activities have specific seeds as support.ásraya). and the perceived aspect of these five forms of consciousness as being material objects. To establish f the distinction of I internal and external sense bases. Organs such as the eye are not separate. 3.. [apart from them].Honored One is establishing the twelve sense bases (dyatana). etc." These are called the "five organs. simultaneous supports [for the five consciousnesses] because the five organs are seeds. Energies of form in consciousness are called the "five organs "..Demonstration of Consciousness Only Therefore seeds as supports are definitely not sequential. as eyes.

perpetually evolving in a series.shandha) categorized as an internal sense base. and to assent to either point contradicts holy teachings. Which of them do you refer to as "visual organ. Also. which is confirmed in many places in scripture. then the five organs must be the causal condition of the five consciousnesses.shandha). and body are seeds of the three I corresponding] consciousnesses. mental consciousness. the same difficulty arises with respect to the two stages [realm of desire and first dhyánal and five stages [realm of form and four dhyánasl. if the organs of eye. Moreover. ear. There is an interpretation [by Sthiramati] that says that the above explanation contradicts both scripture and reason. then smell and taste must exist only in the realm of desire. the seeds of the I first] five consciousnesses have different 20a powers to generate either the seen part or the seeing part. it must be included in the aggregate of consciousness (vijñána. Also. because. you contradict the holy teaching that the five material consciousnesses are the aggregate of form (rúpa. If you mean the seen part. The seventh and eighth consciousnesses do not have this special support.? If you mean the seeds of the seeing part. In either case.] five forms of consciousness. there will be confusion and disorder among seeds of the eighteen sense fields. because it requires the support of mind (manas) in order to appear. Also. their own power is superior. The eighteen sense fields are each said to have its own seeds. if the organs of nose and tongue are seeds of the two I corresponding] consciousnesses. The sixth. and we must not say that they are the dominant condition." etc. If the five material organs are seeds of the five forms of consciousness. Moreover. because the seeds and the perfuming [consciousness! alternate as causes. it must be included in the external sense base (áyatana). the five 117 . has a special support. if the five organs are seeds of the [corresponding.Chapter IV The seeds and consciousness of form constantly act as causes for each other. or the two consciousnesses will be found throughout the realm of form. since the seeds of the five consciousnesses are both good and bad.

(2) they must not be exclusively appropriated. and the three [other! organs [eye. then the seed of the mental consciousness must be manas. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only material organs must not be merely indeterminate. and thus they are not seeds as the causal condition that generates the five consciousnesses. for the following reasons: (1) the five material organs must not be indeterminate. This both conforms to the verses (quoted aboveI and is in harmony with the Yogacarabhüm. ear. would not be common to both actual dharmas and seeds. if the five material organs are seeds of the five consciousnesses.. the Yoga carabhi7mi /astral says that visual consciousness. To restrict them to the meaning of just seeds is a contradiction with all the holy scriptures. and the five organs will also not be appropriated. I visual consciousness. for example. Also. The five material organs are seeds of karma in the form of dominant conditions within consciousness as retribution that influence the I corresponding I five forms of consciousness.. etc. are both actual dharmas and seeds. (4) they must not be exclusively internal sense bases. are not influenced by karma. and (10) since the five consciousnesses that are good. have a triple support. (3) they must not be categorized solely as the aggregate of form. of We may ignore the above problems [raised by Sthiramati J and stick to the thesis that the organs are seeds. because its relationship to mental consciousness is the same as that between the five organs and their forms of consciousness. (6) the karma that influences mental consciousness must be the manas.i [Sastra I. and body] must not be found in the five stages. Also. If the five material organs are seeds of their I corresponding I consciousnesses. (8) they must not be material organs.] will have two supports. etc. Also.. (5) nose and tongue must be found only in the realm of desire. (7) eye. holy teachings say that the organs the eye. 118 . (9) if the five consciousnesses are influenced by karma. etc. then they must be categorized as indeterminate.. Again. I Sthiramati says that' these are words without real significance. the seeds of the five consciousnesses will be categorized as unappropriated.

. ears. transform to resemble form. and with manas as a 119 . Also. It does not mean that material organs are karmic seeds of consciousness. which is the actual. it 'lob will not be a support for them. Otherwise it would not be included among the evolving consciousnesses.. but not to admit that visual consciousness. Also.Chapter IV the eye. is to be profoundly deluded I about both store conscious- ness and seeds) and to contradict both teachings and reason.. to support each other. present. etc." its purpose is to block [the notion that' there are real material organs apart from consciousness. etc. According to the Yogácärablzizmi [Sástra I. However. are transformations of the store consciousness.. etc. etc. If it does not have visual consciousness. etc. because both have equal power. because it must be simultaneous with the five forms of consciousness. etc. so how can you deny material organs? To admit that visual consciousness. because they function to generate the five forms of consciousness.. I continues Sthiramati. therefore. supporting bases for the organs. there is a manas. it changes easily on the path of insight and elsewhere. etc. even though the seventh consciousness is not interrupted. that are transformations of consciousness. etc. and this would contradict the holy teachings that there are seven evolving consciousnesses. as a support. world receptacle. Therefore the claim [that the organs are seeds' does not help very well..] the clearly discerning mental consciousness that has the five material realms as objects must have the five kinds of consciousness as its simultaneous support.. and thus like the [first] six consciousnesses it must have a simultaneous support.. must not be their simultaneous support. as for the statement [in the "Twenty Verses" and the Alanzbanaparilzsá ] that the energies or seeds are called "five organs. "There is a store consciousness. The names "seeds" and "energies of form" are metaphorically applied to apparent eyes. Therefore you must admit that it has a simultaneous support. Also. eighth consciousness. I many places in the holy teachings say that the dlaya consciousness transforms to resemble the material organs. I says Sthiramati.

what is the error in admitting that they support each other? If you concede that the present consciousness is supported by seeds. mental consciousness. the eighth consciousness. because it can stand alone and has no simultaneous support." The Yogcrcá. Therefore (concludes Sthiramati I we must say that the first five forms of evolving consciousness must each have two simulta- neous supports: the five material organs and. Consequently. since the seventh and eighth consciousnesses always evolve together. The sixth evolving consciousness always has one simultaneous support. "Because the six consciousnesses visual. When it occurs simultaneously with the five forms of I material I consciousness. growth. and endure. you would have to say that because there is a store consciousness. There is another interpretation I by Suddhacandral that finds the above interpretation still not totally reasonable. that interpretation contradicts scripture and reason. at the same time. the mental consciousness evolves. why not admit that I like them it has a simultaneous support? And. Since the eighth kind I of consciousness] and the others are all by nature consciousnesses." 120 . etc. Also. consciousness as retribution appropriates the body in the I two 1 realms of form and evolves with the I five I material organs as its support. "The álaya consciousness is disturbed by the winds of karma and perpetually evolves everywhere in a series supported by the organs. you must admit that the seeds have the actual consciousness as support. because apart from them the seeds of consciousness cannot be born. not as a result of its seeds. they cannot appropriate a body provided with organs. grow.rabhirmi [Scastra] says. the seventh consciousness. The perfuming [ consciousnesses] and I consciousness as I retribution are the support of birth. The seventh evolving consciousness has only one simultaneous support. mental consciousness evolves." What this means is that it is with the actual store consciousness as its support that the manas exists. and duration.Demonstration of Consciousness Only support. it also has them as a simultaneous support. As a scripture says. Otherwise. each have separate supports. Only the eighth consciousness is always unchanging.

and do not act in a sovereign manner." while dharmas such as form are not. it definitely has a support. the thesis [of the Yogacarabhicmi Sastra] has the error of indefiniteness. etc. i. Therefore in the holy teachings only mind and mental activities are referred to as "having a support." "Supported" means that all dharmas that are born and perish are born and endure relying on a cause and depending on conditions.. Otherwise. because they do not thoroughly distinguish "support" and "supported. because of a common object I the five organs]. which is consciousness as retribution. I The text] speaks only of mental activities having mind as a support and does not say that mental activities are the support of mind. The rest is as previously explained [by Sthiramati j. Consequently. are not necessary. it is a support.e.Chapter IV If consciousness as retribution does not universally depend on the material organs for support. the six internal sense bases. These [internal sense bases] are only like sovereigns. it is also supported by material organs. etc. The seeds of conscious- 20c ness definitely have a support. the five I material 1 consciousnesses have a simultaneous support that is fourfold: the five material organs and the sixth. because they have no objects. because of 121 . because they are not sovereign. Other dharmas do not have objects. there are sources that say that the support is the supported and vice versa. The supports differ. but all speak hypothetically in accordance with the circumstances. and eighth consciousnesses. and causes mind and mental activities to grasp their own objects. they are also supported by the perfumer. An opinion I by Dharmapála I finds all the above points to be unreasonable. has an object. In the realm of form. not like ministers. [the five material consciousnesses do not evolve. it must be unable to appropriate. However. the seventh consciousness. because of discrimination [by the sixth consciousness]. like the six consciousnesses. All those things that are relied on are called "supports. is sovereign. If a dharma is necessary." just as a king and his ministers support each other. seventh. because if one of them is missing. In the preliminary state of perfuming. Therefore if the store consciousness is actually functioning. then.

Supported by mind [álayal and manas. it certainly does not evolve. Even though the five conscious nesses are simultaneous with it in grasping objects clearly. it is because [the latter] is the impure and pure support. they do not always exist. i. A text says. but the eighth consciousness I itself I is not absent. It also says. [Manas. and therefore they are not the support I of mental consciousness]. Also. they do not always necessarily exist. "Store consciousness is always supported by impurity. The simultaneous support of mental consciousness is twofold.] the seventh consciousness. because without it. because they are proximate. is proximate. Alaya consciousness has a single simultaneous support. has a single simultaneous support. As for the holy teachings saying that [the first five conscious nesses] are supported only by the five organs. but this refers to soiled manas. the evolving consciousnesses are born. the seventh and eighth consciousnesses. which is the eighth consciousness.Demonstration of Consciousness Only impurity and purity !in the seventh consciousness]. this is because they are special supports and because they must have common objects. for instance. because it never evolves without the presence of the store consciousness. "Because store consciousness always evolves simultaneous with manas. Supported by alaya. however. manas evolves. 21a and therefore are not considered to be its support." which refers to the manas. and because of being the root I on the part of the eighth consciousness I.. Even though I the eighth consciousness] is supported by the five organs in the realm of form.e. When holy teachings only say that it is supported by the seventh consciousness. [álaya] does not function. because if one is missing. and the same is so here I concerning nzanasl. also. and because they agree. which is the seventh consciousness. is categorized equally as an evolving consciousness [like the sixth]. Seeds are unable presently to grasp objects of their own." It also says. it says that there is no manas in three states I such as the samadhi of cessation]. and therefore they 122 . A verse says. that álaya is also absent in four states. and agrees with [the sixth].

dsrayaj. and free of applied and sustained thought.Guiding Support With regard to the initiating and guiding support I krdnta. The argument can be accepted if [ the five consciousnesses) are not in the stage of mastery [on the spiritual path I. and because it cannot be imagined that they are generated by the other consciousnesses. pure or impure. they have as their initiating and guiding support only themselves. spontaneous. it should be said that they are supported by corresponding consciousnesses. it is a matter of Buddhas. There is an opinion I by Sthiramati I that the above argument is less than perfect. decisive. As for men- tal activities.. Because the sixth. its initiating and guiding support consists of the first six consciousnesses. mental consciousness. and [inasmuch as the five. Because the seventh and eighth consciousnesses continue in their own series. because the latter do not continue in a series and must be attracted and generated by the sixth consciousness. or do not encounter an object that is overwhelming. cannot cease for even a second. why not admit that they continue in a series for a number of moments? 123 . there is an opinion I by Nandal that only the sixth consciousness is the initiating and guiding support of the five [material I conscious nesses. 4. etc. it conforms very well to scripture and reason. Do the five consciousnesses not continue in a series? Also.] absorbed in their objects. continues in its series and is also at- tracted and generated by the five consciousnesses.Chapter IV are considered to be supported but not to be supports. who extend mastery over the objective realm and whose sense organs are interchangeable [in function). an object]. inasmuch as the five kinds of consciousness that are results of a similar cause are attracted and generated by the power of an act of attention that is decisive. do not abruptly encounter I. With regard to the stage of mastery. Put in this way. Similar and Immediately Antecedent Support and Initiating. in addition to their own corresponding moments of mind.

visual consciousness. The meaning of this is that for a prolonged period of time. If there were nothing but mental consciousness prior to and subsequent to the five consciousnesses. and. occurs. Or. etc. mental consciousness must exist so that it can attract a subsequent moment of mental 124 . visual and mental consciousness evolve simultaneously in a series I without interruption]. either good or not good. For that reason. subsequent to this. we know that the [first] five consciousnesses form a continuous series [without the conditioning presence of mental consciousness]. the two consciousnesses do not continue in a series and engender each other. the five I material] consciousnesses must. form a series. When the five consciousnesses are born. are definitely generated in the same way as visual consciousness. At such a time. If an outstanding object presents itself for a series of moments. Since the period of time when visual consciousness exists is not without mental consciousness. Yet this is not the result of its own power of discrimination. Other forms of consciousness bodily consciousness. they are called "mental faculty" (mana. the body and mind.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Therefore the Yogácárabhúmi [Sástra] says that impure or pure I consciousness] occurs after [an instant of I decisive mentality. in principle. the Yogcacárabhami [Sastral ought to say that this single consciousness is the similar and immediately antecedent condition for those I subsequent I six consciousnesses. it should say that these 'present consciousnesses are the similar and immediately antecedent conditions for that [succeeding I single [men tal l consciousness. just as they do in the burning purgatories and among the celestials whose constant pleasure makes them forget truth and goodness (kriciápradúsika.deva). cannot suddenly free themselves. overawed and dazzled. Since this is not so. for a period of time. the Yogácárabhand I Sástra] says that when the [active] six forms of consciousness act as the similar and immediately antecedent condition for [succeeding] forms of themselves. as consequence. the eyes and mental consciousness evolve in a series that is either good or not good.indriya). As long as mental I consciousness' is not drawn to another object.

has either its own previous species or the sixth consciousness as its initiating and guiding support. the store consciousness and manas must be its initiating and guiding support. since they always continue in a series. The sixth. It must.J 21b the sixth and seventh consciousnesses must precede perfect mirror knowledge. mental consciousness. I. sleep. I in bodhisattvas. and that can act as similar and immediately antecedent conditions. None of this conflicts with reason. We must say that the five consciousnesses [of eye.J it is associated with a good mind supported by vows of compassion. have I mental consciousness] as its initiating and guiding support. before it can appear.I have as their initiating and guiding support any among the first six consciousnesses in accordance with their functions. uses its own previous species or the seventh and eighth as its initiating and guiding support. so why imagine that the five consciousnesses are its initiating and guiding support? In mindless states. and consequently the above argument [by Nanda) is not completely acceptable. Adana consciousness has as its initiating and guiding support its own previous species and the sixth and seventh consciousnesses. This being the case. when it appears again. "Initiating and guiding support" refers to dharmas that have objects. That is an initiating and 125 . it necessarily results from the sixth. it must be admitted that the eighth consciousness has the sixth and seventh consciousnesses as its initiating and guiding support.Dharmapálal is of the opinion that the above argument is not correct.jñäna) appears for the first time. etc.Chapter IV consciousness and make it appear. mind as retribution is supported by defiled manas I seventh consciousness]. The seventh. associated with the purified eighth consciousness. manas. and. and fainting.. for reasons given earlier. that act as sovereigns. If I mental consciousness' has as its initiating and guiding support its own prior state. Otherwise. therefore. why not admit the same regarding the five consciousnesses? If the latter is not so. how can the former be? When manas associated with the knowledge of sameness (samatä. etc. Also. mental consciousness ceases. I Also. mental consciousness.

that is said rather indulgently and as a precaution. This agrees profoundly with teachings and reason. and if you allow them to act as similar and immediately antecedent conditions for each other. Since in one individual the eight consciousnesses occur simultaneously.Demonstration of Consciousness Only guiding support that initiates. conceding the Small Vehicle doctrine that form is the similar and immediately antecedent condition of mind in order to forestall an argument that the former moment is a condition as cause. Therefore each of the eight forms of consciousness is the initiating and guiding support for its own kind only. Even though mind and mental activities are of different kinds. However. are mutually associated. This contradicts the holy teaching that says that only mind and mental activities are similar and immediately antecedent conditions. It is restricted to just mind and does not include mental activities. it says this for the sake of argument. the prefix sam I "similar "] in samanantara would be pointless. how can a different species act as the initiating and guiding support? If you admit that it is a support. If I the previous moment of mind I does not occur simultaneously with that [subsequent moment. and guides so that the subsequent consciousness and mental activities are born. with nothing definite I as to number]. If you say that the prefix sain has nothing to do with quantity but only concerns similar kinds. and different minds are not born together. the same would occur with form. etc. because [dharmas of I the same kind never occur simultaneously. attracts. combine like a 126 . then [different consciousnesses I must not appear simultaneously. Also. as for the statement in the Mandyanasamgraha to the effect that form may act as a similar and immediately antecedent condition. several consciousnesses appear simultaneously in a single individual. Mental activities are also this kind of support for the same reasons as given for consciousness. they are born together. [if the statement in that treatise] is taken at face value. then you contradict your own thesis that consciousnesses of different kinds are similar and immediately antecedent conditions [for each other. Otherwise.] we can say that the former has the power of initiating and guiding the latter. in various numbers. That is.

so [mental activities] should not be used as a model. However. sleep. arise and cease simultaneously. Therefore I mental activities! unfold as similar and immediately antecedent conditions [for each other]. and must be alike in their activity. [Moreover. mental activities are not initiating and guiding supports for the reason that they are not sovereign with respect to that which is to be attracted and generated. when it reappears." Also. not with respect to the similar and immediately antecedent condition. because "immediately antecedent" means that there is no break in the same species of consciousness in the interval. fainting. this condition will be lacking for [such mental activities asl associated faith. or that the seventh and eighth consciousnesses are born with the sixth and seventh as supports. The same is true of the five [material] consciousnesses that have stopped. etc. the others do likewise. Furthermore. then when the seventh and eighth 21c consciousnesses first undergo transmutation of the support. its initiating and guiding support is its own former species. The reason is that when it has perished. "If various consciousnesses are born immediately after this [present moment of J consciousness. but this is not the case with various forms of consciousness. this is said with reference to the special dominant condition.Chapter IV unity.. Why take the trouble to make a different kind Iof consciousness) the initiating and guiding support? However. This would contradict the holy teaching that mind and mental activities are generated by four conditions [including the similar and immediately antecedent condition I. when holy teachings say that the first six conscious nesses attract and generate each other. Hence there is no disagreement. and when one initiates and guides. The Yogacarabhúmi I Sástra I says. it has already become the initiating and guiding support for the present consciousness.) if mind and mental activities are similar and immediately antecedent conditions for only their own species. the latter is their similar and immediately antecedent condition. even though mental consciousness ceases in mindless states. when it says that "These six consciousnesses are the similar 127 .

or because the initiating and guiding support is easy to comprehend. One interpretation I by Nanda] is that the object of manas is the substance of that consciousness and its associated dharmas. what is its object? I Vasubandhu's verse] says. because it tries to show that the support and object of this consciousness are the same. Because [associated I mental activities are not separate from consciousness. because a treatise says that manas is always associated with attachment to "me" and "mine. Having examined other treatises. 5. still I Vasuhandhu's verse] refers only to the first two when it says that IT EVOLVES SUPPORTED BY THAT." Taking as its object the substance I of store consciousness] and its associated dharmas. Even though this transforming consciousness [the manas I has three supports. THAT refers to the previous consciousness as support. in the same way the term "consciousness only" does not contradict [the fact that both consciousness and associated dharmas are included in the term]. You must say that manas only takes as its object the seeing (clarsana) and seen (nimitta) parts of this [store! consciousness and conceives them respectively as "me" and "mine." Consciousness is the substance 128 . because the holy teachings say that this consciousness has the store consciousness as its object.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and immediately antecedent condition of those [later] six con sciousnesses and are called `mental organ'. but the intention is specific. because nowhere in scriptures is it said that manas has as its object such things as contact (sparSa). we must return now to the right one. and this conforms closely to teachings and reason. there is no contradiction with doctrine. because the first two supports have the predominant functions. wail THAT AS OBJECT. it grasps them as "me" and "mine" respectively. and there is no contradiction. Another interpretation I by Citrabhánu I is that that explanation is incorrect. The Object of Manas Having discussed the support of this consciousness. Therefore the support [ of a specific consciousness I is its own I prior I kind." the words are general.

this explanation does not contradict the holy teaching I that the object of manas is the store consciousness]. I manas] would have as its object a common object I rather than a special one]. Also. You must understand I says Dharmapála I that I manas] has as an object only the seeing part of the store consciousness.Chapter IV of both the perceiving and the perceived. that manas has as its object only the store consciousness and its seeds. etc. I Manas I only grasps 129 . like the five consciousnesses. I Dharmapálal believes that the above explanations are incorrect. because from beginningless time it has been a homogeneous series resembling something constant and unitary. such as eternity and cessation.bija). not the others. because it has functioned with a single character since begin ningless time. and these are grasped respectively as "me" and "mine. because. manas would have external objects as its objects. so how do you suppose that it independently grasps a self or "mine "? Two objects. rather. Nor should it be said that it grasps the two successively. this [mams] consciousness is born with the view of a self and freely continues in a series as a single kind." Since seeds are lin reality] the energies of that consciousness and not really existing things. and because those born in the formless realms would not be attached to the notion of I "mine" because [the consciousness of] those born there with a disgust for form does not evolve into form. because. It should he said. [Sthiramati says that] this explanation I by Citrabhanu I is also incorrect. are not included in the aggregate of consciousness. the I Yogácárabhúmil Sástra says that seeds are real. because if they do not exist. so this explanation does not contradict the holy teaching I that says that the object of manas is the store consciousness]. they would not act as causal conditions. and because it is always the support of all dharmas. like mental consciousness.. because seeds of form (rúpa.. I 22a cannot be grasped separately [and simultaneously] by a single mind. because the objects of the five material organs are not included in the aggregate of consciousness. Also. etc.

and therefore it says that this HAS THAT store consciousness AS ITS OBJECT. because its self. and since this creates no problem. and it realizes the differences of resolve among sentient beings and manifests itself in the images of various Buddhas. because it must be the case that awakening and delusion are free and confined I respectively I.e. Here. it always examines and thinks about the characteristics of the self that it grasps. why is there any problem [with manas having the eighth consciousness as both support and object]? 6. Nature and Character of Manas The verses [of Vasubandhul say. This is because realization of the knowledge of sameness acquires ten kinds of sameness. the two expressions I "me" and "mine "l refer to that single seeing part. it has only the store consciousness as its object. because many passages speak only of the view of a self.. and it uses it as its mode of activ- ity. This explanation accords well with teaching and reason. Or it grasps I the store consciousness] as its own self. When one has not yet undergone a transmutation of the support.nature is that of thinking. NATURE AND CHARACTER These two (i. 130 .Demonstration of Consciousness Only that as its own inner self. How can this consciousness have as its object its own support? In the same way that a subsequent consciousness takes the prior manas as its object. I in Vasubandhu's verse. IT HAS Till. It gets the special name of manas because it examines and thinks. but when the transmutation of the support has occurred. and. The reference to "mine" [in texts] is only a manner of speaking. When I manas) is still in a nontransmuted stage. but once transmuted. nature and character) refer to the self. it examines and thinks about the characteristics of the absence of a self. because grasping a self and grasping a "mine" do not occur simultaneously.nature and mode of activity of this consciousness. therefore. I it only speaks of I manasl that is not transmuted. and objects of absence of self and self are universal and nonuniversal [respectively]. it also has as its objects true suchness and other dharmas. OF THINKING.

Chapter IV 7. AND SELF -LOVE. VIEW OF SELF means "grasping a self. and love accompanies conceit. Here. IT IS ALWAYS ACCOMPANIED BY FOUR PASSIONS. DELUSION ABORT SELF means "ignorance. i. because two discernments (prajïzä) do not exist simultaneously in a single mind. SELF CONCEIT 225 means "haughtiness. as a consequence of this. but these innate passions are natural and innate. DELUSION ABOUT SELF.conceit" because the mind is exalted through pride in the self that is grasped. and they end only with insight (darsana). ALONG WITH shows that conceit and love accompany views. VIEW OF SELF. ending only with cultivation (bhavaná ). There are I actually I ten [ passions]. which contradicts the opinion of other Buddhists that they are not associated.drsti) are born of discrimination only. The extreme view of a "mine" occurs 131 . manas freely and perpetually takes the store consciousness as its object and is associated with four fundamental passions. and for this reason they are referred to I literally) as "afflictions" (bless). so why are there only four [listed I? Because of the presence of belief in a self. SELF -LAVE means "craving the self. the other views (drsti) do not occur. sentient beings undergo the cycle of birth and death. Dharmas Associated with Manas With how many mental activities is manas associated? I Vasubandhu's versesI say." It is called "delusion about self" because of ignorance about the character of "self" and because of delusion about the principle of no self. SELF CONCEIT. unable to free themselves. These four constantly appear to disturb and pollute internal consciousness.. the term ACCOMPANIED means `associated with." It is called "self. from beginningless time up to the time of transmutation.e. Why must this [ manas I have a view of self? Because the two attachments I to opinions and to the belief in the value of mere morality and ritualI and wrong views (mithyrz." That is." It is called "self -love" because one generates a deep attachment to the self that is grasped." It is called "view of self" because one falsely posits a self in dharmas where there are no selves. causing the [other] external consciousnesses to be perpetually defiled.

because manas is really associated with these universal Ldharmas]. The treatise refers to discrimination.] the word OTHERS is used to show that they are different from these. ALONG WITH CYPHERS SUCH AS CONTACT. and is that not a contradiction? [No. as in store consciousness. antagonism cannot occur. exaltation. and out of concern I that contact associated with manas I would be thought to be unsoiled. It perpetually grasps an inner self and for that reason must have a view of a self. 8. Because of the love for and attachment to a self. plus the five dharmas that include contact. One interpretation is that this manas has only nine mental activities: the four passions mentioned above.Demonstration of Consciousness Only in dependence on the view of a self. doubt cannot occur. conceit. because the former four ¡passions] are combined with the latter five as always associated with manas. so there is no reason why they cannot occur together. I there is no contradiction between that text and this position. but the view associated with this [manas] does not occur in dependence on that. etc. The Yogcacára- bhami LScastra] says that covetousness humbles the mind while conceit exalts it. view of a self. These are contact. The word AND has the function of combining. Thus there are only four passions associated with this consciousness. of contempt I for others]. attention. Why do the three. Why has this manas no other mental activities? Desire (chanda) is hope for something as yet unattained. but this consciousness 132 . and I self -]love occur together? Because their modes of activity are not contradictory. while we speak of the innate [passions I. an interior realm. and the gross. Previously in Vasubandhu's verses] it was said that contact. because I Vasubandhu] says. and volition. are associated with consciousness as retribution. conceptualization. and the subtle.. [Furthermore.] as a result of the firmness of views. an external realm. because that text and this one make distinctions. Other Associated Dharmas Are there only four mental activities associated with manas? No. feeling.

Applied and sustained thought (vitarka. It does not hope for anything and therefore knows no desire. but this consciousness is beginninglessly homogeneous and 22c uniformly attached to something within and does not rely on an external object.Chapter IV is content in taking something already attained as its object. Torpor (middha) sometimes occurs for a while as a result of heaviness and dullness of mind and body due to external events. homogeneously attached to a self. that interpretation 133 . This consciousness freely distinguishes its object moment by moment. Resolve (adlzimohsa) is acknowledgement of something still pending. and since it does not concentrate. Also. The secondary passions originate and differentiate in successive states of the [basic] passions. Since good fdharmasl are pure. This consciousness always has as an object something being experienced in the present and therefore has nothing to remember. This consciousness unconcernedly and perpetually takes a present event as an object and does not regret former actions. Recollection (snzrti) is simply remembering an event that took place in the past. they do not accompany this consciousness. Samadhi holds mind steadily onto an object. These are I respectively I shallow and deep investigation Iof objects] and are expressed grossly or subtly in speech. Discernment (prajñüz) is the same as the view of a self and therefore it is not considered separately. This consciousness is only associated with four passions that remain in a homogeneous state in their sequence. There is an interpretation that the [former] explanation of OTHERS is not correct. because it evolves dependent on internal matters.vicára) take place with respect to an external world. and therefore torpor does not occur. This consciousness is unassociated with it. Regret (kauhrtya) is remorse for something done previously. because LVasubandhu'sI verse says elsewhere that this f manas I is categorized as defiled. beginninglessly. This consciousness has. and therefore there are no secondary passions among the associates of this consciousness. always had something fixed as an object and therefore has no resolve. it is devoid of samadhi. Therefore it has no regret. Therefore there is no recollection.

defiled natures do not occur. This manas is associated with fifteen mental activities. five secondary passions. just as regret and drowsiness. Even though some sources say that either six or ten secondary passions are found in defiled minds. because in the absence of such things as inability. and undetermined]. and discernment among the mental activities with specific objects (aniyata). it is due to inability ¡i. torpor]. in- dolence. this universality is discussed from a different point of view and does not really mean universally present in all defiled minds.Demonstration of Consciousness Only omits I the fact that] manas is associated with secondary passions (upa. 134 . and therefore the word OTHERS points to the secondary passions. Passions must be accompanied by secondary passions. still the two are distinguished in the list of fifty -one mental activities and are considered to be two [different activities I. The reason is that if passions occur.. the mind is defiled. and obstacles to samádhi and discernment. and thoughtlessness are always associated with all defiled classes I of minds].e. because they increase in a state of delusion. therefore.e. so those texts do not contradict our interpretation. indolence. When passions occur. Six secondary passions among the twenty are mentioned by separating out gross and subtle. Even though the view of a self is categorized as discernment among mental activities with specific objects. faithlessness.. are always said to be components of delusion. i. agitation. the previous nine dharmas. though found universally in minds of all three natures (good. With regard to this. and thoughtlessness. faithlessness. indeterminate and bad. agitation. Ten are mentioned among the twenty -two lof one list] by separating the two natures of gross and subtle. Even though agitation is found universally among defiled minds. bad. The Abhiidharmasamuccaya says that torpor. there is an interpretation that five secondary passions are universally associated with all impure minds. mind in a defiled state must have these five [secondary passions].hlesca). still it increases when accompanied by craving and is therefore spoken of as a component of crav- ing.

it is because it distinguishes gross and subtle. speech.Chapter IV Why is this manas devoid of the other mental activities? The ten [mental activities] such as anger are gross in their modes of activity. but this [manas] arises perpetually grasping an internal object of just one kind and without concern for externals. thoughtlessness. With regard to the matter of ten universals. six secondary passions. Mamas is associated with nineteen mental activities: the previously mentioned nine dharmas I such as contact 1. Other mental activities missing are as discussed above. When passions arise. the mind cannot generate the passions. and [passions arise] as a result of distraction concerning some object. The Yogäcarabhúmi [Sdstra] says. There is an interpretation that six secondary passions are associated with all impure minds. and inaccurate knowing. and those that are common to both natures [of bad and indeterminate].]. discernment. "Faithlessness. and torpor. because passions such as craving only appear when there is forgetfulness or wrong judgement regarding various kinds of objects already experienced. and mind. Shamelessness (ahrikya) and heedlessness of blame (anapatrapya) are not good only. Distraction (vik. Incorrect knowing (asarnp raja nya) generates external activities of body. distraction. and inaccurate knowing are associated with all impure minds. etc. dharmas that contradict only good dharmas." In the absence of forgetfulness. but this consciousness is subtle in its discernment and is therefore unassociated with [anger.sepa) makes the mind move out to external objects. The mode of activity of agitation and torpor are mutually contradictory and cannot occur universally in all minds. Therefore it is not associated Iwith distraction]. those that are purely secondary passions. the mind necessarily roams about heedlessly. this has been explained above. distraction. When the trea- 23a tise says that five dharmas are found in all defiled minds. indolence. contradicting and exceeding the rule. samadhi. but this I manas] only grasps internally and is therefore not associated I with inaccurate knowing]. while this [ manas] is indeterminate and therefore unassociated. along with memory. forgetfulness. 135 .

faithlessness." When wrong desires and wrong resolution are not present.. Torpor is included because consciousness is very seriously associated with ignorance. because they are bound to all places in all three realms. I if 136 . and never lets it go.e. agitation. They can be understood according to previous principles. the nine previously mentioned. wrong memory. wrong desire and wrong resolution] are not given as universals in other texts. The Yogccarabhiuni I Sästra l says.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Special mention of memory can be explained as discernment was earlier. Those who are doubtful about principles [such as suffering I are certainly not in doubt concerning such things as firm. Other mental activities missing [from this list] can be understood in the same way as previously explained. ten secondary passions. plus five that arise with specific objects. There is another explanation that ten secondary passions are generally associated with all defiled minds. torpor. mind is unable to generate the passions. Therefore doubt is associated with resolution. indolence. These two universals [i. along with determination of the characteristics of the object. Agitation is not included because it conflicts with torpor. There is an opinion [by Dharmapálal that all the above inter23b pretations fail to be completely reasonable. just as doubt that a person is a post is not. This thinking mind has twenty -four mental activities. The absence of other mental activities can be understood as previously explained. The other [mental activities that are or are not associated with manas I have already been discussed. "Ten passions thoughtlessness. or separation from. this is not doubt as a passion. wrong desires. making it torpid. Samádhi is included because I manas] concentrates on one single kind of thing. because a mind that has as its object an undesirable thing or is associated with doubt does not manifest these [two I in a coarse manner. and inaccurate knowing occur in all defiled minds. distraction. the self that is grasped as object. With regard to doubt about things that are perceived. How can one who doubts the existence of other worlds have desires or resolution? I Also. secondary passions. because passions such as craving only occur if there is satisfaction in union with. wrong resolution. experienced objects.

Another interpretation denies this. they should be explained as above. forgetfulness. how can the passions occur in one's presence? Therefore it is certain that defiled minds are associated with eight secondary passions: torpor. And if there is no loss of recollection or inaccurate knowing. because not all defiled minds have as their objects things already experienced nor do they contain examination. etc. celestials 137 . because it perpetually clings within to a self and feels satisfaction and love. there is no disagreement with teachings or reason. lack of faith. The manas is associated with eighteen mental activities: the first nine dharmas (such as contact and feeling]. they occur in all defiled minds. Done in this way. When there is no distraction in a defiled mind. these will not be defiled conditions. distraction. As for forgetfulness and inaccurate knowing being of the nature of memory and discernment. Born in the evil destinies. and then. It must be said that manas is associated with four feelings. because its object is the fruit attracted by had karma. As for those mental activities that are absent I from this list] that are included in the three passages from the treatises. eight secondary passions. and [one] with specific objects. Among humans. because it affirms that the feeling of satisfaction exists all the way to the peak of existence (bhavágra). there will be no clamor. agitation. there will be no inability. 9. it will not go rushing out [to objects' and is not a defiled Istate of I mind.Chapter IV there is no torpor when a state of passion arises. discernment. thoughtlessness. indolence.. If there is no agitation. If their nature is ignorance. it is associated with the feeling of dissatisfaction. they are not found universally in I all] defiled minds. and inaccurate knowing. as in the case of good. The Feeling of Manas With what feeling is defiled manas associated? One interpretation is that it is associated only with the feeling of satisfaction. for reasons already given. which would contradict holy teachings.

once transmutation takes place. manas is associated with the above. when this [manas I differs from the first I store] consciousness. Like the eighth consciousness.Demonstration of Consciousness Only of I the realm of I desire. 10. and because 138 . etc. In its state prior to transmutation. because its object is the fruit of good karma of the stages I of development] that involve satisfaction. and the first two trances (dh. because the support of the defiled dharmas associated with [manas] is fine and subtle. and hence they are said to be defiled.mentioned mental activities. manas is certainly the same las store consciousness] in being associated with only indifference. the five with specific objects. it would have been mentioned. and the eleven good ones. because its object is the fruit of good karma of the stages that involve joy. Once transmuted. Moral Nature of Manas What is the moral species of the mental activities of manas? They are defiled and indeterminate. it is associated with the feeling of indifference. so also. it occurs only with twenty -one mental activities: the [five I universals. associated with manas are impure dharmas. it is associated with the feeling of satisfaction. always impartial vis -à -vis objects.. If it were associated with those four feelings. because from beginningless time. it is distinctly mentioned. because its only object is the fruit of good karma of the stage that involves indifference. There is an interpretation that rejects the above explanation. and that is all. it is associated with joy. because it always evolves spontaneously. In the third trance state. In the fourth trance and up to the peak of existence. they are obstacles to the holy path and obscure the mind. Because the four passions. They are indeterminate because they are neither good nor not good. Just as in the upper two realms the passions are said to be indeterminate because they are embraced by the power ofsamadhi. it is associated only with the feeling of indifference. Moreover.yizna). this [ manas I has been perpetually unchanging in freely and exclusively grasping an inner self and is not associated with feelings [that involve] change and 2sc differentiation. Since it is not.

11. freely. When I manas I is born in the realm of desire. and therefore [Vasubandhu] says IT DOES NOT EXIST. all the way to the peak of existence. and so on. etc. they are said to be indeterminate. 139 . of that stage and is therefore said to be "bound to them. Mental Activities and Spiritual Stages To what stage (bhúmi) are the mental activities of manas connected? [The "Thirty Verses" say. it is referred to as "born in that stage. Since beginningless time." The defiled manas that takes it as its object and grasps it as a self is bound to it and is referred to as "bound to that. Upon the transmutation of the support. "] IN THE ARHAT. IT DOES NOT EXIST. the nature of manas is only good. the seeds of defiled mind (manas) and mind itself in its actual form are eternally exterminated. The reason is that they freely and perpetually take as their object the store consciousness of that stage and grasp it as an inner self. the mental activities associated with the presently functioning manas are bound to the realm of desire. The Cessation of Manas Defiled mind (manas) has continued in a series since beginningless time. and therefore I Vasubandhu says] IT DOES NOT EXIST. In what state does it either eternally or temporarily end? I Vasubandhu says in the "Thirty Verses.] AND BOUND TO THE PLACE OF BIRTH. THE SAMADIII OF CESSATION.. ARHAT refers generally to those in the state of post learner among the three vehicles. defiled manas has evolved subtly." Another possibility is that I manas I is bound by the passions.Chapter IV they evolve freely. In this state." Once it has undergone transmutation of the support. In the state of learner it is temporarily subdued during the sanzádhi of cessation and on the supramundane path. I manas I is no longer bound. not I the store consciousness of] other stages. 12. and uniformly and cannot be subdued by the impure paths. AND THE SUPRAMUNDANE PATH. If the store conscious- ness originates as the retribution of a certain stage.

so this I manas ] does not exist. If the post learners of the two vehicles convert to the Mahayana. During the Diamond -like Samadhi (vajropamasamrcdhi) one suddenly exterminates these seeds and becomes an arhat. Nondefiled Manas There is an interpretation [by Sthiramati] that manas is only associated with the obstacle of the passions. as the pure outflow I of knowledge of no self]. The seeds of the passions are extremely subtle and are suddenly and simultaneously exterminated. they are called "arhats" I in the "Thirty Verses "]. that it is always associated with four passions. because the understanding of true no self I occurring on the paths I contradicts attachment to a self. Passions associated with this defiled mind are innate and therefore are not exterminated on I the path of I insight.anäsrava jñana) is actually present. and that it is the support of the various defilements of consciousness. THE saMi1DHI OF CESSATION is the outflow of the holy paths and is complete calm. because all holy teach- ings say that it does not exist in three states. 13. 140 .. since the seeds [of manas] have not yet been eternally exterminated. it also contradicts manas. then from the first arousal of the thought [of enlightenment] up to the point where they become Buddhas. arhatl. Therefore they never again appear in the post learner [i. Because both the knowledge of true no self and its subsequently acquired [knowledge] are both pure. at the peak of existence. when one arises from the samrxdhi of cessation and the holy paths. I manas I becomes active again as long as I the seeds J have not been 24a destroyed. they fit the definition [of an arhat I. along with the lowest of the three grades of passions. but since they are impure. they are not to be exterminated.e.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The holy paths of the three vehicles subdue it. When pure subsequently acquired I knowledge I (prslhalabdha. they are called the SUPRAMUNDANE PATH. Even though they are not singled out especially. even though they are bodhisattvas. However. because they are the same in their power.

A treatise says that store consciousness definitely always functions together with a consciousness. there is nothing to be supported. is not the former also not so? Also. However.Chapter IV Another interpretation claims that that explanation contradicts both teachings and reason. in either superiority or in equality. It functions with three when one of the first five consciousnesses appears. just as when it is defiled. It may not be claimed that that I knowledge] is supported by the six 141 . since the latter cannot be so. because treatises also say that they have no álaya. If one concludes that arhats have no seventh consciousnesses.samadhi of cessation. various treatises say that knowledge of sameness occurs upon the transmutation of the seventh consciousness. finally. and therefore we know that manas can be either defiled or nondefiled. the store consciousness will not be accompanied by another consciousness and therefore is not always definitely evolving in association with one consciousness. and. and. in that case. they are devoid of a defiled manas. mental consciousness and manas. [store consciousness] appears with two consciousnesses. when mental consciousness occurs. because in the absence of a support. store consciousness definitely appears with two consciousnesses? The Aryadesanavikhyápana Sastra says that manas is always associated with four passions. one must also conclude that they also must have no eighth consciousness. If this consciousness is missing [in arhats I. because. which is manas.stra I say that when mental consciousness appears. and. because a scripture says that a supramundane manas exists. definitely must have a support that is born with it and is special. Lacking the seventh I consciousness] at the time of the holy paths. and because an undefiled mental consciousness. must have as a support a pure consciousness with which it is associated. that form of knowledge must also not exist in them. or functions in association with their contraries. the store consciousness must be associated with one consciousness. according to the [Yogacarabhumi 1 Sastra. sometimes it occurs with all seven. when all five consciousnesses operate together. like any knowledge. If the seventh consciousness is absent in the . how can [the Yogdcárabhiuni Sa. then at that moment.

it is proven in various treatises that the seventh consciousness is the support of the sixth. When it is said [in some texts I that it does not exist. Alternatively. they do not mean that there is no eighth I consciousness]. three different kinds of manas.learners. because these Ipeoplel have not yet realized the selflessness of dharmas. in the samädhi of cessation. etc.] there must always be a nondefiled manas. lf.learner. the eighth consciousness must lack a simultaneous support. and among post . we must trust that this [seventh I consciousness always occurs in the holy paths of the two vehicles. when they say that in four states there is no dlaya. by what consciousness is this 'attachment! supported? Not the eighth consciousness. just as mirror knowledge is [while the six consciousnesses constantly change].Demonstration of Consciousness Only evolving consciousnesses I such as visual consciousness]. just as. Also. Therefore it is clear that in the three states mentioned above [post. just as attachment to a self always occurs in one who has not yet realized the nonexistence of a personal self. Consequently. because it is conceded that [this knowledge! is constant in Buddhas. The same is the case here.learner. if post learners have no seventh consciousness. the seventh consciousness does not support the sixth. so also attachment to the selfhood of dharmas always occurs in one who has not yet realized the unreality of dharmas. Three Kinds of Manas There are. Also. when the holy paths arise. but they are always supported. because it is by nature like other forms of conscious- 24h ness. the five !material I consciousnesses must lack a support. and so must the sixth be supported. Also. 14. in short. because it lacks discernment. The second kind 142 . not the undefiled m annas I. If [inanasl is absent. because the I first I five consciousnesses are likewise supported by the sixth. The first is I manas l associated with a view of a personal self. both the main point and the reasoning I of the treatises] are in error. but it must have this support. they speak of defiled manas I that does not exist. and when one is a post .

etc. and those for whom the fruit 143 . and bodhisattvas in the state when the fruit of the knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas is not present. the view of the selfhood of dharmas must also be present. In the state when the view of a personal self occurs. Even though there is attachment to dharmas only among learners of the two vehicles.. just as the notion that there is a person. etc. The second is common to the continuities of all ordinary beings. It is the same here [with the two views I. I The manas I takes as an object nondefiled consciousness as retribution. The first is common to continuities of all ordinary beings.. among bodhisattvas who awake suddenly on the path of cultivation. attachment to a self has been subdued.. Even though the functioning of the two views of selves and dharmas is different. The third kind is that associated with the knowledge of sameness. their many functions of distinguishing blue. in the same way that even though the various consciousnesses such as visual are alike in substance.. they are not contradictory. and among learners who awaken gradually and for whom the fruit of the knowledge of the emptiness [of the person I is present. This Informs] takes as object álaya consciousness and generates a view of a personal self. and generates the knowledge of sameness. and both have the same discernment as a support. those gradually awakened. are not contradictory. etc. because attach- ment to a self occurs supported by attachment to dharmas. in the dark. etc. This [manas] takes consciousness as retribution for an object and generates the view of the selfhood of dharmas. learners of the two vehicles.Chapter IV is associated with a view of the selfhood of dharmas. and to those for whom the fruit of the knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas is present in the path of cultivation. The third is common to the continuities of all Tathágatas and to bodhisattvas in the path of insight. and one kind of bodhisattva of impure mind prior to the seventh I bodhisattva I stage. occurs when we misapprehend a post. Even though attachment to dharmas remains only among learners of the two vehicles on the holy paths and in the samádhi of cessation. disciples (src uaka ) and pratyekabuddhas.

Even though attachment to dharmas occurs when the fruit of the knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas is not present. Proofs of the Existence of Manas How must we know that the seventh consciousness has a separate substance of its own.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 24c of the knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas is not present. In many places in the scriptures. thought ( manas). I Manas I is categorized as "born of retribution. Consequently. "From the eighth stage on. 15.e. the attachment to a self has been eliminated.phala." That which thinks 144 . Otherwise. Even though the manas associated with attachment to dharmas is said to be undefiled as far as the two vehicles are concerned. i. because it is an obstacle to their knowledge I of reality I. That which accumulates [seeds] and generates I an apparent world] is called "mind. result of good and bad). it is unsoiled. are concerned.. From the eighth stage on. attachment to a self is forever inactive among all bodhisattvas." It is this obstacle that remains. As a scripture says. in the same way that all conditions are dominant conditions except those excluded [such as condition as cause I. As far as the two vehicles. the Blessed One says that mind (citta). not the seeds. it is said to be defiled and indeterminate. because this name [fruit of retribution[ is common [to all indeterminate dharmasl. because it is either forever eliminated or forever subdued. the passions would exist also. there is no contradiction. It is not "fruit of retribution" (vipáha. none of the passions is ever active again. and consciousness (vijñdna) have three distinct meanings." It is so called because it is perpetually born from retribution consciousness (vipalea.vijñána). There remains only the obstacle to that which is to be known as the support. apart from such consciousnesses as visual consciousness? Through the established means of knowledge of holy teachings and proper reasoning. it is said to be defiled as far as bodhisattvas are concerned. etc.. because it does not obstruct their knowledge.

"Since beginningless time. unstable. passions associated with manas not only no longer exist at present. the eighth [consciousness) is called "mind" because it accumulates the seeds of dharmas and produces all dharmas. self -love." These are the three distinct meanings. the Vinzoksa Sutra specifically mentions the seventh consciousness. and intermittent. Mahayana scriptures are the means of knowledge (pramcz . The remaining six Iforms of consciousness] are called "consciousness" because they evolve discriminating six different kinds of objects in a manner that is gross. The scripture itself explains the verse. Store consciousness is called "mind "." Also. The seventh consciousness is called "thought" because it takes the eighth consciousness. it exists separately. and delusion about self. as an object and constantly thinks about it as a self. That which discriminates the characteristics of objects Is called "consciousness.. this manas is accordingly liberated from those. therefore. Once the antidote appears and the passions have been exterminated. saying. because past and future have no 145 . we need not prove that again. At that time. conceit in self.Chapter IV and reasons is called "thought. A verse in the Larzkdvatára Sutra says. They exist not in the past or future. Also. Though these three meanings are used for all eight forms of consciousness. they will have no past or future. Defiled mind at all times Is born with and perishes with the passions. many places in Mahayana scriptures specifically speak of a seventh consciousness.za) of supreme teachings. That of a thinking nature is called "thought "." That which discriminates is called "consciousness. if we take into account the preeminent character of each. Once liberated from the passions. defiled manas has been born with and perishes with four passions: the view of a self. A verse says. As already mentioned at length. etc. etc.

the six consciousnessesI would always he defiled [which is not the case]. because they are 146 . "Special ignorance (dut elks. pride in self. Why is 25u the ignorance associated with manas] referred to as "special "? One interpretation is that the associated view of self. that obscures reality and obscures the eye of holy discernment. That is. ordinary beings of all moral kinds perpetually generate deluded reasoning." If this consciousness did not exist. because [since they are intermittent] ignorance would be intermittent and I. the scripture would be contradicted. neither would that I ignorance]." There are teachings like this among many schools of Buddhism.Demonstration of Consciousness Only self. and. The Problem of Special Ignorance Now that we have quoted the scriptures. It is not possible I for ignorance I to be supported by the six [sense] consciousnesses. because it does not stand to reason that among ordinary beings." Another interpretation is that the above explanation violates reason and teachings.klesa). blinded by ignorance. When the mind of reality is about to occur. A verse says. they will never awaken. A scripture says. their minds stupefied and intoxicated. Defiled manas is always associated with four passions. 16. so there is no problem in referring to ignorance as "special. a special ignorance. These problems are eliminated if the existence of manas is admitted.nature.aviilyc) is subtle and perpetually active and obscures reality. It accompanies all moral kinds of mind And is called "special ignorance." Therefore a scripture says. It is always obscured. "Beings of all kinds live perpetually in a long night. but we will stop here out of concern for prolixity. we display proper reasoning. because these three [such as self-pride I are not referred to as pure secondary passions." If ordinary beings occasionally did not generate this ignorance. delusive reasoning and ignorance are sometimes active and sometimes not. and self -love are not fundamental passions (múla.

which does not exist in this I seventh] consciousness. because of the predominance of delusion. it is replied. You should say that of the four passions." [However." but if they are predominant." That which is isolated and 147 . reserved for Buddhas]. has perpetually stupefied and deluded. Many places in scripture say that defiled manas is always associated with four passions. Even admitting that the other three are also special." When not accompanied by craving.. There is another interpretation that says that this delusion is named "special" because. in general. I ignorance is pre- dominant and alone has this name. and that although it arises with the other three it is called "special. and since it exists only in this consciousness it is therefore named "special. etc. The ignorance associated with the seventh consciousness from beginningless time is always functioning. In that case. such as the view I of a self 1. obstructing the knowledge of reality. etc. from beginningless time. like "special Buddha dharmas" [i. ignorance is predominant. of two kinds.e. it is found only in this consciousness. without ever being aware. When it is accompanied by craving. not because of its absence I or presence I. Those existing with it." (Maims I." because there is no error in conceding that they are like ignorance. Therefore the Yogacarabhúmi [Säzstra I says that there are two kinds of ignorance. The first is special ignorance that is perpetual. Such a preeminent function is absent in the other consciousnesses. The second kind is special ignorance that is isolated.." But if this were the case. which does not exist in other forms of consciousness.' the name "special" is applied as a result of its special nature. This special ignorance is.Chapter IV included among the six or ten passions. it is called "associated ignorance.. we speak of [ignorance] as special in contrast to other delusions [such as that of the sixth consciousness]. the I other] three associated with manas ought to be called "special. they must be called "special. should be called "associates. it is called "isolated ignorance. passions associated with other forms of consciousness but absent in this consciousness should [by analogy! be called "special." [But.

It follows from this reasoning that mental consciousness. as a dominant. consciousness must have the same perceptual object as the organ and. and simultaneous support.áyatana). just as the five [material] consciousnesses must have eyes.. Other schools of Buddhism do not recognize special ignorance that is perpetual. which has been amply demonstrated. etc. just as a sprout and its shadow do. and [if it were. I mental consciousness would be deprived of the two discriminations of memory and conjecture. Nor can it be claimed that the five [material] consciousnesses have no simultaneous support. like mind and mental activities." That which is isolated but not predominant is eliminated (heya) by [the path oft cultivation (hh deans. because they do evolve simultaneously with the five organs. ending with "with mind (manas) and dharmas as its conditions. because [mental consciousness) has been shown to be without doubt one of the [first] six consciousnesses. 148 . but both I Mahayana and Hinayana I recognize special ignorance that is isolated.. etc. how could [the sixth] be supported? It cannot be said that form is its support. and is a dominant condition. "Those saints who are still learners have already eliminated special ignorance and therefore do not accumulate new karma. Mental Consciousness and Its Two Conditions A scripture says. must also occur simultaneously. that is the sense base (áyatana) of its name (mana. must also have such a support." If this [seventh] consciousness did not exist." etc. 17. That is.. Also. as one of the first six kinds of consciousness. special. As a scripture says. mental consciousness. is not categorized as an immediately ante- cedent condition. mental consciousness is born. must have a support that is special. because anger [and other secondary passions are eliminated by both insight and cultivation. If this consciousness did not exist. visual consciousness is born. neither would mental consciousness. like visual consciousness.Demonstration of Consciousness Only predominant is eliminated (heya) only by )the path of I insight 251) (dargana). because manas is not form. "With the eyes and forms as its conditions.).

149 . The Name of Manas A scripture says. since one has it and one does not? If you distinguish on the basis of preparatory practices. Absent this manas. Lacking a defiled manas. "thought. This being so. real.. The Two Samadhis A scripture speaks of the samadhi of nonconceptualization (asamjñika. because the basis for the distinction is the existence [of manas]. that perpetually judges and thinks. [ In reply to a suggestion that manas refers to past mind.samdpatti) and that of cessation (nirodha. It is certain that there is a separate manas." is used metaphorically makes no sense. 19. this is not good enough. real] manas. because if there is no thinking per se. If defiled manas did not exist. how can you call it manas [since it no longer exists]? Thus we know that there is a separate seventh I consciousness]. I to say that the expression. Both samadhis alike stop the six [sense] consciousnesses and 25c mental activities. etc.Chapter IV 18. then if it was called "consciousness" at that time. neither would that [thinking]. the manas that is similar and antecedent has perished and no longer exists [and therefore it cannot think]. with no difference in the substance or number I of mental activities' that cease. on the basis of this. manas. We may metaphorically speak of manas when it has perished and. and we may properly refer to it as manas. the reason [for these distinctions] would not exist either. how could the two samadhis be distinguished. and therefore the functioning of thought certainly cannot be present. stage. because past and future do not really exist. what is the basis of the metaphor? If it is claimed that thought was present [at a previous moment! and that is what manas is. "Thinking is called manas. speak of it as [present." If this consciousness did not exist. there would be no distinction be- tween the two [since manas ceases in the second but not in the first I. support. how can we speak of that as manas? [As for speaking metaphorically of past manas as thinking.sainápalli).] when mental consciousness is present.

If this consciousness did not exist. 20.attachment.] for a long time during the interval I of their existences' there is none. their existence would resemble nirvana. they are perpetually caught up in sellattachment. defiled. I it exists in the past and fu- ture. [The Sarvástivddins claim that] there is I thought] at the beginning and end [of the lives of the unconscious celestials' and that therefore there is no such error. perfuming cannot take place either. there is an error. Therefore there must be a separate. so there is no error. beings still in bondage are lacking in self . If this I seventh I consciousness did not exist. 150 . [Replying to the Mahasámghikas. they would have no defilement.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Also. The attachment to a self occurs perpetually among the unconscious celestials I because of its persistence]. the error remains. not what sages and virtuous people alike disparage and loathe. and therefore. defiled manas. [In reply to the suggestion that seeds serve as the basis for attachment.attachment.Attachment A scripture says when the minds of sentient beings are good. neither would that I attachment'. (They reply. for an entire lifetime. and we have refuted the notion that other dharmas can take perfuming. If they had no self . which is why that state is disparaged and loathed by sages and the virtuous.attachment. These beings are without the six evolving consciousnesses for a long time. a scripture says the minds and mental activities of sentient beings without thought Fin the higher realms of the celestials] cease for their entire lifetimes. Absence of Self.] we have already disproved unassociated dharmas I as a basis for self . and without a manas there would also be no self . There is no other place where.' since fin their opinion I there is no such thing as a store consciousness.attachment]. There can be no acquisition because there is nothing to be acquired. I We reply I that [past and future attachment' is neither present nor eternal and that since it does not exist. (We reply. or indeterminate.

Chapter IV

When the minds of sentient beings are of these I abovel three natures, they always become attached to an inner self, no matter what kinds of external acts they perform. As a result of this attachment to a self, such acts as giving ((Lana) that arise in the six consciousnesses are unable to be free from the image I of a self 1. Therefore the Yogdcdrabhumi f. astra I says that defiled manas is the support of the (first] six consciousnesses, and until it ends [the seeing part] cannot be freed from bondage to the seen part. Once manas ceases, I the seeing part I is liberated from bondage to the seen part. "Bondage to the seen part" means the inability to comprehend thoroughly that images of objects are like illusions, etc. Conse-

quently, the seeing part is bound by the seen part, and this is
called "bondage to the seen part." For this reason, a verse says,
Such a defiled manas Is the support of consciousness; Until this manas ceases, The bonds of consciousness are never severed.

Also, when a mind is good, undefiled, and indeterminate, it will not be contaminated if there is no self- attachment, because the passions of the I first] six consciousnesses as part of a I personal] series cannot exist simultaneously with a mind that is good, etc., because the truth is that this good mind I cannot be bound by past
or future conditions, which really are nonexistent. Also, [good mindl is not soiled by the passions of another, nor does it become pure as

a result of someone else's liberation. Nor can it be said that there exist separate propensities in the form of [dharmasl unassociated [with mind I that appear in a series and that good [minds], etc., become soiled as a result of them. These do not really exist, as we have already amply demonstrated. Nor can it be said that good, etc., become soiled because they are born of soiled seeds, because there is no reason for these seeds to become soiled. [Mind that is
good, etc.,] does not become soiled because of soiled seeds, because it is not clear how an unsoiled mind becomes soiled.

151

Demonstration of Consciousness Only

26a

Even though acts such as giving, etc., are attracted by passions, [the acts' do not occur simultaneously [with the passions', and therefore these [passions] are not the real cause of impurity, because the word "impure" indicates simultaneity of soiling land being soiled]. Also, indeterminate acts are not attracted by the
passions, so how can they become soiled? All impurities result from various passions of one's own [and not from another's', from actually present passions I and not from seeds!, and from passions that are born simultaneously I with mind) and that perish simultaneously I with it], and they are born in the reciprocal promotion. This perfuming creates the seeds of soiled dharmas, and later those I dharmas] that appear will become soiled.

This being so with ordinary beings, so also with learners. Even
though the soiled I manas] of post - learners is not accompanied by [active] soiling itself, it becomes soiled by means of soiled seeds from previous times, so there is no violation of reason.

Due to the perpetual attachment to a self by the manas,
dharmas that are good, I bad,] etc., are made soiled. If this mind did not exist, that [soiling process] would not exist either. Therefore we know that there must be a separate seventh conscious-

ness. There are a great many proofs for the existence of this
consciousness. Here, six from the Mahaycznasamgraha have been

taken up briefly. The wise should follow them, trust them, and study them. Some scriptures speak of only six consciousnesses, but you should realize that this is an expedient [for those unprepared for the whole explanation I. Another explanation is that these texts speak of six in accordance with the six organs that act as the

supports [of the six consciousnesses], but there are in fact eight separate kinds of consciousness.

152

Chapter V

The Six Kinds of Sense Consciousness
Now that the second transforming consciousness has been discussed, what are the distinguishing characteristics of the third
transforming [consciousness I? The verses [by Vasubandhuj say,
NEXT IS THE THIRD TRANSFORMING CONSCIOUSNESS,

WITH ITS SIXFOLD DISTINCTION.
ITS NATURE AND CHARACTER IS THAT OF PERCEPTION
OF THE OBJECT,

AND IT IS GOOD, BAD, OR NEITHER.

The Treatise says that after discussing the transforming consciousness that thinks, we must discern the characteristics of the transforming consciousness that perceives the object.

1. Names of the Six Consciousnesses
There are, in summary, six kinds of this consciousness, because of differences of kind among the six organs and their objects. They are called visual consciousness, etc., ending with mental consciousness. The name of each I form of consciousness] is established according to the organ, in five ways: I consciousness I is supported I by

the organ!: it is the expression I of the organ]; it is affiliated [with the organ I; it aids I the organ I; and it is similar to the organ. Although all six consciousnesses evolve supported by [the sev-

enth consciousness, I manas, the name "manas consciousness" (mano- cijñdna) [the sixth of the six consciousnessesI is derived

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from its special [support], just as the other five consciousnesses I although also supported by manas I are distinguished I according to their special supports]. Or it is called manas consciousness because its sole support is manas. The [six] names come from the distinction [of forms) of consciousness, with the mind (citta) and manas being exceptions. Or, we speak of consciousness of form, etc., ending with the consciousness of dharmas, in accordance with the object of the consciousness, because this is what "consciousness" means, which refers to the perception of six kinds of objects. The [first five, including consciousness of form, etc., only perceive form, etc., but
consciousness of dharmas I by the sixth consciousness' is able to perceive all dharmas [including form, sound, etc.]. Or, it is called "consciousness of dharmas" in that it alone is able to perceive dharmas. Therefore, the names of the six consciousnesses do not get confused.

Hereafter, names of these consciousnesses that are established in
accordance with their objects are given when they are not yet free of dependence on material organs. Once they are free, the organs are interchangeable in their functions, with one organ provoking a consciousness of any kind of sense object. Then they are only named according to the organ so as not to have any confusion.

As for the Mahayana Siztrálamkc ra saying that each of a
Tathagata's five sense organs functions relative to all five kinds of objects, the text is referring to gross, obvious objects of the same

kind [as the organ]. The Ruddhabhúmi Sütra says that knowledge of perfecting the work [of benefitting oneself and others I ascertains the countless differences of mental activities of sentient beings, generates the transformation of the three actions [of body, speech, and mind], and performs the four predictions, etc., because if it were not universal, this ability would not exist. However, objects and supports of these six evolving consciousnesses are well known, being gross and obvious, and hence they are not discussed here. We have already discussed their supports and will discuss their objects [later on].

26h

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2. Nature and Mode of Activity
Next I Vasubandhu] says, ITS
CEPTION OF THE OBJECT.

NATURE AND CHARACTER IS THAT OF PER

This shows both the self- nature and the mode of activity of the six consciousnesses, because these consciousnesses have the perception of objects as their essential na-

ture, and using that is their mode of activity. Therefore we
understand why separate names are given, which is that they are able to perceive and discriminate objects. A scripture asks, "What is visual consciousness? It is that which perceives and discriminates forms in dependence on the visual organ. What is mental consciousness? It is that which perceives and discriminates all dharmas in dependence on the thinking organ." The scripture just speaks of special supports in the state prior to the transmutation of the support, of what is perceived by the seeing part [of consciousness itself]. Other supports and perceptions are as already explained.

3. Moral Species
What is the moral species of these six consciousnesses? I Vasubandhu says,I GOOD, BAD, OR NEITHER. NEITHER means "indeterminate," because they can be neither good nor bad. GOOD is so called because it

benefits one in this life and in a later life. The fruit of happiness among humans and celestials, although beneficial in the present life, is not beneficial in a later life, and it is therefore not said to be "good." BAD is that which is disadvantageous in this life and in a later life. The fruit of suffering among the evil destinies, although disadvantageous in the present life, is not disadvantageous in a later life, and it is therefore not said to be "bad." INDETERMINATE iS
so called because it cannot be determined to be good, bad, beneficial, or disadvantageous. If these six consciousnesses are associated with

the eleven mental activities such as faith, they are categorized as "good." Associated with the ten dharmas such as shamelessness, they are categorized as "bad." Unassociated with any of the above, they are categorized as "indeterminate."

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There is an interpretation that the three I moral] natures cannot occur simultaneously in the six consciousnesses, because there will be a contradiction [of natures] when consciousness evolves vis -à -vis the same external realm. Also, the [first) five conscious nesses must be guided and directed by mental consciousness, be simultaneous with it, have the same object, and become good or defiled [accordingly]. If we admit that the three natures occur simultaneously in the [first] five consciousnesses, then at that moment, mental consciousness must share all these natures, and that
violates reason. Therefore they must not be simultaneously present.

26c

The Yogácárabhadni LSástraJ and other texts say that store consciousness during a single moment arises with these three natures in association with the evolving consciousness, but that refers to numerous moments I of store consciousness], in the same way that when these texts speak of a single thought, it is not a single generation and cessation. Thus there is no contradiction here. There is another interpretation that it is possible for the three natures to be simultaneously present in the six consciousnesses, because many or few of these consciousnesses, such as visual consciousness, may arise simultaneously, either suddenly or one after another. Although the [first] five consciousnesses always occur together with mental consciousness, they are not necessarily the same in being good, etc. The above difficulties that were said to exist are irrelevant here. The Yogácárabhumi Sástra says, "Should someone arise from samadhi due to encountering a sound, auditory consciousness occurs together with the I morally good] mental consciousness associated with samádhi. It is not just mental consciousness alone, associated with samddhi, that experiences the sound. If it were, one would not hear the sound and leave samádhi. One does not leave samádhi the instant the sound is heard; one leaves it at the

instant sound is heard and there is some kind of expectation."
Auditory consciousness suddenly hearing a sound during samádhi must not be good, because in one who has not yet experienced the

transmutation of the support, the sudden lapse into thought is

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necessarily indeterminate. This proves that mental consciousness associated with the other five consciousnesses is not necessarily of the same moral species. Texts only say that mental consciousness associated with the [other] five consciousnesses also has the same objects, not the same nature. When the Abhidharmasamuccaya- oydkhyá says that the five consciousnesses are absent during samcdhi, it means for the most part. If the three natures evolve simultaneously in the five con sciousnesses, then mental consciousness] will be of the same nature as the consciousness [in question] insofar as both have a special attention directed toward an object. However, without this special

attention, its nature is indeterminate. Therefore it is possible for the three natures to occur simultaneously among the six evolving consciousnesses. These consciousnesses are good only in a state of liberation, because the form and mind of a Buddha are included in the truth of the path (marga- salya), because a Buddha has forever destroyed all seeds of idle discourse.

4. Associated Mental Activities
With how many mental activities are the six consciousnesses associated? I Vasubandhu'sl verses say,
THEY ARE ASSOCIA'T'ED WITH UNIVERSAL MENTAL ACTIVITIES,

THOSE WITH SPECIFIC OBJECTS, THE GOOD, THE PASSIONS,
THE SECONDARY PASSIONS, THE NONDETERMINED,

AND ALL THREE FEELINGS.

The Treatise says that the six evolving consciousnesses are, in general, associated with these six kinds of mental activities; i.e., the universals, etc.

5. The Name "Mental Activities"
They are called "mental activities" because they always occur in dependence on the mind, are associated with the mind, and belong to

the mind, just as the word "mine" is that which belongs to "me." The mind has only general characteristics as its objects, but mental

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Demonstration of Consciousness Only

activities grasp their specific characteristics. Mental activities aid the mind and promote its business, hence the name, just as the master painter draws the outlines and the student fills in the colors. This is why the Yogeicárabhúmi I SastraI says, "Consciousness

perceives general characteristics of the event, while attention
(manaskora) grasps the characteristics [that consciousness itself I has not yet grasped; i.e., the specific characteristics grasped I only] by mental activities. Contact ( sparsa) perceives agreeable characteristics, etc. Feeling (vedand) perceives comforting characteristics, etc. Conceptualization (samjño) perceives characteristics that cause speech. Volition (cetano) perceives characteristics that are causes of what is correct, etc. Therefore attention, etc., are called `mental activities. "' This also shows that mental activities also have general characteristics as objects. Other sources say that desire (chanda) also perceives the characteristics of pleasant things, resolve perceives the characteristics of events that are definite and certain, memory (smrti) perceives

the characteristics of already familiar events that are past, and samccdhi and discernment perceive such characteristics as virtue and demerit. As a result of these I mental activities], good, impuI

rity, etc., are generated vis -à -vis objects. All these mental activities equally experience the specific characteristics of their objects [as well as general ones].

6. Various Kinds of Mental Activities
Although all mental activities go by the general name "mental
activities," there are in fact six kinds: five universal mental activities, five with specific objects, eleven good ones, six passions, twenty
27a

secondary passions, and four indeterminates. Thus there are fifty one mental activities in six classes. I The universal mental activities are so called I because they definitely can be found in all minds. (Those with specific objects are
so called] because they occur when objects are specific. [Good mental .

activities are those] that are only born in good minds. [The passions are so called] because they are categorized as fundamental passions

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by nature. [The secondary passions (upaklesa) are so called] because they are by nature only modalities of passions. [Indeterminate mental activities] are those found in good minds, impure minds, etc.

The Yogácárabhúmi Sástra combines the six kinds into five, because both passions and secondary passions are defilements. In addition it explains the differences among the five in terms of the four "ails "; i.e., found in all natures, in all stages, in all times, and
occurring together. Of the five, universals have all four "alls "; those

with specific objects have only the first two "ails "; good mental activities possess one, which is that they occur in all stages; impure mental activities have none of the four "ails "; and the undetermined mental activities have only one, which is that they exist in all natures. This is how the five classes are distinguished.

7. The Three Feelings
These six evolving consciousnesses are prone to slip away and are not fixed, and therefore all can be associated with the three feel-

ings (iedancz), because they experience characteristics that are agreeable, disagreeable, and those that are neither. The experience of agreeable objects comforts and delights body and mind and is called the "feeling of pleasure" (sukha). The experience of
the characteristics of disagreeable objects troubles body and mind and is called the "feeling of suffering" (duhkha). The experience of characteristics of neutral objects is called the "feeling of neither pleasure nor suffering." Each of these feelings can be divided into two. When associated with the five [sensed consciousnesses, it is said to be of a physi-

cal kind, because of its special dependence on the body. When associated with [the sixth,] mental consciousness, it is said to be mental, because of its dependence on just the mind.
Also, the three feelings may be either impure or pure, because
the feeling of pain also occurs as a result of pure I dharmas I. Or, each

feeling may be seen as threefold: to be eliminated (heya) by [the
path of I insight, I to be eliminated I by [the path of I cultivation, and not eliminated. Or, I they may occur] in learners, post - learners, or by

159

Because spontaneous craving and delusion that occur with the I first I five consciousnesses and spontaneous passions of the destinies of pure suffering do not generate any karma. they are not good.saumanasya). 8." because it only delights the mind. they are associated with all faculties in the realm of nzanas. they are associated with all faculties." Associated with mental conscious- ness when it occurs in the realm of desire and in the approaches to the first two trance states (dhyana). sorrow (daurmanasya). and when not occurring in all conscious nesses." because it delights (both) body and mind. whether they accompany or do not accompany discrimination. and whether they are heavy or light. "When all passions are generated spontaneously." The Abhidharnzasamuccaya. there is no distinction of characteristics. When they occur in all consciousnesses.vyczkhyá says. they may be seen in general as being fourfold: good. they may occur in connection with three feelings. because characteristics of annoyance and delight differ according to whether they are physical or mental. it is called both "pleasure" and "delight. because being neither annoying nor pleasing. plea- sure (sukha).Demonstration of Consciousness Only neither. and indifference (upeksd). The Five Feelings [Feelings' can be divided into five kinds: suffering (duhkha). and it evolves uniformly l as neither heavy nor light I. they are indeterminate and can be associated with the faculty of suffering. there is no discrimination. The Yogdedrabhúmi Sástra says. 27b The feeling of delight associated with the five I sense I conscious nesses is always called "pleasure." Therefore we know that each of the three feelings can be fourfold. All others are impure and indeterminate. and pure and indeterminate. delight (. "When spontaneous passions related to the realm of desire produce evil actions. Suffering and pleasure can each be divided into two. That which is neither pleasant nor painful is not divided like this. Or. In the approaches to the third trance state. and in the 160 . not good. impure and indeterminate. There is an interpretation that each of the three feelings can be fourfold. it is called "delight. During the first two trance states.

it is noth- ing but sorrow. The feeling of oppression associated with the [first] five con sciousnesses is always called "suffering" (dulikha). I The Yogácárabhilmi Sastra I also says. according to one interpretation." The details are as mentioned earlier. Therefore we know that feel- ings of heavy discomfort in the realm of manas are called "sorrow. and without discrimination." only because the feeling is unadulterated." because it is not heavy. There is an interpretation that [sorrow] takes two forms. The Yogäcárabhumi Sastra says." because the feeling may be heavy or light depending on whether the feeling is pure or mixed. and because the holy teachings say that the feeling of discomfort in the realm of thought is called the "faculty of sorrow. heavy. it is called "pleasure. because these beings must be provided with active indifference. "The innate view of a person is only indeterminate in nature. it is called either "sorrow" or "suffering." Suffering accompanying these [views] is not categorized as the faculty of sorrow." The Yogdcárabhúmi Sastra says. delight. 161 . as do a part of animals and hungry ghosts (preta)." because it is calm.Chapter V actual trance state. and without discrimination. "As soon as retribution commences among those sentient beings in the purgatories. "In the purgatories. there is retribution that generates a feeling of sorrow. and that is also the case with animals and hungry ghosts whose suffering is unadulterated. Among humans and celestials." The "other three" are certainly pleasure. because the treatise says that the faculty of suffering is not indeterminate. It also says. and sorrow. the other three [faculties' definitely do not occur. "The three feelings can be active with all spontaneously generated passions. because it oppresses the mind." and even more so are the other light [discomforts I. heavy. Associated with mental consciousness." It also says. and the same must be true of extreme views. it is always called "sorrow. Among animals and hungry ghosts. it is called "suffering. In purgatory (naraka). "I Those in I the purgatories also have the sorrow of applied and sustained thought.

and in a faint? We offer the same objection to the opinion that the eighth faculty is the faculty of suffering. in places of ultimate suffering. then how can the faculty of sorrow exist at birth." 162 . because it is associated with the seventh and eighth consciousnesses.. death. They must have eyes. and [these places] are therefore called "pure suffering. because a sex organ is uncertain [in the purgatories]. because due to evil karma [beings] can be sexless. because there is no reason for speaking of the faculty of thought. The opinion that the eighth faculty is the sex organ is unreasonable. but of what use is a sex organ I in the purgatories I? There can be no hope for sexual 27c intercourse in Avici. delight. Also. Thus the eighth faculty is definitely the faculty of indifference. I is it not true that adventitious indifference is not active among them? I We reply. It must not be that the treatise is speaking only of adventitious feelings. the vexation of mind is called "suffering. [Beings in the purgatoriesI have no pleasure as retribution. the great purgatory. but you must understand that this is a concession I to other schools]. as for the holy teachings saying that the feeling of discomfort associated with thought is called the "faculty of sorrow. because the five organs are made to suffer as a consequence of evil karma. Just as in the realm of ultimate pleasure the comforting of mind is called "pleasure. because the six adventitious consciousnesses are sometimes absent." However. if the treatise is speaking with reference to adventitious feelings.] how do you know that the passage [from the treatise] is speaking only of adventitious feelings? You must not say that those beings definitely possess the faculty of thought." and there is no faculty of delight. Other sources say that [beings in the purgatories] have pleasure as efflux [of former karma]. Therefore the three I faculties! mentioned [in the Yoga cárabhúmi I are doubtless sorrow. or it refers to situations where feelings are mixed. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only [It is objected. how can we definitely speak of those beings as having eight faculties? if you claim that the eighth is the faculty of sorrow." and there is no faculty of sorrow. and pleasure. because the five I sense I consciousnesses do not form an unbroken series.

This feeling is distinguished under many topics in the holy teachings. in places where feeling is of unadulterated suffering. "Those in the purgatories have the sorrow of applied and sustained thought. and if the five are associated with the three feelings. is also categorized as suffering. but these will not be pursued here for fear of prolixity. as for the faculty of suffering associated with mental consciousness. because they are mutually contradictory when evolving in relation to external objects. the I earlier statements of thel Yogcicarabhami Scxstra that say." are also concessions. there is retribution that generates sorrow. just as we also call the approaches Ito trance states] "pleasure. although categorized as the faculty of suffering. Simultaneity of the Three Feelings There is an interpretation that the three feelings I pleasure. it benefits body and mind. and neither] are not simultaneously present in the six I sense] con sciousnesses. and therefore (the six consciousnessesl must not be associated I with the three feelings simultaneously I. Also." because. Alternately. Also." or else. suffering. then so is mental consciousness. as do some animals and hungry ghosts. However." and that say.Chapter V that means "in many cases. I there is no faculty of pleasure. although the faculty of delight. 9. because I the Yog eCtrabadmi Sastra 1 says that there are only eleven faculties I at that stage]. and therefore we may roughly speak of it as sorrow. we can call it "sorrow" because. "As soon as retribution begins in the beings born in the purgatories. When the YogdeCtrabhumi IScz. Mental consciousness associated with the I first] five has the same object that they have. it resembles the sorrow of other I realms of suffering I. This is the interpretation of such works as the Yydkhydpana Sástra. it injures body and mind. it is certain that in the stage prior to arrival [at the first trance state. you should realize that the feeling of grief in the area of mantis. Consequently.stra] and other texts say that store consciousness at a single instant occurs together with the 163 . it is a concession and does not really contradict our position. This violates reasoning.

the three feelings can occur simultaneously in the six consciousnesses. THAT IS. MEMORY. ETC. are as discussed earlier at length. SAMADH1. Consequently. they mean during a plurality of instants. a scripture says. the five UNIVERSAL I mental activities'. and neutral objects to be experienced simultaneously. As for teachings. and indifference only. NEXT. because it is possible for agreeable. THOSE WITH SPECIFIC OBJECTS. just as the expression "one mind" does not refer to a single generation and extinction. 28a The Treatise says. delight. because Buddhas have eliminated everything that is sorrowful and full of suffering..Demonstration of Consciousness Only three feelings associated with the I six] evolving consciousnesses. CONTACT. but now we must speak in some detail of their specific characteristics. and the union of 164 . "Visual consciousness arises with eyes and material objects as its conditions. RESOLVE. It generates a single feeling when it is fixed on a definite object I perceived by one of the five senses]. DESIRE. and because thought does not necessarily have to experience the same object as the !other] five. among the six groups of mental activities. When one has reached the state of freedom. 10. but when not fixed it generates indifference. I the six conscious- nesses I are [associated with I pleasure. FIRST. What are the characteristics of the first two groups? FIRST. There is an interpretation I by 1)harmapála l that the three feel- ings can be simultaneously present in the six [sense] consciousnesses. Universal Mental Activities and Those with Specific Objects We have briefly explained the six groups of mental activities. AND DISCERNMENT. CONTACT. disagreeable. Thus there is no contradiction. UNIVERSAL MENTAL ACTIVITIES. How should we understand their characteristics? Through the fixed means of knowledge of teachings and reason. E'l'C. WHOSE OBJECTS ARE NOT THE SAME.

] and creates good I actions]. then there is perception I of the object I. They are next to the first of the six groups fin the "Thirty Verses" I. conceptualization (sainjña). etc. J. etc. and without it. are universal mental activities. Another scripture says. because if mind arises without conceptualization. Volition must be present. etc.." etc. etc. object. mental activities] are not universals will be discussed later.. etc. because they are necessary for mind to occur. there will be attention. Conceptualization establishes the particulars of the object. contact. As for reason. disagreeable. and consciousness'. are universal. There 165 . because without it. and attention properly occurs. Consequently. i. these four. because mind is never present without one of these feelings. The reason other I. What is DESIRE (chanda)? Desire has as its nature a wish for a pleasing object. attention is also universal. Mental Activities with Specific Objects NEXT [are the mental activities] WITH SPECIFIC OBJECTS. and it makes mind feel joy. or neutral. you must know that these five dharmas. for the arising of consciousness there must be a union of the three I organ. contact. If there is perception.. "If there is attention directed toward Ian object]. Feeling experiences an object that is agreeable. or indifference. then it can produce consciousness. Through these logical proofs." Another text also says. Their OBJECTS ARE NOT I _I THE SAME. Attention directs mind to its object. Contact must be present. Many scriptures prove this. and its activity is that of supporting effort. because mind does not occur in the absence [of good. for the most part. mind and mental activities do not unite to contact an object. there is no mind. 11. it is unable to grasp the particulars. "If the faculty has not deteriorated and objects appear. those from DESIRE (chanda) through DISCERNMENT (prajñá). a). Consequently. distaste. volition. Along with contact are feeling.Chapter V these three is called `contact' (spar.e. That definitely produces contact. Thus these two are always united. Volition makes mind perceive the characteristics of proper causes I of good." etc.

and no source says that desire generates mind and mental activities. because when one desires to examine and investigate everything. but how can it generate mind and mental activities? Therefore when it is said that desire is the root of all dharmas. nor is there desire when the pleasing or detestable object is not wished for. if one does not desire to examine.Demonstration of Consciousness Only is one interpretation that "pleasing" means "a delightful object. etc. and simply perceives the object spontaneously. etc. there is a wish. There is an interpretation I by the Sarvásti- vádins] that mind and mental activities grasp objects as a result of the power of a wish for the object. delightful. Reason thus leads to the conclusion that desire is not a universal E mental activity]." Or. 28b There is another interpretation that "pleasing" refers to things one wishes for. and there is no desire if a delightful object is not wished for. 166 . but it is not desire for something detestable. it means "all actions produced by desire. there is no desire at all. Therefore an object that is detestable or neither delightful nor detestable is never desired. The scriptures also say craving is the foundation of all dharmas. itself. it means that good desires produce proper efforts and aids in the accomplishment of all good things. There is a third interpretation that "pleasing" means an object one wishes to examine. Various holy teachings say that when attention is present. There is never desire for a neutral thing. and therefore a scripture says that desire is the root of all dharmas [and therefore universal]." because a wish exists when one desires to see. That is why the present treatise says that the activity of desire I is the support of effort. Why is it not desire when one wishes to be apart from a detestable thing and not associated with it? Desire seeks only the time of nonunion or separation.. which is. However. some delightful thing. because one wishes for either union with the delightful or separation from the detestable.. this cannot be the case. because mind. grasps objects because of attention Land not desire'. due to the power of the cause or object. hear. it produces consciousness.

and it is likewise absent if the mind is uncertain. That is. or neither [of an object 1. when the mind land mental activities] grasp their own objects. suffice to be the later cause of recollection. or experience. Why? Because it is all dharmas that cannot obstruct. and its activity is that of supporting knowledge. It is the organ and attention that prevail in the generation lof mind I. because it steadily holds an experienced object and prevents its loss. defects. then they are provided with resolve. As a consequence. What is sAM Anhn? Its nature is that of causing mind to be ab- sorbed in attention on a contemplated object and not become distracted. When contemplating the virtues. Consequently. this will subsequently require other [conditions] and that will result in an infinite regress. That is incorrect.Chapter V What is RESOLVE? Its nature is that of correct ascertainment with regard to an object that is definite I and beyond doubt I. What is MEMORY ( scorti)? Its nature is that of causing mind to record clearly and not forget an object that has been experienced. There is no memory of something not already experienced. and its activity is that of not allowing the object to be doubted. nor does memory occur if that which is experienced is not clearly recorded. because it cannot be that something like faith or delusion existed previously I as a cause]. there is no obstacle. Prior mind and mental activities. and its activity is that of supporting sanzf clhi. through the power of false or correct teachings. other conditions are unable to change one's mind. reasoning. 167 . Therefore resolve is wholly absent if the object is indefinite. and it is mind I and mental activi- ties I that are not obstructed. it must be accompanied by memory. Therefore memory cannot be included among the universals. This argument is unreasonable. resolve is not categorized as a universal. There is an opinion that when mind arises. If they prevail as a result of resolve. because it is the cause for a subsequent recollection. samadhi causes the mind to be absorbed and prevents its distraction. thus inducing samádhi. both. or the power of conceptualization. one is certain and correctly ascertains the object in question. There is the opinion that if.

Since discernment does not exist when one is not inspecting an object. included among the faculties (indriya). that is not reasonable. etc. how 168 . this is also unreasonable. or mind united with an object. there is no samádhi. There is an opinion that even then. aspects of awakening (bodhyañga). It says that in the sense that samádhi unifies the mind and causes it to unite with an object. defective. because discernment seeks certainty when inspecting something that is meritorious. What is DISCERNMENT? Its nature is discriminating an object that is being inspected. because it is attention that does that. discernment. is not mind.) there is samádhi. There is another opinion that samádhi is in essence mind itself. and therefore it is not included among the universal mental activities. Sanzadhi. with differing objects. If it is claimed that samádhi makes the mind remain unchanged for the space of an instant. etc. There is an opinion that even then. and its activity is that of eliminating doubt. just as memory. not just on one object. because that is the function of contact. both. and aspects of the path (md gaizga).. Otherwise.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Supported by it. discernment exists. because a scripture says that Isamdd /zi] is mental training. unite with and be directed to an object. If it is claimed that it is universal because it grasps an object. powers (bala).. etc. knowledge that is certain is born. except that its characteristics are subtle and obscure. because the mind itself does not change objects during an instant. We ask. But that is not a convincing proof. except that its characteristics are subtle and obscure. The words "absorbed in attention" show that [mind! dwells where it wishes to dwell. and for that reason is universal. or neither. there would be no uni28c form maintenance of attention on the path of insight when one contemplates various truths in a sequence. [People] claiming this should speak honestly and straightforwardly! if samadhi is a universal because it makes mind. If the mind is in a state where it is not fixed in attention on the object. are not mind. or when the mind is deluded and obtuse. [when mind is abstracted. that is also unreasonable. it is not included among the universals..

when the celestials who are oblivious in their play (kriddpradúsika -deva) may focus their attention on an object and arouse craving or antipathy. There are numerous examples like this. That is.Chapter V do you know that. only focused attention when there is something being inspected.avastha). only determined resolve when there is something definite. this is said with respect to many cases. only recollection or memory when there is a past event. the other four must also exist. When you speak of ten. How can they be relied on as reliable testimonies? The scriptures speak of only five contact. [ We reply..] various schools do not agree on this. etc. craving.. There is a small amount I of scattered discernment] in the state of added effort (prayoga. when the mind is not 169 . and you ought not to be so obstinate. etc. Relationship among the Five with Specific Objects There is an interpretation I by Sthiramati I that all five I with specific objects] assist each other. for instance. even though they focus their attention. and therefore are not universal. Another interpretation disagrees. Everyone in the world knows that they possess samádhi but not discernment.] the last two are missing. because the Yogacarabhiuni [ astra I says that of the four "ails" 'exists at all times. are not. etc. foolish man? [He replies. 12. and for that reason it is said that samádhi has a contemplated object as its object. that is not scripture. only desire when there is something pleasing. just as faith. The five [mental activities' such as desire are not I the five of ] contact. Another alternative is that investigation only arises with regard to something being inspected. and these objects and the five mental activities do not necessarily occur simultaneously..] theAbhidharma says that it is a universal. It also says that the five [mental activities) arise directed on four kinds of objects. When deluded. as universals. they may have samádhi but not discernment. they are still unable to investigate and discriminate. obtuse people try to overcome distraction. consisting of what has been heard and reflected on. i. Alternately. etc. and when one exists. It should be said that sometimes only one of the five occurs.e.

and discernment. i. According to one interpretation. Or.e. and in the store consciousness. Sometimes. memory. Thus they combine to make ten pairs. during a sudden sinking of the mind. And we continue thus until we come to the last four [resolve. i.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 29a focused but darts about in distraction. when the object is pleasant. the [first) five consciousnesses are without all five (with specific objects). which occur with regard to something being inspected. They may be associated with the sixth. occurred in the past. when the object is pleasing.e. definite. and is being inspected. and memory.e. there are five groups of four. These [five) may or may not occur in the seventh and eighth consciousnesses. and is being inspected. desire and memory occur with regard to pleasing ob- jects that were experienced in the past. three may occur simultaneously I. Sometimes. to make thirty -one cases. samádhi.. Thus the five I with specific objects] arise in relation to the four [characteristics of the object' to combine. generally and specifically. thus combining to make ten triads.. as explained earlier [in the discussion of the store consciousness]. We can continue like this until we come to samádhi and discernment. and is being inspected. Altogether. and discernment). mental consciousness. whatever the stage of development. samádhi.e. all five occur together. desire. i. desire and resolve occur with regard to an object that is pleasing and definite. definite. occurred in the past. definite. for instance. We can continue like this until we come to memory. four occur together. none of the five occurs in a certain state of mind. re- solve. There are a number of examples. and oc- curred in the past. when the object being inspected occurred in the past. one investigates and seeks in a distracted manner and there is no samádhil Sometimes. Sometimes. occurred in the past. when the four kinds of objects are not present. depending on the state [of devel- opment). two [mental activities) may occur. the first four.. all five occur together when the object is pleasant. aside from the question of whether or not there has been a transmutation of the support. when the object is definite. Sometimes.. because there is no 170 . i.

and present]. they definitely exist. 171 . This applies to the other three I consciousnesses] as well. According to another interpretation [by Dharmapála]. but this does not mean that they cannot be in sanzádhi [but distracted I. but once mastery is acquired. the holy teachings say that the paranormal powers of vision and hearing are of the nature of knowledge associated with visual and auditory consciousness. even though they are incapable of investigation and speculation concerning an object. the five mental activities may accompany the five consciousnesses. there is still a weak fondness for the object. also. there is a weak impression of the object. they have no memory because they always grasp a new object. so there is no error [in conceding that the five consciousnessesl are capable of discernment. for the following reasons: even though there is no strong desire for the object fin the five consciousnessesl. and they have no discernment because they are incapable of investigation and speculation. there is a weak focusing of attention. The reason for this is that desire that enjoys contemplating objects does not decrease. Tathágatas do not have minds that are not in sameidhi. not being capable of decision. the five consciousnesses of a Buddha have as perceptual objects the three time periods I past. Consequently.samádhi. Even though there is no clear and distinct recollection of the substance of a previously experienced object. Even though there is no strong determination toward the object. it is said that they are by nature distracted and unstable. they cannot have resolve. Finally. resolve that judges objects never decreases. future. In order to counter the notion that the five consciousnesses] are concentrated in . These five [activities with specific objects I may not exist prior to the stage of freedom. they are capable of a weak discrimination. there is a weak memory of its species. Even though there is no attending and binding mind to an object. and the five consciousnesses I of a Buddha] possess the discernment required to perform their tasks. they do not focus attention because it is their nature to be distracted and unstable.Chapter V desire for an object that is already acquired I in the act of perception]. Therefore they may be associated with sanzczdhi.

there is sorrow [in not acquiring them] and longing (for them'. resolve. in accordance with reason. What are the characteristics of the good mental activities? The verses [of VasubandhuI say. because the two objects I causing these two feelings' are unpleasant [and thus undesirable'. THE THREE ROOTS IOF GOOD]. [beings( seek liberation. as discussed earlier. 172 . because manas possesses the faculty of suffering. are associated with the five feelings. A treatise says that craving and thirst are associated with sorrow and suffering. The remaining four are associated with four [feelings). because in seeking their realization. ETC. resolve. as explained earlier. 14. because the five I sense I consciousnesses are devoid of judgement. etc. whether one is a learner. FAITH. the I first] five con - sciousnesses possess the four I activities' of subtle judgement. These five [feelings] should also be investigated from the standpoint of such things as their [moral I natures. what is the error if the four mental activities. etc. etc. accompany suffering? Also... all five mental activities' are associated with the five feelings.. because both craving and thirst must be associated with desire. SENSE OF SHAME. etc. excluding feelings of sorrow (daurmanasya) and suffering (duhkha). post -learner. NONCRAVING. Good Mental Activities We have explained universal mental activities and those with specific objects. Since the faculty of suffering is associated with mental conscious- ness. realm [where they are found]. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 13.. Mental Activities with Specific Objects and Their Feelings With what feelings are the five mental activities with specific objects (aniyata) associated'? One idea is that desire is associated with 29h three feelings. According to another interpretation. excluding only the feeling of suffering. In places of the unadulterated feeling of suffering. CONSCIENCE. Therefore [the five mental activities with specific objects] desire. A treatise says that the faculty of sorrow exists in the thought of supreme dharmas.

then what is the difference between faith and other mental activities such as shame? The same difficulty arises if [faith] is a pure dharma associated with mind.] can you say with certainty what are the distinct characteristics of faith? [We reply. "Joyful desire" means "longing. and that mind (with faith] desires to realize and cultivate mundane and supramundane good I dharmas I. and delight in. INDIFFERENCE.] we still do not completely understand what is meant by "purification of mind. However. I Faith] has the 173 . because it is a profound faith in. conscience. in detail. virtues." If purity is identical with mind. It can purify mind I and mental activities]. these fixed eleven consisting of faith. that is. and acquiescence toward.Chapter V VIGOR. [shameful." the fruit of faith." which is the cause of faith. and produce a desire for. [We reply. just as a water .. AND HARMLESSNESS ARE THE GOOD.purifying jewel purifies turbulent water.] etc. 29e they do not have the characteristic of purifying. The second is faith in virtues. it counters faithless- ness. dharmas that are real things or principles. The first is faith in realities. "Acquiescence" means "resolve. If faith causes the mind to be pure. the truly pure virtues of the Three Treasures. The third is faith in abilities. mundane and supramundane good [ dharmas] respectively. and abilities. there are. because it is a profound faith that one has the ability to obtain. etc. Its activity is that of counteracting faithlessness and enjoying the good. which is a profound acquiescence toward and joyful desire for realities. [It is asked. then I faith I ought not be a mental activity I but rather mind itself]. Although conscience and others are good. We speak of purifying the mind because mind is the predominant matter.] its nature is that of purifying. Consequently.] have we not just defined its nature as purification of mind? [Again. VIGILANCE. three aspects of faith. What is FAITH (sraddhá)? Its nature is that of the purification of mind. a question. The Treatise says that only those associated with a good mind are called "good" mental activities. because it is a profound faith in. SERENITY.

Also. Apart from these two. and for that reason the holy teachings suggest that shame is their common essence. if that were true.. it would not have as its object [the two truths of I suffering (duhhha) and its cause (samudaya). one counters lack of conscience and puts an end to evil conduct. What is CONSCIENCE (hri)? Its nature is that of revering and respecting the good through the power of oneself and the Dharma. and if it is conformity to the pleasing. and its activity is that of countering shamelessness and ending evil conduct. it would have all three I moral] natures I and would not be simply good]. What is SENSE OF SHAME (apatrapya)? Its nature is that of despising and resisting evil because of the power of worldly opinion. there 174 . that is the same as resolve. One's self-respect and respect for the Dharma increases and one reveres and respects the good and is ashamed of evil. As fear of the world's blame increases. it would possess all three I moral I natures and not differ from resolve and desire. If it is conformity to judgment. Its activity is that of countering a lack of conscience and ending evil conduct. and that is why purification is its characteristic. each of the defiled dharmas has its own characteristic. Some say that faith is characterized by fond enjoyment. Again. It would then be essentially the same as de- sire. conscience and sense of shame]. and one ends all evil conduct. Also.e. but if that were true. If it is maintained that shame is the specific characteristic of these two. There is another theory that faith is characterized by conformity. we do not get it mixed up f with other mental activities]. one counters shamelessness. one despises and resists evil and is ashamed of offending. just as something that is extremely dirty soils itself and then others. It is only faithlessness that is itself soiled and then also soils mind and mental activities. Shame for offenses is the common characteristic of these two [i. it is the same as desire.Demonstration of Consciousness Only characteristic of purification. hence. Faith is truly opposite to that. Thus you should know that faith is purification of mind. there is no other conformity.

and that contradicts holy teaching.] if veneration I of the good] and contempt [for the bad] are the specific characteristics of these two. These three are called "roots" because they are predominant in the production of good. so why blame us alone? I We reply. in which case they cannot occur simultaneously.] who says the two dharmas have different objects? [They ask.. I when mind is good. You are as mistaken as we are.Chapter V must be no substantial difference between conscience and sense of shame. whatever may be its object. their objects must be different. while "others" mean the rest of the world. both conscience and shame are found [together] in all good minds. aduesa. amoha). What is NON HATRED (whoa)? Its nature is that of nonhatred toward [the three kinds of] suffering and its causes. etc. what is your answer? I We reply. For that reason. these two dharmas would surely not be associated. and despising evil refers to harming oneself I by others I. ETC.] nonhatred. NoNcR \vING. An alternative explanation is that venerating the good refers to benefitting oneself. are not the same [but are associated]. and its activity is that of countering craving and promoting the good. I They ask. this contradicts the IYogácárabh7mil Sästra. so how can you object to our former points? When the holy teachings speak of the importance of self and others. That being so. I no. because feeling. and because they are immediate antidotes to the three roots of nongood. and nondelusion" (alobha." they mean oneself and the Dharma. by 30a "self.' did we not say the same thing? We reply. in that case. what you said was that conscience and shame are substanI tially the same. regardless of the object. If it is maintained that the difference is established on the basis of self [as basis for conscience' and other I as basis for shame]. which says that ten I good mental activities] are found in all good minds. they must not really exist. If it is conceded that they are real but originate separately [in sequence I. there is fat that very moment] veneration of good and contempt for evil. conceptualization. I It is replied. What is noncraving? Its nature is that of nonattachment to the three realms of existence and their causes. means "I noncraving. Its activity is that of countering 175 .

because the Abhidharmasam. Even though [nondelusion] is discernment. all of which are certitude by nature. evidence.Demonstration of Consciousness Only ill will and promoting the good. What is nondelusion (amoha)? Its nature is that of clearly apprehending both principles and events. whatever its object. nondelusion is not discernment but has a nature of its own. if nondelusion has no separate nature of its own. then the great compassion. in the same way that conscience and shame are established in the consideration of good and evil. These are discernment born of innate (discernment'. in the same way that among the passions [wrong] views are a kind of discernment]. It is not necessary to have these.. The [Yogacarabhúmi] Sástra says that the great compassion (mahá. etc. and. etc. do not. while the remaining eight really exist. not as one of the faculties (indriya). etc. Now. nondelusion is by nature discernment. thought. like the powers. respectively. just as nonharming.nature in terms of cause and effect. etc. it is distinguished in order to illustrate how the category of "good" has a special power. it is expressing its self. as objects. existence. it is categorized as a root of goodness.uccaya says that its substance is that of certitude [derived! from retribution. because it directly opposes ignorance (avidyá).karuncc) is categorized as nonhatred and nondelusion.. etc. teaching. hearing. there is neither attachment for nor hatred toward existence. it must not really exist. but that would contradict the Yogacárabhúmi Sástra.. and its activity is that of countering delusion and promoting the good. and knowledge. just as it expresses the essence of faith in terms 176 . When a good mind occurs. Therefore these two [i. which says that among the eleven good [mental activities] three exist only conventionally. when the Abhidharmasamuccaya says that [nondelusion) is in essence discernment. According to one interpretation. even though one is considering them. If nondelusion is by nature discernment. and cultivation. According to another interpretation. Also. would be categorized as a faculty.. like noncraving and nonhatred. noncraving and nonhatred I are found in all good minds. like discernment.e.

The principle here must be the same. Consequently. and the fifth refers to comple- tion of effort]. being diligent." which excludes defiled dharmas. and not abandoning the good yoke.Chapter V of [its cause) acquiescence and [its effect] enjoyment. while the special ones are the three roots [of good]. they may be distinguished as the five paths. consisting of equipment (sambhara. not retrogressing. and its activity is that of acting as an antidote to indolence and the fulfillment of the good. Its nature is that of courage and resoluteness in the cultivation of good and the elimination of evil. "Resoluteness" signifies "purity" and excludes pure. The term "courage" signifies "unchecked progress. being courageous.marga). and the last three Sob are the three grades of effort in one's practice. and delusion that are associated with the six [sense] consciousnesses are categorized as true passions. insight (darsana. therefore they are established as the roots of nongood. added effort (prayoga- marga). the fourth refers to the great amount I of effort). Or. These terms show that diligence is categorized as by nature good only. the third refers to uninterrupted ]effort]. and they are predominant in the generation of evil. VIGOR (viiya) is diligence. intensified practice. and not being satisfied. and those in the ultimate path of Buddhahood delight in benefitting others and 177 . The only common antidote is good discernment. The varieties [of vigor] are. the second one consists of unchecked progress I to higher levels]. being determined. not being depressed. cultivation (bhavana. Or. and realization (nis /ha. They are expressed in scriptures as respectively being inclined. in summary. the second refers to length I of practice]. Craving. indeterminate dharmas. Their distinctions are as follows: the first one consists of the preliminary arousing of the thought [of enlightenment). Their elimination necessarily results from both common and special antidotes. nondelusion (amoha) must exist separately. they may be distinguished as follows: the first is the preliminary arousing of the thought [of enlightenment].marga). five: donning armor.marga).marga). hatred. because those in the ultimate path of the two vehicles delight in great awakening.

It has no substance of its own. Even though faith. VIGILANCE (apram. How can you say that they have the function of avoidance and cultivation'? I We ask: I What is the character of the functions of avoidance and cultivation? If they 178 . and the roots are merely their support. and because it has no function that differs from the four powers in avoiding evil and cultivating good. It consists of four dharmas. SERENITY (prasrabdhi) means "lightness and contentment. Its nature is that of avoiding that which is to be eliminated and cultivating that which is to be cultivated. Or. It subdues and banishes [the grossness and heaviness) that obstruct samadhi and changes the support into one of serenity and pleasantness. thus resulting in an infinite regress.e.. I They reply:) Vigor is merely the universal stimulation Iof good dharmas I. and making them fit I for meditation I. etc. they may correspond to the two kinds of preparation I i. Therefore they are not the support I of vigilance I. Its activity is that of counteracting torpor and transforming the support (which is body and mind I. noninterruption. They are not roots I of good I." Its nature is that of keeping the gross and heavy far away. in comparison I with vigilance] the power of those four is slight.Ûcia) is vigor and the three roots lof good]. [We reply:) Then I vigilance) itself requires something else in order to function. also have this ability. distant and proximate I. because it has no characteristics that differ I from vigor and the three roots].. liberation. and unchecked progress. It is called VIGILANCE because it is the ability to elimi- nate that which is to be eliminated and to cultivate that which is to be cultivated. conscience. I Question: I Are avoidance and cultivation not the characteristic and function [of vigilance]? [Reply:] What is the difference between avoidance and cultivation on the one hand and vigor and the three roots on the other? [Reply:) These four require vigilance in order to function. regulating and comforting body and mind. nor do they universally stimulate [the good].Demonstration of Consciousness Only making them happy. Its activity is that of counteracting negligence (pramdda) and realizing and fulfilling all mundane and supramundane good things.

middle. It has no separate substance. This is the difference between their apparent characteristics. [Thus] preventing evil and promoting good is the activity of these four dharmas. and it is mind. In short. If you say that it is that of universally stimulating [good dharmas]. while nonharming banishes suffering. In fact. because. no function of vigilance can be found apart from [the four dharmas of I noncraving. and effortlessness.. etc. and to rest quietly in equality. and noninjury opposes the harm that injures beings. etc. that is [the function of] vigor. That which prevents distraction must be samadhi. What is NONHARMING (avihimsd)? Its nature is that of not caus- ing injury to living beings.Chapter V serve as supports. What is INDIFFERENCE (upeh. and later stages. This is because it is those dharmas that bring about calm.sä)? Its nature is that of vigor and the three roots that cause the mind to rest in equality. nonhatred has no substance of its own. uprightness. Therefore it is certain that vigilance has no separate substance. These three forms of indifference [equality. as well as nonhatred. If we investigate this manner in such a way. uprightness. That is. Impurities are eliminated at first through vigilance. and later indifference causes the mind to rest calmly.. I indicate differences of primary. it has no character or func- tion apart from these four dharmas. How does I vigilance] differ from contact which causes experience of an object? Memory must prevent forgetting. Its activity is that of countering agitation and calming [the mind]. which is called INDIFFERENCE. that is [the function of noncraving. Non hatred extends happiness. nonhatred is conventionally referred to as nonharming because there is no injury to sentient 30c beings. Its activity is that of acting as an antidote to harming I others] and being compassionate and sympathetic. etc. 'l'he two are distinguished in order to show 179 . Nonhatred is opposed to the hatred that ends the lives of beings. while non harming is conventionally established by virtue of being an aspect I of nonhatred I. and effortlessness. like vigilance. etc. that are calmed. the four dharmas of vigor and the three roots] cause the mind to be far removed from the obstacles of agitation. etc.

there are also several interpretations. and nonflattery are aspects of noncraving and nondelusion. because each opposes an aspect of hatred. because benefitting sentient beings and making them happy are the essentials of the two I characteristics I. It is an aspect of indifference.) nonhatred is also noninjury. and goodness are all nonhatred. etc. [There are several interpretations of nonpride:] it is an aspect of faith. It is an aspect of conscience. because there is no arrogance or pride when the mind is equitable.] what is the characteristic I of nonharming I? I They reply.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the two characteristics of compassion and sympathy.e. The word AND I in the "Thirty Verses "] indicates that there are other mental activities besides the eleven [specified in the verses I. It is included in faith. because there is no self -pride concerning something that is doubtful. We ask. There is an interpretation that non hypocrisy is merely an aspect of nondelusion. I For instance. sympathy and compassion. because one has no doubt about what is believed. nondeception.. because I as aspects of noncraving and nondelusion I they are accordingly opposed to aspects of craving and delusion. because they each oppose an aspect of noncraving. Disgust or loathing is an aspect of noncraving associated with discernment. You should realize that the same is true of nonavarice. so how can it have a nature of its own? Noninjury of sentient beings. which is goodness. because nowhere is it claimed that hypocrisy is an aspect of craving. because one is not proud with regard to something that is respected.. etc. They are not specifically mentioned because even though they have various names with distinct meanings. nonvexation. I We reply.. because there is no defiled attachment to disgusting objects. 180 . nonpride. As for nondoubt. i. they are no different in substance [from those specified I. nonirritation. because it is nonirritation with regard to a pleasing object. Non- hypocrisy. nonjealousy. I noninjury.] delight is an aspect of nonhatred associated with desire. nonharming is not the same as nonhatred and has its own substance. According to one interpretation. The same is true of nonresentment. good mental activities such as delight and loathing.

due to the predominance of defiled dharmas found throughout the Ifirstl six consciousnesses. while the defiled ones are weak. indifference. 181 . because that which is certain does not generate doubt. drowsi- ness. The substance of nondistraction is included in perfect samádhi. as mentioned earlier. and have no opposites. Three of these eleven exist in name only. i. Repentance. its opposite is established to indicate its extreme. The other eight really exist.. excessive nature. distraction. because there is no doubt about that which is perfectly viewed. since it occurs frequently and causes injury to others. Although the same is true of harming. it is said that the many [pure dharmas] are of the same substance.Chapter V It is included in perfect resolve. and imperfect knowing are opposites of mental activities with specific objects ( not good ones]. etc. which is compassion..e. like contact. and perfect views and perfect knowing are both good discernment. Also. Therefore there is no need for criticizing [ the number of] defiled and pure [dharmas I. in explaining principles. Loss of memory. it is not neces- sary. This is not so of the other good [mental activities]. Pride. while others are not? They are listed because they have special characteristics and functions.. vigilance. etc. Why are the good [mental activities) that oppose defiled ones listed separately [in the list of eleven]. It is included in perfect discernment. these good dharmas are therefore listed separately to oppose them. desire. because they have distinct natures and functions. are only associated with mental consciousness. etc. and anger. and the few are a match for the many. so why are there fewer pure ones than defiled ones? Because the pure ones si are strong. Nonforgetting is the same as perfect memory. therefore they are not mentioned among the good [mental activities]. and applied and sustained thought are either defiled or nondefiled. Also. still. blocking the predominant cause of the supreme vehicle. while [defiled dharmas] that delude the feelings are multiplied according to their characteristics.. Defiled and pure I mental activities] are opposed. and nonharming.

so when one occurs. The impure. vigor and the three roots exist in one of good disposition. Therefore there is nonharming. that explanation is still not reasonable. must have these two dharmas. as explained earlier. when the defilements have ended. one does not harm beings. conscience and the sense of shame have the same objects. 182 . and both are found in all good minds. Also. conscience and sense of shame occur with reference to oneself and others I respectively I. though their species and supports differ. Universality There is an interpretation that of the eleven good mental activities. this is not a good [state I. if serenity does not occur on the supramundane path." This is not necessarily true of the remaining seven. serenity occurs on the mundane path. etc. and one could not subdue agitation and carelessness. Conscience and sense of shame are the same species but differ depending on the support and the situation. because the mundane path. And. If there is no indifference and vigilance on the mundane path. because vigor and the three roots I of good I fill the category of "good. The [Yogacdrabhúniii Scastra locates the eleven in six states: faith is associated with the state of certainty. four are found in all good minds. I like the supramundane path. Nonharming only exists when there is compassion for sentient beings. in the same way that defiled mind. According to another interpretation. The reasons are as follows: when one is uncertain when examining some thing or principle. indifference and vigilance occur on the supramundane path. because it opposes dharmas that harm. Also. there is no faith. because if faith does not occur when one examines events or principles. when the mind is good. then this aspect of awakening (bodhyafiga) is not pure. good mind has four dharmas I consisting of vigor and the three roots of good 1. nonharming exists when one attends to beings.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 15. the other does not. then there will be no calm in combatting evil and cultivating the good. and one is uncertain.. I is not good since' pure faith is absent. Serenity exists only at the point where the passions are eliminated by the mundane path. Vigilance and indifference arise only at the time of the undefiled path.

because when they are good. According to one interpretation. except that if samddhi does not occur. The [Yogácarabadmil Sastra says that mind and mental activities associated with the realm of desire are called "non . Serenity is not universal.and -such states. whether or not there is a stage of samddhi. We have already explained that the eleven kinds lof good mental activities] may or may not exist in the seventh and eighth consciousnesses depending on the state I of development]. etc." because they are devoid of serenity. etc. They all exist in the sixth consciousness in a state of samddhi. there is no serenity. If this is not so. composure exists.Chapter V When the IYogdcdrabhúmil Sástra speaks of eleven mental activities occurring in six states. According to another inter- pretation. "Ten good mental activities are found in all good minds. there are only ten associated with the I first five consciousnesses..samádhi. it refers to the three stages of applied and sustained thought. because one must be in samddhi for it to occur. It should be said that of the eleven dharmas faith. as a result of I the presence of I samddhi. ten are found in all good minds. Hence the realm of desire also has serenity in it. and also because serenity is 183 . there is an increase of serenity in the mind. there is a contradiction with the Yogdcara- 31b bhami Sástra statement that the eleven good mental activities are found in all stages. because composure is the result of the nourishing fea- tures of samddhi. The Viniscayasarngrahani says. Another interpretation claims that serenity is found only in samádhi. and a composed body and mind are absent in other states. When it says that the eleven good mental activities are found in all stages. Therefore the points we criticized are incorrect. but in the stage of samádhi. because they are by nature distracted and unstable and devoid of serenity. because there is a subtle composure even there. I which are beyond the realm of desire]. it is speaking of their increased activity in relation to such. serenity is associated with these five consciousnesses." There is an interpretation that "stage of samddhi" applies also to preparatory stages to samddhi.

The Three Eliminations They are not eliminated by [the path of I insight. are eliminated only by I the path of] cultivation. 184 . and neither learner nor post .. The one I i. The Yogácárabhúmi astra says that six faculties (indriya).learner. serenity] is eliminated by sorrow and suffering. etc. Mental Activities with Specific Objects All eleven [good mental activities lean be associated with the [five] mental activities with specific objects. because of the feeling of distress and lack of composure. 21.. Other topics and distinctions should be considered according to the same principles. The remaining ten are found in all three realms. Moral Species These eleven mental activities are exclusively good. etc. 16. Stages of Development [All eleven are found] in all three stages of learner. not by I the path of I insight. 19. ..e. and desire. 18. Realms Serenity does not exist in the realm of desire. The Five Feelings With what feelings are the eleven good mental activities associated? Ten are associated with the five feelings. faith.Demonstration of Consciousness Only necessarily associated with the knowledge of perfecting the work [which is associated with sanzádhil. 20.learner]. 17. because there is no contradiction between faith. etc.

to oneself. and its activity is that of obstructing nonhatred. DOUBT. The Passions We have now explained the good mental activities. What is HATRED (dvesa)? Its nature is that of hatred for suf- fering and its causes. one generates the passions and secondary passions of doubt. constitute the fundamental passions. because if there is pride. and its activity is that of obstructing nonpride and producing suffering. and all the defiled dharmas that instigate subsequent rebirth. causing discomfort. What is CRAVING (raga)? Its nature is that of defiled attachment to existence [in the three realms] and its causes. What is DELUSION (moha)? Its nature is that of confusion and dullness of wit concerning principles and events. and supporting evil conduct. PRIDE.Chapter V 22. There are seven or nine kinds of pride. THE PASSIONS ARE CRAVING. AND WRONG VIEWS. craving. etc. and to merits. craving. one is not humble concerning merits and those who possess them. and superior].. equal. produced in relation to the three grades [of inferior. which is by nature bad. The Treatise says that these six are called PASSIONS because these six natures. etc. false views. All are eliminated in the 3Ic 185 . DELUSION. and its activity is that of obstructing nondelusion and acting as the support of all defilements. HATRED. What is PRIDE (mana)? Its nature is that of presumption that one is above all others.. karma. because it is through the power of thirst (trsraa) that the aggregates that are grasped are born. and its activity is that of obstructing noncraving and generating suffering. because as a result of ignorance. What are the characteristics of the mental activities that are passions? I Vasubandhu's I verses say. because hatred necessarily causes affliction to body and mind and generates evil conduct. and the result is an endless turning of the wheel of death and rebirth and the experience of all suffering.

the derivation from] vi plus mati.. consisting of perverted judgement concerning truths and principles. because the meaning of "doubt" is derived from 'the prefix] vi plus the root mati I i. What is DOUBT (vicikitsá )? Its nature is that of lack of certainty regarding truths and principles..Demonstration of Consciousness Only path of insight and the path of cultivation. the good is not generated. or vi plus jñana.dtmiya). and this view acts as a support for all [wrong] views. How- ever. There are five modes of wrong views.e. There is an interpretation that the essence of this doubt is discernment. and their activity is that of obstructing correct views and bringing on suffering. since they are aspects of discernment. it is not incorrect to say that pride exists even there. then knowing must be consciousness. What are WRONG VIEWS (kadrsti)? They have as their nature defiled discernment. Since self -pride can occur even among the saints (áiya). There are twenty or sixty -five different forms of wrong views categorized as originating in discrimination. The first is the view of I the aggregates as] a person.e. and its activity is that of obstructing certainty and those things considered to be good. means "consciousness "J. because for him who lacks certainty. which is why doubt is not discernment by nature.e. i. be- cause uncertain judgment is doubt. vimati. I wrong I views exist only conventionally. According to another interpretation.. The second [mode of wrong views] is that of extreme views. the meaning of a verbal root changes because of the prefix." and vijñdna. but all the others really exist. because of vi plus jñdna I i. If you hold that discernment is doubt because of I. jñdna means "knowing. because they have natures. He who has wrong views often experiences suffering. Its activity is that of adopting views of eternalism and annihilationism vis -à -vis [the view of the aggregates as a self'] and obstructing the 186 . doubt has its own sub- stance. which means "doubt "]. The Yogacdrabhicmi Sástra says that of the six passions. and mati [meaning "discernment" I is the same as prajñcr [which also means "discernment" or "wisdom "]. because it causes uncertainty of discernment and is not the same as discernment. the five grasped aggregates are held to be a self and what belongs to a self (átma.

Chapter V practice of the Middle Way and emancipation. along with the aggregates that support these. is the most excellent and secures purity. and realities. All these are categorized as heterodox views. Its activity is that of supporting conflict.orals. It consists of holding that various I heterodox I views and the ag- gregates that support them are the most excellent and that they will secure purity. i.. It is the notion that to follow various views. Or there is speculation about a master of the world (isuara). eight views of absence of consciousness. there are sources that say that attachment to something as most excellent is called "clinging to [heterodox] views. or the false position that that which is not the path is the path. criticism of cause. or the perverse speculation about false liberation." and clinging to what secures purity is called "clinging to personal 32a 187 . Or there is speculation that the master of the universe is the cause of all things. there is speculation about the future. etc. However.41a. personal morality. [of the world and deathlessness. and others of this sort being eternal and unchanging. and clinging to the future. akra. effect. with sixteen views of conscious existence. just as the name "dominant condition" refers to all conditions 'except cause. The fourth is clinging to I heterodox] views (clr.parcmar. etc. and purity.'a). they include all other false attachments. Different one -sided views comprise extreme views: clinging to the past. with four theories of general eternalism and four of partial eternalism. i. Brahma. all categorized as originating in discrimination. and simultaneous condition].pardmar a).e. karma. Its activity is that of acting as a support for fruitless activity and suffering.. with the exception of four views. Also. Of the different extremist views that comprise heterodox views is one that clings to the past. The third is heterodox views.. four deceptive and confusing theories concerning the limits. The fifth wrong view is that of clinging to mere personal morality and ritualism (. with two theories of noncausality. including five theories about niruána in the present. condition as object. and eight theories concerning neither consciousness nor unconsciousness.

because they must only origi- nate from the power of bad companions and false teachings. Doubt and the [above] last three kinds of false views originate only from discrimination. 188 . etc. animals. Interrelationship of the Ten Passions Which of the ten passions are associated? How many? Craving certainly does not occur simultaneously with hatred and doubt. Innate Passions and Those Arising from Discrimination Among the ten passions.Demonstration of Consciousness Only morality. these [views) may be either innate or generated by discrimination. because they occur both spontaneously and through discrimination. birds. animals.iJ is speaking with reference to coarse characteristics [of this view]. The characteristics of the view of eternalism are gross and only arise through the power of bad companions. "Which extreme views are innate? That which is included in the view of annihilation. When it is said that attachment to extreme views originates both ways. [the Yogaearabhi m. six are both innate and originate from discrimination." According to another interpretation.. Actually. encounter something that threatens them. grasp the self as eternally existing and busily accumulate goods for a long time." However. these sources are vague and nonspecific. That is..abhisamaya) fears. where is my self ?' Therefore when birds. Otherwise. as well as one's own reflections. why is it said that taking noncessation as cessation and that which is not the path as the path are wrong views and not the two kinds of clinging? 23. Therefore the Vikhydpana Scastra and other works say that whether the aggregates that are grasped are grasped as annihilated or speculated about as being eternal. etc. 24. the view of eternalism is also innate. He who practices the Contemplation of the Truths (satya. one interpretation has it that only I the view of J annihilation I originates both ways]. etc. they fear for the annihilation of the self and are terrified. or else what they say is a concession. `Right now. The Yogácárabhfimi Seistra and other texts ask.

One does not arouse hatred toward the pleasing aggregates viewed as eternal. and therefore I self -love and self -pride I can be associated. and because there is no defiled attachment to objects that are uncertain. because one does not hate what is grasped as being superior. and therefore hatred can be associated with the false views. Pride in an object is certain. and for that reason it is said that the two do not occur simultaneously. and therefore [uncertainty and hatred] can be associated. and therefore it is said that hatred is not associated with pride. Hatred may be associated with the remaining three false views. But it is possible for the despised object and the hated object to be identical. The hated object and the object of pride are not the same. the body] and that in which one takes pride [i. Having thought for awhile and being still uncertain. Hatred may occur simultaneously with pride and doubt. because their modes of activity 32b 189 .. And. so they can be associated. one does not hate that I object]. It is possible for pride to occur with the five false views (first[). the self[ can be the same.e. since all the objects of the five views are lovable.. Hatred is certainly not associated with the two false views. so hatred is not associated with doubt. Hatred may or may not occur simultaneously with wrong views depending on whether one denies bad things or good things respectively. Hatred may also occur or not occur simultaneously with the false views if the aggregates are seen as impermanent and subject to annihilation. The beloved object and the detested object are not the same. Craving may be associated with pride and wrong views. and therefore there is no association between hatred and false views.e. and doubt is uncertain. depending on the favorability or unfavorability [of the object]. one does arouse hatred toward the painful aggre- gates viewed as eternal. therefore pride and doubt are not associated.Chapter V because the two objects of desire and loathing are certainly not the same. When one is at first uncertain. there is no problem in the association of craving and the views. one experiences great anger. However. That which is defiled (i. Doubt may or may not be associated with hatred.

and only three. being innate or [resulting from I discrimination. Pride. hatred. I generated by I discrimination are nonexistent in destinies 190 . craving. The Passions and the Feelings With what feelings are the ten passions associated? Three. However. originate in calculation. because all passions are necessarily born as a result of delusion.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and development are not mutually contradictory. are found associated with the I first I five consciousnesses. all ten occur in mental consciousness. Delusion is definitely associated with the [other t nine kinds lof passions]. and delusion. because the esteem of something painful and vile is associated with sorrow. 26.. because. craving. hatred. Another interpretation is that innate Ipridel also occurs simultaneously with suffering. The same is true with regard to pride in association with a part of the view of the self and wrong views. manas has the feeling of suffering. Doubt is uncertainty and is contradictory to [false] views. There is an interpretation that pride that is innate or [generated by I discrimination may be associated with four unpainful feelings. The five [false] views themselves are certainly not associated. therefore doubt and the views are certainly not associated. one does not despise I others' or esteem Ithe self].. because a plurality of discernments does not occur simultaneously in a single mind. and delusion. because they are lacking in discrimination and because pride. etc. The Passions and Consciousnesses With what consciousnesses are the ten passions associated? None at all occur in the store consciousness. 25. etc. because craving in the presence of a disagreeable object occurs with sorrow and suffering. as previously explained. can be associated with five feelings. I pride] certainly does not occur simultaneously with the view of annihila- tion. and because hatred confronted with an agreeable object occurs with delight and happiness. manas has four. because when one holds to the annihilation of the self.

Another interpretation is that these two wrong views. When arising from discrimination. because I that karma I can only occur as a result of discrimination. sorrow.. these two views may be associated with four feelings. Doubt and the last three views can be associated with four feelings. delusion can be associated with all five feelings.Chapter V of unadulterated suffering. The two false views [that mere rites and personal morality are efficacious] may be associated with sorrow when their objects are views associated with sorrow. All of these explanations are based on truth. From the standpoint of coarse characteristics. are also associated with the feeling of suffering. The [Yogeicárabhü ni I Sdstra says." A full explanation has been given earlier. happiness. and indifference. because grasping the aggregates associated with suffering as "me" and "mine" and adopting views of eternalism and annihilationism [with respect to suffering and happiness respectively I entails sorrow. Happiness associated with craving and delusion is found throughout the lower four stages [i. and indifference. excluding suffering..e. because doubt in I the realm of ] desire concerning the existence of suffering land the other three holy truths] is associated with the feeling of delight. joy. and indifference. because they are not associated with the Ifirst] five consciousnesses and are nondetermined only. if innate. false views and doubt are associated with four. the realm of desire and the first three trance states]. the two innate views of the existence of a self and the reality of extremes are only associated with feelings of delight. craving. and the four false views are associated with happiness. there. According to one interpretation. the aggregates connected with extreme suffering are associated with suffering. The rest [concerning the two wrong views] is as explained earlier. Happiness associated with the other seven 32c 191 . because in places of unadulterated suffering. because there are no false teachers or teachings. hatred occurs only in association with feelings of suffering. "All innate passions can be present with the three feelings. Moreover. I beings there] do not perform karma that leads to evil destinies. pride. etc.

because they injure oneself and others. The others I that do not injure] are indeterminate.Demonstration of Consciousness Only I passions I is found in the three I trance states] but not in the realm of desire. delusion. though occurring often. Doubt and self. and do not severely injure oneself and others. because they do not provoke evil acts and. If innate and provoking evil conduct. The Ten Passions and the Three Realms In what realms are the ten passions included? Hatred exists only in [the realm on desire. while the others are found in all three 192 .i. In the upper two realms [of form and formlessness]. do not obstruct the good. because when they are directed toward an object. because they provoke evil conduct. If they originate in discrimination in the realm of desire. they can be associated with sam. because they are subtle. because it is indecision. The other nine are both. do not obstruct good. Passions and Mental Activities with Specific Objects How are these associated with mental activities with specific objects? Craving.reliant delusion in the realm of desire fare associated with only sorrow and indifference. they are only indeterminate.ddhi. The Ten Passions and the Moral Natures In what I moral] natures are the ten passions included? Hatred is exclusively not good. because it injures oneself and others. Doubt and the five false views may each be associated with four feelings. 28. hatred. Doubt excludes resolve. You should know that the innate view of "self" and "mine" and extreme views are indeterminate only. because they are subdued by sarn5dh. 29. and pride may occur with all five. they are also considered to be not good. 27. they are categorized as only not good. The I false] views do not coexist with discernment. Those occurring simultaneously with the others should be understood according to the same principles. because [false views I are not different from discernment I and more than one discernment does not exist simultaneously].

Passions of the lower stages also have as objects an upper stage. coarse passions and gradually realize the basic samádhi of the upper I two I stages. they say that since hatred hates and is jealous of cessation and the path [leading to cessation]. it means for the most part. the passions of the upper stages do not manifest themselves. views of annihilation. and unstable. they are able to subdue and get rid of innate. innate] passions are only delusions about events. and [these passions] occur with respect to the exterior world. Being coarse. For one born in a lower stage who has not abandoned the impurities of the lower stage. they directly obstruct sarnádhi.Chapter V realms. When one is born in an upper stage. generally taking karmic predispositions (samskáras) as a self and what belongs to a self. Having obtained samádhi of that stage. It is equally obvious that the remaining five [passions) have as objects the upper stages. or it is a concession [to non -Mahayana teachings). because one in the intermediate existence (antara. all innate passions and those originating in discrimination of the lower stage can appear. or subtle. Even though those on the various impure paths are unable to subdue passions originating in discrimination. all passions originating from discrimination and those that are innate in that stage can appear.hhava) of the fourth trance state is born in the purgatories if he rejects liberation. one also must be jealous of the stages of detachment from the realm of desire. Therefore. and when the time arrives for someone in the upper stages to be reborn in a lower stage. Those [coarse. and pride can all have the upper stages as objects. he generates an innate love for the lower world that nourishes rebirth. The Yogácarahhanzi Sástra and other texts say that craving connected with the realm of desire seeks birth in upper stages in order to savor the delights of the samádhi of the upper stages. When it is said that one born in the upper stages does not generate I passion of the lower. distracted. innate passions. eternity. 193 . Also. It is necessary to obtain the basic samadhi of those [upper) stages in order for the passions of those stages to appear.

because they are gross and easily eliminated. The Three Eliminations How are the ten passions to be eliminated? They are not not to be eliminated (aheya). but this is said concerning their gross characteristics. etc. If they are innate. because it is said that one who is born in the upper stages 33a esteems his virtues as superior to those below and despises those below.[ that have special objects [such as the view of a self I. [postlearners. and extreme views necessarily occur on the basis of the view of self. pride. because that [not to be eliminated) is nondefiled. because the path of insight into reality has as its object the I four] truths as a whole. because the other I two classes) are exclusively good I and reject the passions]. Yet it is said that passions related to the upper stages do not have the lower stages as objects. Doubt and the last three wrong views should be considered in like manner. Also.. 30. 194 . Those generated by discrimination are to be eliminated only by the path of insight. We do not see mun- dane attachment to dharmas of other stages as a self. or they refer to [those passions' as having a special object [which is one's own body and mind). and love [of possessions] all have the lower stages as objects. The ten that are eliminated by insight and associated with reality are all eliminated suddenly. but this means in most cases.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Some sources say that craving. and neither learners or post learners)? I They are related - to the I neither learner nor post. do not take the upper stages as objects. etc. hatred. they are eliminated by the path of cultivation because these are subtle and difficult to eliminate. or it concerns those [passions. Passions of the upper stages also have the lower stages as ob- jects. 31." views of annihilation and eternity. The Three Classes of Learners How are these ten passions related to the classes of learners..learner (naiaasaihsanágaihsd). the general attachment to karmic predispositions (samsháras) as "me" and "mine.

and ignorance associated with them are delusions about the truth of suffering. extreme views. Even though the two innate wrong views and desire. the two views about the self and extreme views only occur where the result [i. because suffering and its cause are their cause and support. It is general in that the ten [passions] are all delusions concerning the four truths. The two false views I i. Special ignorance is directly deluded about the principle of suffering. delusion concerning the characteristics of the truths may be general or specific. and their supporting aggregates as superior and purifying. because it generates hatred and jealousy out of fear for them.' with which it is associated. clinging to others' false views and belief in the efficacy of mere rites and personal morality I are attachments to the above three false views. Doubt and the three false views [concerning self. craving. should be understood in the same way as suffering. hatred can also be directly deluded about cessation and the path.. craving.. To speak in more detail. However. It is specific in that it arises from specific kinds of delusion concerning the characteristics of the four truths. in their gross characteristics.Chapter V However. hatred.e. pride.. Doubt and false views are directly deluded about the origin I of suffering'. eight concern all four I truths I. personal morality. hatred. the views of others. They generate craving. they are eliminated by the path of cultivation. Two [passions' are only delusion about the truth of suffering. Hatred and the others. and pride according to whether they are related to views about oneself. direct or indirect. and the aggregates to which they are related. suffering] is concerned. Associated ignorance has the same delusions as the nine I passions. etc.. and pride born together with the I first I three wrong views and doubt involve delusion [vis -à -vis the four truths) in accordance with the situation. etc. and wrong views derived from heterodox teachings] are directly deluded about the principle of suffering. 195 .e. and the two kinds of clinging. while cessation and the path are occasions of fear for the passions. since they are subtle and difficult to eliminate. These are the delusions concerning the I four) truths. because of specific delusion about emptiness and no self associated with the truth of suffering.

What are the characteristics of the secondary passions? The verses [of Vasubandhul say. and therefore they are eliminated by the path of I cultivation. LACK OF CONSCIENCE AND SHAMELESSNESS. VEXATION. generate delusion about specific matters and do not conflict with the contemplation of the truths." When (a pas- sion] has as its object the I holy] truths of cessation and path. 196 . Other topics are to be considered according to the same principles. Secondary Passions 33b We have discussed the characteristics of the six fundamental pas lions. the substance on which they rest may or may not exist. DISTRACTION AND INCORRECT KNOWING. HYPOCRISY. ENVY. THE SECONDARY PASSIONS ARE ANGER. WITH HARMFULNESS AND VANITY. so they are called accordingly "passions with a I supporting l causal basis" (savastuha) and "passions without a I supporting I causal basis" (avastuha). DISSIMULATION. AGITATION AND TORPOR.. as well as a stage other than that in which one is. AVARICE. it is called "I a passion] having as its object a name generated by speculation. There are three kinds of these twenty. Even though their direct objects are all impure." When a passion has as its object the stage one is in. Even though the various passions all have a seen part I as an object. DECEIT. The Treatise says that the secondary passions are so called because they are only certain states of the passions and of the nature of modalities f of the passions]. etc. so [passions] are called "passions with impure I objects]" or "passions with pure [objects]. its seen part is similar to its I supporting I substance and is called "I a passion 1 having as its object a thing generated by speculation. 32. UNBELIEF AND INDOLENCE. their supporting substances may be pure.Demonstration of Consciousness Only desire. NEGLIGENCE AND FORGETFULNESS. HOSTILITY." because the seen part is not similar to its substance.

because apart from hatred there is no character or function of anger. Its substance is part of hatred. 197 ." because they are found in all defiled minds. because one dissimulates about one's own offenses from not dreading the suffering to come. it says that agitation is found in all defiled minds.. However. because apart from hatred there is no separate character or function of hostility. because one dissimulates about one's own offenses also out of fear of losing benefits and reputation. because he who has strong hostility cannot be forgiving. and his vexation is always intensified.. There is an interpretation that this dissimulation is categorized as a part of delusion. Its activity is that of obstructing nonhostility and intensifying vexation. There is an interpretation that this dissimulation is a part of craving and delusion. because a treatise only says that it is a part of delusion. Its activity is that of obstructing nondissimulation and I intensifying' the vexation of remorse. and the eight [beginning with] agitation are called "large secondary passions. because he who dissimulates about offenses necessarily is vexed with remorse later and is not at peace. What is DISSIMULATION (mraksa)? Its nature is that of hiding one's own offenses out of fear of losing benefits or reputation. in the same way that it says that agitation is part of craving.e. What is ANGER (krodha)? Its nature is that of irritation toward a present object that does not benefit one. Its activity is that of obstructing nonanger and taking up the cudgel.e. i. that is. because someone who is angry often displays physical actions that are vio- lent and had. Its substance also is part of hatred. and it cannot be taken as only a part of craving.Chapter V i. the two I consisting of I lack of conscience land shamelessness) are called "medium sec- ondary passions" because they are found in all had I minds]. The treatise only speaks of it as being a part of delusion in accordance with its gross and obvious !characteristics]. the ten [beginning with! anger are called "small secondary passions" because each originates separately. What is HOSTILITY (upandha)? Its nature is that of nonabandonment of a strong resentment resulting from hatred for a prior wrong upon which one dwells.

because apart from hatred there is no separate character or function of vexation. Its activity is that of obstructing nondeceit and causing a wrong life. because apart from craving and thirst there is no separate character or function of avarice. that is. This is also in substance a part of hatred. he often exhibits a wrong life. 198 . Its activity is that of obstructing nonenvy and causing dissatisfaction and grief. because the mind of the deceitful one harbors strange schemes. What is DECEIT (sáthya)? Its nature is that of the deception of pretending to possess merits in order to gain benefits or reputa- tion. to hiding them and being stingy. and he finds no peace. and these fierce. Its activity is that of obstructing nondeception and admonishment. the mind is enraged and one utters many violent. that is. What is AVARICE (mc tsarya)? Its nature is that of addiction to goods or the Dharma and being incapable of graciously letting go of them. What is ENVY (in ya)? Its nature is that of jealousy from seek- ing after one's own fame and fortune and not enduring another's success.Demonstration of Consciousness Only What is VEXATION (pradása)? Its nature is that of burning rage toward a previous [object of) anger and hostility. malicious I words I. because apart from craving and delusion there is no separate character or function of deceit. Its activity is that of obstructing nonavarice and causing pettiness and acquisitiveness. that is. because the mind of the person who is avaricious and stingy is hard and stingy. because apart from hatred there is no separate character or function of envy. Its activity is that of obstructing nonvexation and biting. because whether the antipathetic object is past or present. This is in substance a part of craving and thirst. he amasses goods and the Dharma and cannot let go of them. What is HYPOCRISY (maya)? Its nature is that of crookedness by assuming other forms of behavior in order to deceive others. because he who is envious and jealous hears of or sees another's success and is deeply dissatisfied and sorrowful. that is. vile. coarse words bite others [like serpents]. This also in substance is a s:3c part of hatred. This is in substance a part of craving and delusion.

199 . that is. a vain person produces and nourishes all defiled dharmas. Its activity is that of obstructing nonvanity and act- ing as a support for defilement. What is LACK OF CONSCIENCE (ahrikya)? Its nature is that of disregard for oneself and the Dharma and a disrespectful resistance to the virtuous and good. This also is in substance a part of hatred. Its activity is that of obstructing shame and producing and nourishing evil actions. This also is in substance a part of craving and delusion. because he who is without regard for the world exalts violence and evil and is unashamed of his transgressions. obstructs shame. because apart from craving there is no separate character or function of vanity. that is. The difference in characteristics of hatred and harmlessness should be explained in conformity with the good I mental characteristics that are their opposites I. This also is in substance a part of craving and thirst. Its activity is that of obstructing conscience and nourishing evil. and produces and nourishes various evil actions. deviously taking advantage of the situation in order to seize the other's intentions or to hide his own faults. Its activity is that of obstructing harmlessness and causing injury. obstructs shame. and produces and nourishes various evil actions. because apart from craving and delusion there is no separate character or function of hypocrisy. because in order to deceive others the hypocrite schemes and devises expedients. What is HARMFULNESS (vihimsei)? Its nature is that of a mind that is uncompassionate and unkind toward sentient beings and injures them. and he does not heed the admonishments of teachers and friends.Chapter V that is. because he who has no regard for himself or the Dharma has a disrespectful resistance to the virtuous and good and is unashamed of his transgressions. that is. What is VANITY (mada)? Its nature is that of intoxicated haughtiness that profoundly generates a defiled attachment to one's own grand affairs. because apart from hatred there is no separate character or function of harmfulness. that is. the harmer injures others. What is SHAMELESSNESS (anapatrápya)? Its nature is that of disregarding the world and exalting violence and evil.

" this is because "self and Dharma" is referred to as "self" and "world" is called "other. etc. then there must be no difference in the substance of the two. etc. these two dharmas must not occur simultaneously. conceptualization. it is a mode of those passions but not the same nature. What is AGITATION (auddhatya)? Its nature is that of preventing the mind from being calm with respect to objects. and there is no error of separate occurrences. Also. then they must not really exist. As for the treatise also saying that I lack of conscience and shamelessness) are part of crav- ing. as for various holy teachings speaking of "disregarding self and others. the holy teachings conventionally speak of it as their substance. which contradicts the holy teachings. because a treatise says that it is part of craving and because it is born as a result of the memory of former happy events. you contradict the LYogacárabhami I which says that both are found in all evil minds. dis- regarding good and exalting evil is called "self and others" with reference to benefit or harm to oneself." Or. Therefore these two dharmas are both found [simultaneously I in all evil minds. and for that reason. do not have this meaning of identity of characteristics]. because it is said that flack of calm I is characterized as the common characteristic of all passions. Consequently..Demonstration of Consciousness Only Being unashamed of transgressions is the common character istic of both I lack of conscience and shamelessness I. When minds are not good. If you concede that these two are real but arise separately. There is an interpretation that agitation is categorized as a part of craving. because a treatise says that agitation is found in all defiled minds. If you take shamelessness as the distinct characteristic of the two. Its activity is that of obstructing indifference and )meditative] tranquility (samatha). If it is held that the difference between the two is based on self [as the basis for lack of conscience] 34a and others I as the basis for lack of shame). whatever the object may be. However. because feeling. it may be because here. The objects are not different. all have a disregard for good and exalt evil. Another interpretation is that agitation is not just categorized as craving. and agitation has no 200 .. the characteristic of agitation is lack of calm.

. Even though it is conventionally established on the basis of its presence] in all passions. etc. [which are also parts of another) are also conventionally existent.. it is not categorized as delusion. etc. because unfitness is the charac- teristic of torpor. it increases as a characteristic of delusion and so [the texts] only speak of it as a part of delusion. torpor is not just categorized as a part of delusion. According to one interpretation. there is no separate characteristic of torpor. There is an interpretation that torpor has its own separate self nature. Apart from this [unfitness]. It is said to exist conventionally in accordance with its dependence on the characteristic of another [i. and all passions are unfitness. like unfaith. [the texts] must not say specifically that it ob- structs [meditative] tranquility. agitation has a separate nature of its own and is found in all defiled minds. it increases with the presence of craving and is said [for that reason I to be a part of craving. Therefore. etc. because a treatise only says that it is a part of delusion and because torpid dullness and sinking heaviness are characteristics of delusion. noncalm is not its specific characteristic. According to another interpretation. I The texts] do not say that its substance is not real because it is a part of another. like drowsiness. like unfaith. this is said with reference to the characteristics of another I dharma[. If it does not have this separate characteristic apart from the passions. 201 . What is TORPOR (styána)? Its nature is that of causing the mind to be unfit with regard to an object. Even though it is called a part of delusion and is a mode [of the latter]. and. torpor is categorized as a part of delusion. Also. because it causes dharmas that are born with it to be uncalm.. According to one interpretation. delusion]. Its activity is that of obstructing serenity and I meditative] insight (uipasyaná). The specific characteristic of agitation is said to be excitement. etc. as for the treatises also saying that it exists conventionally. that is.Chapter V distinct characteristic apart from this [common characteristic of lack of calm]. Even though it is conventionally established on the basis of I its presence in] all the passions. because it must not be that unbelief.e. like drowsiness.

it is a really existing nature. each of the defiled dharmas has a specific characteristic. The specific characteristic of torpor is obscurity and dullness. The difference in characteristics I of torpor I and delusion is that the characteristic of delusion is a deluded blindness concerning an object. and abilities. and abilities. one does not acquiesce in. The three characteristics of unbelief oppose belief. The characteristic of torpor is obscurity and dullness concerning an object. those are the causes and results [of unbelief]. If there is false acquiescence. and nondesire concerning realities. just as an extremely polluted thing pollutes itself and then pollutes others.. If. because the indolent person nourishes defilement. As a consequence of unbelief. and not a 202 . there is no 311) specific characteristic of torpor. you should know. because it causes dharmas that are born with it to be unfit. Because the person who is diligent with respect to indeterminate dharmas neither progresses nor regresses concerning the good. What is UNBELIEF (asraddhä)? Its nature is that of mental foulness as nonacquiescence. apart from the passions. For this reason. He who is diligent with respect to defiled dharmas is also called "indolent" because he shuts out good dharmas. because the faithless one is often indolent. or desire realities. I but] they are not its separately existing natures. Its activity is that of obstructing pure belief and acting as the support of laziness. virtues. [the texts] should not specifically say that it obstructs [ meditative] insight. that is. and it directly obstructs nondelusion and is not obscurity and dullness. Therefore unfitness is not the specific characteristic of this I torpor]. enjoyment. and desire with regard to other matters. What is INDOLENCE (kausidya)? Its nature is that of reluctance to cultivate the good and eliminate evil. Its activity is that of obstructing vigor and increasing defilement. it is in this easel desire or resolve. nonenjoyment. Only the specific characteristic of this unbelief is pollution that then pollutes the other mind and mental activities. However. and it directly obscures serenity and is not deluded blindness. not its own nature. enjoy.Demonstration of Consciousness Only etc. virtues. it is said that its nature is that of mental foulness.

What is FORGETFULNESS (rnusilasmrti)? Its nature is that of an inability to remember clearly various objects I that one experiences]. Its activity is that of obstructing correct memory and acting as a support for distraction. There is an interpretation that distraction is a part of delusion. neither faith nor faithlessness.. compared with those four. enjoyment of. just as acquiescence in. it is generally called "negligence" because." There is an interpretation that it is categorized as a part of both I memory and de- lusionI because the former two passages [from treatises! are ambiguous and terse and the [Yogácárabhumi I Sástra says later that this [forgetfulness! is found in all defiled minds. What is NEGLIGENCE (pramáda)? Its nature is that of laxity in being incapable of guarding against defilement and cultivating purity. because the distracted person exhibits bad dis- 34e cernment. doubt. that is. and desire for the indeterminate is neither pure nor defiled. hatred. along with craving. Although conceit. Its activity is that of obstructing vigilance and acting as the support of increasing evil and injuring the good.viksipta). Delusion causes loss of memory and is therefore called "forgetfulness. Its activity is that of obstructing correct samádhi and acting as the support for bad discernment (kuprujñá). also have this ability. It does not have a separate substance. According to another interpretation. because the Yogeicárabh rim i Sástra says that it is part of delusion. There is an interpretation that forgetfulness is a part of memory. and delusion. etc.Chapter V separately existing nature. one is unable to guard against defilement and cultivate the good dharmas. he who is forgetful is mentally distracted (citta. that is. as a result of indolence. What is DISTRACTION (viksepa)? Its nature is that of causing the mind to wander from its objects. their power is very weak in obstructing the three roots of good and the universally stimulating dharma [of vigor]. That is. forgetfulness is a part of delusion. because it is said that it is memory associated with the passions. because the Yogácárabhúmi [Sástra I says that it is part 203 . The characteristic of this [negligence] can be investigated in the same way as vigilance.

and delusion. from instant to instant. Even though understanding and objects do not change during an instant. and delusion surpass other dharmas in causing the mind to wander. it should not be specifically said that it obstructs sanzczdlzi. What is INCORRECT KNOWING (asamprajanya)? Its nature is that of mistaken understanding of the object being considered. is [according to some]. it remains fixed for awhile.Demonstration of Consciousness Only of delusion. it is because it is found in all defiled minds. there must be. because it is said that it is discernment associated with the passions. When it is said that it is a part of delusion. just as lack of conscience. like a tethered donkey. According to another interpretation. Its activity is that of obstructing correct knowing and being an offense (ápatti). Or. and therefore they are said to be distraction. agitation and distraction are both found in all defiled minds. When the mind is defiled. a changing understanding or object. incorrect knowing is categorized as part of delusion. What. hatred. when restrained by memory. It is called "incorrect knowing" because it causes knowing to be incorrect. Therefore. then is the difference in function between agitation and distraction? The former causes a change in understanding. etc. The specific characteristic of distraction is precisely turbulence. and the latter causes a change in the object. these are its modes (nisyanda 1. because the one with incorrect knowing offends much.. and it is called "conventionally existing" according to its characteristics. because the Abhidhar. distraction is categorized as craving. change occurs during a continuity Lof moments'. I. It is not categorized as the same as that. There is an interpretation that distraction has its own separate substance. due to the power of agitation and distraction. It is said that craving. hatred. 204 . When it is said that it is tripartite. If it has no separate substance of its own apart from those three [craving. etc. etc. There is an interpretation that incorrect knowing is categorized as a part of discernment.. because the I Yogacdrabhúmi J Sástra speaks of it as a part of delusion.nasamuccaya and other texts say that it is tripartite. because it causes dharmas born with it to wander. According to another interpretation.

The name "secondary passions" also includes the I six primary] passions. and distraction. it means that they are not [technically] passions but are only defiled and gross. Interrelationship Among these twenty. that are secondary passions. Lack of conscience. the small ten and three of the large ones conventionally exist. They should be understood in accordance with previously cited reasoning and teachings. because the K. Conventional and Real Among these twenty secondary passions. 34. When it is said that there are only twenty secondary passions. unbelief. The words AND and WITH [in the "Thirty Verses "1 indicate that there are not just twenty secondary passions." because they are not [technically' categorized as passions. according to one interpretation are conventional and according 33a to another interpretation are real. because they occur due to the power of the two I kinds of] passions. because they are by nature the modes of prior passions. because they are mutually contradictory. shamelessness. 205 . Three kinds. You must understand them according to reason in accordance with the difference of species. agitation. torpor. incorrect knowing is categorized as a part of both [discernment and delusion I because the former two passages are ambiguous and terse [in explaining]. and the I Yogácdrabhúhni] Sastra later speaks of it as being found in all defiled minds.sudrauastuka and other texts speak of many kinds of craving. 33. Innate or Resulting from Discrimination All twenty belong to both [categories of ] innate and I resulting from] discrimination. Other defiled dharmas are either states I of these twenty] or their modalities and included in them. Other defiled dharmas of the same species as the passions are always called "secondary passions. and indolence doubtlessly really exist. etc. as demonstrated by teachings and reason. the small ten definitely do not arise together in their development.Chapter V According to another interpretation. 35..

. anger. do not exist in the [firstI five consciousnesses. Other sources say that just five are found in all defiled minds. as previously explained. are associated with four I feelings]. 206 . etc. de- ceit.Demonstration of Consciousness Only due to each being sovereign in its gross and violent mode of activ- ity. it is said that six are found in all defiled minds. etc. The two medium ones occur in all minds that are not good. because. the medium and large I secondary passions] are associated with the five feelings. contradict only good [mental activities]. excluding happiness. It is possible for all to occur in the sixth consciousness. and vanity. agitation. The difference in accepting or rejecting [which may occur with which consciousnesses I should be understood according to the above I reasons]. three. excluding suffering. they do not occur together. such as anger. because torpor.. are defiled only. sorrow. occur with I all] five feelings. being gross and violent. There is an interpretation that the small ten. etc. and vanity occur with four [feelings]. Association with the Eight Consciousnesses Because these I secondary passions. and all can occur together with small or large [secondary passions] as fitting. joy. deceit. In some sources.. Yogácárabhiunil Sastra says that the large eight are found in all defiled minds and that it is possible for all to occur with developing small and medium I secondary passions]. with feelings is as explained in connection with the passions. they do not occur in the eighth {consciousness!. excluding three. and indifference. the feeling of suffering exists in the manas. because when torpor and agitation increase I in prominence]. 36. hypocrisy. The I. The Five Feelings and the Secondary Passions Consequently. but it is possible for the medium and large ones to exist in the [firstI five consciousnesses. According to another interpretation. 37. The association of characteristics of these [secondary passions. Hypocrisy. Only the large eight occur in the seventh consciousness. are only associated with three feelings. The ten small ones.

hostility. the mind is also turbulent and distracted. it differs from pride because it is part of craving. envy. because these are a part of hatred. delusion. when they are a part of delusion. Memory also has as an object a present object of a kind that has been previously experienced. The medium and large I secondary passions] are as in the [above] true interpretation in accordance with their gross [characteristics]. craving. anger. Even though defiled memory and defiled discernment do not occur with memory and discernment. therefore there is no error if distraction is associated with samadhi. 39. to occur with pride and delusion. because there is no contradiction among them. dissimulation and avarice [are associated] with joy and indifference. When defiled samádhi arises. etc. because it is part of craving.Chapter V This is the true interpretation. but not with craving and ill will.. and anger also has as an object the instantaneous past. Association with Mental Activities with Specific Objects These twenty may all occur together with the five mental activities with specific objects. The small ones definitely do not occur together with false views and doubt. Dissimulation and deceit occur with hypocrisy. Avarice occurs with doubt and pride. the remaining three increase happiness. they can be associated. because [the former] are gross and unstable. 38. Therefore anger can be associated with memory. and pride. and harmfulness occur with sorrow and indifference. If we proceed according to gross characteristics. It is possible for the five dharmas of anger. Vanity is associated with only delusion. vexation. while [the latter' are subtle in their judgements. 207 . because their modes of activity are not contradictory and are parts of craving and delusion. Association with the Passions The two medium and eight large [secondary passions' occur with the ten passions. but not with craving and hatred.

One born in a lower stage can generate eleven (secondary passions' of a 35b higher [stage]. it is possible for them to be generated. the remainder belong to (all] three realms. 41. etc.. The two medium and eight large secondary pas- sions] of the lower stages also take as their objects the upper [stages'. one generates the last ten of a lower stage. There is an interpretation that the ten small [secondary passions] of a lower I stage] do not have the upper I stages] as objects. with respect to dharmas of the upper [stages'. because when occurring with wrong views and thirst. etc. and hypocrisy with regard to others. because they do not nourish rebirth and do not defame [the truth of] cessation. 208 . Vanity does not have the lower as an object. There is no reason for someone born in the upper [stages] to generate the minor ten of a lower I stage]. which take the lower I as objects]. because he who is addicted to the pleasures ofsamádhi generates vanity. deceit. can also take the upper (stages' as an object. Moral Nature Seven small and the two medium I secondary passions' are categorized as not good only. and because Brahma generates hypocrisy and deceit toward disciples of Sákyamuni. envy. etc. According to another interpretation. The eight large I secondary passions]. deceit and hypocrisy belong to the realms of desire and form. Three small and the eight large ones also are undetermined. because they arise in association with craving.. The Three Realms Seven small and the two medium I secondary passions! belong only to the realm of desire. along with hypocrisy and deceit... because they are not its support. because their modes of activity are gross and near and do not grasp the distant. because they are associated with pride. with the upper as an object. of an upper stage can have the lower as an object. because one can generate envy. If born in an upper stage.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 40. etc.

. because their modes of activity are gross and superficial and do not grasp in a profound manner.. etc. regarding cessation and the path. of delusion about the truths is all as explained concerning the passions.. because one arouses envy. innate. because they arise in association with the two [kinds of I passions I i. etc. when encountering the views. are also direct delusions concerning the truths. there is an interpretation that they are eliminated only by cultivation. there is an opinion that anger. they are eliminated by both insight and cultivation. and because one may give rise to anger. envy.. can be understood by analogy with the above (discussion of fundamental passions I. Those eliminated by insight arise with the passions in accordance with delusion about characteristics of the I four I truths. Therefore all are found in connection with the four truths.e. I. of another. With regard to the first ten [secondary passions]. etc. because their objects are gross things and they are born spontaneously. the ten starting with anger only have existing things as objects.. not with direct delusion about the truths. Having as an object such things as impurity.learner..Chapter V 42. In this matter.. etc.. are deludedly born with delusion about the truths only indirectly. etc. either wholly or in part. the innate and those arising from discrimination]. because they depend on a fundamental substance for birth. etc. because the I secondary passions] are defiled only. However. Association with Categories of Learners All twenty [secondary passions I are included [in the category of] neither learner nor post . etc. 43. According to another interpretation. Elimination The last ten I secondary passions' only are eliminated in both [paths of] insight and cultivation. etc. 209 . Those eliminated by insight all pervade the [entirety of the] four truths in accordance with appropriate objects through the power of general or specific passions. and the directness or indirectness.. because they arise through the power of the two kinds of passions I i. while the [learners and post learners I are pure only. According to another in- terpretation.e.

because. because it is said that they are a 210 ." REMORSE (kaukrtya) means "wrongdoing. Being dull." and its nature is that of dullness and feebleness that prevents physical freedom. That is. applied thought. because they are not. Its activity is that of obstructing contemplation. it is excluded from sameidhi. APPLIED THOUGHT AND SUSTAINED THOUGHT.. evolving through one gate I which is mental consciousness'. Two PAIRS IN TWO WAYS. defilement. Indeterminate Mental Activities 35c We have explained the twenty secondary passions.. There is an interpretation that these two [remorse and sloth I are in substance only delusion. What are their characteristics? The Verses I of Vasubandhul say. Remorse for what one has not done previously is also categorized as "wrongdoing. found in all stages. etc." just as one may repent saying. like the other hindrances (nivárana) and bonds (paryavasthána). THE INDETERMINATE MENTAL ACTIVITIES ARE REMORSE AND SLOTH. "Such things that I did not do are my wrongdoing.. the body is not free and the mind is extremely dull and feeble. and because they are not. Its activity is that of obstructing (meditative I tranquility. it is distinguished from wakefulness. There is a state of mindlessness that is conventionally given this name. etc. etc. "They are established as indeterminate because remorse. The name of the cause is conventionally applied to the result. in a state of sleepiness. There are four indeterminate mental activities (aniyata caitta). like contact. like desire.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 44. and sustained thought are indeterminate insofar as good. it is associated with mind." Its nature is that of a repentance for wrongs one has committed. The Treatise says. being feeble. definitely found in I all minds. but in causing the manifestation of sleepiness it is not without substance and function. are concerned. sloth." SLOTH (middha) is "sleepiness. because wrong acts are committed previously and later there is repentance.

When they are defiled. because when they are indeterminate. because it thinks about numerous dream objects and because both treatises say that it exists relatively.. they are by nature neither delusion nor nondelusion. are said to be parts of delusion. It should be said that remorse is in substance volition and discernment. Both of these have as their activities that of acting as supports for peaceful or nonpeaceful dwelling of physical and mental states." Its nature is that of causing the mind to evolve hastily in a gross manner with reference to objects of mental discourse (manojalpa). because they can also be good. because it clearly ponders actions performed and makes choices. Sloth synthesizes and uses volition and conceptualization as its substance. The treatise [referred toj says that they are categorized as a part of the secondary passions and delusion because it refers to their defiled aspect. and conceptualization. Apart from volition and discernment. 211 . It should be said that each of the two has a separate substance. they are modes of delusion. because of the difference in species of not profoundly investigat1 asa ing or profoundly investigating the objects of mental discourse. discernment. because the bonds [of remorse and sloth] are not by nature volition. no separate substance or species of applied thought and sustained thought can be found. There is an interpretation that the reasoning expressed [above] is also incorrect. this is incorrect. According to another interpretation. SUSTAINED THOUGHT means "investigation. It should be said that when these two are defiled they are delusion in substance. Both use a part of volition and discernment as their substance.Chapter V part of the secondary passions and delusion. in the same way that unfaith. and when pure they are nondelusion. because their modes of activity differ from other mental activities. According to another interpretation. etc. this explanation also does not correspond to reason. They are said to exist relatively due to the characteristic of delusion." Its nature is that of causing the mind (v to evolve in a subtle manner with reference to objects of mental discourse. APPLIED THOUGHT (vitarka) means "seeking.

that is. because remorse and sloth also have the two I natures] of defilement and purity. that explanation also cannot be reasonable. Real or Conventional Among these four. and each of these [ second "two "J has not good and indeterminate !as natures]. It should be said that. Or [the expression! just excludes defilement. applied thought and sustained thought' are said to exist conventionally. and therefore the first "two" refers to the second two kinds.e. and therefore it is useful to take these words with a sense of their depth. These second two kinds of species are different. You should say that "two" indicates two kinds of two: one is remorse and sloth. because only the last two kinds (i. and for that reason [ Vasubandhu] uses this expression. defiled and undefiled. the other is applied thought and sustained thought. these two exist as real things. According to another interpretation. this explanation must not be correct reasoning. they are of the nature of passions and secondary passions. applied thought and sustained thought definitely exist conventionally. These are each of two kinds. There is an interpretation that remorse and sloth also exist conventionally.. because these words ("two pairs in two ways"' occur after [the listing of] these four indeterminates.Demonstration of Consciousness Only When I the verses] say TWO PAIRS IN TWO WAYS." f Vasubandhu I says Two PAIRS IN TWO WAYS. Or. because they are unlike the good or defiled [mental activities] that are each of only one kind. The words 212 . 45. because it is said by the sages that they are the synthesis of volition and discernment. because the Yogácárabhúmi Sástra says that they exist relatively. there is an inter- pretation that applied thought and sustained thought are distinguished by the two species of defilement and purity. like the existence of the previously discussed defiled mental activities. In order to indicate the meaning of "indeterminate. According to another interpretation. According to another interpretation. each of these have the bonds (paryavasthána) and propensities. and because it is said I in the Yogacárabhumi I that they are secondary passions.

46. because they are not dharmas [associated with the I five I consciousnesses]. are all uncommon dharmas of mental consciousness. etc..vyákhyá repeats that spontaneous discrimination means the five consciousnesses. There is an interpretation that applied thought and sustained thought are only associated with mental consciousness. It also says that applied thought and sustained 213 . Both may be associated with [remorse and sloth].cdrabhúmi Sczstra saying that even though the internal seeds are real in substance they are of relative existence. The explanation is as given previously. 47. Association with the Eight Consciousnesses None of the four is associated with the seventh and eighth con sciousnesses. Differences among the other three stages are established in accordance with aversion (vairdgya) or lack of aversion for applied thought and sustained thought. that is. not on the basis of their existence as seeds or as actualities. I those things) having characteristics. Remorse and sloth are associated only with the sixth consciousness. applied thought and sustained thought are definitely not associated. but they do not indicate that the former two are definitely conventionally real. because they are the same in substance and species but they differ in being gross and subtle. and these former two are also mutually associated. There is an interpretation that applied thought and sustained thought are also associated with the I first] five consciousnesses. because the Yogdedrabhúmi Sastra says that the dharmas of applied thought and sustained thought. Therefore there is no confusion I of stages I. Association with the Indeterminates Among these four. it is similar to the Yogcz. etc. It also says that applied thought and sustained thought have seven discriminations. because the I Yogczcárabhúnzi I Sástra says that the five consciousnesses have applied thought and sustained thought. The Ahhidharmasamuccaya. Also.Chapter V "exist relatively" are said in accordance with their characteristics of otherness [in being part of delusion].

the five consciousnesses definitely do not have applied thought and sustained thought. while the Yogdedrabadmi Sdstra says that this I spontaneous discrimination I is applied thought and sustained thought associated with discriminating mental consciousness occurring with the five consciousnesses. etc. and indifference. the five consciousnesses themselves do not have names. 48. etc. sorrow. still it is not separate from joy. There is no reason for indifference. when it says that the five consciousnesses have applied thought and sustained thought. to be mentioned. Consequently. but why does I that treatise I not say that I applied and sus- tained thought] are associated with happiness and suffering? Although there is happiness in the realm of manas during the first trance state (dhyana). because 214 . Association with Five Feelings There is an interpretation that remorse is associated with sorrow and indifference. Therefore the evidence that these [texts] quote is inconclusive. or neither. because its activity usually evolves as agreeable. and because they have never been said to be associated with happiness and suffering. still it resembles sorrow and is generally referred to as "sorrow. because it evolves as painful activity and is found as indeterminate.vydkhyd." Although there is suffering in the realm of manas in places of unadulterated suffering. and it is generally referred to by the name of "joy. and their meanings as objects. and their meanings as objects. However. Sloth occurs with feelings of joy. The expression of the Abhidharmasamuccaya. disagreeable. joy.." Although the [Yogdcdrabhi7mi J Sdstra says that applied thought and sustained thought have names. which is universal." differs from the interpretation of the Yogdcdiabhúmi Sdstra. it indicates that many Iconsciousnessesl originate from these I two]. and happiness.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 361> thought are associated with sorrow and joy.. "spontaneous discrimination refers to the five consciousnesses. not that they are associated. Applied thought and sustained thought are associated with sorrow. That [first text] says that spontaneous I discrimination I is the same as the five consciousnesses. indifference.

are subtle.. Mental Activities with Specific Objects All four may occur with the five mental activities) with specific objects. because they are sovereign. because manas is associated with suffering in destinies of unadulterated suffering. There is an interpretation that 215 . because in the first trance state. because their modes of activities and objects are not mutually contradictory. Sloth. because there is no mutual contradiction in the development of these [indeterminates) and those I passions). all may generate them. etc. and sustained thought are associated with the ten passions. There is an interpretation that these four [indeterminate mental activities) also occur with the feeling of suffering. 52. because they exist only in Ithe realm of] desire and are devoid of serenity. 51. etc. but not with the ten beginning with anger. Moral Species These four all pervade the three natures of good. because its mode of activity is gross. because in states of sloth. etc. Association with Secondary Passions Remorse may occur with the medium and large secondary passions. Association with Good Mental Activities Remorse and sloth may only occur with ten good [mental activities)... applied thought. 53. Association with the Passions Remorse may only be associated with ignorance. and craving. 50. because one also repents indeterminate actions.Chapter V in the first trance state. manas is associated with happiness. they are associated with serenity. 49. Applied thought and sustained thought may occur with I all I eleven good I mental activities]. Sloth and applied thought and sustained thought may occur with [all] twenty [secondary passions].

be- cause its mode of activity is gross and violent and not the fruit of sanzádhi.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the first two i. Applied thought and sustained thought are excluded from the first I variety] because its understanding is very feeble and it is unable to investigate words. 54. 216 . remorse is I included in] only the middle two. because remorse and sloth exist in states of hearing and volition. Among the four [varieties of J the [category of I indeterminate. because someone with false views can regret having cultivated samadhi. because dharmas of the remaining realms and stages are wonderfully calm. The applied thought and sustained thought of lower and upper [stages] can have as objects the upper and lower [stages. meanings. etc. There is an interpretation that these two also have as an object the upper object.e. because their modes of activity are [respectively) gross and dull. The last three are common to the defiled indeterminate and the pure indeterminate. remorse is not defiled because its understandI ing is gross and violent. applied thought and sustained thought exist in [the realm of I desire and the first trance state. Sloth is excluded from the fourth [variety of indeterminate I. because it is not born of sanzczdhi. Indeterminate Mental Activities and the Realms 36e Remorse and sloth exist only in [the realm of I desire. and applied thought and sustained thought of the upper [realms occurs as that of a] lower realm and can generate those of the [upper realms) in a lower one.. remorse and sloth] involve only good acquired at birth. and a mind born of retribution can acquire it. There is an interpretation that the first two also involve the good of added effort. and a dream can in all cases have as an object something already experienced. respectively. Remorse and sloth must not appear in one born above [in a superior realm I. etc. because applied thought and sustained thought exist in that which is achieved through hearing. There is an interpretation that remorse and sloth cannot have as an object the upper I stages' because their modes of activity are gross and direct I in the case of remorse) and extremely dull I in the case of' sloth I. The latter two are also categorized as the good of added effort (prayogika).

" As for the interpretation that applied thought and sustained thought are not to be eliminated. then the sloth of a post learner is categorized as "not to be eliminated. because they also originate through the power of wrong views. because they have left desires and are indifferent. and sustained thought are all common to the three classes I of learners]. sloth. etc. In the penultimate state. It is not like the effortless preaching in the stage of 217 . Elimination Remorse and sloth are to be eliminated only by the I paths of ] in- sight and cultivation. this is because they are categorized as being only discrimination among the five dharmas. and the Yog i- cárabhúmi Sastra says that they are discrimination. therefore. one is unable to have universal knowledge of medicines. If it is to be called "not to be eliminated" (aheya) because it has already been eliminated.. because all conditioned (samskrta) good dharmas of one who seeks liberation are called "learners.learners.." Even though applied thought and sustained thought are not the true. and because it is said that it causes speech. still they are able to attract it and be attracted and be born from it. applied thought." and because the conditioned good dharmas of one whose learning has culminated are all "post.Chapter V 55. unlike sorrow. and. pure path." 56. and must depend on conventional applied thought and sustained thought during [the state of I subsequently acquired knowledge (pnsthalabdha jñána) in order to preach the Dharma to others. because it is said that correct reflection is pure. they are not directly attracted and generated by the pure paths. Indeterminate Mental Activities and Categories of Learners Remorse excludes post . they do not deeply seek liberation. they are common to both insight and cultivation and categorized as "not to be eliminated. Remorse. because it can cause the mind to seek.learners. etc. ']'here is an interpretation that these I latter] two are also categorized as "correct knowledge" (samyag jñána). illnesses.

universal. Even though it is said that applied thought and sustained thought must be discrimination." or that "defilement and purity result from mind.. how can I the Lankávatc ra Salmi say that "When mind and mental activities are simultaneously horn. 218 . because it says that "mental activities are not the same as mind "? A verse I from the above scripture) says. because there is discrimination in subsequently acquired correct knowl- edge.. they are like the sun and the light "? How can we grasp the teaching of the Yogdcarabhami Sastra. And there are no separate defiled or good dharmas.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Buddhahood. good. Mental Activities and Mind Do these six kinds of dharmas or mental activities I i.. how can the holy teachings speak of "associates of mind." because is not something associated with another nature a nature of its own? Also. I have a separate self-nature apart from mind? Are they distinctions of states of mind? What are the errors of affirming these? There are errors in affirming both of these [above positions]." or that "the person is the six elements "? How can the explanation of the Mahayana Süträlamkára be grasped? A verse [in this text] says.e. 57. it is not said definitely that they belong to only the third I category among the five dharmas]. etc. If they have self natures apart from mind. passions. etc. Or else it appears as faith. We affirm that mind appears twofold. In the same way. 37a If Ion the other hand] they are distinctions of states of mind. Other topics Iconcerning the four indeterminatesI can be understood by analogy with the above through the use of reason.. it appears as craving. how can the holy teachings say that there is only consciousness? Or how could they say that "mind alone goes a long way. etc. Therefore these two varieties l of thought l also pervade I the category of ] purity.

or "appears similar to mind" is erroneous. This I doctrine] is based on relative [truth]. the terms "consciousness" and "mind" include mental activities. Because mental activities are horn through the power of mind. LIKE WAVES SUPPORTED BY THE WATER. SUPPORTED ON TITE FUNDAMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS. it is said that there is "consciousness only." etc.e. This is said to be the marvellous principle of true and conventional [truth I in the Mahayana. How should we understand their states of appearance? I Vasubandhu'sl Verses say. the first five consciousnesses and mental consciousness].. I 58." but not that they are mind. but due to the predominance of mind. it is said that they "appear similar to that. EITHER TOGETHER OR NOT. THE FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES APPEAR IN ACCORDANCE WITH CONDITIONS.e. AND IN THOSE WHO ARE [IN STATES OF] SLOTH AND STUPEFACTION. aggregates] are not demonstrated. States of Appearance of the Six Consciousnesses We have discussed the association of mental activities with the six consciousnesses 1 i." etc. Also. And it is a contradiction of the holy teachings. because they are always associated. MENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS PERPETUALLY APPEARS EXCEPT IN THOSE BORN AMONG THE UNCONSCIOUS CELESTIALS AND IN THE TWO MINDLESS SAMA1)111S. The distinctions of states lof mind] are an error. It should be said that I mental activities] have a separate self nature apart from mind. If we resort to ulti- mate truth. None of the terms "consciousness only. mind and mental activities are neither distinct nor identical.. 219 .. You should know that the same is true of the interrelationships of the I eight consciousnesses.Chapter V The five seed natures I i. Because there is no distinction of causes and conditions.

FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES means that the first five evolving consciousnesses are spoken of in general. proximate support. because they are similar as species. CONDITIONS are such conditions as attention. is also gross and unstable. when they are actually active.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The Treatise says that FUNDAMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS is ädanavijniaraa. The words APPEAR IN ACCORDANCE WITH CONDITIONS Show that they do not always appear. and [only] as a result of contrary conditions is there a time when it does not appear. because. Their appearance depends on many conditions. they appear EITHER TOGETHER OR NOT. the five organs. Also. 59. depending on conditions. The modes of activity of the seventh and eighth consciousnesses are subtle. Consequently. Even though the sixth. organs. etc. sometimes many of the conditions on which they depend are incomplete. Mental Consciousness As a result of the grossness and instability of the modes of activity of the [first] five evolving consciousnesses. SUPPORTED means that the first six evolving consciousnesses have fundamental consciousness as their common. when external conditions combine. and therefore there are many times when they are interrupted and few times 371. mental consciousness. only evolving vis -à -vis the external [realm]. and the various conditions on which they depend are at all times present. there is no time when the conditions upon which it depends are not complete. therefore. the five consciousnesses themselves are unable to reflect. The sixth consciousness itself is 220 . they exist suddenly [together) or gradually. because all impure and pure consciousnesses are born from this root. they are many or few. and therefore sometimes they appear infrequently and many times they do not appear. The analogy of these dharmas I as water and waved is extensively discussed in the I Sarndhinirmocana j Satra. objects I of perception I. etc. LIKE WATER AND WAVES. the five consciousnesses themselves can be present when supported internally by the fundamental consciousness and by conforming to a combination of various conditions such as attention. there is no condition to block them and cause general inactivity. That is. objective realm.

evolving vis -à -vis the inner and outer [realms!. Consequently. except in five states. because in that I unconscious celestial realm] they must generate passions that nourish birth. because. not that they are totally absent. It does not depend on many conditions and is always able to appear. etc. and they are [therefore] called "unconscious celestials. because it is said that they only possess the material factor (rúpa. The Unconscious Celestials The uNcoNSClous CELESTIALS (asamjñika -deva) means that they are born in that celestial realm by the power of cultivating samúdhi and a distaste for gross conceptualization. There is an interpretation that when these celestials are in a state when they are about to die I in the mindless realm]. which interferes with the non -perpetually active mind and mental activities. because the Yogácarabhiomi Sastra says. There is an interpretation that when they are born I in that realm]. The 221 . Therefore there are few times when it is interrupted and many times when it appears. Vasubandhu's verses] do not say that it appears in accordance with conditions.ariga). these sentient beings fall from that I existence or samádhi I. as in other [realms 1.bhami). because the holy teachings say that they are devoid of evolving consciousnesses. There is an interpretation that those celestials are always devoid of the six consciousnesses.Chapter V capable of reflection. as for saying that they are devoid of evolving consciousnesses." Therefore the six evolving consciousnesses there are all interrupted.. they also have evolving consciousnesses. Extinction of conceptualization is foremost [of characteristics of this existence]. they must have evolving consciousnesses at the beginning of their basic existences. and because it is said that that I realm) is a mindless stage (acittaka." However. What are the five states I when it is inoperative)? Birth among the unconscious I celestials]. I 60. they must generate evolving consciousnesses so that immediately upon death they necessarily generate a thirst that nourishes a birth below. etc. this means for a long time. "When a subsequent conceptualization has been born.

222 ." just as the two samádhis are called "good" by virtue of the good they attract and generate.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Yogácarabhüini Sástra says. "Unconscious samádhi" means that there are ordinary beings (prthagjana) who have subdued craving of the Subhakrtsna [realm I but who have not subdued impurity of the superior !trance states I. 61." which is called "without conceptualization. According to the Vini.SCayasamgrahani. he just enters it but does not generate I conceptualization I. On the contrary. the cessation of all mind and mental activities existing from birth is called "unconsciousness" (asamjñika). if none of the evolving consciousnesses is active. "If he is born in that I realm]. how can they be said to be only cessation lof mind and mental activities] acquired at birth? Therefore in the first state of that [existence]. [this absence I attracts and generates a state known as "retribution and indeterminate. Consequently. The Two Mindless Samádhis AND IN THE TWO MINDLESS SAMADIJIS means that both of the sama- dhis of unconsciousness and cessation are called "mindless" (acittaka) because they all are devoid of the six consciousnesses. because conceptualization below I that stage] is gross and unstable and difficult to eliminate. he falls from that [realm I. because if conceptualization occurs. because it can be called "entering" if first he has I the consciousnesses I and later does not have them. and there is no occasion for the retribution of nonconceptualization above I it I. that is. because the volition that can attract and instigate this unconscious samadhi is able to provoke the results of retribution of these celestials. These celestials only abide in the fourth trance state (dhydna)." If he does not have evolving consciousnesses during the time of his basic exist- ence. The meaning of these words indicates that at the beginning of that basic existence. how can it be called "entering" [that state devoid of conceptualization I. evolving consciousnesses born of retribution initially exist a short time. the evolving consciousnesses occur for awhile. and that they are not born later due to the power of former causes and conditions.

There is an interpretation that this samádhi only occurs in the realm of desire. and although one Isometimes] dies in the interval it is not certain. discernment and understanding are extremely acute.perpetually active mind and mental activities. Actions (karma) of the four [trance states I belongs to the three [categories of retribution I with the exception of that which conforms to the present life. because it is attracted by that I trance state]. after having first cultivated it in the realm of desire. even though the I samádhi] is extremely bright and pure and its form is large. bring it before one. It is absent in stages below and above. there is maximal brightness and purity and the form is large. when he is born among those celestials.nádhi. This samádhi is only connected with the fourth trance state. upon subsequently being born in the realm of form. as a result of what was said earlier.Chapter V Due to the concept of escape [from sainsdra I being the foremost of their volitions. it is exclusively good. Later. and if he regresses he quickly recovers it. It is called "unconscious" because cessation of conceptualization is foremost. Later. Consequently. and he necessarily does not die in the interval but only falls Ifrom that existence] once the life span is completely filled. He who cultivates the lowest degree necessarily regresses lin maintaining samádhi] in this present life (dRla. He who cultivates the superior degree necessarily does not regress. because it is ultimate. I this samádhi] causes the cessation of non. nor is the form large. [samádhi] is not extremely bright and pure. it is only impure and not generated by 223 . Also. when he is horn among those celestials. and it is called samádhi because it causes the body to be tranquil and harmonious. I. still it is not maxi- s. He who cultivates the middle degree does not necessarily regress. one can.dharma) and cannot quickly recover I the samádhi. There are three degrees of cultivation of this sa.c mal. because it occurs through the power of non Buddhist teachings and because among humans. excluding the unconscious celestials. and he definitely dies in the interval. According to another inter- pretation. Later. when he is born among those celestials.

" It is called samádhi because it causes the body to be tranquil and harmonious.veditd. be supported by a discursive contemplation of the !realm of the] peak of existence.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the saints. because among the sequential samadhis it is the supreme one. Due to a one -sided disgust for feeling and conceptualization. As a result of emphasizing the stopping of conceptualization and bringing about the cessation of [both] non . it is called "cessation. The samádhi of cessation means that there are saints who are post learners or learners who have subdued and gotten rid of the craving of I the stage of ] "nothing at all" (ákimcanya.nirodha. There are three classes of cultivation of this samádhi. he who enters it must.. Also. Although it belongs to the truth of the path. one's mind is able to make it present in other stages. naivasamjñanasamjñááyatana J is or is not present. He who cultivates the superior degree absolutely does not regress. discernment and understanding are extremely acute. and because among humans. The first appearance of this samadhi exists only among humans." because it resembles nirvana. Even though it belongs to the peak of existence.e. one makes it appear before one later in the upper two realms.perpetually active and perpetually active defiled mind and mental activities. He who cultivates the lowest degree necessarily regresses during his present life and cannot recover [the samádhi I immediately. it is categorized as pure. because it is entered by way of disgust for conceptualization and a delight in its fruits. having cultivated this samádhi. Those who as 224 .samápatti).deva). one acquires mastery. it is called the "samádhi of the cessation of those I feelings and conceptualization]" ( sarnjñá. as a preparation. He who cultivates the middle degree does not necessarily regress in the present life. which is pure. If. because the Udáyi Sidra proves that the formless [celestials] are also called "celestials consisting of thought" (manomaya. and if he regresses he immediately recovers it. it is categorized as "neither learner nor postlearner. because it occurs as a result of the power of the teachings of the Buddha and his disciples.áyatana) but I in whom] craving of the upper stage I i. In the preliminary practice of this samádhi.

post . be born in the upper stages. There is an interpretation that of the propensities of the lower eight stages to be eliminated by I the path of I cultivation. not eliminating the seeds) or regressing. The remainder are to be subdued or elimi- s8a nated and. they are born in the upper eight stages and all are able subsequently to generate it. later. but will that one.learners of the three vehicles. Believers born there are able to have it present before them. There is an interpretation that it is necessary to eliminate the propensities of the lower four stages that are to be eliminated by I the path of 1 cultivation. because the propensities of the realm of desire. it is necessary to elimi- nate the propensities of the three realms that are eliminated by the I path of I insight. In order for this samádhi to appear. because the seeds of passions associated with feelings of change are strong in obstructing samádhi. the subsequently acquired knowledge of the two kinds of emptiness must be realized. because this samádhi is subtle. it is necessary to eliminate wholly those of the realm of desire. one can generate this samádhi and later. are complex and strong in obstructing samádhi. because they fear that the absence of form and mind results in annihilation. they are born in the upper five stages and all are able subse- quently to generate this samádhi. In accordance with circumstances. IThe Sarvástvádins object. which are of two natures.] you say that if one subdues the propensities of the lower [stages]. having been born in the upper 225 . and in order for it to be attracted. because they know that there is a store consciousness and that they are not annihilated. In accordance with circumstances. The remainder are subdued or eliminated. and because it is only said that nonreturners (anágámin).Chapter V yet do not believe and receive the teaching of store consciousness do not produce this samádhi. because ordinary beings are unable to subdue and destroy mind and mental activities of the peak of exist ence. and various bodhisattvas obtain this samádhi. and later one can for the first time generate this samádhi. one can for the first time generate this samádhi.

Even though there may or may not be regression in the propensities one has subdued. they are able to generate this samadhi as if they had already eliminated them. "The bodhisattva is able.Demonstration of Consciousness Only [stages]. from the first stage. Sloth and Stupefaction Mindless SLOTH (middha) and STUPEFACTION (mizrchana) refer to an extremely heavy sloth and stupefaction that prevent all the first six consciousnesses from being actually active. It is only as a result of the seeds of the propensities that they nourish birth in the upper realms. Now the power of the antidote [to the passions' of nonreturners is strong. Some. they do not generate passions. to manifest the samadhi of cessation. In the case of various bodhisattvas of the rank of the two [non Mahayanal vehicles who have already obtained the samddhi of cessation and have converted Ito the Mahayana I. because a scripture says. having entered the "far going" (duranzgam. During the state of nourishing birth. still eliminate the propensities of the lower I stages!? I We reply. Sloth is a physi- cal state attracted by such conditions as extreme fatigue and is contrary to the I operation of the I first six consciousnesses. is then able to manifest this samUdhi of cessation. as if they were arhats. If they are not of this type.d ) stage." 62. They all generate this samadhi during all ten [bodhisattva] stages. because the I Yohacarabhizmi I Sástra says that the bodhisattva. because one resembles someone born in the upper stages who eliminates the innate propensities of manes of the lower [stages]. this still does not mean that one is born in an upper stage by subduing the I propensities of the] lower. Even though they have not eternally eliminated the propensities I to be eliminated by] cultivation of the realm of desire. some with complete minds of the seventh stage are able eternally to subdue all passions. they are able to generate this samadhi in all stages. are able eternally to subdue all passions. in the first six stages. Therefore there is no error [in maintaining! that one born in the upper I stages I eliminates the [propensities of the] lower.] their elimination is no problem. For that 226 .

Tathágatas and independent bodhisattvas retain one. sai. the above five states and 'nirvana' without remainder. Excluding these [above I five states. The word AND indicates that the five are not confused. Birth and Death The times of birth and death are also devoid of mental consciousness. i. ordinary beings possess four. it is called "extremely heavy sloth. This shows that after the six consciousnesses have been [temporarily] eliminated. 64. mental consciousness always occurs.e. Why? Because it is only said that six times are said to be mindless." Even though it is not in substance [sloth I. Simultaneity of the Six Consciousnesses Therefore. It should be said that birth and death are included in stupefaction..e. For that reason. a return from their own seeds is supported by the fundamental consciousness. of the eight consciousnesses. both of these are minor parts of the sense base of tangibility (sprastavya. then three evolve simultaneously.Chapter V reason.. Of the five states. then from four to eight are simultaneous. This is the 227 ." Alternately. because they are devoid of sloth and stupefaction. That explanation is not reasonable. Why is it said that it is inactive only in five states? There is an interpretation that birth and death are indicated by the word AND I in Vasubandhu's verse I. the saints possess only the last three. Stupefaction is a physical state attracted by such conditions as a troubled disposition and is contrary to I the operation of the! six consciousnesses. two mind [i. it is conventionally given that name because it resembles I sloth]. When one to five of the others occur through the coming together of conditions. 63. among these [three I.dvatana ). because these are extreme stages of stupefaction. and for that reason [Vasubandhul does not mention entering I nirvanal without remainder [because the six consciousnesses do not return then!. If the sixth occurs. the eighth consciousness] and man always evolve simultaneously in all the sentient. excluding the sameidhi of cessation. it is called "extremely heavy stupefaction.

when desire grasps many objects at the same time. I since you concede that this one I condition] attracts many mental activi- ties. etc. and you concede that they are born simultaneously. of another realm] is present. it does not contradict reason to establish sentience on the basis of the number of I seeds that constitute I the vital principle or on consciousness as retribution. like mental consciousness when it is distracted.' if sentience is established on the basis of the number of consciousnesses. Also.. so how can there be evolution of many consciousnesses at the same time? I We reply. because both are per- petual and unitary. that consciousnesses are born successively. then when they grasp their objects. then when one is in a mindless state. who says definitely that this condition is single? He who says that many consciousnesses are simultaneous concedes that this condition is manifold. If in one sentient being many consciousnesses evolve simultaneously. just as waves and images [in mirrors] appear as many supported by one [ocean or mirror].e. still they vary as species. because. so why not concede that mind of varying species occurs simultaneously? Also. 228 . how can it be said that it is a single sentient being? [We reply. objects. the objects have ceased long before.. there is a single similar and immediately antecedent condition.Demonstration of Consciousness Only abbreviated explanation of the simultaneous evolving of con sciousnesses. how could it be said that oneself is sentient? However. Also. Also. in a state when another mind [i. one must not be sentient. they would not perceive them clearly. why not concede that it can attract many kinds of minds? Also. is not the presence of the many objects grasped at once? Because it is not reasonable that when blending through the power of the combination of organs. I in a single individual. if you do not concede that mental I consciousness] occurs simultaneously with the five I sense] consciousnesses. [It is asked. although there is no distinction in nature of mental activities. many consciousnesses occur simultaneously supported by a single mind. Also.

It is not solely in order to perceive the objects of the five consciousnesses.] in the same way that consciousness. and therefore it is not useless.Chapter V [lt is asked. Why Iit is asked] are not various consciousnesses of the same species simultaneous? [We reply. 229 . what is the error? Because both the seen [part] and the seeing [part of consciousness] have numerous characteristics. each grasps one or many of its own objects.] in that case. why are they not associates? Because of nonidentical objects.' because if [a consciousness's I own object is perceivable. since the five consciousnesses have each perceived their own objects. I how can the one mental consciousness associated with the I first] five consciousnesses grasp one or many objects such as color? I We reply. Also. etc. because it can clearly perceive and grasp those objects. when one (consciousness] has been able to perceive it. the other I similar acts of the same consciousness] are of no use. the [Samdhinirmocana I Sutra says that mental consciousness is called "possess- 38c ing discrimination. Since many consciousnesses evolve simultaneously. Consequently. such as the visual.] mental consciousness occurring with the five [consciousnesses] aids the five and causes their birth. and. it is different from visual consciousness.. too. I It is asked. what is the need for a simultaneously present mental consciousness to perceive it? [We reply. grant- ing that the objects are the same. just as the consciousnesses of the five organs are mutually unassociated." which is not the case with the five consciousnesses. Here. the substance and number of supports of that one or this one differ.

.

Distinct characteristics do not exist from the point of view of ultimate truth.. As a verse [of the Lañikdvatdra Sútra. 231 . thought.samurti). like illusory things. says.. supports. and because. As was mentioned earlier. In ultimate truth. and associates. they are devoid of definite natures [such as identical or different]. objects. mind I i. not on ultimate truth (parameirtha. Mind. they must not be of the nature of cause and effect I for each other].e. Because there is neither characteristic nor the characterized. because the I L arikdvatdral Sutra says that the eight consciousnesses are not differentiated. they are not definitely different. and because such characteristics as perfuming and being perfumed are each different. the distinct characteristics of the consciousnesses are based on the convention of reason (yukti. etc.natures cannot be said to be definitely one.Chapter VI Oneness or Difference of the Eight Consciousnesses The eight consciousnesses in their self. because of the differences of modes of activity. and the eight kinds of consciousness Have distinct characteristics from a worldly point of view. and also because not all cease when one does. Also.satya). like water and waves. reasoning! and words are cut off. because if they are definitely different.

233 . because it is grasped by the seeing [part]. As A RESULT OF THIS. As a result of this correct principle. all real selves and dharmas definitely do not exist apart from what has been transformed from consciousness. whether real or metaphorical. How must we understand that the metaphorical "self" and "dharmas" that are transformations based on consciousness are not separate realities. because there is not a separate thing apart from the grasping and the grasped. THEREFORE ALL ARE CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY. The term TRANSFORM is established because all are able to transform to resemble the two parts that are seeing (darsana) and seen (nimitta). Therefore no conditioned or unconditioned [ dharmas]. and consequently that all are consciousness only? The Verses f of Vasubandhu I say. because it is able to grasp images. THE VARIOUS CONSCIOUSNESSES TRANSFORM As IMAGINATION AND THE IMAGINED.Chapter VII Consciousness Only We have extensively distinguished the characteristics of the three I consciousnesses I capable of transforming as the supports of the two parts that are transformed from them. 'exist' apart from consciousness. That which transforms into the seeing part is called IMAGINATION. because there are no real things apart from these two characteristics. ALL THESE ARE NONEXISTENT. That which transforms into the seen part is called THE IMAGINED. The Treatise says that THE VARIOUS CONSCIOUSNESSES means the previously discussed three transforming consciousnesses and their mental activities.

characteristics of false selves and dharmas as the imag39a ined natures of real selves and dharmas are definitely all nonexistent. You do not demonstrate your own principle by refuting another's principle.. I the Vinuclakirti. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The word ONLY denies real things apart from consciousness. I only incompletely. Objects that are grasped by it are THE IMAGINED. real emptiness." It also is said. are by nature existent. but it does not I deny I such dharmas as mental activities. I as a result of what teachings and reasoning is the principle of consciousness only demonstrated? I We reply. because the existence of false imagination (abhúla. because they have been denied las realities) by former quotations from teachings and by reason. that is. and the meaning of consciousness only is demonstrated as conforming to the Middle Way. "The three realms are mind only." Also. which are the falsely imagined natures of real selves and dharmas. Ithe Samdhininnocana Sutra] says. The word ONLY does not deny dharmas that are not apart from consciousness." Also. Proofs of Consciousness Only I It is asked. [the Lanhavati ra Sutra I says. "Sentient beings become impure or pure through mind. This transformation is called IMAGINATION.nature is false imagination." Also. Alternately. because its self.parikalpa) is commonly accepted [by all schools]. 1. According to what the [Dasabhumika] Sutra says. You must again explain carefully and demonstrate the teachings and reasoning. mind and mental activities of the three realms. Therefore ALL ARE CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY. "None of the dharmas is apart from mind. "Bodhisattvas 234 . Because imagination transforms to resemble external objects. therefore. I have we not already discussed it? [lt is answered.. "Objects are only manifestations of consciousness. Consequently. that are not apart from consciousness.nirdesa Sutra] says. TRANSFORMS means that internal consciousnesses transform to resemble selves and dharmas as characteristics of external objects. etc. the two extremes of eternalism and annihilationism are avoided.

knowledge of images of different consciousnesses ( viruddha.anuvartaka jñána. etc. if the knowledge of the ignorant attained real objects. celestials.] first. etc. ).vijñán.a jñána ). in accordance with awakening. none of the characteristics of objects appears. That is. dream objects. they must naturally achieve errorlessness and obtain liberation without effort. the knowledge of change lof objects' in accordance with the triple knowledge ( trividhajjiána. that do not really exist but that are possible as manifestations of consciousness." [The four knowledges are. when one generates and realizes true. is different for each in accordance with differences of karma. That is... humans. That is. nondiscriminative knowledge. at will. future. and a multitude of characteristics [such as origination and cessation] appear before him. he who achieves the superior samádhis and cultivates contemplation of dharmas contemplates one object.vijñána. the same thing perceived by ghosts. That is. he who has realized mas- tery of mind can transform earth [into gold]. how can they be mentally transformed? The third I knowledge 1 is the knowledge of change I of objects' following nondiscriminative knowledge (niruikalpika jñána. The first I of the three knowledges] is the knowledge of change I of objects! following the knowledge of one who has mastery [of mind] ( vagita jñána. etc.anuvartaka jñána).Chapter VII who are provided with the four knowledges can. how can this be possible? The second is knowledge of consciousness without I real] objects (análambana. If objects really exist.uiparita jñána). Since these objects are nonexistent. one takes as objects such things as past. knowledge that I all beings] must be natu- rally without error (anabhisarnskára.. how can they be transformed? The second [of the three 1 is the knowledge of change [of objects] following the knowledge of one with clear perception (prauicaya jfidna-anuvartaka- jñána). enter [the truth off consciousness only and objectlessness. If objects really exist. That is. images. Third. If [these) objects are real. how is it possible for them not to appear? 235 . If objects really exist.anuvartaka jñána). Fourth. That is.ninzitta jñána ). so must others be.

there is only emptiness. etc. In that. do not take as objects form. there is nothing else. Self and dharmas do not exist. also does not take as direct objects dharmas that are separate from itself. that is separate from themselves. like I the seeing part] that can take objects. The duality in it does not exist.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The bodhisattva who achieves these four knowledges definitely is enlightened in and penetrates the principle of consciousness only. because it is a consciousness like visual consciousness. because [each] is one of the five. and consciousness Is separate from its own [mental] nature. None of the objects of mind. They :nb are definitely not separate from mind and mental activities.. there is also this [imagination]. Also. These correct reasons and proofs are numerous. because they are one of the two [parts of consciousness]. 236 . and therefore [our teaching] conforms to the Middle Way. thought. In it. 2. because they are objective dharmas. like the others. emptiness and consciousness are not nonexistent. Therefore.. These are [respectively I separate from existence and separate from nonexistence. These direct objects are definitely not separate from these [six] consciousnesses. Maitreya has two verses !in the Madhyántavibheiga J: False imagination exists. As a result of this. a verse [of the Ghanavyúha] Satra says. Reasoning The commonly agreed upon visual consciousness. etc. The other [ mental] consciousness. and therefore we must deeply believe and accept [the truth of] consciousness only. Proofs in these holy teachings are numerous. etc.. I declare that all things Are consciousness only. like associated dharmas.

but in reality there is also a pure part of the dependent on others. In order to introduce the emptiness of the person (pudgala. times. I no. just as he spoke of continuous sentience in order to deny the I false I view of annihilation.Honored One speak of' twelve sense bases? [We reply. 3. nonexistence. he spoke later of consciousness only. how is that we see that the places. and existence.] why? I We reply. real entities. I Objection:1 For what reason did the World. We are not speaking of the emptiness of dharmas that is the nature of the ineffable consciousness only that is realized by correct knowledge. and functions of worldly sentient and insentient beings are [sometimes] determinate and I sometimes' indeterminate? I We reply. These verses speak on the basis of only defiled dependence on oth- ers (paratantra). eye and visual objects. Because of existence. bodies. etc. ears and sounds.e. because it makes us realize that external dharmas are also nonexistent. then there 237 . In order to introduce the emptiness of dharmas. I. etc. We speak of the emptiness of dharmas on the basis that the falsely grasped real dharmas that are transformations of consciousness are in reality ungraspable (anupalabdha). [Objection:1 Is not the nature of this consciousness only also empty? I We reply.' because it is not to be grasped.) we must dispel this doubt by comparison with dream objects [which have the same characteristics but are not real external things I. Nine Objections [Objection:1 If there is only internal consciousness that occurs resembling external objects.' these are transformations based on consciousness.sunyatá). This conforms to the Middle Way.Chapter VII Therefore. I They ask.. he spoke of the six double dharmas I i. not separate. I declare that all dharmas Are neither empty nor not empty. If this consciousness [only] does not exist.

. etc. He who rejects the two truths wrongly grasps emptiness. there also is no ultimate truth. stable series? I We reply. the other is also lacking. and the Buddhas have said that such a one is incurable. It should be understood that various dharmas are empty and not empty. and they are not external but seem to be external. the discrimination of thought falsely generates a thought of "outside.) because they originate from the power of perfuming energy of names and words. external objects. it is said that they are nonexistent. etc. When form. objects of form. [Objection:I If the material sense bases (rapa.Demonstration of Consciousness Only is no relative truth and. If it did not exist. They are like objects in dreams and cannot be grasped as being real. If I the first' is lacking. etc. Also. 238 . why does I consciousness) evolve resem- bling characteristics of form." Therefore directly perceived objects are the transformation of the seen part of the consciousnesses themselves.. and that is why Maitreya uttered the previous two verses.] when they are authenticated by direct percep- tion.äyatana) are in substance consciousness. Therefore the various con sciousnesses appear resembling form. Images of confusion and confusion itself Must be conceded to be material consciousness And immaterial consciousness [respectively I. and then there would be no defilement and also no pure dharmas.].. How can that which is acquired through direct perception be rejected as nonexistent? We reply. are not form but resemble form. etc. because ultimate truth and relative truth are established through mutual dependence. and for that reason it s9c is said that they exist. firm. are clearly present and authenticated Iby visual consciousness. [Objection:) External objects of form. and because [form I is the supporting sense base for defiled and pure dharmas. As a verse says. there would be no error. Afterwards. manifesting a homogeneous. grasped by mental consciousness as external and real are falsely judged to exist. they are not grasped as being external. because there is no relative truth.

when a consciousness is born. We are incapable of self.understanding. That is. we do not clearly grasp that material objects are consciousness only. just as after a dream we awaken and know that it was only mental. etc. so with form.understanding prior to a state of awakening and are capable of being retrospectively awakened I from delusion I when we arrive at true awaken- ing. that immediately grasp external things. [Objection:) External form is really nonexistent and presumably not the object of internal consciousness. Does the teaching of 239 . If we have not acquired true awakening. a scripture says. Consequently." As with having the minds of others as objects. I it is like being in a dream prior to awakening and being incapable of self. how can you say that there is consciousness only? [ We reply.) who says that the minds of others are not the objects of one's own consciousness? We just do not not say that they are its immediate objects. etc. we must reach awakening. The minds of others really exist. etc. it appears resembling images and is said to seize things. That is why the Buddha said that it is the long night of samsdra. unlike hands. that spreads its light and immediately illuminates external objects. It cannot immediately perceive [others' minds'. What it immediately perceives are its own transformations. I Objection:] Since there are different objects [of others' minds]. I how obstinate! You doubt everything you touch. Therefore. it is devoid of real function. It is just that when consciousness is born. why.. then. "There is not the slightest dharma that is capable of seizing other dharmas. we are always situated in a dream. You must understand that the objective forms of the awakened state are the same. so why are they not also one's own objects [of consciousness]? [ We reply. I Consciousness I is only said to perceive the minds of others because it is like a mirror in which appear seemingly external objects. In order to be retrospectively awakened I to the dream state].Chapter VII [Objection:) If during the waking state forms are all like objects in dreams and not separate from consciousness.. when we are awake. or the sun. do we not know that our own material objects are consciousness only? [We reply.

etc. Therefore one must without doubt believe that all is consciousness only. associates of consciousness. and cause and results.. 240 . respectively." The word "only" just denies really existing form. differences of states. This cannot be achieved by one who totally rejects all things as nonexistent.] listen carefully. realize supreme awakening. ordinary and wise. etc. how could there be differences of the ten directions. quickly penetrate the emptiness of dharmas. the various dharmas are not separate from consciousness and are generally named "consciousness. because [these categories are. the two transformations I of consciousness]. six classes of mental activities. The word "consciousness" indicates in a general way that all sentient beings are said to have eight consciousnesses.? Who would preach for whom? How could one seek the Dharma? Therefore the words "consciousness only" have a profound significance.Demonstration of Consciousness Only consciousness only just speak of a single consciousness? I They ask." one will be able to be without error. their three states. venerable and base. be well provided with equip- ment. I the distinct characteristics of conscious- ness. the seen and seeing I parts] that are transformations [of consciousness]. and the ultimate reality expressed by the principle of emptiness. and aid those in the transmigration of sarresára. then what I do you meant? [We reply. If there were only a single consciousness. and the true nature of the four [above categories]. that the ignorant grasp as definitely separate from the various con sciousnesses. I if that is not so. In this way. If in this way one knows the meaning of "consciousness only.

Chapter VIII

Causality
If there is only consciousness entirely and no external condition, from what are the many imaginations [such as the eight conscious nesses, etc. I born? The Verses [of Vasubandhu I say,
FROM THE CONSCIOUSNESS THAT IS ALL SEEDS
TRANSFORMATION ]OCCURS] IN SUCH -AND -SUCH WAYS;
40a

DUE TO THE POWER OF MUTUAL INFLUENCE, THIS AND THAT IMAGINATION IS BORN.

The Treatise says that CONSCIOUSNESS THAT IS ALL SEEDS (sarva-

bija- vijñcana) means the particular energies (sakti) in the root consciousness that are capable of producing their own results. These are called ALL SEEDS because they produce results I named ] "simi-

lar" (nisyanda), "retribution" (vipáka), "I resulting from] human effort" (purusa- kara), and "dominant" (adhipati). The reason for
the exclusion of [the result named I "disentanglement" (visamyoga)

is that it is not born from seeds. It is only realizable and not the result of seeds, because one must manifest and generate the path and eliminate the bonds in order to obtain it. Although this has the meaning of mutual influence, it is not what is being discussed here, because here it says that [seeds] are the kind that are able to
produce imagination I directly I. This consciousness I that holds all the seeds] is their substance; therefore, they are called "consciousness" because the seeds have

no separate nature apart from the root consciousness. The two
words SEED CONSCIOUSNESS [in the verse) omit what is not [at once]

seeds and consciousness, because there are consciousnesses that

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Demonstration of Consciousness Only

are not seeds and seeds that are not consciousness I such as grain
seeds). Also, SEED CONSCIOUSNESS indicates the seeds in the con-

sciousness, not the consciousness that bears seeds, as will be explained later. Because of the aid of other conditions, the seeds in this consciousness [undergoI TRANSFORMATION IN SUCH- AND -SUCH WAYS. That

is, they evolve from the state of birth up to the time of maturity. The word SUCH fin "such- and such ") is repeated to indicate the plurality of kinds of transformation; that is, because "all seeds" indicates consciousness seeds exhaustively, [meaning) the three perfumings of common seeds, the uncommon, etc.
POWER OF MUTUAL INFLUENCE (anyoltyava.a) means the eight

actual consciousnesses, their associates, the seen and seeing parts,

etc., because all have the power to assist each other. Actual
consciousnesses, etc., are named IMAGINATIONS, because false imagi-

nation is their self - nature. There are many kinds of imagination,
hence the words THIS AND THAT.

The meaning of this verse is that although there are no exter-

nal conditions [for the emergence of imagination), due to the differences in transformation of all the seeds existing in the root
consciousness, and because of the power of mutual influence of the
actual eight consciousnesses, etc., THIS AND THAT IMAGINATION are

also born. Why assume external conditions for generating imaginations? You must understand that the origin of pure dharmas is the same, because they are born from the conditions of actual pure seeds and the actual I consciousnessesl.

1. The Four Conditions
As it was said, the conditions consisting of seeds and actual Idharmasi produce imagination. How must we understand the characteristics of this conditioned birth? There are four conditions (pratyaya).

2. Condition as Cause
The first is the condition as cause. This means that a conditioned dharma directly provides its own result. Its substance is twofold:
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one, seeds; two, actual [dharmasl. "Seeds" means the various energies in the root consciousness that are good, defiled, and non-

determined of all realms, stages, etc. They have the ability to
attract subsequent energies [i.e., seeds' of their own species, and they generate simultaneous actual results [i.e., consciousnesses] of their own species. These are of the nature of conditions as cause only in that [situation]. As for actual [ dharmas], these are the [first] seven evolving consciousnesses, with their associates [i.e., mental activities], the seen and seeing I parts' that are their transformations, natures [of good, etc.', the realms, stages, etc., with the exception of the good I dharmasl of the fruit of Buddhahood and extremely weak and nondetermined The others perfume the root consciousness and generate seeds of their own species. These are of the nature of conditions as cause only from the point of view of the other. Because the group of the eighth consciousness has nothing to perfume, and because [mental activities] cannot perfume alone in the absence of their supports [i.e., consciousness I, and because I the eighth and first six consciousnessesI are extremely slight, and [in Buddhas, the eighth consciousness] is extremely perfect, these do not perfume or create seeds.

The development of the same species of actual I dharmasl is not of the nature of condition as cause among themselves, because they are born of their own seeds. The development of all of
different species is also not a condition as cause among themselves,
401)

because they do not directly produce leach other'. As for the explanation that development of actual [dharmas I of both different and same species is a condition as cause among themselves, you should understand it as hypothetical, or it is a concession [to the
Sarvastivádins I. There is the simple explanation I in the Yogácárabhúrni Sáslra I that seeds are of the nature of conditions as cause. That is in accordance with their prominence and value I as a continuous series 1, but that is not an utterly reasonable explanation, because the holy teachings say that the development of the [first seven I evolving consciousnesses and the dlaya are conditions as causes for each other.

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3. Similar and Immediately Antecedent Condition
The second is the similar and immediately antecedent condition.

This means the eight actual consciousnesses and their mental activities as a prior group vacate and then summon a subsequent
[group] that is of its own species, without interruption, and simi-

lar, and cause it to be definitely born. The many seeds of the
same species are not categorized as this condition, because they evolve simultaneously, like the unassociated I dharmas]. Consequently, the eight consciousnesses are not conditions [of this kind I

for each other. Even though mental activities always evolve together with mind, they are its associates, and they therefore com-

bine with them to resemble a unity that cannot be supposed to be separate or differentiated, and for that reason they act upon each other as similar and immediately antecedent conditions.

Upon entering f nirvana I without remainder, the mind is extremely weak and lacking in the function of vacating and summoning. Also, it will not I subsequently] generate similar and antecedent dharmas. Therefore it is not this condition. How do we know that this is so? There is evidence in the [Yogácárabhianzi I Sñ.Stra that says, "If immediately after this consciousness, etc., another I subsequent I consciousness, etc., is definitely born, then we say that the former is the similar and immediately antecedent condition of the latter." It must be said as a consequence of this interpretation that it is possible for the Adana I i.e., store I consciousness in [one of ]

the three realms and nine of the stages to act as a similar and immediately antecedent condition for that of another I realm or
stage I, because [cadána consciousness] in a superior I realm or stage]

introduces birth and death in an inferior I realm or stage I, etc.,
I and vice versa I. An impure [consciousness] immediately has birth

as pure I consciousness], but the pure is definitely not born as an impure one, because once mirror knowledge occurs, it must never come to an end. The same is so of the relationship between a good [cadcana consciousness] and a nondetermined one.

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From what realm does this [impure consciousness] generate purity? Either from the realm of form or from the realm of desire. That is, in the case of ordinary beings who seek Buddhahood, [that consciousness I definitely generates pure I consciousness] from the realm of form, because it is necessary for them to be subsequently born above the Suddhavasika [realm of celestials] in the abode of Mahesvara [at the apex of the realm of form] in order to obtain
hodhi. In the case of I followers of 1 the two vehicles who turn toward

great bodhi, [that consciousness] definitely generates purity from the realm of desire, because only in the realm of desire does one

turn [toward bodhil and preserve the body. The reason is that even though they must go to the abode of Mahesvara in order to
become Buddhas, still the natural bodies they preserve by the power of great vows are those of the realm of desire. There is an interpretation that in the realm of form, also, there are disciples (srdvaka) who turn to the Mahayana and vow to pre-

serve their bodies, and this does not disagree with teachings or reason. Therefore the purity of the eighth consciousness of disciples is capable of appearing from the mind of the realm of form. As for the absence of turning I to the Mahayana I in the five Suddhavásika I realms], it is because the scriptures do not say that [beings there I manifest the great mind I of bodhi J. The seventh evolving consciousness of I one of] the three realms and nine stages may act as a similar and immediately antecedent condition [ for another seventh consciousness of a different realm

or stage], because it is bound to the place of birth of the eighth consciousness. Impure and pure I seventh consciousnessesI may produce each other, because in the state of the ten stages, they are able to attract each other. This is also so of the relationship between good and nondetermined (states of manas!.
Defiled and nondefiled I states] among the nondeterminates vacate and summon each other. because knowledge of the emptiness of the person and its fruit I and defiled states] are able to attract each other as prior or subsequent states. Impure and pure produce each other in the realms of desire and form but not in the formless realm, because in the upper stages, bodhisattvas are not born in that [realm].

40e

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Demonstration of Consciousness Only

The sixth evolving consciousness of [one of I the three realms and nine stages, which may be impure, pure, good, not good, etc., may each act as a similar and immediately antecedent condition for the other, because they attract each other in the state of nour-

ishing rebirth, etc. The preliminary occurrence of purity lof the sixth consciousness' only follows !consciousness of I the realm of form, because the good that is connected with the aids to penetration (nirvedha- bhägiya) is only [connected with' the realm of form. Consciousnesses of eye, ear, and body in two realms and two stages, and the two consciousnesses of nose and tongue of one realm

and one stage, act as similar and immediately antecedent conditions for their own species. Good, etc., I states of consciousness] do likewise, you should know, in their relations between each other.

There is an interpretation that whether impure or pure, the [first] five consciousnesses act as similar and immediately antecedent conditions for their own species, because they may generate each other prior to the achievement of Buddhahood. According to another interpretation, the pure arises subsequent to the impure, but not vice- versa, because the pure five consciousnesses do not exist in non - Buddhas, because their five material organs are definitely impure, and because [the organs] are categorized as being the seen part of consciousness as retribution. [Why do the five impure organs not generate pure conscious
ness?) Because the impure [ organs] are uncommon I or special I supports, are necessarily simultaneous I with the five consciousnesses], and have the same objects [as the corresponding consciousnesses I,

because the manifestation of pure consciousness by the organs does not correspond with reason, and because of the difference of
clarity and dullness of these two I respectively] regarding objects.
4. Condition as Perceptual Object

The third is the condition in the form of [perceptual I object. This means an existing dharma perceived by mind and mental activities and the support of mind and mental activities that are closely tied to their own forms. Its substance is twofold: the immediate

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and the distant. If it is not separated from the essence I i.e., consciousness' that has it for an object and is that which the seeing part, etc., perceives and has as an internal support, you must understand that that is an immediate condition as object. Even though

it is separated from the essence that has it for an object, if it acts
as an essence capable of generating that is perceived by [conscious-

ness) and which supports [consciousness] internally, you must understand that that is the distant condition as object.
All [consciousnesses] that have objects have immediate conditions as objects, because they must not be born apart from an in-

ternal object of perception and support. Those that take objects sometimes have distant conditions as objects [but not always), because they can be born apart from external objects of perception and supports [such as the future, past, etc.].
As for the group of the eighth consciousness, there is an inter-

pretation that it has only an immediate condition as object, because it transforms las objects) spontaneously through the power
of karmic causes I within it I. According to another interpretation, it definitely also has distant conditions as objects, because, when it transforms into I the body of I another, it must be supported by the essence of the other in order to transform. There is an interpretation that neither of the [above] two explanations corresponds with reason. Bodies and lands of oneself and others may experience each other, because the transformations [of consciousness, of others are one's own essence. One's own seeds are not experienced by another, because it does not correspond to

reason that they transform into another's, because the seeds of various sentient beings are not equal. It must be said that there
may or may not be distant conditions as objects for this group [of the eighth consciousness]. As for the group of the seventh consciousness, prior to transmutation of the support, [Haws) must be supported by an external essence [i.e., the eighth consciousness), because [impurity] is innate. Therefore it definitely has a remote condition as object. Once the support is transmuted, it does not necessarily have it,

247

Demonstration of Consciousness Only

41a

because it has no external essence [as object) when it has as objests true reality (tathatä), etc.
The mode of activity of the group of the sixth consciousness is

strong and active and is able to evolve freely in all states, so it may or may not have as a support an external essence. I Consequently,] the existence or nonexistence of distant objects as condition is uncertain. As for the group of the first five consciousnesses, in the state

prior to the transmutation of the support, they are coarse, dull, and weak and therefore must be supported by external essences. Therefore it is also certain that they have distant conditions as objects. Once they have undergone the transmutation of the support, they do not necessarily have them, because they do not have
external essences [as objects when they have as objects such things

as past, future, etc.

5. Dominant Condition
The fourth is the dominant condition. This means an existing
dharma with a superior power and function that can, vis -à -vis other

dharmas, either promote them or oppose them. Even though the previous [three] conditions are also dominant, the present fourth one excludes those and accepts others in order to show the distinct characteristics of various conditions. The function of promoting and opposing evolves in four situations: generating, sustaining, realizing, and obtaining. Even though the functions of the dominant I condition] are many depending on events, there are only twenty -two that are predominant and obvious. You must understand that these are the twenty -two capacities (indriya). (These are as follows:] The first five material capacities (rúpa- indriya ), because their

nature is that of the pure form of the eye, etc., that are transformations of root consciousness, etc. Male and female capacities (vyarzjana- indriya), because they are categorized as the bodily capacity; they are therefore a small part of that capacity.

248

Chapter VIII

The vital capacity (jiuita- indriya) does not by nature exist separately, being only conventionally established on the basis of being a state of the immediate seeds of root consciousness.

Mental capacity (mana- indriya) is by nature the eighth consciousness in general. The five capacities of feeling (uedana- indriya) have as their
nature the five feelings I of indifference, etc. I themselves as is fitting

[in relation to various consciousnessesI. The five capacities of faith, etc., have as their self - nature faith, etc., and good memory, etc.

The capacity of knowing the as -yet unknown (andjlidlamajñdsyá.mi -iti- indriya) has three states of substance. The first is
the root state (mula- ccvasthc), i.e., on the path of insight, with the exception of the final instant, because there is no longer anything

unknown that is to be known. The second is the state of added effort; i.e., [the four aids to penetration, nirveclha- bhagiyei, consisting of I heat, summits, patience, and supreme worldly dharmas,

because they can directly attract and generate the [above] root state. The third is the state of equipment (sarnbhára- avasthd);
i.e., all roots of good, from the desire to produce definitely superior good dharmas in order to obtain the comprehension of truth (satyaabhisa rrrays), up to, but not yet conforming to, the aids to pen-

etration, are called the "state of equipment," because they are able indirectly to assist and produce the root state.

In these three states, the nature of this capacity consists of the five capacities of faith, etc., along with thought, delight, happiness, and indifference. The capacity of regret also exists in the state of added effort, etc., when one feels sad about subsequent
superior dharmas I not yet realized], but it is not properly a root of good and therefore is usually not mentioned. As for this capacity existing in the first three formless realms, this is because there is a possibility of cultivating this capacity on the side of the superior path of insight. Or one in the state of the two vehicles who turns toward the Great I Vehicle] in order to realize the emptiness of dharmas generates, prior to this state, the

249

The path of insight of bodhisattvas also contains this capacity. there is also the capacity of sorrow following the search of supreme liberation. 6. If we follow this interpretation. 250 . That is. I is the foundation of speech. and views. because on the basis of this foundation and conforming to seeing.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 41b purity of the emptiness of the person included in nine stages. etc. are all of the name of the capacity of knowing.indriya) is of the nature of the nine pure capacities of the stage of post. still it is not clear and sharp and is not of the nature of the last three capacities. The conformal. because all these bodhisattvas have this capacity.. etc. names. because the time I of the path when it occurs] is hurried. Such is the self . they constitute ten causes (hetu).. In those not yet free of desire.expression cause (anuuyauahára -hetu) is es- tablished on the basis of this foundation [consisting of speech]. The Ten Causes Because these IaboveI four conditions are distinguished on the basis of the concept of the fifteen foundations (adhisthdna). and concepts.e. from the final moment of the initial path of insight up to the Diamond like Samadhi.learner. so it is not discussed much. There is a treatise that says that this I foundation I is names. hearing. How are they established on the basis of the fifteen foundations? The first is the foundation consisting of speech (uac). but it is said I to exist' only prior to the [ten! stages. its nature is that of speech generated by dharmas. The interpretation of other topics [related to them] should be understood in accordance with the [Yogácárabhúmi] Sastra. concepts. The nine pure capacities one possesses. That which expresses is the cause of what is expressed. grasping their characteristics.. but it is not properly speaking a root of good. one expresses various concepts. because [expression] occurs in conformity to and resulting from naming things.e. then this cause [i. i. such as faith. Although the purity of discursive contemplation exists at the peak of existence. The capacity of one who has understood (ajfidtdui..nature of the twenty -two capacities. names. and becoming attached to their differences.

i..kara). The sixth is the foundation consisting of the objective realm (visaya ).. I. and this is the consideration cause of those I events]. The seventh is the foundation consisting of the organs (indriya). 41e The tenth is the foundation consisting of true view (tulles dargana).Chapter VIII The second is the foundation consisting of feeling (anubhava).e.e. because it is capable of projecting its own results distantly. The productive cause is established on the basis of this foundation. The third is the foundation consisting of perfuming. The ninth is the foundation consisting of the activity of the doer (purusa. i. the activity of the doer of the action that is done.e. i. pure view. in consider- ing this I feeling]. The fourth is the foundation consisting of fertilized seeds (sasneha. That is. The projecting cause (äksepa -hetu) is established on the basis of this foundation.e. because it is able to produce its own results immediately.e.. the similar and immediately antecedent condition (consisting' of mind and mental activities {that immediately cease upon the arising of subsequent states of mind. inter- nal and external seeds in an immature state. which is that which is considered. i. i... etc. and obtained. i.. i. the supporting six organs of mind and mental activities. and generates pure dharmas. its nature is that of the feeling and that which is felt.niruddha).. the activity of the instrument of the action that is done. attracts. it aids. that is.. The fifth is the foundation consisting of immediate cessation (anantara. that is. This consists of the remaining active conditions with the exception of the seeds. the condition as object of mind and mental activities. Excluding the attraction of its own seeds. various events are made to be generated. i. sustained. 251 .e.e. achieved.. The consideration cause (apeksd -hetu) is established on the basis of this foundation. internal and external seeds in the mature state. This consists of the remaining active conditions with the exception of the seeds. The eighth is the foundation consisting of activity (karatia).e. i.e.bija).

various nondetermined. i. and it is able to attract and obtain unconditioned dharmas.etu) is established on the basis of this foundation. that constitute a power of union with regard to generating. perfecting. both as actual I dharmasl and as seeds. etc.e.hetu).. dharmas that do not obstruct the events consisting of generating. The opposing cause (virodha -hetu) is established on the basis of this foundation. that is. and obtaining. The particular cause (pratiniyama -hetu) is established on the basis of this foundation. i. The fifteenth is the foundation consisting of nonobstruction (apratibandha). The thirteenth is the foundation consisting of union (samagri). and good forces (sumskdra). that is. The eleventh is the foundation consisting of promotion (anupratipatti). sustaining. i. from that of feeling up to that of special powers... i.e. because those [dharmas) can obstruct the events consisting of generating. The identical activity cause (sahakcri. because all [causes]. perfecting. perfecting. that is. all foundations. that is. because it is able to attract and generate superior forces of the same species.. i. because each [conditioned dharma I is able to produce the result of its own [particular' realm. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only On the basis of these I above last' six 'foundations' as a whole is established the assisting cause (parigraha..e. The fourteenth is the foundation consisting of obstruction (pratibandha).' provide impure dharmas and all six provide the pure [dharmasl.e. The attracting cause is established on the basis of this foundation. have an identical activity of generating. sustaining. sustaining. defiled. the special power of conditioned dharmas that enables each to generate its own results. and obtaining.. etc. and each is able to obtain the result of its own [particular) vehicle (yána).e..h..e. because five of the assisting [causes.visesa). The 252 . which are able to promote dharmas of the same species and those of a superior class. and obtaining results. from that of contemplation up to that of the particular. those dharmas that are able to obstruct the events consisting of generating. The twelfth is the foundation consisting of special power (káritra. i.

etc. etc. all seeds that are conditions as cause are included in the two states Iof maturity and immaturity]. because those two causes are seeds that are not conditions as cause. second. just as one speaks of the seeds of actual grains. "Projecting seeds and productive seeds are called `generating causes. consisting of I the projecting. that is. produce their own seeds. fifth. say that the productive cause is the generating cause.'" This says that of [six causes..e. and ninth. like the four causes. barley. because those [dharmasl do not obstruct the events of generating. they are given the name "seeds" [in that textI because they immediately produce fruit.. The other causes i. attracting. iden- tical activity.Chapter VIII nonopposing cause (auirodha -hetu) is established on the basis of this foundation. productive. 42a while the others are categorized as instrumental." This is because among those six causes. the generating (janaka -hetu) and the instrumental (upaya. Alternately I according to a second interpretation I. The SauitarkabhThni [chapter of the Yogcicärabhúmi Sástra]. and those among the six causes that are not dharmas in the capacity of conditions as cause are all other than seeds as conditions as cause that produce retribution.' All remaining causes are categorized as `instrumental causes." and those in a mature state are called "generating seeds. It is not only those eight I excluding the projecting cause and productive cause I that are referred to as "remaining causes" I in the above treatise I. still they are often interrupted and for that reason are omitted in the statement of the above treatise I. It is not that these two I kinds of ] seeds belong only to those two I kinds of causes]. the seeds as conditions as cause in the immature state are called "projecting seeds. and therefore they are said to be categorized as instrumental causes. etc. The Rodhisattoabhünii /SástraJ says. and nonobstructing. particular.hetu). I although there are presently active actual dharmasl that can generate I results and technically belong to the generating class of causes] and. These ten causes are categorized as two causes. because in four other causes there are seeds that are conditions as cause. 253 . [According to one interpretation. the first.

" you should understand. Nor is it that only those nine I causes in the list of ten] are referred to as "remaining causes. and the "remaining causes" are the remaining eight. still they are far away from bearing results. The remaining I other eight causes' categorized as instrumental causes should be understood in the same way as the above. the productive I cause] is the same as the productive cause I in the list of ten I and the "remaining causes. are the remaining nine [of the list of ten I. and for that reason it is said incorrectly [that they are productive causes'. Even though in this productive I cause] there are seeds that are not conditions as cause. still those that are dominant [conditions! are numerous and obvious. still the seeds that are conditions as cause are predominant and obvious. because there are conditions as cause among five other causes." because in the I excluded] generating cause.] the projecting and productive seeds spoken of in the Bodhisallvabhúmi Sdstra are the two causes [i. 254 . Or. [according to another interpretation. still they are proximate in bearing results and are obvious. Even though within these two causes there are causes that are not generative. Even though among the remaining causes there are causes that are not expedient.e. and for that reason [the text] does not mention them [as generating causes].Demonstration of Consciousness Only The meaning of this passage I in the Saviitarkabhümi I is that of the six causes that are conditions as cause.." It is not that this productive I cause I belongs only to that I generating] cause. whether actual I dharmas] or seeds. and the immediate seeds are obscure. The remaining [four] are all categorized as "instrumental. As for the Savitarkabhúmi [chapter] saying that the productive cause is the generating cause and the remaining [causes among the ten] are instrumental. all are called "productive causes. Even though in the projecting cause there are also seeds that are conditions as cause. and for that reason I that text] says incorrectly [that they are instrumental causes'. there are dharmas I that are not conditions as cause. projecting and productive]. and for that reason I the text] says incorrectly I that they are generating causes]." because they immedi- ately generate results of their own species.

Or those are also referred to as seeds. Even though the foundations that are actual Idharmasl are also conditions as cause. Or.stra says that the condition as cause is categorized as the generating cause. still they are often interrupted. because. The middle two conditions are 255 . Among these [conditions'. [according to a different interpreta- tion.adhisthána). the seeds of the six [foundations) three. four.bija.Chapter VIII On the basis of which foundations are the four conditions that we have discussed based? How do they include the ten causes and two causes? The I Yogdcärabhúmi] Sastra says that the condition as cause is established on the basis of the seeds (sasneha. etc.. the dominant condition is by nature the instrumental cause. eleven. still they are omitted [from the definition! because they are few and obscure. and [the Yogdeczrabhümi Sastra I omits them without discussion. With regard to the terms "foundation consisting of immediate cessation" and "foundation consisting of the objective realm. the similar and immediately antecedent condition is established on the basis of immediate cessation (anantara. because the remaining foundations also contain the meaning of the middle two conditions. not just the fifth and sixth foundations. the condition as object is established on the basis of the objective realm (uisaya. like external grains." you should understand that they indicate generally the foundations of the two conditions [similar and immediately antecedent condition and condition as object!. twelve. The [Yogdedrabhizmil Sa. accepting the immediate and obvious and rejecting the distant and obscure as before.) the word "seeds" pertains only to the fourth [foundation. they are capable of immediately accomplishing their own results.adhisthána). Or [according to another interpretation] they are only the fifth and sixth !foundations!. thirteen. the fertilized seeds).adhisthána). and fifteen are categorized as seeds as conditions as cause.the meaning of the two conditions!.niruddha. Even though the other foundations have (. the dominant condition is established on the basis of the remaining [foundations].

The categorization of the first [condition. The third is [the result of] disentanglement (visanzyoga. still. because the dominant conditions are numerous. good unconditioned dharmas realized by cutting off the obstacles to the pure path. the remaining results that are obtained. cause] as the generating [cause] may be understood by analogy. that is. operations transacted by various agents employing various implements..phala). and for that reason I the above text I incorrectly speaks of them [as assisting causes]. The second is I the result that is] similar (nisyanda.. the similar result is acquired through the foundation consisting 256 . that is. that is. or [restated] the evolving of a subsequent result resembling a prior action.' although the instrumental cause is made up of the last three I of the four' conditions. [However. The re- maining causes [other than instrumental causesI contain the middle two conditions. however.phala). The first is [result as] retribution (vipáka. 7.phala). that is. According to the Yogctcczrabhzzzni Sa. the nondetermined Idharmasl 42b born of retribution in one's own continuity (svasanztána) summoned by impure good and nongood dharmas. with the exception of the previous four. that is [dharmas I of the same species attracted by repeated good. The fifth is the [result that is] dominant (adhipati phala). and on the basis of what foundations (adhisthäna) are they obtained? There are five kinds of results (phala).stra and others.Demonstration of Consciousness Only categorized as assisting causes. How many results are there. i.e. [karma]. [the above text] speaks of them incorrectly [as dominant conditions I. The Five Results The causes and conditions that were discussed must have results. these I two conditions' are obvious as assisting causes. etc. the result as retribution is acquired through the foundation consisting of seeds. The fourth is [the result of ] the operations of the person (purusa- hizra.phala).

the result of disentanglement is acquired through the foundation consisting of true views. the result of the operations of the person is acquired through the foundation consisting of the operations of the person. The words "remaining foundations" indicate all the energies of various foundations that acquire dominant results.adhislhána) indicate all the energies of various foundations that realize the result that is disentanglement.adhisthána) indicate all the energies of various foundations that create the results of the operations of the person. still cause as retribution is distant from its result.Chapter VIII of promotion. Even though the result that is similar is found in other foundations. Even though cause as retribution also exists in other foundations. [The foundation consisting of] promotion applies only to the eleventh foundation.dargana. The words "foundation that is perfuming" (vasand. and for that reason it can be said in a sense I that this foundation is the basis for the result that is retribution]. Even though other foundations are also 257 . Or. The words "foundation that is promotion" (anupratipatti.adhisthána) indicate all the energies of various foundations that attract results that are similar.adhisthána) indicate all the energies (sakti) of various foundations that promote the result that is retribution. The words "foundation consisting of true view" only explain the tenth [foundation]. [according to a divergent interpretation. the foundation consisting of I perfuming applies only to the third I foundation]. The words "foundation consisting of the operations of the person" (purusa -kara. and its mode of activity is obvious. and although results that are not similar are found in this foundation. they would necessarily be too loose or too restricted. If [these correspondences I were other than this. still this cause summons the superior I dharmas I. and for that reason it is said in a sense [that this foundation is the basis for the result that is similar]. and although there are causes that are not retribution in this foundation. The words "foundation that is true view" (tattaa. and the same is so of perfuming. and the dominant result is acquired through the remaining foundations.

attracting. identical activity. In the case of the result that is similar. etc. productive. identical activity.Demonstration of Consciousness Only able to realize disentanglement. particular. in the case of the result that is retribution. Even though these eleven foundations acquire other results. Of the five results so discussed. assisting. particular. The {words] "other foundations" apply only to the remaining eleven [foundations]. The words "foundation consisting of the operations of the person" only explain the ninth [foundation]. there is an interpretation that it is acquired by the contemplation. it is acquired by the projecting. attracting. particular. assisting. Even though the result of the operations of the person is summoned by other foundations. as well as the dominant condition. and nonopposing causes. and for that reason it is said in a sense I that it is the basis of the result consisting of disentanglement I. as well as the dominant condition. attracting. identical activity. productive. it is acquired by the assisting. identical activity. still its mode of activity of realizing disentanglement is obvious. assisting. as well as the three conditions other than 258 . and for that reason it is said in a sense [that it is the basis for the result of the operations of the person]. along with the condition as cause and the dominant condition. still these eleven frequently summon the dominant [result]. along with the dominant condition. projecting. According to another interpretation. its name and mode of activity are obvious. it is acquired by the contemplation. and the remainder manifest the others. and although this foundation is capable of realizing that which is not disentanglement. 2c and nonopposing causes. and although other foundations are also capable of summoning the dominant result. In the case of the results of the operations of the person.. it is acquired by the projecting. identical activity. it is said in a sense I that these foundations manifest the dominant result]. In the case of the result that is disentanglement. and nonopposing causes. and for that reason. and although this foundation is capable of summoning the domi- nant result. productive. and nonopposing causes. particular. and nonopposing causes.

and the remaining five are for that [sixth'. each parent seed is a condition as cause for that I which is its direct result I.Chapter VIII the condition as object. That is. they are dominant conditions. because they are not the essence on which it is based. because they grasp actual objects. because they are not conditions as cause. the sixth may be three I kinds of conditions'. Actual imaginations in their mutual assistance may constitute among themselves three conditions. As for [the opinion of Dignaga] that the subsequent 259 . You should understand that this is also the case in their production of pure actual [dharmas]. The sixth is not I a condition as object' for the I first] five. excluding the similar and immediately antecedent I condition]. different sentient beings may constitute two conditions for each other. Seeds and Actual Dharmas The seeds in the root consciousness in their generation of actual imaginations may constitute three conditions. 8. they are definitely dominant conditions for each other. It is a condition as object for that which has it as an object. and the remaining seven are not for the eighth. but they must not be similar and immediately antecedent conditions. None of the remaining six are I conditions as objects' for the seventh. it is possible for it to be acquired by all ten causes and four conditions. but they may or may not be conditions as objects. but it is for the sixth. but the seventh is not for the eighth. let us return to the proper matter [of conditionality I. but the other I seven] are not [conditions as] objects [for successors]. In the succession of I consciousness of ] the same species. The eighth I consciousness] may be [a condition as object I for the seventh. That is. excluding acting as similar and immediately antecedent [conditions'. because the [first] five consciousnesses rely only on the images of the eighth. Now that we have examined this peripheral matter I of the five results]. In the case of the dominant result. Among the eight consciousnesses that con- stitute one's own group. If seeds have the power to help and do not obstruct the results]. The seventh is not fa condition as object] for the five I first] consciousnesses.

authenticating I part. The seeing part is just the dominant [condition] for that [ seen part!.e. Conceding that [consciousness I transforms into form. I it is on the basis of the seeing part that it is said that they do not have each other as objects. it definitely also has seeds as objects. and it is on the basis of the seen part that it is said that there is the meaning of having each other as objects. according to Dignága. etc. they must be devoid of objects in the formless [realms].1 the prior seven may be objects for the eighth.. [Also. because we have been making the point that actual [dharmasI are conditions for each other. In this matter. the various seen parts arise with each other as essences. i.Demonstration of Consciousness Only seeing I parti of the five !first consciousnesses 1 has as its object the prior image. Or. That is. because they can perfume and create the seeds of the seen and seeing [parts I of that I eighth consciousness]. Only the seeing part is excluded as not being an object for the seen [part]. because if that is not so. The group of the eight consciousnesses when purified are all objects for each other in their mutual assistance. Since actual imaginations are born with both seeds and the actual 260 . In the mutual assistance of the remaining two [parts]. the svasamvitti -bhága J. because they are all able to have all things as objects. they are two conditions for each other. [ Dharmas of] the same group but of different substances are only dominant conditions among themselves. Seen parts of the same substance act as two conditions for the seeing [part].. because the seen part in principle is devoid of the function of having objects. The same is the case between the seeing I part] and the self . because the support- ing essence of associated dharmas is the same and they do not have each other as objects. the explanation is not based on seeds as the seen and seeing parts. because it may not be that the objects of the seeing part are not of a common essence. just as the seeds in the I store] consciousness are the essences for contact. the sequence of the five I consciousnesses) and the seventh constitute three conditions. [according to Dignága.

such as are grasped I by the Small Vehicle]. really exist. On the basis of the arising of an internal consciousness through mutual conditioning. but they are only dominant conditions for seeds that are not immediate 1. in principle.Chapter VIII I dharmas I as objects. four. but only the dominant condition for seeds that are not 4:3a immediate. they contradict reason and teachings. three. Actual dharmas altogether make two conditions for the immediate seeds. as explained at length in other treatises. there is a cause and result [structure] of the imaginations. they have no function.. so why be attached to them? Even though the term "imaginations" indicates in general mind and mental activities of the three realms. How many conditions can actual I dharmas I and seeds be for seeds? Seeds cannot arise from the middle two conditions I samanantara and eilambana l because these I two 1 are established in dependence on mind and mental activities. 261 . Two conditions altogether of seeds in relation to immediate seeds. five. etc. still a number of them are discussed in the holy teaching in accordance with their prominence two. Even more. Even granting that objects that are external [to mind]. arise with actual I dharmas] and seeds as objects. the seeds also. in succession]. as demonstrated by teachings and reason.

.

This habit energy develops in a continuous series up to the time it becomes mature and summons the result that is retribution. They are the "vapors" of deeds created by perfuming. and for that reason [the verses) speak of HABIT ENERGY. The name ACTION also applies to the retinue of action [i. and root 263 . SUBSEQUENTLY PRODUCE OTHER RETRIBUTION. the five aggregates I. names and form. mind and mental activities. unmeritorious. impure good and bad volitional action. because they also summon and provide the result that is retribution.. WHEN PRIOR RETRIBUTION IS EXHAUSTED. This indicates the supreme dominant condition of the future result.Chapter IX Birth and Death and the Three Habit Energies Even though internal consciousness exists. still there are no external conditions.e. The Treatise says that VARIOUS ACTIONS (karma) means meritori- ous. which is to say. and these powers are called HABIT ENERGY. and unchanging. THE HABIT ENERGY OF VARIOUS ACTIONS TOGETHER WITH THE HABIT ENERGY OF THE TWO GRASPINGS. so what is the basis for the continuity of birth and death (samsdra) among sentient beings? [Vasubandhu'sJ verses say. The grasping of the seen [part of consciousness] and the seeing [party. Past and present action are excluded. yet it perfumes root consciousness and generates its own powers. Even though [action) ceases immediately as soon as it occurs and cannot be admitted as having the ability to summon future results of retribution.

the verse mentions it first. but the similar and dominant [results] are easy to instigate. the separate. so why imagine external conditions in order for there to be a continuous series [of lives]? The meaning of the above [verses] is that the turning of the wheel due to action and the two graspings does not occur apart from consciousness. that is. [the mature seeds] subsequently produce other results as retribution. The first is habit energy of names and expressions. The first is names and expressions that express meaning. This indicates that they are seeds in the capacity of conditions as cause for future mind and its associates as results as retribution. Next I there is another interpretation] that the continuous series of births and deaths is due to various habit energies (uásanä). that instigate other lives. due to their being of the same nature I as their cause]. OTHER RETRIBUTION means results as retribution 43b for action in later lives. immediate seeds of each conditioned dharma. as remote and immediate I conditions respectively. when the enjoyment of results of previous retribution is exhausted. the wheel of birth and death is unending. in general. Names and expressions are of two kinds. still the habit energy of action experiences results and is then exhausted. The energies in root consciousness that have been per- fumed I by the two graspings] and that can immediately produce those [same two graspingsl are called HABIT ENERGY OF THE Two GRASPINGS. The result as retribution is difficult to summon due to its difference in nature. Consequently.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and branches [as self and dharmas I is all categorized as the TWO GRASPINGS. because [cause and result] are by nature dharmas of mind and mental activities. which is 264 . which are. PRIOR RETRIBUTION means results as retribution for actions in previous lives. TOGETHER WITH means that the seeds of action together with the seeds of the two graspings.) assist each other [to produce the result]. Though the seeds of the two graspings experience results endlessly.. of three kinds. Because of the obviousness of action summoning birth. etc. As a consequence of the maturity of the seeds of action.

" Grasping a self is of two kinds. the grasping of a "self" and a "mine" that is to be eliminated by the path of insight. that is. mind and mental activities that perceive objects. The seeds that are created by perfuming in accordance with the two I kinds of] causes of existence cause the difference between good and evil destinies as results as retribution. The second kind is the grasping of a self through imagination. The second kind is names and expressions that reveal objects. this should be understood to mean the habit energy of the cause of existence. The 265 . The first is impure good [action]. which is to say. different sounds that express meaning. The cause of existence is twofold. the seeds of action that summon retribution in the three realms. which is to say.Chapter IX to say. The seeds that are created by perfuming through the two I kinds of I names and expressions constitute separate conditions as cause for each conditioned dharma. The second consists of various nongood [actions]. the grasping of a "self" and a "mine" that is to be eliminated by I the path of I cultivation. The words HABIT ENERGY OF THE TWO GRASPINGS in the verse should be understood as the habit energies of the two I kinds of seeds] of grasping a self and names and expressions. which is to say. All are referred to as "graspings" because they are created by perfuming from grasping an "I" and "mine" and from grasping names and expressions. The first is an innate grasping of a self. which is to say. the seeds of a false grasping of "I" and "mine. Seeds created by perfuming through the two kinds of grasping of a self cause the distinction of self and others among sentient beings. When the Verses speak of HABIT ENERGY. etc. that is. You should understand that the habit energies of grasping a self and the cause of existence are dominant conditions for different results.väzsand).graha). actions that are capable of summoning nonpleasurable results. which is to say. The third I kind of habit energy] is the habit energy of the cause of existence (bhava. action that is capable of summoning pleasurable results. The second I kind of habit energy I is habit energy of grasping a self (atma.

I there is another interpretation) that the continuous series of births and deaths is a result of passions. etc. that is. The first are those members that project (cdzsepaka). The meaning of other passages such as TOGETHER WITH are as previously explained. actions (karma). "Actions" are various actions that are capable of summoning subsequent existences. as explained at length in the treatise. The seeds of passions. and suffering are all called "habit energy. i. "Suffering" is the mass of suffering attracted and generated by action. actions. The third habit energy I of suffering] is ca- pable of acting as the condition as cause for birth and death. Passions and suffering are called "graspings" because they are I respectively] the grasper and the grasped.. none of the actions [whose results] are experienced in the present life nor those actions that aid in I the generation off future [recompense] are this member. The Twelve Members of Conditioned Arising The twelve members (arena) can be reduced to four. Consequently.e. Of these. 43c 266 . because they are able to project the seeds of the five results consisting of consciousness. and suffering are wholly included in the twelve members of existence. from ignorance up through birth and death. because they help produce suffering.Demonstration of Consciousness Only meaning of other passages such as TOGETHER WITH are as previ- ously explained. actions." so action is not so named. "Grasping" has the meaning of "attachment. "Karmic forces" is the name given to those that are produced by that [ignorance]. 1. ignorance is considered to be only that which can give rise to good and bad action that directly summons subsequent lives. "Passions" are the passions Hit." The first two habit energies [of passions and actions] are dominant conditions for the suffering of birth and death. because it immediately produces suffering. Next. and suffering (dit kha). ignorance and the karmic forces (sainskára). The three habit energies of the verses should be understood accordingly. It should be understood that these passions. karmic forces. "afflictions" I that produce action and nourish birth.

and -form generally indicate five causes. are all categorized as seeds of name . are actually active. six sense bases.dhátu) respectively. they are definitely devoid of the meaning of actual activity. some holy teachings say hypothetically that there is a sequence I instead of simultaneity]. Here. the seeds of name . The six sense bases (sad. the seeds in root consciousness that immediately generate future results as retribution. A scripture says that the member of consciousness is both the projecting and the projected.and -form and not categorized as name -andform. it 267 . etc.Chapter IX The second [kind] consists of that which is projected (ñksipta).and form. Or it is said that there is a sequence because there is a sequence in their future actual state.czyatana) and consciousness (vijñána) refer generally to the six consciousnesses and specifically to the mental sense field (mano. because then they are causes l as seeds'. is really simulta- neous. because both seeds of action and seeds of consciousness are called "consciousness. The remaining causes. etc. and the other four I kinds of seeds I are established according to their predominance. "seeds of consciousness" refers to the cause of root consciousness. and the last three causes are the last three [kinds of I seeds. etc. it is said that consciousnesses. contact. still due to their different characteristics as ruler fin the case of consciousness] and retinue [in the case of name and -form. Moreover. The Abhidharmasamuccaya says that consciousness also projects. and feeling].. which include the seeds of consciousness.. because they are projected and produced by the former two members. that is. such as the sequence of name I and form]. Or. general and specific [respectively]. and cause and result. As a consequence of this. as a consequence of this." and because consciousness is the support of name. because the seeds of action in consciousness are named "consciousness member" (vijñána -añga) and because the seeds of con- sciousness as retribution are categorized as name and -form. excluding the last three causes.. Even though the perfuming and production through action as a result of the five seeds of consciousness. superior and inferior.

bhava) up to the basic existence. and the seeds of the five results are projected and immediately generate the state of birth and death of future lives. in dependence on the delusion of being confused about internal results as retribution. The third [kind of member) is that which engenders (jánaka). old age. The fourth I kind of member! consists of those that are engen- dered (janya)." because they can directly instigate the result as retribution. that is. and death. and conditioned by thirst I the four [kinds of ] grasping." because together they are able to have immediate results in the form of subsequent lives. such as [grasping of desire. thirst (trsná ). That is. Again.. so why is it attached to death to form a member'? Why is illness not a member? Because it is not 268 . and becoming (badea). to be renamed "becoming. because the occasions when [the seeds] are nourished or not nourished are not simultaneous. and the name "death" is given to the deterioration of the body and the end of life. everything from the intermediate existence (antara. is called "birth. due to the delusion of being confused about external dominant results i. Thirst and grasping combine and nourish the seeds of action that project. along with the projected causes. Old age does not definitely exist. grasping (upádana). that is. thirst is produced. as long as there is no deterioration. There is another source that just says that the five seeds [of the five members beginning with consciousness) are named "becoming. grasping. birth (jäti) and old age and death (jaramarana). etc. and becoming. are born. because they are directly engendered by thirst.e. because they directly engender future birth. objects) and conditioned by experience of the external realm. There is a source that just says that the seeds of action are called "becoming." because they immediately generate seeds of future consciousness." Old age is the general name for the state of deterioration. actions in the form of conditions are produced that are able to summon subsequent lives at once. ']'hat is.Demonstration of Consciousness Only is said that engendering and projecting are simultaneous.

the five members I of consciousness. because those born in the evil destinies still have thirst for their present selves and for objects." Thirst does not exist universally. the member of name. Also.and -form is universal. and moisture must have name . Why does it constitute a member? It is a member because it is necessary. still just as they I still] grasp. It is necessary. and so at that time. Name. Due to their not having thirst that seeks a body in the evil destinies. but it is not completely nonexistent. thirst is universal. etc. because.and -form are not universal. specific characteristics are difficult to know. so it is not called a "mental sense base. I are separately established on 269 . eggs. Why does it separately constitute a member? Because the one born in an evil destiny does not thirst for it. the I Yogácarabhanzi I Sástra says. they definitely have the seeds I of thirst]. etc. because those born from wombs.. because one born in good destinies who does not seek nonexistence definitely has thirst. it is universal.Chapter IX universal or necessary I for causing rebirth].and -form as long as their six sense bases are incomplete. they are not called "six sense bases. destinies. and because even though the nonreturners do not have the occurrence of the thirst that nourishes rebirth. still it does not perceive clearly. Even though old age is not necessary. Even though beings in (the realm of] form and those who are miraculously born have the five f sense] organs when they first experience birth. What is the reason for establishing birth and old age as that which is engendered and separately establishing the five members of consciousness. and for that reason it constitutes a member. "The twelve members all exist in part in the two upper realms. with the exception of premature death. and forms of birth have decaying forces. it is said by the scriptures that I thirst does not exist. Also. I all beings in] the various realms." As a consequence of this." Even though [beings] definitely have the mental faculty when first born in the formless realm. as that which is projected? Because in the causal state. still [the organs) do not 44a yet function. and for that reason it separately constitutes a member.

On the basis of the states of result. and because of contact. because it has eleven particularities. and at that time it is said that the result of feeling is completed. That is. because it is said that thirst.Demonstration of Consciousness Only the basis of their future results.. and [grasping] is said to be the intensification of thirst. Even though all passions are included in the member of grasping. and the characteristics of name and -form grow. All members of conditioned arising are supported by their own 270 . it must be watered repeatedly. in order to bring about a clear understanding of the generation of the characteristics of the state. When it is in the present. the six sense bases are clear and thriving. like water. still the power of ignorance is predominant in the state of producing action. Next. the power of thirst is especially predominant. In order for becoming to sprout. can enrich. etc. when the organs are complete. The one [cause of action] of ignorance is established. it is said to be birth and old age and death in order to gener- ate disgust. as extensively discussed in the scriptures. As a consequence. contact appears. Because the distinct characteristics of the states of result are easy to understand. However. feeling occurs. and the two members of thirst and grasping are distinguished on the basis of the preliminary and subsequent parts [of the watering process!. such as its objects.. at the time of the first appearance of consciousness at rebirth. Regarding the state of nourishing action. the characteristics of causal consciousness are manifest. etc. when the result that is projected is in the future. still thirst is predominant in nourishing. What is the reason for generally establishing ignorance for the production of action and separately establishing thirst and grasping for the state of nourishing action? Even though various passions are capable of producing and nourishing. causes are established as being five in number. then there is no meaning of production through repetition. it is said to be the five !members] of consciousness. the two members I of birth and old age and death I are established generally in order to indicate the three [kinds of suffering I. the organs are still incomplete. Next.

whether actual or as seeds. because they are passions by nature. Five are single entities. the superior that had arisen would not be the member of the karmic forces. on the basis of what feeling does one generate the member of thirst? That thirst is based on the feeling of the future stage of birth. when one first subdued the impurity of a lower stage. nine are real and three are fictional. because the combined nourished six members [i. consciousness. and becoming. the [middle] three.e. that is. and cessation] are separately named "birth. Three are defiled only. or else one would have to go beyond those [two] and they would be extended endlessly [in infinite regress]. In this way. because they are results as retribution. grasping. The others are not single [but are composites]. Of the [ten] causes.. If it were otherwise. and the five beginning with conscious- ness in the three states [of origination. change. 2. 44b These twelve members the ten causes and two results are not necessarily of the same period. contact. the first seven. and thirst. feeling. They are necessarily of the same period in the case of [the last] two. 271 . or vice sarnádhi versa. are sometimes of different [periods] and sometimes of the same. ignorance and the five beginning with consciousness] are becoming. Related Topics On the topic of the differences of meanings of the twelve members. along with thirst. and the I first] seven. but some karmic forces that are produced are supported by the ignorance of another [stage]." etc. and seven are nondefiled only. There is really no need to devise a double repetition [as the Small Vehicle does]. which does not conflict with reason. a single repetition of cause and result in the twelve [members] sufficiently shows the turning of the wheel [of death and rebirth] and avoids annihi- lationism and eternalism. because the ignorance of that stage had not yet arisen. just as the inferior ignorance produces the karmic forces of a superior stage. the five of ignorance. When one is born in a lower stage from an upper one.Chapter IX stages.

because they do not delusively seek the results of suffering in subsequent lives. because one must be confused about the [four] truths in order for karmic forces to be produced. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Because defilement may occur in seven states.learners. The others are both. ignorance. Becoming is both good and bad. etc. contact. [Nonreturnersl assist old actions of the lower I stages] via mixed cultivation of the trance states (dhydna) and I consequently] are born in the [celestial realms of the! Pure Abodes. and because 272 . still some are in part and some are wholly. Consequently. and during the seven states. because there is a search for birth in the superior [stages! and a generation of that [member'. Karmic forces are good and bad only. There is an interpretation that ignorance is eliminated only by I the path of ] insight. you should understand that the saints necessarily do not perform or summon actions I leading to I subsequent lives. that is. because they are not mixed with characteristics of other members. consciousness. and grasping are said to be characterized by solitariness.. it is said hypothetically that they are both [defiled and nondefiled]. which is to say. All are categorized as impure and conditioned only. because pure and unconditioned Idharmasl are not members. Ignorance. Six are nonmaterial only. suffering. the six kinds of mode of activity consisting of coarseness. Ignorance. and grasping are not good and defiled and nondetermined only. The member that is karmic forces of a superior stage is capable of subduing that of a lower stage. thirst. Even though all [members] are common to the three realms. Impure good actions performed by the saints are conditioned by special knowledge (vidyá) and are opposed to the member of becoming. The other seven are only nondefiled and nondetermined. good or defiled [dharmas] also occur. and grasping. thirst. undefiled and nondetermined. and for that reason they are not categorized as the member of becoming. so there is no conflict with reason. feeling. None I of the members] is generated by those who are learners or post . The remainder are characterized by mixture.. The rest are of both kinds. thirst.

they are eternally eliminated. There is an interpretation that all [members' are eliminated by the two [paths]. "[He with] the result called `Entering the Stream' (srota. the self ." If [the cause I of ignorance is eliminated only by insight. The two members of thirst and grasping are eliminated only by [the path of cultivation. However. why is it said that he has not wholly eliminated it? If the 'causes that are I thirst and grasping are eliminated only by cultivation. and because the nine forms of death consciousness are accompanied by innate thirst. that is. The two members of thirst and grasping. Consequently. because it does not contradict the path.nature of defiled dharmas must be eliminated. None of the impure. and as assisting elements they are not limited Ito that elimination I. However. and grasping are eliminated by both insight and cultivation. Also. is to be eliminated by I the path of I insight. there are two interpretations that say that they are eliminated. and as an assisting element it is not limited Ito that elimination I. thirst. The first is because of the elimination of bonds. because the [Yogacdrabhamii Sástra says.ápanna) has already eliminated all causes of becoming in part but not wholly. which principally provokes the karmic forces.i I does not say that I passions I that nourish aa birth are eliminated only by cultivation and that karmic forces that summon subsequent lives are all produced by [passions] that are to be eliminated by insight. it is said that all passions of all realms are capable of binding birth. why is it said that he has eliminated all causes in part? Also. The remaining nine [members] are eliminated by [the paths of both insight and cultivation. the member of ignorance. as principally nourishing birth. [The Yogácarabhúm. Only passions generated by imagination (vikalpa) are able to elicit karmic forces I leading tol going to evil destinies. nondefiled dharmas is to be eliminated in its self nature. are to be eliminated only by [the path of I cultivation. you should understand that the three members of ignorance. the elimination of passions that have [these dharmas] as objects and 273 . because craving and seeking future lives nourishes becoming.Chapter IX the saints do not perform actions Reading tol subsequent lives. because when the antidote [of pure dharmasI is generated.

dulzkha). but old age and death is not said to he. Twelve are categorized as totally the suffering of the karmic forces (samskára. eliminating the supports and causing their eternal nongeneration. due to its definiteness. because they are by nature the aggregates that are grasped. The various members definitely are dominant [conditions] for each other. Five are also categorized as the truth of the origin of suffering]. because they are by nature actions or passions. According to scripture.Demonstration of Consciousness Only that are mixed with them. it is said that the evil destinies. because feeling is not associated with I the member of I feeling. Eleven are in part [categorized as the latter] due to indifference. mindless samädhi. this should be understood as is appropriate in the above eliminations. as was said of the suffering of deterioration. and deterioration is based on happiness. Twelve [memhers! are categorized as partially the suffering of suffering (duhkhaduhkhatá). All !members] are categorized as the truth of suffering. On the basis of the elimination by separation from bonds. There is the meaning of condition as cause in the relation of thirst to grasping and of becoming to birth. excluding the member of old age and death. there is only one [condition]. that is. because in that state there is no feeling of pleasure for the most part. because all impure dharmas are totally the suffering of the karmic forces.dulzkha). Eleven [members! are categorized as partially the suffering of deterioration (parinama. because they do not accompany feeling. it is said that impure good and nondefiled and nondetermined I dharmas] are eliminated by cultivation only. Eleven [members] are accompanied by suffering. 274 . Such is the true interpretation. What was said by various holy teachings is not definite due to the addition of characteristics [of the members]. and for the most part there is no happiness or adventitious indifference in states of old age and death. The remaining three conditions may or may not be and are not fixed.. On the basis of elimination by nongeneration. are eliminated by insight only. because in all members there is a feeling of suffering. The second is because of nongeneration. Ten [members] are accompanied by happiness and indifference. Regarding the statement that the twelve members are eliminated by both I paths]. etc.

and it should be understood that this is based on the becoming of action. action. and feeling is not the similar and immediately antecedent condition for thirst but is its condition as object. their natural order. Karmic forces and a part of becoming are categorized as action. but in reality it is the seeds of karmic forces. As for the name. IThe remaining] seven and a part of becoming are categorized as suffering. and grasping are categorized as passion. The wise should consider them in accordance with reason. The other two conditions I immediately antecedent condition (sanzanantara. thirst. The remaining members are devoid of the meaning of condition as cause between them. the karmic forces are a condition as cause for consciousness. When we consider them as conditions among themselves in a different manner. This is the true explanation of conditioned arising on the basis of direct succession I of the twelve members!. Some sources say that action completely includes becoming.pratyaya) and condition in the form of an object (dlanzbana. "suffering" being given 45a to only those [members] that are summoned by passions and 275 .pratyaya)] exist between ignorance and the karmic forces. and birth and old age and death. this is said on the basis of actual thirst and grasping being only action. Still. Becoming is not a similar and immediately antecedent condition for birth but is its condition as object. it is said hypothetically that it is ignorance. this is said on the basis of habit energy from action at the time of ignorance. Because it accompanies ignorance. The remaining members are neither I of the latter two conditions] among themselves. ignorance. Some sources say that consciousness is categorized as action. as for the Abhidharmasanzuccaya saying that ignorance is a condition as cause for the karmic forces. Regarding the three of passion.Chapter IX When it is said that the member of consciousness I consists of I the seeds of action. thirst and grasping. they become indefinite. This is said because the seeds of action are the consciousness member. and their nonmixture. and suffering including the twelve [members]. As for the Yogácarabhúmi Sastra saying that the various members are not conditions as cause among themselves.

assisted by the power of the condition that is the obstacle to that which is to be known. discriminating action. with repeated stages of ignorance as condition and pure actions as cause. so. specially powerful and subtle results as retribution that are instigated by pure. they are able to cause the continuous series of births and deaths. Therefore there is only consciousness. The second is birth and death by inconceivable transformation (pariudmiki jara. "Cause" means impure and pure actions. and suffering being the twelve members. one who is bound to rebirth is born in the three (realms of l existence. These are said to be causes because they directly instigate birth and death. directly assisted and instigated by pure sarnadhi and vows. is impossible to fathom. the continuous series of births and deaths result from internal causes and conditions and do not require external conditions. These are said to be conditions because they assist in instigating birth and death. A scripture says. coarse results as retribution among the three realms instigated by various impure good and had actions and assisted by the power of the condition that is the obstacle of the passions. with grasping as condition and impure actions as cause. pratyekabuddhas. because it is created to conform to the vows of mind. there are arhats. transformed bodies and lives are devoid of specific limitations. It is named "transformation" because due to the power of compassionate vows.kayal.mnaranal. [this last bodyl is named "body made of mind" I moron ya. It is named "limited birth and death" because the longevity of body and life is definitely limited in accordance with the power of causes and conditions. As a result of passion. that is. "Conditions" means the two obstacles consisting of the obstacle of the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known. this is because they are categorized as the truth of suffering and the claim is made in order to induce disgust. Alternately. and bodhisattvas who have obtained mastery who produce three kinds of body made of mind. action. The first is limited birth and death (pariccheda jar mara ¿za)." 276 . that is.Demonstration of Consciousness Only action. Next. It is called "inconceivable" because its marvellous functioning. What is the reason for this? Birth and death are of two kinds. "Just as.

not with a body that is the retribution of action. That is. Fearful of wasting the long time they cultivated bodhisattva practices. What function is performed by assisting the instigation of birth and death [by the bodhisattval? It is in order to realize bodhi for oneself and to benefit and give happiness to others." how can the truth of the path really instigate suffering? I We reply.learners (asaiksasrávaka) who have [by definition) forever terminated subsequent lives realize the supreme bodhi? They achieve the supreme bodhi with a transformation body. and this is conventionally referred to as "instigating. how I can you speak of it as instigating]? [We reply. because the power of pure samadhi turns it into something different from the original [body].' it is a result of the assisting power of the condition of the obstacle to that which is to be known assisting them. However fin reply to the first question)." In this way. !Actions I alone cannot instigate them. resembling a [magical] transformation. I pure samádhi and vows assisting impure action cause the 456 results that are obtained to continue in a series for a long time and develop and increase in power.Chapter IX It is also called a "transformation body" (nirmána. A treatise says. is able to instigate birth and death. because it is devoid of the function of being able to produce actions and nourish birth. "How can disciples who are post." Therefore there is no conflict with reason.] in that case. the obstacle to that which is to be known does not obstruct liberation. and therefore it is not possible for them to receive again a future limited body.] who says that it really instigates it? [It is asked. superior samádhi. those of the two vehicles of a fixed class (gotra) must never eternally enter nirvd ?la without remainder. If the obstacle to that which is to be known. have already eliminated or subdued the obstacle of the passions. they thereupon use the power of vows and pure. pratyekabuddhas and disciples of unfixed class. just as the life -prolonging dharmas Iof arhatsl are the cause of 277 .kaya). at the time [impure acts] instigate I results. because they are like ordinary beings detained by passion I because they retain the obstacle to that which is to be known]. and bodhisattvas of great vows who have obtained mastery. [Also. by assisting pure action.

because it is not an object I for the two vehicles. HABIT ENERGY OF THE TWO GRASPINGS refers to the seeds of the two obstacles referred to earlier. one retribution is exhausted and another is born in succession. the obstacle to that which is to be known obstructs great bodhi. they speak with reference to its assisting cause. If this obstacle did not exist. it should be understood that birth and death through transformation is by nature categorized as the impure result of retribution and the dominant result of pure actions. over and over. because both are grasping. The meaning of the other passages such as TOGETHER WITH is as explained earlier. that I support) would definitely be nonexistent. they would not generate an intense compassion and vows. Still there is evolution from a former 278 .Demonstration of Consciousness Only preserving their present bodies. The preserved body that is assisted by impure vows and samádhi is categorized as a limited body. Consequently. The expression HABIT ENERGY OF VARIOUS ACTIONS in the verses I of Vasuhandhu l refers to the two [kinds of I seeds of action referred to earlier.karooá) of imageless knowledge. the ob- stacle to that which is to be known is the support of impure I dharmas 1.]. Also. if they did not grasp bodhi and sentient beings as really existing. In this way.' why must 'saints' depend on the assistance of the obstacle to that which is to be known? Since they have not yet perfectly realized the great compassion (maha. Again I it is asked. their samádhi and vows assist them up to the time of the realization of supreme bodhi. so they preserve their bodies and endure for a long time in order to eliminate Ithe obstacle]. and for that reason it is a great assisting power for the preservation of life. That which is assisted by pure samádhi and vows is categorized as a transformation body. When it is said in certain holy teachings that (this result] is pure and transcends the three realms. because it is an object of knowledge on the part of Ithe saints of I the two vehicles and ordinary beings. and prevent the results from being terminated for a long time. Even though there is no limitation in birth and death of transformation. Also. etc.

Even though the continuous series of births and deaths is also a result of actual Idharmasl. [the consciousness of a Buddha. The turning of the wheel of birth and death through former. because the evolving consciousnesses for actual dharmasl are interrupted and are not retribution.. they gradually increase in strength right up to the time of the final achievement of Buddhahood. you should know that there is only internal consciousness. and there is an end to the prior and the birth of the subsequent I life I. still there is no doubt that the seeds exist.Chapter IX to a subsequent [life] by means of repeated assistance [in the form of good actions). from beginningless time there have existed pure seeds supported by root consciousness. Alternately. and future times does not require external conditions. generates marvellous functioning eternally. since it results from internal consciousness. 45e 279 .] as a result of the power of the original vows. Having been transformed by the abandonment of the original impure seeds in consciousness and having been transformed by the acquisition of newly originating pure seeds and consciousness. present. and as a result of being perfumed and produced over and over by the evolving consciousness. As a result of this. etc. That is. so the verses speak of them in a partial manner. It should be understood that it is the same for the continuous series of pure dharmas. continuing endlessly. Actual Idharmasl are the cause of retri- bution but do not occur with the results. and bearing the seeds of all merits. [the verses I do not mention actual I dharmas I in order to show that none of the true causes and results of retribution are separate from root consciousness.

.

THIS AND THE DEPENDENT ON OTHERS ARE NEITHER DIFFERENT NOR NONDIFFERENT. That is. "universal conjecture "l because it conjectures compre- hensively. THE NATURE THAT IS DEPENDENT ON OTHERS IS DISCRIMINATION BORN OF CONDITIONS. I According to Nanda. ONE NOT PERCEIVED. ETC. Being of various and numerous kinds.Chapter X The Three Natures If there is only consciousness. THE IMAGINED NATURE DOES NOT EXIST. LIKE THE NATURE OF IMPERMANENCE. it imagines SUCH AND SUCH IMAGINED THINGS. it imagines comprehensively and falsely imagines.Honored One say in place after place in the scriptures that there are three natures (trisvabheiva)? You should know that the three natures are also not separate from consciousness. 281 . THE PERFECTED IS THE ETERNAL PRIVATION OF THIS [DEPENDENT] NATURE FROM THAT FORMER 'IMAGINED NATURE].] the Treatise says that it is called IMAGINATION Hit. etc.svabháva). THEREFORE. sense bases. why did the World. that are falsely grasped as selves or dharmas. THE OTHER IS NOT PERCEIVED. These various falsely grasped natures are all given the general name of "imagined nature" (parikalpita. Why? The verses [of Vasubandhui say. As a result of WHATEVER false imaginations. [the verses) say WHATEVER.. that is. SUCH -AND -SUCH A THING IS IMAGINED. and sense fields. various natures of aggregates. BECAUSE OF WHATEVER IMAGINATION.

do not realize reality. we do not perceive that possessing grasping leads to the knowledge of emptiness. nevertheless not all can be categorized as imagination. because subsequently acquired I knowledge) of a Tathagata would have grasping. because they cannot he found through a minute investigation of either scripture or reason. the first quarter of the I first I verse shows the consciousness that imagines.. 282 . and it is said that the claya [consciousness I has as its objects the falsely grasped seeds of the imagined nature. and that which does not grasp [i. it is not claimed that ignorance has a good nature. [both] mind [manas ] and mental consciousness are referred to as "mental consciousness". all are named "false imagination. Iaccording to Dharmapálal. etc. are not associated. grasping existence and grasping nonexistence do not occur together. delusion and nondelusion. There is an interpretation [by Dharmapála I that the classes of the sixth and seventh consciousness grasp selves and dharmas and can imagine I for the following reasons I: because it is only said that mental consciousness can imagine.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 46a Such natures are absolutely nonexistent. Alternately. eilaya] is unable to perfume. and the second quarter shows the things that are imagined. the twofold grasping is necessarily accompanied by ignorance. whether as a self or as dharmas.e. Because minds that are impure.. because it must not be that pure minds also have grasping." Even though they appear resembling that which is grasped (greihya) and that which grasps (grahaka).. The last half I of the first verse' then proceeds to state that the nature that is imagined. the grasping of selves and dharmas is necessarily discernment I which is absent in the store consciousness]. What is the nature of that which imagines? There is an interpretation [by Sthiramati I that all eight consciousnesses and their mental activities categorized as impure are able to imagine Ifor the following reasons]: because they are by nature false imagination. conjecture and discrimination can imagine. because it has already been explained extensively that it cannot be found. is nonexistent. etc. they all appear resembling the grasped and the grasper.

it is not I really] grasped. nine. still there are two. Next. what is the nature of that which is imagined? The Mandydnasamgraha says that it is that which is dependent on others. eight. three. still it is not its condition as object. in the same way a mirror does. four. Although there are only two of these classes of consciousness. even though each is unitary in substance. due to beginningless false perfuming. therefore. etc. This characteristic is said to be imagined. so that is not a conclusive piece of evidence.] it is said to be imagined on the basis of its development I from false imagination'. still it is not said that it only I has that function]. Such two parts exist according to opinion but not according to reason. the grasper and the grasped. Why is the perfected nature not the objective realm of that I imagination'? Because reality is not the objective realm for false grasping. and they are not the same. If I this knowledge] has no function of having objects. mind and mental activities of the three realms are born resembling two I parts!. Even though the imagined [na- tare] is the object of that [false imagination]. it must not be knowledge.. etc. seven. as the seeing and seen parts." 283 . five. because it is the condition as object for the imagining mind. This nature is not nonexistent and is called "dependent on others" because it is born from the condition of false imagination. Although it is said that store consciousness has as objects the seeds of imagination. imaginations. which is to say. How do we know that this is so? Various holy teachings say that false imagination is the dependent on others and the name of the twofold grasping is "imagined. 'l'he supporting substance of the two [parts' is real and is born in dependence on conditions. and for that reason [the verses] speak of WHATEVER. etc. [But. six. ten. The consequence of this reasoning is that only the classes of the sixth and seventh [kinds of I minds have imagination. etc. that is. and how does it differ from the dependent on others? There is an interpretation [by Sthiramati] that. What are the characteristics of the imagined.Chapter X because a scripture says that Buddha knowledge manifests numerous images such as bodies and lands.

How can nonexistent dharmas act as conditions as cause? If internal seen and seeing parts born of conditions are not dependent on others. because the substance of the imagined does not exist. the two parts of the class of pure subsequently acquired knowledge must be "imagined. only the two [parts. because they do not have different causes... If you do not admit it. It is only when imagination. must be devoid of the two parts. such as the image. 46b Also. then this class of knowledge must not be I related to] the truth of the path.. the two parts must not create and perfume seeds. that these two [parts] are named "imagined. and the birth of subsequent consciousnesses. and not the condition as object. and only the variety [of modes of each I are named [dependent on others]. then you must understand that it will be the same for impure [consciousness I.. along with the seen and seeing parts. 284 . i. The consequence of this line of reasoning is that the substance of mind and mental activities born of a host of conditions. then they must be like the horns of a rabbit.e." because various holy teachings say that only means of knowledge. falsely grasps them as definitely real existence and nonexistence. if the two parts are the imagined I nature I. etc. are categorized as the dependent on others. sameness and difference. etc. are all the dependent on others." If you admit that they are. four dharmas. because they are able to arise in dependence on a host of conditions. and eleven conscious nesses. on the basis of this. whether impure or pure.. then the body of the two [parts] must not be either. Also. both [of the lat- ter two alternatives) and neither of the alternatives].Demonstration of Consciousness Only There is an interpretation [by Dharmapala] that the two parts that are transformation of all consciousnesses and mental activities via the power of perfuming are born of conditions and therefore are also the dependent on others. Also. etc. the various habit energies are categorized as the seen part. Also. holy knowledge will not be born with Iseen parts as] objects. If it were otherwise. seeing and seen]. etc. according to all treatises. If it has them as objects.

and so it also has this name [of "perfected" J. because they are capable of having objects and they perceive. Pure. The words ETERNAL. because ultimate reality is divorced from existence and divorced from nonexistence by nature. and the nonfalseness of its substance. etc. When the verses say [PRIVATION] OF THAT. not the second one. Its nature is the eternal privation of the former imagined I na- ture! from that I nature] which is dependent on others. PRIVATION indicate that the falsely grasped natures of the grasper and the grasped in reality never existed. As a consequence of the above reasoning. This excludes specific and common characteristics. ultimate re- ality would not be the real nature of that [dependent on others]. NATURE indicates that the twofold emp- tiness is not the perfected [nature]. Hence all defiled and pure dependent on others is categorized here [in the verses] as dependent on others. the ultimate reality revealed by the twofold emptiness. because the pure part of the dependent on others is also the perfected (parinispanna). the various dharmas consisting of defiled and pure mind and mental activities are all called DISCRIMINATION [in the verses I.Chapter X When the verses say DISCRIMINATION BORN OF CONDITIONS. complete. space. this [perfected I nature would be noneternal. Both [natures] would be both pure and impure realms. eternality. conditioned I mind] apart from error is ultimate and its superior functioning is universal. The perfect. [from the definition]. However. self. [Its name] shows its universality. the verses are referring to the first I kind of perfected nature]. it must be understood that this is just said of the defiled part of the dependent on others. at present. this perfected I nature I and I the nature that is] dependent on others are NEITHER DIFFERENT NOR NONDIFFERENT: if they were different. if they were nondifferent. and then the functions of basic knowledge and subsequently acquired knowledge would be devoid of difference. it indicates that the perfected and depen- dent on others are neither the same nor different. real nature of all dharmas as revealed by the twofold emptiness is named PERFECTED. Or. 285 . The meaning of the word FORMER shows that [the perfected nature) is not empty of the dependent on others.

etc. All are like illusions. images in a mirror. etc. [impermanence. the moon [reflected] in water. THE OTHER !that is dependent on others! Is NOT PERCEIVED. That is. The meaning of this is that the three kinds of nature are inseparable from the dharmas of mind and mental activities. On the basis of this interpretation. This must be the principle concerning dharmas and the nature of dharmas (dharmatú). etc. one can thoroughly grasp.. are not real. a verse says: 46e One who does not see ultimate reality Is unable to see the karmic forces. because the ultimate [truth] and the relative [truth! exist through mutual support. because if one has not yet grasped the emptiness of the discriminated nature. Even though from beginningless time the dharmas of mind and mental activities have been able to have as objects their own seen and seeing parts. and therefore they do not truly know that selves and dharmas are false transformations of mind and mental activities themselves that have been attracted by a host of conditions. [The verses say. things in dreams.] ONE !that is perfected! NOT PERCEIVED. that. If they are not different. Although existing. that the nature that is dependent on others is like an illusion. Once nondiscriminating knowledge realizes ultimate reality. like illusions. in subsequently acquired knowledge. still they have always been accompanied by the grasping of self and dharmas. and the effects of conjuring.. the comparison shows that the perfected and dependent on others are neither the same nor different. echoes in a valley. If the nature of impermanence.' would not be their common characteristics (samanya -lal sana). one does not truly know the existence of the dependent on others.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Why are the two natures neither different nor the same? They are LIKE THE NATURE OF IMPERMANENCE.. etc. these dharmas would not be impermanent. etc. is different from dharmas [that are impermanent' such as the karmic forces. mirages. They are nonexistent but appear to exist. so no self. Con- sequently. etc. 286 . etc.

. etc. transforms to resemble the image of space. or neither I the same nor different I. The Three Natures: Various Topics In what natures are space (ákása). Impure mind." Therefore the three Inatures] are not apart from mind. etc. and because it is born from mind it is categorized as the I nature that isl dependent on others. Fools falsely grasp it as really existing. they are categorized as the perfected nature. Mind. etc.. as existing or not existing. definitely belongs to the dependent on others. it is categorized as perfected." The self and dharmas that are grasped falsely in the dependent on others are both empty.nirodha).nirodha)." The ignorant perversely grasp them as selves and dharmas. revealed by this emptiness is named "the perfected [naturel. If meanings such as space. are established as being metaphors for true suchness. 1. included? They may be included in all three I natures].. etc.. etc. may belong to both natures [i...tathatá ) related? The seven I kinds of I true suchness are: 287 . etc. and cessation not resulting from discrimination (apratisam. and the real nature of consciousness. Being devoid of error.. Like flowers seen in the sky [by one with eye disease].. etc. All of this is named "discriminated [nature]. both I the same and different I.Chapter X because mind and mental activities together with the actual transformation are born from a host of conditions. and this is categorized as the imagined nature. How are the three natures and the seven [kinds of] true such - ness (bhúta. etc. cessation resulting from discrimi- nation (pratisamkhyd. Being born of a host of conditions. they are like illu- sions.e. that are nonexistent.. etc. the same or different. Pure mind.khyá. etc. they are Tin reality! totally nonexistent in nature and characteristics. it belongs to the dependent on others. although they appear to exist and delude the ignorant. etc. dependent on others (paratantra) and perfected (parinispanna)].. All are named "the nature that is dependent on others.

7. the real nature of cessation (nirodha). the real nature of origination (. the real nature as revealed by the twofold no self (andtman). that is. These seven real natures are categorized as the perfected [nature] because they are objects of fundamental and subsequently acquired two knowledges. are born from conditions. True suchness of proper conduct. that is. I the real natures of I transmigration. some sources say that the dependent on others includes images. feeling. the real nature of conditioned dharmas in transmigration. conceptualization. that is. True suchness of wrong conduct. the real nature of suffering (duhkha). and origination are categorized as the first two natures [imagined and dependent on others]. How are the three natures related to the six dharmas? All six dharmas are contained in the three natures. suffering. That is. consciousness. due to false grasping and defilement. and the unconditioned [dharmasI are falsely grasped." In appearing 47a 288 . This means that the name of "image" is given to the dharmas of impure mind and mental activities that transform to resemble the "expressed. that is. because form.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 1. names. The remaining four are categorized as the perfected nature. 2. True suchness of purity. discrimination. and are [by nature! the truth. True suchness of establishment. that is.samudaya). and correct knowledge. on the one hand. 4. that is. karmic forces. and the imagined nature does not include these five things. 6. True suchness of consciousness only. True suchness of transmigration. 5. How are the three natures related to the five things? The holy teachings are not agreed in the matter of relationship. 3. the real nature of the path (marga). that is. True suchness of the reality of things. the perfected nature includes true suchness. the real nature of defiled and pure dharmas that are consciousness only. In accordance with their characteristics.

and correct knowledge and suchness are categorized as the perfected.Chapter X resembling the "expresser. which changes. Its substance is really nonexistent." They are not said to he other than the expresser and the expressed." The imagined is perversely judged according to name. is divorced from idle discourse (prapañca)." they are given the name of "name. is established as "discrimination. The imagined expresser and expressed are conventionally established as the two things. some sources say that the dependent on others includes images and discrimination. name and images [respectively. These four are born from conditions and are categorized as the dependent on others [naturel.. of impure mind and mental activities are called "discrimination" in general..] Furthermore." Mind. there is no contradiction in their meaning.." Despite the differences of explanation of the five things in the holy teachings. etc." The [last) two are devoid of error and are therefore categorized as the perfected. etc. some sources say that name belongs to the dependent on others. and its significance belongs to the imagined. and the remaining Ifourl are named "discrimination. and correct knowledge and suchness are categorized as the perfected.. This means that the seen and seeing parts." Because pure mind." The imagined [nature] is totally devoid of substance. etc. This means that the seen and see- ing parts. and it is metaphorically named "significance. there are sources that say that the nature that is dependent on others includes only discrimination. 289 . the imagined includes images and name. the imagined only includes name. it is given the name of "correct knowledge. On the other hand. the first explanation is not confused and should be understood in accordance with the extended explanation of the Yogaceirabhünzi Sccstra. of impure mind and mental activities create the imagined through the power of name and for that reason are called "name. because false imagination is their nature. etc. On the other hand. and in order to indicate that it is nonexistent it is given the metaphorical name of "name. However. This means that the name "image" is given to the seen part of impure mind and mental activities.

According to the Madhya ntavibhaga. a. perfected I nature. I.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Also. as the case may be. and discrimination]. because it is grasped in common [with selves. defilement.. it is said in the holy teachings that there are five characteristics (laksa(la). the first reality is categorized as solely the first I imagined] nature. and belong to the perfected I naturel. because truth is common to attachment. false judgement belongs to the category of the first ( imagined l nature. Reality related to the purification of the two obstacles {i. because its nature is unreal imagination.. it is said in the holy teachings that there are four realities tativa). Image. because they are included in the first three things [i. etc. The last two realities are related only to the third I. as the case may be. What is the relationship of these to the three natures? That which is expressed (abhidheya) and that which expresses ( abhidhena) each contain the three natures. What is their relationship to the three natures? Worldly reality and that achieved by reason are categorized as the dependent on others. and discrimination are either the expressed or the expresser. the obstacle of the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known] is categorized as the perfected..e. That is. images. because subsequently acquired I knowledge] transforms to resemble the characteristic of the expresser. and belong with the dependent on others.t. and purity. The characteristic consisting of the connection between the two ( abhidheya. name. etc. Suchness and correct knowledge are the expressed and the expresser. 290 .abhidhc-ina. The second reality belongs to [all I three natures. because it is included in the [lastI two things [i. name. nondetach- ment.sa) is solely the dependent on others.e. The characteristic consisting of adherence to that (tadabhiniue. because its nature is that of pure knowledge. The characteristic consisting of nonadherence (anabhinivesa) is solely the perfected.sambandha) is categorized as belonging only to the first nature. because significance and name are falsely grasped as really connected. Also.e. correct knowing and suchnessl.

because its own characteristic is revealed by no self.. Suffering Also. because its state is transformed.. (3) inherent emptiness I this is the perfected nature]. The impermanences are (1) impermanence as absence of nature I this is the imagined nature]. because it is united with suffering. (3) impermanence as impurity and purity Ithis is the perfected nature]. (2) emptiness as different nature [this is the dependent on others]. (2) impermanence as origination and cessation I this is the nature that is dependent on others]. (2) I the dependent on others is I suffering as the characteristic of events. The three kinds of no self are (1) no self as absence of characteristics [this is the imagined naturel. that is. mind] of the two graspings. self and dharmas.Chapter X What is the relationship between the three natures and the four [noble] truths? Each of the four wholly contains the three natures. Origination The three kinds of truth of origination (sanzudaya. because the characteristics of a self do not exist. within the truth of suffering contains the three natures. because its nature is revealed by the twofold emptiness. (2) no self as the characteristic of difference [this is the nature that is dependent on others'. because its characteristic is the threefold suffering. because it is grasped by the support [Le. because it differs from its falsely grasped nature. because its nature is nonexistent. (3) no self of its own characteristic I this is the perfected nature I. each of the four I marks I consisting of impermanence (anitya). The three kinds of emptiness (günyatá) are (1) emptiness as absence of nature [this is the imagined naturel. Suffering is threefold: (1) I the imagined nature is I suffering of that which is grasped.satya) are (1) origination as habit energy.. because it contains birth and cessation. 3. etc. (3) I the perfected is] suffering of union. 2. the imagined nature grasps 291 . because it differs from the falsely grasped characteristics of a self. because its nature is eternally nonexistent.

nirodha). i. because its self. action and passions [and thus it is the nature that is dependent on others I. desirelessness (apranihita). (2) cessation of the two graspings. all [doors of liberation) are common to I the three natures].Demonstration of Consciousness Only the habit energy. (3) origination as nonseparation.satya) are (1) cessation as self nature. based on these. because it is true suchness [and is therefore the perfected naturel. cessation as a result of discrimination (pratisamkhyá. Seven tri- ads and three natures have been explained by matching them in sequence. (3) path as bringing about realization I is the perfected nature] because it can realize the perfected. However. because it is able to know the imagined [and is therefore the imagined naturel. Cessation The three kinds of truth of cessation (nirodha. because the two graspings are not born [and therefore it is the dependent nature]. How are the three natures related to the objective realms that are activated by the three doors to liberation (vimoksa. Also. and its name [of imagined nature] is metaphorically established from the grasping of that habit energy. that is.mukha)? In principle. Path The three kinds of truth of the path (mmd ga.nature is not born [and therefore it is the imagined nature]. because [as the dependent naturel it is able to eliminate the nature that is dependent on others. that is. path as recognition is also common to the last two [natures. This correspondence with the three natures may be metaphorical or real and should be understood according to reason. 5. that is. the three [kinds of] 292 . that is. (2) path as eternal elimination.. (2) origi- nation as uniform generation.satya) are (1) path as recognition. the dependent on others and the perfected]. (3) inherent cessation.e. suchness not yet separated from bondage [and for that reason it is the perfected nature I. 4. and signlessness (animitta). but in accordance with specific characteristics [the three natures' are emptiness (súnyatá).

dharma- ksanti) are born: (1) patience with regard to inherent nonbirth [which is related to the imagined nature I. The nature that is dependent on others is related to the two I kinds of 47c knowledge]. It can be said to be metaphorically real because its nature consists of combinations I of real dharma I. (2) ultimate truth of acquisition. because it has the ultimate for its truth. being devoid of a substance of its own. and form are born from conditions 293 . Of the three natures. Therefore all are included in the perfected nature.satya) contains the three kinds of natures]. The ultimate truth is also threefold: (] ) ultimate truth of truth. you should know. (2) patience with regard to nonbirth by itself [which is related to the dependent on others]. because. Being devoid of characteristics of a substance. which. Fools grasp it as existing. but the ultimate truth is solely the perfected nature. Mind. because the ultimate is the same as the truth. because it is the ultimate's truth. continuities I of dharmas I. so it can be said that it is the object of knowledge for both foolish and wise. nirvana. and the perfected nature is only the object of the knowledge of the wise. that is. and [different I states. (3) patience with regard to nonbirth of passions and suffering [which is related to the perfected naturel. and revelationally relative. (3) ultimate truth of performance. mental activities. To what knowledges are the three natures related? The imagined is totally unrelated to knowledge. How do these three natures include the two truths? You should know that the relative (sanurti. operationally relative. The nature that is dependent on others exists really and metaphorically. true suchness. The relative is threefold: fictionally relative. that is. the holy path. are the three natures respectively. it is neither metaphorical nor real. These three are the objects of those [ patiences] in this order. it can be said to be metaphorical I as a nature]. which are metaphorical and which are real? Because the imagined is falsely posited. it is not a condition as object. that is. because they are unchanging or devoid of error.Chapter X patience regarding the nonbirth [of dharmasl (anutpattika. but the wise know it as nonexisting. as the case may be.

Therefore THE BUDDHA TAUGHT WITH 294 . naturelessness of characteristics. THE LAST IS THE NATURE THAT RESULTS FROM THE PRIVATION OF THE FORMER SELF AND DHARMAS THAT ARE GRASPED. The Threefold Naturelessness If there are three natures. and the ultimate truth. metaphorical dharmas do not exist either. why did the World. 188 THIS IS THE ULTIMATE TRUTH OF ALL DHARMAS AND IS ALSO THE SAME AS TRUE SUCHNESS. because meta- phors are established on the basis of real causes. IT IS THE TRUE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY.EXISTENCE. THE BUDDHA TAUGHT WITH A HIDDEN INTENTION THAT ALL DHARMAS ARE NATURELESS. birth. Are these three different or nondifferent? It must be said that they are neither. because they have no separate substances and because the imagined. Fearing prolixity. 6. These three natures are unlimited in their variety of interpretations. because it is not established in reliance on other conditions. THEREFORE.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and may therefore be said to exist really. that is. that which originates from conditions. The perfected nature alone really exists. we have indicated the essentials.Honored One teach that all dharmas are wholly natureless (rnihsvabhava)? The verses [of Vasubandhu I say. and the real truth are different. BECAUSE IT IS ETERNALLY SO IN ITS NATURE. ON THE BASIS OF THESE THREE NATURES THE THREEFOLD NATURELESSNESS IS ESTABLISHED. THE FIRST IS NATURELESSNESS OF CHARACTERISTICS: THE NEXT IS NATURELESSNESS OF SELF. If there are no real dharmas. The Treatise says that the subsequently discussed three kinds of naturelessness are established on the basis of the previously men- tioned three natures.

Chapter X

A HIDDEN INTENTION THAT ALL DHARMAS ARE NATURELESS but not that

these natures are completely nonexistent.
The words TAUGHT WITH A HIDDEN INTENTION show that it is not

the final truth. That is, even though the last two natures f i.e., the dependent on others and the perfected I are not nonexistent, still there are fools who superimpose really existing selves and dharmas with self - natures upon them and falsely grasp them. This is called their "imagined I nature]." In order to eliminate this grasping, the Buddha, the World Honored One, spoke in general of the nature lessness of both the existing [i.e., last two natures I and the nonexisting I first nature]. How are these three established on the basis of those [three natures!? NATURE
OF CHARACTERISTICS is established on the basis

of the first, imagined I nature], because substance and characteristics are absolutely nonexistent, like flowers in the sky. NATURELESSNESS OF BIRTH is established on the basis of the next, the dependent on others [nature]. These [things originating in this way I are all like

illusory things that are born of a host of conditions. They have not, as in falsely grasped, a nature of their own, and therefore it is said in a manner of speaking that they are naturelessness, but
their nature is not completely nonexistent. NATURELESSNESS OF ULTIMATE TRUTH is established on the basis of the last, perfected I na-

ture I. It is said in a manner of speaking to be natureless by virtue of the ultimate truth being separated from the first nature of imagined selves and dharmas, but it is not by nature wholly nonexistent, just as great space, although pervading the many forms, is still revealed by the naturelessness of the many forms. Even though the dependent on others is not ultimate truth, it can also be said to be the naturelessness of the ultimate truth, but it is not said to be because it is confused with the second [nature].
This I perfected] nature is THE ULTIMATE TRUTH OF ALL DHARMAS,

because it is the truth of the ultimate truth of all dharmas. However, the truth of ultimate truth is, in brief, of four kinds: (1) worldly

ultimate truth, i.e., aggregates, sense bases, sense fields, etc.;

295

Demonstration of Consciousness Only

(2) ultimate truth of principles, i.e., the four truths of suffering, etc.; (3) ultimate truth of attainment, i.e., the true suchness of the twofold

emptiness; (4) ultimate truth of ultimate truth, i.e., the sole real realm of the Dharma. Of these, [the perfected nature) is the last (of the above fourI ultimate truths, because it is the truth that is activated by the ultimate path. In order to exclude the first three I forms of ultimate truth], it adds, THIS IS THE ULTIMATE TRUTH OF ALL DHARMAS
ANI) IS ALSO THE SAME AS TRUE SUCHNESS (bhlta- la thatfi). TRUE means

"genuine," indicating that it is not false. SUCHNESS means "eternally so," which expresses its changelessness. This means that it is called
TRUE SUCHNESS because this reality is ETERNALLY SO IN ITS NATURE

in all states, which is to say, the profound, nonfalse truth. The word also shows that this [nature] also has many names, ), the "Limit of such as the "Realm of the Dharma" (dharmaReality" (bhfita- koti), etc., as is extensively explained in accordance

with the meaning in other treatises.
This I perfected I nature is THE TRUE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

ONLY. That is, the nature of consciousness only is, in brief, of two

kinds: (1) false, that is, the imagined; and (2) real, that is, the
perfected. The verses] use the words TRUE NATURE in order to ex48b

dude the false. Again, there are two natures: (1) the relative, that is, the dependent on others; and (2) ultimate truth, that is, the perfected.
The verses] therefore speak of TRUE NATURE in order to exclude

the relative.
The [last] three verses I i.e., verses 23 -251 show that when vari-

ous scriptures use the words "naturelessness" it is not the final truth, and those who are wise should not depend on them as generally excluding all dharmas as utterly natureless.

296

Chapter XI

The Holy Path
Such are the characteristics and nature of consciousness only that has been demonstrated. Who awakens to it and enters, how, and by how many states? Those who are endowed with the two dispositions (gotra) of the Mahayana enter and awaken to it gradually, in five states. What is the meaning of the two dispositions of the Mahayana? The first is the inherent disposition (prakrtistha- gotra), that is, the causes I i.e., seeds I of pure dharmas existing naturally from beginningless time adhering to root consciousness. The second is the disposition created by perfuming, that is, those that are created by perfuming brought about by hearing, etc., from hearing the Dharma that flows uniformly from the realm of the Dharma. One must possess these two dispositions of the Mahayana in order gradually to awaken to and enter consciousness only. What is the meaning of the five states of awakening to and entering consciousness only? The first is the state of equipment (sambhära- avasthd), that is, cultivation of the aids to liberation
(nzohsa- bhágiya) of the Mahayana. The second is the state of added

effort (prayoga- avasthd), that is, cultivation of the aids to penetration of the Mahayana. The third is the state of thorough understanding (prativedha- avasthd), that is, the path of insight dwelled on by all bodhisattvas. The fourth is the state of cultivation (bhávaná- avasthc ), that is, the path of cultivation dwelled on by all bodhisattvas. The fifth is the state of culmination (nisihá-

avasthd), that is, abiding in Supreme, Perfect Awakening
(anuttara- sainyak- sambodhi). What is gradual awakening to and entering consciousness only?

It means that in the state of equipment, the bodhisattva is able
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deeply to believe and understand the characteristics and nature of consciousness. In the state of added effort, he is able gradually to subdue the grasped and the grasper (grahya- grahaka) and promote a true view. In the state of thorough understanding, he thoroughly understands in accordance with reality. In the state of cultivation, he cultivates I what he understands! over and over in accordance with principles he has perceived and subdues remaining obstacles. Arriving at the state of culmination, he emerges from the obstacles perfect and clear. He is able to the end of time to convert varieties of sentient beings and cause them to awaken to and enter the characteristics and nature of consciousness only.

1. Stage of Equipment
What are the characteristics of the first state, that of "equipment "? The verses I of Vasubandhu] say,
As LONG AS ONE DOES NOT GENERATE CONSCIOUSNESS THAT SEEKS TO ABIDE IN THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY,

ONE IS STILL UNABLE TO DESTROY THE PROPENSITIES OF THE TWOFOLD GRASPING.

The Treatise says that everything from the arousal of a profound, firm, great thought of awakening up to the not yet -risen penetrating consciousness and the seeking to abide in the real nature of the ultimate truth of consciousness only is included in the stage of equipment. This is because in order to advance to Supreme Perfect Awakening, one repeatedly cultivates many superior kinds of [spiritual] equipment. For the sake of sentient beings, one energetically seeks liberation, and as a result [this state I is also named "aids to liberation."

Because in this state the bodhisattva relies on the superior
power of the four consisting of cause [i.e., his class], good friends, attention, and equipment I consisting of merit and knowledge], he

has a profound faith in and understanding of the truth of consciousness only; but despite this he is still incapable of comprehending the emptiness of the two graspings and resides for the

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most part outside, cultivating the practices of bodhisattvas. There-

arse

fore as far as the propensities attracted by the twofold grasping
are concerned, he is still without the power that would enable him

to subdue [the propensities] and prevent them from generating the actual activity of the twofold grasping.
The words "twofold grasping" indicate the grasping of the two

graspings because of its nature of grasping the grasped and
grasper. Perfuming from the two twofold grasping is named "propensities," because they pursue (anu) sentient beings and slumber (.saya) concealed in the store consciousness. Or, they are named "propensities" because they pursue (anti) and increase (saya) transgressions. They are the seeds of both the obstacle to that which is to be known and that of the passions.

2. The Two Obstacles
Regarding the obstacle of the passions, at its head is satkeiya -drsli

'the view of real personhoodI of grasping an imagined real self,
I and it is made up of I one hundred twenty -eight fundamental passions and the various secondary passions that are their issue. These

torment and vex sentient beings in mind and body and obstruct nirvana, and are named the "obstacle of the passions." As for the obstacle to that which is to be known, at its head is the satkaya -drsti of grasping imagined real dharmas, [consisting of] views, doubt, ignorance, craving, hatred, pride, etc. They obscure the nonerroneous nature of the object that is to be known and obstruct bodhi, and they are known as the "obstacle to that which is to be known." The obstacle to that which is to be known definitely does not
accompany consciousness as retribution, because [the latter' is quite weak, it is not associated with ignorance and discernment, and the class of knowledge of emptiness of dharmas occurs simultaneously with it. Within the seven evolving consciousnesses, there may be few or many [ dharmas that constitute this obstacle] as the case may be, just as was said of the passions. The five consciousnesses of the eye, etc., are devoid of imagination and therefore definitely are not

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associated with views concerning dharmas, doubt, etc. The remainder I craving, etc., I may all occur through the power of mind (manas).

This obstacle is only associated with the two [kinds of] minds consisting of the nongood and nondetermined, because the treatises say that ignorance is only related to the nongood and non determined, because delusion and nondelusion, etc., are not associated. This obstacle necessarily exists along with the obstacle of the passions, because this [latter] uses that I former obstacle I as its support. Even though there is no difference in their substances, their functions are distinct. Therefore the two propensities are
strong or weak according to which path is used, and [one I is eliminated prior or subsequently [to the other]. This obstacle is "born of

retribution" (vipáhaja) in the [category off nondefiled and nondetermined, but not of the remaining three kinds, because the
strength and functioning of dignity, etc., of those I latter] are slight, and they do not obstruct that which is to be known or hodhi. The name "nondefiled" is established from the point of view of the two
vehicles, but it is also defiled from the point of view of bodhisattvas. If the obstacle to that which is to be known is made up of views, ignorance, etc., why do the scriptures say that its seeds are the stages of ignorance? It is referred to as "ignorance" in general because ignorance increases, not because of the absence of views, etc., just as

49a

the seeds of the passions are given the names of the four stages of all realms, desire for form, desire for becoming, and desire for craving. How could they also be devoid of pride, ignorance, etc.? When these two obstacles originate from discrimination, they are categorized as being eliminated by [the path of] insight. When they originate spontaneously, they are categorized as being eliminated by I the path of] cultivation. [Adherents of I the two vehicles can only eliminate the obstacle of the passions; the bodhisattva eliminates both 'obstacles). Only the holy path is capable of eternally eliminating both kinds, but the subduing of the two as they occur in actual activity occurs in the impure path. Even though the bodhisattva abiding in the state of equipment subdues the gross,
actual activity of the two [obstacles], still, as far as the subtle I actual

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activities) and propensities of the two obstacles are concerned, the power of I meditative l tranquility and insight (gamatha- uipasyand ) is slight and still incapable of destroying them. In this state [of equipment], one has not yet realized the true suchness of consciousness only. Through the power of resolve, one

cultivates superior practices of various kinds, and, you should know, this is also included in the stage of resolve and application
(adhimukti- carved- bhOmi).

What are the characteristics of the superior practices cultivated f by the bodhisattva]? In brief, they are of two kinds, that is, merit and knowledge. Those that are discernment by nature among the superior practices are all named "knowledge," while the remainder are named "merit." Also, the six perfections (paramitá) in their common characteristics are both "merit and knowledge I.

In their specific characteristics, the first five are merit and the sixth is discernment. Or the first three are categorized as merit only, the last is only knowledge, and the remainder are both. Again, there are two kinds [of practices], that is, benefitting oneself and benefitting others. Through the power of mental disposition, all superior practices that one has cultivated are practices that benefit oneself and others. Speaking in terms of their distinct characteristics, the six perfections and the [thirty- seven] aids to bodhi, etc., are practices for self - benefit, while the four means of conversion (samgraha- uastu), the four immeasurables (apramüna), etc., are all categorized as practices that benefit others. There is no end of the diversity of these practices. All are the superior practices cultivated in this state [of equipment]. Even though in this state the two obstacles are not yet subdued and removed, and there are three regressions during the period one cultivates the superior practices, still [the bodhisattval can fortify his mind in respect of these three things, and be bold,
and not regress in what he has realized and cultivated. I The three

possible regressions arel (I ) that his mind falters upon hearing that supreme, perfect bodhi is vast, great, profound, and distant, but recalling that others have realized great bodhi he fortifies his

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mind, is bold, and does not regress; (2) that his mind falters upon hearing that the perfection of giving (dána- páramitc), etc., is extremely difficult to cultivate, but aware that he is already mentally disposed and is capable of cultivating giving, etc., he fortifies his mind, is bold, and does not regress; (3) that his mind falters

upon hearing that the perfect transmutation of the support of
Buddha is extremely difficult to realize, but recalling the coarse quality of the good of others and his own marvellous causes I for bodhij, he fortifies his mind, is bold, and does not regress. As a result of these three things, he fortifies his mind and with unshakable ardor he cultivates the various superior practices.

3. State of Added Effort
Next, what are the characteristics of the state of added effort? The verses (of VasubandhuJ say,
SETTING THE LEAST TILING BEFORE ONE AND SAYING, IT IS OF THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY,
ONE DOES NOT REALLY ABIDE IN CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY,

BECAUSE TIIERE IS SOMETHING OBTAINED.

The Treatise says that the bodhisattva starting out during the
first incalculable eon provides himself well with the equipment of merits and knowledge, and the aids to liberation have been completed. In order to enter the path of insight and abide in the quality I that all things have] of being consciousness only, he then cultivates the added efforts and subdues the two graspings; that is, I he cultivates] heat (usmagata), summits (mardhana), patience (ksanti), and supreme worldly dharmas (laukikdgra- dharma ). These four are given the comprehensive name of "aids to penetration" (nirvedha- bhrxgiya), because they are aids conducive to penetration. They are given the name of "added effort" because they are near the path of insight. It does not mean that the former I state of ] equipment is not added effort.
49b

The four dharmas of heat, etc., are established on the basis of being prior and subsequent states consisting of the four investigations

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(paryesaná) and four ascertainments in accordance with reality ( yatha -bhúta parijña). The "four investigations" refer to investigating names (nama), meaning (vastu), nature (svabháva), and differences (vises) as existing in a manner of speaking but nonexistent in reality. To know totally in accordance with reality that these four do not exist apart from consciousness, and that consciousness does not exist either, is called "ascertainment in accordance with reality" (yatha- bhúta- parijñcc). Names and meanings

are distinct and are therefore investigated separately. Both are the same in two characteristics [which are nature and distinct characteristicsI and are therefore reflected upon in unison.
On the basis of the samadhi "obtaining light" one commences the inferior investigation and contemplates the nonexistence of the grasped. This establishes the state of "heat." That is, in this state, one contemplates for the first time the four dharmas of names, etc., that are grasped as transformations of one's mind, and while accepting them as existing in a manner of speaking, [one realizes that] in reality they cannot be obtained. The name "obtaining light" is established because it is the grasping of the mark of the antecedent to the "sun of discernment" of this acquired path. It is also named "heat" because it is the mark of the antecedent of the "fire" of this acquired path.
On the basis of the samadhi "increase in light" one commences

the superior investigation and contemplates (anew( the nonexis-

tence of the grasped. This establishes the state of "summits" (mare' hanal. That is, in this state one again contemplates the
grasped four dharmas of names, etc., as transformations of one's own mind, accepting them as existing in a manner of speaking, though in reality they cannot be obtained. It is named "increase of light" because the characteristic of light grows. It is the ultimate state of investigation and therefore is also named "summits." On the basis of the samadhi "confirming and conforming" one commences the inferior knowledge in accordance with reality. One firmly confirms the nonexistence of the grasped and conforms to and is patient with the nonexistence of the grasper. There being

303

the bodhisattva still SETS UP THE LEAST THING BEFORE HIM. and one remains bound 304 . This period of confirming and conforming is given the general name of "patience" (ksánti). the nature of ultimate truth. because grasper and grasped are established through mutual dependence. both kinds of emptiness are confirmed. one is still unable to realize reality. The name "confirming and conforming" is due to the confirmation of the former [emptiness of the grasped I and conformity I or patience regarding I the latter I emptiness of the grasped I and conformity I or patience regarding] the latter [emptiness of the grasper]." With these heat and summits. In the middle state of the middle patience. but in the present supreme worldly dharmas. and. When the inferior patience arises. one confirms the characteristic of emptiness of the object. how can there be a real consciousness apart from the object that is grasped. one contemplates the emptiness of the grasped by means of the grasping consciousness. one confirms the emptiness of the grasper. This establishes "supreme worldly dharmas" (laukikagra." Of dharmas of ordinary beings. Because the two characteristics of emptiness and existence are still not abandoned. it is named "noninterruption. one doubly confirms emptiness of both [the grasped and the grasper].Demonstration of Consciousness Only no real object apart from grasping consciousness. these are the most exalted. Because one necessarily enters the path of insight immediately following this I samádhil. That is. with supreme worldly dharmas. the previous superior patience only confirms the emptiness of the grasper. Because all I these investigations) are bound to characteristics. In the state when superior patience arises. On the basis of the samadhi "noninterruption" one commences the superior knowledge in conformity to reality and confirms the emptiness of the two graspings. IT IS OF THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY. SAVING. Therefore it is said that in these four states. conformity to and patience toward the emptiness of the grasping consciousness as well as the object is possible. It is also called "pa- tience" because one is patient with regard to the emptiness of objects and consciousness. and for that reason they are named "supreme worldly dharmas.dharma).

The nonestablished truth is principally contemplated.e.e. one still has not discarded the bonds of images. he is still only able to perfect them in the fourth [trance state]. nor is one able to destroy the two propensities. Even though during the period of skill in means. HE DOES NOT REALLY ABIDE IN the true principle of CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY. One is only able to subdue [but not eliminate] the two graspings of discrimination.. In this state. because one's impure contemplating mind still obtains something and there is discrimination. etc. nor is one able to eliminate the bonds of the gross [propensities I. HE CONTACTS THAT STATE IN WHICH] NOTHING IS OBTAINED. passes through various trance states (dhydna). true suchness] in order to attract the future two kinds of insight and in order to subdue the two forms of the obstacle of discrimination. because they oppose the path of insight [which follows]. FINALLY. some verses say. therefore one does not wholly subdue [the innate grasping] or completely destroy [their seeds]. In this state of added effort. unlike with the [followers of the] two vehicles.Chapter XI to these characteristics. and. He truly abides in it once these characteris- tics are abandoned. because it is the most excellent support for entering the path of insight. the bodhisattva studies and contemplates the established truths [i.. Only [bodhisattvas] in the 305 .. THAT THE GRASPER IS ALSO NONEXISTENT. for the contemplating mind. THERE IS SOMETHING GRASPED. One does not yet wholly get rid of the innate [forms of grasping]. 49e ABIDING IN THIS WAY WITHIN MIND. who only contemplate the established [truths]. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF TRUTH HAVING BEEN ELIMINATED. THE BODHISATTVA IN THE STATE OF SAMADI -II CONTEMPLATES IMAGES AS BEING MIND ONLY. Based on these interpretations. the four noble truths] and the nonestablished truth [i. the bodhisattva who produces the good roots of heat. THEN. HE REALIZES THAT TIIE GRASPED DOES NOT EXIST. HE EXAMINES THEM AS ONLY HIS OWN THOUGHTS.

THEN IT DWELLS IN CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY BECAUSE IT IS DIVORCED FROM THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWOFOLD GRASPING. because both are divorced from the characteristics of grasped and grasper." etc. because he does not grasp the manifold images of idle discourse. because [the seeing part I arises bound to the seen [part] and is named "having an object. "knowledge of sound. The Treatise says that when the bodhisattva. which is to say. 1f it is devoid of the seeing part. because for others." If you name it "having that as an object" in the absence of an image. REGARDING THE OBJECTIVE REALM. This state is also categorized as the stage of resolve and applica- tion because one does not yet realize the ultimate truth of consciousness only. There is an interpretation I by Sthiramatil that this knowledge is devoid of both parts I i.. etc. the knowledge that realizes true suchness is equal to true suchness. grasper and grasped]. According to another interpretation [by Nandal.e. both the seen and seeing parts exist in this knowledge. is devoid of discriminating knowledge and DEVOID OF SOMETHING OBTAINED. so how could it be said that it is knowledge that has true 306 . Path of Insight: State of Thorough Understanding Next.. WHENEVER. what are the characteristics of the state of thorough understanding? The verses [of Vasubandhu I say. he is said truly to DWELL IN the nature of the ultimate truth of CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY. because it is said that it is devoid of the characteristics of the grasped and grasper. because mind that obtains something las an object manifests itself as idle discourse. KNOWLEDGE IS DEVOID OF SOMETHING OBTAINED. REGARDING THE OB- JECTIVE REALM.Demonstration of Consciousness Only realm of desire and of good destinies generate I these good roots]. discerning and disgusted minds are insufficient. The characteristics of grasper and grasped are imagination. one must also name knowledge of form. 4. it must be unable to perceive objects.

so must it be in this case. it grasps and does not grasp. because it is not separate from suchness. l that the seeing part of this knowledge exists but the seen part does not. its substance embodies true suchness and is named "state of thorough understanding. Therefore it must be admitted that this [knowledge I has a seeing part but no seen I part I." It is also named "path of insight" be- cause it is the preliminary intuition of truth. If it were to change into an object. because of differences of shallow and deep and gross and subtle. Even though it culminates after many moments.authenticating part (syasamyitti. of two kinds.called nondiscriminating knowledge (niryikalpaka jfidna). still [the moments] are uniform in characteristics.Chapter XI suchness as an object? It must not be that the nature of true suchness is to be named "having an object. then it would not immediately realize [suchness as an object' and would be like subsequently acquired knowledge and contain discrimination. Despite being devoid of a seen part. are gradually realized and gradually eliminated [respectively]. The first is the path of insight of reality (tatty('. briefly. It really realizes the reality disclosed by the twofold emptiness and really eliminates the propensities of discrimination of the two obstacles. That is. the path of insight is. still it can be said that this I knowledge] arises bound to the image of suchness. It is said that it is not a grasper but not that grasping is totally nonexistent. 307 . There is I another] opinion. which is the correct one. Despite having a seen part. the twofold emptiness and two kinds of obstacles." Therefore it must be conceded that this [nondiscriminating knowledge I possesses the seeing part of consciousness. However. and therefore it is said to be generally of a single moment (ksana). When this knowledge is born with interruption following added efforts. There is an interpretation [by Dharmapala. There is an opinion that of these [accomplishments I. Just as the self. because it is said that while devoid of images.bheiga) does not change 50a into an object when it has the seeing part as an object.darsana -n?ärga). it is still devoid of discrimination. it is the same as the so.

The second [kind of path of insight I is the path of insight of characteristics (laksa darsana. the four noble truths) and is made up of sixteen moments. the twofold emptiness and the two kinds of obstacles are suddenly realized and eliminated.e. [This path] is established in imitation of the seeing part of the twofold emptiness of the path of insight of reality." which is able to remove the medium class of propensities of discrimination. (3) comprehensive knowledge that expels the false objects of all "sentient beings" and "dharmas. The former two are named "knowledge of dharmas" ( dharma jiána). and comprehensively in the uninterrupted (dnantarya) I stage I and I stage of] liberation ( vinzukti ). In the first. The second I kind of path of insight of characteristics] has as an object the established truth (i. It is also of two kinds.Demonstration of Consciousness Only [which is correct. There is another interpretation. [which is correct. The third is named "knowledge of species" (anvaya jzïána)." which is able to remove all propensities of discrimination. This is named the "path of insight of characteristics." There is an interpretation that these I above three moments] are the path of insight of reality. because each has a specific object. The first is the contemplation of nonestablished truth (avyavasthita-satya). because of the extreme ability resulting from the power of [previous] mental disposition." which is able to remove the weak class of propensities of discrimination.marga) [which involves subsequently acquired knowledge that has as its object the characteristics of true suchnessl.) that of these. dharmas 308 . because it unites objects in a comprehensive manner I as species]. because the path of insight of reality does not distinguish objects.] that these three are the path of insight of characteristics.. (2) internal knowledge that expels the false object consisting of "sentient beings. specifically insofar as the elimination of obstacles is con- cerned. because the path of insight of characteristics has the four truths as an object. It also is twofold. which contains three kinds of moments: (1) internal knowledge that expels the false object consisting of " dharmas.

It is said that succeeding holy dharmas are all of this species. Just as there are four moments with regard to the truth of suffering. (4) knowledge of species vis -à -vis suffering (duhkhe. (2) knowledge regarding dharmas vis -à -vis suffering (duhkhe. This means that one contemplates the manifested realm [of desire] and the unmanifested realm [i.ksánti). which considers and confirms patience with regard to knowledge of species vis-à -vis suffering. That is.authenticating part of the uninterrupted I stage l and [stage off liberation of the path of insight of reality.) is of Sob sixteen moments in which dharmas and species are separately established through the contemplation of the truth in the lower I realm I and the upper [two realms).anuaya jñána). pure knowledge is born immediately after this [patience I. etc. and knowledge of comprehension.dharma jñána). and patience and knowledge vis -à- vis dharmas are each realized within separately." The second [form of contemplation of the established truth. pure discernment is born immediately following knowledge. eight are contemplations of suchness and eight are contemplations of correct knowledge. patience in comprehension (abhisamaya). are concerned. contemplation of the previous suchness immediately following pa- tience and realization of liberation from the previously eliminated passions.Chapter XI and species are established separately in sixteen moments on the basis of contemplating the grasped and grasper. They are named the "path of insight of characteristics..e. Of these sixteen moments. that is. It directly eliminates twenty -eight kinds of propensities of discrimination that are eliminated by perceiving suffering in the three realms. These are established separately in imitation of the seeing part and the self . cessation. there are four moments regarding the truth of suffering: (1) patience regarding knowledge of dharma vis -à -vis suffering (duhkhe. that is.. contemplation of the such - ness of the truth of suffering in the three realms. (3) patience regarding knowledge of species vis -à -vis suffering (duhkhe.dharma jñána. and path. each in two moments. One contemplates the 309 . so must there be concerning the truths of origination.ksánti). realms of form and no form] insofar as suffering.anuaya jñána. that is. that is.

and it is said that each contains four contemplations. Consequently. Even though in the path of insight. It eliminates the one hundred twelve propensities of discrimination that are eliminated by insight. because it cannot arise until after the path of insight of reality. contemplation conforms to it. tranquility and contemplation function together. that the path of insight of characteristics arises on the basis of [the path of insight of] real- ity immediately after I the occurrence of I supreme worldly dharmas. and because the propensities of discrimination are already eliminated by the [path of insight of reality. These are separately established on the basis of the former two I forms of ] established truth as object with their I meditative] tranquility and insight of sixteen varieties [of moments]. Tranquility associated with these eight can be said generally to make one 'moment]. The prior path of insight of reality realizes the nature of consciousness only. these nine moments are called the "path of insight of characteristics. Of these two." In accordance with the broad dissemination of the truth of the holy teachings.Demonstration of Consciousness Only [four] truths in imitation of the seeing part of the uninterrupted [stage I and I the stage of] liberation of the path of insight. inasmuch as contemplation is analytical and tranquility is synthetical. This is not really so. because the established [truth I occurs subsequent to the nonestablished [truth]. in a manner of speaking. and therefore the verse concerns itself solely with that. it is said that the path of insight of characteristics contains nine kinds of moments. the first is superior. That is. Therefore they are not the same. as the case may be. not tranquility." It is said. patience and knowledge belonging to the class of dharmas and species are combined. It is named the "path of insight of characteristics. still as far as the meaning of "insight" is concerned. 310 . while the following path of insight of characteristics realizes the characteristics of consciousness only. The former path of insight of reality is categorized as root knowledge. and that it eliminates the propensities. while the following path of insight of characteristics is categorized as subsequently acquired knowledge. making eight moments.

that is. dharmas apart from its own substance must not be objects.Chapter XI Do the various [moments of I subsequently acquired knowledge have the two parts [of seeing and seen'? According to one interpretation. etc. how could there be such events as manifesting bodies and preaching the Dharma. in 311 . etc.. If it did not transform and appear as form. It is also said that this knowledge discriminates distinct and common characteristics of dharmas. because it is divorced from the two graspings. if this knowledge does not transform to resemble an objective realm. sound. etc. How are these two paths of insight connected with the six cornprehensions (abhisamaya )? The six comprehensions are as follows: lies (1) Comprehension as thought. Consequently. neither exist. and. produce heat (rusrn.agata). and because holy knowledge is wholly capable of immediately discerning its object. the highest category of discernment attained through thought associated with the feeling of joy. it must have sounds. it is said that this knowledge manifests bodies and [Buddha] lands. etc.. etc. etc. as an object. because it is said that this [knowledge I reflects upon the apparent characteristics of suchness and does not perceive the real nature of true suchness. According to another I correct I interpretation I by Dharmapala I. etc.... as objects.. etc. According to another interpretation. and it contemplates differences in capacity and nature among sentient beings and preaches to them. it must be devoid of a condition as object. etc. both parts exist in this subsequent knowledge. and when it has form.. when it has as objects things that are not dharmas. Also. because these substances are unreal and devoid of the function of being conditions. this knowledge has the seeing I part I but not the seen. for sentient beings and preaches the True Dharma. when supports of the I other I four aggregates are transmuted. because it is said that this class of knowledge contains discrimination. Also. It is able to contemplate the common characteristics of dharmas. there must not be any feeling.. It is said to be divorced from the two graspings because it is unattached. both parts exist in this knowledge. Also.? If form does not appear when the support of the aggregate of form is transmuted.

and therefore they are not comprehensions. etc.abhisamaya). are not capable of extensively discriminating dharmas. etc. that is. its functioning is most intense. still they are not of the nature [ of the path]. the four noble truths I. that is. (6) Ultimate comprehension. When the bodhisattva acquires these two paths of insight. certain. and it is also named "comprehension.. (3) Comprehension of moral precepts (.Demonstration of Consciousness Only contemplating dharmas in the path of added effort. Heat..satya. the various knowledges. subsequent to the comprehension of truths in the knowledge of comprehension. pure moral precepts expel the impurity of immorality and cause comprehension to increase in brightness. so they are not included. mundane and supramundane.satya -abhisamaya). He dwells on the stage of Ex- treme Joy. that has the Three Treasures as objects. [consisting of J knowledge of termination. (5) Comprehension of truths in the knowledge that borders on comprehension (abhisamayantika jñana. easily grasps the realm of the Dharma. and the path of insight of characteristics includes parts of the fourth and fifth. It is given the name "comprehension" because it assists comprehension and prevents its regression. and acquires 312 ." (4) Comprehension of truths in the knowledge of comprehension (abhisamaya jñana. pure faith of both mundane and supramundane kinds. that is. that is. [comprehension] of all kinds of truth of root knowledge or subsequently acquired knowledge having as an object the nonestablished [truths. therefore it is established as being a comprehension in a manner of speaking.'ila). nor have they yet realized the truth. knowledge in the ultimate stage. The path of insight of reality includes a part of the fourth comprehension. that is.e. Even though the second and third !comprehensions) occur simultaneously with this I path I. i. that have the established I truths I as objects. he is born in the family ofTathágatas. (2) Comprehension of faith.

THIS IS SUPRAMUNDANE KNOWLEDGE. 5.Chapter Xl various forms of sameness I with regard to beings!. it is said to be DEVOID OF ANYTHING OBTAINED because it is divorced from idle dis- course. BECAUSE OF ABANDONING THE TWOFOLD COARSENESS. He knows himself that he will realize great hodhi before long and be able to benefit and gladden all forever. The pro- pensities of the twofold grasping are the roots of the world. nondiscriminating KNOWLEDGE. State and Path of Cultivation Next. The Treatise says that the bodhisattva. It is named SUPRAMUNDANE because it transcends the world. ONE REALIZES THE TRANSMUTATION OF THE SUPPORT. DEVOID OF ANYTHING OBTAINED. What are its characteristics? The Verses I of Vasubandhu] say. He is born eternally in the great assemblies [of bodhisattvas I of the Buddhas and acquires mastery in many hundreds of areas. that is. the state of cultivation (bhavanä. Because one cultivates it repeatedly. so that it alone deserves the name SUPRAMUNDANE. The seeds of the two obstacles receive the name of COARSENESS because they are incapacities that oppose the light 51a 313 . INCONCEIVABLE. Only this [knowledge) can eliminate them. it is said to be DEVOID OF ANYTHING OBTAINED. Alternately. it is pure in substance and realizes true suchness. the name SUPRAMUNDANE is established on the basis of two meanings. again repeatedly cultivates the nondiscriminating knowledge in order to remove the remaining obstacles and realize the transmutation of the support. INCONCEIVABLE. Alternately.auaslhd). one ABANDONS THE TWOFOLD COARSENESS. It is SUPRAMUNDANE. which is not the case with other I kinds of knowledge]. It is said to be INCONCEIVABLE because its marvellous func- tioning is difficult to fathom. having risen from the former path of insight. This is the nondiscriminating knowledge in the ten stages (bhümi). Such knowledge is alone said to be SUPRAMUNDANE because it contains these two kinds of mean- ing. Because this knowledge is far removed from grasped and grasper.

This is true suchness apart from the nature of defilement. because it is the support of defiled and pure dharmas. The concept of consciousness only is established in order that sentient beings may realize and acquire the two results of the transmutation of the support. Even though suchness is pure by nature. which is supported by suchness. one realizes supreme awakening. by transmuting the obstacle to that which is to be known. which is to say. Then. therefore from beginningless time they have experienced the suffering of sanzsara. and one is able to trans- mute and acquire the perfected nature within the dependent [ naturel By transmuting the passions. 314 . the support is the true suchness of consciousness only. one is able to REALIZE the great TRANSMUTATION OF THE SUPPORT. and for that reason it is said to ABANDON them. I This knowledge) causes their eternal extinction. SUPPORT means "that which is depended upon. one acquires great nirvana. it is said in a manner of speaking that it is newly purified. As a result of repeatedly cultivating nondiscriminating knowledge and eliminating the coarseness of the two obstacles in root consciousness. "Pure" means the true perfected nature. Because it is capable of ABANDONING THE TWOFOLD COARSENESS. one is therefore able to transmute and destroy sarnsara. which is supported by suchness. because it is the support of sanzsara and nirvana. The foolish are mistaken and deluded concerning this true suchness. this new purity is said to be the transmuted support." which is to say that it supports the arising of another. Transmutation is twofold: transmutation as abandonment and transmutation as acquisition. when it is separated from defilement.Demonstration of Consciousness Only and fine. "Defiled" means false imagina- tion. The wise are apart from error and awaken to this true suchness and acquire the ultimate peace and happiness of nirvana. As a result of repeatedly cultivating nondiscriminating knowledge and eliminating the coarseness of the two obstacles in root consciousness. one is able to transmute and abandon the imagined [naturel from the dependent nature]. its characteristics are defiled. and transmute and realize nirvana. Alternately.

How does one realize and acquire the twofold transmutation of the support? One realizes and acquires the twofold transmuta- tion of the support by cultivating ten superior practices during ten stages (hhúmi).palzsa). and by realizing ten kinds of true suchness. 6. (4) The stage of "blazing discernment" (arcisnzati). because one in the state of Great Sage (nzahei-muni) is referred to as "Dharma body" (dharma. realizes the twofold emptiness.Chapter Xl In the state of cultivation. The Ten Stages The ten stages are as follows: (1) The stage of "extreme joy" (prainudilä). still this is not the meaning indicated by this !above) verse. The completed state of [followers of ] the two vehicles is referred to as the "body of liberation" (vinzuktikäzya). because one first acquires the nature of a saint (árya). because one is endowed with pure morality and has removed oneself far from the defilement of passions that have the ability to generate minor faults. (5) The stage that is "difficult to vanquish" (sudurjaya). by eliminating ten serious obstacles. true and relative. because one dwells in the most excellent dharmas of the aids to bodhi (bodhi. because one perfects the great Dharma dhdra ¿zi of superior samádhi and is able to emit the boundless light of marvellous discernment.kari). Even though bodhi is acquired in this state. and because the fire of discernment grows. (3) The stage of "light emissions" (prabad. The intention of the verse is merely to indicate the transmutation of consciousness only. one eliminates the obstacles and realizes I true suchness I. because the modes of activity of the two kinds of knowledge.kaya). and is able to benefit oneself and others. (2) The stage of "immaculateness" (vinzalc). because one burns the fuel that is the passions. and uniting them and 315 . are opposed.

( 10) The stage of the "cloud of the Dharma" (dharma. 511. because one has perfected the four unobstructed analytical knowledges (pratisainuid) and is able to preach the Dharma well. and moral precepts as benefitting sentient beings. (7) The stage that is "far going" (duramgama). because it reaches the abode of the imageless. the ten stages comprehensively include as their nature conditioned and unconditioned merits. covers all like space [and covers' the grossness and fills the Dharma body. passions. and the giving of the Dharma. and images. Patience (hsc nti) is of three kinds: patience with regard to resentment and injury [on the part of others'. because one dwells in the knowledge of conditioned arising and this attracts nondiscriminating. because the cloud of the Dharma of great knowledge. moral precepts as embracing wholesome dharmas. because nondiscriminating knowledge continues without intervention. They are called "stages" I lit. everywhere in the universe. The "ten superior practices" are the ten perfections. In this way. Giving ((Iana) is of three kinds: material gifts.Demonstration of Consciousness Only bringing about their association is extremely difficult to do in this stage. (9) The stage of "good discernment" (sádhumatn). (8) The stage that is "unshakable" (acalei ). (6) The stage of "presence" (abhimuhhi). patience 316 . "earths" I because they are superior supports for the practices that are to be cultivated and [because they] cause them to appear and grow [as the earth does]. Moral precepts are of three kinds: moral precepts as personal conduct. filled with the water of a host of virtues. and it exceeds the paths of the world and the two vehicles. and effort cannot move it. the giving of fearlessness. it is the end of effort. supreme discernment and causes it to be present.megha).

Trance states have as their nature just sainadhi. Vigor has as its nature effort and the three actions generated by it. This I above discussion] concerns the natures [of the ten perfections). trance states that attract I para- normal abilities]. If we combine each with its retinue. and faith. along with the three actions [of body. vigor.Chapter XI of accepting suffering calmly. resolve. speech. and vigor in benefitting and gladdening I others I. vigor in embracing the wholesome. investigative discernment. With regard to the natures of these ten.kausalya) is of two kinds: skill in means in turning [toward awakening and skill in means in rescuing [other beings]. each has as its nature all the accompanying virtues. The last five all have as their nature investigation of dharmas. and patience in the investigation of dharmas. Moral precepts have as their nature the three actions of the time of accepting and learning the bodhisattva's moral precepts. Skill in means (upaya. Power is of two kinds: power of reflection and power of cultivation. and trance states for transacting one's affairs I as a bodhisattval. There is an interpretation that the eighth I perfection] has as its nature desire. Knowledge (Waal) is of two kinds: knowledge as enjoying the happiness of the Dharma [for oneself I and knowledge of bringing sentient beings to [spiritual] maturity. and the three actions generated by them. giving has as its nature the absence of craving. because vows have these three as its nature. Discernment is of three kinds: nondiscriminating discernment of the emptiness of beings. nondiscriminating discernment of the emptiness of dharmas. Vows (pranidhána) are of two kinds: vows of seeking hodhi and vows of benefitting and gladdening I others I. because it is said that they are fundamental knowledge Iin the case of the sixth perfection] and subsequently acquired knowledge [in the case of the last four]. 317 . Vigor (virya) is of three kinds: vigor of great resolve. Patience has as its nature nonhatred. and mind I that are engendered by it. and nondiscriminating discernment of both Ikinds of I emptiness. Trance states (dhyana) are of three kinds: trance states as peaceful dwelling.

(5) excellence of means. because one benefits I them] by giving goods. [perfections] must not be mixed with the two obstacles. the giving. one must have compassion for all sentient beings. Consequently.. As for there being only ten I perfections] and no more or less. are not paramitál. the first three benefit sentient beings. are the path of decisive triumph.e. Also. that is. All bodhisattva paths are made up of only these two.. as for the first six not being more or less. and I good I companions. etc. (3) 51e excellence of aspiration. the I first] three of giving.]..Demonstration of Consciousness Only In order for these ten characteristics to qualify as perfections. giving that is not a perfection. and because one gradually matures sentient beings. If leach perfection] is not assisted by these seven kinds of excellence. they must be accompanied by imageless knowledge. perfection that is not giving. and one is patient in the face of their vexations. that is. no more. Furthermore. (7) excellence of purity. one must dedicate I one's virtues] to supreme bodhi. The (last] three of vigor. because one is able to sub- due the passions and mature sentient beings and the Buddha dharmas. no less. one does not injure them. etc.. a body Ifit for practice]. giving. that are practiced do not reach the other shore [i. (2) excellence of support. etc. that is. etc. and nongiving that is nonperfectionl. (6) excellence of dedicating. they must I each] be assisted by seven kinds of excellence: (1) excellence of installation. one must be supported by the great thought of awakening.. 318 . because one gradually cultivates the various Buddha dharmas. insofar as being perfections. that is. they must be accompanied by the excellence of all endeavors. These should be understood in accordance with the extensive discussion of other treatises. because they promote great wealth. are the path of promotion (abhyudaya). this is because in the ten stages one must counteract ten obstacles and realize ten [kinds of I true suchness. must be distinguished with the four alternatives [i. one must be installed in the disposition (gotra) of bodhisattvas. etc. (4) excellence of occupation. that is. giving that is also a perfection. immorality.. that is. this is because one expels opposing obstacles of six characteristics I such as greed. The [last] three such as vigor.e. Also. that is.

Also. Hence the order. because they are interrelated.]. vows assist vigor. Their characteristics are as discussed in the Abiclharmasamuccaya and elsewhere. although the fourth I does not yet subdue the passions.] are as explained elsewhere. Consequently. one does not dwell in nirvana. The reason why there are only four of the last ones is that they assist the first six and cause their perfection. As for what they include. (3) cultivation supported by mental disposition. one cultivates ten perfections and is able to perfect them. etc. there are five kinds of cultivation: (1) cultivation supported by qualifications such as vows. They are preparations for the nirvana with no fixed abode (apratisthi.Chapter X1 etc. counteract the passions. due to giving. and they are easy or difficult to cultivate [respectively I. these first six [perfections' neither increase nor decrease [in number I. and knowledge assists discernment and makes it grow. and. Supported by these five kinds of cultivation.. and (5) cultivation supported by freedom. due to the last three.. (4) cultivation supported by skill in means (upcaya). The reason the successor is attracted through the support of the cultivation of the predecessor is that the former includes the successor. Also. still it stimulates the wholesome added efforts that counteract them. because." etc. power assists samádhi. These should be understood in accordance with the full explanation in the Samdhinirmocana Sútra.tanirv«na). etc. etc. one does not dwell in sarnsára.. each of the ten includes all [other! perfections. The reason for the order of the ten is that succeeding ones are attracted and produced by the previous ones and because the previous ones are confirmed and purified by succeeding ones. This is because skill in means aids ( the first] three of giving. The explanation of the general name [ "perfection "l and the specific names [ "giving. so they neither increase nor decrease. which necessarily 319 . (2) cultivation supported by intention. the former are gross [compared with the successor I and succeeding ones are subtle. and I the fifth and sixth' eternally subdue and eternally destroy the passions. Regarding the cultivation of these ten.

impure and pure]. Their great depth and vastness is as discussed in other sources. that is. Four are pure. With regard to cultivation of the basis of simplicity or mixture.e. giving that is not a perfection.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 52a requires the former. The reason there are really ten but said to be six is that you must understand that the last four are included in the sixth [i.e. These are common and noncommon to the two vehicles. excluding the result of disentanglement. The ten Iperfections' and the threefold learning (siksá) are mutually related. The former does not include the successor because I the former] does not confirm and purify I the successor]. perfection that is not giving. (2) moral precepts as embracing good dharmas. and (3) moral precepts as benefitting sentient beings. and results of the Mahayana. that is. As for the result of these ten.samádhi: (1) the samádhi of the brilliant light of the Mahayana. that 320 .. because it can emit the brilliant light of knowledge that thoroughly illuminates the principles. that is. correctly benefitting and gladdening sentient beings.) moral precepts as conduct.]. four are impure. practices.. there are four alternatives in their mutual relationship I i. The reason they are broken down into ten is that the sixth includes nondiscriminating knowledge and the last four are all categorized as subsequently acquired knowledge. The former is confirmed and purified by the support of the cultivation of the successor because the successor includes the former and confirms and purifies the former. The successor does not include the former because I the former] does not require the successor. excluding result as retribution. teachings. Learning consisting of moral precepts is threefold: (1. (2) samádhi like a king in accumulating merits. discernment]. which is claimed on the basis of their mutual assistance or due to the combining of the two [i. that is. correctly cultivating and realizing dharmas that one should cultivate and realize. etc.e. some sources say that I the perfections] have five results. correct avoidance of dharmas that one should avoid. because its object is worldly I truth I. Still.. There are four I kinds] of learning consisting of .

and because all functioning of advancement arises spontaneously in the pure contemplation of subsequently acquired [knowledge]. because they are by nature equipment. In the case of inclusion by natures. and retinue Iof the precepts]. great capacities. because the effortless path is contrary to added effort. etc. and three exist as seeds. and (4) samädhi practiced by heroes. In case of inclusion according to function. These three discernments all exist in the first two states [i. (3) samadhi that protects virtue. causal conditions. or gotra. and state of equipment] as seeds. and from the eighth stage on. there are two Ikinds of discernment) as actualities and seeds. because the actualities and seeds of added effort have both been abandoned.e. and activities.substance. the three kinds [of dis- cernment] exist as seeds or actualities up through the seventh stage. self . because there is no added effort in the state of the path of insight. 321 .Chapter XI is. and as actualities only in I the state of] added effort. of these are as discussed in other sources. Learning as discernment is threefold: (1) nondiscriminating discernment of added effort. Taking into consideration their assistants. and 'learning as] discernment includes the last five I perfections]. Two [ discernments] are manifested in the state of thorough understanding. that is. The objects. objects.. state of class. In the ultimate state. [learning as] moral precepts includes [the perfection of I morality. 'learning as ] samádhi includes I the perfection of] trance states. two are actualities and three are seeds. support. (2) fundamental nondiscriminating discernment. because it can protect supramundane and mundane virtuous good dharmas. counteragents. results.. I learning as] moral precepts includes the first three I perfections]. Buddhas and bodhisattvas. because it freely accumulates boundless merits in the same way that the power of a king is unequaled. all I three learnings and ten perfections I include each other. and (3) subsequently acquired nondiscriminating discernment. and activities of these four are as discussed in other places. that is. because it is practiced by the great heroic beings. In the state of cultivation. The nature.

Vigor includes the three learnings. In the state of thorough understanding. consequently.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 52h [Learning asl samädhi includes the trance states I which are the fifth perfection]. as well as protection Iin vigor).. In the state of culmination. [learning as] moral precepts includes the first four I perfections).. is weak at that time and I the perfections) are subdued by the passions and are still incapable of subduing [the passions]. From another point of view. 'Learning as samádhi includes trance states. the seeds are of both kinds. the seeds I of the perfections] of bodhisattvas of sudden awakening are of the two kinds [of pure and impure! and the actualities are impure only. during the third incalculable con. (2) they are named "proximate perfections. and from the eighth stage on. In bodhisattvas of gradual awakening. all I ten I exist in the five states. etc. as seeds and as actualities. consequently. both seeds and actualities up to the seventh stage are both pure and impure. as above. because in all cases it stimulates those three. and [learning as] discernment includes the last five. 322 . passions become active unintentionally. they are not subdued by passions. With regard to the ten [perfections) and the five I states]. and they are capable of subduing [passions I. the power of giving." that is. In the state of cultivation. passions become active [only] intentionally. during the first incalculable eon. etc. and the actualities are pure only. and [learning as] discernment includes the last five. during the second incalculable eon. they are of both kinds. and in the state of cultivation (bliduandauasthd) their characteristics are most evident. However." that is. the seeds are of both kinds and actualities are pure only. the power of giving. the power of giving. gradu- ally increases. [perfections] are exclusively pure whether as seeds or as actualities. because there are the first three.. (3) they are named "great perfections. in the first two states. In the causal state [prior to the state of result as Buddhahood] these ten [perfections) have three kinds of names: (1) they are named "remote perfections." that is. etc. because these [ bodhisattvas] have already obtained the pure contemplation of the emptiness of beings.

and just as when one side of a balancing scale rises the other side sinks. This is why there is no error I in our system] of the simultaneity of the two natures [of ordinary and drys]. Still. the passions never become active again. Just as light and darkness definitely do not occur together. because ordinary beingness is established on the basis of their seeds." When the two paths of insight of reality appear. but out of concern for prolixity we have limited ourselves to the essentials. still. so must it be with the principle of opposing dharmas. both as actuality and as seeds. consequently.] because the moments of eliminating passions and realizing their cessation are different. 52c 323 . what is the use of producing the path of liberation (vimukti. There are innumerable different kinds of these ten I perfections I. When the path of insight of bodhisattvas appears.marga) one is already devoid of the seeds of the passions. that is. as well as the seeds of the passions. all are comprised in the ten perfections. because there remains the subtle obstacle to that which is to he known. The Ten Obstacles The ten kinds of obstacle are as follows: The I first' obstacle consists of the quality of being an ordinary being (prthag.Chapter XI gradually increases and is capable of decisively subduing all passions.duarana).naárga) afterwards? [ We reply. one is cultivated in each stage in accordance with its dominant characteristics. and because of the need to abandon the coarse natures of the class. Even though these ten are all really cultivated in I all] ten states. they eliminate the two seeds and are named "acquiring the nature of saints. it arises from discrimination in the two obstacles. When the path of insight of the two vehicles appears.janatua. I their followers] only eliminate the one I kind of 1 seed Iof the passions) and are named "acquiring the nature of saints" (drys). this is not ultimate. the seeds of those two obstacles certainly do not attain maturity. 7.] if during the path of noninterruption (dnantarva. Even though the practices of the ten stages are innumerable. I The Sarvástivádins ask.

Consequently. but even though the eliminated faculty of suffering is neither actual nor seeds. which are the results of action of the evil destinies. The term "coarseness" should be understood analogously for subsequent I stages). that I "delusion" I refers only to the intense and weak classes of obstacles. one therefore produces the path of liberation and realizes the cessation through discrimination (pratisanzkyá.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Even though one is devoid of the seeds of the passions during the path of noninterruption. and because they are common Ito the two vehicles and bodhisattvas] they are not what is being referred to 324 . In order to abandon that. The second is the delusion as defilement of the evil destinies.nirodha).. which is unconditioned. because it is said that "the ten I kinds of I ignorance are not defiled. You should understand that the class "delusion" (moha) refers generally to delusions and pertains to the following as well. of this class [of passions]. The first is the delusion of attachment to a self and dharmas. in the first stage it is said that one eliminates two delusions as well as their coarseness (dausthulya)." "Ignorance" is the same as the delusions of the ten categories of obstacles. Just as entrance into the second samadhi is said to eliminate the faculty of suffering. Even though the path of insight is born and also eliminates the results of action of the evil destinies." so is it in this matter. still one has not abandoned their quality of unfitness. still the intention Iof the Treatise] with regard to the quality of being ordinary beings is to interpret it as [the obstacle to that] which is to be known. Alternately. etc. Although it is really the two obstacles that are eliminated by the first stage. it still is called "coarseness. still here we now speak of passions that can generate [these results]. [Adherents of I the two vehicles are also able to eliminate the obstacle of the passions. which is the obstacle consisting of the quality of being an ordinary person of these I ten obstacles]. which together generate these two delusions. because they are their roots. The term "coarseness" ( dausthulya) indicates the seeds of these two or the quality of unfitness generated by the two.

which are the three actions of 325 . during the path of cultivation of the first stage (bhümi). along with the three actions I of body. Otherwise. Therefore the state of the path of cultivation does not eliminate the passions. When one enters the second stage. along with their coarseness. Even though in this stage one also subdues the passions and eliminates their coarseness. speech. It obstructs extremely pure moral precepts of the second stage. when !the text just speaks of elimination at the very first I stage I. He is not like [those of the] two vehicles who hasten to perfect quiescence. this is not the true intention [of the text).. The first is delusion consisting of slight unintentional offenses. three incalculable eons]. there would be no differences in the paths during the three periods I i.e. one must in reality continue to eliminate the obstacles that must be eliminated. However. Since one has dwelt for a long time in the period of the stage of fulfillment. here. that is. In reality. "The ten Ikinds of] ignorance are not defiled" is said only on the basis of what is eliminated through cultivation during the ten stages.ávarana). one also eliminates part of the innate [obstacle to that] which is to be known. and mind I of unintentional offenses that are generated by that I obstacle!. the bodhisattva only cultivates the path that eternally eliminates the obstacle to that which is to be known and retains the obstacle of the passions in order to assist his vow to accept birth [to help other sentient beings]. because it is only at the time of Buddhahood that one suddenly eliminates them. one can definitely eliminate it. which is the innate part of this [obstacle I. Also. Therefore it is said that having obtained the comprehensions (abhisanzaya).pratipatty. the second stage is said to eliminate two delusions. One does not eliminate the propensities. later. in the state of the path of cultivation of the ten stages. elimination in the subsequent nine stages should be understood analogously.Chapter XI here. The second is delusion consisting of manifold actional tendencies. and therefore this is not what is said. part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. Consequently. The second [obstacle I is the obstacle consisting of bad conduct (mithyá.

one part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. that 326 . The first is the delusion consisting of craving. It obstructs dharmas that are aids to bodhi in the fourth stage. thought. since one has acquired pure dharmas that are aids to bodhi. which is among these [delusions] that which is able to obstruct superior samádhi and the discernment of cultivation. The fourth is the obstacle of the activity of the subtle passions ( súksma. [the two delusions) are that which generates action and the delusion of not comprehending action.samudácara. in the fourth stage. It is named "delusion of craving" because often in the past it was associated with [the passion of] craving. because this [passion] has evolved supported by that [obstacle] since beginningless time.klesa. Upon entering the third stage one is able eternally to eliminate it.ávarana). The second is the obstacle regarding the dhárani of perfect hearing and memory. Now. part of obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate that includes the innate view of a self in the sixth consciousness. It causes forgetfulness and loss of dharmas of hearing. The third [obstacle] is the obstacle of dullness (dhandhatváávarana). craving is subdued accordingly. Alternately. It is said to be subtle because it is the lowest class. which is among these [delusions] that which is able to obstruct the dhárani and the discernment of hearing and reflection. It obstructs the dhárani of superior samádhi of the third stage and the extraordinary three discernments that are evoked from Isamadhi]. Consequently.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 53a unintentional offenses generated by that [obstacle]. the third stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness. It is given the name of passion because formerly it often arose with the same substance as the view that grasps [something] as a self that arises spontaneously in the sixth consciousness.] one acquires superior samádhi and what is achieved from cultivation. and cultivation. and. Now. that is. and upon entry into the fourth stage one is able to eliminate it eternally. [in this stage. since that [obstacle] is eternally eliminated. and it has been active from long ago. it is not conditioned by attention. that is.

The fifth [obstacle I is the obstacle of the final nirvana of the lower vehicles ( hinayana. etc. which is that among these that accompanies love for samddhi. It causes 327 . and the view of a self.. as they occur associated with either the sixth or the seventh consciousness. The second is the delusion consisting of love for the Dharma. because they act as supports for other passions. Consequently. I. The words "view of self. etc. From the eighth stage on. I and there is a sequence in subduing them. These are coarse and subtle Irespectively. one cultivates and acquires the dharmas that are aids to bodhi Iand morality. and third stages.. and includes love for satnddhi and love for the Dharma." Therefore one is able eternally to destroy the two [forms of I views of self. and upon entering the fourth stage one is able eternally to eliminate them. etc. Therefore this [view of self. they are eternally inactive. In the first.parinirucaraa. and cultivation are the same as those of worldly people. Because of the elimination of the two delusions included in the obstacle to that which is to be known. etc. etc." also include the beginningless obstacle to that which is to be known. The first is the delusion consisting of love for trance states. associated with the seventh consciousness are opposed to the na- ture of the pure path. the passions that are the two I kinds of I love are also never active again. but up to the seventh stage they may still occur. How do we know that this I view of self I is associated with the sixth consciousness? Because attachment to a self and views. and then they are named "supramundane. morality. which is that among these that accompanies love for the Dharma.Chapter XI [obstacle] is eternally eliminated. the characteristics of the practice of giving. That love for sarnädhi and the Dharma have further increased in the I first' three stages. are also eternally inactive.. etc. the fourth stage is said to eliminate two obstacles as well as their coarseness. second. because the dharmas that are aids to bodhi especially oppose them. In the fourth stage.avarana). I is only associated with the sixth consciousness. part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. that is.

part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. that is.nimitta. and upon entering the seventh stage one is able eternally to eliminate it. It obstructs the marvellous path devoid of characteristics of the seventh stage. consisting of the grasping of the activity of coarse characteris- tics of defilement and purity. The first is the delusion consisting of contemplating the evolving of karmic forces (samskdra). Contemplation of characteristics is frequently carried out. Consequently. and one is still unable to abide for a long time in contemplation devoid of characteristics. The seventh [obstacle] is the obstacle of the activity of subtle characteristics (súksma. Consequently. which is of these that which dislikes sarnsara. It obstructs the path of nondifferentiation of the fifth stage.Demonstration of Consciousness Only dislike for samsdra and anticipation of nirvana and is the same as dislike for sarrzsara and delight in its destruction. which is attachment to the activity of subtle characteristics of birth and cessation. 53b The second is the delusion of exclusively intending to turn toward nirvana.sarnuddedra. the sixth stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness.avarana). It obstructs the path of neither defilement nor purity of the sixth stage. The first is the delusion of exclusively intending to turn one's back on sansara. which is of these that which grasps impurity. The first is the delusion concerning the activity of subtle characteristics. Consequently. which is of these that which delights in nirvana. which is of these that which is attached to purity.udacdra. the seventh stage is said to eliminate two obstacles and their coarseness.sam. the fifth stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness. and upon entry into the sixth stage one is able eternally to eliminate it.nimitta. that is. which 328 . part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. because the evolving of karmic forces is categorized as part of impurity.avarana). The sixth [obstacle I is the obstacle of the activity of coarse characteristics (sthala. and upon entry into the fifth stage one can eternally eliminate it. because one grasps the characteristic of purity. The second is the delusion concerning the activity of numerous characteristics.

while contemplation devoid of characteristics is frequent. as before. In the first five stages. From the eighth stage on. and therefore when one enters the eighth stage one can eternally eliminate it. The second is the delu- sion consisting of the exclusive intention to seek characteristiclessness. because one still grasps. and even though it always continues in an unbroken series. that is. because they are part of characteristics. The subtle obstacle to that which is to be known of the 329 . These added efforts obstruct the effortless path of the eighth stage. while contemplation devoid of characteristics is infrequent. One intends energetically to seek characteristiclessness exclusively and is still unable to generate the superior practice of I contemplating' existence [in the contemplation of 1 emptiness. Consequently. contemplation with characteristics is frequent. because one still grasps the subtle characteristics of birth. the passions of the three realms are never active again. The eighth I obstacle] is the obstacle of carrying out additional practices in [contemplating] characteristiclessness (nirnimittaabhisamskára. part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate. one is not yet able freely to manifest char- acteristics and lands. The first is the delusion of making an effort in regard to characteristiclessness. The second is the delusion of not having mastery with regard to characteristics. Because of the existence of added effort in the contemplation devoid of characteristics. contemplation with characteristics is infrequent. the cessation of subtle characteristics of cessation.demons). In the sixth stage. still there is added effort. because the exclusively pure path arises spontaneously. The seventh stage is exclusively contemplation devoid of characteristics. Because one is prevented from mastery over characteristics. which is of these that which is attachment to cessation. this also includes lands. which prevents contemplation devoid of characteristics from occurring freely. the eighth stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness.Chapter XI is of these that which is attachment to birth. and because it is eternally eliminated one acquires two masteries.

which means mastery over that which explains. phrases. phrases.akdniana. "Mastery of the innumerable dharmas that have been taught" is the unobstructed analytical knowledge regarding meaning. that is. which means mastery over what is explained. which prevents mastery over all dharmas from being acquired. and syllables" is the unobstructed analytical knowledge of dharmas. or syllable. phrase.witted eloquence. The tenth [obstacle] is the obstacle of not yet acquiring mastery over all dharmas. and syllables. because all names. "Mastery of continuous quick - witted eloquence" is unobstructed mastery of language. and upon entering the ninth stage one is able eternally to eliminate it. phrases.Demonstration of Consciousness Only seventh consciousness can still appear. innumerable names. part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate that causes one not to desire to practice diligently in order to benefit and gladden sentient beings but to enjoy cultivating one's own benefit.caiyd. because all sounds are revealed in a single sound. The second [delusion I is the delusion regarding mastery of de- bate.dvara ¿ia). and continuous quick . The first [delusion] is the delusion concerning mastery of the innumerable dharmas that have been taught. because the knowledge of the emptiness of beings and its results do not oppose that I obstacle I. It obstructs the great cloud of knowl- edge of dharmas of the tenth stage along with what is stored l in 330 . the ninth stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness. Consequently. and syllables are revealed in a single name. [so called] because all mean- ings are revealed in a single meaning. which means mastery in uninterrupted exposition of sounds of words. It obstructs the four unobstructed analytical knowledges of the ninth stage. 33e that is. because one skillfully grasps the suitability of capacities [of beings I in order to preach to them. Delusions can obstruct these four kinds of masteries and all are included in the obstacles to the ninth [stage I. The ninth (obstacle I is the obstacle consisting of not desiring to practice benefitting others ( parahita. "Mastery of innumerable names. "Mastery of debate" is unobstructed explanation in debate. part of the obstacle to that which is to be known that is innate.

When the Diamond -like Sanzczdhi appears. The second is the delusion that is an extremely subtle hindrance." These eleven obstacles are all included in the two obstacles I i. which is of these that which obstructs the great cloud of knowledge of dharmas and that which it stores. That is. one suddenly eliminates the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known. so this is not called the ultimate. as well as seeds of the spontaneous obstacle of the passions.idharmasamuccaya says. The first is the delusion consisting of an extremely subtle attachment to all known objective realms. The first is the delusion regarding great supernatural powers (abhijña ). Even though in this stage one acquires mastery over dharmas. those I obstacles] are suddenly eliminated and one enters the stage of Tathagata. Consequently. Consequently. there are innate obstacles to that which is to be known that are subtle. because one becomes an arhat and a Tathagata and realizes great nirvana and great bodhi. The second is the delusion regarding awakening to the subtle mysteries. The actual I passions] of that obstacle have already been subdued 331 . Therefore the Abh. Upon entering the tenth stage one is able eternally to eliminate it. the obstacle of the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known I.Chapter XI the cloud] and activities produced by it. the tenth stage is said to eliminate two delusions and their coarseness. the stage of Buddhahood is said to eliminate two delusions." The actual Ipassions] of 54a that obstacle have already been subdued prior to this stage. which is of these all seeds of the spontaneous obstacle of the passions. All the seeds that are to be eliminated by cultivation are suddenly eliminated with the presence of the Diamond -like Sainczdhi. still obstacles remain. "When one obtains bodhi.. which is of these that which obstructs activities produced by [knowledge'. Seeds of the obstacle of the passions to be eliminated by I the path of 1 insight are first eliminated I on the path of insight) in the stage of "Extreme Joy. which is of these that subtle obstacle to that which is to be known. as well as their coarseness.e.

How does one eliminate the seeds of the two obstacles. Seeds of the obstacle to that which is to be known to be elimi- nated by [the path of I insight are first eliminated on the path of insight in the "Joyous" stage. The actual [passions] of that obstacle have been gradually subdued prior to this stage. nevertheless this is no fault. From the first stage on. and prevent their activity forever. From the eighth stage on. they are eternally eliminated.Demonstration of Consciousness Only gradually before this stage. As a result. the three states are prominent I in this elimination]. one is able suddenly to subdue them completely. Even though coarseness is eliminated in all states. That associated with the seventh [consciousness! may still be active. The actual Ipassions] of that obstacle have already been subdued prior to that stage. like an arhat. Seeds to be eliminated by [the path of] cultivation are gradually eliminated during the ten stages. and consequently it is therefore said that each of the coarsenesses of the two obstacles is eliminated during three abodes (vihära). because mind in pure contemplation and its results continue in a series and are able to oppose it. Although on the path of cultivation in the ten stages one does not entirely destroy the seeds of the obstacle to that which is to be known. It is subdued with the appearance of the state of knowledge of the emptiness of dharmas and its results. gradually or suddenly? Seeds of the obstacle of the passions associated with the seventh consciousness are eliminated suddenly in a single instant at the time when those of the three vehicles are about to 332 . even though [the passions' may appear from time to time through the power of will during the first seven stages. the obstacle does not appear because of suppression of the Pure [contemplation I. and upon arrival at the tenth stage they are eternally eliminated completely. While it is admitted that the first five consciousnesses that evolve have not yet had the transmutation of the support. Once the Diamond -like Samadhi is present. and therefore I the above statement] is made in a one -sided manner. their coarseness is gradually destroyed. that [obstacle I associated with the sixth consciousness is not again active. and from the eighth stage on they are absolutely inactive.

so there are many distinctions of class and species.Chapter XI acquire the result consisting of being a post.. etc. they must [for each category of seeds] separately generate I the path of ] noninterruption and [the path of I liberation. either separately or in general. Seeds of the obstacle of the passions associated with the other six consciousnesses eliminated by [the path of I insight are all suddenly eliminated by those of the three vehicles on the path of insight of reality in the state of insight. in each of the nine stages of the three realms. 333 . Those to be eliminated by cultivation are gradually and progressively eliminated afterwards in the state of path of cultivation of the ten stages. Faculties of [followers of I the two vehicles are dull. and added effort and superior progress. because they occur spontaneously and internally without [the distinction of coarse or subtle. They originate with internal and external objects that are coarse or subtle. One species I of individual] of the two vehicles eliminates one class of the nine categories I of passions] gradually. All seeds of the obstacle to that which is to be known are suddenly eliminated in a single instant at the moment of becoming a Buddha.learner. The bodhisattva with keen faculties in the state of gradual elimination of obstacles need not separately gen- erate I the paths of] noninterruption and liberation. When they gradually eliminate the obstacles. may all exist from the standpoint of each other instant by instant in the sequence. Those to be eliminated by cultivation [are eliminated I as the case may be. The bodhisattva about to generate the Diamond -like Samddhi suddenly eliminates [the seeds of] the three realms in a single instant. The four I paths' of added effort. and upon properly generating the Diamond -like Sarnddhi they are totally eliminated in a single instant. be eliminated by insight are suddenly eliminated in the first moment of the first stage. All the seeds of the obstacle to that which is to be known to 54t. Another species of the two vehicles combines [seeds of] the nine stages of the three realms into one group and eliminates the nine categories separately. because he is capable of eliminating them and realizing I the result] instant by instant. one after another.

(2) supreme true suchness (parama.samnisraya. where there is a difference of species.. that is. because this true suchness is essentially devoid of defilement and cannot be said to become pure later. that is. (4) unappropriated true suchness (aparigrahalath ata)." I that is. one acquires mastery over unobstructed analytical knowledge.. etc.lathald). because the teachings that flow from this true suchness are most preeminent among teachings. because having realized this true suchness. one has mastery in manifesting characteristics [such as water. that is because having realized this true suchness. this [true suchness) is also named "true suchness as support of mastery over characteristics and lands (ksetra) created through an act of will. etc. (kriyddi. that is. that is.vasita.. and not their support not grasped by them. (9) true suchness that is the support of mastery of knowledge ( jìzana.).] and lands. because this true suchness is undifferentiated as to species. it still is not different.apacaya tathatá). because this true suchness is not grasped as increasing or decreasing and does not increase through purity or decrease through defilement. unlike the eye.tathatá).tathatá ).tathatá.tathatá). jewels.. (8) true suchness that neither increases nor decreases (anupacaya. because even though this true suchness is manifold I in terminology in the teachings and is defined in many ways.samnisraya tatlzata). (7) true suchness as nondifferentiation of the Dharma (abhinnatathata).vasitd. The Ten True Suchnesses The ten true suchnesses (tathald) are: (1) universal true suchness (saruatraga. that is. (10) true suchness that is the support of mastery over actions. that is because having realized this true suchness one has universal 334 . because this true suchness is unaffiliated with the grasping of a self. that is. because there is not a single dharma in which this true suchness revealed by the twofold emptiness does not dwell. that is.niyanda. etc. (3) true suchness that is the supreme outflow (parama. that is. (5) true suchness undifferentiated as to species (abhinnajatiya.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 8.tathata). etc. (6) true suchness devoid of defilement and purity (asamhlita- avyavadáta. because this true suchness is endowed with limitless qualities and is preeminent among all dharmas.

nevertheless one subdues the actual I forms of the obstacles' little by little. realizes ten I kinds oft true suchness. the bodhisattva vigorously cultivates ten superior practices (pccramitct). even though one has not yet eliminated the seeds of the obstacles and truly realized the transmutation of the support. and mind]. six states of the transmutation of the support: (1) Transmutation by breaking the power I of impure seeds] 54c and increasing the efficacy [of pure seeds' (balodghdtaprabadva. that is. Although true suchness is by nature really devoid of distinctions. so this is also called "transmutation. 335 . ten kinds are conventionally established with reference to preeminent qualities I realized by bodhisattvas I. through practice of resolve. speech. one therefore breaks the power of defiled seeds in the root consciousness and increases the efficacy of pure seeds within root consciousness. 'there are. that is. conscience. the state of thorough understanding.parávrtti). They are given as being ten in order that they may be progressively perfected. and realizes true transmutation of the support partially.Chapter XI mastery over all supernatural powers (abhijrtd).vardhana. and is able to realize the twofold transmutation of the support. generally speaking. As a result of the power of the path of insight." (2) Transmutation as thorough understanding (prativedhaparcavrtti). he is nevertheless imperfect in realizing and practicing them. during the first two states I of equipment and added effort]. eliminates ten kinds of obstacles. Transmutation of the Support and Its Results In this way. one thoroughly understands true suchness and eliminates the coarseness of the two obstacles horn of discrimination. 9. and the methods (rnuhha) of dharani and samadhi. and shame. during the ten stages. actions [of body. Even though in the first stage I a bodhisattva I has already comprehended all ( ten I.

often preventing the not true from appearing.paráurtti). [the contemplations' appear alternately. one eternally eliminates all intrinsic coarseness and suddenly realizes the perfect transmutation of the support that is the result." 336 . the state of the two [non . Exclusively seeking self. As a result of repeatedly cultivating the practices of the ten stages. (5) Inferior transmutation (hina. Buddhahood. experiencing true cessation through discrimination (pratisamkhvrz. and vigorous cultivation eliminates the remaining coarseness. because contemplation devoid of characteristics appears [then I for an extended period without mixture [with the contemplation with characteristics].parúurtti). It is said in the Malzáyñnasamgraha that transmutation of thorough understanding occurs during the first six stages. when the Diamond -like Sanzrzclhi appears. the state of cultivation. because during thorough understanding of the true and false of the contemplation with characteristics (sanimitta) and the contemplation of characteristiclessness (nirnimitta ). which is endless and benefits and gladdens I beings] inexhaustibly. able only to understand thoroughly true suchness as the emptiness of beings. As a result of three great eons or incalculable [eons] of cultivation and accumulation of boundless difficult prac- tices and superior practices. and lacking superior abilities is called "inferior transmutation. the state of culmination (nistlzáauasthd). fearing suffering and delighting in quiescence. that is. one therefore gradually eliminates the coarseness of the innate two obstacles and gradually realizes the true transmutation of the support. (4) Transmutation as the perfection of result (plzalaparipúri.benefit. eliminating the seeds of the passions. that is. that is.Mahayana] vehicles. causing the true and not true to be present or not present.parczurtti).Demonstration of Consciousness Only (3) Transmutation as cultivation (hlzrzuanrz.nirodha). I The above text also] says that the transmutation as cultivation occurs during the following four stages.

and having superior ability is named "great transmutation. There is an interpretation that fundamental nondiscriminating knowledge immediately realizes the truth revealed by the twofold emptiness and is devoid of objects and characteristics. and therefore it can eliminate the propensities. be- cause the impure path has already been cultivated. fundamental. possessing the ability to understand thoroughly the true suchness of the twofold emptiness. eliminating seeds of both the obstacle of the passions and the obstacle to that which is to be known. neither fearing sarpsara nor delighting in nirvana. Advancing to great bodhi in order to benefit others. This is of two paths. and because [knowledge of I added effort aspires to that [true suchness] that is to be realized and [ knowledge I that is to be attracted." Of these [forms of transmutation]. is that which can eliminate the propensities of the two obstacles [rather than just subduing them I. The first is the path that can subdue. This path is definitely not impure or I knowledge of] added effort.Chapter XI (6) Great transmutation (vipula. that is. :15:1 337 . the impure and pure. and of three kinds of knowledge. It subdues gradually or sud- denly. the state of the Mahayana. which are (those consisting of ] added effort. and it has not yet accomplished this. (1) The path that can transmute is twofold. and subsequently acquired. attracted by the grasping of characteristics. being in brief of four kinds. it is the great transmutation that is spoken of [in Vasubandhu's verses! because it abandons the twofold coarseness and realizes [both bodhi and nirvana]. suddenly realizing supreme bodhi and nirvana. and it has not yet dissolved the characteristics. that is.paravrtti). as the case may be. The second [path that transmutes. The meaning of "transmutation" varies. it subdues the power of the propensities of the two obstacles and prevents the attraction and generation of the two actual obstacles.

root consciousness [i. nevertheless it clearly realizes. the other seven consciousnesses 338 . Even those of the nature of being dependent on others I paratantra. nonerroneously and as if present. This is also twofold.faceirabhami Sñstra says. even though subsequently acquired nondiscriminating knowledge does not immediately realize the truth of the twofold emptiness and lacks the power to eliminate the propensities of delusion regarding truth. As a result of its ability to bear the seeds of defiled and pure dharmas and to occur together with defiled and pure dharmas. Therefore the Yok.Demonstration of Consciousness Only This not being so concerning subsequently acquired I knowledge I. According to another interpretation.. and therefore it is also capable of eternally eliminating the propensities of delusion concerning events. The first is the support that bears the seeds.. (2) The second (meaning of transmutation] is the support that is transmuted. i. "In the state of the path of cultivation. there exists a supramundane path of elimination and I both] supramundane and mundane paths of elimination. the eighth consciousness I. the four noble truths and true suchness respectively). The holy path transmutes it and causes it to reject the defiled and to acquire the pure.e." The consequence of this argument is that various delusions concerning truth that are to be eliminated by insight or by cultivation can only be truly eliminated through fundamental nondiscriminating knowledge that immediately realizes the truth. that is. The remaining propensities of delusion concerning events to be eliminated by cultivation can be truly eliminated by both root and subsequently acquired [knowledge]. The purely mundane path lacks the ability to destroy eternally the propensities because it has been practiced previously and because it was attracted by attachment to characteristics. it is their support. it therefore is not a path of elimination.e.laksana. established and nonestablished characteristics (uvavasthita- auyavasthita.

Inasmuch as it is able to act as the root of delusion and awakening.margal appears and counteracts them and opposes them so that they never again are completed [as actual dharmas). and therefore it is not said Ito be transmuted I. This is also twofold. the seeds of the two obstacles. the dependent] is also a support for dharmas of delusion and awakening. remaining impure I seeds] and inferior pure seeds I not to be actually eliminated I. The first is that which is rejected through elimination. all are eternally rejected by neglecting them. When the Diamond -like Samadhi is present. pure root consciousness that does not support them. Consequently. true suchness. that is. it attracts a totally perfect. Therefore. The seeds having been eliminated. Because the seeds are eliminated. The second [support that is transmuted] is the support of delusion and awakening. (3) The third Imeaning of transmutation is that which is rejected by transmutation. they cannot bear seeds and therefore are not said to be transmuted. they are said to be rejected. clear. There is an interpretation that the seeds of impure dharmas and inferior pure I dharmas] are all rejected by 339 . defiled and pure dharmas are born with it as their support. When the true path of noninterruption (ánantarya. this is said to be the rejection of the inferior dharmas of samsära. it is said to be the rejection of the discriminated [nature]. nevertheless. The holy path transmutes it and causes it to reject the defiled and acquire the pure. it is nevertheless not their root. Thus. actual impure dharmas and inferior pure I dharmas] are not again born. The falsely grasped self and dharmas not corresponding to false notions are also said to be rejected. that is. that is. Even though the other [nature. they are said to be rejected. Since they are eternally unproduced.Chapter XI are also supports. the falsely grasped self and dharmas are not grasped again. The second [form of rejection I is rejection by neglect.

55b (4) The fourth meaning [of transmutation is that which is obtained by transmutation.. because in this state the bodhisattva] would be devoid of a perfumed consciousness. because they are rejected simultaneously with the seeds of the two obstacles. 340 . Consequently. are rejected by neglecting them just when the path of liberation arises. they have not yet been rejected at that time.Demonstration of Consciousness Only neglecting them at the moment the Diamond -like Sameidhi is present. because the pure eighth consciousness does not support them. This is also twofold I nirvana I and bodhi I. According to another inter- pretation. because they are not in opposition to the path of noninterruption. you should know that remaining impure [seeds'. and the subsequent path of liberation [which follows directly after the preceding path] would have no function. etc. because I in that moment' the bodhisattva would have no dharmas of samsära. because he would be called "Buddha" while dwelling on the path of noninterruption.

nevertheless it is made to be unmanifest as a result of the veiling of adventitious obstacles. beyond the path of investigation and cut off from the path of names and words. When the real holy path arises. tranquil like space. that is.esa. endowed with innumerable subtle and marvelous qualities. great nirvana." Inasmuch as it is defined as true suchness divorced from obstacles.Chapter XII Niruána The first is that acquired through manifestation. (2) Nirvana with remaining support (sopadhi. it is nevertheless intrinsically pure by nature. the same in all beings and common to all.nirvana).Buddha. devoid of origination and extinction. hence the name nirvana. apart from all characteristics and discrimination. that is. that is. its substance is therefore the pure realm of the Dharma. Although it is intrinsically pure by nature. and essentially tranquil by nature. true suchness free from the obstacle of the passions. still the obstacle has been eternally stilled. 341 .nirvana). neither the same as nor different from all dharmas. it eliminates those obstacles and therefore causes its characteristics to be manifested. realized only within by true saints. hence it is called nirvana. This is called "attaining nirvana. The meaning of nirvana is distinguished in four ways. Though it has adventitious defilements. Even though the support for subtle suffering has not ended. the principle of true such - ness as the characteristic of all dharmas. (1) Nirvana that is intrinsically pure by nature (anadikalik aprahrti.

so he may he said to have the support. Benefitting and gladdening beings is eternal. true suchness freed of the suffering of soots trig The passions having been exhausted. and since the support of suffering [i. therefore it is called nirvana. It does not mean that they are devoid of the reality that is nirvana with remainder that is revealed by the termination of the obstacle of the passions. that is.e. Support remains but not the [support of suffering.e. the remaining support is also destroyed and the mass of suffering is eternally stilled. the support of suffering having been exhausted. he seems to have it. If disciples (sravalaa ). (4) Nirvana with no fixed abode (apratisthita. true suchness freed from the obstacle to that which is to be known. they 342 .. therefore it is called nirvana. I I etc... Therefore the World . mind I exist in disciples. and as a consequence one does not dwell in samsara or nirvana. while body and knowing I i. the Buddha] have remaining support (upadhi)? Although he has no real support. i. they still retain the obstacle to that which is to be known. etc.e.learners of the two vehicles may possess the first three. Alternately. All beings possess the first [nirvana]. Only our World Honored One may be said to have [all.. have I nirvana I without remaining support. One functions in the world [due to compassion! but is eternally quiescent.Honored One may be said to have the four [forms of nirvana ]. the body 1 is not exhausted. he can be said to be without support. Post . It is always assisted by great compassion (mahakaruna) and great discernment.. Can it be that they also do not have [nirvana without remaining support? Indeed.nirvana).e.nirvana).Demonstration of Consciousness Only (3) Nirvana without remainder (nirupadhisesa. the sense of perfect quiescence remains obscure. How can the Sugata [i. At that time. so it is said that they do not have nirvana.! four. why are there sources I such as the Srimaladevl Sutra that say that they do not have it? Some sources may say that they lack nirvana totally..

Even though at that time the bodies and knowing of I adherents of ] the two vehicles do not exist. unlike I without remaining support. Or when I the above sources] say that I adherents of ] the two vehicles are devoid of nirvana. It does not mean that later. This reveals the nirvana without remainder based on truth. Based on this. they are referring to (nirvana] with no fixed abode. In the state where the present support of suffering is destroyed spontaneously. but they still are lacking in bodhi and the activity of benefitting and gladdening others. and blissful. and therefore we reply that they differ from Buddhas. they are referring to those of the two vehicles with inde- cae terminate natures. there is no basis for subsequent birth as retribution.Chapter XII still have not realized the perfect quiescence without remainder and are therefore also said to be without [nirvana I without re- maining support. there is only pure true suchness divorced from characteristics. when body and knowing have ceased. they resolutely turn their thoughts to seeking supreme enlightenment. Also. Through the power of sanzadhi and vows. 343 . eternally destroy the obstacle of the passions that induce birth utterly. it is said that they are no different from Buddhas. when it is said [by the above sources] that those [members of the two vehicles] do not have [nirvana] without remaining support. as a result of that [previous] realization. they retain their bodies and remain Iin sanzsaral for a long time. and immediately realize nirvana with remaining [support] based on truth. tranquil. they will not have an end to the support of suffering and nirvana without remainder. there exist I those of I the two vehicles who have a profound delight in perfect quiescence. That one type who enters is. that [nirvana without remainder] can be said to exist. calm. not the other three [nirvanas]. When they have just realized nirvana with remainder. who acquire the contemplation of the emptiness of beings and immediately realize true suchness. In this state. other conditioned dharmas lack a support and are suddenly rejected simultaneously with the support of suffering. Because the passions that can induce birth are exhausted.

If the obstacle to that which is to be known also obstructs nirvana. That being so. Otherwise. how does one acquire nirvana by eliminating that [obstacle'? Not all [forms of nirvana are included in cessation resulting from discrimination. it is said to be nirvana. etc. why does one not obtain cessation resulting from discrimination (pratisamkhya. preventing the birth of great compassion and discernment and the benefitting and gladdening of sentient beings forever. because of its elimination. included? They are included in cessation not resulting from discrimination (apratisamkhya.nirodha) by eliminating it? Because cessa- tion resulting from discrimination is separation from bonds. 'nirvana] that is pure by nature would not be nirvana.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Since the various obstacles to that which is to be known do not induce birth. and this principle is nonabiding nirvana. the principle of the emptiness of dharmas is revealed. how does one acquire nonabiding !nirvana I by eliminating it? It is able to veil the true suchness of the emptiness of dharmas. while the middle two are categorized as cessation resulting from discrimination. because it prevents one from abiding in both extremes of nirvana and samsara].nirodha. and that I obstacle I does not bind one. However. Therefore one does not obtain cessation resulting from discrimination when [the obstacle] is eliminated. 344 . the principle of the emptiness of dharmas is revealed. in which of the four are the two of imperturbability (aniñjya).). Therefore when it is eliminated. The various obstacles to that which is to be known do not induce samsara and are not like the passions that can bind sentient beings. If one acquired cessation resulting from discrimination only by eliminating the bonds. Therefore. When that which can bind sentient beings to sainsara is eliminated. of the four I kinds of I unconditioned perfect tranquility. not that this nirvana is of the nature of cessation resulting from discrimination.. the first and last are true suchness. one is said to acquire cessation resulting from discrimination that is unconditioned. The characteristic of this principle being tranquility.

. when temporarily ending I bonds' by subduing them. because it is acquired with the cessation of the obstacles through the power of true discrimination (pratisanihhya). Since the obstacle to that which is to be known also obstructs nirvana. When they totally destroy [the bonds]. of the four [forms of] nirvana that were discussed. of the various [forms of ] perfect tranquility that are unconditioned.. that is. Cessation resulting from discrimination is of two kinds: (1) that which is acquired by cessation of bonds. Is it not also able to be an obstacle to bodhi? You must understand that the holy teachings say this on the basis of the principle of the dominant function [of the two obstacles]. only the last three kinds are called "acquired through manifestation." 345 . that is. (2) 56 that which is acquired by the cessation of obstacles.Chapter XII because they are said to be temporary separation [from bonds) and because cessation resulting from discrimination that is unconditioned is exclusively total cessation.e. Therefore. that obtained by eliminating the passions that induce birth. The two of imperturbability. Alternately. Really. why is it only said that it is an obstacle to bodhi? It is said that the obstacle of the passions only obstructs nirvana. are catego- rized as cessation not resulting from discrimination. they are categorized as cessation resulting from discrimination. In this way. both are capable of obstructing both results [i. the first is true suchness and the last three are cessation resulting from discrimination. and there is cessation not resulting from discrimination that is not eternal cessation. that which is realized when one eliminates remaining obstacles. etc. [nirvana with I no fixed abode is included in cessation resulting from discrimination. nirvana and bodhi 1.

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which is called "acquiring bodhi. its nature and characteristics are pure and separated from all defilement. mental activities." Having arisen. Classes of Mind Associated with the Four Kinds of Knowledge What are the classes of mind associated with the four [kinds of) knowledge? The first is the class of mind [i. it is unforgetful and nondelusive regarding all objects. consciousness. Despite the intrinsic existence of seeds that can generate [bodhi]. perfect mirror manifesting multitudes of images of forms. that is. nevertheless it is not generated because of the obstacle to that which is to be known. its objects I of perception] and mode of activity are subtle and difficult to grasp.Chapter XIII Bodhi The second [result of the transmutation of the support I is that which is acquired by generation. one eliminates that obstacle and therefore causes it to arise from the seeds..) associated with knowledge that is like a great. pure. it can manifest bodies and lands and generate images of [other) knowledge. like a great. perfect qualities.ádargana. 1. great bodhi. etc.e. and it is incessant and uninterrupted forever. it is the support of the actual [dharmas] and the seeds of unadulterated.jñána). that is. perfect mirror (nzahá. it continues forever in a series. 347 . this class of mind is separated from all discrimination. Through the power of the holy path. This I bodhi I consists of classes of mind associated with the four [kinds of knowledge.

. speech. and they are indicated by the word "knowing. that is. The third is the class of mind associated with knowledge of wonderful observation. The fourth is the class of mind associated with the knowledge of achieving the task (krtya.. and [first] five consciousnesses 348 .. I and is born simultaneously with that which transforms I i. and it continues without change forever. Thus even though each of the classes of mind associated with the four knowledges is without doubt made up of twenty -two dharmas [i.anusthana jñána). and mind] of numerous transformations throughout space in the desire to benefit and gladden beings. it inclusively contemplates innumerable methods of dhcrani and soma Uù as well as the jewels of virtues that are generated.e. this class of mind manifests the three actions [of body. it manifests varieties of forms of bodies of enjoy- ment and lands in conformity with the dispositions of sentient beings. mental activities. nevertheless the func561. it is always associated with great benevolence. this class of mind skillfully contemplates the special and common characteristics of all dharmas and evolves without obstruction.e. seeds and actual [results]. etc. it rains the great rain of the Dharma and eliminates all doubts. the seen part of consciousness]. mind. and it causes all sentient beings to secure benefit and gladness. These [four kinds of knowledge] are acquired one after another by the transmutation of the class [of mental dharmas] associated with the eighth. seventh. compassion.. it is able to manifest boundless varieties of activities in all the great assemblies and have mastery over the activities]. and through the power of original vows it achieves all the things that should be done. That is. the seeing part of consciousness] and that which is transformed I i. tion of knowing is strong. this class of mind contemplates the complete sameness of all dharmas and oneself and other sentient beings.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The second is the class of mind associated with the knowledge of sameness (somata jñána). it is the foundation of nirvana with no fixed abode.e. it is the special support for the knowledge of wonderful observation (pratyaveksan ñäna). sixth. etc." Therefore these four classes include as a whole all conditioned qualities of the stage of Buddhahood without exception. that is.

perfect mirror knowledge first appears when the Diamond -like Samadhi is present in the bodhisattva.Chapter XIII I respectively]. In order to motivate sentient beings to depend on knowledge and reject consciousness. because it opposes the twofold grasping. Following the stage of "Cloud of Dharma" 349 . there would be no consciousness that can support the pure seeds. because both the seeds of consciousness as retribution and the seeds of the ex- tremely subtle obstacle to that which is to be known are abandoned simultaneously. it is therefore said that one acquires these four knowledges by transmuting the eight consciousnesses. According to another interpretation. in an impure state. grasping has not yet been eliminated. one must become a Buddha. Even though knowledge is not consciousness. Inasmuch as consciousness is "king. because it bears pure seeds and prevents their loss. because impure dharmas that are not obstacles. while in a pure state. this class is able to appear for the first time on the path of liberation when one becomes a Buddha. The seeds of consciousness as retribution have still not been rejected suddenly when the Diamond -like Samadhi is present. and because if at that time perfect mirror knowledge had not appeared. because they are not in opposition to the path of noninterruption I which directly precedes the path of liberation I. In the subsequent ten stages. Also. this class continues in a series without interruption from the beginning of Buddhahood forever into the future. and therefore in states that are impure [this class of mind] may sometimes be interrupted. The class of mind associated with the knowledge of sameness is able to appear for the first time in a bodhisattva when the path of insight is first present. There is an interpretation that the class of mind associated with great. and the Diamond -like Samadhi being devoid of perfumable seeds. are really only opposed to the result that is Buddhahood. knowledge is strong and consciousness is weak." [knowledge) is said to be acquired by the transmutation of consciousnesses. it nev- ertheless evolves supported by consciousness. as well as mediocre pure dharmas. and pure I dharmas] not increasing. knowledge is weak and consciousness is strong. Consequently.

because it arises from attention (manaskára). impure organ and pure consciousness] differ in clarity and obscurity as far as objects are concerned. it can first appear when one becomes a Buddha. must be perfumed before they become active. [The four knowledgesl are born from seeds. This subsequently develops up to the superior states and may appear wholly if it is not impure. because impure [ dharmas] as special [supports for consciousness] must have the same object. they increase gradually. it and the purified eighth consciousness support each other. Also. and with the result of Buddhahood. because during the ten stages I prior to Buddhahood]. The class of mind associated with knowledge of wonderful observation regarding the emptiness of beings is able to appear for the first time in the state of insight of the two vehicles and subse- quently develops up to the stage of a post. but they do not perfume and create seeds. the stage of resolve and application (adhimukti. because I in that case I the qualities of former Buddhas would be superior to those of later Buddhas.learner.Demonstration of Consciousness Only I the tenth stage]. The seed natures of these four. 350 . the result of knowledge of the emptiness of beings..e. they become complete. although existing intrinsically. as trans- formations of consciousness as retribution are not pure. It may appear totally if there is no impurity lof mind I or period of mindlessness I during samádhi I. and it continues in a series forever. eyes. because these two [ i. neither increasing nor decreasing ever again.cárya) of the bodhisattva. or a state of mindlessness [in samádhi]. because it is acquired through subsequently acquired I knowledge I.. [Mind associated with knowledge of wonderful observation! regarding the emptiness of dharmas can appear for the first time in bodhisattvas in the state of insight. or up to the superior states. There is an interpretation that the class of mind associated with the knowledge of achieving the task can first appear when the bodhisattva is on the path of cultivation. According to another interpretation. and an organ producing a pure consciousness is not possible. etc. Consequently. it is frequently interrupted. In the causal state [prior to Buddhahood I. this species I of mind] may only occur through 56e pure organs when one becomes a Buddha.

Its substance is unitary but may be seen as being twofold by virtue of its functioning. Also. According to another interpretation [which is correct'. and because the Mahayana Siztralamkdra says that it has as an object the sameness of self and other sentient beings and. because the Mahayana Siztrczlanzkára says that great. according to one interpretation. because the Buddhahhizmi Sútra says that the knowledge of sameness realizes ten kinds of sameness. not subsequently acquired knowledge. because it is like the defiled seventh I consciousness]. eyes. It is said to be subsequently acquired because it perceives the conventional on the basis of realization of the true. this class has all dharmas as objects. ears. According to another inter- pretation. Objects of the Four Kinds of Knowledge The class of mind associated with great. because it is nondiscriminating I fundamental] knowledge. According to another interpretation. Other [forms of knowledge] that are unitary but divided as twofold should be understood analogously. it has both the true and the conventional as its objects. perfect mirror knowledge. it is subsequently ac- quired knowledge. which has the store consciousness as its object.e. and its mode of activity and objects are unknowable. but like the czlaycz it also has as objects the convention [mundane].. because it has the sameness of all dharmas as its object. according to one interpretation. it has only true suchness as an object. forms. i. and when it perceives other objects. The class of mind associated with the knowledge of sameness. which) has as its object only the purified eighth consciousness. etc. [is pure seventh consciousness. The Buddhabh gins Sútra says that in a Tathágata's mirror knowledge there appear images of all sense bases I i. its activities and objects are said to be unknowable due to their subtlety. and I corresponding) consciousnesses.]. [this mind] without doubt has as its objects all the impure seeds and images of bodies and lands. I. Also.. perfect mirror knowledge is not deluded concerning all objects. sounds. in 351 .e. has only true suchness as its object. With true suchness as its object.Chapter XIII 2. objects I. it is nondiscriminating I fundamental knowledge]. etc.

the class of mirror knowledge manifests the body of personal enjoyment (svasambhoga -kayo) and the characteristics of its pure land and bears pure seeds. The class of mind associated with the knowledge of wonderful observation has as its object the specific and common characteristics of all dharmas. When [ the Mahayana Saträlawkd. it does not mean that that is all they do. and present]. The class of knowledge 352 . according to one interpretation. It is wholly devoid of obstacles and includes both [fundamental and subsequently acquired) knowledges. because the Mahayana Sütralamkara says that each of the Tathágata's five I sense] organs evolves in relation to all five [corresponding] objects. nevertheless their functions differ. transformed bodies]. That is. two. it manifests boundless images of Buddhas. future. included in the two knowledges. etc. with no violation of correct principles. speech. this class also is able to perceive all dharmas universally in the three times [of past. because it would not have this power if its objects were not universal. so there is no disagreement (with the present position I. future. The class of mind associated with knowledge of achieving the task only has as its object the five kinds of present objects. and gives rise to transformations and activities. it is therefore categorized as subsequently acquired knowledge. Consequently. with no contradiction with principle.e. or many. determines the countless differences of mental activities of sentient beings. bears on the characteristics of things as its objects. this class of mind may.. this class [of mind I has as objects truth and convention. I Indeed.ra ] speaks of the five organs I of a Buddha I evolving in relation to [all] five objects. Although these four classes of mind are capable of taking as 57a objects all dharmas everywhere. and present. Because it is born from attention.Demonstration of Consciousness Only compliance with the disposition of others. and mind] and the various transformation events i. and is receptive to past. The Buddhabh rni Sútra says that the knowledge of achieving the task generates and enacts the three actions [of body. by means of the power of disposition. According to another interpretation. have one dharma as object..

" Despite there being. The class of knowledge of achieving the task can manifest transformation bodies (nirmeina -kaya) and the characteristics of its lands. still here we have only been concerned with the two [results] acquired by transmutation. and benefits and gladdens sentient beings. in general. 353 . Buddhahood]. These four classes of mind are called "acquired by generation. not that which is realized. and the previous nirvana is called "acquired by transmutation." These "acquired by generation" are given the comprehensive name of bodhi.Chapter XIII of sameness manifests the body for the enjoyment of others (parasambhoga kaya) and the characteristics of its pure land. breaks through the net of doubts. This state of cultivation is said to be that which can bring about the realization [of nirvana and bodhi]. four varieties of the subject of transmutation of the support. because [the former I is categorized as the causal state [prior to nirvana and bodhi. The class of knowledge of !wonderful) observation observes the abilities and faults of oneself and others and rains the great rain of the Dharma. because the verses [of Vasubandhu] mention the words REALIZES THE TRANSMUTATION OF THE SUPPORT. There are also many other kinds of topics such as these.

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That is.. REALM has the meaning of "store" because in it are harbored boundless marvelous. Alternately. GOOD. and it is pure by nature. The Treatise says that the transmutation of the support acquired by the former state of cultivation should be understood as the characteristic of the state of culmination. The State of Culmination Last.avasthd)? The I last] verse I of' Vasubandhu's verses] says. The pure realm of the Dharma may be categorized as exclusively pure. and bright. it has the meaning of "cause" because it has the power to generate the mundane and supramundane benefits and joys of the five vehicles I i. 355 . which means that I the result] is categorized as the PURE REALM of culmination. but how can the classes of mind of the four kinds of] knowledge be exclusively pure? They are included in the truth of the path and for that reason are categorized as exclusively pure. great qualities.KAYAJ. IT IS THE PURE REALM. ETERNAL. AND THE BODY OF LIBERATION. perfect. there is no increase of impurity or propensities.e. 2. BLISSFUL. INCONCEIVABLE.Chapter XIV The Dharma Body 1. all people!. what are the characteristics of the state of culmination (nigher. WHICH IN THE GREAT MUNI IS NAMED DHARMA(. The Pure Realm It is called PURE because all impurities have eternally ended. rr refers to the result of the previous two transmutations of the support.

. With what consciousness is knowledge of achieving the task associated? It is associated with the sixth 'consciousness]. sense fields. and five sense fields? There is an interpretation [by proponents of the Three Treatise School] that the qualities. of Buddhas are born of pure seed natures. Therefore. and [the objects of that consciousness] are not categorized as the five objects I as ordinarily understood I.. in reality. Even though the five consciousnesses of non . as well as bodies. neither existing nor not existing. Even though there is manifesting and creation of samsaric bodies and actions and passions. because a scripture says that the five (sense ( consciousnesses are by nature distracted [among non Buddhasl. because it generates the transformations I i. Can it be that the Tathagata [whose consciousness is pure I is devoid of the five organs. severing all idle discourse.. and lands of a Tathágata are profound and subtle. which appear to be the truths of suffering and cause. while that [previous knowledge] only generates 356 . etc. there is no contradiction with the explanation [of the Abhidharmasamuccaya I. apart from all discrimination. bodies' and their functions. five I corresponding I consciousnesses. nevertheless. bodies. and not included among dharma categories such as sense bases. etc. these are included in the pure truth of the path.dhätu. because the impure seeds have been eternally rejected. etc.Demonstration of Consciousness Only That is.rúpa).e. Is there any difference between (this knowledge l and the nature of knowledge of wonderful observation? This [latter knowledge I 57b contemplates the specific and common characteristics. are exclusively impure. According to another interpretation.Buddhas are based on this transformation (ofa Tathagata's consciousness'. there is nevertheless a difference of coarse and subtle. lands. of various dharmas.. etc. The Abhidh. The five consciousnesses of a Tathágata are not [included inl the sense bases of consciousness.arrnasamuccaya and other works say that fifteen sense fields. the qualities. the five (sense] organs of a Tathágata and the five [corresponding( objects are born from a profound samddhi and for that reason are categorized as form of the realm of the Dharma (dharma.

I It may be objected that I these two classes of knowledge must not occur together.Chapter XIV transformation. although those attained by a Buddha are all pure. so there is a difference. When the Abhidharmasamuccaya and others say that fifteen sense fields. sense bases. when it generates transformations. and sense fields as the case may be. There is no conflict with reason to admit that they do not occur together.. bodies. There is an interpretation [which is the correct one] that the qualities. as in a Buddha'. are impure only. That is. it is categorized as the class [of knowledge I of achieving the task. etc. of the eighteen sense fields attained by others [than a Buddha]. etc. Is this class [of knowledge] not acquired by the transmutation of the five I sense] consciousnesses? It is not that although acquired by that transmutation its substance is that [of the five consciousness - es). it is because they are unlike the 357 . etc. That is. but they do not mean all I objects and consciousness. that is said with reference to coarse and superficial objects I and consciousness' of the two vehicles... it is categorized as the class of [knowledge of I sameness. Indeed. they are not included in objects known by the two vehicles. Alternately [this knowledge] is associated with the purified seventh consciousness. for there is no error if they are the same in substance but function in different ways at the same time. and lands of a Tathágata are included in the ag- gregates. in dependence on such organs as eyes. etc. are not sense fields. etc. only the last three are categorized as pure. because two consciousnesses of the same species do not occur together. just as although it is said that one acquires nirvana through the transmutation of samsära. but these three I categories of dharmasl may be impure or pure. when other sources say that the Buddha's qualities. Therefore there should be no difficulty as far as this I present position] is concerned. Having as objects such things as form... when the pure seventh consciousness generates bodies for the enjoyment of others and images of lands. is the special function of the knowledge of sameness. it cannot be said that nirvana is included in samsc ra in the same way.

etc. If they are not sense fields. because we end idle discourse. eight are exclusively nondetermined las to moral species]. This must also be the case with sense bases and sense fields. eternal. A treatise says that of the I twelve I sense bases. etc. because it is by nature a good. Therefore. then we ought not to say that I the result of practice' is a "pure realm. but they are totally pure. known through the inferior knowledge of the two vehicles. etc. 4. and because the world can find no comparison for it. and because both kinds [of result) have beneficial characteristics and oppose the nongood. because it transcends reflection and verbalization.. is rejected by the wise.. all eighteen sense fields. place after place says that one transmutes impermanent aggregates and acquires permanent aggregates.. and sense fields? Therefore when it is said that he is not. the body of liberation. Why? Because it is said that all conditioned dharmas are completely included in the aggregates. it is said with a hidden meaning. Can we say that a Tathagata is not aggregates. hence it is said to be GOOD. is realized within oneself. because all dharmas are categorized as sense bases and sense fields. because it is subtle and profound. This must be the principle." etc. etc. etc. and because a nineteenth sense field. because the subtle functioning of the classes of mind of the four [kinds of I knowledge is incomparable and extremely skillful.." this refers to those attained by others. Inconceivable This result of the transmutation of the support is also INCONCEIVABLE. sense bases. 3. not those attained by a Buddha. good. Good It is also GOOD. because the pure realm of the Dharma is removed from generation and extinction and is extremely tranquil. when it is said that "the five 'sense] consciousnesses are by nature distracted.. are wholly contained in the body of a Buddha. blissful. but how can a 358 . Moreover.Demonstration of Consciousness Only characteristics of sense fields. Also. "white" dharma.

because the saints declare that cessation and path are by nature good only. as a result of the power of original vows and the inexhaustible number of sentient beings to be converted. 359 . such as bodies. Because the classes of mind of the four knowledges are eternally separated from torment. are included in cessation and path Iof the four noble truths]. etc. because it is endless. etc. nondetermined. and solid objects!? The three explanations concerning this should be made the same as before fin discussing sense fields]. The pure realm of the Dharma is said to be ETERNAL. Blissful It is also BLISSFUL. 57e 5. However. they are called BLISSFUL. because it is devoid of torment. therefore they are exclusively good.. they are endless and therefore said to be eternal. because it is said that the lands. Eternal This [result] is also ETERNAL. etc. i. of a Buddha are not !included in the truths of] suffering and cause.e. 6. all appear from seeds that are pure and good and are categorized as pure and good. Characteristics of impurity. The natures of the two I results. Because the support of classes of mind of the four knowledges is eternal. nongood. All dharmas of a Tathágata. uninterrupted and endless. nirvana and bodhil are wholly devoid of torment and are able to give bliss to all sentient beings. lands. because they originate from causes. and therefore the two transmutations of the support are together referred to as BLISSFUL. as transformations of the Buddha's consciousness. the four classes of knowledge last forever. and by nature unchanging. because it is devoid of origina- tion..r Chapter XIV Tathagata be devoid of the five I sense] organs and their three objects Iof smells. devoid of cessation. and because we do not see form or mind that is not impermanent. tastes. but not that they are eternal by nature.. It is said to be BLISSFUL because the multitude of characteristics of the pure realm of the Dharma are tranquil.. because of the categorical declaration that that which is born ends with cessation.

and accumulation are given the comprehensive name "body.kdya).Honored One has attained supreme dharmas of silence. The Dharma Body The greatly awakened World." because the results of the two transmutations of the support are wholly included in it. the boundless real qualities generated by the innumerable merits and knowledge accumulated by Tathágatas over three 360 . Its mean- ings of substance. endowed with boundless real. tranquil. The two results acquired by this MUNI." Therefore this Dharma body is by nature the five dharmas [of the realm of the Dharma and the four knowledges]. it is the real.kaya)..kaya). The Body of Liberation The result of the two transmutations of the support of I followers of] the two vehicles is only freedom from the bondage of the obstacle of the passions and lacks admirable dharmas. and therefore it is only referred to as the BODY OF LIBERATION (vimukti. such as the innumerable. "Silent One I. This Dharma body is distinguished in three ways. The first is the essential body (svábhávika. etc. free of characteristics. This is of two kinds. are eternally separated from the two obI stacles and are also named DHARMAI -KAYA] [Dharma body. S. The first is [the body] of personal enjoyment (svasambhoga. It is not the pure realm of the Dharma alone that is named "Dharma body. beyond all idle discourse. the World Honored One. support. the essential [body] is also called the "dharma body" because it is the support for dharmas that are great qualities. the unchanging true nature of all dharmas. eternal qualities. the unchanging support of the bodies of enjoyment and transformation (sambhoga -kaya and nirmána. because they are ornamented with dharmas that are great qualities.Demonstration of Consciousness Only 7. The second is the body of enjoyment. boundless pow- ers. Accordingly. that is. as well as Body of Liberation]. and for that reason he is named the GREAT MUNI i. pure realm of the Dharma of all Tathágatas. the four [kinds of] fearlessness (vaigaradya).e.kaya). that is.

The second is [the body] for the enjoyment of others. For the hosts of bodhisattvas on the ten stages. because the [Buddhabhúmi I Satra says that true suchness is the Dharma body. taking into account their capacities. eliminates doubts.e.Chapter XIV immeasurable eons. realm of the Dharma and the four knowledges] comprising the three bodies. As a result of the knowledge of achieving the task. and because 361 . and always enjoys for itself the great joy of the Dharma. and ordinary people. and rend the nets of the multitudes of doubts. The middle two knowledges f i. because it is said that knowledge of sameness in a perfectly pure land manifests a body of a Buddha for bodhisattvas. It continues. the realm of the Dharma and the great mirror knowledge I comprise the essential body (sväbhävika. Tathagatas manifest bodies of subtle.. preach the Dharma. I followers of] the two vehicles. As for the live dharmas [ i. and the class of perfect mirror knowledge transmutes the store consciousness so that I the essential body] is realized.káya).. These two bodies together are called the "body of enjoyment." The third [form of the Dharma body I is the transformation body. they manifest great supernatural powers. and because it is said that in the great assemblies I of bodhisattvas]. Tathágatas manifest through transformation innumerable transformation bodies and dwell in pure and impure lands in accordance with the species f of being I.e. eternal. For hosts of bodhisattvas who have not yet entered the f ten I stages. knowledge of sameness and knowledge of wonderful observation] com- prise the body of enjoyment. A treatise says that one acquires the essential body by transmuting the alaya consciousness. they display supernatural powers. to the end of time. turn the Wheel of the True Dharma. and displays mastery.e. along with an extremely perfect. pure qualities and abide in a thoroughly pure land. there is an interpretation that the first two I i. As a result of the knowledge of sameness. placid. pure. and cause each to secure things that are beneficial and pleasing. knowledge of wonderful observation preaches the Dharma. causing I bodhisattvas] to enjoy 58a the joy of the Mahayana Dharma.. omnipresent material body.

the body of enjoyment is acquired. and therefore we know that the three bodies are wholly made up of real knowledge. because one acquires Ithe body of enjoyment by transmuting the evolving consciousnesses. it means that it is revealed when the coarseness of the two obstacles in the eighth consciousness is transmuted and destroyed. the first [dharma of the five) comprises the essential body. and because even though the essential Dharma body is endowed with real. and because it is said that it is acquired by means of causes for its realization but not by causes that produce it. is unconditioned. the excellence of knowledge comprises the three bodies. Also. When it is said that the Dharma body comprises the excellence of knowledge. However. omnipresent material body generated by mirror knowledge comprise the body of] personal enjoyment. and is neither form nor mind. like space. It is said I in the Mahayana Siztralanzhczra l that perfect mirror knowledge is the Buddha as [body of] enjoyment. when it is said that it is acquired by the transmutation of store consciousness. mind. because it is said that the Dharma body of a Buddha is devoid of origination and cessation. because it is said that the essential body is essentially eternal. The Buddha body manifested by the knowledge of sameness comprises [the body of Jenjoyment for others.Demonstration of Consciousness Only it is said that by transmuting the evolving consciousnesses. One cannot say that it is such things as form. this is because that I body I is its support and real nature. because it is said that in lands in the ten directions. is omnipresent in all dharmas. Even though it is also acquired by transmuting 362 . knowledge of achieving the task manifests countless. is devoid of characteristics. The real qualities of the four knowledges and the eternal. According to another interpretation. The last class of knowledge comprises the transformation body. still it is unconditioned. etc. The numerous characteristics of bodies manifested by knowledge of achieving the task in accordance with species comprise the transformation body. and also because it is said that the Dharma body is possessed in common by all Buddhas. countless qualities. unimaginable transformations.

hatred. It is also said that the Dharma body is devoid of generation and cessation. and mind]. conditioned. but it is not said that these two bodies are the same as the two knowledges. speech.. nevertheless it I only I appears resembling knowl58b edge or is generated by knowledge. how could a Tathágata manifest craving. still I the Mahayana Sz7tralam. If (that knowledge] is not affiliated with [the body of I enjoyment. Also. nevertheless there are minds and mental activities that are manifested through transformation. even though the transformation body and I body of I enjoyment for others are devoid of real mind and mental activities.kara] says that the Dharma body is revealed by its transmutation and there- fore does not mention acquiring (the body of enjoyment in its abbreviated discussion. but its substance is not really knowledge. and therefore the four classes of knowledge and really existing form and mind are wholly included in [the body of I enjoyment. and therefore one is capable of revealing formless and substanceless dharmas through transformation. the body of enjoyment includes the special. neither form nor mind. Even though it is said that the transformation body consists of the excellence of knowledge. etc. real qualities of the Buddha. and therefore it cannot be said that real knowledge is their substance. The spiritual powers of one who is supremely awakened are unimaginable. since he has eliminated them long ago? How could disciples and animals know the thoughts of a Tathágata.Chapter XIV the store consciousness. Indeed. 363 . It is said only that the knowledge of sameness and achieving the task are able to manifest I respectively I the [body of I enjoy- ment I for others] and the transformation body with its three actions [of body. If this were not so. The class of perfect mirror knowledge is opposed to this. [the body of] enjoyment for others and the transformation body are only revealed in order to convert others. and is [thus] metaphorically referred to as knowledge. only acquired through causes for its realization. etc. Therefore these two knowledges are included in [the body of I personal enjoyment. to what body does it belong? Also.

that is. It is also the support of [the body of ] enjoyment and the transformation body and therefore includes both kinds of benefit I i. and mind]." because it is peaceful. Also. it is the dominant condition for the benefitting of others. for oneself and for others]. etc. and mental functions of creations are devoid of the functioning of organs. The body of personal enjoyment has to do exclusively with self . etc..Demonstration of Consciousness Only since the real thoughts of a Tathágata are unknown even by bodhisattvas who are perfectly awakened? Consequently. because it causes sentient beings to acquire benefit and gladness.. etc. The body of personal enjoyment is endowed with countless kinds of real qualities. and inactive.] because the dharmas of material organs. because a seen part of consciousness appears that is dependent on another real mind. It is also said that a Tathágata's knowledge of achieving the task creates the three actions [of body. the essential body only possesses unconditioned qualities that are real.benefit. apart from all defilements. undisturbed. personal.. and they are the support of the good. pure. without the difference of characteristics and functions of form. It is also said that the transformation I created by the Tathágata I has a mind that is dependent on others. because they are revealed for others. a scripture says that [a TathágataI creates innumerable species [of beings] and all are given minds. of subtle form and mind. the essential body is properly categorized as "for self benefit. they are not said to have [organs. 364 . mind. blissful. eternal. mind. mind. etc. while I the body of I enjoyment for others and the transformation body only have to do with the benefit of others. mind. but at the same time. etc. Even though it is said that transformations are devoid of organs. speech. etc.e. not to I those of ] Tathágatas. along with the function of benefitting and gladdening others. still this refers to [transformations by' others. still each is different. they only possess limitless apparitional qualities that resemble form. As for the I body of ] enjoyment for others and the transforma- tion body. Also. Thus even though the three bodies are all endowed with boundless qualities. blissful.

the essential body is supported by the land of the Dharma nature (dho mats). and evolves over time.e. totally immaculate land resulting from [practices of self . limitless masses of jewels. nevertheless they are related to the Buddha and the Dharma [respectively I. Even though there is no distinction between body and land as far as substance is concerned. and even though it cannot be said that they are large or small. the body I and the body that supports them can be said to extend everywhere. they are boundless. nevertheless those I qualities I that are realized by the support [i. knowledge of sameness. transforms into a pure. That is. Since the qualities and knowledge are not material dharmas. to- tally immaculate land that continues from the first achievement of Buddhahood into the future. That is.Chapter XIV Also. inferior or superior. The size of the support and body are also indeterminate. The body of personal enjoyment is supported by it eternally and abides there. the maturation of causes for a pure. even though it can be said that they are large or small in size. pure consciousness associated with perfect mirror knowledge. Each of the [thirty -two] fundamental marks and [eighty] secondary marks [on the body! is limitless. and it may be small or large.benefit cultivated in former times. because it originates from unlimited roots of good. pervading all places like space. Neither this Buddha nor this land is categorized as form. The body of enjoyment is in effect its own land and is supported by it [in effect being the same I.. The body of enjoyment for others is also supported by its pure land. The body of enjoyment for others is supported by it and abides there. in accordance with the characteristics of their office. 365 . adorned with entirely perfect. the maturation of causes 58c for a pure. because nature and characteristics differ. transforms into a pure land in accordance with the dispositions of bodhisattvas on the ten stages. totally immaculate land by virtue of the power of great mercy and compassion and resulting from benefitting others cultivated in former times. The dimensions of this body are the same as those of the pure land.

] are uncommon. When bodies. only one Buddha transforms a body in a land. That is. It has been the nature of things from beginningless time that all sentient beings are related [to Buddhas] by disposition (gotra). manifested from the transformation of a pure consciousness. The remaining two bodies and lands may be common or uncommon to beings to be converted by various Tathagatas. The size of the support and body are also indeterminate. When they are common to those to be converted. because that which is horn 366 . The essential body and its lands are realized identically by all Tathágatas and therefore are in substance devoid of distinction. nevertheless all are limitless. in one land there is a single Buddha body in order to manifest spiritual powers and preach the benefit of the Dharma for him. like that transforming consciousness.Buddha] or one is related to many. both good and pure. These bodies and lands. The transformation body of the Buddha is supported by it and abides there. Even though the body of personal enjoyment and its supporting land are transformations of each Buddha and are not identical. Either many are related to one (. transforms into a Buddha land in accordance with the needs of sentient beings who have not yet entered the I ten] stages. Therefore there is common and uncommon relative to beings to be converted. knowledge of achieving the task. small or large. pure and soiled.Demonstration of Consciousness Only The transformation body is supported by a land of transformation. and it evolves in time. Otherwise. They develop in concert as the dominant condition that causes the being to be converted to manifest a transformation (body I from his own consciousness. etc. various Buddhas each transform as a body and land at the same time and place. because one Buddha could convert all beings. The shapes of bodies and lands resemble each other but do not obstruct each other. That is. the maturation of causes for a pure. without obstructing each other. totally immaculate or defiled land by virtue of the power of great mercy and compassion and resulting from benefit to others cultivated in former times. are. there would be no benefit in many Buddhas abiding in the world for a long time in toilsome labor. and it may be pure or defiled.

etc.. all impure. 59a 367 .Chapter XIV of totally good. etc. etc. The images of a consciousness that is good. not in path or cessation. like the transforming consciousness. twelve [sense bases]. should be similarly understood. good. and sense fields I are born of a mixture of causes.e.e. not in [the truths of I suffering and cause... [Bodies and lands] manifested from the transformation of an impure consciousness are. and the identity or difference of aggregates. because the three dharmas [i. The aggregates. I. Otherwise. aggregates. are not necessarily the same [i. there would be no five [aggregates!. etc. because the three I moral I natures are born of a mixture of causes... as images of consciousness. because that which is born of an impure cause is included in [the truths of J suffering and cause. sense bases. are not necessarily all identical. pure causes is included in the truth of the path. etc.

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both originating in dependence on others and. the principle of consciousness only would not be established. generate passions and actions. Since both internal objects and consciousness are not false.Chapter XV Conclusion 1. We do not mean that internal objects are.. Alternately [according to another interpretation I. Consciousness Only Indeed. if this were not so. may be false or real. like consciousness. why do we just speak of "consciousness only" and not "objects I only I "? Consciousness only exists internally. 369 . the foolish deludedly grasp objects. becoming liberated by contemplating the mind. Alternately [according to a third interpretation]. because it would be admitted that both consciousness and external objects really existed. so out of sympathy and compassion for them we speak of "consciousness only" causing liberation from samsára through one's contemplation of the mind. [according to an interpretation I the seen part. If this were not so. transforms and appears on the basis of consciousness and is not. while objects are also found externally I as well as internally I. like consciousness. totally unreal. We speak of "consciousness only" for fear of admitting the external [as being reali. they do not vigorously seek escape. true suchness would also be unreal. The word "only" I in "consciousness only "] excludes the external but it does not deny internal objects. the seen and seeing parts of consciousness are born from conditions. like externals. a reality among the [nature that is] dependent on others. etc. and drown in I the ocean of I samsára.

e. The nature and characteristics of consciousness only have been distinguished. 2.Demonstration of Consciousness Only Alternately [according to a fourth interpretation]. the seen part has consciousness as its nature. with neither more nor fewer [verses]. The three parts of this treatise demonstrate consciousness only. pure principle of consciousness only. And we vow that together we shall speedily enter supreme bodhi. Here. Through the power of perfuming. and therefore apart from the nature of consciousness there is no separately existing dharma." We also refer to this treatise by the name "Purification of Consciousness Only" because it reveals the extremely clear. and for that reason it is named the "Treatise Demonstrating Consciousness Only. The Transference of Merit On the basis of holy teaching and correct reasoning.. 370 . The basic treatise ( i. True suchness also is the real nature of consciousness. The merit we have secured is bestowed on all living beings. it is born resembling many parts. because mind and mental activities are undoubtedly associated. the word "consciousness" also refers to mental activities. Vasubandhu's Verses I is named "Consciousness Only in Thirty Verses" because in thirty verses the principle of consciousness only is revealed perfectly.

Cook . Hsüan -tsang of the Great T'ang Dynasty Translated from the Chinese (Taishó Volume 32.THE THIRTY VERSES ON CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY by Bodhisattva Vasubandhu Translated into Chinese by the Dharma Teacher of the Tripitaka. Number 1586) by Francis H.

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undistorted by delusion and error. or that all things believed by the ordinary person to be objective realities outside mind are in reality mere mental constructs. The main point of the "Thirty Verses" is that the object of perception believed to be a real thing outside of the perceiving consciousness 373 . or practice of yoga (yogacára).gotra). represent one of several important streams of Mahayana Buddhist teaching that include the doctrine of emptiness (súnyata). One of the leaders in articulating this complex teaching was the great Indian Buddhist scholar -monk Vasubandhu. and important contributions to the development of Buddhism. as it was also called. specialized in the theory of how the cognition of the true nature of things becomes distorted in humans through the processes of conceptualization. false imagination. and how the mind is restored to its innate purity and clarity. along with several related scriptural works (sutra). To him is attributed a number of important treatises such as the "Thirty Verses. once more capable of seeing things as they truly are. the doctrine of the matrix of Buddhahood (tathágata. He is revered by all later Far Eastern schools of Buddhism for his authority. who is believed to have lived during the fourth century.Introduction to the Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only The short verse work referred to commonly as the "Thirty Verses" is one of several important Buddhist treatises that propound the idea that nothing exists except consciousness or mind. Those who taught the doctrine of consciousness (ug tern. and discrimination. vast learning in Buddhist doctrine.garbha)." as well as commentaries on scriptures.udder). and the doctrine of the Buddha nature (buddha. These treatises.

the main problem for the reader is that of determining in what precise sense it should be understood that the many sense data of everyday life are nothing but mental constructs. Such a world is a world of discrimination. It ends delusion and error and precipitates a pristine." However. It is said to be nothing but a mental construct (vijñapti) projected by consciousness itself and therefore nothing but a transformation of consciousness. However. Vasubandhu speaks metaphorically of a "transmutation of the support" (ásraya.paravrtti). What Vasubandhu and other spokesmen for Buddhism are arguing is that the pure immediacy of any cognitive experience is distorted as soon as it occurs. Buddhas and ordinary beings. imaginary world filled with unrealities such as selves (átnzan). The world experienced by the unenlightened is thus an exclusively mental. others. through the superimposition of imaginary labels onto the experience. which is the awakened perception of a Buddha. and so on.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only does not really exist externally at all. 374 . and the teaching of consciousness only is not a species of philosophical idealism. The result is that the mind mistakes its stereotyped and habitual interpretations of events for the actual events. and sedimented responses to experience. It is not that nothing exists in a world external to the mind but rather that the unenlightened individual is trapped in false consciousness and has no access to the real world outside the mind. and consequently unreal. stereotyped reaction. one arrives at philosophical idealism in which the teaching means literally that there is absolutely not in any sense anything external to the individual perceiving mind. nondeluded cognition of events. and this process reinforces the subsequent tendency to inter- pret in the same manner. nothing as radical as this is called for. Thus the actual experience is interpreted by the mind. This much is clear from a reading of the "Thirty Verses. The last few verses of the Treatise deal with the process of ending this chronic distortion of experience. Interpreted in a radical manner. good and bad. which refers to a crucial change in the nature and function of ordinary consciousness and personality. imagination.

A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience. who translated the text from the Sanskrit. The brief prose passages interspersed with the verses are the interpretive comments of the Chinese monk Hsüantsang. The verses are the same as those that serve as the basis for the extended commentary of the "Demonstration of Consciousness Only" printed elsewhere in this volume.Translator's Introduction The work translated here is number 1586 in volume 31 of the Taisho shinshit daizôkyö. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. In that work. in Seven Works of Vasubandhu. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.tsang. The text of the "Thirty Verses" exists in the original Sanskrit as well as the Chinese translation by Hsüan. Kochumuttom. 375 . and Thomas A. 1984. however. 1982. The Sanskrit text has been translated and commented on extensively by Stefan Anackar. the verses are given extensive comments by various Indian Buddhist scholars and manipulated in such a way that the verses evoke a very radical interpretation not found in the verses as translated here alone.

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(2a.The Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only Bodhisattvas such as Dharmapála created the demonstration of consciousness only (vijñapti. I will briefly show the reasons. The metaphor of self and dharmas Evolves in various ways Upon the transformation of consciousness. The transforming consciousness is threefold: (1) Retribution. In these thirty verses. 377 . And perception of the external realm. The next twenty -two and a half verses explain the characteristics of consciousness only extensively. they extensively explain the characteristics of the three transforming consciousnesses. the first verse and a half explain the characteristics of consciousness only briefly. some outsider asks. because the prior verses mentioned the three transforming consciousnesses briefly.b) The next twenty -two and a half verses extensively explain the characteristics of consciousness only. Now. Of the first twenty -four verses. What are the characteristics of the first transforming consciousness? The Verses say. "If there is only consciousness. thought. why do ordinary people and holy teachings say that a self and dharmas exist ?" The Verses reply. That is. The next verse shows the nature of consciousness only.matralá-siddhi) in agreement with these thirty verses. Now. The last five verses show active states of consciousness only. the first twenty -four verses show the characteristics of consciousness only.

In it. view of self. It is undefiled and morally neutral.naTdhi of cessation.conceit. That which it grasps and holds. the third transforming consciousness With its sixfold distinction. Self. And is abandoned in the state of arhat. the second transforming consciousness. And the same is true of mental contact. It evolves supported by that [store consciousness' and with it as its object. It is always associated with mental contact. Attention.d) and holder of all seeds. feeling. (7) This is how the second transforming consciousness is explained. And bound to the place of birth. the dlaya [store] consciousness is [also] retribution (2c. It always evolves like a flowing stream. its location. (3) (4) Having discussed the first transforming consciousness. What are the characteristics of the third transforming consciousness? The Verses say. (5) And has the nature and character of thinking.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only First. the sa. Next. Next. In the arhat. and love of self. It is always associated with four passions: Delusion about self. and its perceptions are imperceptible. the only feeling is one of indifference. And the supramundane path. what are the characteristics of the second transforming consciousness? The Verses say. Along with others such as contact. conceptualization. it does not exist. (6) It is defiled and morally neutral. 378 . etc. This consciousness is called manas (thought). and volition.

Applied thought and sustained thought. avarice. Lack of conscience and shamelessness. And it is good. the good. Unbelief and indolence. serenity. the passions. the nondetermined.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only Its nature and character are that of perception of the object. 379 . I such asl noncraving. (12) (13) Negligence and forgetfulness. sense of shame. hatred. dissimulation. (9) And all three feelings. (such asl contact. Faith. conscience. First. envy. pride. or neither. bad. Vigor. Those I mental activities] with specific objects. vexation. Hostility. Resolve. The three roots [of good). those with specific objects: that is. Indifference and harmlessness are the good (11) I mental activities'. The nondetermined [states' mean remorse and sloth. the universal mental activities. Secondary passions. The secondary passions I upaklesa I are anger. hypocrisy. Deceit. (10) Whose objects are not the same. The passions [klesa] are craving. Distraction and incorrect knowing. Agitation and torpor. and wrong views. etc. vigilance.. desire. two pairs (14) in two ways. doubt. memory. Next. (8) They are associated with universal mental activities. samcdhi. with harmfulness and vanity. and discernment [prajñá I. etc. Delusion.

Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only Having discussed mental activities associated with the six kinds of consciousness. Therefore. We have extensively distinguished the characteristics of the three transforming consciousnesses as supports for the two parts that are transformed from them. all are consciousness only. Supported on the fundamental consciousness. there are no external conditions.and -such ways. From the consciousness that is all seeds Transformation [occurs] in such . How should we understand that the metaphorical "self" and "dharmas" that are transformations based on consciousness are not separate realities and as a consequence are all consciousness only? The Verses say. And in those who are I in states of] sloth and (16) stupefaction. Either together or not. Like waves supported by water. As a result of this. all these are nonexistent. (17) If there is nothing at all but consciousness and no external conditions at all.and -that imagination is born. (18) Even though internal consciousness exists. still. Except in those born among the unconscious celestials And in the two mindless sanzädhis. from what are the many imaginations born? The Verses say. so what is the basis for the continuity of birth 380 . That. The various consciousnesses transform As imagination and the imagined. The I first] five consciousnesses appear according to conditions. Due to the power of mutual influence. (15) Mental consciousness [the sixth consciousness] perpetually appears. how should one understand their states of appearance? The Verses say.

If there are three natures. On the basis of these three natures The threefold naturelessness is established. the other is not perceived. 1f there is only consciousness. Such and -such a thing is imagined.svabhával is the eternal privation Of the former nature from that [dependent nature]. 381 . When prior retribution is exhausted. Why? The Verses say. (22) One not perceived. parinispanna. (19) Subsequently produce other retribution. etc. (21) Therefore. this [perfected naturel and the dependent on others Are neither different nor nondifferent. (20) The nature that is dependent on others Iparatantra-suabhava] Is discrimination born of conditions. why did the World.Honored One teach that all dharmas are wholly natureless kilts vabhava l? The Verses say. Because of whatever imagination. The perfected 'nature. the Buddha taught with a hidden intention That all dharmas are natureless. The habit energy of various actions Together with the habit energy of the two graspings.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only and death [samsdral among sentient beings? The Verses say.svabhaval Does not exist.Honored One say in place after place in the scriptures that there are three natures I for each object I? You should understand that the three natures are also not separate from consciousness. Like the nature of impermanence. why did the World. This imagined nature [parikalpita. (23) The first is naturelessness of characteristics Ilahsana]. Therefore.

causes [i. (26) The second is the state of added effort I pz'ayoga. cultivation of the aids to [cognitive] penetration I nirvedha. Abiding in the state of added effort enables one 382 . The last is the nature that results from the privation of the former Self and dharmas that are grasped. Thirty Verses] says.badgiva I of the Mahayana. how.avasthd]. cultivation of the aids to liberation I mohsa. That is. What is the characteristic [of this state I? The Verses say. That is. One must possess these two dispositions of the Mahayana in order to awaken to and enter [consciousness only]. and by how many states ?" Those who are endowed with the two dispositions I gotra I of the Mahayana [enter and awaken to it gradually.e. etc. Supported by the nature and characteristics of consciousness. in five states. "Such are the characteristics and nature of consciousness only that have been demonstrated. (24) This is the ultimate truth of all dharmas And is also the same as true suchness. the Treatise [i. they are able to deepen belief and understanding.avastlzal That is. What is the meaning of the two dispositions of the Mahayana? I. (25) With regard to the last five verses showing the active state of consciousness only.. Who awakens to it and enters. Because it is eternally so in its nature. from hear- ing the Dharma that flows uniformly from the realm of the Dharma. As long as one does not generate consciousness That seeks to abide in the nature of consciousness only. It is the true nature of consciousness only. What are the five states? The first is the state of equipment [sanzbhára. seeds] of pure dharmas existing naturally from begin ningless time adhering to fundamental consciousness.blzabiyal of the Mahayana. One is still unable to destroy The propensities of the twofold grasping.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only The next is naturelessness of self -existence.e. The second is the disposition created by perfuming l väsaná]. That is. that which is created by perfuming caused by hearing. The first is inherent disposition I prakrti -gotra I.

abid- ing in supreme. avasthiz I. perfect bodhi. Because of abandoning the twofold coarseness. eternal. the path of insight (darsana. Saying. it has the ability to change sentient beings forever. regarding the objective realm. inconceivable. One does not really abide in consciousness only. Abiding in the state of thorough understanding is like the real thorough understanding [itself I. and the body of liberation. good. What are its characteristics? Setting the least thing before one.pardvrtti ]. perfect and bright. Knowledge is completely devoid of something obtained. That is. That is. One realizes the transmutation of the support (ásraya. Which in the great muni is named Dharma I body I. What are its characteristics? It is the pure realm. The state of cultivation is like really perceiving the noumenal reality and cultivating it over and over.ntcazga I dwelt upon by all bodhisattvas. (27) The third is the state of thorough understanding (prativedhaavaslhd I. This is supermundane knowledge. Blissful. Inconceivable. (30) 383 . it is of the nature of consciousness only. the The fourth is the state of cultivation f path of cultivation (bhczvaná -márga I dwelt upon by all bodhisattvas. By escaping the obstacles. What are its characteristics? Whenever. Then it dwells in consciousness only. Because it is divorced from characteristics of the (28) twofold grasping. (29) The fifth is the state of culmination I nisthei avastizei I.Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only to eliminate gradually the grasper and the grasped. What are its characteristics? Devoid of anything obtained. Because there is something obtained. That is.

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Hsüan -tsang of the Great T'ang Dynasty Translated from the Chinese (Taish5 Volume 31.THE TREATISE IN TWENTY VERSES ON CONSCIOUSNESS ONLY by Bodhisattva Vasubandhu Translated into Chinese by the Dharma Teacher of the Tripitaka. Number 1590) by Francis H. Cook .

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Buddhist opponents. he offers reasoned arguments as to why perceived objects must necessarily really exist apart from consciousness. the opponent takes the realistic. explaining why the realistic argument is faulty and. the "Twenty Verses" is devoted to defending this teaching against possible counter arguments by Buddhists and non . smelled. the "Thirty Verses. In all cases. These two short verse treatises by the Indian Buddhist scholar -monk.nonsense position that the things seen. The opponent typically offers an argument as to why it cannot he possible for perceived objects to be merely mental constructs (vijñapti) and nonexistent apart from consciousness. That is why he is a realist. the theory of seeds stored in the store consciousness. and other aspects of Yogácára thought. the process of eliminating false imagination and discrimination. are real things that exist in the world outside the mind. heard. the nature of delusion and enlightenment. The "Twenty Verses" is a series of hypothetical objections by possible opponents with replies by Vasubandhu. Vasubandhu. Along with this. set forth the philosophical position that characterizes the Yoggacara School.Introduction to the Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only The brief verse work translated here and known commonly as the "Twenty Verses" should be read along with its companion piece. which is Vasubandhu's position. who lived during the fourth century. etc. at 387 . But whereas the "Thirty Verses" is devoted to systematically discussing kinds of consciousness. The objections of opponents are philosophically realistic arguments.." which appears previously in this volume. Vasubandhu counters each argument. no.

Consequently. translated from the Sanskrit by the Chinese monk Hsüan. Only." and "d. Commonality of experiences argues for their objective reality. not twenty. we ought not all to see the same things at the same time if these events are only mental fabrications. He responds also to the argument that since we all have diverse karmic histories. The "Twenty Verses" is no. 31 of the Taishö shinshú daizökyo. The text. Hamilton. Likewise. In arguing against these and a number of other objections.Ttti) on his verses. The Sanskrit text thus has twenty -two verses. 1590 in vol. either we cannot meaningfully speak of knowing another's mind or else the other really does exist outside of mind. who alone know all the fine points of the doctrine. which has a different first verse. I have thus labeled the four naturally occurring parts of a verse "a. we ought not to be held karmically responsible for our deeds. Vasubandhu's work is to respond to what may be seen as the main counter. Verse number one in the Chinese text is verse number two in the Sanskrit version." "b. He responds to such arguments as the claim that if perceived events do not exist outside consciousness." "c. why objects of perception cannot rationally be considered to exist apart from consciousness. I have numbered the verses for the convenience of the reader because on several occasions the verse is commented on in pieces. Vasubandhu's own commentary (t.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only the same time.arguments to the Yogacara position.tsang. 388 ." The reader will also note that the "Twenty Verses" actually contains twenty -one verses. Readers who compare this translation with those made from the Sanskrit will also notice discrepancies in the number and numbering of the Chinese and Sanskrit versions. by Clarence C. The final verse is not part of the arguments but rather Vasubandhu's confession of inadequacy and his praise for Buddhas. Vasubandhu displays a powerful grasp of Buddhist doctrine and an impressive mastery of logical reasoning. New Haven: American Oriental Society. which do not really exist apart from mind. he counters the argument that if other beings are only mental constructs. 1938. consists of a series of verses interspersed with prose commentary. The Chinese text has been translated once before. Wei Shih Er Shih Lan or the Treatise in Twenty Stanzas on Representation.

and Thomas A. 389 . no. K'uei -chi. Hsüan. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience.Translator's Introduction reprinted by Kraus Reprint Corporation. 1962. vol. Most writers on Buddhist teachings in general or Yogácara thought in particular have discussed the doctrine of consciousness only to one degree of adequacy or another. Seven Works of Vasubandhu. New York. Taisho shinshic daizókyó. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1984. 43.tsang's disciple. 1834. 1982. Kochumuttom." Wei -shih erh shih lun shu chi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. wrote an indis- pensable commentary on the "Twenty Verses. The San- skrit text was translated and discussed by Stefan Anacker.

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The nonrestriction of mental continuity (samtána). flies. The restriction (niyama) of place and time. etc. If consciousness is without real objects of perception. why does this consciousness arise in some places but not in all places? Why does consciousness lof form. And function would not be established. etc. not associates of consciousness!. Here.The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only "The three realms are consciousness only" of the Mahayana is established through the scriptural expression. When internal consciousness is born.. arises conditioned by I external I form. (1) The Treatise asks. flies. etc. :391 . what does this mean? If you reject I the idea that) consciousness really has external dharmas such as form." "Mind. I but] in the same way that one with diseased eyesight sees [nonexistent] I hairs." and "perception" 74b (uijñapti) are different names. A verse says. there are some doubts. "the three realms are mind only. "mind" and "thought" are lumped together with mental activities (caitta). and [that I consciousness of form." "thought. just as one with diseased eyesight secs hairs... why is I consciousness of form] not born restricted according to I just] one consciousness.J occur in one place at one time but not at all times? When there are many mental continuities in the same single place at one time. Here there is not the slightest aspect of reality. etc. "Only" excludes objects of perception (artha) that are external I to consciousness I. Regarding this concept." "consciousness. it appears resembling external objects of perception.

. but not in all places." This means that just as through the maturation of the same actions (karma) the many bodies of hungry ghosts collect together [in the nether world] and all see the pus rivers... The word "etc. but the function of other things such as [real I hair is not nonexistent. garden... without external objects of perception such as form. garden. the meaning of "as in dreams" is that it is like what is seen in dreams.. just as in a dream there are no real objects of perception and still in one place one can see a village. I asks the realist.. defending and guard- ing food and not allowing [the hungry ghosts] to get food. but this consciousness is not born in someone without the disease? Again.? Food. poison. just as [hungry] ghosts (preta) All alike see pus rivers. Time and place are restricted as in dreams. clothes. nonrestriction of mental continuities. restriction of time and place are not undemonstrable. The Treatise says.] why are the (imaginary] hairs. A verse says. etc. (2) I The Treatise says. etc. and there is only internal consciousness that is born resembling an external objective realm." means that they also may see excrement. it is not that in this [situation] it is restricted so only one sees it. etc. etc. That is.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only etc. The Gandharva city etc. men and women. The rivers I they see] are filled with pus and are therefore called "pus rivers.] they are not all not demonstrated. 392 . in a dream are devoid of the function of food. seen by those with eye disease lacking in the function of [real] hair. etc. etc.. although there are no real objects of perception external to consciousness. etc. "as ghosts" means "hungry ghosts" (preta). but not at all times. the restriction (niyati) of place and time. If I dreams and waking I are really the same. etc. and sentient beings grasping swords and cudgels. cudgels. And just as in dreams loss [of semen has a function. medicines. drink. is devoid of the function of a [real] city. etc. The body is not restricted. and at this place at a certain time one can see a village. and the functioning of things would not be demonstrated.." in the same way one speaks of a pot filled with ghee as a "ghee pot. swords. Consequently. I We reply.

even though in hell there are no real sentient beings that include such things as infernal guardians. As a result of this [example. etc. Also. And are made to be injured.. etc. etc.. All [four concepts I are like I beings in I hell Who alike see infernal guardians. these [guardians] should not be included with Ibeings inI naraka (hell). yet there is a function for such things as loss of semen. etc. shape. many [individual] mental continuities (scuntäna) in the same place. are demonstrated. The words "like hell" refer to various kinds of sentient beings who reside in hell and experience injury and suffering. the concept of a function that is false Iin a waking state is demonstrated. crows. dogs.... just as in a dream the objects of perception are devoid of reality.' because it does not correspond to reason. the single example of hell shows that restrictions of place. even though there are no real objects of perception apart from consciousness. although there are no real objects of perception apart from consciousness. Again. all alike see infernal guardians. guardians and those being tormented] harm each other. Thus by using different similes. iron mountains.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only Consequently. at the same time. coming to them to inflict injury. the next verse says. and if they [i. still. are all demonstrated. the four concepts of restriction of place. and 393 . still the nonrestriction of many mental continuities is demonstrated. still. the four concepts such as restriction of place are demonstrated. as a result of this. Now. (3) The Treatise says.. because of the dominant power of the maturation of identical acts of those sentient beings. That is. Therefore the four concepts are all demonstrated. then you cannot establish some as beings suffering in naraka and others as infernal guardians. because they do not experience suffering in the way the others experience it. etc. I even though there are no real objects of perception apart from consciousness. you should know that here. I why not admit that species such as infernal guardians are real sentient beings? I We respond.e. [The opponent asks. Since all are alike in size. still.

etc. [your argument] does not correspond to reason. ghosts. however.. (4) The Treatise says that with regard to animals being born in the celestial realm. I Objection:I If that is so. then you must admit that the dominant (adhipati) power of karma of [beings born in 1 naraka produces unusual great elements (mahäbhúta) that give rise to special shapes that display different sizes and power and upon whom we bestow such names as "infernal guardian. etc. Because the animals and ghosts you assert 1)o not experience that suffering. 394 .." In order to generate fear in those [ reborn in hell. do not experience the suffering in hell that is born of that world. like mountains that look like rams suddenly coming together I butting horns) and separating. so how would they be able to inflict injury on others? If they are not infernal beings. I Objection: I How do animals appear in the celestial realm? It is the same with naraka. I this remedy I to your argument I is unsuitable. What is true of animals in the celestial realm Is not true for those [beings in the.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only power. they would not fear each other very much. Therefore we should not admit that those with the destinations (gati) of animals or ghosts are born in naraka. they ought not to be born there.. etc. [We reply. [We reply.] it is not that these events are totally nonexistent. The infernal guardians. I they have different functions such as chang- ing and appearing in various ways and moving their hands and feet. and being born in that world. A verse says. act as infernal guardians. Animals. they must have [past] karma that enables them to experience the happiness of that world (bIu jana).. A verse says. or like thorns in the iron forest drooping down or lifting up [to impale the unfortunate sufferer].' hells. they definitely experience the happiness born of that world. etc. etc. They themselves 1 the infernal guardians' would not be able to bear the suffering of the constant burning of the fierce fires of iron earth.

There is a perfumed consciousness. but then you will not admit that there is a transformation of the result. The perfuming of their action must logically be admitted as being in their [individual I continuities of consciousness (vijñána.Honored One. etc. Perfuming (vásaná) of action is in one place.. why is that? (6) The Treatise says. you assert that [beings in I naraka produce special great elements born of the power of their own action and give rise to changes of shapes. A verse says. etc. For those beings to be instructed (vineya). if there is only consciousness that appears resembling form. etc. In the same way [he spoke of I beings born spontaneously (upapaduka). [We reply.] this teaching is no reason I for your position. the Buddha would not have spoken of the sense bases (ayatana) of form. where there is no form. It was said only with a hidden motive regarding the noncessation of 395 .] scripture is the reason. (7) The Treatise says. The World. etc.samtána) and nowhere else. transforms like this. with a hidden motive.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only If you admit that as a result of the power of action Unusual great elements are born And they produce such changes. Spoke of the existence of the sense bases (ayatana) of form.. Where there is no perfumed place. Why is this? [The opponent replies. this is just like the Buddha speaking of the existence of sentient beings who are born spontaneously. That is. yet assert great elements? Again. why do you not admit that consciousness. etc. you turn around and assert that the result exists. And you assert that the result exists elsewhere. I because it has a special meaning. the next verse says. as a result of the power of action (karma). Why not admit (that they occur] in consciousness? (5) The Treatise asks. That the result exists in the perfumed consciousness You do not admit.

? [We reply. because he said. [after skipping over sense bases of sound. "There are no sentient beings or selves. etc. only dharmas and their causes. In this way. With this hidden motive. The Treatise asks. On the basis of this seed and the appearing form. smells. we come to where] consciousness resembling something tangible is born from its own seeds as a special transformation [of' the mental continuity] and the confluence of conditions [consisting of the apparent tangible object and the perceiving aspect of consciousness]. the Buddha spoke of [the seed and the appearing form asI sense bases consisting of eyes and sense bases consisting of form. He did not say that there are really existent beings who are born spontaneously. etc. the Buddha spoke of them respectively as the sense base consisting of the body and the sense base consisting of tangible objects. Consciousness is born from its own seeds And transforms to resemble characteristics of objects of perception. what does this mean? I Answer:] Consciousness appearing resembling form is born from its own seeds as a special transformation [of the mental continuity] and the confluence of conditions 'consisting of the apparent form and the perceiving aspect of consciousness]." It is the same when the scriptures speak of the sense bases of form.] a verse says. [Question:] What is the special value of this hidden motive? [Reply:] A verse says. In order to establish internal and external sense bases.] what is the hidden motive for speaking of the ten I bases I of form. he spoke of the ten I sense bases] of form. finally. [The Buddha I spoke with a hidden motive of there being no separate real existence of sense bases] for those beings to be instructed who are fit to receive that teaching. etc. 396 . [The opponent asks.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only mental continuity and its ability to continue on into a subsequent time. On the basis of this seed and the appearing tangible object. respectively. and tastes. (8) The Buddha spoke of them as being ten.

through other teachings.. through other teachings. The Treatise says. then that person who should receive the teaching of the absence of self in the sentient will be able to awaken to and enter the f teaching of the] absence of self in the sentient. That is. then consciousness only is [also. if one thoroughly understands that the six consciousnesses [i. However. then it is referred to as "entering the absence of self of dharmas. on the basis of this teaching of the twelve sense bases that are discussed. if one thor- oughly understands the arising of dharmas that resemble form. "Later." It is not called "absence 397 . etc...e. so how can it be established? [Reply:] It is not by means of realizing the nonexistence of the entirety of dharmas that we speak of entering the absence of self of [all I dharmas. and that among these there are not any dharmas with characteristics such as form. one who receives instruction is able to enter I and grasp] the absence of a self in the pudgala (person).e. the twelve sense bases] and that there is no perceiver or knower at all. I Question:] If one understands the nonexistence of the entirety (saruathá) of dharmas and enters the absence of a self in all dharmas. The one who receives instruction is able to enter the absence of a self in the asserted dharmas. plus mental consciousness] develop from the six pair of dharmas [i. That is. etc. by implication.. the five sense consciousnesses of sight. as the appearance of consciousness only. when the absence of self of the dharmas of self-nature (svabhcwa) and difference ( visera) that are imagined by the ignorant are penetrated in this way. the person who should receive the teaching of the absence of a self in dharmas will be able to awaken to and enter I the teaching of I the absence of a self in all dharmas." means the teaching of consciousness only. one enters The [teaching of the absence of self of the dharmas (9) that are asserted.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only On the basis of this teaching one can enter The [teaching of the] absence of self (ancdrnan) of the person (pudgala).] ultimately nonexistent. Later.

on the basis of a hidden motive. each of which serves as a separate object of perception. objects of perception grasped by other conscious nesses would I really] exist and the principle of consciousness only would not be demonstrated. and each [sense base] acts separately as an object of perception for consciousness of form. etc. we speak of establishing the teaching of consciousness only.? I Answer:] A verse says. or else it must be many I atoms!. as in the Vaisesika assertion of a I single) form with parts. etc. it is not a compound. said that there are sense bases of form. Because atoms are not demonstrated I as real I. each of which becomes the special object of perception of consciousness of form. That object of perception is not one thing. [Rather. (10) The Treatise asks. IQuestion:] Again. how do we know that the Buddha. Also. such as the assertion of really existing multiple atoms. then such an external object of perception is either a single thing.. Nor is it many atoms. what is being said? It means that if there are really existing sense bases such as external form. Or the object of perception must be a compound or combination of atoms. etc.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only of a self of dharmas" because the Dharma nature (dharmatd) apart from words that is the object of perception of Buddhas does not exist at all. and not because the entirety [of dharmas are rejected as having a nature [of any kind I. like the assertion of really existing multiple atoms all unit- 398 . universally causing one to awaken to and enter [the teaching of] the absence of self of all dharmas.? Are there no really existing external dharmas such as form. because it is admitted that other consciousnesses have real objects of perception. Otherwise. J one speaks of the absence of a self in dharmas because what is grasped by another consciousness [other than that of a Buddha[ is of the nature of consciousness only and its substance is also nonexistent.. etc. As a consequence of this reasoning.

The Kashmiri Vaibhásika masters say. I Atoms] have no parts. whose combined union is it'? If you change [your position l and try to save it by saying that the development of combined form does not imply union. It also cannot logically be many f atoms].Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only ing and combining to make objects of perception. because the principle of a single ultimate atom (paramanu) is not demonstrated I as existing]. However. But that external object of perception must not logically be one thing. being interchangeable. the combined forms possess the characteristics of union." I We reply. A verse says. be- cause. Since there is no separate combined form that differs from atoms.] in which case the combined form would be invisible. we must now scrutinize this principle and its meaning. Since atoms do not unite. I this. does a compound or combination act as an object of perception. then you should not say that they do not combine because they are devoid 399 . Nor. and therefore we avoid such I logical ] faults as the one above. If there are six atoms in the location of one atom. because it is not possible for the location of one [atom] to be in the locations of the others. If' it is in the same place with the six. then if atoms do not combine. Why is it not demonstrated? A verse says. The one must consist of six parts. because the atoms cannot be grasped individually. the uniting [of atoms] is not demonstrated. because a substance of form possessing parts that is different from the parts cannot be grasped. if each of six sides of an atom is united with [another I atom. they do not exceed the mass [of a single atom. is not correct. too. (11) The Treatise says. "We do not mean that atoms unite. because these !combinations] do have parts. It is not because they are devoid of parts. (12) The Treatise says. To what does the union of [larger] combinations belong? Or else. then the combined form must resemble the mass of la single] atom. Then the combination must be like la single] atom. logically. If an atom is united with six I other atoms I. [the single atom] must be made up of six parts.

the other side is able to reveal shadow? Since there are no other parts unreached by the light and you are asserting atoms without parts. sides) of an atom being different. and then the combined forms must have the same mass as a single atom. the faults fin your reasoning] are still the same whether you admit that atoms unite or do not unite. It logically would not form a unity. Arranging 400 . (13) The Treatise says. many parts make up its body. Therefore. I it is devoid of the two. so how can they form a unity? If an atom does not have different parts. The error is the same as previously mentioned. because a combination has parts. you do not admit union. And a combination not being different from atoms. the various atoms must be interchangeable in the same place. not a single ultimate atom (paramánu) is demonstrated. If an atom has parts. Without [parts].. I Question: I Why not admit that shadow and concealment belong to combinations but not to atoms? [We reply.. there would be no shadow or concealment.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only of parts.e. Also.) not at all. both [positions) are big errors. the six parts !Le. I can it be that you admit that there is combined form that differs from atoms that casts shadows and acts to conceal [another form I? I The questioner says. shadow and concealment]. I We reply. how can this I atom I and that I atom] successively conceal each other I from view I? And since there are no remaining parts unreached by the other. if combined form is not different from atoms. Why? A verse says. how can you say that this and that I atoms) successively conceal each other? Since they do not conceal each other. I in that case. The nonunion of atoms is not a result of their being devoid of parts. Whether you admit that atoms have parts or do not have parts. the combination must be devoid of the two I i. then how is it that when the sun rises and its light illuminates it. then shadow and concealment must be demonstrated as not belonging to combined form. That is. yet.

] we must ascertain together whether the true nature of blue. you would arrive at all [places]. etc. Also. The I position I of unitariness is also unreasonable. such as small water insects. What is more. would be grasped as single things. etc. If one place had one. etc. I We reply. etc. etc. There would be no principle of gradually travelling the earth. there would be no tiny things that are difficult to see.] both [arguments] are faulty. there would be no piecemeal going. [Nor) would there be intervals between many I things I. [We reply..] objects of perception of eyes. one would be I both I here and there.] suppose [either] is so. at all times. (14) The Treatise says that if there were blue. but] both are unrealities. [The opponent says. horses. without arriving [here] or not arriving [there'. etc. are of the na- ture of being real colors such as blue. in a single location. [Or] tiny things that are difficult to see..' what. objects of perception reached by the eyes. etc.. One could arrive and not yet arrive at all times. because being in the same location as something gross. of objects of perception of the eyes. what is the problem? I We reply. there could not be disconnected things such as many elephants. If you say that this or that 401 . A verse says. In the case of unity.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only and distinguishing. that was without divisions. The fault of there being many is as explained] previously. it would have the others. their mass would be equal [and no small object would appear]. etc.. because by setting down one foot. [Question:] What is the use of choosing atoms or combination as it? You are still unable to refute the characteristics of external form.] how would it be possible for them to reach or not reach [a place] or for one to see an empty space between them? Also. because a single thing or single time [without divisions' would logically neither be grasped nor not grasped. if there were two [of something. again. are these characteristics? The objector replies. you establish [form I as atoms or you establish it as a combination [of form. How would one or another be distinguishable'? Or else.. are unitary or many.

one can see at that time. [Question: Dharmas are determined to exist or not exist through the use of accepted means of knowledge (pramana)." etc. also. As a result of this. How can you admit the existence of direct perception? (15) The Treatise says. and form. etc. forming multiple atoms.. "1 am now directly experiencing such a form. and since we have argued that an atom is not a single real thing. just as. such direct awareness as this is possible.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only (object) has differences due to its characteristics and becomes a different thing for no other reason. Therefore. direct awareness at other times must be understood to be likewise. how can one have the awareness. Also. if. etc. we have easily demonstrated the principle that only consciousness exists. A verse says. and because by that time I when awareness dawns in mental consciousness]. and the most excellent of all accepted means of knowledge is direct perception (pratyahsa ).. etc. vis -à -vis the object of perception that it is already nonexistent. Direct awareness is as in dreams. etc.. there is the direct awareness. The seeing and the object of perception are already nonexistent. If there are no external objects of perception.. "I am now experiencing such an object of perception ?" [ We reply: I This proof is not demon- strated. because it is necessarily in the mental consciousness (manovijñána) that one can distinguish [visible forms]. still. their citation of this [example] as proof is not demonstrated. even though when we dream. there is no external object of perception. then eyes. apart from consciousness as organs of perception or as objects of perception. then you certainly must admit that these [large] distinct things differentiate repeatedly. visual and other kinds of consciousness have necessarily already ceased. Those who theorize about instantaneousness (hsanacádin) say that when this awareness I in mental consciousness] exists. so. At the time direct awareness has occurred. at that time. are incapable of being demonstrated. the actual object of 402 .

A verse says. From this. as we have said previously. do they not naturally know I they are unreal I? Since they do not naturally know that waking objects are nonexistent. and it is so I that external objects are not real I.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only perception such as form has already ceased. using a subsequent memory to prove the real existence of an external object of perception that was previously seen is not demonstrated. why. I the object of perception( is associated with memory. I Counter. Then we speak of this [process! as remembering what has already been experienced. appears resembling an external object of perception. How can you admit that at this time there is direct perception? I The objector replies. how. then. when they are awake. etc. As we have said. even though there are no external objects of perception. (16a.] the principle that one perceives that there is an external object because it is necessary that there first be an experience and then a memory is not demonstrated. and for that reason. just as ordinary people know that dream objects of perception are nonexistent. He who sees this object of perception admits that it is direct perception.] it is necessary that something that mental consciousness is able to remember has already been directly experienced I in the immediately antecedent mental moment]. are real objects of perception all nonexistent? [Answer:[ Neither is this demonstrated.. Following this. visual consciousness (caksur. 403 . as in dream consciousness. consciousness is still able to occur. Why? A verse says. and discriminating mental consciousness appears resembling the prior object of perception. Therefore. at a subsequent stage.ó) And from this is horn a memory. it is certain that there is an object of perception that has been experienced. The Treatise says. still. [We reply.argument: I If it is just as in an awakened state as in a dream that even without real objects of perception. there is consciousness that resembles an external object of perception.vijñána). the principle of an external object of perception that really exists is demonstrated.

yet . (17a.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only When not awake. which is the interchange between various I individual I consciousnesses. and have lone of I two [kinds of] consciousness determined. how can it be demonstrated that these sentient beings are approached by good or bad companions. If one acquires that supramundane antidote Ito delusion] that is nondiscriminative knowledge (niryikalpaka jñána) called "true awakening.awakened state does not know that objects of perception in a dream do not really exist externally. The principle is the same lin both dreams and the waking state].d) The Treatise says. by means of the dominant condition (adhipatipratyaya). but once awakened one knows it.prsthalabha.] we are not incapable of demonstrating it. just as one in a not. By means of the interchange of dominant power. I conscious] worldly false discrimination is repeatedly confused as in a dream. which are the mental continuities of sentient beings. A verse says. (16c. hear the correct or wrong teaching. one cannot know That what is seen in a dream does not exist. because the difference in consciousness in the 404 . (Objection: I If in sentient beings there arises consciousness that resembles !external] objects of perception because of a special transformation of their own mental continuity (samtána) and not because of external objects of perception born from conditions. two I kinds of] consciousness are restricted as is fitting Ito each individual That is.ó) The Treatise says.laukika jfidna) appears before one and one knows thoroughly according to reality that that object of perception is not real. since there are {in reality] no companions or teachings Ioutside of consciousness I? I We reply. Two Findividual I consciousnesses achieve restriction (niyama). in the same way.Buddha. None of the entities one sees really exists." then the mundane pure knowledge acquired subsequent to this ( tat. and one who has not acquired true awakening cannot know this.

just as the mental power of a demon. I a verse says.. [Question: I If. killed? If the deaths of sheep are not the result of someone's injury. have dreams.immortals (aranyaka). just as in a dream. So the results [of acts] in sleep and wakefulness are (17c. Just as the mental power of anger of sage. objects of perception are devoid of reality but consciousness can occur. speech. and so weak and strong are not the same. or bring about such strange events as possession by evil spirits. what is the reason for good or bad action taking place in a dream or in a waking state not receiving the same results of action (karma . each becomes restricted [according to kind]. The Treatise says.phala). etc. etc. in dreams the mind is weakened by sleep and its power is slight. I a verse says. There are acts of injury and killing. either desirable or undesirable? [ We reply. As a result of the transformation of another's consciousness. Therefore acts performed ought to receive different retribution (vipeika). how can the one who is a butcher commit the crime of killing beings? I We reply. and the same is true of waking consciousness. how are sheep. etc. (18) Causes others to lose their memory.. just as 405 . The mind is weakened by sleep.. The 'Treatise says.d) not the same. 'The reason] is not because of external objects of perception. [Question: I If there is only consciousness and no body. or the mental power of someone who possesses supernatural powers causes another person to see many things in a dream.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only mental continuity of one causes differences in the mental continuity of another consciousness to occur. This is not true of the awake mind. but not as a result of external objects of perception. etc. causes other sentient beings to lose their memory.

and Kalinga Forest were all made empty and solitary ?" The householder answered the Buddha. acted to kill the species of sentient beings..immortals and knowing their hatred [for the king]. (19) How. can this be demonstrated? The Treatise says. how is it that the World.Honored One. a verse says. asked Upáli the householder. how can you speak of knowledge of others' minds? If you are able to know ) the minds of others.immortals (aranyabal. does knowledge of the minds of others [really I know the minds of others or not? [We reply. and also just as the mental powers of anger of sage immortals caused King Vemacitra to see strange things in a dream. the transformation of consciousness of one individual brings about events that cause injury to the life force of another person far away. respecting the sage. in the same way. and it was not a result of mental anger Ion the part of the sage immortals]. etc.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only Mahákatyáyana's power of wish caused King Samna. if you do not admit that other sentient beings die as a result of the dominant power of transformation of the consciousness of another. "Gotama.] if you are unable to know. what is the error? [The opponent argues. The emptiness of the Dandaka [Forest]. You should realize that "death" refers to the severing of the personal mental continuity through changes of consciousness. Again. Mátariga Forest. again. I have heard that it was because of the mental anger of sage." If you assert that spirits or demons. [Question:] if only consciousness exists. etc.) then 406 .] if we agree. then why [did the Buddha' introduce that [story) to establish mental harm as having the nature of a major offense and surpassing physical and verbal [offenses]? Consequently. you must realize that it is well demonstrated that the death of sentient beings I in the story l resulted only from the anger of the sage -immortals. "Have you ever heard why the Dandaka Forest. How could it result from the anger of sage. to see strange things in a dream. saying.immortals? Mental harm is a great offense. in order to prove that mental harm is a great offense.

[Question:] Why does knowledge of one's own mind not know the object of perception according to reality? Because of ignorance of the object of perception. [We reply.] even though one knows the minds of others. they do not know the ineffable object of perception in accordance with a Buddha's pure knowledge.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only consciousness only is not demonstrated (because you admit the real existence of others]. and because the discrimination of the grasped and the grasper is not eliminated. Of these. the entirety (sarvathá) Is difficult to consider and is reached [only] by Buddhas. Because each of the two [kinds of knowledge] is concealed by ignorance. how can knowledge of the minds of others not know objects of perception in accordance with reality? It is like knowl- edge of one's own mind. and their depths are difficult to cross over. The Treatise says. A verse says. How does knowledge of others' minds Not know the object of perception according to reality? In the same way that knowledge in knowing one's own mind Does not know it in accordance with the object of (20) perception of a Buddha. it is not [knowing] according to reality (yathá- artha). These two do not know the object of perception in accordance with reality because of false appearances that resemble external objects of perception. If one is not a Buddha. According to my ability. who can ascertain their total extent? A verse says. The principles and [numbers of I meanings of [the teaching of] consciousness only are boundless in the differences of ascertainments and kinds. I Have briefly demonstrated the principles of consciousness only. (21) 407 . still.

the World. I have briefly demonstrated them according to my own ability. are unobstructed with regard to objects of perception and knowledge of the entirety.Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only The Treatise says.Honored Ones. Such principles and meanings are only reached [in their entirety I by Buddhas. the kinds of principles and meanings of I the teaching of I consciousness only are limitless. 408 . The rest of the entirety have not been considered [by me I because they transcend the realm reached by my investigation. because Buddhas.

Glossary absence of self (andtman): The Buddhist teaching that persons neither possess nor are composed of any permanent self. This doctrine was rejected by most Mahayana Buddhists. which is two degrees higher. (2) feeling. acquisition (prapti): A force possessed by humans that allows the residue remaining from karmic deeds to adhere to a stream of consciousness (q. soul.). arhat: Someone who has attained the ultimate state of spiritual perfection in Theravada (or Hinayana) Buddhism. See also self. The Buddha was an arhat but also a perfectly enlightened one.). action (karma ): Karma consists of vocal or physical acts that are preceded by intention or will and that always have consequences. being. etc. without a sixth that might be a self (q.) An arhat will not be reborn after death. See also cessation of thought and feeling.v. or substance of any kind.v. store consciousness. being without hope of nirvana (agotraka): A being born without the capacity for enlightenment. attainment of cessation (nirodha.skandha): The aggregates as objects of clinging. person.v. according to the text.) even though there is no self or being that could possess the residue. See fundamental consciousness. and (5) consciousness (q.sa. and in this life he is without any defilements.v. fruit (phala).nápatti): A meditative trance state marked by the absence of normal thought and perception. (In between is the pratyekabaddha Iq. 409 . aggregates (skandha): Buddhism usually talks about the five aggregates which are the five mental and physical factors that make up the nominal person: (1) form. Belief in a self is a delusion and the basis of all suffering. (4) volition (or karmic predisposition). person. aggregates that are grasped (upadana. soul. (3) conceptualization.I. They do not belong to the class (gotra) of people who have such a capacity. älava. What we call a "per- son" or "being" is just these five factors.

cessation of thought and feeling (sarnjñd. cessation resulting from the absence of conditions (apratisamhhyd.nirodha): An advanced state of thought processes and of feelof meditation marked by the cessation ings of pleasure." body of personal enjoyment (suasorpbhoga. bond (parvauastheina): A spiritual bond. pain. resulting from eons of spiritual practices. Only a Buddha enjoys this body.v. such as ignorance. hence.. 410 .v.v.).veditd.kayo): The glorified body of a Buddha.kayo): The glorified body of a Buddha adorned with the thirty -two major marks and eighty minor marks. Bodhisattva: A being who has vowed to achieve Buddhahood someday and who actively engages in the spiritual practices of Mahayana Buddhism to achieve that goal.v. craving.nirodha): A state of profound meditative trance resulting from conscious efforts of discrimination. "for the enjoyment of others. Buddha: One who has awakened from delusion. class (gotra): In this text. it is not known to others. An enlightened one who knows the true nature of things (q. cause of suffering (samudaya): The second of the four noble truths (q. or true suchness (q.bhoga. cessation resulting from discrimination (pralisarnhhyd.gotra): The basic enlightened nature of sentient beings. and hatred.). The complete unfolding of the Buddha nature is enlightenment itself. beings are classified according to whether or not they have the capacity for enlightenment. adorned with the thirty -two major marks and eighty minor marks. hodhi ( "awakening "): Enlightenment. resulting from eons of spiritual practice. Advanced bodhisattvas can perceive this body. Buddha nature (buddha.Glossary blazing discernment (arcisnzati): The fourth of the ten [bodhisattva) stages (q.). a state in which one is awakened to the true nature of things (q.) or true suchness (q. The highest state of human perfection.v. See also being without hope of' nirvana. The chief characteristics of the bodhisattva are boundless compassion for all living beings and clarity of comprehension. body for the enjoyment of others (parasam.). etc.v.nirodha): A state of profound meditative trance that occurs in the absence of conditions giving rise to ordinary states of mind. which is chronically obscured by their ignorance.).

mental consciousness (q. It is contrasted with unconditioned dharmas.v. 5. 5. 411 . the first five sense consciousnesses (visual consciousness.v. ( sometimes) the world of titans. visual organs. Buddhism recognizes five or six. etc. But it is real conventionally as far as our nonreflective common sense sees it. and the store consciousness (q.e. the world of gods. and hell.satva): Our experience is not real in the light of the ultimate truth (q. the world of hungry ghosts. i. dharana. conceptualization (samjñd).) that is "perfumed" by karma and that stores the seeds of future action.).v.meghd): The tenth of the ten (bodhisattva) stages. dharma/Dharma. See aggregates. destination (gall): A realm where one is reborn. In the system of the present text. the human world. consciousness is divided into eight parts or functions.). consciousness (vijñcza): One of the five aggregates (q.. See Translator's Introduction.v.). such as space and nirvana. namely. consciousness only (rijñapti.).dharma): A physical or mental element (such as mind. thought (q. the world of animals.) that is produced from the confluence of several conditions.mdtra): The central teaching of the present text and the school of Buddhism that arose based on it. Diamond -like Sn omit t (uajropanza.) or mental constructs (vijñapti). cultivation of mind (baduaazd): A synonym for meditation. etc.uijfidna): Consciousness that originates as the result of previous karma. conventional truth (scnnurti. See four conditions. hatred. See Translator's Introduction. See also ten (bodhisattva) stages. conditioned dharma (samskrta. p. compassion.r Glossary cloud of the Dharma (dharma. in which the bodhisattva preaches the Dharma. p. that nothing exists but consciousness (q. consciousness as retribution (uipdka. delight in the success of others. Consciousness as the maturation of seeds of new delusion.v.). See immeasurable.samdclhia: A state of meditative trance that is unbreakable. Bhduand is the repetitive contemplation of some insight or truth that one has discovered. Sec immeasurable. condition as (or in the form on perceptual object.v.

See three natures. emptiness (siznyatcz): The quality that all things have of being devoid of any independent. which is independent being.v. See four conditions. Emptiness is emptiness of self. or. quasi reality.dhatu): The uppermost of the three consecutive vertical realms of Buddhist cosmology. direct perception (pralyaksa): One of the means of acquiring knowledge. ): The truth that our perception of an independent. a Hinayana practitioner. 412 . autonomy.pali.Glossary difficult to vanquish (sudurjaya): The fifth of the ten (bodhisattva) stages (q. real selfhood or personhood is unreal. etc. See bodhi.súnyata): A dharma is a mental or physical factor. and neither pleasant nor unpleasant.kdya). real existence.v. emptiness of dharmas (dharma.).) that must be eliminated on the path of insight (q.). See also emptiness. extreme joy (pramudita): The first of the ten Ibodhisattval stages (q. The central and fundamental teaching of Mahayana Buddhism.v.) that constitute the nominal person.nature (q.).v.). Dharmas are not really real.v. They are considered empty because they are without independent existence. The three feelings are pleasant. emptiness of the person (pudgalo. essential body (suábhdvika. formless realm (drupya.)." disciple (. eliminated by insight (daisana. such as hatred or the eyes. discernment (mats /prajìza): Often translated as "wisdom. another being inference. Other passions are to be eliminated by cultivation of mind (q.v. the ability to be self-aware. A dharma exists only in de- pendence on other dharmas and therefore merely has a contingent. where beings are without material form.v. falsely imagined nature. feeling (uedanä): One of the aggregates (q. etc. enlightenment.pralyaya). arising out of other conditions such as memory.parikalpa): The habitual belief that things exist apart from consciousness and that their characteristics are real.heya): Passions (q.siznyatd. dominant condition (adhi.v.). See three I Buddha] bodies. unpleasant. false imagination (ah /zizta. far going (duramgama): One of the ten Ibodhisattval stages (q. räuaka): A disciple of the Buddha when he was living.

(2) condition as (or in the form of) perceptual object (dlarnbana. or through spontaneous miraculous rebirth. See also store consciousness. hatred. delusions.Glossary forms of birth (yoni): One may be reborn from a womb. the grasped aspect of consciousness. grasper (grdhaha): The active aspect of consciousness. One part of conscious- ness is the grasper. 413 . (3) desire can be overcome. (3) dominant condition (adhipati. and enlightenment. in comparison with the corn passion of ordinary people.bodhi): The achievement of enlightenment and Buddhahood. the most important (there are six kinds.v. It is so called because it is the latent source of karmic conditioning for the active consciousness.e.harun. which stores the seeds of future karma. the eighth consciousness. and delusion. four conditions: (1) Condition as cause (hetu.). See also bodhi. See also grasped.v. right mindfulness. which is boundless and impartial. whereby. the other is the object. in a constant state of momentariness. from moisture.v. What appear to be really existing external objects are merely images within consciousness. and (4) the way to overcome desire is the eightfold path (right view. which leads a condition as cause to exercise its efficacy.). fundamental passions (mala. right thought. the mental image erroneously thought to be an external object serving as the source for consciousness of an object.pratyaya). the instantaneous state of a thing causes its immediately subsequent state.v. right vigor for effort.pratyaya). good discernment (. See also passions.vijñiana): Same as the (!rive or store consciousness (q.pratyaya).). fundamental consciousness (miala. great awakening (mahä. fruit of retribution (vipdka. and (4) immediately antecedent condition I samunantara.sûdhumati): One of the ten [ bodhisattva] stages (q.ä): The compassion of bodhisattvas and Bud- dhas. great compassion (mahia. four noble truths: (1) All worldly life is suffering. right speech. and right concentration). which perceives seemingly real external objects. the other being the grasper (q. i.blesa): The three fundamental passions are craving.). (2) the cause of suffering is desire.. or perceiver. see the text). grasped (grdhya is One of two basic aspects of consciousness (q. from an egg.pratyaya). right livelihood.phala): One of five kinds of fruits or results of preceding conditions. right action.

learner (saiksa): The state of one who has not yet completed spiritual practices.). agitation.koti): A synonym for emptiness (q. Limit of Reality (bhúta. and indifference (q.v.) into which one may be reborn. heat (ustnagata): One of the aids to cognitive penetration.v.Glossary great transmutation (uipula.v. See four conditions. See Translator's Introduction.).eijñdna): The purified store consciousness (q. the fourth of the four immeasurables. or independence of both. immaculateness (aimala): One of the ten f bodhisattva] stages (q. ultimate truth (q. karmic predispositions (sam. pride. compassion. inferior transmutation (hind. faith.share): One of the aggregates (q.v. the antonym of post.). See also immeasurable.v.Mahayana Buddhists. p. 5. and so on. until none are excluded.v.). hungry ghost (prete): One of five or six destinations (q. There are four immeasurables: friendliness.v.paraortti): The inadequate change of consciousness achieved by non . anger. delight in the success of others.kari): One of the ten lbodhisattva] stages (q. light emissions (prabad. ignorance (acidy ): The primary root of all evil and suffering.).). intermediate existence (antera Maya): The form of existence between death and rebirth.v.v. 414 .). See also three [Buddha] bodies. ultimate reality. indifference (ape/W-0: One of the chief Buddhist virtues. It is not incorrect.pardertti): The perfect and extensive transmutation of store consciousness (q. and the Dharma body.). leading to a state of indifference without pleasure or pain. All forms of Buddhism have long lists of the samskdras which include such things as greed. immediately antecedent condition. karma. maintaining consciousness (dddna. See fundamental consciousness. The quality is thus immeasurable. store consciousness.learner (q.vijñdna). that of renunciation. only incomplete.v. immeasurable (apram(na): A form of meditation in which a quality such as friendliness (maitri) is gradually extended from a few beings to encompass more and more beings.). immaculate consciousness (amala.

v. nirvana with no fixed abode (apratisthita. person. or substance of any kind.) after death. He will not be reborn again but will become an arhat (q. obstacle (acarena): Obstacles to spiritual awakening. See also consciousness. or anger.rúpa): Another name for the physical body endowed with consciousness (q.v.vijïaana): The perceptive function of the mind. See thought. one avoids future rebirth. obstacle of not desiring to practice henefitting others (parahita-caryaakamana. 415 . Consequently one cannot save other beings from delusion and pain. attachment to things. The consciousness of mind (manas) perceives thoughts. nirvana without remainder (nirupadhi)4esa. mental activity (caitta): An activity of mind. which include such things as belief in a self or substance.Glossary manas. name. nature of being dependent on others. mental consciousness imano." as in "similar results" (nisyanda. mindless stage (acittaka. It is the true nirvana because by neither spurning the world and grasping nirvana nor becoming trapped in the delusion and attachments of the ordinary world. soul. This is the nirvana one continues to enjoy after death.v. See also passions. mind (cilia): A synonym for the store consciousness (q. no self (analman): The Buddhist teaching that persons do not possess nor are composed of any permanent self. "outflow. such as joy. craving. hatred. when one is without body and mind. one dwells in the true nirvana.bhiani): A stage of meditation.ava-rana): By entering final nirvana. "Mode" suggests that the object in question is not something different but merely a mode of the parent object. has a corresponding consciousness by which objects are known. modes (ni)yanda): Literally. including the mind.phala). See three natures.nirvana): The true nirvana.) or eighth consciousness. sloth.and -form (nanta. etc. Belief in a self is a delusion and the basis of all suffering. Each of the organs." Sometimes translated in this text as "similar. nonreturner (anagamin): One who has advanced very far in spiritual practices but dies before reaching the goal.). because it is not seized or made into an object of attachment by the one who enjoys it.nirvana): "Remainder" refers to body and mind as support.

(5) contemplation (dhydna ). (6) wisdom (prajfid). and (10) knowledge (jñana).authentication (svasaznvitti- samvitti. Attachment to nirvana is thus an obstacle. (8) vow (pranidhana). See also state of cultivation. path of insight (darsana. patience with regard to the nonbirth of dharmas (anulpattika-dharmaksanti): The special ability of bodhisattvas to remain calm and fearless in the face of the knowledge that inasmuch as all things are empty. (2) discipline (sila). aversion. and other attachments that hinder the practice of the Buddhist path and the realization of nirvana. (7) skill in means (or expedient) (upaya).paaini. passions (Mesa): Desire. delusion.aavarana): By desiring final nirvana and turning one's back on the world.blzaga): That function of consciousness that knows that it knows that there is an object. The perfections are coordinated with the stages so that one perfection. prior to undertaking the path of added effort (q. path of equipment. perfection (paramita): A group of six or ten aspects of practice that a bodhisattva performs in order to attain Buddhahood: (1) giving (dana). path of added effort (prayoga.).mazga): Bodhisattvas are required to accumulate merit and wisdom. path of cultivation (bhavana.nzarga): The meditative practice of gaining clear insight into the true state of things. See three natures. path of equipment (sambhara.Glossary obstacle of the final nirvana of the lower vehicles (hinavana. they neither are produced nor cease. (9) power (halal. See also state of equipment.marga): A preliminary meditative practice preceding the paths of insight and cultivation. 416 . path of insight.v.v.). one fails to achieve the real nirvana. patience (Wall): The third of the six or ten perfections developed by bodhisattvas. (4) vigor or effort (virva). See also stage. (3) patience (ksanti).svabhava). See also obstacle. See also path of cultivation. perfected nature (parinispanna. such as the perfection of giving (q. is emphasized on each stage.marga): One of two main forms of meditation.). It is followed by the path of cultivation (q. the two paths together constitute the main meditative practices.v.rvan. consisting of the repetitious contemplation of some truth that one has discovered. The six perfections are the first six of the ten perfections. See also perfection. part [of consciousness! that authenticates self.

which is marked by the interdependent existence of things. etc.v. are the result of former acts.). The state is defined as "one . the senses. etc.pointedness of mind" (citta.samapatti): An advanced medi- tative state characterized by the absence of thought processes.) and influences future decisions and actions.v.v. giver. presence (ablzimukhil: One of the ten Lbodhisattval stages (q. Sometimes referred to as the unconscious sumadlzi.phala): A result that is of the same moral species as its cause. realm of desire (lama.. See also formless realm. perfuming (väsaud): The residue or lingering influence of action (q. pratyekabuddha ( "solitary buddha "): One who attains nirvana by contemplating the law of causation without the help of a teacher.dhátu): Existence as it really is. samadhi: Often translated as "meditation.v. following states of medi- tation and insight in which it cannot be said that things are true. samddhi of nonconceptualization (a5amjñik a.v. impermanence.dhälu): The lowest of the three realms of existence in Buddhist cosmology. See also perfection.learner (asaiksa): One who has gone beyond the need for spiritual training. realm of desire. result of similar species (nisyanda.).paramita): Giving is perfected when it is done with no concept of gift. the antonym of learner (q. It covers the earth and several celestial realms. or recipient.) is the result or retribution of previous karmic deeds.v. emptiness (q. propensities (anusayal: The potential to act ignorantly and karmically. Likewise.).dhdtu): The realm of form is so called because subtle material form still exists in it. 417 .v.).). realm of form (rizpa." Samddhi is a mental state in which the mind is focused on one point to the exclusion of all else.anásrava jñdna): Knowledge that things are or are not the case. realm of the Dharma (dharma. knowledge of events in the light of emptiness (q.v. The character of the eighth or store consciousness (q. post. untrue.ekdgratä).v. retribution (oipdha): The matured results of previous action (q.). and above these two is the formless realm (q. pure subsequently acquired knowledge (prsthalabdha.v.Glossary perfection of giving (data.). Above it is the realm of form (q.) that impregnates the store consciousness (q. such as sight. The residue of actions is figuratively compared to the perfume that impregnates a piece of cloth and gives it a specific character.

spirit. seen part (nimitta. See also self." the other two being emptiness (q.bhaga): Nimitta is literally "sign" or "object. See perfection.badga): The function of mind that perceives mental images. Rejected by Buddhism as an illusion.authenticating part (scasamuitti -bhága ): That part of consciousness that knows that it perceives objects. unchanging. and the six corresponding forms of consciousness.). self. See consciousness.v.v. or substance. independent. independent.Glossary samsa ru. permanent. sense field (dhdtu ): The eighteen sense fields are the six sense organs. objects or images. The seeing part (q. six perfections (pc ramitä). All that exists in the system of the Ch'eng rear -shin lun are the two parts of mind. permanent.) sees the seen part (q. and the self. unchanging. They are bases because they are the loci of perceptions. See fundamental consciousness. seed (bija ): The inner habit energies that lie in the container consciousness. One of the three "doors of liberation. sense bases (áyatana): The six sense organs (including mind) and their respective objects of perception.v. the seeing part and the seen part.nature (suabhirca): A sort of unitary. and that thereby is led to the erroneous idea that the images are external to mind. Thus. and perhaps eternal nature or substance which common sense tends to imagine that all phenoma possess. 5. It is felt to be the "me" to which belong the body and mind. there are eyes. feelings. See also self.nature. store consciousness. 418 .). and visual consciousness. their six corresponding perceptual objects. See Translator's introduction.authenticating part is that which knows that seeing has occurred.) and wishlessness. sense consciousness. signlessness (animitta): The absence of signs or characteristics in the perceptions of an enlightened person. etc. self. seeing part (darsana. Rejected by Buddhism as an illusion. p. seed consciousness (bija." Delusion consists of believing that signs or objects exist outside mind. When these three are present. See also seeing part. for instance. and perhaps eternal inner being. there is an act of visual perception. which are known as the seen part (q. self (t-ttinan): Imagined as a unitary. material objects.rijìidna).v.

characterized by repetitious contemplation of' truths. See also consciousness: fundamental consciousness.dharma): One of four aids to cognitive penetration (niruedha.uijfiana): The eighth consciousness as storer of' the seeds of delusion and awakening. blazing discernment (arcimati). six sense bases (sadczvatana): The six sense organs. stream winner (srota. loss. state of' cultivation (bhäuanc avaslhü): The state of intense meditation on the path of' the bodhisattva. The plight of all unawakened beings.v. and cloud of the Dharma (dharma -meghd ). and paths (marga). unshakable (acoja). forgetfulness.cn!astha). etc. good discernment (. supreme worldly dharmas (laukikdgra." The first of the four noble truths (q. The fundamental concept of the system of the Ch'eng wei -shih lun. states (avasthdl. immaculateness (uimalá). indolence. distraction. store consciousness (alaya. thoughtlessness.auastha): The final state of spiritual development." "imperfection. difficult to vanquish (sudurjayczl. light emission (prbad. stage (blziami): A phase of spiritual training for bodhisattvas.Glossary six secondary passions (upaklesa): Faithlessness. illness. it involves such practices as moral reeducation.).duhhhatd): 'Turmoil and unrest attendant on suffering from hunger. and inaccurate knowing. summits (rntirdhana): One of' the aids to cognitive penetration. state of equipment (sambadra. the state of awakening from delusion that follows the path of cultivation (q. The spiritual practices of bodhisattvas are variously divided into stages. 419 . the going (diaramgam. Supreme Perfect Awakening (anuttara. ten I hodhisattva I stages: Ten phases of spiritual training for bodhisattvas extreme joy (pramuditá). See also ten (bodhisattvas stages.bhcagive).dpanna): One who has entered the "stream that flows to awakening and arhatship." suffering (duhkha): Also translated as "turmoil. state of culmination (nisthd. impurity and purity. See path of insight. suffering of suffering (duhkha.v.samyak.) of Buddhism.hari)." and "unsatisfactoriness." "unrest.avosthä ): Preliminary spiritual practices that prepare one for meditation and the superior stages.s ldhumati). state of thorough understanding (prativedha.sambodhi): The state of Buddhahood.ca). presence (abbimukhï).

The second is the enjoyment body (samhhoga. which is the false.nature (q.v. torpor.). it is not known to others.ya). one sometimes speaks of their threefold naturelessness. wrong memory. distraction. (3) A perfected na- ture (parinispanna). illusory nature that things have of appearing as if they were real things existing outside of consciousness. The true nature of an object is said by the text to be the dependent nature minus the imagined nature. wrong desires. ten secondary passions: Thoughtlessness. which is the true state. thought (manas): The seventh of eight forms of consciousness. agitation. wrong resolution. See three natures. Since all things exist only interdependently. but advanced bodhisattvas can perceive this body. primordial body of the Buddha is called the Dharma -kava (Dharma body) or essential body (svdbhüuika. earthly body is called the transformation body (nirmanakaya). thought (q. which takes two forms: the body of personal enjoyment (suasamhhoga -kaya) and the body for the enjoyment of others (parasamhhoga.). (2) A nature of being dependent on others (paratanira. and inaccurate knowing. faithlessness. hence "for the enjoyment of others. three transforming consciousnesses: The store consciousness (q. resulting from eons of spiritual practice. See also consciousness. Only a Buddha enjoys this body. It is the material body of a historical Buddha. The samhhogakaya and the nirmana -kayo (enjoyment body and transformation body) are known collectively as the rúpa -kaya or form body. The body of personal enjoyment is a glorified body of a Buddha.Glossary ten perfections. (1) A falsely imagined nature (parikalpita. 420 . "The third. three [Buddha) bodies: The first. synonymous with absolute truth.ka. It is manes that mistakenly believes that mental images are really external objects. all things have this nature.suabhciva). The body for the enjoyment of others is also a glorified body of a Buddha. Since the three natures have no self. beyond conception. It is immaterial.kayo). See perfection. threefold naturelessness. perceived without the obscurations of delusion and craving.svabadva). resulting from eons of spiritual practice.kaya). adorned with the thirty -two major marks and eighty minor marks.v. which is the state of existing only in dependence on other things. the one responsible for thought. and a third form of consciousness consisting of the seeing part (q. adorned with the thirty -two major marks and eighty minor marks.) and the seen part (q.) combined. three natures (trisuahhdva): 'Three perspectives from which anything can be understood.v. indolence.).v.v.

transmutation of cultivation (hhdvand.) as the holder of seeds of delusion and enlightenment. See three [Buddha] bodies. See efficacy of pure seeds ( transmutation of the support. and the gaining of clear understanding.vardhana.Glossary trance state /trance (dhydna): Four increasingly refined stages of meditation.pardvrtii): "Support" refers to the eighth or store consciousness (q. twofold grasping (grdhadvaya): The grasper (q. tranquility I of mind I (samatha): The practice of achieving mental stillness or calming. the truth of the method or path by means of which suffering is terminated.) combined. transmutation of thorough understanding (pratiuedha. stereotyped interpretations. The real nature of each thing as it is.paraurtti). true nature of things (dharmatd): The way that all things really are when known apart from false imagination. ultimate reality. transmutation of the perfection of result (phala.v. tranquility and insight (samatha.vipasyand): The classic Indian Buddhist form of meditation. See transmutation of the support. often combined with or followed by practices such as observation of mental physical states (vipasyand).) and the grasped (q. true suchness ((halo.v. transformation body. transmutation of the support (dsraya.paripuri. etc.pardvrtti).salya): The fourth of the four noble truths (q.talhatd): The "suchness" of things.pardvrlli). breathing. in which there are preliminary exercises calculated to calm and stabilize the mind followed by active practices such as contemplating feelings. apart from false imagining.prabadva. the development of moral character. etc. This transmutation is a total change in the character of the store consciousness.v. See transmutation of the support. whereby seeds of delusion are destroyed and seeds of enlightenment are nourished and made to mature. transmutation by breaking the power of impure seeds and increasing the iata.v. truth of the path ( marga. culminating in mental tranquility devoid of thought and feeling. This path consists of meditation. See also attainment of cessation. This is the culminating act during the spiritual practices of the bodhisattva. perverted views. 421 .pardurtti).). See transmutation of the support.

sa {nsledra): Factors not associated with consciousness. Karma.). Any view is by definition an incorrect perception of events. self.caitta): Mental activities that accompany all states of mind. founded in the fourth century by Vasubandhu. such as birth. which advocates the doctrine of "mind only.salya): The real truth about anything. often referred to as Hinayana ( "Small Vehicle "). unassociated dharmas (aiprayuhia. According to all Buddhist schools. unshakable (amid): One of the ten [bodhisattva] stages (q. etc.dlsti): The erroneous belief that one is. being. soul. marks a being as alive.v. view (drsti): "View" always means "false view" in Mahayana Buddhism.) school. person. YogAc:xra: A Buddhist school.v. He is considered the founder of the Yogncara (q. 300 -400): An early Indian Mahayana teacher who was the author of many important texts. or substance.Glossary ultimate truth (paramdrtha.v.nature. Vasubandhu (fi. vital principle (jicitendriya): The life force that. universal mental activity (sarvatraga. volition (cetand): A deliberate choice to do something. as opposed to conventional truth (q. ca. (2) the Mahayana ( "Great Vehicle "). or has.). is always preceded by volition. ungraspable (anupalabdha): Beyond understanding." 422 . See also self. a self'. vehicle (ydna): One of the three main classifications into which Buddhist schools are divided (1) the Theravada. generic similarity. or morally charged action. this is the fundamental delusion and source of all suffering. the samddhi of cessation. view of self (atma. when present. and (3) the Vajrayana ( "Adamantine Vehicle ").

. Seven Works of Vasubandhu. 1938. Surendranath. ATLA Bibliography Series. Diana Y. Delhi: Motilal Barnarsidass. Clarence H. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. trans. New Haven. and ed. 423 . Gadjin. Thomas A. No. Powers.ina in the Text of Vasubandhu's Vinzsatika. Delhi: Motilal Barnarsidass. 27. The Yogacara School of Buddhism: A Bibliography. trans. 1991. "Vijizaplinzátralcisiddhi and theBuddha. CA: Stanford University Press. Edited and translated by L. 13. Ganguly. Stefan.a's Evolution of Consciousness.Selected Bibliography I. Treatise in Thirty Verses on Mere consciousness: A Critical English Translation of Hsuan Tsang's Chinese Version of the Vijnapiinzatratatrinzsilza with Notes from I) /zarnzapalas Commentary in Chinese. NJ: Scarecrow Press.b/zumi.. lnazu.siddhi with Sthiramati's Commentary: Text with English Translation. Philosophy of Mind in Sixth. Paul. 1984." Indogaku Bukkyo -gaku Kenkyu 7. 1984. Stanford. Vasubandhu's Vijnapti. trans.matrata. Katsumata. Swati. S.1 (19581: 13:22. Indian Idealism. "The Concept of Vijñapti and Vijñ. Connecticut: American Oriental Society. Kawamura. Wei Shih Er Shih Lun: The Treatise in Twenty Stanzas on Representation Only.nzñtratei.siddhi. NY: State University of New York Press." Indogaku BukkyO -gaku Kenkyu 15. 1984. Kochumuttom. Madhyamika and Yogacara: A Study of Mahayana Philoso- phies.1 (1967/.uijzìapti. 1991. English Anacker. England: Cambridge University Press. Albany. John. 1962. Kizo. N. vol.sutra. Chatterjee. Metuchen. K.marth.Century China: Para. Cambridge. trans. American Oriental Series. Nagao. Varanasi: Kisher Vidya Niketa. Hamilton. 1992. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin. Shunkyo. Dasgupta.

1928. trans. Tat. Hong Kong: Ch'eng Wei -Shih Lun Publication Committee. 31. and Conzrnenta/y. 424 . Wei. Tanaka. P. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner. 1973. Seibun. Poussin. Junsho. Vijñaptinzdtratd: La Siddhi de HivanTsang. trans. German Jacobi. K'uei -chi. no.tsang. T. Vol. 1953. R. no. Vijnaptimatratasiddhi (Vimsatika): with Introduclion. III. 2d ed. French Levi. Paris: H.. Ch'eng wei -shih lun. 1932. Tokyo: Nagata Bunshb Do. T. Vol. Louis de la Vallée. Hermann. trans. 1830 of Taisho shinshü daizokyd. 43. Yuishiki Baku kenkyd. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. IV Japanese Fukaura. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers. Idealistic Thought in India. MA: Harvard University Press. Trio rotkauijaupti des Vasubandu: Mit Bhasya des Acarya Stlziramati. Cambridge. Un système de philosophie boudhique: matériaux pour l'élude du système Vijñaptimcztra. Ch'eng wei -shilz lun shu -chi. II. Sylvain. Sharma. "Alayavijñdna Explained in the Vijdaplimdtratdsiddhi. Weinstein. 1585 of Tais/id shinshü daizdkyd. 2 vols.Bibliography Rahu. 1963. Cheng Wei -Shilz Lun." Tdyd Gaku Ronshú (1952): 215 -236. Translation.kusha Kaigikiyo 3 (1959): 46 -58. Hsüan. trans. Stanley.vijñdna in Early Yogiicára Buddhism: A Comparison of Its Meaning in the Samdhéni mecum sutra and the Vijñaptimdtratdsiddhi of Dharmapola. 1993. 1932." Kokusai rho Ga.: Doctrine of Mere Consciousness. Champion. "The Concept ofAlaya.

258. 226. 181. 301 -302. 36. 273 -278. 191. 176. 71-74. 348 of the imageless 316 of Mahesvara 245 nirvana with no fixed 319. 315. 392. 200 -201. 182. 53. 319. 18 -19. 272. 133. 102. 57. 311. 317. 267. 405 anger 14. 32. 345. 363 activity(ies) 27. 342 -343. 179. 197. 249. 25. 119 three kinds of 30 ultimate truth of 293 act bodily indicative 27 -28 action 11 -12. 67. 89-90. 219. 263 -268. 29.Index A Abhidharmasamuccaya (text) 68-69. 367 Abhidharmasaìnuccavavyahhyá (text) 157. 158. 404 arhat 29. 226. 29. 185. 106. 135. 356 -357 130. 12 -14. 140 -141. 160.pariksa (text) 116. 272. 134. 425 ascertainment in accordance with reality 303 associated 10. 38 -40. 246. 314 that lasts up to the end of samsära 89 aggregation 21. 177. 275. 89. 251. 189. 242. 98. 295. 334. 315. 155. 185 -189. 263. 175. 87. 356. 100. 71. 197 -198. 67-68. 80. 317. 111. 266. 357 -358. . 215 -216. 251. 93. 82. 150. 154. 319. 195. 117 -118. 281. 206. 348 antagonism 132 antidote 88. 348. 129. 215. 71. 274 three 332 acquisition 29 -30. 114 -115. 98 -99. 69. 179. 331. 276 -277. 103. 297 -298. 279. 204. 326. 331 -332 Aryadesanavikhyápana Sástra 141 actual 299-300 of the doer 251 identical 252 -253. 135. 188. 64. 80. 270. 293. 348 of form 117-118. 67 -68. 102-103. 59. 109. 213 -214 abode(s) 245. 274. 92. 352. 25 -26 agitation 134 -137. 64. 316. 342. 328. 248. 351 ágama 87 -88 aggregate(s) 9. 311 grasped 186 that are grasped 13 -14. 363 -364. 405 -406 three kinds of 28. 381. 327 Ajivikas (school) 23 Alambana. 240. 209. 134. 258 mode of 60. 155. 395. 331. 28. 145. 332. 51. 165. 105. 326. 78 -80. 197. 154. 15. 23. 348. 204 -206 aid 153. 352. 229. 257. 273. 206 -207. 78. 347. 39 -40. 160. 61.

403 sentient 15. 247. 30. 90. 65. 81. 299 -300. 143 -144. 332 -333. 297 -298. 229. 304. 245. 101 -102. 94 -95. 364 -365 aspect of 182 others 177. 146. 194. 168. 244. 82. 66. 142. 327 sensual 89 -90 attainment(s) 32.Index 89 -91. 277. 247. 398 -402 attachment 134. 29. 395 -396. 60. 203 -204. 89. 73. 188 -192. 263. 150. 347 -352. 97. 194. 79. 87. 237. 194 -195. 361. 298 -299. 324. 98 -99. 299. 320 -324. 316 -318. 210. 225 -228. 75. 316 -318. 75. 171. 364 -366. 324. 111. 318. 79. 348 349. 24 -27. 175. 218 -219. 146. 308. 154. 101. 99. 165 -169.260. 263. 103. 81. 274. 282. 132. 161. 180. 323 -324 ordinary people 9. 259. 47. 225. 130. 107 -108. 81. 206 -208. 245. 364 -365. 94 -95. 71. 101 -103. 89. 365. 237 -240. 64. 403 atom 11 -12. 259. 92. 71. 163. 47. 155 -157. 180 -184. 330. 73. 172. 326 -327. 290. 228. 185. 269. 350. 348 -353. 150 -151. 277. great 79. 330. 370. 235. 21 -22. 222. 324 311-314. 50 -51. 314. 191. 123. 316 -317. 308. 330. 73. 317 -318. 151. 130 -131. 109 -110. 298. 109. 359. 338 cessation of 13 -16 cessation of attachment to dharmas 39 -43 to dharmas 16 -20. 240. 220. 161. 352 avarice 207 aversion 213 Avici (hell) 162 awakening 50. 301. 152. 94 -95. 81. 187 -189. 143. 310 -311. 140. of unconsciousness 32 attention 69. 326. 130 -131. 341 -344. 177 B bad conduct 325 Bandhusri (Buddhist teacher) 1 213 -215. 325. 320. 298. 331. object of 47 to self 9 -13. being 9 -12. 327 -328. 177. 370. 304. 180. 221. 63 -65. 125 -128. 86. 195. 15. 82. 361. 143. 301. 150 -152. 335 -336. 180. 322. 342 -344. 227. 314. 90. 177. 356 -357. 175. 324. 239-240. 159 -163. 311. 296 formless 32 two. 30. 222. 393. 426 . 182. 266. 170 -173. 404 -406 ordinary 30. 351 -353. 339. 131 -147. 331. 359. 221. 53. 157 -158. 199. 225. 182. 236. 393. 177. 404-406 benefitting 82. 404 344. 168.

98 -99. 344 -345 bondage 150 -151. 244. 266. 131. 51. 240. 427 . 336. 318. 268. 32. 291. 328. 357 causality 93. 245 -247. 400. 279. 75. 46. 331. 405 material 248 of one who has understood 250 twenty -two 248. 151. 74 -78. 284. 86. 28 -29. 24 -25. 221. 348 -350. 237. 243. 29. 120. 185. 89 -90. 84. 166 -167. 353. 94. 347 -348. 193. 210 -212. 351 -352. 325. 361 58 -60. 94. 321. 178. 95. 98 -99. 27 -28. 59 -60.Index 365. 95 -96. 88 -89. 34. 223 -224. 366 bond 37. 253. 33-35. 300. 45. 359 -367. 318 land 366 non. 152. 177. 182. 283 284. 135. 242. 248 -250. 162. 15. 311. 209. 244 -245. 263 -264. 114-117. 320 benevolence 348 Bhávaviveka (Buddhist teacher) 93 birth 13. 66. 83 -84. 209. 84 -85. 273. 96 -100. 66. 96 -97. 59. 227. 290. 342 -343.250 category(ies) 18 -19. 133. 241. 163. embryonic material 100 made of mind 276 provided with organs 60. 333. 353. 216 -218. 245 -246. 356 -world 36 Buddlzabhúmi Sútra 154. 120 supporting 66 three 361. 322. 121. 15. 343 -345 and death 13. 154. 91. 124. 392. 187. 351 -352 Buddhahood 3 -4. 330. 109 -110. 311. 117 -118. 226 -227. 210. 50. 396. 263 -264. 65 -67.366 sentient beings 180. 52 -57. 52 capacity(ies) 51. 37. 48. 264. 30. 229. 268 -269. 81 path 318 practice 277 body(ies) 11 -12. 355 -358. 194. 176. 187. 96. 70 -71. 86. 20 -22. 208 Buddha body 362. 100. 159 -160. 189. 99. 366 dharmas 147. 276 -279 forms of 48. 324. 241 cause(s) 17. 31. 48. 92. 276 -278. 364 transformation 277 -278. 126. 325. 365 C 266.246. 216. candle wick 60 Candrapála (Buddhist teacher) 49. 120. 96 bodhisattva nonregressing 79. 268 -280. 316. 361 -364. 109-111. 102 -106. 223. 30 -31. 294. 183. 75 -78. 131.46. 205. 305. 360 Brahma (god) 20.

193. 258 remaining 253 -254. 181. 150. 221-222 who are oblivious in their play 124. 323 -324. 285 -288. 178 -181. 185. 72. 221. 157 -160. 42. 195 -196. 130. 242 -243. 65. 344 -345. 394 consisting of thought 224 unconscious 89. 235. 258 projecting 251. 102. 137. 297298. 318 -319. 226 -227. 33 -34. 224. 322 -323. 45. 271 celestial(s) 30. 87. 136. 77. 60. 343 -344. 170. 250 -256. 153. 328. 69 -71. 213. 169 cessation 13. 267. 359.6 Citrabhánu (Buddhist teacher) 1 -2 class 37. 251. 210. 334. 102. 126. 272. 272. 264. 233-235. 89. 358 -360. 155. 83 -85. 256. 124. 113. 222 generating 253 -256 instrumental 253 -256 nonopposing 253. 86. 164-165. 252. 114. 15. 47 -48. 221. 97. 359. 144. 324. 122. 35. 93. 355 362. 253 -254. 57 ten 250 -256. 245. 150. 336 Ch'eng wei -shih lun (text) 1 -4. 149. 255 of mental activity 106 -108. 273 -279. 75 -78. 362 -363. 231. 103-108. 352. 309. 74. 259. 347 -348. 255. 370. 274 -275. not resulting from discrimination 287. 37 -39. 336. 156. 37. 284 of existence 265 251. 113. 90 -92. 223. 287. 176. 261. 231. 53 -58. 80. 64. -356. 364 -365. 195. 329. 208 -209. 295. 292. 229. 257 -259. 194 -197. 248. 344. 267 -268. 209 -211. 259. 222 -224. 240. 187. 96. 91. 269 -270. 191. 129. 185. 23. 33 -34. 287 -288. 258 condition as 52 -53. 97 characteristic(s) 16 -17. 382 attracting 57. 336. 55. 145. 206 -207. 169. 51. 172 -175.174. 297 -298. 258 opposing 252 particular 252. 306 -314.Index 173. 290. 284. 57. 237 -238. 242 -243. 235.345 resulting from the absence of conditions 37 -38. 396 -397. 29. 338. 161. 264 -265. 355 -356. 253 -255. 302. 188. 240. 270 -271. 327 -329. 283. 188. 267 single 20. 399. 301 -304. 258 productive 57. 139 -143. 254. 341. 43. 365 -367. 60 -62. 250. 271. 367 immediate 251. 428 . 242. 67. 168. 78. 336. 104. 291 -292. 274. 199 -204. 401 -402 characteristiclessness 329. 26 -27. 344 -345 resulting from discrimination 92. 31.

107 -111. 325 six 311 of truth(s) 249. 314. 119 -123. 363 -364. 200 consciousness(es) 9. 187. 197. 74-76. 310. 335. 76 -78. 158. 241 -248. 39 -43. 57. 324 -332. 224. 182. 255. 281 -284. 323 -324. 105 -109. 391 -393. 217. 32. 250 -256. 23 -28. 342. 167. 135 -136. 45 -46. 13 -16.Index 158 -159. 180 -182. 310 -311. 251. 25 -27. 181. 233 -249. 132. 316 conscience 173 -176. 266. 251. 219 -220. 244 -246. 308. 175. 348. 233. 278. 45. 100. 218 -222. 213 -214. 369 immediately antecedent 124 -127. 261. 309. 311. 335 lack of 20. 247. 37. 275 twofold 337 coldness 99 color 17. 326. 255. 361 -367. 49. 210. conditioned arising 69. 259. 48 -50. 362 similar and immediately antecedent 115. 221-224. 429 . 73 -74. 67. 217. 296 -299. 93 -99. 33 -34. 288 condition 9 -10. 164. 255. 199. 228. 252 -253. 259 -261. 124 -127. 358 -359. 287 -288. 97. 347 -353. 200. 333. 187. 101 -103. 312 conceptualization 68 -70. 263 -266. 52 -53. 259. 366. 363 326. 66. 276. 180. 149. 274 -277. 401 compassion 125. 124 -127. 22 -23. 311 clinging 29. 60. 46 -47. 194. 226 -228. 229. 355. 204 -205. 222. 148. 187. 402 -408 eighth 13. 71. 361. 293 -295. 263 -264. 283 -284. 20. 148. 275. 113 -133. 369 -370. 270. 56 -75. 61. 365 366. 195 to mere personal morality and ritualism 187 coarseness 272. 167. 200. 165. 259. 130. 358. 106 -107. 206. 183. 357. 338 -340. 178. 20 -21. 344 comprehension 249. 55. 251. 91. 125. 35. 14 -15. 186 -187. 52. 278. 47 -52. 231. 228. 343. 369 great 176. 211. 306 -307. 18. 335. 347 -351. 86. 110. 244 -246. 151. 316. 275 as object 25 -26. 342. 266 -279. 83. 176. 114 -118. 344. 179. 127. 240. 117. 69. 158. 199. 12. 73. 39. 77 -105. 321. 10. 27. 282 -284. 332 -333. 25. 277. 321. 129. 272. 311 -312. 314 -315. 268. 356 -359.137. 275. 144. 109 -110. 330. 225.337. 258. 81 -87. 226 -229. 138 -177. 190 -191. 293. 298 -299. 348. 31 -32. 283 -289. 121. 58. 279. 326 -327. 197. 395 -398. 174. 38 -40. 301 -304. 318.

188. 123. 67. 80. 94. 327. 61. 107 108. 159 -161. 236. 67. 279. 74 -75. 246. 86. 87 -89. 362 evolution of 10. 245. 332 store 33. 263 -264. 61 only 39. 105. 213. 245. 68 -71. 122 -125. 40. 49. 114. 349 root 88. 97. 350 transforming 47 -48. 398 fundamental 15. 114 -115. 183. 213. 246. 357 six 45. 282. 351. 138 -139. 37. 213-214. 45. 397 sixth 13 -14. 335. 113. 103 -104. 296-298. 132. 131. 224. 301-302. 65. 190. 81 -82. 261. 310. 210. 58 -59. 118 -119. 238. 233. 210. 219. 241 -243. 80. 103. 113. 128. 219. 314. 96. 219-220. 129. 267. 65. 100. 249. seed 242 seventh 13. 299. 190. 227 330. 127. 282. 154.51 -157. 248 -249. -142. 39. 94. 338 -339 123 -125. 263. 391 -392 mental 15. 120. 124. 391. 141. 258. 79. 127.Index 138. 181. 156. 406 transformations of 9. 259. 147. 397. 79. 237. 125. 148. 349 visual 25. 25. 233 -237. 350 -351. 150 -156. 340. 146. 58. 297. 51. 248. 227. 119 -122. 49. 162. 128. 132. 288. 221 -222. 252. 143. 27. 148 -149. 210. 39. 235. 225. 220. 80. 326 -327. 397 -398. 402 -403 object of 26. 142. 308-310. 170. 243. 299. 48. 141. 116. 135. 238. 168 -169. 282 -283. 247. 220. 154. 125. 153. 116. 227-229. 279. 125. 333. 226 -227. 270 -272 physical 27 contemplation 14. 155 -156. 141 -142. 102. 407 -408 perfumed 59. 145. 105 internal 10. 118. 229. 92. 228. 101 -102. 121. 237. 71. 144. 164. 250. 163. 391. 73 -75. 85. 26. 172. 83. 267. 366 -367 transmutation of 315. 181. 28. 430 . 101. 403 contact 18. 119. 243. 206. 119. 144 -145. 27. 142. 107 -108. 113. 239. 152 -153. 42 -43. 338. 153. 220. 332. 48. 239 -240. 82. 163. 267. 148. 369 -370. 395 as retribution 32. 361 -363 that supports life and heat 97 three transforming 233 transformation of 24. 71.114. 179. 45. 120 -121. 83. 117 -120. 181. 260. 86. 260. 147. 234. 306. 119. 137. 92. 128 -132. 153. 165. 99. 183. 170. 247. 267. 206. 128. 1. 340. 104. immaculate 81 -82 imperceptible 99. 145. 163-164. 314. 99 -100. 121 -122. 39. 64 -65. 158. 196. 155. 63. 170. 66 of form 116. 351. 109. 97 -98. 85. 141.

72. 222. 341. 332. 136. 364 discursive 224. cloud of 316. 338 -339. 252. 317. 348 321 -322. 299 -300. 166. 369 defilements 53. 176 -178. 195. 218. 130 -131. 125. 328. 288. 174. 207. 240. 330. 209 -211. 186. 223. 404 177. 218. 48. for the enjoyment of others 335. two 324 -331 197 -200. 263. 148. 353. 134 -136. 250 of nonestablished truth 308 of the truths 196 adventitious 53 deity 20 delight 89. 271 -273. 39. 300. 51. 185 -186. 203 -205. 343. 143. 199 -207. 184. 237 -238. 101 -102. continuity 76. 180 -181. 193. 355. 352. 204. 245. 160. 132-133. 145 -147. 66. 87. 145. 86. 366. 215 -217. 361 431 . 132 201. 382 defiled 53. 191 -193. 256. 190 -191. 338 -339. Dharma body(ies) 315. destination 48. cultivation 14. 199. 195. 160. 349 131 -141. 224. convention of reason 231 190-193. 350. 316. 11. 167. rain of 348. 224. 312. 72. 316. 147. 311. 268. 368 149 -151. 383 216. 185. 107. 211 -212. desirelessness 292 331.Index 321 -322. 317. 117-118. 94. 31. of enjoyment 360 -361. 189. 185. 336. 174. 177. 200. covetousness 73. 188 -195. 313. 217. 327. 165 -166. 228. 356. 194 -195. 361. 363 158 -160. 325 -327. 209. 336. 341. 324 -331. 249. 225 -226. 363. 189. 210. 317. craving 70. 131. 296. 353 180 -182. 207 -208. 326. one's own 256 147. 272 -274. 360 -366. 197. 159. 140 -159. Darstántika (school) 92 334. 268. 223 -226. 166. 182. 173. 315. 177.333. 202. 309. 300. 180. 300. 13. 215. 317. deceit 206 -208 359. 138-139. 89. 99. D 217. 245. 213. 343 of birth and death 263 delusion(s) 10. 314. 67. 82. 183-184. 306. 404 -406 224. 198. 169. 108. 351. 169 -174. 239. 338. 265. 197-199. 355. 159-164. 365 285. 319. 297. 79. 22. 131. 180. 394 353. 172. 177. 396. desire 20. 328 -329. 273. 55. 282. 365. 315. 324 -325. 366 353. 156. 297 -298. nature 365. 391. 134. 70. 78. 355 Dharma 5. 358. 208. 54. 81. -205. 243. 175. 249 -250. of cause and effect 78 84 -85. 100.

131. 297. 287 -290. 342. 106. 207 dominant 46. 209. 54. 358 distraction 135 -137. 363 discrimination 37 -38. 49. 97 -98. bad 203 blazing 315 good 177. 67. 10. 207. 270. 407 348. 202 instantaneous 77 pure and impure 50. 133 -135. 278. 55. 345. 305. 259 -260. 174 -175. 98. 87. 181. 309. 30. 355 -356. 124. 312. 348. 14 -16. 198-200. 117 -118. 299. 59. 27. 148. 108. 203 -205. 356. 180 -181. 241. 36 -38. 136. 334. 327. 326. 365 -366. 168 -171. 203. 248. 192. 36. 186. 186 -188. 301. 344 432 . 121. 55. 228. 364. 50 -52. 268. 148. 356. 121. 95. 114. 347. 207 distracted 82. 29 -30. 67. 79. 18 -24. 40 -43. 316 supreme 316 two 131 disciple 51. 334 inherent 297 two 297 dissimulation 197. 238. 306 disposition(s) 182. 108. 167. 252. 256 Dharmapála (Buddhist teacher) 1 -2. 208. 335 -336. 190 -194. 255 -261. 131 -132. 342. 48. 79 -80. 180. 127. 315 -317. 227. 344 -345. 72. 183. 217. 171. 114. 91 six 288 supramundane 55 three 33. 366. 33 -34. 82. 144. 74. 143. 9. 404. 169. 7. 170 -171. 365. 282. 260 direct awareness 402 discernment(s) 72. 320 -322. 364 -366 dharma(s) 3. 177. 167. 328. 366 of personal enjoyment 352. 367 unassociated 90 unconditioned 24. 105. 318 -319. 224. 292. 109. 217 -218. 352. 223 -224. 301. 308. 393 -394. 89. 64 -65. 160 -161. 229. 364. 398. 207. -143. 319. 55. 138. 402 indeterminate 30. 11. 104. 131 -132. 277. 256 -258. 129. 211 -212. 158. 282.Index essential 360 -362. 5. 187. 224 -245. 164. 296 -297. 240. 137. 146. 341. 276. 205. 300. 341. 38 -39. 190. 404. 51. 81. 170 -181. 274. 320 result of 257. 96. 323 -324. 350. 203 -205. 58 -59. 307 -311. 353. 176 -177. 259. 366 differentiation 34 -35. 58. 72. 213 -214. 323. 315 -317. 320 disgust 32. 92. 88. 171 disentanglement 241. 358 -363. 311. 82. 58. 193. 303. 52. 406 condition 46. difficult to vanquish 315 Dignága (Buddhist teacher) 116. 263-266.

364. 162. 2