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Solid Rocket Thesis (1)

Solid Rocket Thesis (1)

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Richard A. Nakka






A Thesis Presented The Department to Ensineerins

of Mechanical

The Faculty

of Ensineerins of Manitoba

The Univer5it~

In Partial

Fulfillment for the deSree Ensineerins

of the re~uirements Bachelor of Science

in Mechanical

b~ Richard Allan 1984 Nakka


This thesis examines the theoretical performance of a solid propellant rocket motor which was developed for launchinS small amateur research rockets. The theoretical results are presented irithe form of two limiting cases concerning the behaviour of the two-phase exhaust flow. Actual testing of the motor is performed utilizinS a speciall~ desiSned test rig in order to compare the results. As well, optimization of the motor's performance is investigated. The theoretical performance is found to be in sood asreement with the test results, providinS a basis for future design of larger engines. No significant improvement in overall motor performance as a result of modifications is foreseen.


McKinnon for his devotion to thanks the to problems of propellant combustion. Sat~a~rakash for the time and patience he has devoted to me in preparinS for this thesis.D. . As well. and Dr. I would also like to thank Dr. Nakka for supplying the microcomputer facilities and for providing assistance with the softWare and circuit development.B.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to ex~ress sratitude to m~ thesis advisor Dr. N-C Balakrishnan for aauaintins me with proSramming the computer lathe.R. M. special Blair W. s.

........1 1......... t ............ I I of ........ . of " ......................................... ..TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ..2 1..... 22 23 3.................1 ....... . Grain of t •••••••••••• " .............. 3: NOZZLE THEORY 3.............................2.. 1 1 Motor •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1 ••••••••••••••••••••• Propellant ..3 2: Rocket •••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 11 .................. •••••••••••••••••••••••• 5 5 6 12 .... Performance Thrust Thrust ................. Solid Propellant • I Rocket .. .................. Characteristic Impulse Chamber Exhaust 25 26 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pressure •••••••• t Corrections Corrections for Two-Phase for Real Flow ............................ Propellant Composition Combustion Propellant . 28 30 34 Nozzles .. Experimentation ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• THEORY ... Coefficient ............... ii iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1....1 3...2 Nozzle Rocket •• t •• t 16 16 Flow ........... Velocit~ • t 24 + . 1 2 4 4 ................................... + Parameters ............

...........................4 CONCLUSIONS Burnrate Testing .......... 38 40 42 42 43 44 49 ••••••••••• Propellant Preparation Var~in~ OIF Ratio Burnrate Testin~ ........ .................4 4......................3 .......11 62 ........5.............. 1 .......... RECOMMENDATIONS NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES ..... ..................... + •• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• t .................. of of t ........4 51 51 54 Nozzle Testin~ Motor Testins of Var~inS OIF Ratio Grains Burnrate Testins ...1....4: EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE 4. 11 ........................ t ................................. t ......tf • to f of .5 .... Test Ri~ Construction Calibration ........ I ..... 4....2 4..1... 4......... t .. 5: RESULTS (Theoretical and Actual) 5............... 1 ..............3 5........... 37 37 Motor .......1 4..6 Motor Static Testin~ ........2 5.................... ttt.... I to of of .1 Nozzle Testina ........... Cubic Nozzle Profile .3 6. 64 65 68 69 Performance Paramete~s ... ...........................1 5..... Motor Testins of Var~ing OIF Ratio Grains 6..... 1 ••••••••••• 61 • t ... to • of of ..... ....1.................................... t to to l' I . 70 73 ... f to to . 57 60 61 Performance Parameters •••••••••••••••••• DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6.....

Rocket motor design and specifications. modified for two-phase flow. .APPENDIX At APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C: APPENDIX D: APPENDIX E: APPENDIX F: Calculation of AFT for the 65/35 OIF ratio Calculation of k for flow throush the nozzle Derivation of eouation for exhaust velocit~. Derivation of eQuation for thrust. modified for twophase flow. Strain gauge bridse-ampifier circuit diasram.



to theoretic-

This thesis has three primar~ objectives:

all~ anal~ze the operation of a small solid propellant rocket motor; secondl~, to conduct actual testins with which to compare the theoretical result; and thirdl~, to modif~ the propellant and motor desisn for optimization of motor performance. Secondarw objectives are that knowledse of the actual impulse (thrust-time traits) of the motor can be instrumental in the determination of such parameters as acceleration, velocitw and altitude of the rocket durinS actual flishts. Finallw, the

research results Sene rated b~ this studw would be of value to others interested in the field of amateur rocketr~.


The rocket motor under examination in this research

stud~ is one of a number of rocket motors developed (larselw throush experimentation) durins twelve wears of personal amateur rocketrw • This motor has been used Quite extensivel~ for rocket flishts, capable of propellinS a 2 ks., 9 cm. diameter rocket to an altitude of 500 metres, with a hish desree of reliabilitw (95 percent success rate on a data base of over 50 firinss). 1.2

The propellant utilized in the rocket motor is one

that is emplowed exclusivelw b~ amateur rocket enthusiasts. is not a hish performance propellant and is not used in prof-


2 essionall~ designed rockets. Therefo~e, there was no known data

available on the performance characteristics of this propellant. This necessitated a theoretical anal~sis coupled with experimentation on combustion product anal~sis, combustion temperature measurements, burn rate ~easurement and the effects of varYing the oxidizer-fuel 1.3 (O/F) ratio.

EXPERIMENTATION Testin~ of the actual motor was conducted on a specially

desi~ned static testing stand.

The static testin~ stand ~er-

mitted the motor thrust to be recorded continuously throughout the firing, accomplished by converting the thrust to an electric analo~ue siSnal which was amplified, di~itized by an AID converter, then stored in a computer for processinS. Optimization of the propellant involved testin~ the effects upon its performance by var~inS OIF ratios. The motor

optimization consisted of modification to the nozzle desisn, in order to attempt to increase the nozzle efficiency.


FiSure 1.1.

Rocket launch eauipped with small solid motor.

1 Solid Propellant Rocket A twpical solid propellant motor (fiSure 2. the assumptio~ of an ideal . Combustion is initiated by passing an electrical current through an isniter which contains a charge . The theoretical anal~sis of the rocket motor necessitates certain simplifications.· GASKETS PROPELLANT GRAIN FiSure 2. contain ins no movable parts. that is. The throat is the point in the nozzle of least diameter.1) is of simple construction. designed to accelerate the Sases to as hish a velocit¥ as possible.1. SECTION A-A. which are ejected throush an exhaust nozzle.4 CHAPTER 2: THEORY 2. Combustion of the Srain Senerates hiSh temperature Sases. -SHEAR PIN HEAD -CASING -NOZZLE The maJor components . and the head being the front of the motor. which contains the propellant Srain of particular Seometr~ which in turn determines the surface burninS area.of black powder. A twpical solid propellant motor include the combustion chamber.

1 Propellant Composition The important considerations for amateur rocket propellants are the availabilitv of the constituentsr costr safet~ of hand- lins csstabilitYr consistenc~ of performance. The propellant that is investisated here easily meets or . An~ additional assumptions will be stated as necessarw. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) The work inS substance obeys the perfect Sas law. pressure.5 rocket. (7) (8) Nozzle flow is one dimensional. 2. (9) Chemical eauilibrium is established in the combustion chamber and does not shift in the nozzle. and adeQuate performance. The sas velocitw. and densitw is uniform across anw cross section normal to the nozzle axis. An ideal rocket assumes the followinS: (1) The propellant combustion is complete and nonvariant to that assumed b~ the combustion eauation. The combustion and flow in the motor and nozzle is adiabatic.2 2. The usefulness of this concept is indicated b~ the ~act that measured performance can be expected to be within 1 to 10 per cent of calculated ideal values [2]. There is no friction. Expansion of the workins fluid occurs in a uniform manner without shock or discontinuities.2. Stead~-state conditions (unless stated otherwise).

the burnrate. a C12 H22011 + b KN03--> c CO hC + + d CO2 + e H20 + f K2C03 + 51 N2 + i 02 where K2C03 represents potassium carbonate. r.K20. CV. This second assumption is ser~erall~ valid for combustion temperatures below 1700 K. This eQuation assumes that secondar~ exhaust products (such as NO. it is on the fuel rich side of stoichiometric. where the coefficients a throush i are dependant upon the OIF ratio with c. The assumed combUstion eauation is. The propellant consists of sucrose (suSar) fuel with potassium nitrate as the oxidizer.6 exceeds these reQuirements. particularly at hi~her pressures [5J. (essentiall~ relates to the ener9~ available). It should be noted that . For most propellants includins this one. the effects of dissociation are assumed neSlisible. and the Quantit~ of non-Saseous exhaust products.h or i often beins zero. var~ins the O/F ratio affects both the characteristic exhaust velocit~. and upon the decom3 osition of sucrose (C12H22011) upon heatins [4J. The O/F ratio is chosen on the basis of which ratio Sives the sreatest overall perfrmance for a siven propellant Srain desiSn. Combustion The assumed combustion eauation is based on the reaction of potassium nitrate (KN0 ) with ox~~en (02) [3J. These aspects are trealed in closer detail elsewhere.) are formed in negligible Quantities. etc. As well. More accuratel~.

and carbon. the maximum possible combustion temperature.e T1 TK dT p + . from Knowled~e of the combustion eauation allows the calculation of the adiabatic flame temperature (AFT).2) shows a comparison of theoretical to actual flame temperatures [7].6. Fi~ure (2.6.7 there are two non-SaseOU5 products formed.h tr enthalpv of transition/mole reference AFT specific heat at constant pressure/mole temperature. per mole.h and .6. The AFT is determined from an enthalpv balance: + where Rand P refer . t~picall~ 300 K C p = Appendix A contains a sample calculation for the case of O/F := 65/35. respectivel~. K2C0 3 which no expansion work can be derived. nj and ne are the individual reactant and product molal numbers respectivel~'Ahf -0 ' the enthalp~ of formation per mole'Ah . .6 h] i = L: e [hO n p + f to the reactants and products. the - standard enthalp~ at the specified temperature.h T 1 T K = tr = = = f. and where: .

8 K C0 23 + 11 H 0 2 (2.3/26.2. The two points of sharp slope chBnse are at stoichiometric mixture (peak) where the O/F ratio is 73.3) and the point where partial oxidation of C to CO is completed. with the combustion eauation: . The AFT varies with the O/F ratio. with an O/F ratio of 63. particularl~ stronSl~ in the ranse close to stoichiometric.8 N2 + 4.1 .7 and the combustion eauation is C'2 H22011 + 9.8 4000 3000 Fi~ure 2.6 KN03 --> 7. where the AFT is maximum. The relationship between calculated and actual temperature.2 CO2 + 4.9/36.3). as shown in fiSure (2.

3.---_200 2 <:» o ::.14 N2 The performance anal~sis of the rocket motor is based upon this combustion ratio.::: :::> w1800 a: I<1: 51400 0.56 CO2 + 11 H0 2 + (2.9 2600 .5) 3. This gives the following combustion sauationl C H 011 12 22 + 6.28 KN03--> 8. Another parameter that is used extensivelw in ideal performanes analwsis is the average molecular weight of the gaseous . Adiabatic Flame Temperature as a function of OIF ratio. unless stated otherwise.29 CO + 0.14 K2C03 + 3. The OIF ratio that is normall~ emplo~ed for this motor is 65/35.. ~ w I- 1000 600 200~--~40~---5~O~--~6~O----~--~~--~9~O~~ PERCENT Figure 2.

and where t re~ers to the total number of moles. It is possible to anal~se such a flow utilizin~ a variable isentropic component e8J. n is the mole number.10 exhaust products. j and k are the individual constituents. complications arise in the flow throuSh a supersonic nozzle where the temperature of the ~ases drop appreciabl~ (as will be shown later). The ratio of specific heats. where k := C p .R' where R' is the universal ~as constant. The value of k can be determined from knowledse of the specific heats' Cp . of the individual exhaust sases. k . is another important ~uantit~ in the anal~sis of compressible fluid flow. and = n. for an ideal ~as. 1'1'. however. where k is defined b~ k = (2.9) However. since Cp can be a strons function of temperature. k is a function of temperature onl~.7) where . eauation products: and This is calculated from the combustion molecular weishts of the from the individual 1'1' := M' i t 1'1' k t ••• where i. a sufficientl~ accurate . which is the t~pe of flow encountered in rocket nozzles. I (2.

It is necessary to combine a theoretical model together with empirical data in order to particulariZe the burnrate for a siven propellant. This is normall~ determined empirically. The coefficient a is a function of the initial propellant temperature.10) it can be seen that the burnrate is very sensitive to the exponent n.10) is the where a and n are empiricallY determined constants. The pressure exponent n.11 result can be obtained b~ calculatins an ave rase value of k for flow throush the nozzle (see appendix B). These conditions include propellant initial temperature.' is almost independant of the propellant temperature. r ::::a Po n (2. and ~ combustion chamber pressure. associated with the slope of the pressure-burnratecurve . and the velocity of the gaseous combustion products over the surface of the solid (erosive burninS). The usual model is to approximate the burnrate as a function of pressure.. and is a function of the pro~elant composition and certain conditions within the combustion chamber. The remaininS combustion parameter to be determined is the burnrate. This is simi liar to the nozzle t~pe used for the motor under consideration. chamber pressure. This implies that even a small chanse in chamber pre$su~e produces substantial chanSes in the auantit~ of . Hish values of n Sive a rapid chanse of burnrate with pressure. the variation in k does not have a pronounced effect [93. From eQuation (2. Testins has found that for a 150 conical nozzle with a small area ratio (6 to 8). r (also called the surface regression rate). but not of pressure.

The most common desisns are those which achieve proSressive. or neutral thrust. .6 (10J.time curves. A correction is senerall~ made for erosive burning where the increased burnins can be accounted for b~ an empirical correction of the form: r = ro ( 1 + ku ) (2. the burnrate is calculated with the erosive term taken directl~ into account. However. As n approaches unit~. regressive. as shown in fisure (2. When the value of n is low and becomes closer to zero. for this report this form of correction will not be applied. Most producton propellants have a pressure exponent ran~inS from 0. burnins can become unstable and ma~ even extinsuish itself. Several common confi~urations are shown in figure (2.3 to 0. The main criterion for choosing the geometr~ is to achieve the desired thrust. Instead. Propellant Grain The srain is prepared b~ casting the molten propellant into the desired shape.12 hot Sases produced.time characteristics. Thrust is a function of the instantaneous bUrning area which itself is dependant upon the initial Srain confisuration.11) where k is an empirical constant and u is the ~as velocit~.4). burnrate and chamber pressure become ver~ sensitive to one another and disastrous rises in chamber pressure can occur in a ~ew milliseconds.5).

I~~.4. Several common srain confisurations • Tub.I~~ e tntemlll-extemat burning rube (inhibited at ends) tntemlll burning tube (case bonded and end restr_!ed) ~ Segmented rube (cartridge loaded) ~~t~( __ ~ Star (ease bonded) Figure 2.13 Bonded ------ o IEI~ =.:iaT Double anchor ~n ~rs Time Star ~U Neutral Time DU31 thrust Two-step thrust .5. Internal burning grain designs with their thrust-time characteristics. .1 Multi-fin ~e Time Dual composition FiSure 2.I~ .

where Ab is siven b~: are the srain outside and A b = rr { La (Do 1 t DI ) 1 + + -~~[3 D 2 0 2 1 2 (DI+ Do)] (2.( : b n A bet) = and A (t) b :.---(D 2 i >] (2.12) where L is the srain lensth.: rr [(L- a t Po n ) ( Do + DI >+ 0. The initial burnins area.6).14) T {(La 1 4 .atPa) (Do +D ) i + Lc 4 2 0 [ 3Do. Do and Dj inside diameters.13) + 4 [---(D 4 0 DI ) + Do _ 2DI2]! These two expressions can be modified bw utili2inS eQuation t) (2.11) to obtain the instantaneous burnins area. Ab is Siven bw: (2.15) + [ ---(D 0 4 1 2 t [I ) i + D 2D 2 i ]} . A slishtl~ modified version of this Srain is also used in the motor (fiSure 2.D 1 1 )2] + Do (2.external burninS tube~ unrestricted at the ends.14 The srain confiSuraton of the motor beinS considered is an internal. The theoretical thrust.5 ( Do . respectivel~. depend inS upon the lensth/diameter ratio.time characteristic is slishtl~ to moderatel~ resressive. A "..

As well the effects of increased burnins surfaces due to flaws in the srain such as bubble holes and other flaws.. as well as the effects of erosive burnins are nesUected. Pp and srain density. The ideal propellant density can be expressed as: 1 fo ff 3 -=-+-= 1.11 S/cm. Modified Grain for the motor.16) p» p» p« where f 0 and f ~ r-efer 1:.-------r-- --~_J __ Figure 2..43 3.888 g/cm (2.~-=. 1.58 S/cm. It is important to recosnize that these expressions represent ideal burninS which assumes that simultaneous ignition of all surfaces occurs at the beSinning of the burn.0. tllH PSUCR05E= 1. (12] ). respectively. These expressions are useful in calculatinS the chamber pressure and therefore thrust.----------_----.. since the density of the two constituents are different (PKNO 3 = 2.6.15 where t represents the time from initial burnin~. --- -.36 . Propellant density. as will be shown subseauentl~.tne --massfraction of the oxidizer and fuel.. For the 65/35 O/F ratio the actual propellant density has been found to be about 5 percent lower than ideal. Ideall~ these two are identical but as a result of voids in the srain its density is somewhat lower. . The ideal propellant density is a function of the O/F ratio. PI are two additional properties that will prove useful.

eners~. that is.1 Nozzle Flow In describing the state of s fluid at snw point in a flow field it is convenient to emplow the stasnation state as a reference state (the state characterized bw a condition of zero velocitw ). As well. heat losses would have to be minimized. momentum.16 CHAPTER 3: NOZZLE THEORY The anal~sis of a rocket nozzle flow involves the stud~ of stead~. The actual flow differs somewhat from this simplified model particularl~ in regard to the presence of solid or liauid particles in the flow stream. Local isentropic stasnation properties are those properties that would be attained at anw point in a flow field if the fluid at that point were decelerated from local conditions to zero velocitw followins a frictonless adiabatic. flow disturbances. 3. one-dimensional compressible flow of an ideal ~a5. These eouations are applied to desisn a nozzle with the objective of acceleratins the combustion Sases (and particles) to as hish an exit velocitw as possible • This is achieved b~ designing the necessarw nozzle profile with the condition that isentropic flow is to be aimed for • This necessitates minimizins frictional effects. and conditions which can lead to shock losses. The necessar~ modifications will be dealt with in the next chapter. and the eauation of state. The analwsis of compressible flow involves four eouations of particular interest: continuitw. .

2) temperature To is defined from the enersy For an isentropic stasnation conditions flow hold: process. respectivel!:l..JkRT where ratio R is the sas constant. of flow velocity The Mach number acoustic is defined velocity: as the to the local H :::: v a .17 isentropic process. eQuation for an adiabatic in enthalp~ flow between points increase The enersY x and y in which in kinetic h- the decrease is siven as: 2 '::I V X is eQual to the enerS~ h x where ~ = 1 (v 2 2 = velocitv. The stasnation eQuation as: 2 (3. and temperature. v. h.3) is defined as: a :::: . the followins relations for T The local = acoustic velocit!:l of an ideal sas (3. and T are the enthalpy.

Mach number relationship can be expressed as: --~ = P Po p p [1+ [1+ k-l 2 k-l 2 H2] .1) the stasnation enthalp~ is defined: h 2 o = ht 2 (3.~-! H2]. From the eners~ eauation for an adiabatic flow (3. p) to be dete~mined in a flow field if the Hach number and the stasnation properties are known. that: p --k' p = constant (3.9) The use of eauations (3.5) the total te~pe~atu~e Mach number relationship can be w~itten: ~2 T = 1 + k-l 2 M 2 It can be shown from the first and second laws of thermod~namics [13] that for an ideal Sas undersoins an isentropic process assuminS constant specific heats.9) allow each propert~ (T.8).18 F~om eauations (3. and (3. the staSnation pressure~ densit~ .10) .8) = (3.-:-i 1 k (3.7) From this result and from the eauation of state. (3. P = pRT.4). (3.P.2).6). and (3.

AlA. to We note that the stagnation enthalpy is constant Since the above stagnation throughout an adiabatic flow field. (3. properties (Po' Po and To> are related to the stagnation enthalp!:I heats and by the eQuation of state.1) clearly shows that a conversing-diverSing passage with a section of minimum ares is reauired to accelerate a flow from subsonic to supersonic speed. (3. it is possible to express the area number 1 A ratio. From eQuations (3. The critical point .4). in terms of the Mach * = 1 + ----2 k-1 2 Ii Ii 1 + ----2 k-l (3.9) and <3. For stead~.19 PhYsically. the continuitv eQuation can be written pAv = constant = P * A* v* (3. or where M is unity. v is the velocity of the flow.11). and a starred (*) variable indicates critical conditions.11> where A is the passage area. one-dimensional flow.12) Fig~re (3. it is by the specific apparent that each of these stasnation properties is constant throushout the adiabatic flowfield. the stagnation enthalpy is the enthalpy that would be reached if the fluid were decelerated adiabatically zero velocity.6).

h " x e ) + Y x 2 (3.1.0 0. Variation of AlA with Mach number in isentropic flow for k = 1.2).13) 3. The variation of the properties durins flow throush the nozzle is illustrated in fiSure (3.5 1.5 A A* 1.1) 2k v e = R'To k-1 (3.0 2. va' can be found b~: Y a = -/2(h .20 where M becomes unit~ is seen to exist at the throat (point of minimum area) of the nozzle. aid of eQuations (2.14) .0 FiSyre 3.(3. From eouation (3.1 ).3) . nonidaal rocket units. and v are the enthal~~ and velocitw at an~ point This relation a~~lies to both ideal and This eouation can be rewritten with the * where h x x within the nozzle.4. the nozzle exit yelocit~.5 0 0 3.8) and (3.

.-..) Fis.21 .4 .. and the nozzle exit..6 .7 . .---~ x l.2 • Variation of densit~ P....--- --.3 .. 3. and tempe~ature T.5 ..--.Of-----.8 .. . .---- . From this e~uation it is seen that the maximum exit velocit~ .2 L \ \ \ \ IYp \ -..... for flow between the chamber.. throush the rocket nozzle.--.-.. '0 \ J'/ /J.. pressure p. where staSnaticn conditions are assumed to exist.-_.1 °O~--_L--~2~--~3~--~4--~~5~~~6~=-~-~-7~-=·-~-=-~8~-=-~-·~9 X (eM.-. -...---.9 .. - __.

are considered the performance As well. This is known shown that conditions maximum thrust For this desiSn.9>r(3~.14) A A x that at the throat * = -~~r~* x Vx (3. ratio.).(3A-) Px prevails can be expressed as a function (3.3)' ): pressure ratio and k as follows. to the the such such that the exit pressure is eoual as for Pa (t!::lpicall!::l 1 atm. modifications to correct to the simplipsrfor- for real or actual As well the effects of two phase flow are considered. . As/ A*is known as the optimum 3.15a) = (-~-. The ratio between which pressure the throat and an~ downstream area at of the (3. where it will later be is achieved.-~ (-. (notinS P usinS eQuations M is unit~ and (3. rocket motors.22 occurs at an infinite pressure ratio Po/Pg• or when exhaustinS into a vacuum..2 Rocket expansion Performance Parameters performance parameters of solid This section deals with the various and compare that are used to determine propellant fied model mance.15b) This eQuation Ae to be determined ambient desisn pressure condition is important in that it allows the exit area.}.~f T' 1 1 k -----k-1 + 1 1 (3.

23 The thrust F.18) e where the eQuation assumes k is constant throuShout the expansion process.17) and modified usins (3. Po/~ iv) specific heat ratio.P )A e a e (3. A ii) chamber presssure... k v) pressure thrust . Po iii) pressure ratio across the nozzle. This eQuation shows that thrust is proportional to: i) throat area.4) to ~ield: 2 2k F = + (P - P )A e a (3. e~uation (3. and <3.14). From continuit~. e + ( p. (3. of s rocket motor can be shown to be ~iven b~ [14]: F . The second term of the second expression is called the pressure thrust and is eaual to zero for a nozzle with an optimum expansion ratio.9). .16) can be rewritten: F= p * v* A* v e + P e - P a )A (3. f P dA "" m v . m is the mass flowrate of the exhaust products and veis the exit velocit~.16) where the first expression represents the inte~ral of the pressure forces actin~ on the chamber and nozzle proJected on a plane normal to the nozzle axis (fi~ure 3.3)..

18): (P a + --------e - p ) A e Po A* (3. . internal Sas pressure is hishest inside chamber and decreases steadily in nozzle. 3.19) The thrust coefficient determines the amplification of the thrust due to the Sas expansion in the nozzle as compared to that would be exerted if the chamber pressure area acted over the throat onl~.2.2 Thrust Coefficient The thrust coefficient Cf. Therefore.3 • Pressure balance on chamber and nozzle walls. the .20) For an~ fixed pressure ratio Pe/Po the maximum Cf can be found b~ takinS the derivitive = O. is defined as the thrust divided b~ the chamber pressure and throat area: F Po A* (3. 3.24 Atmosphere P3 CD Chamber ______ III "I P. From eauation (3. _~ t't Pl Pl I Nozzle throat cb Nozzle exit CD FiS. while external atmospheric pressure is uniform.

22) k+l of merit of a propellant CV is usualls combination independant a comparison used as a fisure chamber and combustion of nozzle design.. (3... 2 )!..(J. F III . for comparins from the measured eauation Eouation (3. Characteristic Exhaust The characteristic CV exhaust velocit~. and is essentiall~ characteristics.! 11-1 (3.21).21) of the ~as properties The CV can be expressed in the combustion and chamber as a function eauations using (3. High combustion of the parts Nozzle rr' -v -~~ motor recallinS a hish that value however of To might cessive directl~ temperatures ma~ cause that ex- heating of the rocket erosion are exposed conven- to hot ~ases..1 ).3 as determined Velocit~ (3..20). k R To ( _-----_ ... (3.2.11): CV .~ (3. R = R'I H' • A hi~h value of CV is desirable~ not be...19). is defined as = c ICf where c is the effective exhaust velocit~: c .. . v e +( pe P )--a m Ae . can be severe with .25 maximym Cf will occur when P e = P .. propellants.. that This makes CV useful as for different It is interesting to note cv -. cv......±..19) is useful value Cf to the theoretical 3... (3. or when a the nozzle is designed for optimum expansion (desi~n condition).

26 tional materials particularl~ when burn durations exceed several seconds.time curve (fi. is the intesral of the thrust over the operatins duration. This is useful for determinins a propellant CV in the laborator~ b~ means of a closed bomb (constant volume) measurement (15]. For this reason it ma~ be more desirable to increase CV b~ reducin~ MI rather than increasin~ To • This can often be accomplished b~ usins a propellant that is on the fuel rich side of stoichiometric.4 Impulse The impulse (or total impulse). The CV can also be considered an expression of the impetus (n R T) of the propellant. .!. t: I = l~ft o (3.23) or the area under the thrust.4).ure 3. Figure 3.4. 3.2. Area under thrust-time curve represents the total impulse of the motor.

~-'S·-. w = c rocket motors it is difficult specific to measure the flowrate. impulse can be calculated from e~uations for a siven aryd (3. to exhaust impulse the combusthen be siven The total would b\:l [16]: I where T = 2 k+l C f P 0 A* bw T (3.25) • . where ideal sO the average I SP impulse is usuallw = II t.It is siven by: (3.25) sp With weisht emplowed The propellant solid = F . o impulse is one of the most important perforin rocket research.27 The operating b For short time. t duration with is approximatelw lonser burn times e~ual (t b to the burn seconds) ..-ne chamber volume.24) is a time constant siven -=---l' 1 A*Po P () VIJ CV where n is tFleOurnrate The specific expone~aho---V:. for motors burntimes > several small such as those associated with motors plus the the duration time ticn duration chamber of thrust would be considered gases the burntime from for the residual after burnout. It is defined rocket as the has manee thrust parameters that can used be obtained from an eQuivalent which a propellant weisht I flow of unit\:l. .14): specific and motor combination (3.

7 psia.2.28) where m . Combustion proceeds from the surface of the Srain where the rate of Sas Seneration is eaual to the rate of consumption of solid material. Recallins that CV is also a measure of the propellant enerS~. where I SF' is related to CV b~: r = ----- (3. The rate at which sas is stored within the combUstion chamber is given b~: . the actual specific impulse can be determined b~ utilizins the ballistic bomb method as previousl~ mentioned. and r is the surface reSression rate (burnrate). Ab is the area of the burninS surface. reQuirins the use of the ideal Cf unless the actual value is knowrl. 51 is the Sas Sene ration rate. A simplified semi-empirical method for determining specific impulse was developed b~ Free and Saw~er (17] with a claimed accuracw of 3 to 5 percent. 3.28 I sp = (3.27) however.5 Chamber Pressure The combustion chamber of a solid propellant rocket is essentiall~ a hish pressure tank containins the entire solid mass of propellant. in the ideal case where onl~ gaseous products result {no solids or liQuids>! (3.26) For comparison purposes Po is usuall~ taken as 1000 psia and Pe as 14. b~ convention.

leads to the followinS expression for chamber pressure [19]: = ~--------------- For constant Po and therefore constant thrust it is clear that the burning area must remain constant. The~ have developed an expression for the pressure as a function . The start-up period where the pressure builds UP to the stead~-state value is a complex problem that has been studied bw Von Karman and Malina [19J. accounts for perhaps one. For short burn time motors such as the one under consideration (less than one second burntime) the duration under which stead~-state conditions exist.29 dt = ----( d Po dt Vo) (3. The use of these two eauations as well as the expression for the rate at which Sas flows throuSh the nozzle and the expression for burnrate. such as with a neutral burnins grain. Prior to iSnition. The instantaneous chamber pressure can be siven b~ the same expression. The variation of Ab with time depends uPon the burning rate and the initial seometr~ or the propellanv srain. in which Ab is the instantaneous burning area.half of the total thrust time.29) where pais the instantaneous gas densit~ and vois the instantaneous chamber volume. where eauation (3.third to one.30) applies. the combustion chamber is filled with cool air of ambient pressure.

siven by: (3. and Dunlop (21J 2 4 that for larSe motors ( >10 pounds thrUst) the overall specific impulse losses are for small motors (~10 low. The expression for chamber pressure is siven as a function of time by [20]~ k-1 2 T is p = + (3.31) where P is the instantaneous pressure at time t and where previously defined. Allport. with the extent dependant upon several factors. One of these factors is motor size.6 Corrections for Two Phase Flow The ~revious analYsis of nozzle flow and performance psra- meters considered the ideal case where the workins fluid is a pure Sas.2. The presence of particles is detrimental to the overall rocket performance.30 of time durins start-uP. It has been found by Gilbert.32) 3. This analYsis is fine for the case where there is no solid or linuid particles in the exhaust (such as for liauid propellants) but must be modified for the case where such particles are present. but pounds thrust) the losses can be sisni- ficant. Immediately after burnout the combustion chamber remains filled with hish pressure sas. . The motor under consideration is of this magnitude thrust makinS corrections for two phase flow necessary.

point in the consideration that the particles usually are in thermal eauilibrium The startins solid (liauid) of the effects relatins of to matter formation is with the eauation 3. !=Ii impulse would chanse to account particle and Sas velocity: I SF> ::: (3.~c +~)~:: h -----------------where the chamber pressure is reduced The expression for the difference for specific between 1 (1 . are ii) thermal eauilibrium laS. not in thermal with the surroundins It has been found that the latter has a small effect. chamber pressure this would chanse to: the eauation 1 J.31 The losses i) velocit~ throu~h in performa~ce are due to two factors: are not accelerated a~d las. where the particles Sases. A b the Sas Seneration rate (eQuation m S =(l-X)p This eQuation r becomes: <3.X ).35) ~ where i denotes a particular constituent. allowins the assumption [22J.33) p where X is the mass fraction of solid (liQuid) in the exhaust. where the particles to the same velocit~ the nozzle as the Sases. If all the particles .X) a Pp 1-n (3.34) b~ a factor of ( 1 . for stead~-state As a conseauence.28).

.14) when = 0 (no particles). heat (_~~_)m] P o (liauid) (3. It is possible..uld slive the followin!!i expression for exhaust velocity (see appendix c for derivation>: T [csx+ (1 _ X) o where where Note X ~ (k ..1 (k-l) H' J[ + (P e -P )A e <3.z. The expression ror thrust would be modified to this form (see appendix D for derivation): F i = A Po ----- * 1 ( 1-X .32 are assumed to have the same 1 velocity this can be expressed as! • I To rocket's ties sp = accurately performance describe reauires the erfects of particles transfer on a properVs knowledse of heat and draS processes or the particles flow in order to express and Ts in terms however. to the familiar form (3.37) = [~~-~~.~ Cs is the ave rase specific that this eauation reduces of the solid matter.~. most of the overall the limitinS properties.-~-~]-.l)M' ~_~~ __ ] [1 _ + -. smallr where Ts ::::: Tgand are assumed to be very Vs ~ This wo. + k 1 ~ ~~II [X a c+ s fr. the particles Vg • In the first model.::----. R' (l-X)--. the least and to derive cases to determine detrimental effects.38> .

The expression for the thrust coefficient same manner. the ex~ressions for the performance parameters remain identical to the original (gas onl~) expressions. However. As well . the specific impYlse is reduced.e. particles Sych that the particle velocit~ and temperature remain essentiall~ constant. This implies a combination of relativel~ large ~h~sical size. i. and low draS. From eauation (3.39) coefficient inthe Sas onl~ It is interestinS to note that the thrust creases with the ~resence of particles compared to value. ~ieldinS the expression: 1 is derived in the c= f ----- 1-X (.33 Note asain that the eauation reduces to the familiar form (3. slow heat transfer.45.it has been found that particle .~-:~ k+1 + ~:~-=-~11 :n H (3.18) when X = O._~-J-OI[~:. the specific impulse is reduced b~ a factor of i-X.40) Therefore. This eauation im~lies a 75 percent increase in the thrust coefficient for a t~pical propellant where X The second limitins case models the = 0. the gas flow is not affected b~ the presence of particles.36) where m v SSg «m v: S I Sf> = 1 st (1-X ) v !Ii (3. With such a model. Research conducted into two phase flow also indicates that the nozzle t~pe has a bearinS on the effect of particles in the exhaust stream [23J.


size (and dist~ibution) is independant of motor size, and is therefore larsel~ a property of the particular propellant [241. Another detrimental effect of liauid particles is the tendency for the material to build

on the nozzle surfaces, reducinS the introduced bw the

effective nozzle area. Additional losses are

resultinS rough surface which increases skin friction [251. For the motor being considered, the losses due to particle presence will be accounted for in the enerSY conversion factor, discussed below. 3.2.7 Corrections for Real Nozzles The precedins analwsis considers ideal rockets, which of course do not exist. The ideal case represents the maximum performance that can be attained, with the actual performance being reduced by a number of factors. These factors are accounted for in real n02zles bw using various correction factors. Conical nozzles reQuire a factor to correct for the nonaxial component of the exit Sas velocit~ as a result of the diver~ence ansle, defined as 2a This factor ~ , is given bw:

(where a is the half anSle).


( 1 t cos a )


As well. the flow in an actual nozzle differs from ideal because of frictional effects, heat transfer. imperfect sases. nonaxial flow, nonuniforrnity of the working fluid and flow distribution. and the effects of particles. The degree of de-

parture is indicated b~ the enerSw conversion efficienc~ of the nozzle. This is defined as the ratio of the kinetic enersw per unit of flow of the Jet leavinS the nozzle. to the kinetic enerSw per unit flow of a hwpothetical ideal Jet leavinS an ideal nozzle that is supplied with the same workins fluid at the same initial state and velocitw and expands to the same exit pressure as the real nozzle. This is expressed as;





where the subscpipts i and a refer

to the ideal and actual states

and e denotes the enerSw conversion efficiencw. The velocitw correction factor,fv' is defined as the sauare

root of e. For most production motors, the value lies between 0.85 and 0.98. This factor is also approximatel~ the ratio of the

actual to ideal specific impulse. The discharse correction factor ~ , is defined as the ratio

of the mass flow rate in a real nozzle to that of an ideal ~zzle that expands an identical work inS fluid from the same initial conditions to the same exit pressure:

rcI ::::



ma c




The value of the discharSe factor is


larser than

unitw. because the actual flow can be larser than theoretical for the followins reasons: i) the molecular weiSht of the Sases increases slishtlw


when ~lowin~ through a nozzle, thereb~ chanSinS their densit~. ii) some heat is transferred to the nozzle walls. lowerins the Sas temperature, increasins its den$it~. iii) the specific heat and other Sas properties chanse in an actual nozzle in such a wa~ as to slishtl~ increase the value of the discharSe coefficient. tv) incom~lete combustion increases the densit~ of the exhaust Sases. These correction factors result in a thrust lower than for the ideal casel


! v !d X F

p f




rx d







The nozzle is retained to the combustion chamber bw siw high strength allen screws. the entire n0221e inside surface is polished to reduce friction losses. degree The standard n0221e has a conical profile with a 12 divergence half angle. As well.37 CHAPTER 4. -"'3.2. .1. I nozzle grain head gaskets / / / head / (5) safety bolt FiSure 4. with a complete description Siven in appendix ( E ).5 em.1 4: EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE Motor The motor under consideration is illustrated in the fiSure below (fi~ure 4.1).8 c m. It was fabricated from mild steel bar stock turned and bored to the desired dimensions on a standard lathe. Actual motor used in testins. . The nozzle contour is rounded at the throat to avoid sharp discontinuities which could lead to shock losses.

). The combustion Sases are sealed from escapins around the head b~ five asbestoes-fibre composite Saskets. optimum performance is achieved bw desisnins the nozzle b~ the method of characteristics.. an approximation to this desisn is that of a ered here. conver~ent section was based on a maximum half an~le of 30 deSrees+ . 4. A thoroush dis- cussion of this techni~ue is presented in references [263 and [27]. The criterion for desisn was based on the The same throat. Constructed as well from mild steel. This method is lensthw and complex and will not be considHowever. cubic profile where the nozzle contour follows the curve of a cubic eGuation [28]. Srade 8) desisned to shear if the chamber pressure should attain an unsafe level (17 MPa. the head is retained b~ a sinsle safet~ bolt (3/16 X 1 112 in. This effectivel~ seals the chamber wall asainst the nozzle to reduce sas leakase.2 Cubic Nozzle Profile Althoush the exact nozzle profile is not critical for sood performance as the flow occurs in a resion of favourable pressure Sradient.38 The head of the motor is readil~ removable to allow for eas~ loadins of the Srain. A nozzle was constructed with the aid of a computer numericall~ controlled lathe. The nozzle is sealed aSainst the combustion chamber b~ utilizins a tool which rolls a circular die under hish pressure around the perimeter of the chamber outside wall esainst the nozzle section forward of the retention srcove. entrance and exit areas as the conical nozzle.

. 1"-'-.~ .226 x 0. shows the F i au re (4.. . ."'-. ~-.0.! .1> = 2 3 where R is the inside radius.762 x 0.+--'-c-+c-i"-'-++_·..c..: ' j T~ iI I Fi~ure 4.. . l- ~'-I--I'I .:. '~ ..-.2 ) dimensions of the nozzle where the eouations of the 2 3 contours are: R R = 1. Cubic nozzle profile.'--.2. 1 1 '-. ..39 and a maximum diver~ent angle of 20 degrees.!rTC~~~:'--'rT-~Ji[! .037 x em..: -j++_ .... (Resion II) ( 4.'.j.461 t 0... ! .748 ... ·-~-i~~-=fij •• .....LU . --~r'"TI .··Id-.201 x + 0. (Region I) em.... . -'--h~~:_."._J_ .

propellant <Srain) preparation techni~ue for an~ O/F The ratio is identical. are Commercial oxidizer cr~stals sround accordinS to the followins standard ran~es: Coarse Medium Fine Ultrafine 400 to bOO J.3 Propellant Preparation As stated previousl~. 4.I. The diver~ence exit an~le was machined to zero deSrees. each constituent must be sround to a'small particle size. to eliminate radial flow losses (non-truncated). the overall lensth is about 17 percent shorter.L M submicron to 5 .. and was hi~hl~ polished on the flow surfaces. In order to ensure complete mixins and intimate contact between the oxidizer and tuel cr~stals. It should be noted that while the critical dimensions of the cubic nozzle are coincident with the conical nozzle. 50 to 200 5 M ( 1 II- = 10m) -6 to 15 J. however. the standard propellant combination is 65? oxidizer (KN03) and 35~ fuel (sucrose).40 This nozzle was constructed of cold rolled mild steel bar stock.

This decomposition (caramelization). The oxidizer is subseouentl~ around down to an averaSe particle size of 100~. (mt? The 182 desrees C. 441 C. which .).) combines with the non-meltinS KN03 form a slurr~. Therefore. The sucrose is obtained in powder form with t~pical particle size of approximatel~ 10 ~ • It has been found that the particle size of the oxidizer has an important influence on both the burnins rate and more importantl~ on the impulse delivered. if kept in check. Investigation of the effects of low desree caramelization of sucrose indicates that there is no sisnificant mass chanse. careful attempt was made in the experimentation to obtain consistenc~ in oxidizer particle size. has been found to have no detrimental effect on the propellant performance. The Srain cast ins procedure involves heatins the mixture in a container maintained at a temperature of 190 to 200 desrees celcius bw immersion in an electricallw heated oil bath. After accuratel~ weiShinS the desired Quantities of both constituents. and for the minimum time duration necessarw for the entire mixture to melt. Decomposition of the sucrose (mtp. the~ are placed in an electric rotating drum mixer where mixinS occurs for twentw hours. Therefore. to initiates as well at this temperature being both a function of of temperature and time.41 The commerciall~ obtained potassium nitrate oxidizer has an average particle size of 250 ~. the temperature has to be maintained within this ranSe. sucrose.

4. of slightl~ smaller diameter than the combustion chamber.42 is i~portant since the occurance of such would alter the effective OfF ratio. The samples were cast into cylinders . weiShed and measured. trimmed to siZe. After allowins to cool and harden for approximatelw forty-five minutes. 4. Once the slurrY has become sufficientlw fluid. several samples of different OfF ratios were prepared.5 x 10 cm) of varying OfF ratios were prepared for burn rate testinS. A lubricated bore rod is inserted down the central axis.5 Burnrate testing In order to auantify burnrates under conditions of one atmosphere and at room temperature. several of varyins OfF ratios upon the motors impulse. This shape (hollow cylindrical) is achieved bw pouring the slurry into a lubricated cYlindrical mould. the grain is removed. it has been found that less than 1 percent moisture is absorbed b~ the finel~ divided suSar. As well.4 Varying OfF Ratio A number of Srains were prepared to determine the effect As well. which is again an important consideration for an~ moisture initiall~ present would be Siven UP upon heating. The grain is then stored in a sealed container. This is to prevent exposure to the open air for the propellant in its final form is verY hysroscopic. it is cast into the desired shape. small cylinders (1.

As the sample burned down. Such an investigation has not ~et been condUcted. the elapsed time was measured between marks.6 Motor Static Testins Static testing of the motor (fisure 4. The top end was then ignited b~ a flat surfaced tool. series of tests. heated prior in a flame. tspicall~ 7 cm. temperature. In order to conduct such testins . A remotels located Heath H-B microcomputer is used for data acauisition. adhering one end to a base. No explanation could be found for this discrepanc~. and wall 5tress).43 as indicated earlier. For this thrust.g. it would be necessar~ to construct a suitable vessel that would allow burning to occur at constant pressure. onls thrust measurements were attempted. being about 7 percent hisher (29J. 4. . however. These c~linders were mounted u~ri~ht b~ A specified length was marked off. with the measured signal sent to it via a 50 metre shielded cable. ialls capable of handling UP The ac~uisition swstem is potent- to four channels of data input (e. however.4). Research of this tspe has indicated that the burnrate measured b~ this techni~ue is not in complete aSreement with the actual burnrate that occurs in the actual motor.3) to obtain the thrust-time characterics is conducted on a specialls built test ris (figure 4. chamber pressure. More complete burn rate testing would involve determining the dependance of burnrate on pressure. This t~pe of burnrate test ins sives results for conditions of constant temperature propellant and non-erosive burning.

The motor is mounted verticallw.1 kN (250 lbs.1 Test Ris Construction The frame of the rig is constructed of heavw steel I-beam to eliminate undesired deflections under hish thrust. . Static ~irinS of the rocket motor mounted in test rig. in a holder desisned to allow for the small vertical motion encountered b~ the motor durins firins.3.44 FiSure 4. the riS can handle much larser values of thrust. Althoush the maximum thrusts endured bw the motor under consideration were 1. nozzle upward.).6. 4.

. Frame 10. Upper stop 4.45 1. Lower stoP 3. Damper adJust valve Fi~ure 4. Deflection bar 2.4. Electrical islniter Deflection bar tensionel' 9. Motor mount 6. 8. Hwd~aulic damper 11. Strain transducer 5. Rocket motor static testins riS. Rocket motor 7.

).635 of motor in. unit. ~ max A lower flexibilit~ in achievins the maximum • stop is placed directlw below the centre of the . Bw knowing the maximum expected thrust possible to choose the bar-cantilever assembl~ to achieve (for an~ motor). L is the b. deflection. of the bar. The deflection bw [301: FL w for a double cantilever assembl~ is given 3 (4. Therefore. of the bar gives deflection. it is desirable This maximum been a relatively is determined cm.3) is the YounS's modulus and of the 192 E I where F is the force (thrust). E bar material. I is the moment For a rectanSular as: of inertia of the bar. resulting duced sUPPorts a double cantilever the motor deflection acts bar firing It is asainst this bar that during in the bar deflecting. this bar of thickness d and width can be rewritten FL 3 3 proportional to 16 E b d The deflection and inverselw is therefore LID cubed the choice proportional great to the width. it is this deflection bw the transducer (1/4 havins determined to be 0. The thrust In order is therefore high transresolution into a lineal to obtain to have of the thrust large defection transduction.46 The frame assembl~. bar lensth.

-~DECWRI PRINTER TER LA-36 STRAIN GAUGE BRIDGE ADJU 5 T ZERO TERMINAL HEATH H19 Fisure 4.-. or a blowout of the motor head (see figure 4.47 bar to prevent damage to the transducer unit in case of over- thrusting. AID C'I---~ 8-81 T COMPUTER HEATH He j----. Deflection bar assembly of static test ris. The amplifier BAR TEN510NER \ / i I 8EA~ L:JWER STOP EfjO SUPPORT (2: (AO-USTABL£ ) Figure 4.5.6. illustrated in fiSure (4. The thrust induced displacement of the transducer bar results in an eaual displacement of the end of the transducer unit. Data acauisition sYstem used to measure motor thrUst-time characterics. This transducer unit uses a strain SauSe bridSe fastened to its fixed end.6).5). located directly under the motor mount. . This strain sause bridse forms the fundamental component of the data aauisition s~stem.

. it was found necessarw to provide oscillations of the deflection bar. The reversed vertical . The operation of CONNECT.48 circuit is reproduced in Appendix ( F).(_~ I '0' RING df'-:~L1\·"'-LJ.72 milliseconds). four channel unit capable of samplins 581 points per second (samples ever~ 1. HOLE (4) FiSure 4.J.L.I:!II----"_'_-"_"'_-FL U lD JET CHANNELS \ SCREW BLEED NEEDLE VALVE \ ~MOUNT....L_.. adeauate dampins to reduce stored in the A variable h~draulic damper was desisned and built to allow a larse degree of flexibilit~ of dampins..:. A connecting rod with a piston at one end is attached to the deflection bar. ROD HEAD /'0' RING (2) AaHt--VP--. These points are computer memor~ for post-proces5in~.7). Hydraulic damper used with test ria. The A/D converter is an 8-bit.7. Due to the sprin~-mass nature of the deflection bar assembl~.LLL. the device is straightforward... The damper is detailed in tisure (4.

. The dampinS fluid is standard h~draulic fluid. This allows for a wide ranSe of damping from essentiall~ nil <needle turned out) to complete dampins (needle turned in).8. Extension arm setup for calibration of the test rig. 4. the adjustment of which Soverns the desree of dampins. The effective area of the Jet is controlled b~ an adjustable needle valve.--~~::_:"-----. The arm effectivels amplifies the force which is applied at the deflection bar bs a factor determined b~ the arm lensth (as is illustrated in fisure 4. ----.--I L.8).2 Calibration Calibration of the static test riS is performed with the aid of an extention arm with a series of weishts hunS at its end.49 motion of the rod alternatel~ forces fluid from and back into the fluid chamber throush a small Jet.-------- F FiSure 4.6. . ~-= ~. and the s~5tem is bled after fil1ins to remove all traces of air..

Wa is the arm weisht. this can be written as: F where C.50 The force applied at the deflection bar F. 2 . as a function of force. Since Wa ' L" L2 are constant for a siven arm. is Siven bw: F = W a +W 2 where W is the total weisht huns at the bar end.Wa /2 • Calibration is carried out b~ hansins a series of weights and recordins the output voltase. havins fitted the points throuSh a second order curve (through the oriSin) to yield a calibration curve of the following form: F = C3V + C4V where C3 and C4 are constants. The calibration data is presented in the form of voltase V.W + C2 C2 = L2/ L. = C. and = C.

This has been found to be the csse even after multiple firinSs.38 0.1.5 1155 0.40 0. lse Specific impulse Max. Conical J Total impl .3) (note: different time base). It should be noted that neither nozzle suffered an~ erosion or other detrimental effects after firinS.2). > 10) .3 1075 0.1 (N-s) (s) ( ( Cubic 281 127.226 2se 130.51 CHAPTER 5: 5.1. ever~ For comparison purposes.225 N ) s ) ) <k!l Comparison of conical and cubic nozzle motor tests. thrust Thrust duration Propellant mass Table 5. Both tests were conducted under s1ml1iar environmental conditions.1) and (5.1 RESULTS (Theoretical and Actual) Nozzle Testins The thrust-time curves for the conical and cubic nozzle are presented in fiSure (5. ( makinS the motors indefinitel~ reusable. The time period between successive points is 8'0 milliseconds 5th point is printed). (i.e. althoush on separate dates. both results are presented on a sinsle curve illustrated in fi~ure (5.. respectivel~. A summar~ of the performance for both of these nozzles is presented in Table 5.

..... .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I j I I · .. ... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I 1 + I I I I I I I I I I I+ II I II II II II II I I+ 1I I III III III III III I I I+ IIII II1I IjII I I I I+ IIII\ IIIII IIIII 1 . Actual nozzle thrust-time curve motor tefit.. I I I I I I I I I I I I • ++++ III III III III III III III III II III II II1 III • .~lnn~.... i:l! Ul . ! ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I • I I I I I I I I I I j I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I 1 I I I I . I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! t I I!! .... r L I I I L I I I E . ! I I I I I I I ! I 1! I I I I I I I J + I I I I ... " ... :.... t 1 I I I I I I I I I I ! I j j j I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ........... 0J: III ..... w ::.... • t t + I I I I I I+ II . III . I .. • I I I I I I I I I J I t ._-..... + + I .1i:l!Z .-. ... I . • .... .... . +1 II II III 1II II I I I +I I 1I III II! IIj II1 II1 III II + 1III IIII 1I II 1II I IIII II IL I 1I I I!II I1II IIII 1III 11 1! II ) I II II II I II II ! I + I I I I I I I I tI II II I II II II II II II II II II II II II II I1 1I II II II I! II I ! ..... . I 1 I I I I I ...~~MN~~~O-~~NNOM(Ij~~O-~O-OMOOoooo~~mmOmMO~. . __ ....... • . ..l :I: I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . ....... . I I I I I I I I I I t I I I .~"O~nhN~~ ~~N...::.. .. ... I I I I I I I I 1 I I + ! I ! . I I ! I I I I I I I I I •... =:I'" E(Ij 7 .11 ~ .. .... ......~m~OO~"~~~~"~OOOOOQOQO~~~~~=~~~~~N~ . 1 1 .... 1...... . I I I I I I 1 1 I 1 II II I1 I I I I I I I I I I I .. . 1 . I I I I I I I I I I I .... I II I I I I I I I I I I I I .. 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .. %0 :CO 0 %0 !!!~!~!~!!!!!!l_!!!!!!l!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!~!!!!~ O~~~~~~MM~~(Ij~~~~~~~~~MMM~~~N~M~~O~O~Olllm~N~ OOMN~~~~mM~~N~~MmmO~~. I I I I I I I .. .....~~~~N~MM"O~~~~~~~~M~~~~~"..~~~~~N~~~m~~ONmON~m~~o-OooOOOOO~~~~O~OO~~O-OO~O~O-~O-OOO~O~O-OOO~OO~~O-OO-OO~ ONN~O~n~~~~NMm~~lnn~~mNN(Ij~M~NNmM~~M~~O~mM~n~N~ O~In~~M~Mm~~mO~~~mm~~~o-o-~mN~N~MN~NN~~"~~VNo-"~n O~~M~Nm~~(Ij~O~OMM~~(Ij~OMMM~N"Oo-mmm~NnNNm~O-~~M~m om~m~o~~m~O~MN~V~~m~N~nnMM~nm~O~~~MO-~"O~O~~~M ~~~~~~.......--J I I I I I I I I :1: .. ... -+ I I I I I I I I I I ++ + +1 II II II II II II II II II j 1 II II I I II II II It I I1 II II II II I II I I I II II II I II II II II II II II II II II II L I II II II !I II 1! II II II I II II II II II II .... + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I • . I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I 1 I I . J:- UI ::.II I I I I I I • I 1 I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1I II 1I + 1+ 1 1++ IIII I I I I+ I I I I I ++ IIIIII IIIIII + I I 1I I I IIIIII + IIIIII I I L III1I I III1I I 1IIII I IIIII IIIII I I I I 1I 1 I 1I I I III I III I 1I I III I I III III I I ! III II 1II II1 IIII IIII III IIJI III III IIII III IIII I III II I It III I !I I 1I 1II I II III I II II III I II III III ! II III II I I II I I II III I I !II ( I II1 III I II 1I III I II III I II I III II I III II I II II II 1I II 1II1I( II II III IIIIII II IIIIII II IIIII II I IIIIII II II IIIIII II IIIIII I II \ II II IIIiII 1I I I I I I ! I IIIIIIII IIIIIII1I IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIII1I11I I I • I I I I + I I • I I I I I I I I I I I I I \. ... .. 1 I I I I I I I I .... I I I I I I 1 I tI I I I I I I I I I \ I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I J I 1I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I IJ I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I J J I! II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! ! I I 1 I I I I I I I I ! I • t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . ..... I I I I I I I I! II . I I ! ! 1 ... ~W ill . on ... I ... 'II ...... .. • ! I I I I I I ! • I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I II I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I +++ IJ II II !I II II II I I1 II II II II I II II II II II I! II II II II ....... I I I I I I j . I . ..... "--- -- --- -- --- .. ... .52 )(In «[In ..: <. :I: :.. 1 0 i:l! ..~. "~"""~"~"~~~~~~"~~~ -- ---- ---- .. I I I I I I I I I I + + . I I I I I I I I I I I ! .......... ... .:10 . ...+ . - --- ---_- ---_ - ----- - Figure 5..1. for the conical .

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presented useful base this because for it TIME Comparison of the conical and cubic ~ozzle motor thrust-time curves.2 The results of Table 5. standard conical nozzle was used for this series of tests.54 CONICAL -CUBIC !(f) :J I f--- a: J I I I . The impulse for the 75/25 OIF ratio was not measurable due . Motor Testing of Var~inS OIF Ratio Grains.1.2. -. series of tests are prese~ted in Onl~ the values for the averaSe specific impulse are is felt that this would provide the most It should be noted that a non- comparison. 5.3. Ii Figure 5. resultins in lower overall values of specific impulse as compared to the standard conical nozzle as described earlier. Therefore. \ . the results should be used for comparison purposes onl~.

the flame increased in size coloured hue. was smaller For the more fuel rich ratios. it was found that the nozzle throat became hotter with increasins oxidizer percentaSe.6 100 55/45 65/35 70/30 75/25 Table 5. ejected with much remainins in the Larse volumes of carbon were combustion chamber after firinS in the form of a sinsle porous mass. OIF Ratio 50/50 - Isp (s > 49.2 60/40 --- 106 106 Co~parison of var~inS OIF ratio motor tests. with the exception of the 75/25 O/F ratio. and burninS continued for about half a minute.9 93. The results showed that the exhaust flame varied in size and colour with differinS OIF ratios. Each of these test firinms were recorded on 8mm colour movie film for post tirins examination of the test. the flame For the more oxidizer with a more purple and more oranse in colour. The 50/50 OIF ratio Srain also resulted in poor firins. The throat colour ranSed from a dull red (50/50 OIF . a result of the potassium compound in the exhaust. rich ratios. As well. A larme Guantit~ of liQuid matter (potassium carbonate> was ejected from the nozzle.55 to poor burnins resultins from the hiSh oxidizer percentame.

4) f. This res~lt is consistent with the theoretical prediction for combustion temperature as a function of O/F ratio as disc~s$ed earlier. A comparison of the propellant properties To' H'.~ 0. CV and X f i S~ for var~inS O/F ratios as predicted b~ theor~ is shown in t re (5. X.2 40 44 48 52 56 60 OXIDIZER 64 68 72 76 80 PERCENT Fi~ure 5..4. H' (3) Characteristic velocit~. To (2) Avera~e molecular weisht of exhaust gases.56 ratio) to a bri~ht ~ellow (70/30 O/F ratio).6 600 500 X o. .s) To 1600 JO 1400 1200 25 900 20 aoo 700 CV X 0. Comparison of theoretical properties: (1) Combustion temperature. CV (4) Particle mass fraction.c°C) 2000 1800 M CV (m.

1 55 60 65 7Q )!. it is possible to est- 05 ~02 a z . for the 75/25 encountered.. imate the pressure dependence in order to determine an appro~imate value for both the coefficients a and n (from eauation 2. ratios The conditions of testing were The burnrate results atmospheric pressure and room temperature.1.5). usinS the results of the motor testing.57 5.5. However. This method involves . Comparison of atmospheric burnrate testinS for var~ing OIF ratios. OIF ratio are not shown due to the erratic burning As mentioned earlier. CXIQIZER Figure 5. B:. iil 0.10). burnrate testing has not ~et been conducted for conditions of elevated pressures to determine the burnrate-pressure relationship.3 Burnrate Testing The results of burn rate testins for ~arious OIF are presented in figure (5.

as Po' This pressure. 2 tw = .58 estimatins the time reauired for the Srain web (wall thickness) to burn through under ~otor operating conditions.. ast The burnrate at a pressure of Pocan then be expressed r ::: R-R -~---!.. taken occurs during the stead~-state operation of the motor. TIME Figure 5... The validit~ of this method lies in the assumption that essentiall~ all the surface regression occurs at high pressure. Since burning progresses from both the inside and outside surfaces of the grain.6> • .. allowing an estimation of this time period from the thrust-time curve (see figure 5..6. Estimation of web burnthroush time from actual thrust-time curve. lI) ~ 0::I .. the web expension rate is effectivelw doubled.

34) values sives the followins results for a.6825 cm 1. the resultin~ r is expressed in em/so .1). (5. the burnrate at Po can be approximated at 2.2) and the stead~-state pressure e~uation <3.335 cm/s (65/35 OfF ratio). the burnrate is taken as r = 0.59 where Ro and Ri are the srain-outside and inside radii. EQuation (3.2) and (3.13).1). Solutions of eauations (5. and P • At a pressure of one atmosphere.22 cm/s. Utilizin~ the thrust-time curve as shown in fi~ure (5.34). results in a set of three simultaneous nonlinear e~uations in a.407 10•5 MPa • (1530 psia ) When the coefficients above are inserted into the expression for burnrate (eauation 2. n with the above and Po : 0. 0. where Po is expressed in MPa. Combinins this e~uation with the results of the atmospheric burnrate testins: rl P =Patm = a (5. This is an estimation of the actual surface area with surface flaws taken into account.85 0.283 1620 K 2 = = T The value for Ab stated above is 10 percent ~reater than the value calculated b~ eauation (2..10).83 280 S/cm 2 Ab A* k = = cm 0.34) is applied 3 with the followins values shown below: Pp = 1.

as well as the actual results are presented in Table 5. model.2. THEORE TICAL PAR TIC LE MODEL THEORE TICAL PARTlCLE MODEL Ts".2. Po.833 0.998 x td ----. N.36 - -1821 1406 10.55 2. Comparison of theoretical performance parameters to actual performance parameters. MPa Ct 1. The ener~~ conversion efficienc~ is based upon the actual performance of the motor as compared to the maximum performance possible.55 :2:. 408 226 103 0.989 288 ---1347 131" 0. which would be attained for the first particle flow .00 1153 .998 -- -- "average Table 5.T~ 1691 VS"'Vg Ts""const.989 0.4 Performance Parameters The theoretical performance parameters of the motor based upon the two particle flow models. 1490 1406 10. 152 0... TIME.60 5. SEC.401 e tv -- -- -- ~. sec.1."c N-s. Vs«Vg ACTUAL VALUE 1155 V" To m/s. These results are based upon the motor eouipped with the standard conical nozzle and the 65/35 OIF ratio propellant. 0.318 Isp. PARAMETER THRUST THRUST (MAX).

Clear'lw.1 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Nozzle Testing Contrarw to expectations. is tentative for onl~ a sins Ie firinS of the cubic nozzle was performed due to time limitations. If further testing reinforces the present findings. This would suggest that for a small motor with a high mass fraction of particles. Possibl~ the best approach to the . In a shorter nozzle the particles would have less time to accelerate to the gaS yelocit~ before exiting the nozzle.5 percent lower. however. the effects of reducinS the conversence ansle in order to increase the overall lensth of the nozzle should be investiSated.s. This result however. the lesser performance of the cubic nozzle could be a result of its greater maxi~um divergence angle (20 degrees v. As well. 12) and/or its shorter length (17X shorter). no significant increase in nozzle efficiency is implied. delivering a specific impulse 2. the nozzle should have a small divergence angle in order to increase the length.61 CHAPTER 6: 6. Considerins the far greater simplicity of fabrication. the conical desisn would have to be considered the superior choice for the amateur rocket enthusiast. This suggests that the conical nozzle is certainly a satisfactor~ desiSn. The latter of these would be consistent with the particle flow theory where a decrease in performance would be a direct result of particle las. the performance of the cubic nozzle was somewhat lesser to that of the conical nozzle. The e>:isting divergence angle should possibl~ be reduced to 10 or 8 degrees.

At ver~ high O/F ratios (O/F > 70/30). Testing indicates that the specific impulse is highest in the ranse of 65 to 70 percent oxidizer. This is precisel~ second particle flow model where the conditions of the in v ~ constant. The sensitivit~ at high oxidizer ratios is shown b~ the results that a maximum impuse is achieved at 70 percent oxidizer. This could be attributed to the observation that a larSe fraction of the solid matter (mostl~ carbon) remained in the combustion chamber in the form of a solid porous mass. Examination of the exhaust blast area revealed that the potassium carbonate particles ejected from the nozzle were actuall~ in the .62 design of a nozzle for such conditions would be to sha~e the contour in a manner such that the maximum flow acceleration duced. taperinS off with a lower oxidizer percentage. The hishl~ fuel rich ratios <O/F is re- < 55/45)a150 resulted in sreatlw reduced performance. to minimize ~article lag. but b~ increasins the ratio b~ 5 percent results in an immeasurable impulse. 6. and being drasticallw lowered at high oxidizer ratios.2 Motor Testin~ of Var~inS O/F Ratio Grains Maximum performance for the hollow c~lindrical ~rain is achieved with a moderatel~ fuel rich O/F ratio. resultins s a specific impulse reduced b~ a factor of ( i-X ). despite theoretical predictions that the specific impulse would remain essentiall~ constant over the entire range from 40 to 70 percent oxidizer. the reduction in performance could as well be explained bs this particle flow model.

the lower OIF ratios misht be more suitable. One final factor to be considered is the castabilitw of the srain. This would create v the conditions of ~ constant. the combusratio tion temperatures encountered at the upper end of the O/F pose no practical problem. Since no erosion or other problems have been encountered due to these temperaturesr this would appear to be the optimal ranse. The formation of the droplets could be explained thuslw: durins combustion a voluminous auantitw of potassium carbonate is formed. As flow occurs throuSh the nozzle multiple collisions occur between the liauid particles. would indicate that since lower combustiOn temperatures might be more desirable. therefore. for O/F ratio selection appears to be an oxidizer percentage of between 55 and 70 percent. Coupling this result with the realization that actual combustion temperatures appear to parallel theoretical. the ranse for best performance could be reduced to the 65 to 70 percent oxidizer renSe. the best overall ratio would then appear to be the existin~ 65/35 OIF ratio. Since a more sucrose rich propellant is easier to cast. beinS in the liauid state. It should be noted that since testinS occurred in $te~s of 5 percentase points. or exit occurs from the nozzle.63 form of sizeable droplets. resultins in cohesion and effective srowins in particle size until either the maximum stable size is achieved. where the relativel~ larse particle size would not s allow acceleration of the particles to a hish velocit~. The practical ranse. If however. that the optimum ratio is therefore within a certain plus-minus ranee of this value. .

3. however. b~ shape as discussed in section 2. The method of estimatins the burnrate-pressure relation- ship appears to be satisfactor~ for a first approximation. it would be necessar~ to increase the srain surface (burnins) area to compensate for the reduced rate of burnins in order to maintain the Sas Seneration rate. it is difficult to Sause the accurac~ at this point. a Sreater rate of bur- nins is desirable to develop the high chamber pressures that such motors can readil~ operate at. However. Knowledse of the actual chamber pressure would certainl~ increase the precision of this techniQue. with the maximum occurrins at the 65/35 O/F ratio.2. moulding This a star or other be pressure. the value for the chamber pressure. Therefore. However. A decrease in throat area would as well solution to developing the desired pondins thrust loss would result. With lower burnrates.3 Burnrate Testins The results of testins indicate that burnrate is Guite sensitive to the O/F ratio. For small rocket motors. could be subject to appreciable error. Due to the nonlinearit~ of the eauations. a be a corres- result can also achieved b~ increasinS the lenSth/diameter ratio of the srain. Increased srain surface area can be achieved b~ modif~ins the seometr~ of the central bore. both methods eomplicate the grain castins procedure and increase the likelihood of srain casting flaws. practical considerations make the hisher burnrate that can be achieved with the 65/35 O/F ratio a desirable trait. however.64 6. .

since the calculated thrust values for these two models are almost directl~ proportional to chamber pressure.65 6.) almost coincides with the ideal value for the second particle flow model (1153 N. where the smaller particles misht follow closel~ the Sas flow velocit~ whereas the larger pa~ticles misht have a sisnificant velocit~ las. the actual flow would be difficult to model since the real particle size would certainl~ be distributed. The chamber pressure used for these two calculations . the choice of model will importantl~ affect the expected perfo~mance of a siven motor desisn. In the second case where the particles are assumed to have no app- reciable velocit~.4 Pe~formance Parameters Fronl table 5. the thrust is 32 percent lower than the first case where all the particles are assumed to have a velocit~ e~ual to that of the Sas flow. However. sussestins that the actual flow would be accuratel~ described b~ this model.2 it can be seen that there is an ap?reci- able difference in ideal thrust for the two particle flow models. Neither model would be ex- pected to accuratel~ represent the actual flow conditions since these are the two limitinS cases. As well. The actual thrust produced b~ the metor would therefore be expected to lie somewhere between these two ideal values. is not incorrect. where the expected performance would lie somewhere between these two bounds. The actual maximum thrust value (1155 N. As a result of this rather sisnificant variance.). such a conclusion would be hi~hl~ tentative. The actual particle flow cond- itions would reauire a consolidaten of the two models. which it in fact does.

v that emplo~ed to relate the actual thrust to the 3. would predict the behaviour of the actual The ene rS'ld eff ic ienc'ld e.) is based on the value described arrived at throuSh the pressurewhich.pulse. comparison be made uti IizinS pressure avera_e the specific variations. can be more than doubled a desisned apparent. C f for the thrust the two values . possibl~ as a result of error in the chamber The actual value pressure assumed.55 burnrate mentioned. where this represents for the fi~st model where the Sas only The exit velocity . velocit'ld v .2. and the ve Ioc it'ld coeff i c ient are r. ideal thrust would tained be achieved.7.) b~ the model). comparison better which factor renders the thrust parameter flow a poor basis A far im. would MPa. The nozzle with the importance of the diverSent exit hiSher for the second value. as calculations could in the previous section be subject directl~ to appreciable in the error.66 (10.is shown to be siSnificantl~ e particle flow model. appear as explained in section asain The values ob- to be on the low side. closel~ is in fact two particle This close of the values model9 predicted flow models that (152: first 103: second implies a consolidation of the two models flow. ideal Ans such thrust error compuof be almost This reflected tations. of the actual would to theoretical conditions. coefficient as shown. would also likel'ldlie between that This result with demonstrates properl~ section the thrust nozzle. is insensitive The value to chamber of the actual to the midpoint specific impulse (131 5.

The sli~htl~ lower combustion temperature would be a result of incomplete combustion and nonadiabatic conditions.) beinS 4 percent lower. The final parameters to be considered are coefficient td and the diver~ence correction A.67 the particles are assumed to have the same velocit~ as the ~as flow is reduced as a result of acceleratin~ the particles. the dischar~e It can be seen that onl~ minor thrust losses are a result of these two factors. . The actual combustion temperature (1347 C.) was found to be in close a~reement with the theoretical value (1406 C.

The actual findinss were expected to lie within this range. providing a basis upon which to determine the expected acceleration. other factors such as burnrate and castabilit~ reduced the acceptable ranSe. Significant improvement of the motor1s performance does not appear likelw to be achieved bw variation of the nozzle design. The best overall ratio was found to be the presentl~ emplo~ed ratio of 65/35. A thrust-time curve of the rocket motor's performance was obtained. Theoretical anal~sis suggested that the propellant performance should remain essential1~ constant over a fairl~ wide range of oxidizer/fuel ratios. however. Marsinal increase in nozzle efficien~ might be obtained b~ reducing the convergence and/or diveraence anales. This result demonstrated the importance of considering the effects of two-phase flow for small solid propellant rocket motors. and altitude of the roc~et in actual flight. and experimental measurements found this to be the case. with the performance results presented in the form of two limiting models. velocity. The conical n022le emersed as a hiShl~ satisfactor~ design when the simplicit~ of fabrication is considered.68 CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS Theoretical anal~si$ of a small solid propellant rocket motor was conducted. .

it is suggested that a computer prOSram be de- veloped to solve the eQuations of motion involved with a rocket vehicle in flisht.69 RECOMMENDATIONS The followins recommendations are suggested to provide a more complete understanding of the rocket motor's and propellant's performance. . Conduct testing in order to determine the actual chamber pressure during firing. such as construction of a constant pressure vessel to studw the rate of burning at elevated pressures. As well' a method of determinins burnrate as a function of chamber pressure should be investigated utilizing this data. utilizins the obtained thrust-time data in conJunction with vehicle draS data (either experimentall~ obtained or theoreticall~ modeled>. possibl~ utilizins a pressure transducer s~stern to obtain a pressure-time curve. Other methods of determining the pressure-burnrate rel- ationship should be considered. and to provide a sound basis for the desi~n of larger rocket motors: 1. Further stud~inS of two-phase flow in an attempt to consolidate the particle flow models would certainl~ prove useful. Investigation into modif~ins the conical nozzle design in order to reduce particle acceleration misht be attempted. 2. 4. 3. As well.

70 NOMENCLATURE a burnrate acoustic area b burninsi area coefficient velocit'ol a A A A/D analosiue I disital AFT adiabatic A c flame throat temperature area velocit~ * critical effective Celsius exhaust c. C f Coefficient Specific p of thrust at constant of solid pressure C C C heat heat heat s v Specific Specific (limuid> volume at constant CV D D i characteristic srain Srain inside outside velocit'ol (bore) diameter o diameter e f F enerSy mass conversion efficienc~ fraction thrust .

. 51 Sas mass particle melting Mach m s m.p.71 S h hO f I acceleration enthalp~ enthalp~ total sp of gravit~ of formation impulse impulse heats I specific ratio Kelvin grain mass k K L m of specific lensth flow rate flowrate (solid) point mass flowrate m . M M' n N OfF p number weisht molecular burn rate exponent Newton oxidizer/fuel pressure P P P a Ell ambient nozzle pressure exit pressure pressure o stasnation burn rate molar r R gas constant .

72 R' t t b IJniversal time blJrntime temperature stasnation !las constant T T 0 temperature v v v v 5 velocitl:l e s nozzle exit velocitl:l Sias velocitl:l particle chamber particle diversence discharse (solid) volume (solid) ansle coefficient mass fraction velocitl:l V X c a. velocitl:l coefficient diversence p correction factor densitl:l gas densitl:l p po propellant stasnation densitl:l densitl:l p o .

ed. O.F. Universit~ of Manitoba. A..36 Mechanics. Januarw. ·A Rapid Method For Estimation Impulse·.E. 1953. R. 1976. C. 396. edt Jet Propulsion EnSines. Press..E. Orsanic Department. Rocket Propulsion ed. and McDonald. __ . 1978. McKinnon. 2nd.M. 1959. p490 Sutton. Lancaster. ed •• New York: John Wilew and Sons.C. ·A ballistic Bomb Method For Determinins the Experimental Performance of Rocket Propellants·.F. Private Communication.J. 6th ed •• 1952 Fox. and Angeloff. 2nd. Johnson. ed •• New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp.578 16. bw Bartlew.A. of Classical John Wiles 7. S. and Stephanov. 15. G. 6.. 1959 O.E...all". G.P •• Rocket The Merck Ibid Propulsion Index 9. 12. or Sn. and Mills.P •• Rocket Griffin. New York: and Sons. and Stinson. D. ARS Journal. 4. 14. D. ARS Journal.. C. P. 502. of Chemicals and DruSs. 3.G. B.J: Princeton Universit~ Press. 613 Elements. p. Propulsion Elements. ed •• Encsclopedia of Chemical Reactions. 73 REFERENCES 1. of Specific and Sarner. 5. . 47 2. 8. Sutton.T. NASA TR R-33. 1959.-----_.E •• ed. H. P. S. p. 1959. Fundamentals Thermod~namics. G. New York: John Wile~ and Sons. R.A. Jet Propulsion EnSines. p. 10... Section H: Solid Propellant Rockets. Jan.N •• Turner. Journal.E. D. Smith G. 1961.M...100 J. H. C. N.W.C. Oct.- .. 11. 1978. 4th. • 'Y Larse Elements.. Chemistr~ 1984. Gventert. Maple Van W~len.. ARS P.- -. Fuels and Combustion.M..T •• Introduction to Fluid 2nd. and Neumann.. and Ross. Sutton. Oliver. ·Design ofAxis~mmetric Exhaust Nozzles b~ Method of Characteristics Incorporating a Variable Isentropic Component·.E. R. Lancaster. E. Princeton. Free.P. P. 13. and Sonntas.

L. .J.E •• ed.M. 'The Analog~ Between Fluid Friction and Heat Transfer".. p. N.J. 18.M.: P~entice-Hall Inc. ARS Journal. and Peterson..R.: Academic Press HoSlund. ~.1939 Lancaster. and LeHa~.R. Dec. and Sa~ner.Y. 21.C.578 Gilbert.·DesiSn ofAxis~rnrnetric Exhaust Nozzles b~ Method of Characteristics Incorporatins a Variable Isentropic Component· Journal of Fluids Ensineering.C. 27.R.E. H.H. Handbook of Chemistr~ and Ph~sic5 54th edt CRC Press Van W~len.G. Farley. Jet Propulsion EnSines. Hill.. R. 26.. and Peterson.CIR. 'D~namics of Two-Phase Flow in Rocket Nozzles'.P.J.P. Soc.G.. EnSrs.p.74 17.421 Brown. 1962 Ibid.C.S.. Detonation and Two Phase Flow. Ma~.: Addison.1965. R. Table A.·Performance of Several Method of Characteristics Exhaust Nozzles'.V.: Academic Press 1962 Faires..R. 20.E. 22. March 1976. Allport.E.. p.·Flow of Gas-Particle MixtUres in Axiall~ S~mmetric Nozzles'.·Particle Velocit~ Las in Metalized Propellants'.M.R.and Campbell.T.. Mechanics and Thermod~namics of Propulsion.Y. and Nickerson. Readins. ed. 25. and Dunlap. Mech.. Inc.A.E. 28.385 Von Karman.4th ed.. and Sonntag. N.564 Brown.C. p.Mass.E.Wesle~ Publ. Mechanics and Thermod~namics of Propulsion. 23.G.1962 Hill.S. and Neumann.F. Chernistr~t The Central Science Englewood Cliffs. T.N.. "Recent Advances in Gas-Particle Nozzle Flows' ARS Journal.E. 24.!! w 19.J. Design of Machine Elements....102 Weast. and Malina.. V..O. Fundamentals of Classical Thermod~namics.-in-chief. Free.B.61 KlieSel.J.: CollierMacmillan Ltd.. 30. Detonation and Two-Phase Flow. Am. NASA TN-D243 Guentert.. N. 32. 31. G.f "A Rapid Method of Estimation of Specific Impulse". Co. 33. p. 29.1977.

14 + 3. 14 no chan~es in K. + with the assumptions of no work.522 241.827 - -1.A-I APPENDIX A Calculation the combustion C12 H22011 of the Adiabatic shown KNOa below: 8.29 CO Flame Temperature assumin~ eQuation + 6.146.6hl = p where the enthalpies Constituent of formation State solid solid Slas Sas sas lillUid siers -0 are ~iven (kJ/kmol) below: Reference (31] (32J [33J [33J [33J [32J hf C12 H22011 KN0 3 -2. for "2COa is obtained from the expression: .28 --> + 0.E.56 K2C0 3 CO2 + 11 H20 ~ or P.529 393.100 CO CO2 H2O "2C03 - 493.222. II +.205 110. to: and adiabatic conditions. from standard For the erlthalp!:I The value the values for. 3.6 h are available ) such as from (except for "2C03 reference [33].E.835 0 N2 ---- The values products.. the first law reduces H R =: H P L:ni[h. tables for ah are zero for the reactants.

h where and = j T.1.0474 .296] + 27.14 (. Solution of the eauation is obtained at T = 1681 K.1.14 (0.564 + 11 (.1.29 and the expression for enthalp~ carbonate (.h CO2 sives ) the followinsi expression: ) 0 throusih a trial and (.0474 T + 94.h= T 2 + 94.2: C P dT +ii tr [32].0948 27. C p = tr 0.25 T) + 3.h N2 ) .ion of above values for the potassium 8.099.714 = A solution error method for T (AFT) is obtained b~ insertinsi values for enthalpies at the trial temperature.633 T + 94. aii = kJ/kmol This leads to.A-2 .25 kJ/kmol-K [32].2. for K2C03: [ (0.h CO ) + 0. . T.6.25 T) - 32.1.1.h H0 2 + 2 3.633 kJ/kmol Insert.

512. as a function of temperature given 0.29 C + 0.25 + + 82.. valid in the ranSe of 300 .B-1 APPENDIX B Dete~rnination of the averaSe value for the ratio of specific heats k.4 8 where 8 . .101 MPa.75 co: C == 69.77 B + 176.145 ..564 C Peo 2 + + 3. Cp. Use of the expression: o c p n. 9. P == 0.75 0.5 -0.7 a -2 ..736 + 30.79 8 3 p T -1.0.6989 8 -3 C .14 C P N2 .1034 8 + 0.200. for the 65/35 OIF ratio for flow throuSh the nozzle.55 MPa.751 8 .05 _ 183. where R' is the universal The above expression for C p becomes: 11 C PH 2 0 1 C p "" 23 (8.76 B 2 C == -3.. I C °1 + __'L_ C + _o _ _ k_ C + ••• and the expression for C below (3l.820.3500 K 100 k can be expressed as k "" _C_p _ Sas constant.3.R' .529 B P 0.54 B P 0.7046 P e .5 _ 4.060 .5 1072.5 C "" 143.024198 B 0. e T "" 1629 1<. The assumption is made where: P o = 10.

283 of T e has reached value. However..... .. _.247 1.282 1....97 38. the ave rase is to be used e averaSe for in the isentropic iteration expression to obtain to obtain T .05 37..B-2 The use of the isentro~ic relation: T allows mined.280 1. k TO 1620 1620 1620 1620 1620 The value value for averaSe Te --583 646 58a 583 41. value e =T 0 the temperature The specific determined: avS. ----a constant the nozzle 1.76 37. is: so the k for flow throush k = 1. of the Sas flow is calculated at nozzle at T exit to be deter- heat o and T e and an averaSe C P =( C PT + C o PT ) 12 e from the expression value of k a true whereas relatins that value sired the ave rase value for k can be found since it-is C p to k.283 . Cp the n02zle: avS....74 . succesive value is reauired throuSh the de- for k for flow avS.

c-i APPENDIX Derivation for the case where C for v v• where for two-phase flow of the expression T s ~ T and v s ~ e Consider within ation. mental Appl~in9 volume the seneral Slives the momentum result: dv 51 control -A dP where =m s (v s + dv ) + m (v + s 51 51 )- mv ss -mv 51 51 (1) From (2) A is the cross sectional m area m lSI at a given point. continuit!:lt s = p s Av s and • = p Av !I S Combinins these -dP two e~uations p we obtain: p S = v s s dv s t v S dv S (3 ) The ener!l~ eauation the particle dins to: for stead~ isentropic flow enerSies relates accor- and 51aseous enthalpies and kinetic rn s (C dT t v dv) s s s s Usin51 the mass +m (C 51 P dT 51 + v 51 dv) !I =o (4) fraction of particles X. a frozen flow model particles are formed or form- the combustion Under such chamber with no subseauent growth conditions. this eauation can be re-written as: x C dT ssP t (l-X) C dT 51 + X v dv s + s (l-X) v dv S 51 "" o (S) . m s and m !I are constant relation throughout to an incre- the nozzle.

Pg V dv ss :::: ---. g The eaustion would then reduce to: X (---- i-X C s + C ) p dT .. this becomes: dT T = dP p (9) Integration from stagnation conditions to exit conditions sives: :::: R where m :::: ----------------- [x (i-X>] C s + C P For these. then a limitins solution can be obtained.C-2 From eauation (3) we obtain: v dv 51 Sf ::: - dP PI P. f . and particle s 51 dras verw hish (v ~ v ).::: P/RT. conditions. $. eauation (5) becomes: .Pg dP ----i-X X v dv !II 51 (6) Substitution of this expression into (5) sives: X i-X C dT s s + C dT p s + x i-X (v v S ) dv :::: dP s (7) s The solution of this eQuation reQuires knowledse of the heat transfer and dras processes in order to express T s and v in terms of the overall flow properties. g dP fg (8) sssumins the ideal gas relation. However.. if the heat s transfer is considered to be ver~ fast (T ~ T ).

C-3 =o which mas be inte~rated to sive v C p = e in terms of T 0 and T . and where e k R / <k-l) : v e "" where m = [ _~_~_~~_ (1-X) R' + _~ __ ] k-l -1 .

this would sive m = 1ft + S m • X 51 i-X = 1 m 51 i-X Eauation (1) can be used to express the total mass flowrate in terms o~ the Sas where: 1 m = . ....D-l APPENDIX D Derivation for the expression for thrust F.... for two phase flow where T ~ T and s si v~v• s S The expression for sas mass flow rate throush a nozzle is siven b~ the expression [34J: A Po ------RT ~ 0 lit 51 = * For the case where all particles are accelerated throush the nozzle (none remaininS in combustion chamber). RT 0 ..... the expression for total mass flowrate m...-. is Siven b~: 1ft = X i-X m S + 1ft S since -.= m si Ills • .. 1-X ~ _--_ A *Po __ .

(appendix C).P )A._) m] s (k-1) H' Po where m = ~-:-~~. usins the previousl~ e derived F = AP * 1 o 1-X ~-~-~~ tfx c ~:=:~~-~ (-:-J~~: .k ]-1 + [.D-2 Since F e expression for v . we can write: e e a = • III V + <p . (l-X)R' k-1 .][ + R' ktl 1 _ (_~.

where S u is chamber tensile strenSth. (rated) u shear strensth... .. P' 17 MPa.6 cm.-----------? --. D D L 2 . (tested) Nominal chamber pressure reauired to sever safet~ bolt.--. L2 _ Jl L 1 i[ J L 3 4 ::: 0..6 em... s u ::: 00 MPa. l ::: 24.. .. L 0.495 em.3/16 in. where Db is bolt diameter.. s s = 448 MPa..-.. x 1 1/2 in...5 :::I Ll.-. .. em.795 em.E-l APPENDIX E Rocket Moto~ Desi~n and Specifications _.-_ .5 mm Chamber wall material . t = 1.. -.---~.-.. o i ::: .--.mild steel tubinS. srade 6 tensile strensth. Nominal chamber operatins pressure = 10. 4 Safet~ Bolt .55 MPa. --- L1 ---.. P" p~1 = ------u 2S t ::: 35 MPa. Nominal chamber pressure reaired to burst case. 3 Chamber wall thickness.18. 3 ::: .65 cm.-. s = 900 MPa.

Dimensions in em....35 B C D F G H 2. _______"'-._.E-2 Conical Nozzle Design -...70 2.___---=:::===:..68 6.27 : 1 Inside flow surface: polished .932 0..o--~ __ ~ j B c I .2 1. A E 0.:A II I ~v~ 0.2 0..__. 5- --~'---r ...08 I 0..-----.8 Expansion Ratio: Material: mild steel 8.0 ~----.__G .:.

.... > z 0:: « I- 1] I I '0 0- E~ ~ Ul.F-l APPENDIX F STRAIN GAUGE BRIDGE ..~ I I I I I I I I I ) ~ Vl Vl \- . 0:: W "0 ~.J I . ~II' 0 c I:) 01 Y 0 u.!) .~ Cl~ <.J 0.... 2: -r > .. u.I . ::t.. ..AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT ~ d z z I. 0 v Oc > .{(I. o 0::: W ~ C1> ~ Go> HIli jll U en 0 0 U""l a o If) :J 0) r-.

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