Airport functions

This is my thesis. To write this work, I travelled through Europe to get materials (books, publications, interviews, etc.). I visited libraries in England, Sweden and many cities in Poland. I would like to do PhD on the subject “Air Passenger Definition”, based on my own research. If you are interested to have future benefits from my research and you are able to finance my PHD, please contact me at: numberouno@wp.pl

Introduction
The thesis theme is "Economic and non-economic functions of airports, study on the example of the Gdansk Lech Walesa airport". This study includes functions of airports and their impact on the region. Issues described in this work are also the airport management and its operations. The author chose the topic because of the interest in the functioning of airports. Another factor to write on this problem was the person of Prof. Mrs. D. Rucińska who encouraged him to write about current transportation problems in the Pomeranian Province. Aim of this study is to describe airports’ functions and to find good solutions that will improve the work in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The second aim is to create a study on the influence of the airport on the city and region. The first part of the thesis describes theoretical issues relating to airports as infrastructure facilities and indicates the branches nature of this area. It also presents components and functions of aviation infrastructure and the situation of Polish airports after the Polish accession to the European Union 2004. The second chapter embraces issues of economic and non-economic functions of airports. Moreover, it describes the characteristics of commercial operations of the airport, related to aviation infrastructure and linear development planning with outline of The Master Plan by ICAO. The third chapter presents good practices in the field of air transport, which can be adapted in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. What is more, the paper shows handling and methods of speeding up the check-in process. For the purposes of this chapter the author conducted marketing research about knowledge of air transport among the residents in the radius of 15 km from the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The last part of thesis presents a study on the future development of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The thesis describes typical airport management organization chart and Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport organization chart. It shows a study on the future development in Pomeranian Province based on experiences from the region of Boston. Also it describes an impact of an airport on the region. For the purposes of this chapter the author conducted marketing research about expectations of the passengers for the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The thesis was written by monographic method with used primary and secondary sources relating to airport’s functions. For the purposes of thesis, the author conducted 2

two marking research (Annexes 1, 2 and 3). First marketing research is about knowledge of air transport among the residents in the radius of 15 km from the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. Second marketing research is about expectations of the passengers for the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. To write this thesis many Polish and foreign publications were used to show the perspective of the problem in terms of international view. Foreign publications in the field of air transport are not only European but also American. In work were used American Air Law and European Air Law and many non-government-organizations’ publications about air transport. In order to present the latest information the work contains numerous internet sources.

3

Contents
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 2 Figures .......................................................................................................................... 5 Tables ............................................................................................................................ 7 CHAPTER 1 AIRPORTS AS INTERMODAL OBJECTS OF AVIATION INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................... 8 1.1. Air transport as part of the transport system .................................................. 8 1.2. Aviation infrastructure and its intermodal character .....................................13 1.3. Functions and components of aviation infrastructure ....................................19 1.4. Characteristics of Polish airports ....................................................................23 CHAPTER 2 ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF AIRPORTS AND THE AIRPORT BUSINESS .................................28 2.1. Economic functions ..........................................................................................28 2.2. Non-economic functions...................................................................................31 2.3. Characteristics of the airport business ............................................................35 2.4. Planning and an outline of Master Plan of an airport ....................................40 CHAPTER 3 OPEARTING GDANSK LECH WALESA AIRPORT AS AN ELEMENT OF REGION TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM .............49 3.1. Manners of gaining competitive superiority in the region..............................49 3.2. An innovative approach to marketing and work at the airport .....................52 3.3. Handling – current status and development perspectives ..............................55 3.4. Non-aeronautical revenues for Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport ........................59 CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS OF THE GDANSK LECH WALESA AIRPORT ...........................................................................62 4.1. Airport management ........................................................................................62 4.2. The impact of an airport on the region and a case study of London Heathrow Airport .............................................................................................68 4.3. Prospects for development of airports in the Pomeranian Province based on experiences from the region of Boston .......................................................72 4.4. Expectations of entities representing the demand for the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport determined by marketing research........................................74 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................87 Literature .....................................................................................................................90 Publications .............................................................................................................90 Internet sources.......................................................................................................94 Internal materials ...................................................................................................95 Law ..........................................................................................................................96 Others ......................................................................................................................96 Annex 1. Questions about knowledge of air transportation ......................................97 Annex 2. Expectations of different market operators in terms of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport in Polish .............................................................................................98 Annex 3. Expectations of different market operators in terms of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport in English ...........................................................................................99 4

Figures
Fig. 1. Civil aviation elements ....................................................................................... 12 Fig. 2. International tourism receipts and arrivals .......................................................... 13 Fig. 3. Development of Praha-Ruzyně runway system ................................................... 16 Fig. 4. Existing airports in Poland and proposed to run .................................................. 25 Fig. 5. The impact of air transport for employment in the region.................................... 33 Fig. 6. Inside of flying hospital – aircraft Lockheed L-1011........................................... 34 Fig. 7. Success factor for airport city ............................................................................. 38 Fig. 8. Airport long-run cost curve ................................................................................. 39 Fig. 9. The airport system .............................................................................................. 41 Fig.10. Planned investments at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport from 2009 to 2015 ........... 47 Fig.11. Terminal II during building ............................................................................... 47 Fig. 12. Causes of the first journey by plane .................................................................. 50 Fig. 13. Associations with air transportation .................................................................. 50 Fig. 14. Factors which entourage to air travels ............................................................... 51 Fig. 15. Associations with Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport ................................................ 51 Fig. 16. An innovative approach to work at the airport................................................... 53 Fig. 17. Self check-in localized at London Heathrow Airport ........................................ 54 Fig. 18. Aircraft handling done by the GDN Airport Services at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport ........................................................................ 57 Fig. 19. Aircraft stuffed by a tug of GDN Airport Services at Gdnask Lech Walesa Airport ........................................................................ 57 Fig. 20. The package of services offered by the airport .................................................. 59 Fig. 21. Typical airport management organization chart ................................................. 62 Fig. 22. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart ........................... 67 Fig. 23. Relations between airport and region ................................................................ 69 Fig. 24. Heathrow's expansion plan ............................................................................... 70 Fig. 25. Boston regional airport system.......................................................................... 72 Fig. 26. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by gender (%) ....... 75 Fig. 27. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by age (%) ............ 76 Fig. 28. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by professional status (%) ................................................................................ 76 5

Fig. 29. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by their flights during the last 12 months (%)................................................... 77 Fig. 30. Accessibility of navigation in the terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%).................................................... 78 Fig. 31. Quality of service during procedures of security at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) ............................................ 79 Fig. 32. Check-in at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) ............. 79 Fig. 33. Flight information at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%)............................................................................................. 80 Fig. 34. Cleanliness/appearance of terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) ................................................................ 81 Fig. 35. Quality of products/services at shops in terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) ............................................ 81 Fig. 36. Quality of products at food/beverage concessions at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%)..................................................... 82 Fig. 37. Usability of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport’s website according to passengers (%)............................................................................. 83 Fig. 38. Ground transportation between city and Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) ............................................................... 83 Fig. 39. Factors of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, which must be improved according to passengers (%)............................................................................. 84

6

Tables
Table 1. Jobs created by air transportation in 2008 globally ........................................... 11 Table 2. Aerodrome reference code - according to ICAO ............................................... 21 Table 3. Current capacity of airports in Poland and planned after 2015 .......................... 24 Table 4. The number of passengers in regular and charter traffic at Polish airports from 2004 to 2010. .......................................................................................... 26 Table 5. Categories of public airports in Poland* ........................................................... 27 Table 6. Direct employment by sector in the air transport industry, 2004 ....................... 31 Table 7. Change in jobs in manufacturing by Victoria Airport Authority ........................ 34 Table 8. Reported surplus or deficit of major European airports 1983 and 1989 ............. 36 Table 9. Average cost structures of western European airports ....................................... 39 Table 10. Elements of a Master Plan .............................................................................. 42 Table 11. The outline of a Master Plan, according to ICAO ........................................... 43 Table 12. Data needed to create a Master Plan ............................................................... 45 Table 13. Key impacts caused by airport and aviation activities ..................................... 71

7

CHAPTER 1

AIRPORTS AS INTERMODAL OBJECTS OF AVIATION INFRASTRUCTURE
1.1. Air transport as part of the transport system
The transport system is a concept that evolved during the practical economic activity. It is defined as the transportation potential of the region, which may be, for example, country or geographical area. A. Piskozub defines it as a "communication system, a team filled with different modes of transport investment for Transport1". L. Hoffman defines it as "technical, economic, organizational and legal totality which are in the process of interaction between transport modes and they determine the nature of the main dependencies and relationships between transport and other areas of national economy2”. F. Tomala considered transport system as "a collection of objects (road network, traffic flows, transport investments, transport processes of all modes of transport), including existing relationships between objects and between the attributes, which uses a transport policy as a cohesive link's transport system which is coordinated3". F. Gronowski defines the transport system as "a of relationships that exist between all modes of transport operating in a certain area on the one hand, and the relations between transport and other departments and branches of the economy on the other4". According to I. Tarski the transport system is "an ordered totality of all modes of transport, operating on a specific area, thus covering both the entire fixed assets and the financial and human factor, essential for the activity and all intermodal links within this total5". Its structure is very complex and includes all sectors of transport (vertical,

1

2

3

4

5

Piskozub A. (1973). Funkcjonowanie systemów transportowych. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa 1973, p. 22. Hoffman L. (1968). Ekonomika żeglugi śródlądowej w zarysie. Wydawnictwo Morskie. Gdynia. in: Brdulak J. (1989). Transport wodny śródlądowy jako element systemu transportowego Polski. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa, p. 1. Tomala F. (1966). „System transportowy a ogólna teoria systemów”. Zeszyty Naukowe WSE. Sopot. nr 33, p.73. Gronowski F. (1965) „System transportowy. Elementy teorii”. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Szczecińskiej. Szczecin, p. 6. „System transportowy Polski w ogólnoeuropejskim i ogólnoświatowym systemie transportowym” in:

8

road, rail, air, inland, marine, pipeline, energy)6. Separation of the transport system does not distinct from the sphere of organizational and technical, but from economic differences, which is the source of creation. Coverage of the transport system includes:  "structured set of measures and actions of all transport concepts that make up transport system;  the relationship with the national economy of individual branches of transport and intermodal interconnection;  fulfilling of quantitative and qualitative needs of the transport;  minimization of social expenditures that were incurred in order to meet the transportation needs"7. Systems can be considered as formal, with rules of law and actual, as the demand and supply relationships. They depend on economics and economic policy of the country. Well-developed system is expressed in the sustainable potential of the transport that meets the needs of both quantitative and qualitative benefits - economic and social. Examples of such solutions can be seen in developed countries such as Germany and the United States, where state policy is used to build a uniform communication. Good operation consists of a long-term investment policy, thought-out concept development and environmental protection. It is also important to use the latest technology, which is seemingly capital-intensive, but allows time and energy savings. Balanced the

development of transport networks is a current priority of the European Union in its internal politics. Basic elements of the transport system are:  "transport infrastructure;  means of transport;  personnel;  legal regulations"8. Air transport is a dynamic part of a global transportation system. Functionally, organizationally and technologically air transport integrated into a multidirectional

6

7

8

Perspektywy rozwoju transportu w Polsce. (1975). Biuletyn KPZK PAN. bulletin 86, p. 76. Piskozub A. (1982). Gospodarowanie w transporcie : podstawy teoretyczne. Wydawnictwo Łączność i Komunikacja. Warszawa, p. 15. Madeyski M., Lissowska and E., Morawski W. (1980) Transport, rozwój, integracja. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa, p. 115. http://www.intermodalmagazine.com 14.09.2010.

9

support a diverse market of passenger, cargo and mail9. Air transport is defined as a "branch of the economy engaged in intentional movement of persons and objects, and services directly associated with them10". M. Madeyki defines it as "the deliberate movement of people and cargo in airspace, separate from others activities in terms of technical, organizational and economical. Air transport includes general measures and operations conditioning performance of transport processes in the airspace11". Air transport is the freshest and fastest growing kind of transport. It requires enormous capital expenditure, technology and highly qualified human resources. Only rich countries can afford its development and steady progressive modernization. Its origins date back to the technological progress caused by the Second World War, which contributed to the development of aviation. The first navigation systems in the British Royal Air Force and logistics management systems at airports for the German Luftwaffe were used during the Second World War. In 1944 F. D. Roosevelt signed the Chicago Convention, which contained basic rules for future of civil aviation and its development12. For the American president this document was designed to build friendship between the peoples and nations on earth. This vision has become reality over sixty years later. Nowadays air transport is the main pillar of global society, it became a necessity for daily life in medicine or communications. It became the main determinant influencing the social progress and national prosperity. The growing availability of air travel propelled aviation to normal standards of living. This is not a luxury today. The air transport sector has not affected only the developed countries, but also brought great benefits to developing countries through the release of their potential for trade and tourism. Air transport provides significant economic and social benefits. As one of the only means of transport it ensures the access to all parts of the globe, which makes it important for business and tourism development. It plays an important role in stimulating economic growth, particularly for developing countries. In 2008 air transport:

9

10

11

12

Ruciński A. (1998). Rynek usług pasażerskiego transportu lotniczego. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 37. Neider J. (2007). Transport w handlu międzynarodowym. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, s. 11. Czownicki J., Kaliński D. and Marciszewska E. (1992). Transport lotniczy w gospodarce rynkowej. Szkoła Główna Handlowa. Warszawa, p.7. Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944). Chicago.

10

 "transports over 2.2 billion passengers annually (in 2004 - 2 billion);  enables 35% of international trade (in 2004 - 40%);  transports over 40% of international tourists;  generates a total of 32 million jobs globally (tab. 1), by direct and indirect air services and others associated services to business and tourism (in 2004: 29 million);  generates 7.5% of World Gross Domestic product, which estimated about 3.560 billion USD (in 2004 – 8% and 2.960 billion USD);  brings together 2 000 airlines, which operate a total fleet of 23 000 aircraft it is Polish Air Navigation Services Agency)13". Table 1. Jobs created by air transport in 2008 globally
Working 4,7 million 0,7 million 6,3 million 2,9 million 17,1 million 32 million Jobs The airline and airport industry directly employ. The civil aerospace sector (manufacture of aircraft systems, frames and engines, etc.). Indirect jobs through purchases of goods and services from companies in its supply chain. Induced jobs through spending by industry employees. Jobs created through air transport’s catalytic impact on tourism. Total

and

operate on 3,750 airports and managed by 160 providers of air navigation (in Poland

Source: The economic and social benefits of air transport 2008. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland, p. 2.

Air transport is also a kind of market in which meetings of its participants take place. The following groups can be mentioned:  "shippers – side of demand for transport services. Those are enterprises cooperating both air carriers and airports14;  carriers – in broad sense supply-driven market, from air carriers to ground handling airport. For instance Lufthansa and UISC;  intermediaries – that work on both sides of the market;  purchasers of air services" 15.

13

14

15

The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2008. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland. p. 2., and The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2004. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland, p. 2. Czownicki J. (1981). Rynek usług krajowej komunikacji lotniczej. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa, p. 63. Szczepaniak. T. (1996). Transport Międzynarodowy. Państwowe wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.

11

The air transport can also be studied in terms of types and related functions. We can distinguish the following elements of air transport (fig 1.)

Fig. 1.Civil aviation elements Source: Sheehan J.J. (2003). Business and Corporate Aviation Managment – On Demand Air Transportation. MCGRAW-HILL. London, p. 1.2.

The figure 1 shows division of air transport due to its functions. The first division shows civil and military aviation. In Civil Aviation are Commercial Air Transport, General Aviation and Aerial work. Due to absence of materials was impossible to write about military aviation. In the modern world air transport plays an integral role for cities and peripheral regions, it influences the economy of the country too16. Air transport also has an impact on improving the economic situation in the place where it is located. Each passenger who was served by the airport generates revenue for the tourism sector (figure 2).

16

Warszawa, p. 58. Tłoczyński D. (2003) Marketing strategies of polish airports: towards European Union. Konferencja Naukowa Młodych Ekonomistów. Warszawa, p. 2.

12

Fig. 2. International tourism receipts and arrivals Source: Annual report of the council. (2008) International Civil Aviation Organization. Chicago, p. 5.

Air transport as a part of the transport system allows quick access to all parts of the globe. It is related to various areas, economic and social, which interact with each other. Its main role is to transport people and goods. Thanks to air transport, tourists, technology, capital and foreign companies come to the region. The development of air transport should be the state's transport policy main objective, because it leads to social and economic development of the country.

1.2. Aviation infrastructure and its intermodal character
Infrastructure is one of the most important factors in developing countries. Its role is to unite transport, economic and social systems. Well-developed and well-designed, infrastructure "creates conditions for the operation and development of economy17". Unkempt and wrongly planned reduces the mobility of the country's inhabitants, closing the way to the development of entrepreneurship. Infrastructure policy should be long-term and assumed balanced development of transportation systems. Optimization should be a key factor in choosing the direction
17

W. Pomykały (Ed.) (1995). Encyklopedia biznesu. Fundacja Innowacja. Warszawa, p. 350.

13

and the rate of infrastructure development18. In fact, the strength of the global state determines good infrastructure and telecommunication, of which Germany is a good example. The concept of infrastructure comes from the English "infrastructure" and means the substructure of base. In Polish transport literature is defined as "systems and institutions which are necessary for the proper functioning of the departments of the economy19". Z. Dziembowski introduces an additional element to the above definition, which is the social factor. Infrastructure is treated as a "set of devices and institutions presenting a foundation for the operation in the area of the national economy and for the life of the population20". A. Pizkozub defines infrastructure as "a man-made, durable, localized, and linear objects for public use, which are foundation of socio-economic development because of their functions displacement of people and cargo, news, electricity and water21". W. Grzywacz defines infrastructure as "basic facilities and institutions with the necessary equipment, material and personnel, used to provide material and social conditions of any activity within the national economy as a whole or its individual departments, branches and base units that make up the socio-economic infrastructure22". M. Ciesielski shows the infrastructure "as an essential measure for the transport of cargo and the movement of people. In his opinion it affects the level of economic development and living standards of the society23". There are two types of infrastructure: point and linear. Linear air transport infrastructure consists of all airways, airport control areas and hub airports. When it comes to point air transport infrastructure, these are all objects and devices that allow access to the port from air and land. The major elements of point air transport infrastructure are airports, airfields and landing strips24. The beginning of air infrastructure goes back to the first half of the 19th century, when
18

19

20 21

22

23

24

Interview with chairman of Polish Chamber of Forwarding and Logistics Mr. Marek Tarczyński, carried out on 20.05.2010. Secomski K.(1974). Mała encyklopedia ekonomiczna. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne. Warszawa, p. 293. Dziembowski Z. (1985). Infrastruktura jako kategoria ekonomiczna. „Ekonomista” nr 4-5, p. 726. Piskozub A. (1982). Gospodarowanie w transporcie: podstawy teoretyczne. Wydawnictwo Łączność i Komunikacja. Warszawa, p. 41. Grzywacz W. (1982). Infrastruktura transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa, p. 34. Ciesielski M. (1992). Ekonomika infrastruktury transportowej. Wydawnictwo. Akademii Ekonomicznej. Poznań, p. 7. http://www.ulc.gov.pl – 13.03.2011.

14

first landing strip for gliders was organized. G. Cayley, who designed flight gliders, was often regarded as the "father of aviation25". He organized the first places for landings. Also thanks to him the first passenger flights were launched. Another pioneer was O. Lilienthal, who quickly understood the importance of aviation and its rule. Thanks to him there were more than two thousand flights in gliders from 1893 to 1896. Lilienthal died as a result of wounds suffered after the tragic landing in 1896, leaving behind a legend that inspired brothers Wright to create a flying machine with a motor powered by petrol26. Further driving forces for the development of air transport infrastructure were the events of two World Wars and the period between them. It was that time when people recognized that aviation played an important role in war and civil aspects of transport. Owing to German engineers and huge financial expenditures from the Third Reich, there was a great improvement in aviation technology from 1939 to 1945. New German aircrafts "Sztukas" with jet engine needed harder pavements of runways and their extension, as well as many other changes related to flight safety. After World War II there were very favorable conditions for the development of aviation and related transport. On the one side we had destruction of ground communications, on the other surpluses of military aircraft. There was also a requirement for assistance offered by the United States (Marshall Plan) for Latin America, Japan and Europe. All these factors have allowed the civil air transport to recover more rapidly and develop dynamically. The foundations of the modern airports in the world were formed from 1955 to 1970. That was caused by the development of technology in the aerospace industry. New aircraft required hardened runways, partly because they were heavier and partly because of the regularity of service, which they had to provide. The machines were susceptible to gusts of side winds that were making it difficult to land. Therefore, complex systems of approaches from 3 to 6 runways in a different direction were adopted in major international airports to improve safety and increase utility (Fig. 3). Large areas of runways often limited space to expand the airport. Over time, one of the runways, most often used to take off, began to be marked with lights. Terminals for passengers and baggage were built at the same time, as well as the conditions for the provision of non
25 26

http://www.ctie.monash.edu.au/hargrave/cayley.html – 12.05.2010 Graves R. (1998). Achievments – Land, Sea, Air: A Century of Conquest. Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. London. p. 11.

15

aeronautical services such as restaurants and free shops, etc. were created.

Fig. 3. Development of Praha-Ruzyně runway system Source: Kazda A. and Caves R. E. (2008). Airport design and operation – second edition. Elsevier. Oxford, p. 2.

Important changes concerning the airport development occurred after the introduction of jet aircraft. New machinery required extension of the runway – its widening and strengthening. Operations performed by the jets have an impact on the development of other facilities and technical resources, including fuel base system. This required not only a new fuel of better quality, but it also resulted in a greater consumption and the necessity to introduce non-traditional refueling technologies27. The introduction of a wide Boeing 747-100 in 1970 influenced the design of terminals. For B747-100 the runways and aprons have become a limit for operations at the airports. This results some problems in aircraft operations on taxiways. The former Boeing was able to replace two to three pre-serviced aircraft. As a result, the number of air operations has decreased while passenger traffic increased. B747-100 needed the bigger aprons, lights aids thru the landing, which resulted safer aircraft operations at the

27

Wells A.T. and Young s. (2004). Airport Planning & Management - 2th Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 57-63.

16

airport. This aircraft became the symbol of a new era of wide-body machine in the air transport, causing the need for airports to adapt to new standards28. Most of the changes at the airports were not dictated by technology, but by political and economic factors. In Europe in 1970s, airports had become a window to the world for many countries and an enforcement tool of governmental policy. After the successful privatization of the British Airport Authority and several European airports, many governments had radically changed their policy towards airports, in particular for their financing. Main factors influencing the development of airports from 1975 to 2001 include:  "threat of terrorism and fear of unlawful violence;  privatization of airports;  progressive deregulation of the air transport;  increasing impact of airports on the environment around them29". After the attacks of 11 September 2001, airports have been adopting new procedures related to security and check-in30 that include: sensitive metal detection scanners, electronic database of passengers, a ban on the transport of fluids and many more. Passenger terminals began to equip with the modern monitoring and airport in the double fences to prevent if appropriate of terrorists who could attack at any moment31. 21st century opened up new challenges for air transport due to globalization and terrorism. The changes appeared not only on the demand for air services, which dramatically increased, but also on the supply side, namely airports (e.g. safety and environmental protection)32. Many new procedures were aimed at ensuring the security of the check-in and security at the airport, as well as "the possibility to stop suspicious people without any reason33". In branch terms, airport, similarly to other modes of transport, plays a role in the stop or the station to a aircraft. Its main role is navigate the aircraft operations, which should

28

29

30 31 32

33

Lynn M. (1988). Birds of Prey: Boeing vs. Airbus: a Battle for skies. Four Walls Eight Windows. New York, p. 109. Kazda A. and Caves R. E. (2008). Airport design and operation – second edition. Elsevier. Oxford, p. 3-7. http://www.icao.int – 28.03.2010. http://www.wnp.pl – 28.03.2010. Button K., Piels E. (2010). International Air Transport: the impact of Globalisation on Activity Levels from Globalisation, Transport and the Environment. Clearance Center. OECD, p. 88. Aviation and Transportation Security Act 2001. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) within the U.S. Department of Transportation, p. 602.

17

be understood as all activities and responsibilities aimed at the smooth and secure adoption of means of transport to the area stations. The aviation maintenance tasks include:  "monitoring the traffic safety around the airport;  appointment of trans-shipment;  monitoring compliance with any provision at the airport34". Air Service is the guidance of an airplane in to the precinct of an airport, then its handling and sending out of the airport. Also the competence of services includes a number of additional activities, like: using machines in the field of aviation maintenance, servicing, repairs and maintenance areas - storage, lubricants and fuel. Airports serving over 2 million passengers per year require at least two operators of aviation fuel for aircraft (Recommendation of the European Commission35). Air traffic and related safety requirements have created the division of aviation operations in the three sectors:  TWR (Tower), which directs traffic around the Sphere Controlled Airports, the tower controller's range is 10 miles around the airport, less than 5 000 ft;  ACO (Approach Control Office), that supports the movement of aircraft moving within the Region Controlled Airports;  ACC (Area Control Center), which provides services related to air traffic control across the whole country or its nationality36. The role of the airport can also be seen in terms of intermodal, as a transportation point. W. Grzywacz defines it as "any place on the transport network, in which it is made, or may be made all the sub-transport operations such as loading, unloading, reloading, boarding, exiting, broadcast or refueling, etc., relating to passengers and cargo and means of transport, with the exception of the basic process of movement and possible emergency operations carried out on the route37". Transportation point in aviation terms is an airport, which performs the function of a transport hub. It provides services to passengers and their baggage and any activities

34

35 36 37

Ruciński A. (1986). Planowanie i lokalizacja sieci regionalnych portów lotniczych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 13. http://www.ec.europa.eu – 14.07.2010. Annex 11. Air Traffic Services -Thirteenth Edition. ICAO. July 2001, s. 1-3. Grzywacz W. (1982). Infrastruktura transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa. p. 38.

18

concerning the operation of aircraft with all the formalities. Its tasks also include the coordination of ground transportation with air traffic. Controlled air traffic by airport stimulates the relationships of aircrafts and other entities involved in these activities. We can mention ground handling agents, freight forwarders, airlines and other companies associated with air services.

Airport infrastructure is a complex system of facilities that are designed to fulfill transportation functions. It is a kind of foundation of the social and economic life, which makes it easier to function in today's world. Airports perform a function of modal and intermodal object in aviation infrastructure. They are complex transport points, which combine air systems with ground systems.

1.3. Functions and components of aviation infrastructure
There are many factors that influence airports: technological development, informatization, global trends, country development level and others. J.M. Thomson is one of the first researchers who took up this issue. He mentioned the following functions for airports:  "regional and regular air transport hubs;  occasional air transport hubs, tourism;  general, private and charter connections aviation hubs;  regional points of individual and sports aviation gravity38". S. Czecharowski describes the following functions:  "military – mainly visible during the war;  social – increase the mobility of inhabitants, improve the safety of region (fire and rescue aviation);  economic – influx of professionals and skilled workforce, development of city and region, increased income from tourism39".

38

39

Thomson J.M. (1978). Nowoczesna ekonomika transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa 1978, s. 39. Czecharowski S. (2002). „Polskie regionalne porty lotnicze po kilku latach”. Przegląd Komunikacyjny.

19

It is possible to study airports functions from the company view and its connection between clients and trade partners. As an enterprise, it is also engaged in non aeronautical business like tourist, information, post, car rental, currency exchange offices, duty-free shops, hotels, banquet halls and others. There are also forwarding agents and representatives of air carriers operating at the airport. Additional services provided by airport are bus, taxi and rail. Also airport operate car parks for passengers leaving their car to the flight. Airport to perform its function must consist of certain elements of the aviation infrastructure, which are40:  "movement area – That part of an aerodrome used for take-off, landing and aircraft's taxiing, consisting of the maneuvering area and apron(s);  apron – A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance;  landing area – That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft;  runway strip – A defined area including runway and stopway, if provided;  runway – A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for landing and take-off". The runway's size (length and width) determine the type and size of aircraft (wingspan, wheelbase chassis, weight), which can operate on it. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) developed a reference key to categorize airports, as shown in table 2;  "non-instrument runway – A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures;  instrument runway – One of the following types of runways intended for aircraft operation using instrument approach procedures;  runway end safety area (RESA) – An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway;  taxiway – A defined path on a land aerodrome established for aircraft's taxiing and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another;  side area – includes communications infrastructure (road and railways), parking,

40

nr 7-8, p. 23. Annex 14. Aerodromes - Volume I Aerodrome design and operations – Third Edition. ICAO. July 1999, p. 4-5.

20

parking spaces for taxis, bus stops, etc".  "shoulder – An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement prepared in such a way as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface41"; Table 2. Aerodrome reference code – according to ICAO Code element 1 Code element 2 Code number 1 2 3 4 Aeroplane reference field length Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1 200 m 1 200 m up to but not including 1 800 m 1 800 m and over Code letter A B C D E F Wing span Up to but not including 15 m 15 m up to but not including 24 m 24 m up to but not including 36 m 36 m up to but not including 52 m 52 m up to but not including 65 m 65 m up to but not including 80 m Outer main gear wheel span* Up to but not including 4.5 m 4.5 m up to but not including 6 m 6 m up to but not including 9 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m 14 m up to but not including 16 m

* Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels. Note.— Guidance on planning for aeroplanes with wing spans greater than 80 m is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Parts 1 and 2. Source: Annex 14. Aerodromes - Volume I Aerodrome design and operations – Third Edition. ICAO. July 1999, p. 6A.

In addition to basic aviation infrastructure, each airport also has additional navigation aids equipment, among which the following models may be mentioned42:  ILS (Instrument Landing System) – British navigation system for aircraft that consists of three components: – VHF marker beacons (MB). It is a device operating on VHF frequency of 150 MHz . It consists of two parts: Outer Marker and Middle Marker. MB serves for pilots to check the correct height of the aircraft. – UHF glide path (GP) – antenna installed from 225 m to 380 m from the end of the runway, and from 120 m to 210 m from the central line of the runway.

41

42

Annex 14. Aerodromes - Volume I Aerodrome design and operations – Third Edition. ICAO. July 1999, p. 6A. Annex 10, Volume I - Radio Navigation Aids – Fifth Edition. ICAO. July 1996, p. 5 – 43.

21

Operates on UHF 328,6 MHz – 335,4 MHz . The GP transmitter sends signals at 150 MHz under the track and 90 MHz above the track; – VHZ localizer (LZZ) – this is a massive antenna with oblong-shaped stretched net. It is located from 300m to 600m beyond the end of RESA, extending along the central line of the runway. Operates on 108 MHz – 111,975 MHz.  MLS (Microwave Landing System) - it is a navigation system for aircraft from Australia. This system operates at frequency ranging from 5 MHz to 031.0 MHz 5 090.7, operating in 200 channels (by comparing the ILS system supports only 40 channels). The system is resistant to any kind of interference, moving objects or snow (more resistant to the ILS). It has 5 functions: the approach azimuth, back azimuth, approach to raise, range, data communication;  GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) – United States navigational assistance system based on GPS technology (originally used for the military). System complying with ICAO standards for basic navigation, the initial approach procedures and other procedures (but is not as accurate as ILS, or IMS);  WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System), system based on GPS technology, which covers only the United States;  VOR (VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range) – system based on the operation frequency of 108.0 MHz - 117.95 MHz with 50 MHz with channel separation. The signal transmitted from the device is practically impervious to weather conditions. It is mainly located at elevations of land. Combined with the DME give as clean and very well-determined positions for aircraft and applying fixes that allow a very accurate navigation;  DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) – compatible with the VOR system gives the precise position. It works with a number of aircraft;  TLS (Transponder Landing System) – system similar to ILS, which can help guide 25 aircraft, but only one airplane may be approached on the runway43. On the aviation infrastructure, also consist of additional elements. These include energy networks, communications and water supply connections. These media allow proper operating of the airport. Further elements may include various systems important for aviation operations such as building services, e.g. fire brigades, mechanics, and many

43

http://www.gaavionics.com/tls.htm – 11.07.2010.

22

others. Also in the airport infrastructure are facilities for loading and unloading airplanes and the technical services. The addition infrastructure consists:  "terminal facilities with technical departments of inspection and any facilities to conduct non-air services;  technical facilities (hangars, petrol station, garage and fire brigade’s buildings);  maneuvering surfaces – aprons, airplane parking and bays44". There is also additional infrastructure, which aims at improving the functioning of airports, securing sustainability and exploitation of infrastructure45.

Airport infrastructure meets important functions for society, economy, transportation and army. In 21th Century it is simply essential for proper development of country. Basic elements of aviation infrastructure are runways, aprons, taxiway system and facilities for navigation

1.4. Characteristics of Polish airports
There are 11 airports in Poland that differ in level of infrastructural development, effects of technical solutions and capacity which is shown on table 3. The majority of airports were transformed from military airports to civil ones. The exceptions are: Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, which was built originally as for civil aviation in 1970s and Zielona Góra – Babimost Airport, used in civil-military relations. In Poland a number of investments related to airports have taken place. The government builds and upgrades roads and linear infrastructure which is designed to smooth communication between airport and city, region and other branches of shipping points.

44

45

Czownicki J. and Rzeczyński B. (1980). Środki pracy transportu lotniczego. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa, p. 72. Grzywacz W. (1982). Infrastruktura transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa. p. 37-38.

23

Table 3. Current capacity of airports in Poland and planned after 2015
Airport
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Warsaw Chopin Airport Karków Airport Katowice Airport Wrocław Airport Poznań-Ławica Airport Łódź Airport Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport Szczecin-Goleniów Airport Bydgoszcz Airport Current capacity 12,95 milion 3,06 milion 4,00 milion 1,50 milion 1,50 milion 3,64 milion 3,00 milion 0,85 milion 0,28 milion 1,15 milion 0,15 milion

Planned capacity after 2015 15 milion 8 milion 5,5 milion 7 milion 3 milion 5,64 milion 7 milion – 3 milion 1,5 milion – ok. 56 milion

10. Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport 11. Zielona Góra-Babimost Airport

Total

32,08 milion

Source: Own elaboration based on: http://www.airport.com.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.gdansk.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.lodz.pl -11.07.2010., http://www.airport.wroclaw.pl -11.07.2010., http://www.airport-poznan.com.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.katowice-airport.com - 11.07.2010., http://www.krakowairport.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.lotnisko.zielonagora.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.lotnisko-chopina.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.rzeszowairport.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.plb.pl - 11.07.2010.

Polish Government's Policy implies the development of the regions based on the modernization of existing airports or building new ones. On 8 May 2007 Polish government adopted a "Program of Development of Airports and Ground Equipment". That document clarifies rules for financing, entities responsible for carrying out tasks and objectives to be achieved to improve the competitiveness of Polish airports. The program contains also information determining the rules for modernization and expansion of aviation infrastructure and setting up airports. The main purpose of the document is to support development of airports infrastructure within TEN-T, which

is a key of airport infrastructure of the country, part of the European infrastructure and the development of navigation infrastructure (aviation ground equipment) until 202046. Polish Government's Policy intends to obtain air services across the whole Poland as well as equal level of access to air transport. The adopted directions are designed to adjust the domestic market to other European Union markets in developed countries and prepare the country for Euro 2012. Developing a network of airports has to go hand in hand with the development of regions and improvement of socio-economic conditions.
46

Program rozwoju sieci lotnisk i lotniczych urządzeń naziemnych. Załącznik do uchwały Rady Ministrów nr. 86/2007 z dnia 8 maja 2007 roku, Warszawa s. 6.

24

Fig. 4. Existing airports in Poland and proposed to run Source: Own elaboration based on: http://wwww.airport.gdynia.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.modlinairport.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.sochaczewairport.com 11.07.2010., http://www.lotnisko-radom.eu 11.07.2010., http://www.portlotniczy.lublin.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.mazuryairport.com - 11.07.2010., http://www.plksa.eu - 11.07.2010., http://www.portlotniczy.lublin.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.ulc.gov.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.com.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.gdansk.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.lodz.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.airport.wroclaw.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.airportpoznan.com.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.katowice-airport.com - 11.07.2010., http://www.krakowairport.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.lotnisko.zielonagora.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.lotnisko-chopina.pl 11.07.2010., http://www.rzeszowairport.pl - 11.07.2010., http://www.plb.pl 11.07.2010.

The strategic location of Poland in Europe makes the country a good place for investments. Looking by the airways, Poland is a bridge between the European Union and the East. Thanks to launching data from the years 2004 - 2010, it was possible to compare the state before the Polish accession to the European Union and after, which is shown in table 4.

25

Table 4. The number of passengers in regular and charter traffic at Polish airports from 2004 to 2010.
Airport 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Warsaw Chopin Airport Karków Airport Katowice Airport Wrocław Airport Poznań-Ławica Airport Łódź Airport Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport Szczecin-Goleniów Airport Bydgoszcz Airport 2004 6 085 111 803 161 579 893 355 431 351 036 6 226 463 840 90 811 25354 70 100 3 949 8 834 912 2006 8101827 2 347 528 1 438 552 857 931 637 021 204 718 1 249 780 176 670 133 009 206 934 8 316 15 362 286 2008 9 436 958 2 895 262 2 406 591 1 480 463 1 255 884 341 788 1 951 051 298 576 264 910 321 034 5 237 20 657 754 2010 8 666 552 2 839 124 2 366 410 1 598 693 1 384 311 413 662 2 210 066 268 563 266 480 451 720 3 637 20 469 218

10. Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport 11. Zielona Airport Góra-Babimost Total

amplitude expressed in percent

100,00%

Increase of 73,88%

Increase of 34,47%

Decline of 0,99%

Source: Own elaboration based on: statistical materials from Civil Aviation Authority

Table 4 shows numbers of passengers since Polish accession to the European Union in 2-year intervals. Clearly the table shows that Polish accession to the European community contributed to an increase in passengers handled by 73.88% in 2 years time. Next period from 2006 to 2008 shows a further increase of 34.47%. From 2008 to 2010 we can observe a very interesting period during which the global crisis of demand for air services took place. Interestingly, some airports recorded a steady increase in passenger service –Wrocław Airport, Poznań-Ławica Airport, Łódź Airport, Gdansk Lech Walesa
Airport, Bydgoszcz Airport and Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport. During the crisis, most

affected airport was Warsaw Chopin Airport, which handled 770 406 passengers less than two years earlier. So increases or decreases in passenger service among airports in Poland were determined by the structure of the airlines operating in the airports. Airports dominated by low-cost airlines have increased air traffic. Warsaw Chopin Airport is an example that servicing mainly traditional airlines is not viable from the point of economic calculation. An example of potential of low-cost airlines to increase passenger service is Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, Łódź Airport, Wrocław Airport, Kraków Airport and Katowice Airport. 26

Currently, there are more regional airports in Poland, which is showed in table 5. Polish airports development is connected with low-cost airlines, which enabled cheaper flights and modernization through EURO 2012. The main determinants of the development of Polish airports will be the regions and their policy towards air transport. Table 5. Categories of public airports in Poland* A a community wide airport; more than 10 million passengers; B C D (D) a national airport a large regional airport; a small regional airport; a local airport; 5-10 million passengers 1-5 million passengers to 1 million passengers to 200 thousand passengers

*Polish ports have the following signatures in the city: B - Warszawa; C – Kraków, Katowice, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk; D – Łódź, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz, Rzeszów; (D) – Zielona Góra. Source: European Commission Communication of 9 December 2005. (KE, C312/01)

Nowadays airports in Poland flourish, which is due to the presence of Poland in the EU and preparations related to the handling of EURO 2012. Growing demand for air transport was due to low-cost airlines, which in the Polish market came after 2004.

27

CHAPTER 2

ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF AIRPORTS AND THE AIRPORT BUSINESS
2.1. Economic functions
In period from 1980 to 1999, world production, trade, finance and movement of people expanded quickly. The world's economy has reorganized transport and infrastructure, which have become extremely important for the region's prosperity. In economics, an efficient and globally-oriented, low-cost movement of goods, people and information is necessary to built competitiveness. Airports connect economy of cities and regions with the global economy47. Increased activity of passengers and movement around airports have led to the development of trans-shipment, warehousing, logistics, communications, manufacturing, research, development, education, retail, and even entertainment. Currently, air transport is a key element that connects people and industries with other cities and regions in the world48. The increase in passenger flights, starting in the late 1990's, significantly influenced the perception of the role of airports. Direct, indirect and catalytic effects of air transport in the region are fully visible at international airports as a hub49. Airport is a very important element for development of cities and regions. It helps them to develop tourism and the manufacturing sector of specialized services. After 2000, an export of high technology products depends on efficient and reliable air transport50. Eventually, to compete economically, the city must be connected to appropriate global distribution systems which must provide services in short periods of time (up to 24 - 48 hours). In order to achieve economic growth in the regions, development must begin with a quality of airports.
47

Airports are not working only

48

49

50

Borchert J.G.. (Ed)(2007). Airports as Cityports in the City-region. Nederlandse Geografische Studies. Utrecht, p. 91-93. Krul J. (3 December 2009). The Airport City: an economic engine for growth and prosperity. Qlair. Amsterdam. University of Karlsruhe and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (9-10 July 2009). From Airport City to Airport Region? 1st International Colloquium on Airports and Spatial Development. Karlsruhe, p. 4. http://economist.com –25.07.2010.

28

to handle the flow of movement of people, but also for business and trade. As a result, these companies are located in close proximity to airport. Local authorities and private companies are responsible for proper planning of technology parks around the airport. Many cities are trying to locate airport near the rail and road infrastructure, sea ports, in order to create the best system for transportation, distribution and information flow. Logistics centers and trade areas are located near airports function as magnet for many companies' investments. International airports surroundings offer a full range of business services of high quality, spectrum of trade, recreational and entertainment services. Location near the airport is becoming increasingly recognized as economically most appropriate for corporate offices, regional offices and service centers, where employees must travel long distances51. Studies conducted in the United States and Europe have shown that the most important factor taken into account in establishing the location of headquarters of foreign companies is the presence of an airport. City or region without efficient infrastructure, particularly air one, cannot attract large investments. This includes not only investment concerning airport or its surrounding. European, American and Asian experiences show the importance of airports in improving attractiveness and deciding on the industry's location. According to EU standards, by using a linear transport infrastructure, it should take 60-90 minutes to get to an airport52. For example, the location of many companies in the zone of London in England was dictated by the availability of national roads and proximity to London Heathrow Airport. For many enterprises, the presence of an airport is a key factor in choosing a location for business53. Studies conducted in the region of Amsterdam showed that 72% of large international companies have chosen industrial locations in these regions due to the presence of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol54. According to the development plan, the area around the airport is designed for business and industry. They offer a low risk of conflicts using these areas with the locals, because they are generally dismissed. For

51

52

53

54

Knippenberger U. and Walls A. (2010). Airports in Cities and Regions – Research and Practise. Scientific Publishing. Karlsruhe, p. 174. Program rozwoju sieci lotnisk i lotniczych urządzeń naziemnych. Załącznik do uchwały Rady Ministrów nr. 86/2007 z dnia 8 maja 2007 roku, Warszawa p. 6. Oxford Economic Forecasting. (2006). The Economic Contribution of the Aviation Industry in the UK. Oxford, p. 46. http://www.aci-europe.org – 25.07.2010.

29

this reason, these sites are very attractive for trade, business and industry on different scale. Well connected airports with a city attract specialized sectors of industry with related financial capital and human resources. The market potential of the airport city does

not include only the direct users of the airport (travelers in the company and employees), but also other people not related to flights. An example is Malaysia's Kuala Lumpur International Airport, which organizes all kinds of events which are not related to aviation55. Accommodation around the airport is usually intended for short periods and therefore, there must be adequate access for people who have to visit these places simply out of necessity (the delay of flights due to unfavorable weather conditions), or for business purposes. Near the airports are located various standard accommodation. Some groups of companies (particularly extended geographically) can, for example, rent a conference room with catering and hotel. With the development of trade, recreation and entertainment, giant international airports have begun to compete with cities where these airports are located. Examples are Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Singapore Changi International Airport, Dubai International Airport, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and Frankfurt Airport. They have become known as shopping malls, leisure and entertainment for travelers and local people56. The existence of retail, recreation, leisure, and entertainment offered by airports, brings financial benefit and the economy to cities and regions. Air transport includes employment in airports and airlines, aircraft maintenance, air traffic control, passenger service and any available additional services related to tourism or business. Not all of these activities take place in the airport, some are provided in the nearest city or region. Additional services for the air operation, expansion or modernization of the airport are companies involved in supply of aviation fuel, construction companies, engineering workshops of aircraft maintenance, accounting, IT and all services necessary for smooth functioning of the airport, for instance are the fire brigade or customs office. Because of its nature and many economic functions, air transport also creates workplaces which is showed table 6.
55 56

http://www.klia.com.my – info dated 25.07.2010. Van Wijk M. (2007). “Development of Airport Regions: Varieties of Institutions in Schiphol and Frankfurt”. Aerlines. Amsterdam, p. 2-3.

30

Table 6. Direct employment by sector in the air transport industry, 2004 Area Sector Employment Employment (million) Airport operators Civil aerospace Europe Airlines Other on-site airport jobs Total Airport operators Civil aerospace World Airlines Other on-site airport jobs Total 0,16 0,31 0,75 0,31 1,53 0,38 0,78 2 2,3 5,46 (%) 11 20 49 20 100 7 14 37 42 100

Source: The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2004. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland, p. 6, 25.

Economic functions of airports are related to trade and their impact on growth of cities and regions, where they are located.

2.2. Non-economic functions
Economic benefits that flow to all regions of Europe with a strong and rapidly growing air transport are significant. There are also social benefits. Airports play an important role in the integration of peripheral areas of Europe such as northern Scandinavia and southern Italy. They influence region's economy success through the use and promotion of local services such as education, healthcare, sports, recreation and culture. The importance of improving the regions' competitiveness has been particularly visible in the report of Committee of the Regions into Regional Airport Capacity57. The document shows that northern Sweden and southern Italy have become more competitive through the development of air transport. Experience of northern Scandinavia or France (Courchevel Airport), shows that

57

http:/www.cor.europa.eu – 05.08.2010.

31

airways are the only means of connection that enables efficient communication with the rest of the country. Social and economic benefits are very difficult to estimate.

However, they are crucial to the development of peripheral regions in Europe. The presence of airport in urban environment will have an increasing impact on quality of life for its citizens. In global economy a basis for market development are good communication and ability to compete. Nowadays companies do not compete directly with each other, but by the regions in which they are located58. In regions with the proximity of active airports, reduction in unemployment, increase of the supply of skilled human resources, infrastructure expansion and modernization of the linear, creating workplaces and other positive effects are observed. The presence of an airport certainly enhances attractiveness of the city, region, and enables promotion the international level. In addition, they serve as a business card of a region. Today thanks to globalization old borders were changed. New factors arose, which creates borders of regions59. It means that the traditional and geographical territorial accuracy becomes less important. Spatial proximity is no longer the sole basis of social and economic interaction. There have been great changes in politics, elites, pressure networks and social. Airports' neighborhood has become a critical factor in region's prosperity60. One example of this is the fact of jobs being generated by air transport, which figure 5 shows.

58

59

60

de Jong B., Suau-Sanchez P. and Droß M. (2009). “The underestimated Airport Region: Reflecting on Planning Policies in the Airport Regions of Amsterdam”. Aerlines. Barcelona and Munich, p. 1-2. Dicken P. (2007). Global Shift: Mappinig the changing contours of world economy - 5th edition. SAGE Publications Ltd. London, p. 39. Güller M. and Güller M. (2001). From airport to airport city. Airport Regions Conference. Barcelona, p. 9.

32

Air transport industry

Civil aerospace sector Civil aerospace; Airframes; Engines; Equipment; Off-site maintenance.

Aviation sector Airlines; Airport & services; Air navigation; Passenger carriers; Civil airports; Service Air cargo carriers; General aviation providers. Airline ticketing; airports; Handling & General aviation. catering; Freight services; Aircraft maintenance; Fuelling on-site; Retail.

Direct employment Indirect employment

Induced (spending of direct & indirect employees); Food & beverages: Recreation & leisure; Transport Clothing; Household foods.

żywność i napoje; transport;

Suppliers: Off-site fuel suppliers; Food & beverage; Construction. Manufacturing: Computers/electronics; Retail goods. Business services: Call centers; Accountants; Lawyers, banks; Computer software.

Catalytic effect (impact on other branches) Trade; Tourism; Location/investment; Labour supply; Productivity/Market efficiency; Consumer welfare/social; Congestion/Environmental; Education; Public Sector; Infrastructure; Economic Growth
Fig. 5. The impact of air transport for employment in the region Source: The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2004. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland. p. 5., Oxford Economic Forecasting. (2006). The Economic Contribution of the Aviation Industry in the UK. Oxford, p. 13-22.

The presence of an airport affects the employment structure, which table 7 shows.

33

Table 7. Change in Jobs in Manufacturing by Victoria Airport Authority Sector 1986 2001 Change Factory Jobs Office Jobs Transport Jobs Sales Jobs Others Jobs 57 % 27 % 8% 4% 4% 41 % 36 % 15 % 5% 3% – 16 % +9% +7% +1% –1%

Source: SGS Economics & Planning Pty.(2007). Southeast Land Use Planning Review. Melbourne, p. 34.

Air transport also enables rapid response to emergency and humanitarian aid sent to any location on earth. It provides the fastest delivery of drugs that are needed to save one's life. An example is "Flying hospital" on board of Lockheed L-1011(Fig. 6), which provides free medical services. The owner of „flying hospital" is Mercy Airlift whose mission is to ensure medical support and humanitarian assistance to the poor inhabitants of third world countries. They also provide assistance during natural disasters. They have been carrying out nonprofit activities since 196861.

Fig. 6. Inside of flying hospital – aircraft Lockheed L-1011 Source: http://mercyairlift.org – 05.08.2010.

In addition to its economic functions, aviation also has major impact on the environment. Currently, technology related to air transport allows reducing its impacts of pollution and noise associated with it. Many European airports are slowly starting
61

www.mercyairlift.org – 05.08.2010.

34

to reach its maximum capacity and it is necessary to build new airports to handle the growing passenger traffic and cargo. Therefore, increasing air traffic will continue to influence the region and the environment.

Non-economic functions of airports are related with effects on environment and citizens of cities and regions.

2.3. Characteristics of the airport business
In the period 1946-1960 air transport was seen as an arm of government in the conduct of international politics. In 20 years time, it turned out that airports can generate significant profits and improves region's attractiveness. Currently, there are similar problems associated with activities of the of aviation infrastructure, namely:  privatization;  growing shortage of airport capacity;  terrorism;  infrastructural and developmental policy of state and region;  non-aeronautical sources financing of airports;  linear communication between an airport and a city (congestion);  cost strategy;  traffic management system;  airport activities and development of region and country;  other economic and non-economic issues related to airport functions62. Since 1980s, airports around the world have begun to make a lot of money, which table 8 shows. The airport can be called a cross-industry company that provides many services more or less related to air transport. It is a station, where the exchange of passengers and goods between open air and the earth's surface take place. In addition, airport can deal with trade and service, and various types of companies can be located there. All parts of an airport do not have to belong to the executive. In the United States,
62

http://www.infoair.pl – 23.08.2010.

35

many airlines have their airport terminals63, in France a lot of ground facilities is controlled by the government, not by local chambers of commerce that run the airports. Table 8. Reported surplus or deficit of major European airports 1983 and 1989
Airport 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. London Heathrow London Gatwick Manchester Frankfurt Dublin Amsterdam Glasgow Nice Rome 832 000 £ 988 000 £ 91 000 £ 1 393 000 £ 2 435 000 £ 1 999 000 £ - 287 000 £ 524 000 £ 153 000 £ 92 583 000 £ 100 % 965 000 £ 584 000 £ 365 933 000 £ 299 % 1983 year 50 307 000 £ 5 829 000 £ 13 791 000 £ 7 615 000 £ 5 765 000 £ 951 000 £ 2 475 000 £ 2 679 000 £ - 4 953 000 £ 1989 year 145 000 000 £ 54 900 000 £ 29 834 000 £ 56 008 000 £ 17 631 000 £ 14 199 000 £ 12 400 000 £ 5 979 000 £ 6 308 000 £ 4 953 000 £ 3 367 000 £ 1 140 000 £ 4 848 000 £ 5 721 000 £ 2 238 000 £ - 142 000 £

10. Copenhagen 11. Belfast 12. Milan 13. Birmingham 14. Vienna 15. East Midlands 16. Marseille 17. Geneva 18. Bazylea-Mulhouse Total Percentage change

Source: Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York, p. 2.

From 1990 to 2000, the number of passengers in air transport doubled64. This has led to capacity problems existing airports. It was necessary to construct new airports, or expand the existing ones. The priority airports development should be investments to improve communication line (city-airport), improvement of transportation systems, improvement of procedures related to aircraft maintenance, environmental issues and noise should be priorities.
63 64

http://www.airliners.net – 24.08.2010. http://www.epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu – 21.03.2011.

36

The sources of revenues at the airport are aeronautical-revenues and non-aeronautical revenues. The first include landing fees for "aircraft landing, departing passenger, aircraft stop and ground handling65". Airports deal with different types of ground support, we can mention here: cleaning, providing air, food, sanitary waste handling, refueling, loading and unloading goods to/from aircraft. Others ground operations are, control the movement within area of the airport, check-in, transporting passengers to/from terminal facilities (some airports have passenger loading bridges other do not). Ground handling at the airport may be provided by:  "airports, e.g.: in Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Paris, Milan, Rome and Vienna;  airlines, e.g.: in Copenhagen, Dublin, Gene, Heathrow, Marseille and Nice;  mixed (airports and airlines) e.g.: in United Kingdom, Lisbon and Bordeaux"66.  handling agents. Non-aeronautical revenues include charges for the airport's area lease for specialized companies providing various services in the delivery to entertainment and leisure passengers. It happens also that airports involved in offering services to travelers make the time spent at the airport pleasant. In large and very well-developed airports are restaurants, bars, car rental and conference rooms. These objects are usually located in terminal facilities or in landside of an airport. An example showing the use of airport area is Frankfurt Airport, where there are:  cinemas;  discos;  shopping malls;  supermarkets;  hotels;  restaurants and cafés;  conference centers;  hairdressers;  beauty centers;  and much more67.

65

66 67

Rucińskiego A. (Ed) (2006). Porty Lotnicze wobec polityki otwartego nieba. Fundacja Rozwoju Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 45. Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York, p. 9. http://www.frankfurt-airport.com – 10.05.2011

37

Depending on the specific activities of commercial air traffic may be different from each step and the ability to meet the needs of passengers, but even so it remains one of the elements of business aviation. Variations between airports and their businesses are different factors inter alia from who services come (airports authority, air carriers, government, local authorities or private companies), airport development and needs, which must satisfy. Around airports are built small towns (airport-cities)68. The development of such a small town is predicated basing on relevant factors, which figure 7 shows.

Fig. 7. Success factor for airport city Source: Knippenberger U. and Wall A. (2010). Airports in Cities and Regions – Research and Practise. Scientific Publishing. Karlsruhe, p. 157.

Revenues

are

associated

with

the

costs

of

developing

this

activity.

In a study conducted by the London University are listed 6 basic groups of the costs incurred by the airport. The main costs of the airport are shown in table 9.

68

Knippenberger U. and Wall A. (2010). Airports in Cities and Regions – Research and Practise. Scientific Publishing. Karlsruhe, p. 156.

38

Table 9. Average cost structures of western European airports Cost Cost structure Staff Capital Services Maintenance Administration Other operations 42% 22% 12% 9% 4% 11%

Source: Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York, p. 48.

Table 9 shows the results of research made by scientists from the University of London, who specified average cost structures of western European airports. The biggest cost is staff (42%) and the smallest are administration (4%). The lowest costs were found in airports, where airlines were engaged in passengers servicing and managers’ commercial activities from outside69. The basic unit cost by function is the unit cost of passenger service. The cost of operating a passenger falls in direct proportion the number of passengers handled, as shown in figure 8.

Fig. 8. Airport long-run cost curve Source: Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York, p. 52.

Airport Business is carried out by various entities, which may include airports, specialized company engaged in the management of airports and companies operating within the airport.

69

Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York, p. 48.

39

2.4. Planning and an outline of Master Plan of an airport
Growing air traffic forced airport to strategic planning of air transport infrastructure. American experience suggests that capacity of airport infrastructure after modernization should be sufficient for 10-20 years of service70. Practice shows that

it is worthwhile to invest in building new runways and rapid exit taxiways. It is important for the investments to take into consideration modern and effective approach systems for aircraft. Changes must be applicable to spatial development of air and ground so that continuing expansion could be possible without unnecessary interruptions in airport functioning. Air infrastructure planning must take into consideration the following factors:  "passenger and freight demand for services provided by airports;  airline demand;  characteristics of function, size, weight and type of potential aircraft that will use the airport;  meteorological and weather conditions for airports;  the economic situation of the region;  size and type of market served by the airlines and aircraft operating;  navigation restrictions and navigation capabilities for flight space;  compliance with local spatial development plan71". At the design and development of the airport used the Master Plan the concept of long-term development of the airport72. Master Plan elements are the transportation system and safety procedures. The transport system includes both the system at the airport and its connection to the city, as shown in figure 9.

70 71

72

http://www.faa.gov –20.09.2010. Whitford R. K. Airport Planning and design in Chen W. F. (2004). The Civil Engineering Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press LLC. New York, p. 2046. FAA (1985). FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5050-6A. Washington, p. 2.

40

Fig. 9. The airport system Source: Elaboration based on: Whitford R. K. Airport Planning and design: in Chen W. F. (Ed)(2004). The Civil Engineering Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press LLC. New York, p. 2260, Wells A.T. and Young S. (2004). Airport Planning & Management - 2th Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 101.

Communication systems at the airports share common characteristics, such as ways of exchanging goods, people and mail. Solution of the movement at the airport can be considered:  American solution in rapid exit taxiways;  European expertise in the field of terminals logistics;  Asian solutions for architecture design, handling airports and the movement of cargo in logistic systems;  practices used by some airlines (design and management of terminals, methods of promotion, and tested information systems); 41

 the newest construction technologies in design, materials and future energy-saving functioning. The foundation for the construction, expansion or modernization of airport is a "master plan", which is a basic document needed to start investing. It not only assumes physical form of development, but also the financial and other related implications for local economy and inhabitants73. The basis for such a project should be the future of building infrastructure and its development. The environmental and social issues of the region should not be forgotten. A Master Plan consists of the elements, as shown table 10. Table 10. Elements of a Master Plan Concluded Socio-economic profiles community and region of

Required the Organization and Before Planning

Airport activity, role, classification and Existing Conditions and Issues history Airfield, air terminal building and ground Aviation Demand Forecast transportation systems Airport commercial facilities services and Required Analysis Development Airport Site Selection and Concepts

Airport operational support services

Airport environment and environmental Environmental Procedures and Analysis impact Noise management plan Land use plan Others depending on needs and plans Simulations Airport plans Plan Implementation

Source: Jacobs Consultancy (2009). Airport Master Plan Update, Executive Summary. Ottawa, p. 1-2. and FAA (1985). FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5050-6A. Washington, p. 10-11.

Master Plans differ from each other, that why in the world specialized aviation organizations have issued recommendations in relation to Master Plans' design (the FAA - the U.S., ICAO - Europe). Good practice shows that it is worthwhile to use already tested design and implement the best standards. Designed by ICAO Master Plan is shown in table 11.

73

FAA (1985). Advisory Circular AC 150/5050-6A. Washington, p. 2.

42

Table 11. The outline of a Master Plan, according to ICAO
Planning step 1. 2. 3. Pre-planning consideration Forecasting purposes for Description Coordination, planning procedure, planning organization, goals, and policy objects.

planning Requirements, forecasts required accuracy, methods and principles of forecasting, factors, presentation of forecasts.

Financial arrangements and Capital costs: currency requirements, source of funds, controls domestic and foreign financing. Operational costs: sources of income. Financial control and accounting. Site evaluation and selection Land required location of potential sites, factors affecting airport location, preliminary study of possible sites, site inspection; operational, social, and cost considerations, environmental study, review of potential sites, outline plans and estimates of costs and revenues, final evaluation. Runways and taxiways Aprons Dimensions, strength; aircraft characteristics, performance, and runway length; configuration. Airfield capacity. Layout of aprons, size of stands, parking, service, and hangar aprons, holding bays, security, apron accommodations.

4.

5. 6. 7.

Air and ground navigational Visual aids, radio navigation aids and their buildings, and traffic control aids demarcation of critical areas, air traffic services, search and rescue services, apron control, communications. Passenger buildings Planning principles, airport traffic and service characteristics, factors affecting scale of services to be supplied, capacity and demand. Connection of passenger building to access system, passenger and baggage processing, waiting areas, governmental frontier controls, air-side linkages, apron passengers vehicles, transit and transfer passengers, passengers amenities and other passengers building services. Site, function and type of buildings, apron, facility requirements, access, parking inspection, and control.

8.

9.

Cargo buildings

10. Ground transport and Private and public transport modes, traffic data, internal internal airport vehicle roadway circulation, curbside, vehicle parking. circulation and parking 11. Airport operations support facilities and Administration and maintenance, medical centre, ground vehicle fuel stations, generating stations, water supply and sanitation, flight catering, kitchens; meteorological services, aircrew briefing and reporting, aircraft maintenance, rescue and fire-fighting, general aviation facilities, aircraft fuel facilities. Air-side security: roads, fencing, isolated parking position, security parking area, emergency explosive holding area. Land-side security: passenger buildings, public storage lockers.

12. Security

Source: Ashford N. and Wright P. H. (1992). Airport Engineering, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York / Chichester / Brisbane / Toronto / Singapore, p. 132-133.

43

The process of selecting final concept of a Master Plan may not always be similar. Worldwide experience shows that it depends of environmental conditions, ideas and innovative solutions. Rapidly developing Asian countries are building beautiful and functional airports, which can be regarded as miracles of modern architecture - Hong Kong International Airport74. Europeans improve the existing infrastructure to support economic development of the region. Americans are investing in newest technology, improving safety and coordination of work between airports. Despite differences across the globe, some aspects of a Master Plan remain the same, among them the following may be mentioned:  "number and type of runways;  number and type of taxiways;  size and shape of maneuvering squares;  size and shape of terrain;  topography and soil conditions;  navigation barriers;  required distance from land usage;  use of areas around the airport;  time and scale of airport expansion;  meteorological conditions;  size and scale of projected aviation infrastructure objects"75. While creating a final version of a Master Plan should be take into consideration existing resources, demand and future use of the airport, which shown table 12.

74 75

http://www.hongkongairport.com – 28.09.2010. Ashford N. and Wright P. H. (1992). Airport Engineering, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York / Chichester / Brisbane / Toronto / Singapore, p. 133.

44

Table 12. Data needed to create a Master Plan
1. Passengers: Annual passenger movements over the last 10 years. Monthly passenger movements over the last 5 years. Hourly movements for 10 peak days during the last 5 years. Aircraft: Annual passenger movements over the last 10 years. Monthly passenger movements over the last 5 years. Hourly movements for 10 peak days during the last 5 years. Airlines' and ICAO estimates growth, both domestic and international. Current and future aircraft fleet mix over the next 15 years. Historical patterns of military movements and estimates of growth of these movements if an airport is a shared facility. Scheduled patterns of operating airlines. 2. Environmental Local panning regulations. Local development plans, both detailed and Data structural, indicating plans for metropolitan and regional development. 3. Physical Data Description and modal share of existing access modes. Meteorological data – wind records, rainfall, snow, visibility periods. Topographical details to approximately 30 km (18 mi) around each airport contours to 10 m on a scale of 1:50 000. More detailed topography to a limit of 3-5 km (2-3 mi) outside airport boundary to a contour of approximately 1 m, on a scale of 1:2000. As built plans of existing facilities with details of ownership. Detailed breakdown of square footage of existing building space allotted to various functions. Architectural detail plans of any existing terminal, designating usage to various facilities: for example, immigration, customs, departure lounge, check-in, baggage claim, administration, concessions, and so on. Structural details of construction of aprons, taxiways, runways, and major buildings. Evaluation of strength and surface condition of these structural elements. Appraisal of structural soundness of existing buildings, plus an indication of structure type (permanent, light construction, or temporary). Condition and extent of existing markings. Condition, type, and capability of existing navigation and telecommunication aids. Data on hazards to aircraft penetrating protected surfaces. Details of existing services/fire-fighting/apron services, and so on. Other necessary physical data, including environmental data on flora and fauna. 4. General Other transportation and major development plans in the environs of the airport site. Commercial, tourist, industrial, and governmental developmental plans. Holding stacks, approaches, missed approaches, take-off, and climb-out procedures. Airways. Revenues/ expense account. Debt structure. Capital expenditure. Assets/liability. Breakdown of revenues by source-IS OK. Legal limitations on debt structure and financing. Detail costs of units prices of construction materials: for example, earth, steel, concrete, and masonry prices. Final costs. Equipment costs Element Demand and Traffic Description

5. Aeronautical 6. Financial

7. Construction

Source: Ashford N. and Wright P. H. (1992). Airport Engineering, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York / Chichester / Brisbane / Toronto / Singapore, p. 136-138.

45

Gathering all the data and developing a Master Plan does not guarantee success if the project lacks good organization. The same problem is with airport functioning, where the basis of good and effective action is management. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport begins to preplanning for modernization in 2005. They raise funds for investment, by preparing air traffic forecast, developing modernization projects, writing application for UE grants, conducting studies of airport’s environmental on the region and its citizens76. To project modernization of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport an investment program was developed, which consists of eight main points:  "a terminal II, which is basement building with a distinctive roof and the total area of 40 000 square meters,. Also it consists of tasks associated with passenger

services in the terminal (lunge, 40 position of check-in with passports control and VIP room), necessary support functions for handling and maintenance of the airport (staff changing rooms, warehouses, heat) and commercial (shops, rental);  a new taxiway parallel to runway, which will increase the airport capacity (number of takeoffs and landings). Also will be added 6 rapid exit taxiways from the runway (currently there are 2 such roads), which further improve air traffic at the airport;  an apron for terminal II;  special position to de-ice airplanes (necessary in winter), which previously was part of the apron of the terminal I;  a new patrol road around the entire airport for staff supervisors;  a new technical base, which will support airport's infrastructure;  re-build of access to the airport from the city;  new storm water drainage to support airport. It will include the construction of a new storm sewer system, storage reservoirs and pumping stations"77. As a result of many studies expansion project of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport was developed, which shown in figure 10.

76

77

http://www.gdansk.airport.pl – 10.04.2011. Live&Travel. (2009/11). Magazyn Portu Lotniczego Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy. Gdańsk, p. 38-39.

46

Fig.10. Planned investments at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport from 2009 to 2015 Source: Live&Travel. (2009/11). Magazyn Portu Lotniczego Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy. Gdańsk, p. 38.

Figure 10 shows planned investments at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport from 2009 to 2015. Thanks to modernization of taxiways, apron, and position to de-ice Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport increase its capacity to 7 million per year78. Storm water drainage will support to take water from taxiways, runways and aprons. For improving safety will raise a technical-patrol road. Also Border Guard and Fire Brigade facilities will be improved. The last part of modernization of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport will be terminal II, which shown in figure 11.

Fig.11. Terminal II during building Source: http://www.gdansk.airport.pl – 10.04.2011.

Modernization of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport proceeds as planned, because it was prepared according to the best standards. Additionally, the city of Gdansk begins many investments, which will improve communication between Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport and Province Pomerania.
78

http://www.gdansk.airport.pl – 10.04.2011.

47

Planning of an airport is an important task that requires considering many factors and uncertainties. It also requires a skilful use of available means and resources. It is beneficial to take into account the best practices of Americans, Europeans and Asians, and the experience of others airports.

48

CHAPTER 3

OPERATING OF GDANSK LECH WALESA AIRPORT AS AN ELEMENT OF REGION TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
3.1. Manners of gaining competitive superiority in the region
Currently, many airports which are neighbors compete with each other. That the airport could take the lead in the vicinity of the competition something exceptional must stand out. This feature of each airport will be different so it is worth determining the ratio of the population living around the port by market research, including:  establishing expectations of the airport;  establishing knowledge about the airport;  determining association of the airport;  determining association of the flying airplane. Marketing research contributed to the development of many79. In many cases, the sample of research size was different. Marketing research was conducted by individual, in-depth and structured interviews. In the analysis of the results, these results were to establish a trend. The trend in this case meant a key answer to any of the above questions. Using the survey form annex 1 to the thesis author has conducted research by individual, in-depth and structured interviews. The aim of this study was to identify:  the causes of the use of air transport;  the purpose, which encourage to fly by aircraft;  the perception of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport; Marketing research was conducted from 1rst to 30th may 2011 in a radius of 15 km from Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. In an interview were conducted 68 respondents, 50% out of them were women and 50% of men. People taking part in this research were mainly young people between 20-26 years. This is the most important segment of which

79

http://www.hbr.org/ – 26.04.2011.

49

will determine the future development of demand for air transport. Results after analyzed are:

Fig. 12. Causes of the first journey by plane Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 12 shown causes of the first journey by plane. It turned out that the passengers were traveling for the first time due to education (50%) and personal matters (39%). The smallest number of passengers flew for the first time due to work (11%).

Fig. 13. Associations with air transportation Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 13 shown associations with air transportation. Based on information received from respondents, it is noted that the main associations are pleasure (31%) and travel speed (16%). 53% of respondents did not give answer.

50

Fig. 14. Factors which entourage to air travels Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 14 shown factors which encourage to air travel. The vast majority of respondents indicated lower fly tickets prices (53%) and better information about to do formalities associated with the flight (35%).

Fig. 15. Associations with Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 15 shown associations with Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. A main association was that taxis from airport are more expensive that most of these services from abroad (50%). Next associations were lack of advertisements promoting airport in Trójmiasto (25%), weak signs leading to the airport (17%), some links are not active on airport’s website (8%) and good duty-free shops (5%). 51

Results after analyzed marketing research shows that the first journey by plane was cause of education. The most encouraging factor to fly was lower fly tickets prices and better information about to do formalities associated with the flight. Main association with Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is that taxis from airport are more expensive than most of these services from abroad. Air transport is the fastest way to get abroad for education. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport may begin cooperation with Erasmus (is a program that allows university exchange between students and educational staff). A promotion flights from Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport could be devoted to films about to do formalities associated with flights. Additionally, films may also present themes about air transportation, news and sport. Similarly, Airport Munich is working80. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport should not be associated with those taxis from airport that are more expensive than most of these services from abroad. It might be worthwhile to offer taxi space at the terminal for only those taxi corporations, which will give lower prices for their services from / to airport. Good way to promote Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport could be advertisements on SKM's trains, because it is the right place, because over 40 million people are run per year by SKM. Another place where it is worth advertising cheap flights from Gdansk is the newspaper "Metro". "'

Building a good image by Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport in a long run will benefit. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport should be better advertised, an example of the proper place where it should be advertised is SKM (Szybka Kolej Miejska) vehicles in Trójmiasto and the newspaper Metro.

3.2. An innovative approach to marketing and work at the airport
Nowadays to be successful, managers must be innovative. Innovation is not only to follow trends in fashion, it is also the use of best practices in business organization,

80

http://www.munich-airport.de – info. z dnia 26.04.2011.

52

sales, advertising, and controlling, which shown figure 16.

Fig. 16. An innovative approach to work at the airport Source: idea from: Taneja N. K. (2008). Flying Ahead of the Airplane. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Great Britain, p. 5.

In figure 16 it is shown the direction for airport to gain success. Currently the enterprise to compete effectively must be recognizable on the Internet. Base strategy of airport should have a five element:  passengers;  marketing;  operation;  investments;  distribution. Passengers, it is a certain group of people who use the services of the airport to transportation, or commercial. Airport to be able to serve passengers better should determine behavior of buyers81. Understanding the needs of passengers, the airport provides services fit for the existing demand. Marketing activities undertaken by the airport should start from simple things, such as unique photo galleries or other objects located in the airport's terminal. So is doing Stockholm Skavsta Airport. On the walls of terminals are many photos of Swedish

81

Rucińska D. and Ruciński A. (Eds) (2000). Marketing na rynku usług lotniczych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 46.

53

canoeists and small aircraft near to check-in82. Also could sale of clothing and leather categories used by travelers (bags, belts) with the logo of the airport. Typical marketing activities is to run the Internet, where posted information for passengers:  Timetable of flights;  Ways to get at the airport;  Required documents for travelling by plane;  Services provided at the airport. Air operations must be matched to the preferences of travelers such as: flights for business passengers should be prepared, allowing them to settle their issues and quick return home. In addition to flight operations (aircraft taking off or landing) should be matched with bus timetables for example so that passengers could be a good time at the airport prior to check-baggage or not to wait upon arrival at the bus to the city. The basis for making investment by airports is the results of the business cycle83. Investments often are used to support the continuation of the existing market, while offering relatively modified product84. This change allows match the product to the market, giving a chance to increase sales of the products. An example of such an investment at the airport may be, for example: self check-in, which shown in figure 17.

Fig. 17. Self check-in localized at London Heathrow Airport Source: http://www.passengerselfservice.com – 17.05.2011.

82 83

84

http://www.skavsta.se – 16.05.2010. Rucińska D. (2001). Marketingowe kształtowanie rynku usług transportowych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 151. Rucińska D. and Ruciński A. (Eds) (2000). Marketing na rynku usług lotniczych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk, p. 36.

54

Distribution services may follow by different channels. For example, some airports are building off airport check-in, i.e. a special place outside the airport, where man can do check-in.

Innovation in marketing and work at the airport is the ability to analyze business, finding their weaknesses and use the best solutions and practices to improve the status quo. It is important that the efforts to gain a competitive advantage to use all the factors affecting the sales process. The task for innovative manager is to seek best practices and implementation of their sales in the company.

3.3. Handling – current status and development perspectives
Handling is a word derived from English language indicating in the terminology "an act of managing ground handling of aircraft85". Ground handling is one of the most important things that the airline meets with at the airport. It affects on costs of servicing the aircraft and its time. It includes:  "passenger service (check - in, boarding);  maintenance and operation of the aircraft (the provision of electricity, water and compressed air, refueling and air conditioning);  loading and unloading aircraft, including balancing;  information and airport ticket offices;  transport of luggage, cargo and post"86. Aircraft ground handling operations are managed by handling agents who come from air carriers, specialized companies or airports. Their work is very responsible, because from them depend the quality and time of handling. Handling at each airport must also include activities related to moving and parking of aircrafts which requires:  "Training should be provided for all personnel;  Only qualified personnel will move the aircraft;

85 86

Crocker, D. (Ed) (2007). Dictionary of Aviation – Second Edition. A & C Black. London, p. 109. Litkiewicz P. (2011). Obsługa naziemna – Podstawowe informacje oraz miejsca na rynku usług lotniczych. GDN Airport Services Sp. z o.o. Gdańsk, p. 10.

55

 Tugs and towbars should be rated adequately for the gross weight of the aircraft to be handled;  The aircraft will be chocked whenever parked;  At least one wing walker, in addition to the tug driver, will be employed to determine adequacy of clearance between an aircraft and surrounding objects during aircraft movement. Additional wing walkers should be employed when warranted;  Aircraft spotting marks shall be used;  Hangar doors will be fully opened during operations in which an aircraft is moved into or out of the hangar"87. For activities related to handling also include:  "Handling of cargo (goods and mail);  Maintenance purity in aircraft’s cabins;  Support aircraft in fuel, lubricants and other consumables;  Handling for technical and administrative aircraft;  Handling for operational and administrative flight crews of aircraft;  Ground transportation between aircraft and the airport;  Support aircraft cabin in needed supply" 88. Currently, a company dealing with ground service in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is GDN Airport Services Sp. z o. o. In terms of their services are comprehensive ground handling of aircraft, passengers, luggage and cargo, which shown figure 18. They operate the "aircraft carriers of traditional, low-cost, charter and business aviation89". "' Figure 18 shows aircraft handling done by the GDN Airport Services at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. One of the first steps in handling is to block the aircraft then bring to its passenger loading bridge. Next step is to transport passengers and luggage from aircraft to terminal. Further aircraft is provided with electric energy, water, air conditioning, compressed air and impurity is taken from aircraft’s toilets. Additional service is the tanking which depends on the decision of pilot. Than passengers enter the aircraft and

87

88

89

Sheehan J.J. (2008). Business and Corporate Aviation Management. On-Demand Air Transportation. MCGRAW-HILL. London, p. 7.21. Malarski M. (2006) Inżynieria ruchu lotniczego. Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej. Warszawa, p. 81. http://www.gdnas.pl – 16.05.2010.

56

luggage is loaded. After all that operation doors of aircraft are closed, than aircraft is unblocking. After completing operations aircraft is stuffed by a tug on taxiway (Fig.19).

Fig. 18. Aircraft handling done by the GDN Airport Services at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport Source: http://www.gdnas.pl – 16.05.2010.

Fig. 19. Aircraft stuffed by a tug of GDN Airport Services at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport Source: http://www.gdnas.pl – 16.05.2010.

Methods for optimization of the aircraft in handling’s area mainly are: coordination of activities, use of new technologies and solutions for aircraft’s service. It should be pointed out that thanks to GDN Airport Services Sp. z o. o. ground handling of aircraft in Gdansk is carried out very efficiently and with regard for the best 57

European practices. The average time of aircraft’s handling in April 2011 was less than 25 minutes90, which is a very good result. Ground handling includes not only aircraft but also passengers. The traditional process of passenger service consists of the following elements:  "Process of clearance in the public part: - Verification of the passenger and documents; - Control of luggage (weight, size); - Clearance of luggage (baggage is transferred to the sorting of which is later transported to the aircraft); - The issue of boarding card;  Process of clearance in the aerial part: - Transition to the security control; - Report to the exit in the departure hall; - Verification of documents and passenger; - Exit of the passenger to the aircraft"91. Clearance time in the landside can be improved through the use of online check-in and associated with this printed boarding card. This solution saves time and allows for immediate clearance of luggage. It is used at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. Another solution is to check-in by the mobile phone, similar to the Internet one. The difference is in the form of boarding card - MMS. The next technical device to allow clearance is machine to check-ins, called self check-in machine92. It allows to do direct formalities related with the flight through the machine located at the airport. One of the oldest methods is the clearance by telephone93. It consists in carrying out checks by phone via qualified personnel of airport or airline. The final solution is off airport check-in, which is a special place outside the airport, where you can make check-in and leave your luggage bypassing the queue at the airport94. For the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport it is a City Terminal on Hevelius Street 13-17 in Gdansk.
90

91

92 93 94

Interview with Senior Manager of Passengers Services and Operations Mr. Paweł Litkiewicz carried out on 25.03.2011. Litkiewicz P. (2011). Obsługa naziemna – Podstawowe informacje oraz miejsca na rynku usług lotniczych. GDN Airport Services Sp. z o.o. Gdańsk, p. 10. http://www.passengerselfservice.com – 30.05.2011. http://www.firstdata.com – 30.05.2011. http://www.offairportcheckin.com – 30.05.2011.

58

Handling is the main key element to the good functioning of each airport. There are many methods of IT solutions that enable the optimization of handling. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport has got an off airport check-in, which presents it as one of the most innovative airports in Europe.

3.4. Non-aeronautical revenues for Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport
The intention of any economic entity is to maximize revenues, it also applies to airports. Their sources of income can be divided into aeronautical and non-aeronautical. The structure of income may be different, it depends on the size or the location of the airport, but a package of services offered by the airport is quite similar, which is presented in figure 20.

Fig. 20. The package of services offered by the airport Source: Jarach D. (2005) Airport marketing: Strategies to cope with the new millennium environment. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Hampshire, p. 72.

Searching for new revenues has forced the Polish airports to find new solutions for revenues from non-aeronautical business. U.S. experience shows that the smaller airports should have more revenues from non-aeronautical activities than the bigger 59

airports95. Similar conditions exist in Europe, where airports achieve one of the largest revenues from non-aeronautical business, according to data from ICAO96. The basic sources of the airports can include:  "fees from leasing space in the terminal;  commissions from commercial activities, service and catering;  parking services;  fees from advertisements placed in the airport area;  commissions from activities within the airport;  tickets sales;  and other activities localized at landside of the airport, like hotels"97. Airports in addition to collection all kinds of fees from tenants, can operate profitable business. There are many good examples showing the direction in which the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport could be modeled. Interesting examples are managing own:  taxi, like Bucharest Baneasa Airport98;  hotels, like London Luton Airport99;  restaurant, like Manchester Airport100; There are many solutions and ways to earn money at the airport. The basis for the development of aviation is the knowledge of the airport's customers. Thus, analysis of opportunities for increasing revenues should be conducted separately for each of the Polish airports. As an example for that study was chosen Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. Among the largest groups for the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, we may list the following clients:  airlines;  passengers;  people arriving for passengers at the airport.

95

96 97

98 99 100

Thompson T. (April 7 2009). Non Aeronautical Revenues – Short Term Opportunities. Airports Council International – North America. Economics and Finance Conference, Washington, p. 2. Financial situation of airports and air navigation services. ICAO.s. 5. Kaliński D. (1995). System finansowania infrastruktury lotniskowej. Konferencja Stowarzyszenia Inżynierów i Techników Komunikacji. Warszawa, p. 83. http://www.bucharestairports.ro – 28.05.2011. http://www.london-luton.co.uk – 28.05.2011. http://www.manchesterairport.co.uk – 28.05.2011.

60

Airlines are the most important customers of the airports. Their needs are related to the transport work they provide. They may require office space or office for check-in, or services related to aircraft. Their employees are also airport’s customers, who can enjoy retail sales at the terminal or hotels belonging to the airport. Passengers are not a homogeneous group of aviation customers. A specific group of passengers are people who travel on business issues. They take advantage of car rental, hotels or banks. One of the characteristics for passengers traveling in business issues is that they are not looking at prices of transport services101. Passengers traveling on vacation enjoy shopping and buying gifts. There are also air passengers who do not buy and do not use any services at the airport. The smallest segment of airport customers are people welcoming or bidding farewell to airport passengers. This is a group of potential customers who in an anticipation of the arrival, could use the services at the airport, e.g.: to buy cigarettes or coffee. Understanding the client of an airport allow to match a strategy for the airport. There are following types of marketing strategies:  "diversity of offer;  diversification of revenue sources;  better market penetration (adapting the offer to a wider customer base);  development of a new market (encourage the new players to cooperate)102 ". There are many non-aeronautical sources of revenues that can be used in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The success of each of them will be decided on by market and customer knowledge

101

102

Rutkowski K. (1987). Rynek międzynarodowych przewozów lotniczych. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa, p. 78. Jarach D. (2005). Airport marketing: Strategies to cope with the new millennium environment. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Hampshire, p. 102.

61

CHAPTER IV

DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS OF THE GDNASK LECH WALESA AIRPORT
4.1. Airport management
While planning the organization's map, it is important to determine the competencies of each participant. Efficient management cannot be achieved without precise allocation of tasks for individuals and enforcement results of workers. World's experience shows many interesting ways of good governance. Every solution should be adapted to the existing technical, cultural and social conditions. Figure 21 shows airport management organization chart, namely:

Fig. 21. Typical airport management organization chart Source: Elaboration based on: Wells A.T. and Young S. (2004) Airport Planning & Management – 2thEdition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 35. and http://www.makco.co.uk –28.09.2010.

62

"Airport director is responsible for general day-to-day operation of the airport. He or she reports directly to the airport authority, airport board, or governmental commission charged with the development and administration of the airport. This individual directs, coordinates, and reviews through subordinate supervisors, all aircraft operations, building and field maintenance, construction plans, community relations, financial and personnel matters at the airport. Airport director also supervises and coordinates airline, general aviation, and military tenants use of airport facilities; Reviews airport tenant activities for compliance with terms of leases and other agreements; supervises enforcement of aircraft air and ground traffic and other applicable regulations; confers with airlines, tenants, the ICAO, and others regarding airport regulations, facilities, and related matters; participates in planning of increased aircraft and passenger volume and facilities expansion. He or she determines and recommends airport staffing requirements; compiles and submits a review of annual airport budget; coordinates airport activities in terms of construction, maintenance, and other work done by departmental staff, tenants, public utilities, and contractors; promotes acceptance of airport-oriented activities in surrounding communities103". Finance Department includes people responsible for: finance, personnel and cash flows. Their duties consist: "fiscal planning and budget administration; accomplishment of basic finance functions such as accounts receivable and payable, auditing, and payroll; administration of the purchasing function; administration and use of real

property including negotiation of tenant leases and inventory control; personnel functions including compensation, employee relations104", and training; tenancy agreements and leases between airport and other entities. In the Finance Department is controlling responsible for search for irregularities in the finances, employment, information flow and others; streamlining of existing procedures and practices inside the port; reporting to the Director and the airport authority about status of company and its situation. Manger is a person who manages two departments (Planning & Development and Marketing & Public Relations). His or her main task is to find best practices for subordinate units and reporting. He or she is responsible for the following units:

103

104

Wells A.T. and Young S. (2004) Airport Planning & Management – 2thEdition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 36. Wells A.T. and Young S. (2004) Airport Planning & Management – 2thEdition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 36.

63

 Planning & Development are responsible for investments borne at the lowest cost to maximize the return and the catalytic effect. Shall also ensure that development took place in a modular way and looking for the best (and sometimes more recent) technologies and best contractors. People working in this position are dealing with agreements between the airport and the contractors, determine the way of airport’s development in the perspective of 5-10 years, plan functioning of airport.  Marketing & Public Relations are responsible for sales both aviation and nonaeronautical. Also they promote airport and communicate with mass media and other interested entities. "Assistant director operations directs operations and security at the airport; coordinates the tasks of the staff, police, airport’s guard and others; recommends and assists in the choosing principles of flight operations and related procedures; conducts criminal investigations in cases of violations of air’s regulations; develops annual budget for air operations; participates in special programs or training courses aimed at efficient management of air operations. Under him there are:  The Chief - airside operations is responsible for all airfield operations. In this capacity, principal duties include: enforcing operating and security rules, regulations, and procedures concerning landing, taxiing, parking, servicing loading and unloading of an aircraft, operation of vehicular traffic on airfield, airline activities, and emergency situations; Inspecting conditions of airfield lighting, runways, taxiways, and ramp areas; correcting hazardous conditions; coordinating airfield activities with maintenance and security personnel; assisting all airfield emergency calls and disasters by notifying control tower to close runways, directing maintenance personnel, directing security officers in crowd control, and overseeing other safety considerations and activities necessary to resume normal airport operations; investigating and reporting on complaints and disrupted airport operations, including unscheduled plane arrivals, aircraft accidents, rule and procedure violations, airline activities, and other operations of the airport; Assigning gate and parking spaces to all aircraft; Coordinating special arrangements for arrivals and departures of important persons; Completing all report forms pertaining to operations activities on assigned shifts; Assisting in directing noise level studies with other departmental personnel.  The Chief - landside operations is responsible for all land-side operations. In this 64

capacity, principal duties include: enforcing operating and security rules, regulations, and procedures concerning buildings, access roads, and parking facilities; exercising authority to halt hazardous or unauthorized activities by tenants, employees, or the public in violation of safety regulations and procedures; answering inquiries and explaining terminal use procedures and safety regulations to tenants; coordinating terminal building and other facility activities with maintenance and security personnel; coordinating all parking facility activities with tenants and transit companies; preparing personal injury and property damage reports and general incident reports; completing all report forms pertaining to operations activities on assigned shifts.  Security Chief enforces interior security, traffic, safety rules and regulations and participates in law enforcement activities at the airport. This individual also works closely with federal security officials assigned to the airport. Principal duties include: enforcing ordinances and regulations pertaining to parking, traffic control, safety, and property protection; Patrolling facilities to prevent trespass and unauthorized or hazardous use; Preventing public entry into dangerous or restricted areas. Issuing citations and warnings for violations of specific provisions of airport rules and regulations; Securing gates and locks and watching buildings and facilities for indications of fire, dangerous conditions, unauthorized entry, and vandalism; responding to emergencies and taking immediate action to control crowds, direct traffic, assist the injured, and turn in alarms; responding to calls for police service; participating in arrests; apprehending, or assisting members of the police department in apprehending law violators; providing information to the public regarding locations and operations of the airport; assigning uniformed and armed personnel to patrol and stand watch on a 24-hour basis, to protect and safeguard all persons in the airport and property on the airport.  The Aircraft rescue/fire fighting chief develops procedures and implements accident, fire, and disaster plans. Principal duties include: Conducting training (continuing) program for all aircraft rescue, fire fighting personnel; developing and implementing all aircraft rescue and fire fighting programs; staffing and operating all aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment on the airport; inspecting and testing all types of fixed fire prevention and extinguishing equipment on the airport; inspecting all

65

facilities for fire and/or safety hazards105". "Assistant maintenance director is responsible for planning, coordination, management and reviewing: buildings maintenance, equipment, vehicles and tools in top condition. His tasks include: developing the necessary procedures; coordination of the performed work by tenants and contractors; supervising the work of maintenance and ensure, that they are carried out in accordance with existing norms and laws; making recommendations regarding buildings, equipment and vehicles; supervising maintenance contracts; Under him there are:  Buildings and facilities chief. Buildings and facilities chief is responsible for ensuring that buildings are adequately maintained with a minimum of cost. Types of maintenance required are primarily electrical, mechanical, plumbing, painting, carpentry, masonry, and cement work. Principal duties include: developing an approved maintenance schedule for all building maintenance requirements; assigning qualified personnel to perform maintenance; inspecting work for adequacy and compliance with requirements; developing special maintenance methods where necessary.  Grounds chief is responsible for ensuring that the grounds are maintained in good condition and that the landscape is adequately maintained. Principal duties include: developing approved schedules for maintaining all airport surface areas including paving, landscaping, and drainage systems; assigning qualified personnel to accomplish ground maintenance; inspecting work for adequacy and compliance with maintenance standards.  Vehicle chief is responsible for maintenance of all vehicles utilized by the airport. Vehicle maintenance includes tuning-up, minor maintenance, washing and polishing, tires and batteries, lubrication, and fuelling. Principal duties include: developing an approved vehicle maintenance schedule; coordinating schedule with users of airport vehicles; assigning qualified personnel to perform maintenance; inspecting all work to determine compliance with established maintenance standards; coordinating purchase to obtain vendor services as required; maintaining vehicle usage and maintenance records; coordinating purchase in developing a vehicle

105

Wells A.T. and Young S. (2004) Airport Planning & Management – 2thEdition. McGraw-Hill. New York, p. 39-40.

66

disposal and replacement program106". Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart was shown in figure 22, it looks different than the management organization chart at figure 21. Organization chart of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport does have positions whose responsibilities may overlap, like:  „Protection specialist”, „Airport security service” and „Safety manager coordinator”. At the management organization chart (Fig. 21) for this competence is responsible for Security Chef”. In case of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport there are 3 positions;  „Documentation department”, „Repairs and actions”, and „Investment and settlement”. At the management organization chart (Fig. 21) for this competence is responsible for „Planning and Development”. In case of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport there are 3 positions;  „Exploitation department” and „Executive lounge”. At the management organization chart (Fig. 21) for this competence is responsible for „Buildings and facilities chief”. In case of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport there are 2 positions;

Fig. 22. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart Source: htttp://www/airport.gdansk.pl – 29.05.2011.

106

A.T. Wells, S. Young, op. cit., s. 40-42.

67

At Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart there is Chaplain. Typical management charts do not have such a position. It’s very puzzling why Department for environment regulations at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart is in Operating department but not at Investment development. In the typical organization chart all positions are precisely described and competence of each of them clearly defined. At Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport management organization chart there is no controlling, which could be useful

to examine and evaluate the functioning of various departments. The efficiency of governance must be based on continuous checking and monitoring of employees. Control not only stop the bad behavior of workers in the company, but also provides opportunities for better use of existing resources. Also the control does not allow for wastage of resources and supplies. Good information in the future will help in making various kinds of decisions. Another factor that influences better management is using sociology of organization in managerial process.

Good management of a typical airport is based on clear separation of the positions and related competences. It is important that employees' actions are monitored, because it helps to enforce their work. An additional advantage of a good director / manager is knowledge of sociology of organization, which allows better control of people inside the organization.

4.2. The impact of an airport on the region and a case study of London Airport Heathrow
Traffic growth is analogous to economic growth, results in an increase in population mobility, tourism and increasing flow of goods. Observing experiences and good practices of countries where aviation is developed, a map of inter-linkages between region and airport may be created, which shown figure 23.

68

Fig. 23. Relations between airport and region Source: The social and economic compact of Airport in Europe. (January 2004) An Airport Council International Europe-York Aviation Research. Brussels, p. 26.

Airport's impact on region is very visible in the biggest airports which are serving over 40 million passengers. London Heathrow Airport, whose impact on the region is very noticeable, is a good example. In the report of British Chambers of Commerce from 2009 there is a note "That produces values of lost GDP from not investing in a third Heathrow runway of £600m per annum or over £20 billion (PV) over 60 years107". Future expansion of London Heathrow Airport is shown in figure 24. Building a third runway will save passengers' time and increase efficiency by reducing delays and increase flights frequency. It will result elimination of delays and unnecessary transfers. Specialists from the British Chambers of Commerce claim that England is a country of trade, which must conduct business around the globe, and London Heathrow Airport is the key factor in it. According to the chief executive officer of British Chambers of Commerce David Frost108, expansion of the airport will help

107 108

Economic impacts of hub airports. British Chambers of Commerce, London, July 2009, s. 7. http://www.bbc.co.uk – 26.07.2010.

69

business to grow more dynamically and improve access to markets around the world. British Chambers of Commerce’s report finds that London Heathrow Airport is staying behind its rivals (Airports in Frankfurt, Amsterdam and Munich109) in supporting developing economies, such as Brazil, China, India and Russia. Currently, a third runway project entered the implementation process in March 2010110.

Fig. 24. Heathrow's expansion plan Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk –26.07.2010.

London Heathrow Airport shows how great the economic dependencies are between airport, region and even country. It is also an example of investment in airport infrastructure must account at least 5-10 future use and feature airport development111. Airport influence on the economies of the region, and also has a negative impact on the environment. According to a research conducted by the Aviation Environment Federation from Great Britain, a functioning airport affect air pollution, climate changes and others (Tab. 13).

109 110

http://www.telegraph.co.uk –26.07.2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk –26.07.2010. 111 Section3-Airport Planning Projects(2010) Missouri Department of Transportation. Jefferson City, p. 3.

70

Table 13. Key impacts caused by airport and aviation activities
Terminal & ground Flights operations
construction construction operation

Airport access Associated projects
construction construction operation operation

Key impacts - negative impact + positive impact

air pollution biodiversity impacts climate change employment and economic benefits heritage land take land space noise risk and public safety zones social costs to nearby communities traffic water pollution + +

+ -

+ -

-

+

-

-

water use Source: What are an airport’s impacts?,p. 1 from http://www.aef.org.uk - 13.08.2010.

Increased air traffic at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, sooner or later will affect the Pomeranian Province. Perspectives of its impact will depend not only on its policies and development but also on external factors, such as:  political (regulations, environmental protection, government stability, terrorism);  economic (GDP, inflation, unemployment, crisis);  social (demographics, lifestyle, globalization);  technological (research and development, investments, infrastructure).

Airport has an impact on region's economy and the environment. Depending on the policy of an airport, this impact may be negative or positive. London Heathrow Airport case shows that a wrongly-managed airport may affect adversely region’s economy. An airport does not only affect the economy, but also has a negative impact on the environment. Impact of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport on the Pomeranian Province will depend on political, economic, social and technological factors, as well as its policies and management.

71

4.3. Prospects for development of airports in the Pomeranian Province based on experiences from the region of Boston
An excellent example illustrating that the closed airport will operate and thrive finally, we find in Boston (United States). When Boston major airports begun to achieve maximum capacity and came congestion. This process has forced the emergence of secondary airports, as shown in figure 25. These airports showed that there is a real capacity to develop regional air transport system. The growing movement makes that minor points will develop an intermodal and increasingly affect the region. Around them industrial plants, good linear infrastructure will be built. It will change also the way of functioning of the region. The presences of many airports are attracting inter alia capital and professionals.

Fig. 25. Boston Regional Airport System. Source: Bonnefoy P. A. and Hansaman R. J. (2004). Emergence and Impact of Secondary Airports in the United States. International Center for Air Transportation. Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, p. 3.

American research shows that the main factors which made the airport profitable are neighborhood of the city or a large agglomeration. Another condition, which enabled the development, is the length of the runway above 5700ft / 1713 m. Other factor taken into account was assessing the type of the airport "hub" and "no hub". In a place where the 72

hub was not built, there are more regional airports. The final determinants of airport development are low-cost airlines112. After entering low-cost airlines have increased turnovers in the ports, because flying has become more accessible for the average inhabitant of the Boston. Using the American experience we can assume two models of airports development for the Pomeranian Region. The first model assumes a sharp competition between airports in Gdynia and Gdansk. In the initial development of events Gdansk will refer the victory, because it is functioning already and has a guaranteed demand because of trade relations and long-term cooperation with airlines. Airport Gdynia-Kosakowo will have to specify the desired profile of its customers, to establish cooperation with air carriers and to promote itself. This will require time. The second model assumes the cooperation of Gdynia and Gdansk. It attracts much more air traffic in the Trójmiasto area. Two airports announce to the world about the attractiveness of the region in economic terms. Another condition is the ability to make an emergency landing of aircraft at the airport 30 km away and not return to base, or landing somewhere else. The two airports side by side is also an incentive to build a logistics center, the base for the airlines or hub in the region. U.S. experience shows that airports cooperating achieve higher profits than through competing. Therefore, the airports in Gdynia and Gdansk should cooperate. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport has a very good policy in the planning and development of the airport, but it lacks proper promotion and methods that allow them to create the demand. The airport in Gdansk has the specific locations where the fogs persist that prevent the weaker pilots to land. It is also located in close proximity with a special area of "Natura 2000" from which the birds sometimes fly through the airport113. Despite the unfavorable location, Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is developing very well, which is without a doubt related to good governance, not a place. The airport in Gdynia is situated in a very advantageous geographic location. Its location was determined by the German research in this area in the years 1910-1940. Additionally, the Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport is very well connected with city of Gdynia by road and rail.

112

113

Bonnefoy P. A. and Hansaman R. J. (2004). Emergence and Impact of Secondary Airports in the United States. International Center for Air Transportation. Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, p. 10-11. http://www.gdansk.lasy.gov.pl – 16.01.2010.

73

The experiences of developed countries show that many European airports capacity is barrier to the development for them. Western European countries are increasingly looking for vacancies in order to build the airport. In Germany is airport building 70 kilometers from the Polish border114. This airport will not only handle international and Germany’s traffic, but also a part of the Western Poland. This will be a problem for the development of Polish regional airports. After mounting the existing airports is essential to maintain unused, including the military. Each time needs an analysis of whether it is appropriate to modernize and expand the airports in a given timeframe. Directions of development of regional airports in the Pomeranian region will be the result of policy Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport and Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport. Both airports will decide whether they will provide competition for themselves whether they will work together. Both airports have huge, but untapped potential.

The scenario of development of regional airports in the Pomeranian Region was limited to Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport and Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport. Development of a regional system of airports will not be based solely on the relationship between airports, but also the politics of local government. Cooperation of airports in Gdansk and Gdynia will have very positive impact on the development of Pomeranian Province, and its absence will reduce catalytic and scale effects.

4.4. Expectations of entities representing the demand for the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, determined by marketing research
If the enterprise is to be successful, the preferences of the customers and their behaviors must be known. In the case of airports the main part that speeds the demand are passengers. The author for this section has been conducting marketing research (annex 2 and 3). The study took place on 1-3 June from 9.00-15.00 in the public part of terminal in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. The study was conducted by individual, in-depth and structured interviews with 207 respondents (of which 27 people came from abroad and 180 from the Poland), a random sample of passengers aged from

114

http://www.tur-info.pl – 06.08.2010.

74

15 to 66 and more. The study was designed, conducted and analyzed by the author. In the following marketing research it was established:  semantic profile of a passenger at the airport and its aviation experience, including number of its flights, the purpose and destination of last travel;  assessment of elements affecting the functioning of the airport;  expectations for the airport. The semantic profile of client consists of the following factors: sex, age, professional status and origin country. The flight experience contains last flights during the last 12 months and aim of last flight. It published the purpose of a recent trip through the air. First important issue of the semantic profile is sex, shown in figure 26.

Fig. 26. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by gender (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 26 shows the structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by gender in percent. The results shows that sex structure of respondents were: 180 people were Poles (females – 61% and males – 39%) and 27 people were foreigners (females – 43% and males 57%). It turned out that Poles group there were more women (61%), while in foreigners group there were more males (57%).

75

Fig. 27. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by age (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 27 shows Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by age in percent. Basing on information received from respondents, it is noted that the largest groups using the services of air transportation are people aged 31-40 (25.79% - Poles and 26,92% - foreigners) and people aged 20-26 (19.5% - Poles and 19.23% foreigners). These two groups probably will be the demand for air transport. Also it may suggest that these groups will be main target of airlines. Another age scales show a downward trend. In addition both Polish and foreigners structure are similar.

Fig. 28. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by professional status (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 28 shows structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by professional status in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified themselves 76

as workers (67.92% - Poles and 57.69% - foreigners). Next important group are pupils or students (16.9% - Poles, 26.92% - foreigners). Further groups are in the symbolic size, respectively pensioners (6.92% - Poles, 3.85% - foreigners) and others (8.18% Poles, 11.54% - foreigners). Research shows that there are more workers in a Polish group (67.92%) than in a foreigners group (57.69%). Pupils and students constitute a larger group among foreigners (26.92%) than among Poles (16.9%).

Fig. 29. Structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by their flights during the last 12 months (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 29 shows structure of the passengers at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport by their flights during the last 12 months in percent. The largest group among Poles was passengers, who flew once (36.62%), while among foreigners were passengers, which flew 2-3 times (42.31%). From marketing research we may say that foreigners have flying more than Poles. In both foreigners and Poles group were passengers, which flew 11 and more flight during the last 12 months. More frequent use of air transport by foreigners may be directly related to the performance of their duties and business trips. Results after analyzed marketing research shows that average passenger of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is a Polish woman, aged 31-40, working, who flew 2-3 during the last 12 months. Also in the research included foreigners to show the perspective of the 77

problem in international terms. Next step in research was to evaluate the operation of the airport components. Design of the evaluation of operation elements of the airport was based on American experience and research conducted there. In evaluation was used following scale: "very good", "good", "hard to say", "no good" and "bad".

Fig. 30. Accessibility of navigation in the terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 30 shows accessibility of navigation in the terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified the accessibility of navigation in the terminal as "good" (60% - Poles and 59.26% - foreigners). "Very good" evaluation gave 13.33% - Poles and 22.22% foreigners. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative.

78

Fig. 31. Quality of service during procedures of security at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 31 shows quality of service during procedures of security at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified quality of service during procedures of security as "good" (48.33% - Poles and 44.44% - foreigners). "Very good" evaluation gave 18.52% foreigners and 16.11% Poles. It should be noticed that large group of Poles (25%) and foreigners (37.04%) had no opinion about the quality of service during procedures of security and typed "hard to say". Such a response could result from the fact that respondents do not have yet completed the security check. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative. In addition, foreigners did not answer "not good" and "bad".

Fig. 32. Check-in at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

79

Figure 32 shows check-in at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified check-in as "good" (43.89% Poles and 44.44% - foreigners). Very good" evaluation gave 17.78% foreigners and 14.81% - Poles. It should be noticed that large group of foreigners (40.74%) and Poles (19.44%) had no opinion about the check-in and typed "hard to say". Such a response could result from the fact that respondents do not have yet completed the check-in. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative. In addition, foreigners did not answer "not good" and "bad".

Fig. 33. Flight information at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 33 shows flight information at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified Flight information as "good" (66.67% - Poles and 51.67% - foreigners). "Very good" evaluation gave 17.78% foreigners and 11.11% - Poles. It should be noticed that large group of foreigners (20%) and Poles (18.52) had no opinion about the Flight information and typed "hard to say". Such a response could result from the fact that respondents do not use yet the Flight information. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative. In addition, foreigners did not answer "bad".

80

Fig. 34. Cleanliness/appearance of terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 34 shows cleanliness/appearance of terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified cleanliness/appearance of terminal as "good" (55% - Poles and 55.56% - foreigners). "Very good" evaluation gave 18.52% foreigners and 14.44% - Poles. It should be noticed that large group of foreigners (18.52%) had no opinion about cleanliness/appearance of terminal and typed "hard to say". It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative.

Fig. 35. Quality of products/services at shops in terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

81

Figure 35 shows quality of products/services at shops in terminal at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents had no opinion about quality of products/services at shops in terminal and typed "hard to say" (45.56% - Poles, 48.15% - foreigners). "Good" evaluation gave 37.04% of foreigners and 37.22% of Poles. Most negative assessments were presented by Poles (11.11%). It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative.

Fig. 36. Quality of products at food/beverage concessions at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 36 shows quality of products at food/beverage concessions at Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents had no opinion about quality of products at food/beverage concessions and typed "hard to say" (44.44% - Poles, 58.33% - foreigners). "Good" evaluation gave 48.15% of foreigners and 23.89% of Poles. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative.

82

Fig. 37. Usability of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport’s website according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 37 shows usability of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport’s website according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents had no opinion about usability airport’s website according and typed "hard to say" (74.07% - Poles, 46.67% - foreigners). "Good" evaluation gave 14.81% of foreigners and 36.67% of Poles. It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative.

Fig. 38. Ground transportation between city and Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 38 shows ground transportation between city and Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified ground transportation between city and airport as "good" (35% - Poles and 83

48.15% - foreigners). It should be noticed that large group of Poles (23.33%) and foreigners (25.93%) had no opinion about ground transportation between city and airport and typed "hard to say". Such a response could result from the fact that respondents were brought by car by third parties. Most negative assessments were presented by Poles (23.33%). It should be noticed that the evaluation was significantly more positive than negative. Respondents indicated the parameters that need to be improved in the first place, as shows figure 39.

Fig. 39. Factors of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, which must be improved according to passengers (%) Source: Own marketing research.

Figure 39 shows factors of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, which must be improved according to passengers in percent. The vast majority of respondents identified the need to improve ground transportation between city and Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport (50% foreigners, 38.46% - Poles). According to foreigners in the first place should be improved ground transportation between city and airport (50%), flight information (21.43%), cleanliness/appearance of terminal (14.29%), accessibility of navigation in the terminal (14%), check-in (7.14%) and quality of products at food/beverage concessions (7.14%). It should be noticed that according to the foreigners should not 84

be

improved:

quality

of

service

during

procedures

of

security,

quality

of products/services at shops in terminal and usability of airport website. According to Poles in the first place should be improved ground transportation between city and airport (38.46%), check-in (13.68%), flight information (11.97%),

cleanliness/appearance of terminal (11.97%), accessibility of navigation in the terminal (7.69%), quality of service during procedures of security (5.13%), usability of airport website (5.13%), quality of products at food/beverage concessions (3.42%) and , quality of products/services at shops in terminal (2.56%). During the interviews respondents mainly pay attention to:  lack of terminal’s map;  to slow check-in;  unclear information about the flights;  cleanliness of the terminal;  quality of food at the restaurants;  too little usefulness of airport’s website;  communication difficulties in connection between airport and city. During the marketing research also respondents were asked about direct flights, which might arise from Gdansk, the results came out the following:  10 respondents expected to launch direct flights to the United States;  7 respondents expected to launch direct flights to Amsterdam;  8 respondents expected to launch direct domestic connections;  7 respondents expected to launch direct flights to tourist destinations in southern Europe;  3 respondents expected to launch direct flights to Newcastle. The final element of the marketing research was to establish expectations for the new terminal and new connections:  80 respondents expected a smoking room in the new terminal;  44 respondents expected a fast food bar in the new terminal;  34 respondents expected KFC in the new terminal;  28 respondents expected McDonald in the new terminal;  26 respondents expects a playground for children in the new terminal;  22 respondents expected a cafe shop in the new terminal; 85

 10 respondents expected a pharmacy in the new terminal;  6 respondents expected a hotel in the new terminal. Among the new destinations that might arise from the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport respondents pointed to the domestic flights to Krakow and Wroclaw. Further destinations were holiday places in Greece, Croatia, Crimea, Southern Italy or Amsterdam.

Research at the airport showed a number of opportunities for development the functioning of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. Also they demonstrated the critical areas that should be improved to better development of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport.

86

SUMMARY
Air transport provides quick access to all places on the globe. It is associated with various economic- and social areas which interact with each other. Its main role is to transport people and goods. Their role is not limited only to transport functions. Also they influence development of cities and regions, which where they are. Results after marketing research analyzed shows that development of modern airports has contributed many issues. The most important of them are the technological progress and the attacks on the World Trade Center from 11 September 2001. These issues have enabled more efficient use of the airport and enhanced passenger safety. The first major changes in the operating of airports have taken place after the introduction of the Boeing 747-100. The new aircraft contributed to the increase runways, taxiways, and aprons. The next change involved improving the safety of aircraft takeoffs and landings by the introduction of mandatory navigation aids equipment, including runways' lighting. Polish airports currently booming, this is due to preparations for EURO 2012. One of the fastest growing airport in Poland is Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport. Functions of the airports can be divided into economic and non-economic. The first of these relate s to the impact of airports on economic development of cities and regions. They show how an airport can affect trade and economy of cities and regions in which they are located. Due to the presence of the airport tourists, technologies, capital and foreign companies are coming to the cities and regions. In addition, airports are also enterprises that employ many people. Non-economic functions of airports are related to relate with effects on environment and citizens of cities and regions. Airports improve mobility of citizens and to promote their cities and regions. The presence of the airport also allows connecting distant regions to other regions of transport, an example is northern Sweden. Talking about the function of airports is worth mentioning what airport is. Airport is an enterprise whose primary function is aviation activity. In addition, airport can make non-aeronautical activity. Airport as a company runs various economic activities, as well as pursuing a policy aimed at development of the company. The foundation for the construction, expansion or modernization of the airport is the Master Plan, which is the basic document required to start the investments. In addition the Master Plan describes planned investments, consisting of the elements on the impact of airport expansion on the environment and the region or city where 87

it is located. Expansion of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is conducted according to the specified Master Plan. Currently, work on the expansion of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport’s run very smoothly, which proves a good management and respecting the highest ICAO's standards. The operating of the airport is a very interesting issue, because it includes management, transport of passengers, mail and cargo and aircraft handling. The basis to conduct the airport is to identify its customers and matching of products and services to market requirements. In the case of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport's main customers are air carriers, passengers and their relatives. Among the services provided in the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport's, can be enumerate aircraft handling, passenger handling, cargo, mail and commercial services. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is an example of a well managed company that has recorded an increasing number of passengers handled per year. A good financial result of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is the result of a good management. Organizational structure of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is different to the structure of a typical airport, which is undoubtedly due to environmental conditions. Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, as well as other airports affects the economy and the environment in a city or region where they are. Impact of the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is increasingly apparent the Pomeranian Province and the city of Gdansk. It evidenced by the numerous infrastructure projects started by city of Gdansk. The city of Gdansk is improving communication between the Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport and the region of Pomerania Province. Next to Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport a new Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport is being constructed, which in few years will start working. The scenario outlined is based on the experience of the Boston area and indicates that the cooperation of the two airports will bring many benefits for themselves and for the region. Conducted marketing research shows that passengers evaluate Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport as a very good airport. Also they showed that passengers of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport want more direct connections in tourist areas and new commercial & tourism services, including the smoking-room. Results after analyzed marketing research shows that an average passenger of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport is a Polish woman, aged 31-40, working, who flew 2-3 during the last 12 months. Objectives of work in describing the function of airports and their impact on the 88

cities and the regions have been fulfilled. In addition, presents many interesting issues concerning the functioning of airports: the components and functions of airports' infrastructure, airport planning, airports' revenues, handling, airport management organization chart and the other prospect at the scenario of the development of airports in Pomeranian Province. Thanks are for parents, many private persons and Prof. Mrs. D. Rucińska for comments on the thesis, time and patience.

Originally text on red was not in thesis, but I want to thank many people so I added it. I would like to thank:  Parents for financial support.  Mr. Zbigniew Sałek for an extensive interview on the functioning of airports in Poland and Europe;  Mrs. Ewa Reszczyńska for verifying the English version of the thesis;  Mr. Levon George Ghazaryan for verifying the English version of the thesis;  Mrs. Anna Kalicka for verifying the English version of the thesis;  Mrs. Carolina Chocian for help in completing the formalities for admission to the library of John Rylands in Manchester;  Mrs. Prof. Danuta Rucińska for inspiration in choosing themes of thesis and deeply comments to work;  Mr. dr Dariusz Toczyński for help in designing studies for the thesis;  Mr. Paweł Litkiewicz for an extensive interview;  Mrs. Dominika Drewek for lending professional English-language dictionaries;  Mr. Tomasz Klosowski for specialized knowledge communicated on lectures concerning air transport;  Mr. Adam Skonieczny for enabling to make marketing research in the terminal of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport;

89

Literature
Publications
1. Ashford, N. and Wright P. H. (1992). Airport Engineering, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York / Chichester / Brisbane / Toronto / Singapore 2. Button K. and Piels E. (2010). International Air Transport: the impact of Globalisation on Activity Levels from Globalisation, Transport and the Environment. Clearance Center. OECD 3. Chen W. F. (2004). The Civil Engineering Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press LLC. New York 4. Ciesielski M. (1992). Ekonomika infrastruktury transportowej. Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej. Poznań 5. Crocker D. (Ed) (2007). Dictionary of Aviation – Second Edition. A & C Black. London 6. Czecharowski S. (2002). Polskie regionalne porty lotnicze po kilku latach. „Przegląd Komunikacyjny” 7. Czownicki J. (1981). Rynek usług krajowej komunikacji lotniczej. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa 8. Czownicki J. and Rzeczyński B. (1980). Środki pracy transportu lotniczego. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa 9. Czownicki J., Kaliński D. and Marciszewska E. (1992). Transport lotniczy w gospodarce rynkowej. Szkoła Główna Handlowa. Warszawa 10. De Jong B., Suau-Sanchez P. and Droß M. (2009). The underestimated Airport Region: Reflecting on Planning Policies in the Airport Regions of Amsterdam. Aerlines. Barcelona and Munich 11. De Jong D. and Zondag W. J. (2008). Blue Skies or Storm Clouds?: essays on Public Policy & Air Transport. Science Guide 12. Dicken P. (2007). Global Shift: Mappinig the changing contours of world economy - 5th edition. SAGE Publications Ltd. London 13. Doganis R. (1992). The Airport Business. Rutledge. London and New York. 14. Dziembowski „Ekonomista” 90 Z. (1985). Infrastruktura jako kategoria ekonomiczna.

15. Graves R. (1998). Achievements – Land, Sea and Air: A Century of Conquest. Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. London 16. Gronowski F. (1965). System transportowy. Elementy teorii. „Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Szczecińskiej”. Szczecin 17. Grzywacz W. (1982). Infrastruktura transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa 18. Güller M. and Güller M. (2001). From airport to airport city. Airport Regions Conference. Barcelona 19. Hoffman L. (1968): Ekonomika żeglugi śródlądowej w zarysie. Wydawnictwo. Morskie. Gdynia In Brdulak J. (1989): Transport wodny śródlądowy, jako element systemu transportowego Polski. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa 20. J.G. Borchert (Ed) 2007. Airports as Cityports in the City-region.: Nederlandse Geografische Studies. Utrecht 21. Jarach D. (2005). Airport marketing: Strategies to cope with the new millennium environment. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Hampshire 22. Kaliński D. (1995). System finansowania infrastruktury lotniskowej.

Konferencja Stowarzyszenia Inżynierów i Techników Komunikacji. Warszawa. 23. Kazda A. and Caves R. E. (2008). Airport design and operation – second edition. Elsevier. Oxford 24. Knippenberger U. and Walls A. (Eds) (2010). Airports in Cities and Regions – Research and Practise. Scientific Publishing. Karlsruhe 25. Lynn M. (1988). Birds of Prey: Boeing vs. Airbus: a Battle for skies. Four Walls Eight Windows. New York 26. Madeyski M., Lissowska E. and Morawski W. (1980). Transport, rozwój, integracja. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa. 27. Malarski M. (2006). Inżynieria ruchu lotniczego. Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej. Warszawa 28. Neider J. (2007). Transport w handlu międzynarodowym. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 29. Piskozub A. (1982). Gospodarowanie w transporcie: podstawy teoretyczne. Wydawnictwo Łączność i Komunikacja. Warszawa

91

30. Poh E. (9-3 April 2007). Airport Planning and Managment and Terminal Design. Strategic Airport Managment Programme. Chile 31. Pomykały W. (1995) Encyklopedia biznesu. Fundacja Innowacja. Warszawa 32. Rucińska D. (2001). Marketingowe kształtowanie rynku usług transportowych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 33. Rucińska D. and Ruciński A. (2000). Marketing na rynku usług lotniczych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 34. Ruciński A. (1986). Planowanie i lokalizacja sieci regionalnych portów lotniczych. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 35. Ruciński A. (1998). Rynek usług pasażerskiego transportu lotniczego. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 36. Rucińskiego A. (2006). Porty Lotnicze wobec polityki otwartego nieba. Fundacja Rozwoju Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. Gdańsk 37. Rutkowski K. (1987). Rynek międzynarodowych przewozów lotniczych. Szkoła Główna Planowania i Statystyki. Warszawa 38. Secomski K. (1974). Mała encyklopedia ekonomiczna. Państwowe

Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne. Warszawa 39. Sheehan J.J. (2008). Business and Corporate Aviation Management, OnDemand Air Transportation. McGraw-Hill. London 40. Smith E. (2009). New Study Shows Airport’s Impact. The Daily News. 41. Szczepaniak T. (1996). Transport międzynarodowy. Państwowe wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne. Warszawa 42. Taneja N. K. (2008). Flying Ahead of the Airplane. Ashgate Publishing Limited. Great Britain 43. Thompson T. (2009). Non Aeronautical Revenues – Short Term Opportunities. Airports Council International – North America, Economics and Finance Conference. Washington 44. Thomson J.M. (1978). Nowoczesna ekonomika transportu. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności. Warszawa 45. Tłoczyński D. (2003). Marketing strategies of polish airports: towards European Union. Konferencja Naukowa Młodych Ekonomistów. Warszawa. 46. Tomala F. (1966). System transportowy a ogólna teoria systemów. Zeszyty Naukowe WSE. Sopot 92

47. Trani A.A. (2001). CEE 4674 Airport Planning and Design. Airport Master Planning Notes Virginia 48. Van Wijk M. (2007). Development of Airport Regions: Varieties of Institutions in Schiphol and Frankfurt. Aerlines. Amsterdam 49. Wall A. (10th July 2009). Airports in Cities and Regions – Research and Practice. 1st International Colloqium on Airports and Spatial Development. Karlsruhe 50. Wells A.T. and Young S. ((2004). Airport Planning & Management - 2th Edition. McGraw-Hill. New York

93

Internet sources

1. http://www.aci-europe.org 2. http://www.aef.org.uk 3. http://www.airliners.net 4. http://www.airport.com.pl 5. http://www.airport.gdansk.pl/ 6. http://www.airport.lodz.pl 7. http://www.airport.wroclaw.pl 8. http://www.airport-poznan.com.pl 9. http://www.anz.com 10. http://www.bbc.co.uk 11. http://www.berlin-airport.de 12. http://www.bucharestairports.ro 13. http://www.centreforaviation.com 14. http://www.cor.europa.eu 15. http://www.ctie.monash.edu.au 16. http://www.duesseldorfinternational.de 17. http://www.easa.europa.eu 18. http://www.ec.europa.eu 19. http://www.economist.com 20. http://www.faa.gov 21. http://www.firstdata.com 22. http://www.gaavionics.com 23. http://www.gdansk.airport.pl 24. http://www.gdansk.lasy.gov.pl 25. http://www.gdnas.pl 26. http://www.gdynia.pl/ 27. http://www.guardian.co.uk 28. http://www.hbr.org 29. http://www.hongkongairport.com 30. http://www.icao.int

31. http://www.infoair.pl 32. http://www.katowice-airport.com 33. http://www.klia.com.my 34. http://www.krakowairport.pl 35. http://www.lgb.org 36. http://www.london-luton.co.uk 37. http://www.lotnisko.zielonagora.pl 38. http://www.lotnisko-chopina.pl 39. http://www.lotnisko-radom.eu 40. http://www.manchesterairport.co.uk 41. http://www.mazuryairport.com 42. http://www.mercyairlift.org 43. http://www.modlinairport.pl 44. http://www.munich-airport.de 45. http://www.news.cnet.com 46. http://www.offairportcheckin.com 47. http://www.passengerselfservice.com 48. http://www.plb.pl 49. http://www.plksa.eu 50. http://www.portlotniczy.lublin.pl 51. http://www.rzeszowairport.pl 52. http://www.sochaczewairport.com 53. http://www.stuckattheairport.com 54. http://www.telegraph.co.uk 55. http://www.treehugger.com 56. http://www.tur-info.pl 57. http://www.ulc.gov.pl 58. http://www.wirtualnemedia.pl 59. http://www.wnp.pl 60. http://wwww.airport.gdynia.pl 61. http://www.portlotniczy.lublin.pl 94

Internal materials
1. Annual report of the council. (2008) International Civil Aviation Organization. Chicago 2. Bonnefoy P. A. and Hansaman R. J. (2008). Emergence and Impact of Secondary Airports in the United States. International Center for Air Transportation. Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge. 3. FAA Advisory Circular AC 50/5050-6A. (1985) FAA. Washington 4. Financial situation of airports and air navigation services. (2003). ICAO 5. From Airport City to Airport Region? (9-10 July 2009) 1st International Colloquium on Airports and Spatial Development. University of Karlsruhe and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Karlsruhe 6. Jacobs Consultancy (2009). Airport Master Plan Update, Executive Summary. Ottawa 7. Litkiewicz P. (2011). Obsługa naziemna – Podstawowe informacje oraz miejsca na rynku usług lotniczych. GDN Airport Services Sp. z o.o. Gdańsk 8. Live&Travel. Magazyn Portu Lotniczego Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy. Gdańsk 2009, nr 11 9. Section 3 - Airport Planning Projects. (2010) Missouri Department of Transportation. Jefferson City 10. Southeast Land Use Planning. (2007) SGS Economics & Planning Pty. Melbourne 11. System transportowy Polski w ogólnoeuropejskim i ogólnoświatowym systemie transportowym in Perspektywy rozwoju transportu w Polsce. (1975). „Biuletyn KPZK PAN” 12. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2004. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland 13. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport 2008. Air Transport Action Group. Switzerland 14. The economic contribution of aviation to the U.K. (2002). Oxford Economic Forecasting. Oxford 15. The economic contribution of aviation to the U.K. (2006) Oxford Economic Forecasting. Oxford 16. The Social and economic impact of airports in Europe. An Airport Council International Europe – York Aviation Research, Brussels 2004 95

Law
1. Annex 10, Volume I - Radio Navigation Aids – Fifth Edition. ICAO. July 1996 2. Annex 11. Air Traffic Services -Thirteenth Edition. ICAO. July 2001 3. Annex 14. Aerodromes - Volume I Aerodrome design and operations – Third Edition. ICAO. July 1999 4. Aviation and Transportation Security Act 2001. (2001) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) within the U.S. Department of Transportation. Washington. 5. Program rozwoju sieci lotnisk i lotniczych urządzeń naziemnych. (8 maja 2007 roku) Załącznik do uchwały Rady Ministrów nr. 86/2007. Warszawa 6. Rozporządzenie Ministra Transportu i Gospodarki z dnia 3 sierpnia 1998 r. W sprawie przepisów techniczno-budowlanych dla lotnisk cywilnych,

Dz.U.98.130.859 7. The Convention on International Civil Aviation. (7th December 1944). Chicago 8. Ustawa o stanie wyjątkowym, Dz. U. z dnia 20 lipca 2002 r.

Others

1. Interwiew with kierownikiem Senior Manager of Passengers Services and Operations Mr. Paweł Litkiewicz carried out on 25.03.2011 2. Interview with chairman of Polish Chamber of Forwarding and Logistics Mr. Marek Tarczyński, carried out on 20.05.2011 3. Interview with member of International Association of Executives Airport Mr. Zbigniew Sałek carried out on 20.02.2010

96

Annex 1. Questions about knowledge of air transportation

97

Annex 2. Expectations of different market operators in terms of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport in Polish

98

Annex 3. Expectations of different market operators in terms of Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport in English

99

My name is Michal Pierzakowski and I am an enthusiast of aviation. I wish to have a work strongly connected to air transport. Also I wish to do PHD about Air Passenger Definition, but I do not have money to study. I hope my thesis shows new perspectives of air transport and it will be useful for students, airports and all those who are interested in.

If your company is looking for a dependable, results-oriented professional with a solid performance track, so it is me. I can contribute my knowledge and experience to your company. I would be interested to speak to you and discuss the value that my strengths and knowledge can bring to your search. I can be reached in confidence at: numberouno@wp.pl

100

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful