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5

Detecting Propaganda

A. What is Propaganda? The word propaganda is defined as designating any attempt to influence the opinions or actions of others to some predetermined end by appealing to their emotions or prejudices or by distorting the facts. The propagandist, in other words, wants others to take a certain attitude or make a certain decision; he intends to influence them so that they act in a manner desired by him; and he tries to achieve his purpose by the use of suggestion and spurious arguments. Propaganda, as here understood, is independent of the nature of the end toward which it moves. The predetermined goal which the propagandist tries to achieve may be either good or bad. It may be a new form of slavery and the suppression of countless millions; it may be the financial support of the aged and the establishment of new playgrounds for children of the slums, or it may be the sale of worthless stocks and the corruption of an electorate. Whatever the end, propaganda devices may be employed in its realization, and the same devices may serve the most divergent purposes. It is not the end or goal that stamps an argument as propaganda: it is the nature of the argument, which does that. The devices employed, not the purpose for which they are employed, characterize propaganda as propaganda. No absolute distinction can be drawn between propaganda and education. Sociologically and psychologically there is no sharp line of demarcation between them. It is impossible to say with certainty where one ends and the other begins. In general, however, training in any skill that enables the individual to employ scientific methods in dealing with all problems, which helps him to think more clearly, and which makes him more discerning in his judgments, must be regarded as education rather than as propaganda. Likewise, the imparting of established scientific knowledge is education and not propaganda, for such knowledge has been checked and re-checked by independent investigators; it is objective and unbiased. In science the appeal is to experiment and reasoned analysis, whereas in all propaganda the appeal is to prejudices, fears, hatreds, aspirations, and traditionsto the emotions rather than to the intellect, or to distorted facts and misconstrued arguments. Education enables people to know or to discover the truth and then to decide in the light of this truth what action is to be taken. Propaganda, on the other hand, attempts to provoke action regardless of, or even despite, truth. This does not mean that educators and scientists never employ propaganda, for they do. When a sociologist teaches the established facts in his
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specialized field of study, he is engaged in education; but if he tries to persuade people that sociology offers panacea for all social ills, he indulges in propaganda, for his contention is not unbiased and is not an established truth. What is true for the sociologist is true of educators in general who try to sell their goods or to put education across. It may be true of the philosopher no less than of the physician or the minister of the gospel. It is even possible to become a propagandist in favor of propaganda analysis. Teaching the principles of analysis is a matter of education, but making extravagant claims concerning the value of such principles is nothing but propaganda. An objective evaluation must consider all matters in proper relation to all relevant facts. Propaganda is most frequently associated with conflicts of some kind, with situations, that is, in which interested groups stand opposed to one another and in which each group tries to get the most for itself. Propaganda is therefore especially important in fields where social, political, or economic advantages are at stake and where public opinion is to be molded on a large scale and often to the detriment of the majority of the people. It is encountered in international as well as in domestic affairs, and in democracies no less than under totalitarian forms of government. For some purposes it may be important to distinguish between monopoly propaganda emanating from a central government office (such as the Ministry of Propaganda and enlightenment of the Hitler regime, or the corresponding bureau of Soviet Russia), and the competitive propaganda of rival groups as it is encountered in a democracy having freedom of speech, a free press, and uncensored radio channels. But this distinction involves only the source and the channels of distribution, and does not pertain to the nature of propaganda as such. The devices employed and the general characters of propaganda are the same regardless of the source and the means of dissemination. Propaganda as carried on by a special interest group is still propaganda when it is carried on by a government bureau, and the propagandistic activities of a state or nation are not less propagandistic when they are carried on by private individuals or group of individuals. Since propaganda is expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to sway other to feel the same way or to influence opinions or actions of others with reference to predetermined ends, it is very different from scientific analysis. The propagandist is trying to put something across, good or bad, whereas the scientist is trying to discover truth and fact. Often the propagandist does not want careful scrutiny and criticism; he wants to bring about a specific action. Because the action may be socially beneficial or socially harmful to millions of people, it is necessary to focus upon the propagandist and his activities the searchlight of scientific scrutiny. Socially desirable propaganda will not suffer examination, but the opposite type will be detected and revealed for what it is. B. Propaganda Devices We are fooled by propaganda chiefly because they appeal to our emotions rather than to our reason. They make us believe and do something we would not believe or do. And since it appeal more to our emotions; we often dont recognize it when we see it. Admittedly, on certain occasions it may be fun to be fooled. However, it is more fun to know. We can more easily recognize propaganda when we see it if we are familiar with the common propaganda devices. There are seven of them, i.e. (1) Name Calling, (2) Glittering Generalities, (3) Transfer, (4) Testimonial, (5) Plain Folks, (6) Card Stacking, and (7) Band Wagon.
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In examining these devices, note that they work most effectively at those times when we are too lazy to think for ourselves; also they tie to our emotions which sway us to be for or against nations, races, religions, ideals, economic and political policies and practices, and so on through automobiles, cigarettes, radios, toothpaste, presidents and wars. With our emotions stirred, it may be fun to be fooled by these propaganda devices, but it is more fun and infinitely more to our own interests to know how they work. 1. Name Calling Name Calling is a device to make us form judgment without examining the evidence on which it should be based. Here the propagandist appeals to our hate and fear. He does this by giving bad names to those individuals, groups, nations, races, policies, practices, and ideals that he would have us condemn and reject. The name-calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002) writes The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence. For centuries the name heretic was bad. Thousands were oppressed, tortured, or put to death as heretics. Anybody who dissented from popular or group belief or practice was in danger of being called heretic. In the light of todays knowledge, some heresies were bad and some were good. Many of the pioneers of modern science were called heretics; witness the case of Copernicus, Galileo, and Bruno. Todays bad names include Fascist, demagogue, dictator, red, financial oligarchy, Communist, muckraker, alien, outside agitator, economic royalist, utopian, rabble-rouser, troublemaker, Constitution wrecker. Al Smith called Roosevelt a communist by implication when he said in his Liberty League speech, There can be only one capital, Washington or Moscow. When Al Smith was running for the presidency, many called him a tool of the Pope, saying in effect, We must choose between Washington and Rome. That implied that Mr. Smith, if elected president, would take his order from the Pope. Likewise Mr. Justice Hugo Black was associated with a bad name, Ku Klux Klan. In these cases some propagandists have tried to make us form judgment without examining essential evidence and implications. Al Smith is a Catholic. He must never be President. Roosevelt is a Red. Defeat his program. Hugo Black was a Klansman. Take him out of the Supreme Court. Use of bad names without presentation of their essential meaning, without all their pertinent implications, comprises perhaps the most common of all propaganda devices. Those who want to maintain the status quo apply bad names to Communists and Socialists. Those who want to change the status quo apply bad names to those who would maintain it. For example, the Daily Worker and the American Guardian apply bad names to conservative republicans and democrats. According to the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002), to make ourselves aware of Name Calling, we should ask ourselves the following questions when we spot such a propaganda technique: (1) What does the name mean? (2) Does the idea in question have a legitimate connection with the real meaning of the name? (3) Is an idea that serves my best interests being dismissed through giving it a name I don't like? (4) Leaving the name out of consideration, what are the merits of the idea itself?

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2. Glittering Generalities Glittering Generalities is a device by which the propagandist identifies his program with virtue by use of virtue words. Here he appeals to our emotions of love, generosity, and brotherhood. He uses words like truth, freedom, honor, liberty, social justice, public service, the right to work, loyalty, progress, democracy, Constitution Defender. These words suggest shining ideals. All persons of good will believe in these ideals. Hence, the propagandist, by identifying his individual, group, nation, race, policy, practice, or belief with such ideals, seeks to win us to his cause. As Name Calling is a device to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, Glittering Generalities is a device to make us accept and approve without examining the evidence. For example, use of the phrases the right to work and social justice, may be a device to make us accept programs for meeting the labor-capital problem which, if we examine them critically, we would not accept at all. The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. While Name Calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence. In acquainting ourselves with the Glittering Generality Device, therefore, all that has been said regarding Name Calling must be kept in mind..." (Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 2002). The propagandist is most effective in use of these devices when his words make us create devils to fight or gods to adore. By his use of the bad words, we personify as a devil some nation, race, individual, group, policy, practice, belief or ideals; we are made fighting mad to destroy it. By use of good words, we personify as godlike idol some nation, race, individual, group, policy, ideals, etc. Words which are bad to some are good to others, or may be made so. Thus, to some the New deal is a prophecy of social salvation while to others it is an omen of social disaster. According to the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002), to make ourselves aware of Glittering Generalities, we should ask ourselves the following questions when when confronted with this technique: (1) What does the virtue word really mean? (2) Does the idea in question have a legitimate connection with the real meaning of the word? (3) Is an idea that does not serve my best interests being "sold" to me merely through its being given a name that I like? (4) Leaving the virtue word out of consideration, what are the merits of the idea itself? 3. Transfer Transfer is a device by which the propagandist carries over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something we respect and revere to something he would have us accept. For instance, most of us respect and revere our church and our nation. If the propagandist succeeds in getting church or nation to approve a campaign in behalf of some program, he thereby transfers its authority, sanction and prestige to that program. Thus we may accept something which otherwise we might reject. In the Transfer device, symbols are constantly used. The cross
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represents the Christian Church. The flag represents the nation. Cartoons like Uncle Sam represent a consensus. These symbols stir emotions. At their very sight, with the speed of light, is aroused the whole complex of feelings we have with respect to religion or nation. A cartoonist by having Uncle Sam disapprove a budget for unemployment relief would have us feel that the whole united states disapprove relief costs. By drawing an Uncle Sam who approves the same budget, the cartoonist would have us feel that American people approve it. Thus the Transfer device is used both for and against causes and ideas. When a political activist closes her speech with a public prayer, she is attempting to transfer religious prestige to the ideas that she is advocating. As with all propaganda devices, the use of this technique is not limited to one side of the political spectrum. It can be found in the speeches of liberation theologists on the left, and in the sermons of religious activists on the right. In a similar fashion, propagandists may attempt to transfer the reputation of "Science" or "Medicine" to a particular project or set of beliefs. A slogan for a popular cough drop encourages audiences to "Visit the halls of medicine." On TV commercials, actors in white lab coats tell us that the "Brand X is the most important pain reliever that can be bought without a prescription." In both of these examples, the transfer technique is at work. These techniques can also take a more ominous turn. As Alfred Lee has argued, "even the most flagrantly anti-scientific racists are wont to dress up their arguments at times with terms and carefully selected illustrations drawn from scientific works and presented out of all accurate context." The propaganda of Nazi Germany, for example, rationalized racist policies by appealing to both science and religion. This does not mean that religion and science have no place in discussions about social issues! The point is that an idea or program should not be accepted or rejected simply because it has been linked to a symbol such as Medicine, Science, Democracy, or Christianity. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002) has argued that, when confronted with the transfer device, we should ask ourselves the following questions: (1) In the most simple and concrete terms, what is the proposal of the speaker? (2) What is the meaning of the the thing from which the propagandist is seeking to transfer authority, sanction, and prestige? (3) Is there any legitimate connection between the proposal of the propagandist and the revered thing, person or institution? (4) Leaving the propagandistic trick out of the picture, what are the merits of the proposal viewed alone? 4. Testimonial The Testimonial is a device to make us accept anything from a patent medicine or a cigarette to a program of national policy. In this device the propagandist tries to convince his audiences by citing the statement of (popular) idividuals or by letting them testify to somebody or somethings quality, ability, merits, etc. Of course there is nothing wrong with citing a qualified source, and the testimonial technique can be used to construct a fair, wellbalanced argument. However, it is often used in ways that are unfair and misleading, suach as the followings: 1) Tiger Woods is on the cereal box, promoting Wheaties as part of a balanced breakfast. 2) Cher is endorsing a new line of cosmetics, and La Toya Jackson says that the Psychic Friends Network changed her life. 3) The lead singer of R.E.M appears on a public service announcement and encourages fans to support the "Motor Voter Bill."
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The most common misuse of the testimonial involves citing individuals who are not qualified to make judgements about a particular issue. In 1992, Barbara Streisand supported Bill Clinton, and Arnold Schwarzenegger threw his weight behind George Bush. Both are popular performers, but there is no reason to think that they know what is best for this country. (Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 2002). Unfair testimonials are usually obvious, and most of us have probably seen through this rhetorical trick at some time or another. However, this probably happened when the testimonial was provided by a celebrity that we did not respect. When the testimony is provided by an admired celebrity, we are much less likely to be critical. According to the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002), we should ask ourselves the following questions when we encounter this device: (1) Who or what is quoted in the testimonial? (2) Why should we regard this person (or organization or publication) as having expert knowledge or trustworthy information on the subject in question? (3) What does the idea amount to on its own merits, without the benefit of the Testimonial? 5. Plain Folks Plain Folks is a device used by politicians, labor leaders, business men, and even by ministers and educators to win our confidence by appearing to be people like ourselvesjust plain folks among neighbors. America's recent presidents have all been millionaires, but they have gone to great lengths to present themselves as ordinary citizens. Bill Clinton ate at McDonald's and confessed a fondness for trashy spy novels. George Bush Sr. hated broccoli, and loved to fish. Ronald Reagan was often photographed chopping wood, and Jimmy Carter presented himself as a humble peanut farmer from Georgia. For the newspapermen they raid the kitchen cupboard finding there some of the good wifes apple pie. They go to country picnics; they attend service at the old frame church; they pitch hay and go fishing, they show their belief in home and mother. In short they would win our votes by showing that theyre just common as the rest of usjust plain folks and therefore, wise and good. Businessmen often are plain folks with the factory hands. Even distillers use the device. Its our familys whiskey, neighbor; and neighbor, its your price. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002) has argued that, when confronted with this device, we should suspend judgement and ask ourselves the following questions: (1) What are the propagandist's ideas worth when divorced from his or her personality? (2) What could he or she be trying to cover up with the plain-folks approach? (2) What are the facts?

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6. Card Stacking Card Stacking is a device in which the propagandist employs all the arts of deception to win our support for himself, his group, nation, policy, practice, belief, or ideal. He stacks the cards against the truth. He uses under-emphasis and over-emphasis to dodge issues and evade facts. He resorts to lies, censorship, and distortion. He omits facts. He offers false testimony. He creates a smokescreen of clamor by raising a new issue when he wants an embarrassing matter forgotten. He draws a red herring across the trail to confuse and divert those in quest of facts he does not want revealed. He makes the unreal appear real and the real appear unreal. He lets half-truth masquerade as truth. By the Card Stacking device, a mediocre candidate, through the build-up, is made to appear an intellectual titan; an ordinary prizefighter a probable world champion; a worthless patent medicine a beneficent cure. By means of this device propagandist would convince us that a ruthless war of aggression is a crusade for righteousness. Card stacking employs sham, hypocrisy, and effrontery. 7. Band Wagon The Band Wagon is a device to make us follow the crowd, to accept the propagandists program en masse. Here his theme is: Everybodys doing it, and so should you, and since few of us want to be left behind, this technique can be quite successful. His techniques range from those of medicine show to dramatic spectacle. He hires a hall, fills a great stadium, and marches a million men in parade. He employs symbols, colors, music, movement, and all the dramatic arts. He appeals to the desire, common to most of us, to follow the crowd. Because he wants us to follow the crowd in masse he directs his appeal to groups held together by common ties of nationality, religion, race, environment, sex vacation. Thus propagandist campaigning for or against a program will appeal to us as Catholics, Protestants, Moslems or Jews; as members of the Nordic race or as Negroes; as farmers or as school teachers; as housewives or as miners. All the articles of flattery are used to harness the fears and hatreds, prejudices and biases, convictions and ideals common to the group; thus emotion is made to push and pull the group on to the Bandwagon. In newspaper articles and in the spoken word this device is also found. Dont throw your vote away. Vote for your candidate. Hes sure to win. Nearly everybody wins every election before the votes are in. According to the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (2002), When confronted with this technique, it may be helpful to ask ourselves the following questions: (1) What is this propagandist's program? (2) What is the evidence for and against the program? (2) Regardless of the fact that others are supporting this program, should I support it? (3) Does the program serve or undermine my individual and collective interests? C. Propaganda and Emotion Observe that in all these devices our emotion is the stuff with which the propagandists work. Without it they are helpless; with it, harnessing it to their purposes, they can make us glow with pride or burn with hatred, they can make us zealots in behalf of the program they espouse. As we said at the beginning, propaganda as generally understood is expression of
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opinion or action by individuals or groups with reference to predetermined ends. Without the appeal to our emotionto our fears and to our courage, to our selfishness and unselfishness, to our loves and to our hatespropagandists would influence few opinions and few actions. To say this is not to condemn emotion, an essential part of life, or to assert that all predetermined end of propagandists are bad. What we mean is that the intelligent person does not want propagandists to utilize his emotions, even to the attainment of good ends, without knowing what is going on. He does not want to be used in the attainment of ends he may later consider bad. He does not want to be gullible. He does not want to be fooled. He does not want to be duped, even in a good cause. He wants to know the facts and among these is included the fact of the utilization of his emotions. Keeping in mind the seven propaganda devices, turn to todays newspapers and almost immediately, you can spot examples of them. At election time or during campaign, Plain Folks and Bandwagon are common. Card Stacking is the hardest to detect, because it is adroitly executed or because we lack the information necessary to nail the lie. A little practice with the daily newspapers in detecting these propaganda devices soon enables us to detect them elsewherein radio, news-reel, books, magazines, and in expressions of labor unions, business groups, churches, school, political parties.
EXERCISE 61: Read the following sentences or paragraphs and decide which propaganda techniques they represent. Using the following codes, place the appropriate letters in front of each sentence.

NC= Name Calling GG= Glittering Generalities Tr= Transfer Te= Testimonial 1. ___ All your friends drink Sprite. You try it too!

PF = Plain Folks CS= Card Stacking BW= Band Wagon

2. ___ This car is the latest thing in speed, power and luxury. 3. ___ John Kerry, candidate for president, was seen playing football at the church picnic yesterday. 4. ___ Superstar Will Dempsey says Cheewees are the best for breakfast. 5. ___ Leading Medical men claim Calso capsules will cure the common cold. 6. ___ Abraham Lincoln stated he was born to fight slavery. 7. ___ We should not let the government cut the budget. It will reduce the citizents prosperity. I wonder why Senator Sean Calloway support the budget cut. He is really a "stingy" politician. 8. ___ Senator sandy Roger is a two-faced politician. 9. ___ Nine out of ten people use Gusto Shaving Cream. 10. ___Golden cigarettes last longer, taste better, and use finer tobacco. 11. ___ Bill Adams is the workingmans friend.

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12. ___ Take the advice of Stan Stokely, track star: Wear Whiz Shoes! 13. ___ Independent laboratory tests show Puresilk is the best for your skin. 14. ___ Everybodys dancing Flip and Flop. Let us teach you how. 15. ___ Smart people drink Windagainst! 16. ___ Buy new Blooze Soap in the giant economy size. 17. ___ Forty million Indonesians drink Kapal Api. Why not you? 18. ___ Cathy Butterfield, Olympic swimming champion, claims Formfit swimsuits are the best. 19. ___ Surely you dont want to elect a slacker like Martin Bryan! 20. ___ Senator Stockton rose his position after having been a common laborer. 21. ___ Ben Franklin Savings and Loan Association will help you save money! 22. ___ Leading medical men recommended taking Pilch Pills three times daily for increased vigor. 23. ___ An honest American, Richard Reeves believes in freedom and love of fellow man. 24. ___ Come to Bali, where you can enjoy paradise-like life. 25. ___ Fly with Lion airjust like what Siti Nurhalizah does. 26. ___ John Seen is clearly un-American in his views toward free speech. 27. ___ Our president watches JTG TV every morning. If you do the same, you tune on the best channel. 28. ___ RocketReader is a course which guaratees that within three months you will multiply your reading speed and comprehension up to five times. RocketReader also increases your familiarity with less commonly occurring words through what is called the Memory training module which relies on learning reinforcement to improve vocabulary. In addition, RocketReaders wide range of readings incorporate a rich and diverse vocabulary set, providing indirect vocabulary training. Those who had joined the program claimed it very effective to make them skillful readers. 29. ___ AFGANISTANAmerica and its crusader friends want to establish their permanent presence in Afghanistan and then like in Turkey, they want to use Afghan Americans to make a secular (not religious) country and make their puppet regime rule Afghanistan permanently. The aim is to deprive them Afghans of their religion and give them the American atheist mentality, make them embrace American religion instead of the religion given by God and to worship them Americans instead of worshipping God. America wants to ensure its domination in Asia and bring the area out of Russian control. Meanwhile, China and Iran will also find themselves under seige. Jihad against the Americans and their puppets is now the duty of every Muslim of Afghanistan, a duty which does not need even the permission of one's parents. The defender and protector of the present regime of Kabul is an apostate or renegade and shows nothing but hypocrisy and atheism. 30. ____HOUSTONEnron is one of the worlds leading electricity, natural gas and
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communications companies. The company, with revenues of $101 billion in 2000, markets electricity and natural gas, delivers physical commodities and financial and risk management services to customers around the world, and has developed an intelligent network platform to facilitate online business. Fortune magazine has named Enron Americas Most Innovative Company for six consecutive years. Enrons Internet address is www.enron.com. The stock is traded under the ticker symbol ENE.

EXERCISE 62 Read the following possible advertisements. Make a checkmark () beside the ones that make use of obvious propaganda techniques.

1. ____The Mercury Messenger Service delivers your messages like a flash. Our messengers moved on a winged feet. 2. _____The Zippy Messenger Service offers a 24-hour service. We guarantee that your message will be delivered within four hours, or your money will be returned. 3. ____Mark Mach, all professional football tackle, says, You can always depend on Marvs Messenger to get there on time. I wouldnt trust anyone else. 4. ____Squeeky Sneakers are the shoes that everyone is buying. Dont be left out. 5. ____John Hawkings, the winner of the 2004 Nobel Prize for Literature, said, Other universities can claim theyre the first, but I believe my almamaterGlobal Quantum Universityis the best. Join it to shape your glorious future. 6. ____We guarantee your money will be refunded in full if you fail to double your reading rate with no lose in comprehension in just one lesson. 7. ____Im David Robson, striker of New York F.C. When Im not playing football, I drive my new Soluna. 8. ____Our institution does not only provide your children knowledge but also teach them how to live. 9. ____Nowhere else you can feel at home except in our hotel. 10. _____Invest your money in our business. Its the only sector in which you never suffer a loss.

EXERCISE 63 Read the following advertisement and answer the questions that follow.

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Save dont waste your money. Its so easy to spend when its in your pocket and youll have little to show for it. And dont try to save at home. The chances are you will be robbed one day. Many people lose their lifes savings that way. Keep your saving in The Theo Garcia Bank where they will be safe and will earn you 3 % per annum. You can withdraw part or all of your saving at any time at any of The Banks branches. There are over 175 throughout Southeast Asia. All our branches are interconnected by computer and withdrawals or deposits can be made at any branch. Another way to Save and earn more interest is with Time Deposits. If you agree not to withdraw your money for a fixed period you will receive greater interest. At present 3 months earns you 4 % per annum, 6 months 4 % and 12 months 4 % per annum. Come in and see us soon and discuss the best saving program for you. You can open a Saving Account for as little as $1.

The Theo Garcia Banking Corporation


A. Based on the context of passage, choose the most suitable option. 1. The advertisement tells us to save money because A. the bank will pay interest on it. B. we may be robbed one day. C. it is easy to open a Saving Account. D. we can have a better future if we do. 2. The advertisement tells us to put our money in the bank instead of keeping it at home because A. we can easily withdraw it when we need it. B. banks are never robbed. C. deposits can be made at any branch of the bank. D. our homes are likely to be robbed. 3. We can earn interest on our money at the rate of 4% per annum if we A. open a saving account. B. leave it on Time Deposit for at least a year. C. put it on Time Deposit for between 3 and 6 months. D. deposit as little as $1.
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4. Once you have opened a savings Account you A. must leave the money for a fixed period. B. put more money into it every 3, 6, or 12 months. C. can withdraw the money when you need it. D. earn from 3% to 4% interest on it per annum. 5. The Theo Garcia Banking Corporation A. offers only one kind of Savings program. B. wants to encourage people to deposit money. C. offers higher rates of interest than any other bank. D. charges people $1 to open a Saving Account.

B. Critical Questions
1. Advertisements dont only give us information about a product or a service. They often instruct us to do certain things. Write out those sentences in the passage that tell us to do something. (a) ____________________________________________________________________ (b) _____________________________________________________________________ (c) _____________________________________________________________________ (d) _____________________________________________________________________

2. Advertisements dont only give us information about a product or a service. They often instruct us to do certain things. Write out those sentences in the passage that tell us to do something. (a) ____________________________________________________________________ (b) ____________________________________________________________________ (c) ____________________________________________________________________ (d) ____________________________________________________________________

3. However, in order to make these instructions acceptable, they are sometimes expressed in the form of suggestions. For example: the suggestion, If you agree not to withdraw your money for a fixed period you will receive greater interest basically means the same with the order, Agree not withdraw your money for a fixed period and you will receive
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greater interest such suggestions you see in the passage. Rewrite the four orders you have quoted above in to the form of suggestions. (a) ____________________________________________________________________ (b) _____________________________________________________________________ (c) _____________________________________________________________________ (d) ____________________________________________________________________

4. In general, what type of propaganda does the advertiser employ in this passage? Explain!

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