HarryL .

Rev ised Ed ition
Ad A '
Pub lishers: New York
Tab leofContents

x i


I. Forew ord

ii . Sioux CitytoWashington 14
III. TheReliefProgram 38
Iv . ThePresid entialBees
v .ThePhonyWar 123
v i .TheFormerNav alPerson 14 0
v ii .TheChainReaction 15 2
v iii .TheThird TermCampaign 16 9

20 2
CHAPTER x .TheGard enHose 221
x i .No .ioDow ningStreet 230
x ii .TheCommon-law Alliance 26 4
x iii .Unlimited Emergency 275
x iv .TheDriv etotheEast
30 1
x v .TheKremlin
x v i .TheAtlanticConference 34 9
x v ii
.ShootonSight 36 6
x v iii
.Aid forRussia 38 4
x ix .WarinthePacific

4 0 3
CHAPTER x x .TheArcad iaConference
4 39
x x i .TheVichyPolicy
4 79
x x ii .WinterofDisaster
4 9 0
x x iii
.TheDecisiontoAttack 5 18
v i
x x x v .
x x iv
TheMolotov Visits
x x v .TheDecisionIsChanged
x x v i.TheTurningPoint
CHAPTER x x v li.TheCasab lancaConference
x x v iii .ThePoliticalSector
x x ix .Trid entand Quad rant
x x x .Cairo,Teheranand Ov erlord
PART v :
19 4 4 ,19 4 5 -VICTORYAND
TheTerrificHead ache
The follow ingphotographicillustrations
w illb efound inagroupfacingpage4 26
HarryHopkinsb eforetheSenateCommerceCommittee,January13,
1 9 39
HarryHopkinshold shisfirstpressconference,May 21, 1
9 33
HarryHopkinsand Harold IckesinOctob er,19 35
TheIckes-HopkinsFeud -cartoon
AttheNew DealCircus-cartoon
Presid entRoosev eltmeetsw ithhisCab inetinSeptemb er,19 38
Churchilland Hopkinsv isitScapaFlow inJanuary,19 4 1
Presid entRoosev elt,PrimeMinisterChurchill,Ad miralStarkand
Ad miralKingonb oard theU
SecretaryofStateHull,GeneralMarshalland Amb assad orLitv inov
greetingForeignMinisterMolotov inWashingtoninMay,19 4 2
ASignofLand -cartoon
TheSecond Front-cartoon
TheChurchill-Roosev eltpressconferenceatCasab lancainJanuary, 1
9 4 3
Presid entRoosev eltstud yingd ispatchesd uringhisreturntripfrom
Casab lanca
TheThanksgiv ingDay,19 4 3,meetinginCairo,Egypt
Presid entRoosev eltaw ard ingtheLegionofMerittoGeneralEisenhow er
Thearriv alofPresid entRoosev eltintheharb orofMalta
Presid entRoosev eltand ForeignMinisterMolotov atYalta
PrimeMinisterChurchill,Presid entRoosev eltand PremierStalinat
v u
Roosev elt'snotetoHopkinsregard inghishealth,May21, 1
9 39 7
Roosev elt'ssketchillustratinginad eq uacyoffix ed coastald efenses 12
TheChicagoTrib une'sPlatformfor 19 36 8 2
Tw opagesfromHopkins'notesregard ingthePresid encyin
19 4 0 9 6
Roosev elt'slettertoVannev arBush,signed thed ayafterthefall
15 6
Roosev elt'slettertoWilliamBankhead ,statinghispositiononthe
third term
Tw opagesofaletterfromHopkinstoRoosev elt,w rittend uring
hisfirstv isittoEngland
4 4
Roosev elt-Hopkins'j ointd raftofacab letoChurchill,settingup
nav alpatrolsintheWesternHemisphere
29 2
Mapshow ingRoosev elt'sid eaofareainWesternHemisphereto
b epoliced b yU.S.Nav y
Hopkins'notesofaconv ersationw ithRoosev eltonev eofhistrip
toLond on,July, 19 4 1
Originalnotestakenb yHopkinsonJuly 31,19 4 1,d uringconv er-
sationw ithStalin
Memorand uminStalin'shand w ritinggiv entoHopkinsinKremlin
July31, 19 4 1
34 0
Roosev elt'ssketchofaproj ected hurricaneproofhousehew anted
tob uild inFlorid a
Roosev elturgesHopkinstoex ped iteshipmentofaircrafttoRussia
39 9
Roosev elt'sord ertoHopkinstoex ped iteshipmentofmaterialto
China 4 .
0 9
DeclarationoftheUnited Nations,w ithRussianamend mentsind i-
cated inRoosev elt'shand w riting
4 5 0
Roosev elt'sregroupingofsignatoriestotheUnited NationsDec-
laration 4 5 2
Notepassed b yBeav erb rooktoHopkinsd uringWhiteHouse
meeting 4
.5 6
Roosev elt'shand w rittenamend mentstoChiefsofStaffproposed
set-upforSouthw estPacificTheater
4 6 8
PageofHopkins'notesand d ood les,mad ed uringmeetingat
1o Dow ningStreetonev eningofApril 14 ,19 4 2
5 37
Roosev elt'ssketchesofaland ingcraft,d raw nonev eofMolotov 's
v isittoWashington
5 5 5
MessagetoMarshalland King,d rafted j ointlyb yRoosev eltand
Hopkins,July 21,19 4 2
5 8 6
Roosev elt'sand Hopkins'j ointd raftoftelegramtoMarshall,
. 19 4 2
5 9 6
the British and American positions on
Sled gehammer 6 o8
Hopkins'personalreactiontotheBritishposition6 0 9
Messaged rafted j ointlyb yRoosev eltand Hopkins,show ingtheir
intenseconcernov erthesituationatGuad alcanal

6 24
Roosev elt'smessagetoPetain,rev ised b yRoosev eltafterChurchill

6 4 6
Hopkins'd escriptiv enotes,w rittend uringtripacrossSouth
AtlanticenroutetoCasab lanca 6 7o
ApagefromHopkins'notesontheCasab lancaConference 6 9 2
PagesofStateDepartmentmemorand umregard ingpolicytob e
follow ed inoccupationofItalyw ithRoosev elt'sand Hopkins'
rev isions

Vichyb road castreportingMarshall'sd ismissal,w ithMarshall's
and Roosev elt'scommentsthereon

76 3
PagefromHopkins'memorand umd uringRoosev elt'stripto
Teheranab oard theU.S.S.Iow a

76 9
Sketchd raw nb yRoosev eltatTeheranshow inghisconception
oftheb asisoftheUnited NationsOrganiz ation

78 9
Hopkins'memorand umforinsertionintheminutesoftheTeheran
79 4
NotefromHopkinstoRoosev eltd uringfinalmeetingatTeheran
79 7
Roosev elt'smemorand umtoChurchillregard ingrev ised d ecisions
onChina 8 oi
Scrollpresented toHopkinsb yChurchill 8 o6
Hopkins'notetoRoosev eltatYaltad uringthed iscussionofthe
Russianreq uestforad d itionalv otesintheUnited Nations
Assemb ly

8 5 6
NotefromHopkinstoRoosev eltregard ingd iscussionofFrance's

5 9
Hopkins'notetoRoosev eltsuggestingasolutiontothed ead locked
reparationsd iscussion

8 6 o
Ex changeofcommentsb etw eenHopkinsand Roosev eltd uring

8 6 3
Notesmad eb yHopkinspriortohislastconferencew ithStalin
in May,
19 4 5

8 8 6
Truman'slettertoHopkinsregard inghisresignationfromthe
Presid ent'sSov ietProtocolCommittee

9 18
NoteonRev ised Ed ition
HEN,d uringthelongprocessofpreparingthisb ook,Iw asasked
q uestionsab outitsnature,Isometimesheard theprotest," But
surelyyouarenotgoingtopub lishsuchmaterialw hilesomanyofthe
lead ingparticipantsinthishistoryarestillliv ing? "
Thisprotestind icated asenseofnicety,orsq ueamishness,w hichis
happilyb ecomingob solete
.Inthepast,heirsofpresid ents,generalsand
otherinfluentialfigureshav esuppressed priv atepapersforyearsor
generations,orhav eev end estroyed themforev er,and theseheirsstill
hav ethelegalrighttod oastheypleasew ithinherited d ocuments .But
thed ev elopmentofcustomnow frow nsuponsuchsuppression
.Roosev eltestab lished ahealthypreced entb yb eq ueathinghispapers,
w hichrunintomillionsofitems,tothenationratherthantohisfamily,
and theclearanceofthesepapersforpub licinspectionisatthed iscretion
oftheArchiv istoftheUnited States,w hoisinv ested w ithpub licrespon-
sib ility .
Itw ould seemthatthetimetopub lishtherecord tothefullestpossib le
ex tentisw henmanyofitsprincipalfiguresarestillaliv eand therefore
ab letotalkb ack,tocorrectmisstatementsoffactortochallengeinter-
pretations .
Suchhasb eenthecasew iththisb ookw hichw asfirstpub lished inthe
United Statesand GreatBritaininOctob er,19 4 8 ,and sub seq uentlyin
.Ihav eread manyhund red soflettersand rev iew sand
articles,someofthemw rittenb ypersonsw hohav eintimateand authori-
tativ eknow led geofev entshereinrecord ed ,othersb ypersonsw hohav e
had accesstoofficialrecord s
.Ihav ehad innumerab leconv ersationsw ith
peopleq ualified toaskmeonw hatauthorityIhad b ased v ariousstate-
.Furthermore,alargenumb erofrelev antb ookshav eb eenpub -
lished d uringthepasteighteenmonths,includ ingthefirsttw ov olumes
ofChurchill'smemoirs( thethird v olumeisinprocessofserializ ationas
Inow w rite),
Crusad einEurope, b yDw ightD .Eisenhow er, ThisI
Rememb er,
b yEleanorRoosev elt, F.D .R .-My Boss, b yGraceTully,
Roosev eltand theRussians,
b yEd w ard R.Stettinius,Jr .,and thefour
finalv olumesof
ThePub licPapersand Ad d ressesofFranklinD .
Roosev elt, compiled b ySamuelI
.Rosenman .
x i
IfImad emistakes,maj ororminor,inthisb ook,therehasb een
ampletimeand opportunitytoex posethem.Accord ingly,Harper's
hav ed ecid ed topub lishthisenlarged ed itioncontainingthenew material
eitherofcorrectionorofamplificationthathascomefromauthoritativ e
sources .Allofthisad d ed materialisincorporated inthenotesw hich
9 37.
Nochangehasb eenmad eintheb od yoftheb ook
ex ceptforthecorrectionofafew d etected misprintsand slipsthatI
mad eond ates,thespellingofpropernames,etc.
Onsev eraloccasionsd ulyauthoriz ed personshav easked forpermis-
siontoinspectportionsoftheHarryHopkinspapersand suchpermis-
sionhasb eengranted .InDecemb er,19 4 9 ,chargesw eremad efrom
highlyirresponsib lesourcesthatHopkinshad presented thesecretof
theatomicb omb " onasilv erplatter" totheRussians
this,photostaticcopiesofallHopkins'd ocumentsrelatinginanyw ay
totheatomb omb proj ectw eremad eav ailab letoSenatorBrien
McMahon,ChairmanoftheJoint( Congressional)Committeeon
AlloftheHopkinspapershav enow b eenturned ov erb yhisheirs
totheFranklinD .Roosev eltLib raryatHyd ePark .Theyw illb ecome,
togetherw iththeRoosev eltpapers,thepropertyoftheAmericanpeople .
Futurestud entsw illb eab letoinspectev eryw ord oftheb asicmaterial
fromw hichthisb ookw asw ritten
Feb ruary5 ,19 5 0 .
Introd uction
MMEDIATELY after FranklinD . Roosev elt's d eath,v irtually
ev eryonew how asinanyw ayassociated w ithhimreceiv ed offers
fromed itorsand pub lisherstow ritememoirs-and itisb ynow a
matterofrecord thatmostoftheseoffersw ereaccepted .Id oub tthat
therehav eev erb eensomanyb ooksw rittensosoonab outthelifeand
timesofanyoneman .
Imyselfhad nointentionofad d ingtotheb urd enonthelib rary
shelv es .Ihad somew ond erful,inerad icab lememoriesand anun-
organiz ed assortmentofnotesfromtheyears19 4 0
9 4 5 ,and Iintend ed
toputthesed ow ninmoreorlesshaphaz ard formtob econtrib uted to
theRoosev eltLib raryatHyd eParkand filed thereforw hatev eruse
futureb iographersmightb eab letomakeofthem,forIknew how much
ofourknow led geofAb rahamLincolnhasd epend ed onchanceb its
ofrecollectionw rittend ow nb ycomparativ elyunimportant-contem-
poraries .
Iknew thatHarryHopkinsw asplanningtow riteab ook-ind eed ,he
had talked tomeab outitsomemonthsb eforeRoosev elt'sd eathand had
b egunatthattimetomakearrangementsw ithpub lishers
himoccasionally .d uringthesummerand fallof
19 4 5
hetalked asifhe
w eremakingprogressw iththeb ookand Ieagerlyaw aited itspub lica-
tion .Id id notknow atthattime,b uthav elearned sub seq uently,thathe
hoped tohav etheb enefitofaid inthew ritingfromhisfriend ,Raymond
Sw ing.InNov emb erIsaw Hopkinsforthelasttimeand w enttoHolly-
w ood tow orkforSamuelGold w ynonamov ie," TheBestYearsofOur
Liv es ." ( Thistitlereferred hopefullytothefutureasopposed tothe
past.)Iw asthereintheGold w ynstud iow henDav id Hopkinstele-
phoned methenew sofhisfather'sd eath,and aw eekorsothereafter
LouiseHopkinstelephoned fromNew YorktoaskmeifIw ould con-
sid erfinishingthew orkontheb ook .Isaid Iw ould d oanythingIcould
forHarry'smemory,b utIhad noconceptionofw hatthetaskw ould
inv olv e .Iknew thatthisb ookw astob elimited tothew aryears-
and thatw astheoneperiod w henIhad closeassociationsw ithRoose-
v eltand Hopkins-b utId id notknow w hatformtheb ookw astaking,
norhow farHopkinshad gotw ithit,norhow muchofhisw ritingw as
x iii

b ased onmemoryand how muchond ocumentation
.Itw asob v iousthat
Icould notattempttoperpetrateafakeb ycarryingontheb ookasthough
ithad allb eend oneb yHopkins ;
b utitoccurred tomethatImighthav e
tostartoffw iththelamead mission :
" AtthispointHopkinsd ied ,so
therestofhisstorycanb enomorethanaseriesoffragments
." When
Ifinished theHollyw ood j ob and returned toNew Yorksomew eeks
laterId iscov ered thatHopkinshad notw rittensomuchasthew ord s
" ChapterOne," b utthatthed ocumentationw asenormous
.Therew ere
somefortyfilingcab inetspacked w ithpapersintheHopkinshouse,and
agreatmanymoreinaw arehouse,thelatterb eingrecord softheNew
Dealyearsw hichIhav enev erseen
.FortunatelyHopkinshad engaged
anassistant,Sid neyHyman,w hohad b eenw orkingforeightmonths
puttingthepapersintoord erinfold ersmarked " Casab lancaCon-
ference," " Aid forRussia-19 4 3," etc
tookmemerelytoread them,Icould proceed chronologicallyand b egin
togetasenseofnarrativ e
.Icould alsob egintoseew heretheholesw ere
intherecord and w hatpartsofitw ereob scureorconfusingtome,
and Id ecid ed thatImustd osomeinterv iew inginanefforttogain
fullerinformationand clarification
.Thisled toaconsid erab leamount
oftrav elingand correspond ence,and thew ork,w hichIatfirstestimated
mighttakeasmuchasayeartocomplete,hasgoneonfortw oand a
halfyearsw ithv erylittlerespite,morning,noonornight
Thefirstread ingofthepapersw asanex citingex perienceforme,
and Imastconfessthatthissenseofex citementhascontinued through
allthelab orinv olv ed .ForIfound heresomanyansw erstosomany
q uestionsthathad b eenpilingupinmymind w henIw asneartohigh
authority ; Ifound solutionofmuchthatIhad w ond ered ab outinmy
ob serv ationofthemood sasw ellasthew ord sand d eed sofRoosev elt
and Hopkins
.Imeantatfirsttotrytow ritethe
.b ookcompletely
impersonally,b utmoreand moreIcametorealiz ethatIcould notkeep
outofitmyow nrecollections-thosethatIhad intend ed toputd ow n
somed ayinhaphaz ard form-and manymorethatw ererev iv ed b ythe
read ingofthesepapers ; and ,ofcourse,therecollectionsofothersto
w homItalked b egantomergew ithmyow n .
Itseemed thatIshould w ritetheb ookasab iographyofHopkinsin
thew aryears,preced ingitw ithaprefatorysketchofhiscareer,includ -
ingtheNew Deal,b eforeheb ecamed irectlyinv olv ed inmaj orw orld
ev ents .Icould notw ritew ithanyintimatepersonalknow led geofthe
yearsb efore19 4 0 ,b utIw entmuchmored eeplyintohiscareerthanI
had intend ed mainlythroughmyow ncuriositytoknow how anyman
soob scureinoriginand sountrained forgreatresponsib ilitycould hav e
cometotheex traord inarypositionthatheheld
med eeplyw astherealiz ationoftheex tenttow hichtheNew Dealcon-
d itioned Roosev eltand Hopkinsand ind eed theAmericanpeopleasa

w holeforthegiganticeffortsd emand ed oftheminglob alw ar
prepared nessforcopingw ithpow erfulev ilw asreq uired b eforeitb egan
tooccurtopeoplethatsometanksand b omb ersand aircraftcarriers
mightalsob ehelpful
.ForHopkinsinparticulartheNew Dealpro-
v id ed id ealtrainingincomb atcond itions,forhislifethenw asaseries
offerociousb attlesagainstw id espread misery,naturald isasters,local
politicians,othergov ernmentagenciesand theinnumerab lecriticsin
theCongressand thepressw hokepthisfree-spend ingprogramcon-
stantlyund erfire .Fortunatelyforme,hekeptv oluminousscrapb ooks-
orhisv arioussecretarieskeptthemforhim-ofpressclippingsab out
himself,startingw iththed ayofhisfirstarriv alinWashington
v olumescertainlyteemw ithv ilificationw hichw asmaintained stead ily
fortw elv eyears,and someofithitHopkinsmuchhard erand hurt
himmuchmorethanhecared toad mit
.Butitcanb esaid thathe
nev erlosthisconv ictionthatfreed omtomakesuchattacksonhimor
anyoneelseprov id esthered corpusclesw hichcarrytheox ygenthrough
thelifeb lood ofd emocracy ;
heind icated thed epthofthisconv ictionin
w ord sthathew rote( onthesub j ectoffuturerelationsw ithRussia)
w hichappearinthefinalchapterofthisb ook
Lookingb ackw ard ,asIhav eb eencompelled tod osoconstantly
throughoutthisw ork,itseemstomethatthehostilityofsolargeapart
ofthepresstohisAd ministrationw asessentialtoRoosev elt-asan
inspirationev enmorethanasad eterrent-and thathew ould nothav e
b eenthePresid enthew asw ithoutit
.Hew ould nev erhav ethriv ed inan
atmosphereofcloyingunanimity .
OfalltheattacksuponHopkins,theonethatprob ab lyangered and
amaz ed himmostw asthefantasticchargethat,inthefallof
1 9 4 3,he
had plotted b ehind thescenesintheWhiteHousetohav eGeneral
Marshallremov ed fromhispositionasChiefofStaffand " kicked up-
stairs" tosomesinecurecommand inEurope .( ThisisinChapter
XXX.)Ib ecamev eryinterested inthis,fortheHopkinspaperspro-
v id ed consid erab leev id encesoftheinfluencesb roughttob earonthe
Presid ent,b utnoind icationastow hy,atthesecond CairoConference,
Roosev eltsud d enlyannounced thatEisenhow erinstead ofMarshall
w ould b ethesupremecommand erofOVERLORD( themaj orinv a-
sionofEurope-and nosinecure) .Iattempted tofind outw hatw asthe
d eterminingfactorinthistremend ousd ecision .Iw enttoWashington
and talked toAd miralKing .Hegav emehisrecollectioninv eryprecise
terms( hegav emeagreatd ealmoreinv aluab leinformationand guid ance
inthepreparationofthisb ook) .Italked toLaurenceSteinhard t,John
J.McCloyand Lew isDouglas,allofw homhad b eenpresentatCairo,
and toAv erellHarrimanand CharlesE.Bohlenw hohad b eenatthe
immed iatelypreced ingTeheranConference .Ireceiv ed General" Hap"
Arnold 'sv ersionb yletter .Iw enttoLond onand saw WinstonChurchill,
Xv i

w hosentmefourteentypew rittenpagesofansw erstoaq uestionnaireI
sub mitted tohim,and w homIinterv iew ed onthreesub seq uentocca-
.Italked toChurchill'sChiefofStaff,GeneralSirHastingsIsmay
( laterLord Ismay)and toAnthonyEd en,Lord Beav erb rook,Brend an
Brackenand manyotherassociatesofChurchill's .Italked agreatd eal
ab outthisand manymoresub j ectsw ithJohnG .Winant.LaterIasked
HenryL .Stimson,Ad miralLeahyand GeneralEisenhow erfortheir
v ersionsoftheb ackground oftheOVERLORDcommand d ecision,and
Ifinallyob tained GeneralMarshall'safterhereturned fromChinaearly
in19 4 7torend erfurtherd istinguished serv icetohiscountryasSecre-
taryofState .
Thev ersionsofthisonestorythatIob tained allv aried fromeach
other,althoughtheyw ereb ynomeansmutuallyex clusiv e,and Icame
outofthisinv estigationasIcameoutofothersw iththeknow led gethat
noonew illev erknow j ustw hatfinallyw entoninRoosev elt'scomplex
mind tod eterminehisd ecision .
ShortlyafterIhad started w orkonthisb ook,Presid entTrumanmost
kind lyw rotemealetterex pressinghissatisfactionthat" thepapersof
thatv aliantserv antofthepub lic,thelateHarryL .Hopkins," w eretob e
prepared forpub lication
.ThePresid entad d ed ," IfIcanb eofassistance
pleased onothesitatetocalluponme
.Ihopealsoyouw illreceiv ethe
fullestco-operationofallw homyouapproachintheperformanceofthis
." Later,Ihad atalkw iththePresid entab outhisow nassocia-
tionsw ithHopkinsw hichhad goneb acktothev eryb eginningsofthe
19 33.
NeitherthePresid entnoranyotherofficialof
thegov ernmentev ertold meeitherd irectlyorind irectlyw hatIshould
sayornotsaynormad eanyreq uestsorsuggestionsforthesuppression
orsoft-ped alingofanyofthematerialinclud ed herein
.Iv oluntarilysub -
mitted thecompletemanuscripttotheDepartmentofDefenseforclear-
ancesolelyontheground ofmilitarysecurity,and Imustex pressmy
appreciationtoSecretaryForrestaland hisAid e,CaptainRob ertW .
Berry,USN,fortheco-operationIreceiv ed
.Noreq uestsforomissions
w eremad e,b utIw asasked toparaphraseaconsid erab lenumb erof
thecab lessincepub licationoftheliteraltex tmightcompromisecod es
ofStaffand IammostgratefultoCaptainT.B
.Kittred ge,USN,and
hisassociatesformanyhelpfulsuggestionsand correctionsonpointsof
factand ofinterpretation
.Ihav ealsohad theb enefitofgreataid from
.Walker,SamuelI.Rosenman,Aub rey
Williamsand Command erC
.R.Thompsoninread ingand checkingthe
manuscript,orpartsthereof,b utthiscertainlyd oesnotinv olv eanyof
theminresponsib ilityforthew hole .
Oneafternoonand ev eninginWashingtonLeonHend ersonw as
good enoughtoarrangeameetingformeathishousew hichlasted for

eighthours .Presentw ere :
Rob ertKerr,w hohad b eenav ery
closefriend ofHopkinssincetheird aystogetheratGrinnellCollege
MissJaneHoeyand Mrs
.FrancesKelley,w hohad b eenassociated w ith
Hopkinsw henhefirstw entintosocialw elfarew orkinNew YorkCity
and continued w ithhimthroughouttheNew Dealyears
; Aub rey
Williams,Isad orLub in,MissEllen
Wood w ard ,How ard Hunter,
ColonelLaw renceWestb rook,Mr .and Mrs
.ArthurE.Gold schmid tand
Hend erson,allofw homw ereassociated w iththeReliefProgram
ousnotesw eretakenatthismeetingb ySid neyHymanand mysecretary,
MissGraceMurphy,b othofw homhav ew orked w ithmestead ilyfrom
theb eginningtotheend ofthisb ook
.AsaresultofthissessionIw as
guid ed intheex plorationofmanychannelsofHopkins'careerofw hich
Ihad prev iouslyknow nlittleornothing
.Later,Ihad alongtalkand
correspond encew ithHopkins'sister, Mrs
.Ad ahAime,and corre-
spond encew ithhisfirstw ife,Mrs
.EthelGrossHopkins,and theirsur-
v iv ingsons,Dav id and Rob ert
; alsow ithDr
.Lew isHopkins ( Harry's
b rother),w ithDr
.JohnNollen( formerlyPresid entofGrinnellCollege)
and w ithDr
.Ed w ard A
.Steiner,oneofthemostd istinguished of
.Ihad anex tremelypleasantand enlighteningses-
sionatlunchw ithHopkins'stalw artopponentand comrad einarms,
Harold L .Ickes .
Thelistisv erylargeofthosew homIhav einterv iew ed oneormore
times,orw ithw homIhav ecorrespond ed
.Someoftheinterv iew sw ere
cond ucted b yHymanalone
.Ishould giv ehereapersonalw ord
appreciationtoev eryoneofthosew hohav ehelped me-not,ofcourse,
b ecauseofanyparticularinterestinmyow nw orkb utb ecauseofa
d esiretohav ethisstorytold asaccuratelyand asfullyaspossib le-b ut
Imustapologeticallylumpalargenumb erofnamestogetherinalpha-
b eticalord er
Herb ertAgar ; JosephAlsop ;
PaulAppleb y ; FrankBane ; Bernard
M.Baruch ; Lord Beav erb rook
; Mrs .AnnaBoettiger ; LouisBrow n-
low ;
GeneralJ .H .Burns ; Dr .Vannev arBush
; Lord Cherw ell ; Mar-
q uisChild s
; Grenv illeClark ; Benj aminV
.Cohen ; Dr .JamesB. Co-
; CaptainGranv illeConw ay,USN
; OscarCox ; WayneCoy ; Dr .
SamuelH .Cross ; JosephE
.Dav ies ; ChesterDav is ; ClarenceDykstra ;
StephenEarly ;
MorrisErnst; Dr .Herb ertEv att
; ColonelPhilipR.
Faymonv ille
; Herb ertFeis ; Jud geJeromeFrank
; JusticeFelix Frank-
furter ; Dr.JamesR.Fulton ;
Richard V.Gilb ert; Dr .Jacob Gold b erg ;
Lord Halifax ; Rob ertHannegan
; WilliamD .Hassett;
FrancesHead ; GeneralSirLeslieHollis
; HerschelJohnson ; John
Kingsb ury ; FiorelloLaGuard ia ;
ThomasW .Lamont; Dr.William
Langer ; Lord Layton ; Lord Leathers
; WalterLippmann ; SirRob ert
BruceLockhart; Oliv erLyttelton
; Archib ald MacLeish ;
GeneralRob ert
McClure ; Dr.RossT
.McIntire ; WingCommand erD .C
.McKinley ;

Ad miral John McCrea ; John
E. Masten ; Charles E. Merriam; Dr .
James Alex and er Miller ; Jean
Henry Morgenthau, Jr . ; Ed -
w ard R.Murrow ; Rob ertNathan ; Dav id K
.Niles ; Rob ertP.Patter-
; Fred erickPolangin ; QuentinReynold s ;
.Roosev elt,Jr. ;
ElmoRoper ; Beard sleyRuml ; BishopBernard Sheil ; Ad miralForrest
Sherman ; VictorSholis ; Harold Smith
; Ad miralHarold R.Stark ; Sir
WilliamStephenson ; Ed w ard Stettinius
; Rob ertStev ens
Sw ing ; Herb ertBayard Sw ope ; MyronC.Taylor
DorothyThompson ;
Rex ford Tugw ell ; Mrs .Ed w inM.Watson ; SumnerWelles ;
Wend ellWillkie ; GeneralArthurWilson ; IraWolfert.
Ialsohad ab rieftalkw ithAnd reiGromyko .WhenItold himthatI
had und ertakentow riteab ookb ased onthepapersofthelateHarry
Hopkinsand thatIshould liketoconsultauthoritiesoftheSov ietUnion
inconnectionw ithit,hesaid thatsuchab ookmightb ehelpful-and ,
Onenamethatisconspicuouslyab sentfromthelistofthosethatI
interv iew ed isthatofEleanorRoosev elt.Ihav eseenheronanumb er
ofoccasionsw hileIhav eb eenw orkingonthisb ook,and Iknow thatif
Ihad asked herforhelpshew ould hav egiv enitw ithherow nincom-
parab legenerosity,b utIsimplycould notb ringmyselftoputanyq ues-
tionstoher,b ecausehermemoriesareherow n,and Ifeltreluctant
tointrud euponanypartofthem.
Ihav ereceiv ed aid and guid ancefromagreatmanyothersw ithw hom
Ihav etalked casually,and frompersonsunknow ntomew ho,hav ing
heard thatthisb ookw asinprocessofpreparation,hav ekind lyw ritten
meab outcontactsthattheyhad w ithHarryHopkins .OfcourseIhav e
attempted toread alloftheb ooksab outtheRoosev elt eraand the
Second World War,and thishasnotb eentheleastpartofthelab or
inv olv ed forithasseemed ,attimes,thattheb ooksw erecomingoutat
therateofonead ay.Unq uestionab lytheb estoftheseb ooks,inmy
opinion-and pend ingthepub licationofEisenhow er'smemoirsand the
completionofChurchill's-hav eb een TheRoosev eltIKnew , b yFrances
Perkins,and OnActiv eServ iceinPeaceand War, b yHenryL.Stimson
and McGeorgeBund y .Therehav eb eensomeotherpub licationsw hich,
Ihope,posterityw illv iew w ithex tremesuspicion .
Imustex pressmyappreciationtoMissPhyllisMoirand Mrs.Ev a
Marks,w how orked foratimew ithMissMurphyand Hymanand me
inNew York,and alsotoAlex .A.Whelan,w how orked w ithmeonthe
finalstagesofthisb ookinEngland ,and toSam
Simonand the
ad mirab lestaffoftheHartStenographicBureauinNew York .Ialso
w anttoex pressmygratitud etoMissLucyMitchell,VictorSamrock,
WilliamField sand othersofthePlayw rights'Companyw hogav eme
greathelpand alsoalongleav eofab sencefrommyusualprofessional
activ ities .

WhenIstarted w ritingthisb ook,Ispentsometimeconsid ering
w hethertousethepropercourtesytitlesinreferringtoliv ingpersons .
ButIfeltitw ould b eb othcumb ersomeand ab surd tow rite,forinstance,
" Roosev eltthencab led toMr .Churchill,etc." Similarly,Ihav eav oid ed
tothegreatestpossib leex tentthecomplex itiesofchangingmilitary
titles-forex ample," Lieutenant-Colonel( laterColonel,laterBrigad ier
General,laterMaj orGeneral,laterLieutenantGeneral,laterGeneral,
laterGeneraloftheArmy)Dw ightD .Eisenhow er ."
Astotheprob lemoffootnotes-asaninv eterateread erofhistoryand
b iography,Ihav elongb eenplagued and angered and aged prematurely
b ycontemplationofpagesoftypew hichw erepock-marked w ithaster-
isks,d aggersand othernastylittlesymb olsw hichpulled myeyed ow nto
smalltypeattheb ottomofthepageand sometimesforced metoread
onthroughtheb ottomsofsub seq uentpagesb eforeIcould getb ackto
themid d leofthesentencefromw hichIhad b eend iv erted and resume
thenarrativ e .Therefore,inthisb ook,Ihav eind ulged myselfinthe
lux uryofnointerruptionsb yfootnotes,allofw hichareputintheb ack
oftheb ook .Ihav e,how ev er,interrupted someofthed ocumentary
materialw ithparentheticalnotes,largelyforex planatorypurposes
Id etermined w henIstarted thisw orkthatImustattempttoimmerse
myselfsocompletelyintheperiod ofw hichIw asw ritingthatIw ould
notpermitmyselftob einfluenced b ysub seq uentev ents ; IfeltthatI
mustnotletmyj ud gmentofsomethingthatIw asconsid eringinthe
Hopkinspapers-concerning,forinstance,thed esperateneed togetaid
toRussiad uringtheBattleofStalingrad -b ecolored inanyw ayb y
w hatIhad read inthatmorning'snew spaper .Thisw asagreatd eal
easierthanIhad ex pected .Itw asapriv ilegetoescapefromtheappalling
and inex plicab lepresentintothed aysw hen,asHerb ertAgarhas
w ritten," Good mend ared totrusteachother," w hen" thegood and the
b ad ,theterrorand thesplend or,w eretoob igformostofus," w hen
" ourspiritsand ourb rainsw eresplittingattheseams,w hichmayb e
w hysomanyaretod ayd enyingthatlifew asev erlikethat." Thisb ook
tellsapartofthestoryofthosed ays,and Icanassuretheread erthat
Ihav ew ithheld noimportantpartoftherecord asitw asknow ntomeor
mad eav ailab letomeinthepapersofmyfriend HarryHopkins .I
hopethatalltherestoftherecord w illnow b emad epub lic,and the
soonertheb etter,fortherearelessonsinitw hichthepeopleofthe
w orld need mosturgentlytolearn
Roosev eltand Hopkins
Forew ord
URINGtheyearsw henHarryHopkinsliv ed as a guestin the
WhiteHouse,hew asgenerallyregard ed asasinisterfigure,a
b ackstairsintriguer,anIow ancomb inationofMachiav elli,Sv engaliand
.Hostilitytow ard himw asb ynomeanslimited tothosew ho
hated FranklinDelanoRoosev elt
.Therew eremanyofRoosev elt'smost
loyalfriend sand associates,inand outoftheCab inet,w hod isliked Hop-
kinsintenselyand resented theex traord inarypositionofinfluenceand
authorityw hichheheld
.Hew asunq uestionab lyapoliticalliab ilityto
Roosev elt,aconv enienttargetforallmannerofattacksd irected atthe
Presid enthimself,and manypeoplew ond ered w hyRoosev eltkepthim
around .
ButthePresid entialaid ew hod ev eloped inthew aryears-and of
w homGeneral( laterSecretaryofState)GeorgeC
.Marshallsaid ," He
rend ered aserv icetohiscountryw hichw illnev erev env aguelyb e
appreciated " -w asinlargemeasureRoosev elt'sow ncreation .Roosev elt
d elib eratelyed ucated Hopkinsintheartsand sciencesofpoliticsand of
w arand thengav ehimimmensepow ersofd ecisionfornoreasonother
thanthatheliked him,trusted himand need ed him
.Aw elfarew orker
fromtheCornb elt,w hotend ed toregard money( hisow nasw ellas
otherpeople's)assomethingtob espentasq uicklyaspossib le,astud i-
ouslyunsuav eand oftenintolerantand tactlessreformer,Hopkinsw as
w id elyd ifferentfromRoosev eltinb irth,b reed ingand manners
therew ereq ualitiesinhim,includ ingsomeoftheregrettab leones,w hich
Roosev eltad mired and enj oyed ,perhapspartlyb ecausetheyw ereso
d ifferent
.Oneoftheb eststatementsofthisrelationshipw asw rittenb y
theperceptiv eRaymond Clapperin
1 9 38
ManyNew Dealershav eb ored Roosev eltw iththeirsolemnearnest-
ness .Hopkinsnev erd oes .Heknow sinstinctiv elyw hentoask,w hen
tokeepstill,w hentopress,w hentohold b ack ; w hentoapproach
Roosev eltd irect,w hentogoathimround ab out
. . . Quick,alert,
shrew d ,b old ,and carryingitoffw ithab rightHell'sb ellsair,Hopkins
isinallrespectstheinev itab leRoosev eltfav orite .
Clapperw rotethatd escriptionintheNew Dealyearsw henHopkins
had loftypoliticalamb itionsofhisow n
.Hispositionw asd rastically
changed d uringthew aryears,w henallpersonalamb itionhad b een
knocked outofhimb ynear-fatalillness .YetIheard fromad is-
tinguished European,w hocameintocontactw ithb othmenforthefirst
timeintheseyears,ad escriptionoftherelationshipthatalmostex actly
tallied w ithClapper's ; thisob serv ersaid : " Hopkinshasanalmost
` feminine'sensitiv itytoRoosev elt'smood s .Heseemstoknow precisely
w henRoosev eltw antstoconsid eraffairsofStateand w henhew antsto
escapefromtheaw fulconsciousnessofthePresid ency ." ( Whileagreeing
w iththatstatement,Imustad d thatId on'tund erstand q uitew hythis
kind ofsensitiv ityshould b ed escrib ed as" feminine" ; Ihav eheard of
w omenw hocould b ringupd isagreeab lesub j ectsatinopportunemoments
j ustasw ellasanyman .)
Arev ealingstoryofRoosev elt'sregard forHopkinsw astold b y
Wend ellWillkie,w how asnotoneofthemoreferv entad mirersof
eitherman .Itw illb erememb ered that,afterhisd efeatatthepollsin
Nov emb er,19 4 0 ,Willkieprov id ed afineex ampleofgood citiz enship and
good sportsmanshipinacceptingthev erd ict
.SupportingRoosev elt's
foreignpolicy,hefeltitw ould b eusefulforhimtov isitBritainw hich
w asthenfightingaloneagainstHitler'sseeminglyall-conq ueringGerman
w armachineand w asb eingb omb ed nightafternightw ithallthepow er
and allthefurythattheNaz iw orld conq uerorscould proj ectb yair .
Roosev eltread ilyagreed toWillkie'sproposaland inv ited himtocome
totheWhiteHouseonJanuary19 ,19 4 1,thed ayb eforethefirstThird
Atthattime,Hopkinsw asinEngland ,hav inggonetheretoex plore
theprod igiouscharacterofWinstonChurchilland toreportthereonto
Roosev elt( w hichreportsw illb erecord ed inlaterchaptersofthis
b ook)
; soRoosev eltsuggested toWillkiethathemustb esuretosee
Hopkinsw henhearriv ed inLond on .Willkied id notgreetthissugges-
tionw ithmuchenthusiasm.Heprob ab lyhad morecord iald islikeand
contemptforHopkinsthanforanyoneelseintheAd ministrationagainst
w hichhehad foughtsorecentlyand sob itterly .Ind eed ,heasked Roose-
v eltapointed q uestion : " Whyd oyoukeepHopkinssoclosetoyou?
Yousurelymustrealiz ethatpeopled istrusthimand theyresenthis
influence ." Willkieq uoted Roosev eltasreplying : " Icanund erstand
thatyouw ond erw hyIneed thathalf-manaround me
." ( The" half-man"

w asanallusiontoHopkins'ex tremephysicalfrailty .)" But-somed ay
youmayw ellb esittingherew hereIamnow asPresid entoftheUnited
States .And w henyouare,you'llb elookingatthatd oorov erthereand
know ingthatpracticallyev eryb od yw how alksthroughitw antssomething
outofyou .You'lllearnw hatalonelyj ob thisis,and you'lld iscov erthe
need forsomeb od ylikeHarryHopkinsw hoasksfornothingex ceptto
serv eyou ."
Roosev eltd id nottalkmuchab outthelonelinessofhighoffice
.Ind eed ,
inhisletters,hew asforev ersayingthathew ashav inga" grand ," " fine"
or" b ully" time .Butthatlonelinessw asareality .Roosev eltw asnaturally
agregariousmanw hopreferred talkingtoread ingorw riting .Likeany-
b od yelse,hew anted togetaw ayfromhisj ob now and then,b utpeople
w ould n'tlethimd oit
.Ev eninapokergame,w hilethecard sw ereb eing
shuffled ,somememb eroftheCab inetw asapttointerj ect," Bythew ay,
.Presid ent,theb oysov erattheBureauoftheBud getaretaking
w hatIconsid erad angerouslynarrow -mind ed pointofv iew tow ard our
program-and I'msureifyoustud ythed etailsyou'llagreethat-" etc
Roosev eltb ecamemoreand moresuspiciousofthepeopleassociated
w ithhimand keptmoreand moretohimself
.Whenhecould choosehis
ow ncompany,hepreferred tob ew ithold friend sand relativ esw hohad
nothingtod ow ithgov ernmentand w ithw homhecould talkab outthe
old d aysinHyd eParkand ab outhisinnumerab le,v aried plansforhis
ow nfuturew henhew ould retiretopriv atelife
.Itw ascharacteristicof
himthat,w henhew entonhislastj ourneytoWarmSpringsinab elated
staffw eretw ogentlecousinsofhisow ngeneration,MargaretSuckley
and LauraDelano-and alsohisd og,Fala .
Itistruethat,intheirfinalyears,aspecialb ond d ev eloped b etw een
Roosev eltand Hopkins,d uetothefactthatb othmenhad foughtw ith
d eathatcloserange,b othw ereliv ingonb orrow ed time.ButHopkins
achiev ed hisfav ored positionlongb eforehehad hisow nfirstencounter
w ithd eath-and longb eforehecould b ed escrib ed asonew hocrossed the
Presid entialthreshold w antingnothing
.IntheF.E.R.A.and W .P.A.
d ays,hew asnotreluctanttousehisclosefriend shipw iththePresid ent
forthead v ancementofhisow ninterestsand thoseoftheagenciesw ith
w hichhew aspersonallyconcerned
IfirstmetHopkinsonaw eekend onLongIsland earlyinSeptemb er,
19 38 ,und erthehospitab leroofofHerb ertand MargaretSw ope
timeIw askeepingad iary( Istopped d oingsoregularlyinJune,19 4 0 ,
w hichisj ustw henIshould hav estarted )and Inoted atthetime
: " Long
talkatb reakfastw ithHarryHopkins,theW .P
.A.Ad ministrator,a
profound lyshrew d and faintlyominousman
." Thatw asallIputd ow n,
b utIrememb erthatonthatoccasionHopkinstalked tomev eryagree-
ab ly,rev ealingaconsid erab leknow led geofand enthusiasmforthe

theater.Hetookob v iousprid eintheachiev ementsofW .P.A.inthe
Fed eralTheaterand ArtsProj ects,and Ib eliev ed hehad ev eryright
tob eproud .ButId id notq uitelikehim.Heused suchphrasesas,
" We'v egottocrackd ow nontheb astard s ." Icould notd isagreew ith
hisestimateofthetargetsinq uestionb utId id notliketheid eaofcrack-
ingd ow n.Ihad thecharacteristicallyAmericansuspicionofanyonew ho
appeared tob egetting" toob igforhisb reeches ." Ayearorsolater,w hen
hew asb eatend ow nand chastened b yterrib leillness,Icametoknow him
muchb etterand toformafriend shipw hichmustcolorev erythingIw rite
ab outhimand forw hichnoapologiesareoffered .
When,afterRoosev elt'sd eath,Presid entTrumanconferred theDis-
tinguished Serv iceMed alonHopkins,theWarDepartmentcitation
spokeofthe" piercingund erstand ing" w hichhehad d isplayed inattack-
ingthemanifold prob lemsofthew ar .Thatisaw ond erfulphrasefor
Hopkins-" piercingund erstand ing" -ind icatingthepenetratingsharp-
nessofhismind and therelentless,tirelessd riv ethatw asb ehind it.In
theyearb eforePearlHarb or,and theyearsofw arthatfollow ed ,Hopkins
mad eithisj ob ,hemad eithisreligion,tofind outj ustw hatitw asthat
Roosev eltreallyw anted and thentoseetoitthatneitherhellnorhigh
w ater,norev enpossib lev acillationsb yRoosev elthimself,b locked its
achiev ement.Hopkinsnev ermad ethemistakeofColonelEd w ard M .
House,w hichcaused thefatalb reachw ithWilson,ofassumingheknew
thePresid ent'smind b etterthanthePresid entd id
.Roosev eltcould send
himonanymission,tothePentagonBuild ingortoDow ningStreet,
w ithab soluteconfid encethatHopkinsw ould notutteroned ecisiv ew ord
b ased onguessw orkastohisChief'spoliciesorpurposes .Hopkins
v entured onnoground thatRoosev elthad notcharted .WhenHopkins
firstj ourneyed toMoscow ,inJuly,I9 4 I,w ithinamonthafterHitler's
assaultontheSov ietUnion,Roosev eltsentamessagetoJosephStalin
" Iaskyoutotreathimw iththeid enticalconfid enceyouw ould feelifyou
w eretalkingd irectlytome ." Atthattime,Roosev elthad nev erhad any
personalcontactw ithStalin,b utStalintookhimathisw ord and talked
toHopkinsw ithad egreeofcand orthathehad d isplayed tonoprev ious
w artimeemissaryfromthed emocraticw orld .Whatw asremarkab leab out
thisfirstcontactw ithStalin-w hichw illb erecord ed v erb atiminalater
sectionofthisb ook-isthatHopkinscarried w ithhimnow ritteninstruc-
tionsw hatsoev erfromRoosev eltastow hatheshould sayord o .The
Presid entcould and d id trusthimfully .
Roosev eltused tosay," HarryistheperfectAmb assad orformypur-
poses .Hed oesn'tev enknow themeaningofthew ord ` protocol .'When
heseesapieceofred tape,hej ustpullsoutthoseold gard enshearsofhis
and snipsit.And w henhe'stalkingtosomeforeignd ignitary,heknow s
how toslumpb ackinhischairand puthisfeetupontheconferencetab le
and say,` Oh, yeah!'
" Itw asthissameab ilitytob reakallspeed record s
ingettingd ow ntob rasstacksthatend eared Hopkinstotheheartof
WinstonChurchill,w hohassaid
Ihav eb eenpresentatsev eralgreatconferencesw heretw entyor
moreofthemostimportantex ecutiv epersonagesw eregathered to-
gether .Whenthed iscussionflagged and allseemed b affled ,itw ason
theseoccasionsHarryHopkinsw ould rapoutad ead lyq uestion
" Surely,Mr .Presid ent,hereisthepointw ehav egottosettle .Are
w egoingtofaceitornot? " Faced italw aysw asand b eingfaced ,w as
conq uered .
OnetimeChurchill,Roosev eltand Hopkinsw erehav inglunchtogether
upstairsintheOv alStud yintheWhiteHouse.Theyw erethrashingout
inad v ancemaj orprob lemsw hichw erecomingupford iscussionata
fulld ressconferencetob eheld laterthatafternoon .Asusual,b oth
Roosev eltand Churchillw erew and eringfarafield .( Churchill_ might
hav eb eenrefightingtheBattleofBlenheimand Roosev eltrecallingthe
tacticsemployed b yJohnPaulJonesw henthe
d efeated the Serapis .)
Itw asforHopkinstob ringthesesoaringimagina-
tionsd ow ntoearth,tocontemplationofthetopicimmed iatelyathand .
Whenhed id so,w ithhisusualb rusq ueness,Churchillturned on
himand said
" Harry!Whenthisw arisov erHisMaj esty'sGov ernmentisgoing
torew ard youb yconferringuponyouanob letitle ."
Hopkinsremarked sourlythatmemb ershipintheHouseofLord s
w asonerew ard thathed id notcov et
.ButChurchillw entrightahead
" Wehav ealread yselected thetitle
.Youaretob enamed ` Lord Root
oftheMatter." '
Hopkinshad v erylittleofRoosev elt'sorChurchill'spow ersofv ision
and almostnoneoftheirhistoricalsense .Helooked totheimmed iate
.Hew asanimplementerratherthana
.Hew asaccustomed tod iv id epeopleheknew intotw ogroups,
the" talkers" and the" d oers," and heplaced himselfproud lyinthesecond
category.WhenRoosev eltcontemplated asub j ect,hismind roamed all
around it; heconsid ered itinitsrelationtopast,presentand future
Hopkins,contemplatingthesamesub j ect,w asinterested onlyinthrust-
ingstraightthroughtoitsheartand thenactingonitw ithoutfurther
palav er
.Inthatrespect,Hopkinsw asremarkab lyusefultoRoosev elt-
b utRoosev eltw asessentialtoHopkins
Despitehisfuriousd ev otiontod uty,and d espitehispersistentill
health,Hopkinshad az estforliv ingw hichcaused himoftentorev ert
totheroleofaGrinnell( Iow a)Collegefreshmanw henturned loose
intheBigTow n
.Helov ed theracetracks ( $2 w ind ow ),thetheaters
and nightclub s,helov ed thesocietyofthefashionab le,theb eautiful,
thetalented ,thegayand ofsuchtav ernersasShermanBillingsley,Jack

and Charlie,and TootsShor.Hew aspleased and ratherproud w henev er
thehostilepressd enounced himasa" playb oy
." Thatmad ehimfeel
glamorous .ThePresid ent'sphysician,Ad miralRossT
said : " Ourb iggestj ob istokeepHarryfromev erfeelingcompletelyw ell
Whenhethinkshe'srestored tohealthhegoesoutonthetow n-and
." Hopkinsw asnotahard d rinker-he
w asphysicallyincapab leofb eingone-b utalmostanyd rinkthathed id
takew asmorethanw asgood forhim.
Roosev eltregard ed themild friv olitiesofhisw ayw ard friend w ith
amusementnotunmix ed w ithconsid erab leconcern .Hisattitud ew as
thatofanind ulgentparenttow ard anerrantsonw hosew ild oats,w hile
forgiv ab le,mustb estrictlyrationed .
Follow ingisahand w rittenletter,d ated May 21, 19 39 ,d uringoneof
themanyperiod sw henHopkinsw asb ed rid d enw ithw astingsickness
Good Boy!Teachersaysyouhav egained
pound s .
2 Lb s . =2$
Keepongainingand puttherew ard intoyourlittleSav ingsBank
Butyoumustnotgainmorethan5 0 lb s
.b ecausePopperhasnotgot
morethan5 0 $ .

Asev er
F.D .R.
Clipped tothatletterw eretw oone-d ollarb ills .Theyarestillclipped
toitasthisisw ritten,eightyearslater .Therew asnotagreatd eal
AnotherletterofMay18 ,19 4 4 ,w henHopkinsw asintheAshford
GeneralHospital :
Itisgrand togetthereportsofhow w ellyouaregettingonat
WhiteSulphurSprings,and Ihav ehad amightyniceletterfrom
[Dr .And rew B.]Riv ers-couched mostlyinmed icalterms-w hich,
how ev er,Ihav ehad translated !
ThemainthingsIgetfromitaretw o .First,thatitisagood thing
toconnectuptheplumb ingand putyoursew eragesysteminto
operatingcond ition .Thesecond is( and thiscomesfromothersin
authority)thatyouhav egottolead notthelifeofaninv alid b utthe
lifeofcommonorgard ensense .
I,too,ov eronehund red yearsold erthanyouare,hav ecometo
thesamerealiz ationand Ihav ecutmyd rinksd ow ntooneand a
halfcocktailsperev eningand nothingelse-notonecomplimentary
highb allornightcap .Also,Ihav ecutmycigarettesd ow nfrom
tw entyorthirtyad aytofiv eorsix ad ay
rottenb utitcanb ed one .
Themaingistofthisistoplead w ithyoutostayaw ayuntilthe
mid d leofJuneattheearliest.Id on'tw antyoub ackuntilthen .If
youd ocomeb ackb eforethenyouw illb eex tremelyunpopularin
Ir. L
. . N !y
A... . c/ of
''z c
,0 %

-4 11~ ? ,

Washington,w iththeex ceptionofCissyPattersonw how antsto
killyouoffassoonaspossib le-j ustasshed oesme .
Myplans-mymed icallab oratoryw orknotb eingfinished -are
tob ehereab outthreed aysaw eekand tospend theotherfourd ays
aw eekatHyd ePark,Shangri-laoronthePotomac.Forlaterin
theSummerIhav ev arioushenssittingb utId on'tknow w henthey
w illhatchout.
Ihad areallygrand timed ow natBernie's[Baruch]-slepttw elv e
hoursoutofthetw enty-four,satinthesun,nev erlostmytemper,
and d ecid ed toletthew orld gohang
w orld d id n'thang .
Ihav eaterrib lepileinmyb asketb utmostofthestuffhasansw ered
itselfanyw ay.
IamofftoHyd eParktostayuntilTuesd ayorWed nesd aynex t.
Lotsoflov etoyoub oth.TellLouisetousetheold -fashioned hat-
pinifyoud on'tb ehav e !
F.D .R.
Itisofincid entalinteresttonotethattheforegoingletterw asw ritten
tw ow eeksb eforetheAllied Forcesw ered uetoland inNormand y,a
timew henRoosev eltw asb earingaformid ab lew eightofresponsib ility
and anx iety .Roosev eltw asalltoow ellaw arethattheattemptat
inv asionofHitler's" FortressofEurope" w asincalculab lyhaz ard ous
and mightfail ; theEnglishChannelmightb ecome,intheoft-reiterated
w ord sofWinstonChurchill,a" riv erofb lood ." ButRoosev eltsimply
could notb eob sessed b yfearsand apprehensions
themostterrib lemomentsofthew arw ithapparentlyinsouciantlight-
nessw ould seemtosuggestthathew ascallousand heartless
.Hew as
neitherofthesethings .Hehad afaculty-and itw asalw aysincompre-
hensib letome-forsloughingoffcareand w orry,nomatterhow grav e
theemergency .Inthew ord sofhisfriend ,MorrisErnst," Hehad humor
and gaietyarisingoutofad ev iationfromtheord inarypatternofman,
w hichisfearofd eath ." Thatw asmostev id entatthetimeofPearl
Harb or
.Itw asthisq ualityw hichenab led himtosurv iv euntilv ictory
w asinsight.
Onetimew henHopkins,SamuelI .Rosenmanand Iw erew orking
w ithhim,Roosev eltd ictated aparagraphforinsertioninaspeech .He
said somethingtoind icatethatthecurrentprob lemsw eregiv inghim
" sleeplessnights ." Oneofusprotested : " Youmaygetaw ayw iththat
atthemoment,Mr .Presid ent,b utfuturehistoriansareb ound tofind
outthatev erynightyougotosleeppracticallyatthemomentyour
head touchesthepillow and youd on'tw akeupuntilatleasteighthours
later." Roosev eltlaughed and eliminated thereferencetosleeplessnights
Despiteallthed ifferencesb etw eentheircharactersand ex perience,
Roosev eltand Hoikinsw erealikeinoneimportantw ay
: theyw ere
1 9 4 1

thoroughlyand gloriouslyunpompous .Thepred ominantq ualitiesin
b othw ereunconq uerab leconfid ence,courageand good humor .
FrancesPerkinshasw rittenofRoosev eltthathew as" themost
complicated humanb eingIev erknew ." HenryMorgenthau,Jr .,has
w ritten," Roosev eltisanex traord inarilyd ifficultpersontod escrib e
. . .
w earyasw ellasb uoyant,friv olousasw ellasgrav e,ev asiv easw ellas
frank .
. . amanofb ew ild eringcomplex ityofmood sand motiv es ."
MissPerkinsand Morgenthauw erememb ersofRoosev elt'sCab inet
and knew himfarlongerand b etterthanId id .ButIsaw enoughofhim,
particularlyinhoursw henhew asoffparad eand relax ed ,tob eab le
tosay" Amen!" totheirstatementsonhiscomplex ity .Beingaw riter
b ytrad e,Itried continuallytostud yhim,totrytolookb eyond his
charmingand amusingand w armlyaffectionatesurfaceintohisheav ily
forested interior .ButIcould nev erreallyund erstand w hatw asgoing
oninthere .Hischaracterw asnotonlymultiplex ,itw ascontrad ictory
toab ew ild eringd egree .Hew ashard and hew assoft
d isplayed acapacityforv ind ictiv enessw hichcould b ed escrib ed as
petty,and atothertimeshed emonstrated theChristianspiritofforgiv e-
nessand charityinitspurestform.Hecould b earuthlesspolitician
b uthew asthechampionoffriend sand associatesw hoforhimw ere
politicalliab ilities,conspicuouslyHarryHopkins,and ofcausesw hich
apparentlycompetentad v isersassured himw ould constitutepolitical
suicid e .Hecould appeartob eutterlycynical,w orld ly,illusionless,and
yethisreligiousfaithw asthestrongestand mostmysteriousforcethat
w asinhim.Althoughhew asprogressiv eenoughand lib eralenough
to b econd emned asa" Traitortohisclass" and " ThatRed intheWhite
House," hew asintruthaprofound lyold -fashioned personw ithan
incurab lenostalgiaforthev ery" horseand b uggyera" onw hichhe
pub liclyheaped somuchscorn .Helov ed peaceand harmonyinhis
surround ingsand ( likemanyothers)greatlypreferred tob eagreed
w ith,and yetmostofhismaj orappointmentstotheCab inetand tothe
v ariousNew Dealand WarAgenciesw erepeculiarlyv iolent,q uarrel-
some,recalcitrantmen .Heliked tofancyhimselfasapractical,d ow n-
to-earth,horse-senserealist-heoftenused tosay" Winstonand Uncle
Joeand Igetalongw elltogetherb ecausew e'reall realists" -and yet
hisid ealismw asactuallynolessempyreanthanWood row Wilson's .
Prob ab lythesupremecontrad ictioninRoosev elt'scharacterw asthe
factthat,w ithallhiscomplex ity,heachiev ed agrand simplicityw hich
w illmakehim,Ib eliev e,muchlessofamysterytob iographersthan
Lincolnw asand mustforev erremain .Roosev eltw rotehimselfb yw ord
and d eed inlargeplainlettersw hichallcanread and intermsw hichall
canund erstand
.Whatev erthecomplex ityofforcesw hichimpelled him,
theend resultw aseasilyund erstand ab letohiscountrymenand tothe
w orld atlarge .InhisfirstInauguralAd d ressasGov ernorofNew

Yorkhespokeoftheprogramofsociallegislationw hichhad b een
instituted b yhispred ecessor,Alfred E.Smith,and said
Iob j ecttohav ingthisspiritofpersonalciv ilresponsib ilitytothe
Stateand totheind iv id ualw hichhasplaced New Yorkinthelead as
aprogressiv ecommonw ealth,d escrib ed as" humanitarian ." Itisfar
morethanthat.Itistherecognitionthatourciv iliz ationcannot
end ureunlessw e,asind iv id uals,realiz eourpersonalresponsib ility
toand d epend enceontherestofthew orld
thatthe" self-supporting" manorw omanhasb ecomeasex tinctas
.Withoutthehelpofthousand sofothers,any
oneofusw ould d ie,naked and starv ed
.Consid ertheb read upon
ourtab le,theclothesuponourb acks,thelux uriesthatmakelife
pleasant; how manymenw orked insunlitfield s,ind arkmines,in
thefierceheatofmoltenmetal,and amongtheloomsand w heelsof
countlessfactories,inord ertocreatethemforouruseand enj oyment .
Inread ingthosew ord s,itmustb erememb ered thattheyw erespoken
inJanuary,19 29 ,almostayearb eforetheb eginningsofeconomiccol-
lapse-fouryearsb eforetheriseofHitlertopow er-morethantenyears
b eforethestartoftheSecond World War-tw elv eyearsb eforeLend
Lease .Yet,thosew hoheard themmighthav eanticipated preciselythe
principlesand policiesofthemanw how astob eGov ernorforfour
yearsand Presid entfortw elv e .Thosew ord sw henspokenw ereex -
tremelyrad ical ; itw asconsid ered d ow nrightBolshev ismtotalkofinter-
d epend enceinthosed aysoftheCoolid geb oom,rugged ind iv id ualism
and " ev erymanforhimself," w hentheAmericanattitud etow ard the
restofthew orld w assummed upinthatmagnificentlyunansw erab le
q uestion," Theyhired themoney,d id n'tthey? "
Whenyouconsid erthew ord sofRoosev elt'sfirstAlb anyInaugural
togetherw iththoseofhisfirstWashingtonInauguralyouw ond erthat
anyonew asev ersurprised atw hathed id w henheb ecamePresid entof
theUnited States-w hichishind sightprescience,tob esure,b utsois
allofhistory .
WhenRoosev elttookHopkinsintotheWhiteHousetoliv eonMay
io,i9 4 o,Hopkinsw asstillnominallySecretaryofCommerceand such
d irectionashecould giv etotheaffairsofthatDepartmentw asgiv en
largelyb ytelephone
.Hew astoallintentsand purposesphysicallya
finished manw homightd ragouthislifeforafew yearsofrelativ e
inactiv ityorw homightcollapseand d ieatanytime
.And itw asnotonly
theperilousstateofhishealththatmad ehimseemunlikelytob eofany
realusetothePresid entinmeetingtheunpreced ented d emand softhe
Second World War
: forHopkinsknew nothingab outmilitarymatters .
Hehad nev erfix ed ab ayonetinb asicinfantryd rill ; hehad nev er
answ ered generalq uartersasanab leseaman
.IntheFirstWorld War,
hehad b eenrej ected b ytheArmyand Nav yonphysicalground sand
BEFORE 19 4 1

hisw arex periencew aslimited tow elfarew orkw iththeRed Crossinthe
d eepSouth
.Furthermore,hisNew Dealerpacifisminclined himemo-
tionallytow ard akind ofisolationism
.How ev er,thefactisthatb y19 4 0
Roosev eltv alued thepeculiarkind ofserv icerend ered and thecompan-
ionshipprov id ed b yHopkinstosuchanex tentthatheconv erted his
friend tow arpurposesj ustassurelyand ascompletelyas,inthegeneral
upheav alofthatsameyear,aChicagoind ustrialistnamed Alb ertJ
Brow ningconv erted hisw allpaperfactoryintoaplantfortheprod uction
ofincend iaryb omb s .
Hopkinsw asoneofthemanyAmericansw hob eliev ed thatNational
Defensemeantj ustthat
.Ifanenemyfleetapproached ourshores,w e
w ould merelylineupourow nNav y( w hichw asalw ays" second to
none" )likeafootb allteamd efend ingitsgoallineinthed aysb eforethe
inv entionoftheforw ard pass ;
anyhostileshipsthatmightb reak
throughtheNav yw ould b ehand led b yourcoastd efenses
.Hopkinsd id
hav eaconsid erab leconceptionoftheimportanceofairpow erb utagain
itw asonapurelyd efensiv eb asissofarastheUnited Statesw ascon-
: w eneed ed massesoffightingplanestokeepinv ad ersand
maraud ersaw ayfromourow nskiesand b omb erstosinkenemyships
w hentheyv entured w ithinrange
.ButRoosev elted ucated himinthe
militaryfactsoflifeand sod id GeneralMarshallforw homHopkins
had profound respectand w hoseappointmentasChiefofStaffhehad
stronglyrecommend ed
.Itw asconsistentw ithRoosev elt'sw holechar-
acterthatheshould b eliev einattackastheb estmeansofd efense
Thatw asev id enced b yhischampionshipoftheairplanecarrierasa
w eaponand hisad v ocacyofallmeasuresw hichpermitted thefleetto
operatefarfromhomeb asesforev er-increasingperiod softime .( Long
b eforetheend ofthew arourshipscould remainintheremotePacific
ind efinitely,b eingab letod istilltheirow nfreshw aterand totakeonall
necessaryfuel,munitionsand suppliesatsea,animprov ementw hichw as
notpopularw iththecrew s .)
Oneev ening-itw asAugust15 ,19 4 0 ,w hentheBattleofBritainw as
b eginning-Roosev eltand Hopkinsw eretalkingintheStud yatthe
WhiteHouseand Roosev elt,w how asparticularlyinterested inthe
possib ilitiesofamphib iousw arfare,d rew amapoftheEastCoastofthe
United States,locatingthecoastald efensesand ex plainingthatthey
actuallycould d efend lessthanoneand one-halfpercentofourcoast-
.Roosev eltpointed outthatanenemycould land anex ped itionary
forceatanyoneofinnumerab lepointsonourshoresand therefore,ifw e
w ereinv olv ed inw ar,itw ould b ehighlyd esirab leforustoland onthe
enemyshoresfirst-asforinstance,thenorthw estcoastofAfrica .
Therew eremanymilitarymen,and GeneralDw ightD .Eisenhow er
w asoneofthem,w hocameintocontactw ithHopkinsforthefirsttime
in19 4 1,and allofthosetow homIhav etalked hav esaid sub stantially
: know inghimonlyasoneofthoseNew Deal" v ision-
aries" ( i .e
.,crackpots)theyhad b eenratherd ub iousofhisab ilityto .
und erstand purelymilitaryprob lemsb ut,w hentheytalked w ithhim,
w ereamaz ed athisgraspoftheessentialsofgrand strategy .Thatw as
theresultofRoosev elt'steachingand ofHopkins'read yab ilitytolearn .
Heneed ed plentyofthatab ilityastheyearsw entb yand theprob lems
Roosev elt'ssketchillustratinginad eq uacy
offix ed coastald efenses .
multiplied inaw arthattouched ev erycontinentand ev eryoceanand the
skiesab ov ethemand end ed inthed read b irthoftheAtomicAge .
AtthestartofthisfirstchapterIsaid thattherew erememb ersof
Roosev elt'sCab inetw horesented thecloserelationshipofHopkinsand
thePresid ent.Anex ceptionw astheSecretaryofWar,HenryL
son,a lifelongRepub licanw homusthav eb eenv igorouslyopposed tothe
w holephilosophyofW .P.A.and ,asasticklerforform,musthav e
1 9 4 1

1 3
b eend isturb ed b ytheirregularityofHopkins'ex traofficialposition,of
authority.Yet,inhisd iary,Stimsonw rote : " ThemoreIthinkofit,
themoreIthinkitisaGod send .thathe[Hopkins]should b eatthe
WhiteHouse ."
Thed ateofthatentryw asMarch5 ,19 4 1,w henthegreatLend -Lease
d eb atew ascomingtoanend ,w henHopkinsw ascomingintoaposition
inthew orld thatnomanhad ev eroccupied b efore .
Otherofficersofthegov ernmentw hod id notconsid erHopkins'
presenceintheWhiteHouse a " God send " cred ited himw iththepow er
toex ertab anefulinfluenceov erRoosev elt,tocompelRoosev elttotake
actionsagainsthisow nb etterj ud gmentand personalinclinations .Ind eed ,
thatov erw orked scholar,thehistorianofthefuture,read ingv arious
memoirsofthisera,maycometotheperplex ed conclusionthatRoosev elt
nev erd id anythingonhisow n-thatev erythinggood thatheaccomplished
w asd oneattheinstigationoftheauthorsofthememoirs
; and ev erything
b ad w asd ueto" otherinfluences," w hichusuallymeantHopkins .Hop-
kinsalw ayslaughed atthesuggestionthathew asaSv engali,forthis
implied thatRoosev eltmustb easw eetlysub missiv eTrilb y .Roosev elt
w asmanythings,b uthew asnotthat.
Sioux CitytoWashington
OPKINSw asb ornonAugust17, 18 9 o, inSioux City,Iow a,a
seeminglyimmeasurab led istancefromHyd ePark,New York .
Onhisfifty-firstb irthd ay,hereturned toWashingtonw ithPresid ent
Roosev eltaftertheAtlanticConference,prev ioustow hichhehad flow n
toMoscow v iaLond on
.Afriend asked himab outhisfirstencounter
w ithStalin,and hesaid ," Icould n'tb eliev eit.ThereIw as,w alkingup
thestaircaseoftheKremlin,goingtotalktothemanw horuled 18 0
millionpeople .And Ikeptaskingmyself-w hatare you d oinghere,Hop-
kins,you-thesonofaharnessmakerfromSioux City-? " Whereupon
thefriend ,w how asasomew hatoutspokentype,interrupted : " Now ,for
God 'ssake,Harry-d on'tgiv emethatold lineagain .Youtold mew hen
youfirstsetfootintheWhiteHousethatthereyouw ere,thesonof
aharnessmaker-and yousaid thesamethingab outyourfirstv isit
toNo .ioDow ningStreet
.Can'tyouev erstopb oastingab outyour
humb leorigin? It'stheonlysignofpretentiousnessI'v eev erseenin
you.And ,anyw ay,therehav eprob ab lyb eenplentyofotherharness
allyououghttothinkab outisthatyou'rethepersonalrepresentativ e
ofthePresid entand ,b yGod ,youhav e
arighttob ethere!"
Hopkinsw asimpressed b ythispoint.In 19 4 5 w henhereturned from
hisfinaltriptoMoscow ,w hichw asalsohislastmissioninthepub lic
serv ice,heansw ered acongratulatorymessageb ysaying," Itisn'tso
d ifficulttod oaj ob likethisreasonab lyw ellw henyouhav ethew hole
forceoftheUnited StatesGov ernmentb ehind you
Hew asthefourthoffiv echild renb orntoDav id Ald onaand Anna
.Hisb rothersw ereLew is,JohnEmoryand Rome,
and hissisterAd ah( w hob ecameMrs .FrankAime) .Anold friend of
thefamily,Rob ertKerr,hassaid ," Toanyoneinterested ingenetics,

Harrypresented aw ond erfulstud yasacomb inationofthecharacters
ofhisfatherand mother ."
Dav id Hopkins-know nas" Al" and " Dad " -w asev id entlyacharm-
ing,salty,easygoingb uterraticand somew hatshiftlessmanw how as
alw aysamongthemostpopularcitiz ensofanytow nw herehehappened
tob eliv ingb utw hod id notstayforlonginanyoneplace
b een,atv arioustimes,anew spaper" carrier," prospector,harnessmaker,
trav elingsalesmanand storekeeper,b uthismaininterestinlifew as
b ow ling,atw hichhew asex pertand fromw hichhed eriv ed agood
incomeinsid eb ets
.Harrytold astoryofhisfather'sprow essonthe
b ow lingalleys :
" OnenightDad camehomeafterab igmatchagainst
someonew hothoughthimselfachampion
.Dad tookmed ow ntothe
cellaronsomepretex t,likefix ingthefurnace,thenreached inhispocket
and pulled out$5 0 oformetolookat
.Hehad w onitallthatev ening,
b utofcourseIw asn'tsupposed totellmymothertherew asthat
amountofmoneyinthehouse ;
shew ould hav emad eDad giv eitaw ay
AtthetopofallofDav id A
.Hopkins'letterhead sinhisv ariousv en-
turesw erethew ord s," BusinessisGood ," w hichsuggested aq uality
ofd efiantoptimismsomepartofw hichw asimparted tohissonHarry,
w hocould slipnow and thenintoskepticismb utw hoalw aysreturned
Dad Hopkinsw asb orninBangor,Maine,b uthisfamilymov ed w est
. aftertheCiv ilWar
.Hew asprospectingforgold inSouthDakotaw hen
hemetand married AnnaPickett,aschoolteacher
.Shehad b eenb orn
inHamilton,Ontario,and herfamilylad mov ed fromtheretoVermil-
lion,SouthDakota,ashomestead ers
.Shew asstronginmind and b od y
and inreligiousfaith
.Asherhusb and found b othd iv ersionand the
ex erciseofhisgreatestskillintheb ow lingalleys,shefound hersupreme
interestintheMethod istChurch
.Shew asactiv eand d ominantinchurch
functionsand achiev ed prominenceasad ev oted w orkerintheMethod ist
MissionarySocietyofIow a
.Shew asd etermined tob ringupand ed u-
cateherchild renstrictlyinthefaith .Thereisnod oub tthatHarry
inherited hismissionaryz eal,ashed id hissharpfeaturesand penetrating
thesportingsid eofhisnaturew ashisfather's
contrib ution
.Shortlyafterhisb irththefamilymov ed fromSioux City
tov ariousnew homesinCouncilBluffs,Kearneyand Hastingsin
Neb raskaand then,fortw oyears,Chicago-thelocationofthehome
b eingselected ascloseaspossib letothecenteroftheareainw hich
Dad w astrav elingatthetimeassalesmanforaw holesaleharness
.Ab ad accid entb roughtahappychangeinthefamilyfortunes
and prod uced aperiod ofstab ility :
Dad w asrund ow nb yahorse-d raw n
truckand suffered ab rokenleg
.Hesued thetruck'sow nersw hosettled ,
outofcourt,for$10 ,0 0 0 .
Halfofthispriz ew enttoHopkins'law yer,

and w iththeremaining$5 ,oooheb oughtaharnessstoreofhisow nin
Grinnell,Iow a
.Asthed emand forharnessd eclined ,head d ed new s-
papers,magaz inesand cand ytohisstockand sold cigarettesund erthe
counter.Hew asex tremelypopularw ithGrinnellCollegestud entsand ,
itw assaid ,knew moreofthemb ytheirfirstnamesthand id anyoneelse
intow n,includ ingthecollegepresid ent.Grinnellw asselected b yMrs .
Hopkinsasagood placeinw hichtosettled ow nb ecauseoftheex cep-
tionaled ucationalopportunitiesthatitprov id ed forthechild ren ; it
remained thefamilyhomeformanyyears .
Whilehisfamilyliv ed inChicago,Harryhad asev eresiegeof
typhoid w hichw asthestartofhislongrecord ofillhealth .Hisnick-
nameinschoolthereafterw as,ofcourse," Skinny ." Later,atcollege,
hew asad d ressed as " Hi ." WhileinhighschoolinGrinnell,he
engaged inhisfirstpoliticking,b utitw astheninspired moreb yahell-
raisingimpulse .thanb yanylustforpow er . Fortune
magaz inehas
record ed that" hed id n'tlikethew aytheteachersfix ed theclasselec-
tionsinfav oroftheb eststud entssoheorganiz ed ab allotstuffingfor
ab oynamed SamO'Brienw how asnonetooacad emic.Theteachers
threw outthev oteb utHarrykeptonelectioneeringand onthenex t
superv ised b allotO'Brienw aselected j ustthesame-b yab iggerv ote
thanhehad gotthefirsttime ."
Anard entb aseb allplayerand fan,Hopkinsused tocrashthegate
attheb iggamesatGrinnell .Heand hisfriend ,Dw ightBrad ley,
gotintoWard Field asarmorb earersforthestarcatcher,B.M.Benson
-oneoftheb oysw ould carryhismask,theotherhisglov e-b ut
Hopkinshimselfw asonlyamed iocrerightfield er .Grinnellw asa
greattow nforb asketb alland itw asatthissport,b othinschooland
college,thatHarryex celled .Hew asonateamw hichhad thed istinc-
tionofw inningtheMissouriValleyChampionship .Histeam-mates
d escrib ed hisstyleofplayas" rough" ; hisopponentsd escrib ed itas
" d irty ."
Heentered GrinnellCollegew iththeclassof 19 12 . Spurred b yhis
successascampaignmanagerforSamO'Brien,heengaged inagreat
d ealofelectioneering( now usuallyforhimself)and w asaconsistent
v otegetterallthroughcollege,end inguphissenioryearw ithelectionas
permanentpresid entoftheclass
.( Thatw asprob ab lythelasttimeinhis
lifethatheev eractuallyranforelectoraloffice ;
hissub seq uentascents
w ereallb yappointment.)Duringonesummeratcollegehew orked ina
nearb yb rickyard and d uringanotheronafarmw ithout,apparently,
learningmuchab outagriculture
.Heremained apersistentpractical
j oker-agenerallyuninhib ited ex trov ertw ithacutepow ersofcalculation
and apenchantforex tracurricularactiv ities .AsasenioratGrinnellhe
w asapproached b ysophomorelead ersforad v iceonstrategyand tactics
intheannualsophomore-freshmanclassb attle .Hegav eit,freely .Then

hew asapproached ,q uiteind epend ently,b yfreshmanlead ersforad v ice .
Hegav ethat,freely,too-tellingthefreshmenhow tocounterthe
" possib le" sophomorestrategy( w hichhehad suggested )
.Neithersid e
knew thatHopkinshad mastermind ed b othsid es .Theb attleend ed as
Hopkinshad planned it,w iththesophomorestakingupd efensiv eposi-
tionsinab arnand thefreshmend roppingstinkb omb sthroughahole
in theroof
.Thesetacticsw ereregard ed b ythecollegeauthoritiesas
unw orthyofGrinnell'strad itionsofsportsmanshipand fairplayand
v ariousculpritsw erepunished ; b utHopkins'guiltw asnev erex posed .
Alsoinhissenioryearheorganiz ed theWood row WilsonLeaguein
Grinnelland ,learningthatthePrincetonpresid entw astomake" apre-
Conv entiontripw est,hew roteWilsonurginghimtostopinGrinnell
Wilsond id soforalloftw ominutes,appearingontheb ackplatformofhis
train .Hopkinshad thecollegeb and outfortheoccasionatacosttohim-
selfof$1 .5 0 w hich,Ib eliev e,henev erpaid .
Curiouslymix ed w iththisprankishtend encyw asad eeplypuritanical
sense,theresultofhiselab oratereligioustraining,and althoughhew as
outspokenonmostsub j ectshew assecretiv eab outhisemotions .His
sister,Ad ahAime,hastold methatinund ergrad uated ayshehad agirl,
aGrinnellcoed ,w ithw homhe" w entstead y" foralongtime
.Sud d enly
heb rokeitoff,w hichprecipitated anemb arrassingcrisisinGrinnell
socialcircles.Accord ingtoMrs .Aime," Thegirlw asq uiteseriousand
latertookupsocialw orkherself .Butshed id notpracticereligioninthe
samenarrow w ayasHarryhad b eenb roughtuptod oand hefeltthatw as
ab artotheirhappiness ." And that,presumab ly,w asw hyhesapctimoni-
ouslyend ed therelationship .Buthew ould nottalkab outittohisfamily
Hisgood mother,d istressed b ythisd ev elopmentsaid ," Ican'tev ermake
Harryout.Henev ertellsmeanythingab outw hathe's really thinking."
Heremained secretiv e,b utnotalw ayssopriggishlycensoriousoflack
ofreligiousregularityingirlstow homhew asattracted .
Intheearlyyearsofthetw entiethcenturyGrinnellCollegehad
estab lished ahighreputationforscholarshipw hichHopkinsneither
increased norappreciab lylow ered
.Heappearstohav eb eenab outav erage
ormayb ealittleb elow thatasastud ent.Hecertainlyd id notrev eal
muchoftheab ilitytolearnw ithspeed and accuracyw hichw astob ehis
mostremarkab leattrib uteinlateryears
.Hisfav oriteprofessorw asJesse
Macy,w how as,Ib eliev e,theoriginatorofthefirstcollegecoursein
politicalscienceintheUnited States
.Macy,aQuakerfarmerb yb irth,
had b eenatGrinnellsinceb eforetheCiv ilWar,d uringw hichheserv ed
inSherman'sarmyinthemarchfromAtlantatothesea.Hew asoneof
thefirstconv ertstotheDarw iniantheoryand b eliev ed it" hisd utyto
useev eryend eav ortow ard theattainmentofamorerighteousord erin
thestateand insociety,regard lessoftheprospectsofsuccess
." He
ex pressed theb eliefthatthed emocraticnationsw ould " learntocr,-

operatethroughaUnited StatesoftheWorld ." Itw ould b ed ifficultto
ex aggeratetheinfluenceofthispioneerteacheruponanalert,receptiv e
youngstud entw hohad w ithinhimthemakingsofanaggressiv eNew
Dealerand internationalist
.Macyw asanex ponentoftheSocratic
method ,w hichHopkinsused w ithpenetratingeffectinlateryears .Fur-
thermore,Macycould tellhispupilagreatd ealab outthed ifferences
b etw eentheBritishand Americanconstitutionalsystems,forhehad spent
consid erab letimeinEngland and had formed aclosefriend shipw ith
JamesBryceand thememb ersoftheLond onEconomicClub and the
Fab ianSocietyatthetimew hentheSid neyWeb b sand Bernard Shaw
w erefirstformingw hatBeatriceWeb b called " thisunionofpity,hope
and faith." Ind eed ,w henBrycew asrev isinghisclassicw ork,
canCommonw ealth, hew enttospend sev eralw eeksofcollab orationin
Grinnellw ithProfessorMacy
.ThegreatBritishAmb assad orand scholar
liv ed attheMacyhouse,w hichw asamod estone,w ithnoserv antsex cept
.Onhisfirstnight,Bryceputhisshoesoutsid ethe
d oor,inthetrad itionalBritishcountryhousefashion
tooktheshoestothekitchenand shined themhimself-and thisprocess
w asrepeated throughev erynightofBryce'sstayinGrinnell ; ind eed ,
thisd istinguished Britishstatesmand ied w ithoutev erknow ingthathis
collab oratorand hostinGrinnell,Iow a .had w orked ov ertimeev erynight
.Butthescholarlyassociationsestab lished b etw een
Macyand Brycew eretransmitted toHarryHopkinsand w ereofv ital
importanceatthetime( in19 4 1)w henBritainfaced d eathatthehand s
Therew asanothergreatteacheratGrinnell,Dr .Ed w ard A.Steiner,
and fromhimHopkinsgained hisfirstknow led geofthesocialsciencesand
ofthestrange,remote,giganticmassthatw asRussia
.Steiner,aJew ,had
b eenb orninCz echoslov akiaand grad uated fromHeid elb erg,then
emigrated totheUnited Statesw hereheb ecameord ained asaCon-
.Hew enttoRussiain19 0 3and stayed w ith
TolstoyatYasnayaPolyana,gatheringmaterialforhisb ookon" Tolstoy,
theMan" ( hed escrib ed theCountessTolstoyas" myreluctanthostess" )
HiscourseatGrinnellw ascalled Applied Christianityand w as,infact,
.Hopkinsw aspermanentlyinfluenced b yw hathelearned from
SteinerontheChristianethicand theteachingsofTolstoy
.Hehad War
and Peace
inmind w hen,inJuly,19 4 1,heflew ov erthev astRussian
forestsonthew aytoMoscow w henitcametheturnoftheSov ietUnion
tofaced eathatthehand sofNaz iGermany
IntheSteinercourse,Hopkinshad an" A." InMacy'scourseshe
av eraged " B
." ButinEnglishcompositionhew asusuallyalow " D" -
and oncean" E" ( totalfailure)-w hichisnosurprisetothosew hohav e
read anyofhisw ritings
.Whenhetalked ,hislanguagew asex traord inarily
BEFORE 19 4 1

v iv id and originaland tothepoint
.Whenhew roteforpub lication,hew as
apttob ecomeself-conscious,sententiousand aw kw ard
TheinfluenceofGrinnell-thecollegeand thetow nitself-w asalw ays
w ithHopkins
.Heb ecamesomethingofanex patriateinthegaud y
atmosphereofJimmyWalker'sNew Yorkand thenheb ecameineffect
acitiz enofthew orld ,b uthenev erb ecameurb ane .AlloftheHopkins
familyleftGrinnell,scatteringov erthecontinent.Dad Hopkinsspent
hislastyearshappilycomb iningb usinessw ithpleasureinSpokane,
Washington,w herehew asproprietoroftheb ow lingalleysintheDav en-
portHotel .Theold manhad anend uringgrud geagainstGrinnell
had b eenad riv eforfund stob uild ahospitalthereand Dad Hopkins
pled ged ahand somecontrib utionb ut,w henitcametimetopayit,hew as
inoneofhisrecurrentphasesofex tremefinancialemb arrassment.This
led himintoav iolentargumentw iththehospitalb oard memb ersand
therew asev enathreatoflegalproceed ingsw hichw asav erted w hen
friend sq uietlychipped inenoughmoneytomeetthepled ge .Dad Hopkins
ev entuallypaid thisoffb uthenev erforgotnorforgav etheauthorities .
Yearslater,hetold Harryq uitecalmlythathew asd yingofcancer
ofthestomachand thenheex plod ed ," And youcanb urymeanyGod -
d amned placeex ceptGrinnell !" Whenhed id d ie,in19 30 ,Harryw as
notified b yhisb rotherLew isthatb urialw ould b einthefamilyplotat
Grinnell .Hed id notob eyhisfatherand raiseanyprotestforheknew
thathismotherw anted theb urialtob ethereand shew astheonew ho
w asliv ing.Thisgood w omand ied in19 32,j ustw henhersonHarry
w asonthethreshold offameand ,insomeq uarters,notoriety .
In19 39 ,afterhisappointmentasSecretaryofCommerce,Harry
Hopkinsrev isited hisnativ eState-av isitw hich,asw illb eseen,w as
charged w ithpoliticalimplications-and hestopped offatGrinnelltov isit
hisold friend stheKerrsand tospeaktothestud entb od yatthecollege .
Mostofthisspeechisgiv enherew ithb ecause,b einglargelyunprepared ,
itsound slikeHopkinsw henhetalked w ithoutb enefitofghostw riters
WhenIhearpeopletalkingab outw hataCollegeisfor-itscur-
riculum-Iknow thepluralofthattoo,Iknow thatoneoftheb est
thingsinCollegeistohav efun .Youhav eplentyoftimelaterinlife
togetb anged around ortogetsolemnab outit,b uthereyouhav e
greatfun,and Ithinkthatisgood ,ofand b yitself . . . .
Iw asaround thistow nformanyyears,and Ifound thatthis
tow nhad agov ernment,had w ard s,and Ilearned thattherew ere
tow nshipsinthecounties,and thattherew asaStateLegislature .
Id id notknow muchab outit.Iheard theycollected tax es .Iused to
hearrumorsthattherailroad sow ned theLegislatureintheStateof
Iow a .Ilearned lateritw astrue .Ihad thev aguestknow led geab out
gov ernment.Thelessgov ernmentinterfered w ithmearound this
tow n,theb etterIliked it
.Id id n'tev enliketohav etheCollegeauthori-
tiesinterferew ithmetoomuch. . . .
2 0

Sincethen,and forthelast27or28 years,Ihav eliv ed around
v ariouspartsofthecountry,and ,inmorerecentyearsofmylife,
hav e'comeinintimatecontactw ithgov ernment.Ihav eseengov ern-
mentw agew ars ; Ihav eseengov ernmentb affled and unab letomeet
economicprob lems ; Ihav eseenand liv ed w ithagov ernmentw hich
hasstruckoutb old lyattemptingtomeetoureconomicprob lems .I
hav eliv ed toseethetimew hentheGov ernmentoftheUnited States
w orriesab outhow muchafarmergetsforhiscorn,w heat,orcotton .
Ihav eliv ed toseethetimew henafarmergetsachecksigned b y
theTreasureroftheUnited Statesford oingsomething
peoplegettingpensions ; seeunemployed peoplegettingchecksfromthe
United StatesGov ernment; Collegestud entsgettingcheckssigned b y
theUnited StatesGov ernment.
Ihav eseenpeopleb attlingforcontroloftheUnited StatesGov ern-
ment,and manyyearsago,w henIfirstsaw thisstruggle,Iw ond ered
w hytheymad esuchanefforttocontrolit,and Isaw greatand pow er-
fulinterestsspend alotofmoneyinanattempttocontrolgov ernment.
Isaw themd othat,and youd on'thav etogov eryfaraw aytosee
themstilld oingit.Makenomistakeab outit,therearemanyinterests
inthiscountryw how anttocontrolgov ernmentw hetheritb elocal,
State,orFed eral .Ihav enoq uarrelw iththattheory .I -thinkit'sper-
fectlyproperforanygroupofpeopleinaDemocracytod oanything
theycantoinfluencegov ernment.Aslongasthefarmersouthere
talked itoutb yhold ingalotofmeetingsand w ritingarticles,nob od y
paid anyattentiontothem,b utw hentheyformed apoliticalb locand
w enttotheStateLegislature,theCongressmen,and theSenators,and
said ," Eitheryoud ow hatw ew antyoutod oorw ew on'tsend you
b ack," Congressmenand ev eryonew horanforofficeinthisgreat
farmb elt,thenb egantomakepoliticalspeechessayingw hattheyw ould
d oforthefarmers
.Eachcand id atew anted tod omorethantheother .
. . .
InthislastCongress,8 3DemocraticCongressmenw erepitched out
and 8 3Repub licanCongressmenw entinb ecausetheypromised '
b iggerand b etterold agepensions
.Ithink,politically,theyw erev ery
smartand intelligent.Id on'tseeanythingw rongab outthat.Id onot
seeanythingw ronginthesepressuregroupsofonekind oranothertry-
ingtoinfluencegov ernment.Theyhav esimplytakenalessonoutof
thepub licutilitiesand railroad s
.TheyranmostoftheStategov ern-
ments25 and 5 0 yearsago
.Youd on'thav etogob ackmorethan5 0
years,and youw illfind thatmemb ersoftheStateLegislaturew ereon
thepayrolloftherailroad s .Youd on'thav etogob ackv eryfar,and
youw illfind agreatmanyofthelaw yersw erew orkingfortheutilities .
Icould makeaspeechab outthelaw yers,b utIw illj ustskipit.
Ihav eseenthisgov ernmentatcloserangew orkingw iththe
Americanpeople,and Ihav eseenthemd othesethings,and Ihav e
afirmconv iction,theyaregoingtokeepond oingthem.Itd oesnot
makeanyd ifferencew hatPartyisinpow er,thegov ernmentis
goingtotreatthepeopleinw aysw ehav enev erd reamed ofb efore,
and ,therefore,gov ernmentshould b egood .
19 4 1

Withthew orld situationthew ayitistod ay,almostamad house,
w ithhateand fearsw eepingthew orld
; .w iththisnationalmostthe
laststronghold ofDemocracy ; w iththeAmericanpeopled etermined
tomaintainthatDemocracy,thekind ofgov ernmentthatw ehav e
isex tremelyimportant,and itistheonethinginAmericathatis
Thisgov ernmentisoursw hetheritb elocal,county,State,or
Fed eral.Itd oesn'tb elongtoanyb od yb utthepeopleofAmerica
; d on'ttreatitassomethingto
sneerat; treatitassomethingthatb elongstoyou
.Id on'tcarehow
muchyoucriticiz eit,ortow hatPartyyoub elong,j ustrememb er
thatthisgov ernmentb elongstoyou,and need syou,and itisgoingto
takeb rainsand skilltorunitinthefutureb ecausethiscountrycan-
notcontinuetoex istasad emocracyw ith io,ooo,ooo or 12,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
.Itj ustcan'tb ed one .Wehav egottofind aw ay
ofliv inginAmericainw hichev erypersoninitsharesinthenational
income,insuchaw ay,thatpov ertyinAmericaisab olished .There
isnoreasonw hythepeopleofAmericashould d w ellinpov erty .
Aw aymustb efound ,and aw ayw illb efound .
And ,finally,letmesaythis
.Grow ingupinthistow n,mov ingto
theEast,and hav ingb eenalmostev eryplaceinthisUnion,Ihav e
grow ntohav eatremend ousaffectionand lov eforthiscountry-the
field s-theland -and thepeople
thoseofusw hogetachance,and manyofusw illb ecauseofthethings
thisnationhasd oneforus,should and w illb emotiv ated w henthe
timecomestoserv eitw ell .
ThatGrinnellspeech,incid entally,contained oneofthefew pub lic
referencesthatHopkinsev ermad etotheprospectortheactualityof
anotherWorld Waruntil19 4 1w henhehimselfw assoheav ilyinv olv ed
WhenHopkinsw asab outtograd uatefromGrinnellCollege,hew ent
around toseeDr
.Steinertosaygood -b y .Hehad notmad euphismind
: hehad talked ofgoingintothenew spaper
b usinessinBoz eman,Montana,inpartnershipw ithChesterDav isw ho
alsow astoserv ew ithFranklinRoosev eltasWarFood Ad ministrator .
ButHopkinsav oid ed j ournalismb yanarrow margin
show ed Hopkinsatelegramhehad receiv ed fromChristad oraHouse,
acharitab leinstitutiononAv enueBintheNew Yorkslums .Thetele-
gramasked ifSteinercould suggestaGrinnellstud enttoactascounselor
thatsummerattheChristad oracampforpoorchild rennearBound
Brook,New Jersey,and Steinerasked Hopkinsifhemightb einterested
inthistemporaryj ob
.Despitehismother'sinfluence,Hopkinshad nev er
b eenmuchinterested inmissionaryorsocialw ork
; hehad b eenid enti-
fied w iththeY.M.C.A
.incollegeb utthisw asmerelyapartofregular
und ergrad uateactiv ities
.Nev ertheless,hej umped attheopportunity
offered throughDr .Steiner,notb ecausehehad anv intentionofmaking
acareerasaw elfarew orkerb utb ecausethisw asachancetogetto
New York .The n ew spaper .i n Boz emancould w aituntilhehad had a
good lookattheBigTow n .ChesterDav is,Presid entoftheFed eral
Reserv eBankofSt.Louis,hasw rittenme
Thecorrespond encew ithav iew togettingHarryouttoMontana
nev ergotoutofthepiped reamstage .Harryhad d onesomew ork
fortheScarletand Black,theGrinnellCollegenew spaper,asIhad
d one,and hew ould hav emad eagood new spaperman
. . . .Itw as
PaulAppleb yw homw ed id b ringouttoMontanaforthatj ob .[Ap-
pleb y,amemb eroftheGrinnellClassof19 13,w asUnd erSecretary
ofAgricultureintheSecond World War .]
Onthew ayeast,Hopkinsstopped offatChicagofortheRepub lican
Conv ention,w orminghisw ayintoitb yposingasElihuRoot's" secre-
tary" ( againhew ascarryingthecatcher'smask) .Heheard Theod ore
Roosev eltshoutthatthiev esw ererunningtheRepub licanparty-that
therenominationofWilliamHow ard Taftw as" naked theft." Thatw as
theyearT.R.b olted and formed theBullMooseparty .Hopkinsalso
attend ed theDemocraticConv entioninBaltimoreand saw someofthe
b attleofWilliamJenningsBryantonominateWood row Wilson,b utI
d onotknow w hatguiseheassumed togetintothisone
sound ofthepoliticalgiantsex cited himand forthenex ttw entyyears
henourished ad esiretob ecomeacomb atantinthatb lood yarena
Onarriv alattheChristad oraSummerCampatBound Brook,he
confessed thathew asb ew ild ered b yhisfirstcontactsw iththeprod ucts
oftheEastCoastslums .Hehad certainlyknow npov ertyinhisow n
familyand friend lyneighb orhood intheMid d leWest,b utthatkind of
pov ertyinv olv ed themaintenanceofakind ofd ignityand self-respect
and ind epend ence ; itd id notinv olv ehunger,orsq ualor,ord egrad ation
Thepov ertyofthecityslumsw as,tohim,somethingalien,shockingand
enraging.AtBound Brook,hesaid later,hew asb roughtsharplytothe
realiz ationthat," I'd nev erseenaJew ishb oyb eforeinmylife ." This
w ashisrealb irthasacrusad erforreform.Themissionaryimpulsethat
hehad inherited fromhismotherb ecamethemostpow erfulforcew ithin
him.Asw ithotherchangesinthecircumstancesofhislife,head j usted
himselftohisnew env ironmentw ithremarkab lerapid ity
.Aftertw o
monthsinthecampatBound Brookhew asthez ealouschampionofthe
und erpriv ileged w hichhew ould alw aysremain
.Hew enttow orkfor
Christad oraHouseand b egantolearnoflifeasitw asliv ed onthe
low erEastSid eofNew York,w hichw asascompleteasociological
lab oratoryasonecould find anyw hereonearth .Hew orked forhis
b oard and lod gingand ,Ib eliev e,$5 .0 oamonthpocketmoney.In
19 12
New Yorkw asstillthefab ulous" Bagd ad onTheSub w ay" ofO .Henry,
w hosestoriesw erej ustb eginningtoachiev eposthumoussuccess .Itw as
19 4 1

stillthecityofDiamond JimBrad yand theTend erloinand Millionaire's
Row and theFiv ePoints,w hereyoungAlCaponew aslearninghis
trad e
.And itw asstillthecityofTammanyw hichhad enj oyed ahalf
centuryofcorruptionand freeenterpriseontheloose
und erBoss
Tw eed ," HonestJohn" Kellyand Richard Croker .Buttheforces
reformw erefind ingaglamorouschampioninJohnPurroyMitchel," the
YoungTorq uemad a," and w eremob iliz ingtod riv etherascalsout( tem-
.Thiscausew asaid ed greatlyb ytheresultsofanev entw hich
occurred inthatsummerof 19 12 :
themurd erofHermanRosenthal,
proprietorofoneofthetow n'smanygamb linghouses
story,b rokenb yanotheryoungMid d leWesterner, Herb ertSw ope,
helped toelectMitchelMayor,and CharlesS
.Whitman,w hoprosecuted
thecase,b ecameGov ernoroftheState
Thed ayaftertheex ecutionofthe" FourGunmen" -w hob orethe
unforgettab lenamesofGyptheBlood ,DagoFrank,LeftyLouieand
WhiteyLew is-Hopkinsw asattend ingameetingofab oy'sclub
oneoftheEastSid esettlementhousesw herehew asgiv inginspirational
talksonciv icb etterment.Hew ashorrified and profound ly
puz z led
w hentheb oyw how asthelead erofthisgrouparoseand said v ery
seriouslytothemeeting," Imov ethatthew holeclub stand upfortw o
minutesinhonorofthefourgunmenw hod ied tod ay
." Themotionw as
carried unanimously
.Hopkinsmentioned thisd iscouragingincid ent
anarticlehew roteforthe
Surv eyGraphicand asked b utd id notattempt
toansw ertheq uestion
: " Whatisresponsib leforthefactthatthirty-fiv e
b oys,allund ersix teen,should w ishtorisetotheirfeettopayhomage
tofourmenw hosecrimestheirkeensenseofrightand w rongw ould
naturallycond emnund ernormalcircumstances? "
Hopkinsw orked v eryhard thenasalw aysand had neithertimenor
moneyforex plorationinthemoreenj oyab leinstitutionsofNew York
b uthed id find aw aytogetintotheMetropolitanOperaHousefreeb y
enlistingintheorganiz ed claq uesforsuchstarsoftheperiod asEnrico
Carusoand Gerald ineFarrar
Duringhisfirstw interinNew York,Hopkinsw enttoseeDr
.Kingsb ury,ascholarly,humaneand humorousmanw how asGeneral
DirectoroftheAssociationforImprov ingtheCond itionofthe
( A.I.C.P.),
apow erfuland w ell-supported charitab leorganiz ation
kinsasked foraj ob thatw ould pay
.0 0
.Kingsb urytookalikingtothegangling,open-faced Iow ayouth
and ,althoughhehad noregularj ob tooffer,puthimonthepayrollat
$4 oamonthona" training" b asis,thusgiv inghimachancetolearn
somethingund erex pertguid anceab outsocialw orkand thecond itions
w hichmad eitnecessary
.Hopkinscontinued toliv e atChristad ora
HouseonAv enueBand w orkthered uringthed ay,and atnighthe
w entoutonassignmentsfor .A
. inthetougherd istricts,particu-
larlyalongthew aterfront,w hereitw asconsid ered unsafeforthew omen
w orkerstov entureafterd ark
.WhenHopkinshad b eenatthisinterest-
ingoccupationforafew months,hew enttoKingsb uryand asked for
araiseinpay.Kingsb urylaughed and asked ," Onw hatpossib leground s
w ould Ib ej ustified ingiv ingyouaraise? " Ingreatemb arrassment
Hopkinsconfessed thathehad falleninlov ew ithMissEthelGross,a
co-w orkeratChristad oraHouse,and theyw anted togetmarried .Kings-
b uryw assoimpressed and amused b ythesheerb rav ad oofthisthathe
agreed toincreaseHopkins'allow ance-itw asnotaw ageorsalary-
to$6 oamonth,and thew ed d ingtookplace
.Thismarriage,w hichend ed
ind iv orcesev enteenyearslater,w asprod uctiv eofthreesons,Dav id
( named afterDad Hopkins),Rob ert( named afterRob ertKerr),and
Stephen( named afterapossib leancestorw hohad b eenasignerofthe
DeclarationofInd epend ence)
.IntheSecond World Warthesesons
serv ed intheNav y,Armyand MarineCorps,respectiv ely
. Stephen,
theyoungest,w askilled inactionw hentheMarinesattacked Kw aj alein
AtollinFeb ruary,19 4 4 .
In19 13-14 ,preced ingtheoutb reakoftheFirstWorld War,times
w ereb ad -theyw erealw aysb ad onthelow erEastSid e,b utnow they
w erew orse-and Kingsb uryasked Hopkinstomakeastud yofunem-
.Inthosed aysifamanw asoutofw orkitw ashis
ow nresponsib ility
; itw asprob ab lyhisow nfaultand certainlyhisow il
.Ifheknew therightpeople,hecould getsomehelpathis
localTammanyClub House
.Orhecould getfood inab read lineand
perhapsshelterinaflophouseand hecould seekreliefforhisfamily
fromoneofthenumerouspriv atecharitab leorganiz ationsw hichov er-
lapped oneanotherand competed w ithoneanother,oftenw ithb itter
j ealousy,forprestigeand fund s
.How ev er,therew ered istinctsigns of
changeintheold ,anachronisticord er,and thespokesmenofchangew ere
suchasKingsb ury,thegreatLillianWald ,HenryBruereand William
.Mathew s .Hopkins'reportonunemploymentw asoneofthemost
searchingthathad ev erb eenmad eand show ed remarkab leund erstand -
ingforoneonlytw enty-threeyearsold and freshfromtheCornb elt
w heresuchcond itionsw ereunheard of
.Hisperiod ofapprenticeship
end ed and hew asgiv enaregularj ob w ithA.I.C.P.
Hew asputinchargeofanemergencyemploymentb ureauw hich
tookcareof-or,atleast,d id itsb esttocarefor-d estitutetransients
in New York
.Therew eremanyofthese : somew erehopelessd erelicts
w hohad d rifted tothepanhand ler'sparad ise,b utmostw ereb ew ild ered
peoplew hohad cometotheBigCityfullofhopeand d etermination
and theconv ictionthatfab ulousfortune aw aited themex pectantly
around ev erycorner( thisw asstilltheageofHoratioAlger) .Onrare
occasions,Hopkinsw asab letoguid ethemtoj ob s .Thev astmaj ority,
how ev er,could onlyb ed irected toaSalv ationArmysoupkitchenora
19 4 1

missionw herefloorspacew asav ailab leforsleeping .Hopkinsad v ised
manyoftheyoungeronestosw allow theirprid eand w ritetotheirfam-
iliesforthepriceofaticketb acktothehometow n,and d oub tlesssome
ofthemresented thesew ord sofw isd omfromonew how ashimselfso
freshlyoutofIow a .Iftheyhad d oub tsab outhisrighttoad v isethem,
hew asd ev elopingmored oub tsofhisow n ; hew asb eginningtow ond er
w hatkind ofcountrythisreallyw asw hichv aunted itsloftyprinciples
offreed omand eq ualityand yetallow ed suchmiserab lecond itionsof
inj usticetopersist
WhenMayorMitcheltookofficeinJanuary,19 14 ,itseemed thatthe
chancehad cometod osomethingab outthesecond itions
Mayorappointed Kingsb uryCommissionerofPub licCharities
thisDepartmentw astheBoard ofChild Welfare
.Ontherecommend a-
tionofKingsb uryand Mathew s,ChairmanofthisBoard ,Hopkinsb ecame
itsEx ecutiv eSecretary'atasalaryof$3,oooayear,w hichmusthav e
seemed afortune
.Thisw asHopkins'firstj ob inpub licserv iceand his
lastuntil19 31 .
Theoutb reakofw arinEuropeinAugust,19 14 ,caused w orseunem-
ploymentcond itionsinNew Yorkand theprogressiv emind softhe
MitchelreformAd ministration-asortofintimationoftheNew Deal-
b egantoex perimentw ithnew measures,amongw hichw erethefirst
freeemploymentagencyand theinstitutionof" mad e" w orkb ythecity
gov ernmentinconnectionw iththemunicipalparksystem.Herethen
w astheb eginningofrehearsalsforHopkinsinthespectacularrolehe
w astoplayinsupportofFranklinD
.Roosev elttw entyyearslater.He
enj oyed thisw orkgreatlyand w asb eginningtoraiseafamilyand to
estab lishanew id entityforhimselfasanup-and -comingNew Yorker
b uttherew asnofutureforhiminthecityAd ministration .Mitchelw as
ayoungmanofconsid erab lepersonalcharm,courageand talent,b uthe
d emonstrated agiftforantagoniz ingallkind sofpeople .TammanyHall,
ofcourse,hated himand sod id WilliamRand olphHearst
.Hispred i-
lectionforthecompanionshipofHighSocietymad ehimunpopularw ith
themassesw hocharged therew as" ToomuchFifthAv enue,toolittle
FirstAv enue
." TheRepub licans,HighSocietyinclud ed ,consid ered
himtoorad ical
.Tomaketheoppositionv irtuallyunanimous,hein-
curred thew rathofCatholicand ProtestantChurchesb yinv estigations
ofgrossmismanagementinStatecharitiesw hichhad ecclesiasticalpa-
.Hew asd efeated forre-electionb ytheHearstprotege,JohnF.
( " Red Mike" )Hylan,afterw hichheentered theArmyAirCorpsand
w askilled inanaccid entw hiletraining
Inthecityelectionsof19 17,Hopkinsw asd isgusted w ithb oththe
Democraticand Repub licanparties,thelatterhav ingalsorej ected
Mitchel,and he
.supported MorrisHillq uit,theSocialistcand id ate-a
factw hichreturned toplaguehiminlateryearsw henhecameupb efore

theUnited StatesSenateforapprov alasSecretaryofCommerce
theentryoftheUnited StatesintotheFirstWorld Warin19 17,Hop-
kinsattempted toenlistintheArmy,Nav yand MarineCorps,b utw as
keptoutb yd efectiv ev ision-a" d etached retina" inhis,lefteye .He
finallyj oined theRed Crossand w assenttoNew Orleanstod irectthe
GulfDiv ision
.Later,hew aspromoted tod irectallRed Crossactiv ities
intheSoutheasternStatesw ithhead q uartersinAtlanta .In 19 21 he
returned toNew Yorktolookforaj ob and immed iatelygotonethrough
hisold friend and b enefactor,JohnKingsb ury,w hohad serv ed w iththe
Red CrossinFranceand then,afterthew ar,had b ecomeDirectorof
theMilb ankFund and thereforeahighlyinfluentialfigureinthew hole
field oforganiz ed charitiesinNew ,York .Thisfund had b eenestab lished
b yAlb ertG .Milb ank,ChairmanoftheBord en( Milk)Company,
largelyforthepromotionofpub lichealth,and Kingsb urysetupanew
d iv isionw ithinthestructureofA.I.C.P.forthestud yofhealthcond i-
tionsthroughoutNew Yorkand theformulationofaprogramtomeet
them.Hopkinsw asoffered and q uicklyaccepted thepostofDirectorof
thisd iv isionatasalaryof $8 ,0 0 o . Heremained thereforthreeyears .
Therew asacertainamount.offrictionb etw eenhimand BaileyB.
Burritt,Directorof A.I
., b ecausetheHealthDiv isionw assepa-
ratelyfinanced b ytheMilb ankFund and Hopkinsfeltheshould b e
ind epend entofBurritt'sauthority .Hew asonew hoalw ayschafed at
ord inary,ord erlyad ministrativ eproced ure,w hichisoneofthereasons
w hyhefound himselfsocompletelyathomeintheunconv entional
Roosev eltschemeofthings .Muchofhisex perienceatthistimegav e
himv aluab lepreparationforprob lemsw hichhew astoencounterlater
inWashington,fortherew asad istinctresemb lanceb etw eenthepoint
ofv iew ofthew elfarew orkerand thatofthev oluntaryciv ilserv ant.
Bothw erecommerciallyunselfish,animated b ypub licspiritand recon-
ciled tocareersuncomplicated b ytheprofitmotiv e.Itw asthereforenot
unnaturalthatb othshould striv etob epaid offinthecurrencyofin-
creased authorityand opportunitytoex tend influence
.Thisamb ition
led tocompetitiv estrugglew hichinev itab lyprod uced end lessj urisd ic-
tionald isputes-and theb ord erw arfareb etw eenonecharityorganiz a-
tionand anotherw asmuchthesameasb etw eenonegov ernmentagency
and another.
Hopkinsd iscov ered thatthestud yofhealthcond itionsinNew York
Citypresented manyd ifficulties-ind eed ,thatitw asv irtuallyimpossib le
tod oitthoroughlyonapurelylocalb asis
w astoogreat
.Onecould selectanygiv ensectionforastud yofcase
historiesinanygiv end iseaseov eraperiod oftenyears,
only tofind
thatinthistimemostoftheold caseshad mov ed aw aytopartsunknow n
and entirelynew caseshad mov ed in
.Thisled Hopkinstothinkin
largerand largerterms ;
heb egantofeelcramped b ythecitylimitsor
19 4 1

ev enb ytheStatelines
.Moreov er,heb egannow ,und ertheinfluenceof
hisw isefriend ,Kingsb ury,toex tend hisintellectualex plorationsinto
thehumanitiesinw hichhehad prev iouslytakenlittleinterest
BothKingsb uryand hisw ifehad apaternalfeelingforHopkinsand
thiscontinued throughtheyearsand throughv ariousd rasticchanges
inHopkins'professionaland d omesticlifeuntilMrs
.Kingsb uryv en-
tured theopiniontoherhusb and ," Mayb eyou'd hav emoreinfluence
w ithHarryifyoustopped treatinghimasyourow nb oy ." ButKings-
b ury,ev enw henheb ecameHopkins'assistantin W.P.A., could not
d etachtheNew DealAd ministratorfromthecallow youthw hohad
comeintohisofficelookingforaj ob
.Duringthe 19 20 's, theHopkins
familyliv ed firstinYonkersand theninScarb oroughb ecausetheKings-
b urysliv ed there-and Kingsb urygotthemacottagenearhisow n
summerplaceinWood stock,New York
.Kingsb uryhad alargelib rary,
fromw hichHopkinsb orrow ed constantly,thew hileheattempted to
b uild upalib raryofhisow n ; onpayd ayhew ould gooutand spend a
largepartofhisread ycashonb ooksb eforestartingtow orryab outthe
pressingneed sofhisgrow ingfamily
.Hed ev eloped apassionforthe
lifeand w orksofJohnKeats,and w ould read Keatsand Shelleyand
AmyLow ellonthecommutertrainsw henallhisneighb orsw ereen-
grossed inthefinancialorsportspages
.Healsod ev eloped animprob ab le
interestinfungi-thisb eingahob b yofKingsb ury's-and thetw omen
w ould spend hoursonw eekend strampingthroughw ood sw iththeir
child reninq uestofspecimens,Kingsb uryex plainingtoHopkins," This
oneised ib le-b utthatoneisd ead lypoison
." Hopkinsalsoplayed some
tennisand b rid ge,atb othofw hichhew asfairlygood ,and somegolf,
atw hichhew asnot
.Whenhetookfriend sorrelativ estod innerinNew
Yorkhegenerallyw enttosomeex pensiv espeakeasyand theyw ere
appalled attheinsouciancew ithw hichhew ould paya
$20 checkand
$5 intipsasifhecould afford it
In 19 24 hemov ed fromA
.I.C.P.totheEx ecutiv eDirectorshipof
theNew YorkTub erculosisAssociationw iththeagreementand en-
d orsementofBurrittand Kingsb ury
.ThePresid entand mov ingspirit
oftheAssociationw asDr
.JamesAlex and erMiller,thed istinguished
specialistw hohad longb eenanationallead erinthefightagainsttub er-
.Acareful,conserv ativ eman,Millerhad managed tomakethe
Associationsolv entand solid ,w ithasurplusofsome
$9 0 ,0 0 0 . Hopkins
managed toconv ertthissurplusev entuallyintoad eficitofsome
$4 0 ,0 0 0 ,
b utattheend ofhissev enyearsw iththeAssociation,w henheentered
gov ernmentserv ice,theDirectorsad opted astatementinclud ingthe
follow ingex pressionsofappreciation
Duringtheperiod ofhisd irectorship,theAssociationhasgrow n
enormously .Largelyd uetoMr
.Hopkins'efforts,theNew York
HeartCommitteew asamalgamated w iththeTub erculosisAssocia-
tionand thenameoftheAssociationw aschanged fromtheNew York
Tub erculosisAssociationtotheNew YorkTub erculosisand Health
Association. . . .
Itw asd uetoMr .Hopkins'lead ershipthattheCommitteeonSocial
Hygienew asorganiz ed and itsw orkinaugurated
.Thew orkofthe
HeartCommitteew asenlarged ,strengthened and placed upona
sound ,scientificb asis .
Acloseraffiliationw asarranged w iththeChild ren'sWelfareFed -
erationw hichb ecameacommitteeoftheAssociationonallchild ren's
activ ities
Throughhisefforts,contactsw eremad ew iththeDepartmentof
Healthand Hospitalsand hisinfluenceb roughtab outmanyminor
changesinpolicyand improv ementsinmethod sofw orkinb othof
thesed epartments . . . .
TheBoard ofDirectorsoftheNew YorkTub erculosisand Health
Associationhereb yrecord sitsd eepappreciationoftheserv icesren-
d ered b yMr.Hopkinsand ex tend stohimanex pressionofitsmost
heartygratitud eforallthathehasd oneforthed ev elopmentofthe
Association,and heartfeltgood w ishesforthesuccessfuluseofthe
fed eralrelieffund sand ofthegreatopportunitiesforlead ershipin
pub licreliefthroughouttheUnited States .
Hopkinshad greatlyincreased theAssociation'sincome-principally
throughthestimulationofthesaleofChristmasseals-and hehad also
greatlyincreased itsex pend itures .Dr
.Millerand hissuccessorasPresi-
d ent,Dr .LinsleyR
.Williams,w ereunab letod ev otemuchattentionto
theb usinessaffairsoftheAssociationand Hopkinsw asconseq uently
prettymuchonhisow n,w hichw asw hatheliked tob e .Hehad v isions
ofanex pand ingempire-hisintenseamb ition,b eitsaid ,b einganimated
notb ygreed b utb yincurab lerestlessnessand d iscontentment
.Tub ercu-
losisw ould hav eseemed ab igenoughev ilforanyoneorganiz ationto
tackle,b utHopkinspushed theAssociationintonew field suntilithad
ab sorb ed theNew YorkHeartAssociation,theChild ren'sWelfare
Fed eration,theAssociated Out-PatientClinicand theAllied Dental
Clinic.Hew roteanarticleforthe Nation's
Health ( January, 1 9 2
ind icatingthathecontemplated ad d ingcancercontroland mentalhy-
gienetothealread ynumerousactiv ities
.Hew anted tod ropthew ord
" Tub erculosis" fromtheAssociationnameand hav eittheNew York-
and ev enultimatelytheNational-HealthAssociation
.Oned ay,early
in19 28 ,Dr
.Hav enEmerson,formerHealthCommissionerofNew
York,told Hopkinsofhav ingw atched mend rillingintherocksund er
4 2nd Streetand said thatitw asoutrageousthatthesemenw ereb eing
sub j ected tothed read occupationald iseaseknow nassilicosis
feltthatsomethingshould b ed oneab outit,soHopkinsimmed iately
promised tod osomething .AfterEmersonhad lefthim-,hew enttoDr
Jacob A.Gold b erg,SecretaryoftheTub erculosisAssociation,and

asked ," Say,Jack-w hatissilicosis? " Hopkinsthereuponorganiz ed and
financed anex haustiv estud yofthesub j ectund eracommitteew hich
includ ed Dr .Emerson,Gold b ergand himself.Thereportofthiscom-
mittee,pub lished inFeb ruary,19 29 ,resulted inthed ev elopmentofan
elab oratev acuumd ev icetoeliminatesilicad ustand thisw asused suc-
cessfullyinthew orkonRockefellerCenterand otherex cav ationsand
tunnelinginNew YorkCitysincethen .Thatistypicalofthew ayin
w hichHopkinsw orked : hew asnev erd eterred fromattackingaprob lem
b ytotalignoranceofitforhehad anex ceptionalab ilitytocurehisow n
ignoranceand gaina" piercingund erstand ing."
Dr .Gold b erghasd escrib ed Hopkinsatthistime : " Youcould mark
himd ow nasanulceroustype .Hew asintense,seemingtob einaper-
petualnerv ousferment-achainsmokerand b lackcoffeed rinker .He
w asalw ayscarelessinhisappearance
.Mostofthetimehew ould show
upintheofficelookingasthoughhehad spenttheprev iousnightsleep-
.Hew ould w earthesameshirtthreeorfourd aysata
time .Hemanaged toshav ealmostev eryd ay-usuallyattheoffice.
Whileotherex ecutiv esthathav eruntheAssociationw ould say,` We
hav ethisamountofmoneyav ailab le-and thisishow muchw ecan
spend ,'Hopkins,b ycontrast,nev erw orried ab outthecostuntillater,
w hentheAssociationhad b eencommitted totheprogram,and thenhe
w ould scramb learound togetthemoney ."
Dr.Millerhassaid ," Harrynev erhad thefaintestconceptionofthe
v alueofmoney
.Butthen,thatistrueofmostsocialw orkersIhav e
know n
.Althoughinnosensepersonallyd ishonest,theycanb ecome
unscrupulousinthehand lingoffund s
.Theycanconv incethemselv es
thatthew orthyend j ustified themeans ."
When,afterthe19 29 crash,Herb ertHoov er's" chickeninev erypot"
w asreplaced b yad ischargeslipinev eryotherpayenv elope,Hopkins'
friend ,WilliamMathew softhe
., w asstrugglingw iththeprob -
lemofw orkless,homelessmenand managed toob tain $75 ,0 0 0 fromthe
Harv eyGib sonEmergencyCommitteeoftheAmericanRed Cross .
Mathew s,w hohad b eenoneofthepioneersinw orkreliefb ackin19 14 ,
conferred w ithHopkinsastotheb estw ayofad ministeringthisfund .
Togetherw ithDr
.Gold b erg,theymad eanarrangementw iththePark
Commissionw hereb yj ob sforunemployed menw ould b eprov id ed on
parkproj ects,thecostofthelab ortob ed efrayed fromMathew s'fund
Hopkinsand Dr .and Mrs .Gold b ergw enttoA
.C.P.ev eryev ening
aftertheird ay'sw orkattheTub erculosisAssociationand remained
untillateatnightassigningj ob stoapplicantsforw orkrelief .There
w asnoplanningb oard fortheseassignments .Noq uestionsw ereasked -
noinv estigationsw erecond ucted -thereb eingnostafftocond uctthem.
Anymanw hoasked foraj ob w asgiv enone ." Someofthemen,"
Gold herahasrecalled ," cameintouscarryingv iolincases .Wecould
seetheyw erenotfitforheav yw ork,sotheyw ereassigned toproj ects
likesaw ingoffd ead limb sfromtrees,grad ingw alks,leafraking,etc."
Leafraking ! Thattermappeared manymoretimesinHopkins'career .
Ofcourse,the$75 ,oooranoutq uicklyb utmorefund sw ereraised
and thev olunteeremploymentb ureaucontinued itshand -to-mouthop-
erationsuntiltheGov ernorofNew York,FranklinD
.Roosev elt,pro-
claimed unemploymentrelieftob eaStateresponsib ility .Hopkinsw as
harshlycriticiz ed fortheseirregularactiv itiesb ytheestab lished w elfare
agencies,w hichclaimed itw as" unprofessionalcond uct" tohand out
w orkticketsw ithoutthoroughinv estigationintotheb ackground ofeach
applicant,hisow norhisfamily'sfinancialresourcesand prob ab lyhis
religiousaffiliations ." Harrytold theagenciestogotohell," said
Gold b erg.
HopkinsmetRoosev eltforthefirsttimed uringthecampaignof19 28 ,
w henAlfred E.Smithw asrunningforPresid entand Roosev eltfor
Gov ernor .Hopkinsw asimpressed b ythismeeting,forhehad b een
thrilled toheartherad iob road castofRoosev elt's" HappyWarrior"
nominatingspeechforSmith,w how asthenHopkins'id oland for
w homhecampaigned ard ently ; b utforRoosev eltthemeetingw ith
thesallow socialw orkerw asj ustanotherhand shake .How ev er,Hopkins
w ascomingmoreand moretotheattentionofv ariousofRoosev elt's
friend sand ofMrs .Roosev eltw how asperpetuallyinterested inw elfare
w ork .
Toanyonew ithamysticalsense-and Hopkins,b einghismother's
son,had onew hichw asstrongthoughw ellconcealed -thatelectionof
19 28 ev entuallygav ecauseforw ond erment.Itcould hav eb eenattrib -
uted toallmannerofoccultforces-tothehand ofGod ortothegrim
resolutionoffateortotheinex orab leturningofthetid esofhistory-
ormerelytoaninex plicab lefreakofluck .Buttherew assomething
strangeand tremend ousinthefactthat,althoughAlSmithw asb ad ly
b eatenthroughoutthenationand losthisow nNew Yorkb yov era
hund red thousand v otes,Roosev eltcarried theStateb ytheex ceed ingly
narrow marginoftw enty-fiv ethousand .Therew erethusarelativ e
hand fulofpeopleinNew Yorkw hofailed tov otethestraightRepub li-
canticketand thereb yenab led FranklinRoosev elttob ecomealogical
cand id ateforthePresid encyin19 32and torunagainin19 36 ,19 4 0 and
19 4 4 and toreceiv emorethanahund red millionv otesfromtheAmeri-
canpeopleintimesofterrib lecrisis .
Roosev elt'snarrow v ictoryin19 28 w asd uepartlytopub licrecogni-
tionofhischeerfulgallantryinfightingafearfuld iseaseand partlyto
thefactthatthepeopleofNew Yorkapprov ed ofAlSmith'spolicies
asGov ernorev enthoughtheyd id notw ishtopromotetheauthorof
.Therew asnoreasonw hatsoev ertointerpret
theresultsasanyind icationthattheformid ab lepow eroftheRepub lican

partyw asthreatened
.TheRepub licanshad ruled thecountryfornearly
sev entyyearsex ceptfortw ointerlud esprod uced b yschismsw ithintheir
ow nranksand itseemed asHerb ertHoov erassumed thePresid ency
thatnothinglessthaneconomiccalamityoranotherWorld Warcould
upsetthepoliticalb alanceofpow erw ithintheforeseeab lefuture
Americanpeoplecould seenottheslightestsignofeithermisfortune
comingtopass,b utlessthanayearhad passed afterHoov er'strium-
phantelectionb eforetheb oomb urst,startingthecreationoftheenor-
mousv acuumw hichw astob efilled b ytheNew Deal
.OnAugust28 ,
19 31,Gov ernorRoosev eltmad easpeechtoanex traord inarysessionof
theStateLegislaturew hichsound ed thev erykeynoteofhissocial
WhatistheState? Itisthed ulyconstituted representativ eofan
organiz ed societyofhumanb eings,created b ythemfortheirmutual
protectionand w ell-b eing
." TheState" or" TheGov ernment" isb ut
themachinerythroughw hichsuchmutualaid and protectionare
achiev ed
.Thecav emanfoughtforex istenceunaid ed orev enopposed
b yhisfellow man,b uttod aythehumb lestcitiz enofourStatestand s
protected b yallthepow erand
.strengthofhisGov ernment
.OurGov -
ernmentisnotthemasterb utthecreatureofthepeople
.Thed utyof
theStatetow ard thecitiz ensisthed utyoftheserv anttoitsmaster
Thepeoplehav ecreated it;
thepeople,b ycommonconsent,permitits
continualex istence .
Oneofthesed utiesoftheStateisthatofcaringforthoseofits
citiz ensw hofind themselv esthev ictimsofsuchad v ersecircumstance
makesthemunab letoob tainev enthenecessitiesformereex istence
w ithouttheaid ofothers
.Thatresponsib ilityisrecogniz ed b yev ery
civ iliz ed Nation . . . .
Totheseunfortunatecitiz ensaid mustb eex tend ed b yGov ernment,
notasamatterofcharity,b utasamatterofsociald uty
Id onotknow w hatw astheimmed iateeffectofthesew ord sonHop-
.Hemayhav eb eeninclined tod ismissthemasmerepiousrhetoric
.But,syllab leforsyllab le,theyw eretoformthed irec-
tiv ew hichguid ed himthroughoutthenex tsev enyearsofex traord inary
ad v enture .
Asafirstmeansofimplementingthesew ord s,Roosev eltsetupthe
TemporaryEmergencyReliefAd ministrationinNew YorkState .The
head linew ritersreferred tothisasT
.E.R.A.and thereb yd esignated
thefirstofthemany" alphab eticalagencies
." Furthermore,informing
thisnew agency,Roosev eltw assettingapreced entforhimselfw hich
hew astofollow againand againintheNew Dealand intheorganiz a-
tionofthenationalefforttomeetthed emand softheSecond World
: hew asd ev isinganew agencytomeetanew prob lemratherthan
relyingontheestab lished d epartmentorb ureau
( in thiscase,theState
DepartmentofPub licWelfare) .
.E.R.A., Roosev eltnamed hisold friend ,Jesse
Isad orStraus,presid entofthegreatd epartmentstore,R .H .Macy&
Co.,and ad istinguished philanthropist
.Strausd id notw antthej ob b ut
yield ed toRoosev elt'sincomparab leb land ishments
; theGov ernorof
New Yorkw asalread yamasterintheartofgiv ingarad icald ev elop-
mentaconserv ativ emantle,notforthepurposeoffoolingthepub lic
b utrathertopersuad ehimselfthatitw asaperfectlyreasonab leand
mod erateev olution
.'Straus,b eingagood b usinessman,w anted firstto
find ashrew d ,competentex ecutiv etob ehisd eputy
counselofv ariouslead ersinw elfarew ork,suchasHenryBruere,John
Kingsb uryand HomerFolks
.Theyallagreed thatWilliamHod son,of
theRussellSageFound ation,w astheb estpossib leselectionand Straus
offered himthej ob
.Hod sonconsulted friend sand colleaguesand they
ad v ised himtorefusetheinv itation ;
manyofthemb eliev ed thatRoose-
v elt'srad icalex perimentinformingthisnew agencyw asd oomed to
failureand thatHod ~ onw ould inev itab lytaketheb lameforit
.Hod son
thereuponsuggested HarryHopkinsforthej ob and telephoned himto
askifhew ould takeit
.Hopkinsinstantlyreplied ," Iw ould lov eit." So
hestarted tow orkonthelargestand mostd aringprogramfortherelief
ofunemploymentthathad ev erb eenund ertakenb yanyStateinthe
.Afterayear,Strausresigned and recommend ed thathisefficient
and energeticd eputyb eappointed Chairman,tow hichtheGov ernor
read ilyagreed
.Duringhistw oyears'serv icew ith T.E
.R.A., Hopkins
d id hisw orkinthemannerthatRoosev eltliked b est:
imaginativ ely,
speed ily,and giv ingtheleastpossib leamountoftroub letoRoosev elt
.Ofcourse,inthelatterpartof19 31and in19 32,Roosev eltw as
lookingb eyond New YorkStatetow ard hisow ncand id acyfortheDem-
ocraticnominationand heand hisprincipalpoliticalad v isors,Louis
MacHenryHow e,JamesA
.Farleyand FrankWalker,w ould hav e
b eenconcerned w ithHopkinsonlyifhehad b eenaconspicuousfailure
and ,therefore,anemb arrassment.
Inthoseuncertaind ays,w henthereturnofprosperityw asalw ays
" j ustaround thecorner," itw asd ifficultforanyonetoacceptthefact
thattheemergencyw ould ev entuallyb emeasured intermsofyears
; sow henHopkinsund ertooktheT.E.R
tinued hispositionw iththeTub erculosisand HealthAssociation,b ut
ashew orked heb ecamelesssurethatthenew j ob w asmerely" tem-
." OnSeptemb er8 ,19 32,hew rotetohisb rother,Lew is
ForthepasteightortenmonthsIhav eb eentryingtocarrytw o
ob s
.TheGov ernorasked metob eChairmanoftheTemporary
EmergencyReliefAd ministrationofNew YorkState,w hichhasal-

read yad ministered afund ofab out $30 ,ooo,ooo, and ifab ond issue
ofanother $30 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 passesonelectiond ay,w ew illhav ethatto
ad ministertoo .Wehav enow takencareofab outamillionpeoplein
.Thesituationhereisv eryb ad ,and inspiteofthe" polly-
annish" announcementsthatarecomingoutfromWashington,and
theriseinthestockmarket,thereisastead yd eclineinemployment
and anincreaseinthenumb erofthoseinneed ofrelief .
Ihav enoconfid encew hatev erthattheR .F
FinanceCorporation,estab lished b yPresid entHerb ertHoov er]w ill
helpthesituationmuchthisw inter,otherthanb olsteruptherailroad s
and theb anks .Iv erynaturallyamearnestlyhopingthatRoosev elt
w illb eelected
.Ithinkhew ould makeafarb etterpresid entthan
Hoov er-chieflyb ecauseheisnotafraid ofanew id ea,and further-
more,isnotid entified w ithb igb usinessafterthefashionof" the
greatengineer." Iamconv inced thatRoosev eltisnotonlyfearless,
b utav eryab leex ecutiv e .Allthisb usinessab outhishealthisutter
nonsense .Ihav eseenagreatd ealofhimw ithinthe pastfew months,
and theamountofw orkthathecancarryoutisperfectlyamaz ing .
Tob esure,Id on'tb eliev ethattheelectionofeitherofthemisgoing
toincreaseourrespectiv esalariesab it.
Thatlaststatementprov ed tob eav erygood guessb yHopkinsinso
farashehimselfw asconcerned .Althoughhisman,Roosev elt,w as
elected ,and Hopkinsw asthuscatapulted intoapositionofw orld
portance,hew orked forthenex ttw elv eyearsatasalarylow erthan
thatof 19 32 and hew asb rokew henhed ied
; b uthew asempow ered to
spend inthoseyearsofgov ernmentserv icenineb illiond ollarsforthe
reliefofothersand tod irecttheex pend itureofmanyb illionsmorein
Lend Lease .ThisreferenceinthislettertoRoosev elt'shealthw asd ue
tothew hisperingcampaignw hichhad started ev enin19 28 totheeffect
thatRoosev elt'sd iseasew asnotinfantileparalysisb utsyphilis
AmonthafterRoosev elt'selectiontothePresid ency,and w ithrepeal
ofprohib itionapparentlyassured ,Hopkinsw roteagaintohisb rother
Itseemstomethattheprincipalid eaofthepub licad ministrators
forthepastsev eralyearshasb eentoprotectb igb usinessand Ihav e
agreatd ealmoreconfid enceinthe" hoipolloi" thataregoinginto
officeonthefourthofMarchthanIev erhad inAnd yMellonand his
crow d ofhighb ind ers
.FormypartIw ould ab olishthew holefed eral
[prohib ition]enforcementcrow d asw ellasthelocalcrow d ,atonce,
and notspend anotherd imeonenforcingalaw thatcould notb een-
forced fortentimesthatamountofmoney .The" nob le'ex periment"
isonthew ayout.
Iagreew ithyouentirelyonthefactthatw earenotgoingtoget
nearlyasmuchfromtax esassomeofthepeoplethink
d onotb eliev einahightax onliq uor,especiallyonb eer,and asyouin-
d icate,iftheytrytotax ittoomuchtheb ootleggersand thoseofus
w hohav elearned how tomakehomemad eginw illkeeprightatit

Ilooktoseesomeprettyd rasticchangesmad einWashingtonafter
.Certainlytheunemploymentsituationisnob et-
ter,and Icanseenoearthlyreasonforanupturnofb usiness
goingtob eq uiteimpossib le,inmyj ud gment,togetthesetenor
tw elv emillionmenb acktow orkunlessw ehav eauniv ersalfiv e-d ay
w eek,and Iamnottoosureab outitev enthen
.Ihav enosympathy
w iththe" sharethew ork" mov ementthattheb igb oysaread v ocating
Nord oIapprov eofthesalestax orothermethod softax ationw hich
hav eahoriz ontalb aseb ecausethatmeansthatthepeoplepaythe
tax esw hocanleastafford it
.Iw ould shov etheincometax es,inherit-
ance,gifttax es,etc
.,higherthantheynow are
b ed oneb eforew eb egintotax ev eryw orkingmanforeachpairof
shoesthatheb uys . . . .
WhenHopkinsw rotethat,hew asb urstingw ithamb itiontoex pand
.Hecould notb eartogob acktotheTub erculosis
and HealthAssociationw herehehad alread yachiev ed ab outasmuch
ad v ancementashecould hopefor
.Hisex periencew ithT.E.R.A.in
New YorkStatehad giv enhimatasteofand forpub liclifeand the
serv iceofmillionsofpeopleand theex pend itureofmillionsofd ollars
Ib eliev ethatw henJesseStrausw asappointed Amb assad ortoFrance
heasked Hopkinstogoalongw ithhimasanaid e,b utHopkinscould
notseehimselfintheroleofa" cookiepusher" ( atermthatb othhe
and Roosev eltlaterlov ed tousetod escrib eroutined iplomats)
w anted togetintotheRoosev eltAd ministration
w eeksfollow ingtheInauguration,w hentheNew Dealw asb urstingout
inaseriesofb ew ild eringpyrotechnicalex plosions,hefeltthathemust
b epartofthishistoricshow
.Whenhefinallygotthecall,morethantw o
monthsafterRoosev elttookoffice,heansw ered itw ithalacrityand
w ith no q ualms .
WhenHopkinsw enttoWashingtonhehad b rokensharplyw ithhis
prev iouslife
.Hehad b eend iv orced b yhisfirstw ifeand had married
.Hew asatod d sw ithhisold friend s,ev enJohnKingsb ury,and
w asv irtuallyestranged fromhissister,Ad ahAime,tow homhehad
b eenparticularlycloseinchild hood and w how astheonlymemb erof
hisfamilyliv ingintheEast.Therecanb elittled oub tthatHopkinsw as
ashamed ofhimselfand thereforeonthed efensiv e,forthehomethat
heb rokeupinv olv ed notonlyhisw ifeb uttheirthreesmallsonsw ith
nomeansofsupportotherthanhisow nuncertainearnings
.Ihav ehad
nointention-ofgoingintotheintricaciesofHopkins'priv ate,emotional
; foronething,theyappearfartoocomplicated formetocopew ith,
and foranotherthinghehad shakenthemoutofhissystemb ythetime
hew ascalled upontotakehisplaceintheSecond World War .Butthe
d ev elopmentsofthesefinalyearsb eforeheentered pub licserv icecannot
b eglossed ov erw ithoutaw ord
.Ashisold Professor,Dr .Ed w ard A
Steiner,said inalettertome,theyw ere" nottohiscred it."
9 4 1

Ab out 19 27-I
d onotknow theex actd ate-hefellinlov ew ith
Barb araDuncan,anattractiv e,w ell-ed ucated ,w ell-b red girlw hohad
comefromhernativ eMichigantoNew Yorkfortrainingasanurseat
Bellev ueHospital .Shed ev eloped tub ercularsymptomsand w asgiv en
employmentasasecretaryattheTub erculosisAssociation
.Und erthe
unhappycircumstances,itcould hard lyb ecalled aglamorouslyromantic
attachmentw hichHopkinshad formed and b othheand MissDuncan
attempted toresistit
.Hew enttoapsychoanalyst,Dr .Fraiikw ood E
Williams,and started toread v oluminouslyinthew orksofFreud ,Jung
and Ad ler .Bothhissister,Mrs
.Aime,and JohnKingsb uryhav etold
methat,ifhehad b eensecretiv eab outhimselfinhisyouth,hew asthe
ex actoppositenow : hetalked end lesslyand b oringlytohisclosefriend s
ab outhispersonaltroub les,tryingtorationaliz ehisb ehav iorthrough
ex ercisesinself-psychoanalysis .Inthesummerof19 28 ,und ertheb enev -
olentinfluenceofDr .Williams,Hopkinsw asfirmlyresolv ed thathis
homemustnotb ed estroyed and heand MissDuncanagreed thattheir
romancemustd ev elopnofurther
.Kingsb uryw asgoingtoEuropew ith
agrouptostud ysocialcond itionsand suggested thatHopkinsgoalong
asamemb erofthed elegationw hichw asfinanced b ytheMilb ankFund
Thisseemed agood opportunityforHopkinstogetaw ayfromalld o-
mesticprob lemsand pullhimselftogetherand heaccord inglyw enton
hisfirsttriptoFranceand England .Iamind eb ted toMrs
Hopkinsforprov id ingmew ithex cerptsfromlettersthathew roteto
herd uringthatsummerw henhew asstrugglingmiserab lytorenew the
b ond softheirmarried life .Hew rotefromtheRoyalPalaceHotelin
Ihav ej usthad themostex altingex perience .Hav inghad areal
Englishd innerw ithad elightfulphysicianinhisv eryEnglishhome,
hetookmeforatrampov erHampstead Heath-agreatparkonthe
outskirtsofLond on .Wew ered iscussingtheMentalDeficiencyAct
ofEngland orsomeeq uallyupliftingsub j ectw henw esud d enlycame
onalov elypathuponw hichw asav eryimpersonalsignw hichread
" KeatsWalk ."
Uponenq uiryitd ev eloped thathereKeatsw alked w ithFanny
Braw neand ov erthisv eryHampstead Heath-Keatshad roamed
forhoursand itisj ustthesamenow asthen .Imaginemyfeeling!
Thed octornotknow ingKeatscould notsharemyenthusiasmb utthat
d id n'trestrainmineforatlastIw asinKeats'countryand ev ery
memoryoftheyearsIhav eknow nhim( -how longhasitb een-I
thinkitd atesfromthetimeIw asillinNew Hospitalab outeight
yearsago-)sw elled tomyimaginationand Isaw hisred head and
proud stepsaunteringthruthegreen .Itw asasthoIcould reachout
and touchhim-q uitelikead ream.Butitw asnot-fornottw ob locks
aw ayw ashishomew hereheliv ed forthreeyearsand w herethe
Od e
totheNightingale w asw rittenand otherheav enlymusic.Isaw his
v eryhouse-and hisgard enthathesatinforhoursonend
statepropertyand ofcoursew asclosed b utitisopend uringthed ay
and Iamgoingb acksoon
. . . .
Iknow youw illb eglad tohearofthisand aretheonlyonethatw ill
fullyund erstand w hatthisincid entistome
.Thatitw asq uiteacci-
d entalmad eitallthemored elightful
.Ifairlyw alkonairand w anted
youtoknow . . . .
Follow ingaremorecommentsthathew roteatthattimefromLond on
w hichhew astov isitagainintheterroroftheBlitz
Tod ayIspentintheheartofLond on'sEastEnd -thepoorest
d ockw orkers-miserab lepov erty-d irtyrottenslumsb utmagnificent
schoolhealthw orkund erthed irectionofskilled and d ev oted d octors
and nurses .Itw asthrilling
.Weareamateursind eed ! Iamspend ing
thew eeklookingattheschoolw ork,thead ministrationofw hichis
complicated and ex tensiv e .
Nex tw eektheT
.B.healthserv iceand thenthed istricthealth
serv ice-itw ould takesix monthsinstead ofw eekstod othisad e-
q uately
.Iamb eingroyallyreceiv ed and thew holew orksisopen
Ihad d innerw ithHarryDaylastnightathisv erysportyclub -
aheav enlysw imfirst
.Wesatonthev erand atalkingov erasteinof
b eerand cigarettesand thenforalongw alkthroughHyd e
w hered oz ensofspeakersharangued
afriend lyand intelligent
crow d . . . .
Ihav ehad notimeforsight-seeingand amgoingtoputthatoff
untilIlearnthetow nb etter
. . . .
Lond onisb ig,old and stolid and nostrangercanev ergetonthe
insid e. . . .
Ihad aninterestingd ayatEastStepneyapov ertyb orough
Lond on
.Isaw thefinestschoolw orkIev erhopetosee-w as
tained atlunchb ythesocialw orkersoftheneighb orhood =v isited
somemiserab letenementsand arriv ed herethoroughlytired out. . . .
Ifinished theschoolw orkFrid ayand amb eginningontheT
.Sight-seeingisnofunaloneand apartfromv isiting
allofKeats'hauntsIshallnotd omuch . . . .
Iamgoingtotrytod osomew ritingthissummerand w illletyou
know laterhow thatw orksout
.Myj ob isaltogetherinterestingand
Iamseeingand learningmanythings . . . .
Itramped allov erLond on
tod ay. . . .
Hopkinsatthistimew rotefragmentsofpoetry
Seethesnow -seeit
Comeonand see
Whitelikemyb ed .
Thesnow isaw hiteb ed
Craw lund eritscleancov ersand sleep .

Bestsleepund erthestillw hitesnow
Thangotosleepstand ingup .
Seethesnow -seeit
Comeonand see
Whitelikemyb ed .
Hereisanother,anex pressionofhispersistentlov eforhishomeland
and ofhisattitud etow ard themoneychangers
Inlongstraightrow sthecorn'slaid b yinhotJuned ays .
Almosttend erlyIow a'scornisnourished
Itsyellow mellow nessissoft-itsyellow nessisprecious
Iow atend sitscornlikeaslickb ankerw atchesatickertape
Toow et-tood ry-earlyfrost-latefrost.
AnIow afarmeralw ayslooksinthed ark .
Thepsychoanalyticex perimentd id notw ork .Hopkinsnev ersuc-
z eed ed inreassemb lingthepiecesofhisshattered marriage .Tw oyears
laterhisw ifed iv orced himand heand Barb araDuncanw eremarried .
Oned aughter,Diana,w asb ornin19 32ofthismarriage,w hichw asa
b riefb utv eryhappyone .Thesecond Mrs .Hopkinsd ied ofcancer
in19 37 .
DOLFHITLERb ecameChancellorofGermanyonJanuary30 ,
9 33,and someAmericansw hohad read
MeinKampf and had
takenseriouslyitsimplicationsw erefrightened astheytried topeer
intotheheav ilycloud ed future .Itw asnotthattherew asanyimmed i-
ateprospectofw ar,forGermanystillseemed tob eprostratemilitarily
and faithintheprecautionarymeasuresoftheTreatyofVersailles
.Farmoreimmed iateasathreatw asthed eeplyd isq uiet-
ingsuspicionthat it could happenhere . Thed ragon'steethofFascism
and Communismw ereb eingsow nthroughoutthew orld and inthat
w interofclosingb anks,of" scrip" currencyand interminab leb read -
lines,itw asalltoopossib letofearthatthesed estructiv eseed smight
takerootinAmericansoil .Thepeopleasaw holeknew v erylittleofthe
truecharacterofthenew manw how ascomingintotheWhiteHouse
onMarch4 .Whatifheshould prov etob eanotherManonHorseb ack?
Und ertheex istingcircumstances,itmightnothav eb eend ifficultfor
himtoseiz ed ictatorialpow er .
TheAmericanpeoplew ereliterallystarv ed forlead ership .Herb ert
Hoov er,w hohad appeared topossessex ceptionalq ualificationsforthe
Presid ency,had failed lamentab lyund erthestressofmaj oremergency .
Althoughhehad b eenhonored as" aGreatHumanitarian," hisper-
formanceasPresid entofad epressed nationw asthatofonew how as
patheticallyineptintheex erciseofcommon,humanund erstand ing .He
firstcold lyassured thepeoplethatthed epressionw asanillusionw hich
itw astheirpatrioticd utytoignore ; then,w heneconomiccollapseoc-
curred inEurope,heangrilyd enounced thed epressionassomething
un-Americanfromw hichw eshould isolateand insulateourselv es ; and ,
finally,hetruculentlyscold ed thepeopleforb lamingthed epressionon
hisow nRepub licanpartyw hichhad takenfullcred itforthepreced ing
b oom.( Asanob leRepub lican,Dw ightMorrow ,said atthetime," Those
1 9 4 1

w hotookcred itfortherainfallshould notcomplainw hentheyare
b lamed forthed rought." )Theunfortunatefactw asthatHerb ertHoov er
w as,inaw ord -and thew ord w asapplied b ythatsageHoosier,George
Ad e-" clammy
." Und erhishaplessAd ministrationtheprestigeofthe
Presid ency,had d ropped toanalarminglylow lev eland sohad popular
faithinourw holeconstitutionalsystemand particularlyinw hatHoov er
himselfstoutlymaintained tob e" theAmericanw ayoflife ." Thetemper
ofthepeoplew asfearfuland b itterlyresentfuland ominous .
Thereisapersistenttheoryheld b ythosew hopratemoststead ily
ab out" theAmericanw ayoflife" thattheav erageAmericanisarugged
ind iv id ualisttow homthew holeconceptionof" lead ership" issomething
foreignand d istasteful-and thistheoryw ould certainlyseemtob ein
accord w ithournationaltrad itionoflaw lessnessand d isrespectfor
authority.Butitisnotentirelyconsistentw iththefacts .WeAmericans
areinv eterateherow orshipers,toafargreaterex tentthanarethe
BritishortheFrench.Weliketopersonaliz eourloyalties,ourcauses .
Inourpoliticalorb usinessorlab ororganiz ations,w earecomforted b y
theknow led gethatatthetopisaBigBossw homw earefreetorev ere
ortohateand uponw homw ecand epend forq uickd ecisionsw henthe
goinggetstough .ThesameistrueofourBoyScouttroopsand our
criminalgangs .Itismostconspicuouslytrueofourpassionforcom-
petitiv esport.Wearetrained fromchild hood tolooktothecoachfor
authorityinemergencies.Themastermind ingcoachw hocansend in
sub stitutesw ithinstructionsw henev erhefeelslikeit-orev ensend in
anentirelynew team-isapurelyAmerican
, phenomenon
footb alltheteammustplaythroughthegamew iththesameelev enmen
w ithw hichitstarted and w ithnoord ersfromthesid elines ; ifamanis
inj ured and forced toleav ethefield theteamgoesonplayingw ithonly
w hereasinAmericansportthemastermind isconsid ered asanessential
intherelentlesspursuitofsuperiority .
Intimesofpeaceand prosperity,itistrue,w hentheAmericanpeople
feeltheyared oingallrightforthemselv es,theyd onotgiv emuch
thoughttothecharacterofthemanintheWhiteHouse ; theyaresatis-
fied tohav eaPresid entw homerely" fitsintothepictureframe," as
WarrenG.Hard ingd id ,and w how illev entuallylooksufficientlyaustere
onthelessfreq uentlyused postagestamps .Butw henad v ersitysetsin
and prob lemsb ecometoob igforind iv id ualsolutionthentheav erage
citiz enb ecomesconsciousoftheold " teamspirit" and hestartslooking
anx iouslytow ard thesid elinesforinstructionsfromthecoach .Thatis
w henthePresid entoftheUnited Statesmuststepoutofthepicture
frameand asserthimselfasav ital,humanneed .Americanfaithinthe
recurrenceofthatmiracleisunlimited .Thereisd eeprooted inour
consciousnesstheconv ictionthatagreatPresid entw illappear" w hen-
4 0

ev erw ereallyneed him," and intheyears
19 29 -33
theq uestionw as
b eingasked ,constantlyand apprehensiv ely," Whereishe
now ? "
Nocosmicd ramatistcould possib lyd ev iseab etterentranceforanew
Presid ent-oranew Dictator,oranew Messiah-thanthataccord ed to
FranklinDelanoRoosev elt
.Theeternallyironicfactisthatthe stage
w assogloriouslysetforhimnotb yhisow nfriend sand supporters,w ho
w erethenrelativ elyob scurepeople,b utb ythosew how eretob ecome
hisb itterestenemies
.Herb ertHoov erw as,intheparlanceofv aud ev ille,
" agood acttofollow
." Roosev eltrod einonaw heelchairinstead ofa
w hitehorse,b uttherollofd rumsand thethund erclapsw hichattend ed
himw erepositiv elyWagnerianasemotionalstimuliand alsoasugly
w arningsofw hatmighthappentoAmericand emocracyifthe
Presid entshould turnouttopossessanyoftheq ualitiesofaHitleror
ev enofaHueyLong
.Thepeopled id nothav etow aitlongforhimto
rev ealhimself,clearlyand irrev ocab ly
w astremend ous,sow asthemannerofhisrisingtoit
w how astoparticipateinthepreparationofsomanyofthePresid ent's
laterspeeches,w roteafterRoosev elt'sd eath," FormyselfIthinkhis
firstinauguralad d ressw astheb estspeechheev ermad e
." Itw ascer-
tainlymostthoroughlyrepresentativ eofthecharacterofthemanhim-
.Insomethingund ertw othousand w ord shemad eitab und antly
clearthattherew asgoingtob eactiononaw id ev arietyoffronts-
" and actionnow ."
.Themostfamousphrase,and d eserv ed lyso,w as" the
onlythingw ehav etofearisfearitself" -and onethinksofthesew ord s
ov erand ov eragainw henconsid eringRoosev elt'scareerand thew ell-
.Buttherew ereothermemorab lew ord sw hich
gained w eightastheygained implementation
Themoneychangershav efled fromtheirhighseatsinthetemple
ofourciv iliz ation
.Wemaynow restorethattempletotheancient
. . . .
Therew illb eanend tospeculationw ithotherpeople'smoney . . . .
Ifav orasapracticalpolicytheputtingoffirstthingsfirst. . . .
Ourgreatestprimarytaskistoputpeopletow ork
. . . .
Inev eryd arkhourofournationallifealead ershipoffrankness
and v igorhasmetw iththatund erstand ingand supportofthepeople
themselv esw hichisessentialtov ictory
. . . .
Wed onotd istrustthefutureofessentiald emocracy
oftheUnited Stateshav enotfailed
. . . .
Intheev entthatthenationalemergencyisstillcritical
. . Ishall
-b road Ex ecutiv epow ertow ageaw aragainsttheemergency,as
greatasthepow erthatw ould b egiv entomeifw ew ereinfactin-
v ad ed b yaforeign foe. . . .
Inthefield ofw orld policyIw ould d ed icatethisnationtothepolicy
ofthegood neighb or . . . .

4 1
OurConstitutionissosimpleand practicalthatitispossib lealw ays
tomeetex traord inaryneed sb ychangesinemphasisand arrangement
w ithoutlossofessentialform. . . .
Thelastq uotationinparticularb ecamerecogniz ed -and w ithacute
paininthemoreconserv ativ eand ,later,isolationistcircles-asex pres-
siv eofthev erycoreofRoosev elt'spoliticald octrine .NoPresid entsince
Lincolnhad tested theelasticityoftheConstitutionashed id -b utId o
notthinkthatRoosev elteq ualed Lincoln'srecord incircumv entingthe
Constitutionnord id heev erd eclare,asd id WilliamH .Sew ard ," There
isahigherlaw thantheConstitutionw hichregulatesourauthority ."
Roosev eltnev ersaw theneed forahighertemporallaw
; heconsid ered
theConstitutionb road enoughtocov erallforeseeab leev entualities
Therecord sofRoosev elt'searlycareerind icateaninclinationtow ard
Jeffersonianprinciplesofd emocraticd ecentraliz ationofpow erasop-
posed totheHamiltonianconceptofconcentrationofpow erintheFed -
eralGov ernment-and especiallytoJohnJay'sd ictumthat," This
countryshould b egov erned b ythepeoplew hoow nit." Roosev elt's
ex perienceinelectiv eofficehad allb eenontheStatelev el .AsPresid ent,
hesometimesirritated hisprogressiv ead v isersb yhistend encytoresolv e
ev eryprob lemintermsoftheex ceptionalcircumstancesofHyd ePark
Tow nshipinthev enerab leHud sonRiv erValley,and yethehad b een
profound lyinfluenced b ytheb elligerentprogressiv ismofhiscousin,
Theod oreRoosev elt.WhileF.D .R.w asserv inghisfirsttermintheNew
YorkStateSenate,ini9 io,T.R.gav easpeechatOsaw atomie,Kansas
-theb attleground ofJohnBrow n .Inthecrow d thatd ayw eremany
Civ ilWarv eteransand T.R.ad d ressed himselfprimarilytothem,em-
phasiz ingtheirstruggletoestab lishhumanrightsab ov epropertyrights
and tod osow ithintheframew orkofaunited nation .Becausethat
Osaw atomiespeechw asofsuchgreatimportanceinshapingthestruc-
tureoftheNew Deal,Iv enturetoq uotefromitatsomelength
Istand forthesq uared eal .Butw henIsayIamforthesq uared eal,
ImeannotmerelythatIstand forfairplayund erthepresentrulesof
thegame,b utthatIstand forhav ingthoseruleschanged soasto
w orkforamoresub stantialeq ualityofopportunityand ofrew ard
foreq uallygood serv ice . . . .
Thetrueconserv ativ eistheonew hoinsiststhatpropertyshallb e
theserv antand notthemasterofthecommonw ealth ; w hoinsists
thatthecreatureofman'smakingshallb etheserv antand notthe
masterofthemanw homad eit.Thecitiz ensoftheUnited States
musteffectiv elycontrolthemightycommercialforcesw hichtheyhav e
themselv escalled intob eing
. . . .
Theab senceofeffectiv eState,and especiallynational,restraint
uponunfairmoneygettinghastend ed tocreateasmallclassofenor-
mouslyw ealthyand economicallypow erfulmenw hosechiefob j ect
4 2
istohold and increasetheirpow er .Theprimeneed istochangethe
cond itionsw hichenab lethesementoaccumulatepow erw hichitis
notforthegeneralw elfarethattheyshould hold orex ercise .We
grud genomanafortunew hichrepresentshisow npow erand sagacity
w henex ercised w ithentireregard tothew elfareofhisfellow s
. . . .
Wegrud genomanafortuneinciv illifeifitishonorab lyob tained
and w ellused .Itisnotenoughthatitshould hav eb eengained w ithout
d oingd amagetothecountry .Weshould permitittob egained only
solongasthegainingrepresentsb enefitstothecommunity .This,I
know ,impliesapolicyoffarmoreactiv egov ernmentinterferencew ith
socialand economiccond itionsinthiscountrythanw ehav eyethad ,
b utIthinkw ehav egottofacethefactthatsuchanincreaseingov -
ernmentalcontrolisnow necessary . . . .
TheNationalGov ernmentb elongstothew holeAmericanpeople,
and w herethew holeAmericanpeopleareinterested ,thatinterestcan
b eguard ed onlyb ytheNationalGov ernment.Theb ettermentw hich
w eseekmustb eaccomplished ,Ib eliev e,mainlythroughtheNational
Gov ernment.TheAmericanpeoplearerightind emand ingthatNew
Nationalismw ithoutw hichw ecannotcopew ithnew prob lems .The
New Nationalismputsnationalneed b eforesectionalorpersonalad -
v antage.Itisimpatientoftheutterconfusionthatresultsfromlocal
stillmoreimpatientoftheimpotencew hichspringsfromov er-d iv ision
ofgov ernmentalpow ers,theimpotencew hichmakesitpossib lefor
localselfishnessorlegalcunning,hired b yw ealthyspecialinterest,
tob ringnationalactiv itiestoad ead lock .ThisNew Nationalismre-
gard stheex ecutiv epow erasthestew ard ofthepub licw elfare .It
d emand softhej ud iciarythatitshallb einterested primarilyinhuman
w elfareratherthaninproperty,j ustasitd emand sthattherepresenta-
tiv eb od yshallrepresentallthepeopleratherthananyoneclassor
sectionofthepeople .Ib eliev einshapingtheend sofgov ernmentto
protectpropertyasw ellashumanw elfare .Normally,and inthelong
run,theend sarethesame ; b utw henev erthealternativ emustb e
faced ,Iamformenand notforproperty,asyouw ereintheCiv ilWar
Theod oreRoosev eltd ied b eforehisfifthcousinachiev ed anyd egree
ofprominenceonthenationalsceneand ,d uringtheyearsoftheNew
Deal,the" OysterBayRoosev elts" w ereimplacab lyopposed totheHyd e
Park" mav erick ." How ev er,thew ord softhegreatand gallantT.R.and
theactionsofF.D.R.w erecuriouslyinharmonyw ithoneanother .
Eightd aysafterthespectacularinaugurationoftheNew Deal-eight
d aysd uringw hichalltheb anksinthecountryhad b eenclosed -Franklin
Roosev eltgav ehisfirstFiresid eChat." Ithasb eenw ond erfultometo
catchthenoteofconfid encefromallov erthecountry . . . .Confid enceand
couragearetheessentialsofsuccessincarryingoutourplan . . . To-
getherw ecannotfail ." Herew asthefirstreald emonstrationofRoose-
v elt'ssuperb ab ilitytousethefirstpersonpluraland b ringthepeople
rightintotheWhiteHousew ithhim
.Thev eryfactofa" chat" w asin
1 9 4 1

4 3
itselfsurprisingand immeasurab lystimulating
: trad itionally,w hena
Presid entspoketothepeople,itw asan" Ad d ress," w hichmightb e
intend ed asanex hortation,oranelab orateapologia,orasternlecture .
ButRoosev eltspokesimply,casually,asafriend orrelativ e,w hohad
figured outaw aytoprev entforeclosureofthemortgage,and thoseof
usw hoheard thatspeechw illnev erforgetthesurgeofconfid encethat
hisb uoyantspiritev oked .Itw asallthemorethrillingafterthehair-
shirted carpingand petulancethatw ehad b eenhearingfromHoov er .
Duringthethreed aysfollow ingthisFiresid eChat,4 ,5 0 7nationalb anks
and 5 6 7statememb erb anksreopened and Roosev eltsentaMessageto
theCongressaskingformod ificationoftheVolstead Acttopermitthe
manufactureand saleofb eer,thusw ritingtheb eginningoftheend of
fourteenyearsofprohib itionand attend antcrime .Thislong-ov erd ue
reformw astossed inasasortofb onusand itw ashailed j oyfullyb y
thepeopleasproofthatthenew Ad ministrationw asnotonlyprogres-
siv eand d ynamicb utalsoessentiallycheerful .Happyd aysw erehere
! Morethanelev enyearslater,w henRoosev eltw asrunningfor
Presid entforthefourthtime,heev oked roarsofagreementfroma
crow d inFenw ayParkinBostonw henhesaid
Ifthereev erw asatimeinw hichthespiritualstrengthofourpeople
w asputtothetest,thattimew asintheterrib led epressionof19 29
to19 33.
Thenourpeoplemighthav eturned toalienid eologies-likecom-
But-ourd emocraticfaithw astoosturd y.WhattheAmerican
peopled emand ed in
19 33
w asnotlessd emocracy-b utmored emoc-
racy-and thatisw hattheygot.
Thed ifferenceofopinion( tousethemild estofex pressions)that
ex isted b etw eenRoosev eltand hisd omesticfoesw asb ased onthed efini-
tionofthatw ord " d emocracy." Ind eed ,theycametohatethew ord so
v ehementlythattheyclaimed ithad nev erb eenapplied toourformof
gov ernmentuntilWood row Wilsond reamed itup .Theysaid thatour
gov ernment,asconceiv ed and estab lished b ytheFound ingFathers,w as
arepub lic, nota d emocracy, b uttheyw erereluctanttoex plainj ust
w hatw asthed ifference ; theyd id n'td are .( Itmightb enoted inthis
connectionthat,inhisfirstMessagetoCongress,morethantw oyears
b eforehespokeatGettysb urg,Ab rahamLincolnd efined theUnited
Statesas" aconstitutionalrepub lic
or d emocracy-agov ernmentofthe
peopleb ythesamepeople ." )ThepoliticalattacksonRoosev eltand
theNew Dealalw aysresolv ed themselv esintoaplea," Letusgetb ack
totheConstitution," b utRoosev eltsuccessfullypersuad ed amaj orityof
thepeoplethatw hatthisreallymeantw as," Letusgetb acktospecial
priv ilege," or" Letusgetb ackintothetemplefromw hichThatMan
ej ected us ."
4 4

In TheRoosev eltRev olution,
the authoritativ eErnestK.Lind ley
cov ered thefirstsix monthsoftheNew Dealand itisinterestingto
notethatinthisb ookheconsid ered Hopkinsasw orthnomorethana
paragraphofmentionasamongthosepresentinWashington .Thecon-
spicuousfiguresofthatfirstyearoftheNew Dealw ereRaymond
Moley,Rex ford G .Tugw elland Ad olfBerle,ofthe" BrainsTrust" ;
LouisMacHenryHow e,Roosev elt'sclosefriend and mostintimate
ad v iser ; 'HenryMorgenthau,Jr
.,anotherold friend w how asatfirst
Gov ernoroftheFarmCred itAd ministration ; Lew isDouglas,Director
oftheBud get; HughS.Johnson,ofN.R.A. ; and ,intheCab inet,Wil-
liamH .Wood in,Harold L .Ickes,FrancesPerkinsand HenryWallace .
How ev er,w ellw ithinRoosev elt'sfirstterm,Hopkinscametob ere-
gard ed astheChiefApostleoftheNew Dealand themostcord ially
hated b yitsenemies .Ithinkitmayfairlyb esaid thatheearned this
d istinction .Hew asb roughtintothegov ernmenton May 22
w hen
sev enty-nineofRoosev elt's" FirstHund red Days" had alread ypassed
Hew asmad eFed eralEmergencyReliefAd ministratorand itismy
und erstand ingthat,asinthecaseofhisAlb anyappointmenttw oyears
prev iously,hew asnotthefirstchoiceforthej ob .Roosev eltlaterw rote
Thetaskhefaced w asstupend ous .Littlew asknow natWashing-
tonab outtheefficiencyofthev ariousStateand localrelieforganiz a-
tionsthroughoutthecountry .Therew erenosuchorganiz ationsin
someoftheStatesand inmanyofthecounties .Therew erenoim-
med iatelyav ailab lereliab lestatisticseitherab outreliefneed sorrelief
ex pend itures .
Actionhad tob eimmed iate
.Itw asimmed iate
.Thed ayafterhe
[Hopkins]tookofficehetelegraphed hisfirstcommunicationtothe
Gov ernorsoftherespectiv eStates ; and b eforenightfallhehad mad e
grantsofmoneytoColorad o,Illinois,Iow a,Michigan,Mississippi,
Ohioand Tex as .
Fromthev eryb eginningtw oimportantpointsofpolicyw ereev i-
d ent: ( I) Theoperationsoftheprogram,asid efromcertainb asic
stand ard sand stipulations,w eretob ed ecentraliz ed and localinchar-
acter,and ( 2) w ork,ratherthanid lenessonad ole,w aspreferred .
Theoriginalgrantofmoney,inaccord ancew iththestatute,w as
ontheb asisof$i .ooofFed eralfund sforev ery $3.0 0 oflocal,State
and Fed eralfund sspentd uringthepreced ingq uarteryear .The
statutealsoprov id ed thatpartofthefund could b eused instatesw ith-
outsuchmatchingw heretheamountav ailab leb ymatchingw ould b e
insufficienttomeettheneed sforreliefinanyState .
Thed ayafterHopkinsw enttow orkfortheFed eralGov ernmentthe
WashingtonPostprinted asomew hatmournfulhead line," MoneyFlies,"
and stated ," Thehalf-b illiond ollarsford irectreliefofStatesw on't
lastamonthifHarryL .Hopkins,new reliefad ministrator,maintains

4 5
thepacehesetyesterd ayind isb ursingmorethan$5 ,ooo,oood uringhis
firsttw ohoursinoffice ."
Hopkinsw asoff .Hesatd ow nathisd eskand started flashingout
telegramsev enb eforethemenhad arriv ed tomov ethed eskoutofthe
hallw ayintohisoffice .Hesaid ," I'mnotgoingtolastsix monthshere,
soI'lld oasIplease." Hehad b eentold b yRoosev eltthathisj ob w as
togetrelieftopeoplew honeed ed itand tohav enotruckw ithpoliticians .
Ofcourse,theReliefProgramoffered morej uicyplumsinthew ayof
politicalpatronagethanhad ev erb eforeb eenknow ninpeacetime .But
atfirst,w hileHopkinsw asstillanamateurinWashingtonpolitics,he
w asscornfulofthesesord id consid erations .Intheearlyd aysoftheNew
Dealhew orked ,ashew astow orklaterinw ar,w ithregard fornothing
b uttheinterestsoftheAmericanpeopleand ofFranklinD .Roosev elt,
w hichtohimmeantoneand thesamething .Inappointingmenand
w omentopositionsofauthorityhew asconcerned onlyw ithconsid er-
ationoftheircompetenceand z eal ; hed id notgiv ead amnw hether
theyw ereMethod ists,Baptists,CatholicsorJew s-and hew asspecifi-
callyinstructed b ythePresid entnev erto" askw hetherapersonneed ing
reliefisaRepub lican,Democrat,Socialistoranythingelse ." Hopkins
said ," Id on'tlikeitw henpeoplefinaglearound theb ackd oor
." Hethus
soonfound himselfinv olv ed incontrov ersyw ithJamesA.Farleyand
w ithv ariousmemb ersofCongressand StateGov ernorsw hosed uty
itw astolookoutfortheinterestsof" d eserv ingDemocrats ." Confid ent
ofRoosev elt'ssupport,Hopkinscontinued foralongtimeontheprin-
ciplethatreliefw asentirelynonpartisan .Forthatw asaperiod of
soaringaltruism.Inthefirst,triumphantsw eepoftheNew Deal,itw as
possib letoafford thelux uryofb eingnonpolitical-b utHopkinslearned
b etter( orperhapsoneshould say" w orse" )lateronw hentheopposi-
tionb egantorecov eritsd issipated strengthand electionsb ecameless
easytow in .
Therehad b eenapretenseofareliefprogramb eforeF .E.R.A.Con-
fronted w iththeob v ious,ov erw helmingneed forsomekind ofFed eral
Gov ernmentaid fortheid leand hungryv ictimsofeconomiccollapse,
Hoov erhad found himselfinoneofthemanyimpossib led ilemmasthat
b esethim: the" d ole" systemw asnaturallyrepugnanttohim,b ut
theonlylogicalalternativ eappeared tob eaformofgov ernmentsub sid y
ofpub licw orksproj ectsw hichsmacked ofStateSocialism.Sincethe
d olew astrad itional,and had b eensincetheinstitutionofthe" Old
PoorLaw " inthereignofQueenEliz ab eth,Hoov erfav ored that,how -
ev ermuchhehated it,simplyb ecauseitw astrad itional .Thus,American
citiz ensw hohad sorecentlyb eengiv entheassuranceoftw ocarsin
ev erygarageand achickeninev erypotw erenow giv enb asicallythe
samekind oftreatmentthatw asaccord ed topaupersinsix teenth-century
England .Hoov ertried tomeetthisprob lem,ashetried tomeetsomany
4 6

others,b yappointingcommissionsto" stud y" it.( Hisprincipalcom-
mitteew ashead ed b yWalterS .Gifford ,oftheAmericanTelephoneand
TelegraphCompany .)Butthis - w asanemergencyw hichd emand ed
actionfirstand stud ylater.Finally,inthesummerof19 32,w ithan
electionimminent,Hoov ersupported legislationw hichprov id ed for
loans,atthreepercentinterest,of $20 0 millionsfromtheReconstruction
FinanceCorporationtothev ariousStatesforrelief-theFed eralGov -
ernmenttoassumeresponsib ilityfortheb ookkeepingb utnotforthe
actualapplicationofthesefund s .Thisw asknow nastheEmergency
Reliefand ConstructionActand itprov id ed anuclearregionalorgani-
z ationw hichHopkinstookov erw henhestarted w ork ; b utitprov id ed
himw ithnofund s,forthemoneyhad runoutw henhestarted tominister
totheneed sofsomesev enteenmillionpeoplew how eresub sistingon
.Und erthenew d ispensationof F.E.R.A., thefund s
appropriated -$5 0 0 millions-w ereintheformofoutrightgrantsrather
thanloanstotheStates ; b ut,otherw ise,therew asnoessentiald eparture
fromtheprincipleofthed ole .Themainb urd enofcostand ofad min-
istrationw asstillonthelocalauthoritiestow homtheneed ymustgo,
capinhand ,toacceptcharity .Thisispreciselyw hereHopkinscame
inand prod uced aprofound changeinthew holeconceptionofgov ern-
mentalresponsib ilityand function .
Hopkinsinherited fromtheprev iousrelieforganiz ationsev eralkey
menw how erepred ominantlysocialw orkers,likehimself,trained to
thinkthatlocalprob lemsshould b ehand led w ithfund slocallyraised
and ad ministered b ylocaland ,tothegreatestpossib leex tent, priv ate
charitab leorganiz ations
.Inotherw ord s,thefactofFed eralreliefmust
b ed isguised
in allpossib lew ays .Thisw asind eferencetothecreed that
priv ateenterprisemustalw aysprov id ethecureforanyand ev eryill
and thatanyonew hosaid thatitmightb eunab letod osow asa
d eclared enemyoftheAmericanw ayoflife .ButRoosev eltasGov ernor
had proclaimed theprincipleofStateresponsib ilityto" thehumb lest
citiz en" and Hopkinstookthosew ord sliterally .Thisw asthegreat
tenetoftheNew Deal,w hichb ecamethenumb eroneiteminRoosev elt's
EconomicBillofRightsofelev enyearslater : therighttow ork .
OneofthefirstmenthatHopkinsb roughtintoF .E.R.A
.toad v ise
himw asFrankBane,w homhehad metintheFirstWorld Warw hen
hew asw orkingfortheRed CrossintheSouth .In19 31Banehad
organiz ed theAmericanPub licWelfareAssociationand had consulted
w ithRoosev eltand Hopkinsonreliefprob lemsinNew YorkState
and w iththeGifford Committeeontheprob lemsinthenationasaw hole .
TheGifford Committeew asinterested ind ev elopingtheactiv itiesof
priv atecharitab leagencies,w hereasBaneinsisted thatalllev elsof
gov ernment-Fed eral,Stateand community-should b ed irectlyand
openlyresponsib leforthead ministrationofpub licrelief.TheBane
1 9 4 1

4 7
sloganw as," Pub licfund sex pend ed b ypub licagencies," w hichd id not
find fav orund ertheHoov erAd ministrationb utw asrightinlinew ith
Hopkins'thinking .

Baneagreed tow orkforHopkinsw ithoutpayonatemporaryb asis .
Henamed ,ashispermanentsuccessor,anothersocialw orker,Aub rey
Williams,ofAlab ama,w homHopkinsd id notthenknow b utw how as
tob ecomeoneofhisab lest,mostloyaland mostsmeared aid esinthe .
w holeNew Dealachiev ement
.Williamshad b eenafield representativ e
oftheAmericanPub licWelfareAssociation,ofw hichBanew asDirec-
.Thelong-scorned socialw orkersw erecomingintotheirow nas
figuresofnationalimportance .
OnJunei7-threeand ahalfw eeksafterhehad entered gov ernment
serv ice-Hopkinsw enttoDetroittospeakattheNationalConferenceof
.Baneand Williamsw erealread ytherew henhearriv ed .
Theyb egged himtotakeastand infav orofd irectFed eralrelief-as
opposed toreliefad ministered throughpriv ateagencies .Hew asingrav e
d oub tastothepracticab ilityofthis
; b utitw asthew ayhisnatural
inclinationstend ed ,and hefollow ed hisnaturalinclinations
outinfav orofreliefasanob ligationoftheFed eralGov ernmenttothe
citiz ens-w ithoutanypretenseofpriv ateagenciesinterposed -thereb y
puttingintoeffecttheRoosev eltd octrinethatthisreliefw asasacred
rightratherthananactofcharity,anob ligationofgov ernmenttoits
citiz ensratherthanamereemergencyallev iationofsufferingintheform
.Hopkins'Detroitspeechw asgiv enscantnoticeinthepress
and suchattentionasitreceiv ed ov erlooked utterlyitsmainimport
Id onotknow ifRoosev elthimselforanyofhisthenad v isersknew at
thetimej ustw hatitw asthatHopkinshad said
; b uttheprinciplehad
b eenstated ,and itw asfollow ed religiouslyinthead ministrationof
F.E.R.A., and Roosev eltsupported itand cametoad mireHopkinsand
togiv ehimmoreand moreopportunitiestoex erthisinfluenceinthe
Therew eretw ootherimportantprinciplesthatHopkinsad v ocated
successfullyintheb eginningsofF
.E.R.A.Onew asthepaymentof
cashinstead ofgroceryslipstothoseonreliefrolls
sid ered rev olutionaryand w ild lyimpracticalb ythemoreconserv ativ e
socialw orkers,w astheex tensionofrelieftotheprov isionnotonlyof
food b utofclothing,shelterand med icalcaretotheneed y
cipleshav econtinued and hav eaffected thew holeconceptofsocial
w ork,particularlyinthefield ofpub lichealth
Itmayb einterposed atthispointthatIhav eoftenw ond ered ab out
theaccuracyofthefamousstatement,attrib uted toThomasCorcoran,
that" w eplanned itthatw ay ." Roosev elthad contemplated ,inb road
outline,theTennesseeValleypow erproj ect,theAgriculturalAd j ust-
ment,Conserv ationand Pub licWorksprograms,theSecuritiesand
4 8
Ex changesControland somethingliketheNationalInd ustrialRecov ery
Act,morethanayearb eforeheb ecamePresid ent,and theyw ereall
q uicklyputintoeffect.Butthev astReliefProgram,asHopkinsad min-
istered it,certainlyd id notw orkoutaccord ingtoanyplan .Itw asa
seriesofremarkab leimprov isationsimpelled b ythecharacterofthe
myriad prob lemsthatw ered iscov ered fromd aytod ay .Byenforced
researchand agreatd ealofshrew d guessw orkHopkinsfound outw hat
w asreallygoingoninthecountryasaw holeand b roughtthefactshome
toRoosev elt.Hepersonaliz ed theprob lemsforthePresid ent,and also
mostimportantlyforMrs .Roosev eltw homad etheconcernsofhelpless
ind iv id ualsherow n .AnyappraisaloftheRoosev eltAd ministration
mustb eginw iththefactthatthegov ernmentinWashingtoninthe
yearsfollow ing
19 33
achiev ed anincomparab leknow led geoftheaspira-
tionsand thefearsand theneed softheAmericanpeopleand that
know led geb ecameofsupremeimportancew henthosesamepeoplehad
tob ecalled uponforunpreced ented effortsinthew agingoftheSecond
World War
.Theresearchneed ed togettheprogramstarted w as
multiplied b ythev arious,ex tensiv eresearchproj ectscarried outsub -
seq uentlyund ertheprogramitself .
AlthoughHopkinsw illnev erb eceleb rated asa" sound money" man
orachampionofthesanctityofthetax payer'sd ollar,hew asex ception-
allyeconomymind ed inonerespect
: heliked torunhisow norganiz ation
onthesmallestpossib leb ud get
.Unlikemostb ureaucrats,hehated to
hav ealotofciv ilserv antsaround
.Whathew anted and w hatheob tained
w asasmallstaffcomposed ofpeopleofsuchpassionatez ealthatthey
w ould w orkkillinghours
.Attheend ofthefirstyearHopkins'relief
organiz ationhad hand led onitsrollsthev italprob lemsofsomesev enteen
millionpeopleand had spentab illionand ahalfd ollars,b uttheor-
ganiz ationitselfconsisted ofonly
121 peoplew ithatotalpayrollofonly
$22,0 0 0 amonth
.Toanyoneinanyw ayfamiliarw iththenormalw ork-
ingsofgov ernment,thelow nessofthosefiguresisw ellnighincred ib le .
ButHopkinsmanaged toob tainpeopletow homasix ty-hourw orkw eek
w ould b eaholid ay
.Hopkins'ow nsalaryw asund er$8 ,oooasopposed
to $15 ,ooo hehad earned b eforeenteringthegov ernment
.Heand his
w ifeand b ab yliv ed foraconsid erab letimeon
$25 0 amonth,there-
maind erofhissalarygoingforthesupportofthethreesonsb yhisfirst
marriage .Hetold areporter," I'd liketob eab letoforgetthis
$5 0 0 ,-
0 0 0 ,0 0 0
b usinesslongenoughtomakesomemoneyforclothesand
.Hopkinsisyellingforaw intercoat.Id on'tb lameher
Hopkinsw asb ynomeansfrugalinhispersonaltastes .Hew ould like
tohav ehad agreatd ealofmoneyand ifhehad hew ould hav espentit
lav ishly,b uthenev erd id hav eittotheend ofhisd ays .Now and then
hew ould supplementhisincomeb yw ritingamagaz inearticleand
w ould feelv eryflushforaw hile .In
19 4 4 ,
inhislastyearingov ernment

4 9
serv ice,hissalaryw asraised to$15 ,0 0 0
; soheend ed upj ustw herehe
had b eenb eforehestarted .
Inhisperpetualhaste,Hopkinsw ascontemptuousofb ureaucratic
proced ure
.WheninspectorsfromtheBureauoftheBud getcamearound
askingtoseethe" organiz ationalchart" theyw eretold therew asn'tany,
asHopkinsw ould notpermitonetob emad e .Hesaid ," Id on'tw ant
anyb od yaround heretow asteanytimed raw ingb ox es
.You'llalw ays
find thatthepersonw hod rew thecharthashisow nnameinthemid d le
b ox ." Hew asalsocontemptuousoftheformality-or" d ignity" -w ith
w hichahighgov ernmentofficialfeelsitnecessarytosurround himself
thew ainscoted officew iththickcarpetsand tw oflagsonstand ard sb e-
hind thehugemahoganyd esk .Hopkinsow ned nomorningcoatand
striped pants,b utherented thisd iplomaticuniformforthev isitof
KingGeorgeVIand QueenEliz ab ethtoWashingtoninlateryears
w henhew asamemb eroftheCab inet.
Therew asakind offanaticisminHopkins'd riv etow ard theob j ec-
tiv esthathehad toalargeex tentestab lished forhimself
w ascommunicated tohisco-w orkersw hofeltthattheyw erefighting
aholyw aragainstw ant.But-lestthisanalogyb emisinterpreted -it
isnecessarytoad d thatnofighterinthisw arw hoserv ed und erHop-
kinsw ascompelled tow earthesackclothuniformofasceticism
therigid Method ismofHopkins'earlytraining,manyofhismostim-
portantstaffconferencesd uringtheNew Dealyearsw ereheld inauto-
mob ilesenroutetoorreturningfromtheMaryland racetracksaround
Washington .Theorganiz ationw hichb ecameW
.P.A.w asfirstoutlined
b yHopkinsinasuiteinthearistocraticHotelSt
.RegisinNew York .
AsJosephE.Dav ieshassaid ofHopkins," Hehad thepurityofSt
FrancisofAssisicomb ined w iththesharpshrew d nessofaracetrack
Hopkins,inhisfirstfew monthsinoffice,sloughed offsomeofthe
trad ition-b ound socialw orkersw homhehad inherited fromtheprev ious,
halfhearted regimeand b roughtinmenand w omenw hoagreed w ithhis
ow nunrestricted conceptionofgov ernmentalresponsib ilities
.Thisd id
notmeanthathisstaffw ascomposed ofyesmenand yesw omen ; they
w ereonthecontrarytirelessand inv eterateneed lers,ashew as,w ho
w ould nothesitatetoprod and goad anyone,includ ingtheirow nb oss,
w hoseemed atanyinstanttoshow signsofslackingonthej ob
alw aysthriv ed inanatmosphereofprotest
Yearslater,w henIcametoknow Hopkins,Iw asgiv enad emonstra-
tionoftheex asperatingw ayinw hichhestimulated thosew how orked
w ithhim.Itw asthesummerofI9 4 oand Iw asengaged infrenz ied w ork
fortheWilliamAllenWhiteCommitteetopromoteaid toBritain
encountered HopkinsonaSund ayonLongIsland w henhew asstaying
atMrs .Harv eyCushing'shouseand hed rew measid etoask," Whatare
5 0
youw armongersuptonow ? " Iassumed hew asusingthatnounface-
tiously,and Itold himthatw ew erew orkingonacampaigntotransfer
fiftyAmericanov er-aged estroyerstotheBritishNav y .
Hopkinsassumed alookofd isgust." Youmeanyou'regoingtocome
rightoutpub liclyand askthePresid enttogiv efiftyofourfightingships
toab elligerent? "
Isaid thesed estroyersw ereofnoimmed iateusetous,theyw ere
lyingid leand had b eenforyears .
" But," heasked ," d on'tyourealiz ethatapub licd emand likethat
w ould b eab igemb arrassmenttothePresid ent-especiallynow ,w ith
anelectioncomingup? "
Isaid thatsomeofusw erew orkingpriv atelytogetWend ellWillkie's
agreementtotheproposalw hichw asinlinew ithRoosev elt'sw hole
Hopkinssnapped atme," Whatd o you know ab outthePresid ent's
policy? Don'tyouknow thatthiscountryisneutral? "
Iw asgettingangrierb ytheminuteand alsod epressed atthethought
thatthisman,soclosetoRoosev elt,w asrev ealinghimselfasanarrow -
mind ed isolationist
.Iex pressed thisthought.
" Thew holecountry'sisolationist," said Hopkins," ex ceptforafew
pro-Britishfanaticslikeyou .How d oyouimaginethatthePresid ent
could possib lyj ustifyhimselfw iththepeopleifhegav eupfiftyofour
d estroyers ? "
Iansw ered thisw ithatirad eofmuchmorev ehemenceand eloq uence
.Isaid thatthepeoplew erealotlessneutral
thanHopkinsseemed tothink-thattheyhated Naz ism-thatifRoose-
v eltw ould speaktothemw ithhisow ngreatcourageand claritythey
w ould supporthim,etc.,etc.WhenIhad conclud ed myimpassioned
oration,Hopkinsgrinned and said ," Allrightthen-w hyd oyouw aste
yourb reathshoutingallthisat
me? Whyd on'tyougetoutand say
thesethingstothepeople? " Hehad j ustw anted tofind outifIhad any
realargumentstosupportmyemotionalb ias .
Thed irectresultofthisinterv iew w asthatHopkinsb roughtmeinto
theWhiteHousetow orkw ithSamRosenmanand himselfinhelping
Presid entRoosev elttopreparehisnex tspeech .
Hopkinspulled thatsamegoad ingtacticonagreatmanypeopleto
find outj usthow sound theirargumentsw ereand how sincerew astheir
ad v ocacyofthem
; b utonecould nev erb eentirelysureifitw ereatrick
forsometimesthisw ashismethod oftellinganov erz ealousproponent
topiped ow n .
InOctob er,19 33,Hopkinsknew thatw ithw intercomingonthe
unemploymentprob lemw asb ound tob ecomemored esperateand he
b eliev ed thattheonlyd ecentsolutionw asahugew orkprogram
.Aub rey
Williamsand otheraid esw ereurginghimtoproposesuchaprogram

5 1
tothePresid entb utHopkinsfeltsurethatitw ould b eturned d ow n .
Heknew thatRoosev eltw ould b eund erfireonthisnotonlyfromthe
conserv ativ es : organiz ed lab orw asstronglyopposed toaprogramof
gov ernmentally" mad e" j ob s .Thisw asoneofthetimesw henHopkins
. w asimpatientand irascib lew iththosew how ereprod d inghimtod o
thev erythingthathehimselfmostw anted tod o
OnSaturd ay,Octob er28 ,Hopkinsarriv ed inChicagotohav elunch
w ithRob ertHutchins,Presid entoftheUniv ersityofChicago,and to
attend afootb allgame .Hew asmetatthestationb yFrankBaneand
LouisBrow nlow ,DirectorofthePub licAd ministrationClearingHouse,
w hohad b eentalkingtoWilliamsab outthew orkprogramand w ho
now j oined inhammeringatHopkinstob ringittothePresid ent
men,ex pertsinpub licad ministration,w ereab letogiv eHopkinsan
ab und anceoffactsand figuresand hew asab letoab sorb them ; b uthe
stilld id notknow how toselltheid eatoRoosev eltw how asconcerned
ab outtheattitud eoforganiz ed lab or
.Hew entfromChicagotoKansas
Citytomakeaspeech ;
amongthepeoplew ithw homheconferred on
reliefprob lemsw hiletherew astheFed eralUnemploymentDirector
forMissouri,Jud geHarryS.Truman
.Williamsreached Hopkinsin
KansasCityb ytelephonetoannouncethathehad j ustseenDr .John
R.CommonsinMad ison,Wisconsin .Dr.Commonsw asoneofthe
country'sgreatestauthoritiesonallmatterspertainingtolab orand ,
w henheheard w hatw asonWilliams'mind ,hed ugintohisv oluminous
filesand cameupw ithaclippingd atingfrom18 9 8 ofastatementb y
SamuelGompersinw hichthefatherofAmericanorganiz ed lab or
ad v ocated preciselytheformofw orkprogramthensuggested .Gompers
called it" TheDayLab orPlan ." Thatw asj ustw hatHopkinshad hoped
for .Itw ashisconv enientconv ictionthatapreced entcanalmostalw ays
b efound foranew id ea,how ev errev olutionaryitmayseem,ifyou
reallysearchforit; thepreced entforLend Leasew asfound inan
unimportantlaw passed b yCongressin18 9 2,d uringtheBenj amin
HarrisonAd ministration .Thus,w henHopkinslearned w hatGompers
had said ,heknew hehad thepersuasiv eargumentthatRoosev eltneed ed
toov ercomethelab orlead ers'ob j ectionstothew orkreliefprogram.
Hetelephoned totheWhiteHouseand w asgiv enanappointmentfor
lunchonthed ayofhisreturntoWashington .
Duringthatlunch,Roosev eltasked how manyj ob sw ould hav etob e
prov id ed and Hopkinssaid ab outfourmillion .
" Let'ssee," said Roosev elt," Fourmillionpeople-thatmeansroughly
fourhund red milliond ollars
." Hethoughtthiscould b eprov id ed from
thePub licWorksfund w hichw asund ertheguard ianshipofHarold
Ickes,w how asneitherthennorsub seq uentlyex trav agantinhisad mira-
tionforHarryHopkinsorforhismethod s .WhenHopkinsleftthe
WhiteHouseafterthislunchhe" fairlyw alked onair," ashehad w hen
5 2

hesaw thehouseinw hichKeatsw rote" Od etoaNightingale
." Heput
throughatelephonecalltoWilliams,w how asb ytheninNew Orleans
makingaspeechfortheCommunityChestFund ,and insisted that
Williamsinterruptthespeechand gettothetelephonetohearthenew s
thatthew orkprogramw asgoingtostartw ith$4 0 omillions .Williams,
Brow nlow and Banew eresummoned immed iatelytoWashingtonw here
theyassemb led Saturd aynight,onew eekafterthefootb allgamein
Chicago,togetherw ithHopkins,How ard Hunter,Jacob Baker,Julius
F.Stone,ClarenceM.Bookman,EllenWood w ard ,Rob ertS.McClure,
CorringtonGill,PierceWilliamsand T.S.Ed mond s
.Theyw orked
mostofSaturd aynightand Sund ayintheHotelPow hatan( later
named theRogerSmith)and d rew theplansfortheCiv ilWorks
Ad ministrationw hichputthefourmillionpeopletow orkinthefirst
thirtyd aysofitsex istenceand ,inlessthanfourmonths,inaugurated
i8 o,ooow orkproj ectsand spentov er$9 33millions .Itw astheparent
ofW .P.A.and marked therealestab lishmentoftheprincipleofthe
righttow orkfromw hichtherecould b enoretreat.
OftheformationofC.W .A.Roosev eltw rote
ThePub licWorksAd ministration ( P.W .A.) had notb eenab leb y
thattimetocommenceav eryex tensiv eprogramoflargepub lic
w orksb ecauseoftheunav oid ab letimeconsumingprocessofplanning,
d esigningand rev iew ingproj ects,clearinguplegalmatters,ad v ertis,
ingforb id sand lettingcontracts .
Thisw asRoosev elt'stactfulmeansofex plainingw hyhetooknearly
ab illiond ollarsaw ayfromIckesand entrusted thespend ingofitto
Hopkinsatthattime( heev entuallyd id thesamew ithmanytimesthat
sum) . Ickesw asav erycareful,d elib eratead ministrator,w hotookpains
toex aminepersonallyev eryd etailofev eryproj ectand thed isposition
ofev erynickelthatitcost,w hetheritb eav illagepostofficeoraTri-
b oroughBrid ge .Thisishard lytohisd iscred itforitw astheapproach
toeachprob lemofahard head ed b usinessmanasw ellasaconscientious
pub licserv ant.Ickesw asconcerned ab outthereturnonthetax payers'
inv estment.Hopkinsd id notgiv ead amnab outthereturn
; hisapproach
w asthatofasocialw orkerw how asinterested onlyingettingrelief
tothemiserab leand gettingitthereq uickly
.Hisultimateargumentw as,
" Hungerisnotd eb atab le." Ickesthoughtprimarilyofthefinished j ob
-Hopkinsofthenumb ersofunemployed w hocould b eputonthej ob
immed iately .AsaninstanceofHopkins'impatience :
himw ithanid eaforaproj ectw hichw ould takealotoftimetoprepare
ind etailb utw hich,Hopkinsw asassured ," w illw orkoutinthelong
run," and hisex asperated commentonthisw as," Peopled on'teatin
thelongrun-theyeatev eryd ay ."
Toq uotefurtherfromRoosev elt'srev iew of C.W .A. :
1 9 4 1
5 3
Itsorganiz ationand operationw ereessentiallyd ifferentfromthat
.[w hichw as]mostlyaStateand localprogramloosely
superv ised and inpartfinanced b ytheFed eralGov ernmentb ut
actuallyad ministered and ex ercised locally
.A.w as,how -
ev er,completelyoperated and 9 opercentfinanced b ytheFed eral
Gov ernment.
Itw as,actually,oneoftheb road estprogramsev erinstituted b ythe
United StatesGov ernment.Itsoughttoprov id eforind iv id ualsw ork
asnearaspossib letotheirprev iousemploymentand topaythepre-
v ailingw ageineachcategoryand regionw ithaminimumofthirty
.Itab olished the" MeansTest" w hereb yamanw ho
soughtgov ernmentreliefw asd enied itif a
memb erofhisfamilyw as
alread yemployed ; HopkinsfeltthattheMeansTestw asaninsultto
thed ignityoftheind iv id ualw ho,ab leand anx ioustow ork,w asforced
intothestatusofanid led epend ent.Theorganiz ationofC .W .A.w as
acleansw eepfortheHopkinstheoriesofw orkrelief,and keenw ere
thefearsand v iolentthetremb lingofthosew hod id nottrusthim,w ho
suspected himofb einganapostleofStateSocialismratherthanJef-
fersonianDemocracy .ButRoosev elthad confid enceinHopkins'imagi-
nationand ingenuityand b oththoseq ualitiesw erereq uired inab und ance
Thechargehasoftenb eenmad ethatRoosev eltw as" sointox icated
w iththepompand priv ilegeofpow erthathecould notb eartod elegate
authority ." Muchofthatcame in lateryearsw henthed efenseeffort
w asmountingand Roosev eltforsomeeighteenmonthsstub b ornly
refused toappointonemantob ehead ofthehugeprod uctionprogram
b ut,w henhed id finallyappointDonald Nelson,hed elegated tohim
moreauthoritythanNelsonw asab letohand le .Therecord ingeneral
seemstoprov ethatRoosev eltd elegated authorityw ithalav ishhand
w henhecould find amanw illingtotakeit-and hecertainlyfound one
inHopkins .Whenb etold Hopkinstoinv entj ob sforfourmillionmen
and w omeninthirtyd aysheex pected himtod oitinhisow nw ayand
w ithoutcontinuallycomingb acktotheWhiteHouseforad v iceon
d etails .ThePresid entalsotold Hopkinstotalkthew holethingov er
w ithHarold Ickesand " straightenitout" w ithhim; b utthatprov ed
amuchmored ifficulttaskthanthefourmillionj ob s .
Roosev eltw asgreatlycomforted b ythefactthathehad hisold friend
FrankWalkeronhand tokeepaneyeonHopkins'activ ities .Walker,
asPresid entoftheNationalEmergencyCouncil,ex ercised asuperv isory
controlov erallthesud d enNew Dealagencies .Montanab orn,agrad u-
ateofNotreDame,hew asaq uiet,gentle,trustw orthy,unq uenchab ly
friend lymanw how asinv aluab letoRoosev eltthroughtheyearsas
spread erofoilontroub led ad ministrativ ew aters .Helaterb ecame
ChairmanoftheDemocraticNationalCommitteeand PostmasterGen-
5 4

eralafterFarley" tookaw alk ." Roosev eltknew hecould trustWalker
toreportifHopkinsw ereshow ingsignsofgoingcraz yand prod ucing
d angerouspoliticalrepercussionsthroughoutthecountry
.Ind eed ,in
theearlyd aysof
C.W.A., suchreportsd id comeintothehead q uarters
oftheNationalEmergencyCouncilfromitsStateDirectors .Someof
themw erealmosthystericalw ithalarmattheintimationsofw holesale
w asteand ev encorruptionintheprogram.Walkerd ecid ed totakea
tripthroughthecountryand seeforhimself
.Hereturned toWashington
w iththeassurancethatC.W .A
.w asd oingmorethanalltheotherNew
Dealmeasurestob oostmorale
.Hesaid thatinhisow nhomeStateof
Montana," Isaw old friend sofmine-menIhad b eentoschoolw ith-
d iggingd itchesand layingsew erpipe
.Theyw erew earingtheirregular
b usinesssuitsastheyw orked b ecausetheycould n'tafford ov erallsand
rub b erb oots
.IfIev erthought,` There,b utforthegraceofGod -'it
w asrightthen
." Thesightoftheseold friend smad ehimfeelsickat
heart,b utw henhetalked toind iv id ualshefeltv eryd ifferently,for
theyw erehappytob ew orkingand proud ofw hattheyw ered oing .
Oneofthempulled somesilv ercoinsoutofhispocketand show ed
themtoWalker ." Doyouknow ,Frank," hesaid ," thisisthefirst
moneyI'v ehad inmypocketsinayearand ahalf ?
Uptonow ,I'v e
had nothingb utticketsthatyouex changeforgroceries
." Anothersaid ,
" Ihatetothinkw hatw ould hav ehappened ifthisw orkhad n'tcome
.Thelastofmysav ingshad runout.I'd sold orhocked ev ery-
.And mykid sw erehungry .Istood infrontofthew ind ow
oftheb ake-shopd ow nthestreetand Iw ond ered j usthow longitw ould
b eb eforeIgotd esperateenoughtopickuparockand heav eitthrough
thatw ind ow and grab someb read totakehome
." Itw asnotonlyhunger
fromw hichthesemensuffered
; itw asthed eepsenseofind ignityand
ofgrav einj urytotheirnationalprid e .Theanalogyused b yPresid ent
Roosev eltinhisInauguralAd d ressw asfarfrominappropriate
: Ameri-
cansfeltasif,atatimew hentheircountryw asb einginv ad ed and
rav aged b yalienenemies,theirgov ernmenthad failed toprov id ethem
w ithanyw eaponsford efense
.Now ,armed w ithashov el,orev ena
rake,theyfeltab letofightb ack." Leafraking" b ecamethetermof
supremeopprob riumfortheNew Deal,b utgreatnumb ersofpeople
w hod id therakingpreferred ittob read linesorgrocerytickets
Walkersaid toRoosev elt:
" I'd paylittleattentiontothosew hocriticiz e
thecreationofC.W .A.oritsad ministration
.Hopkinsand hisassociates
ared oingtheirw orkw ell
.They'v ed oneamagnificentj ob .Itisamaz ing
w henyouconsid erthatw ithintheshorttimesinceC
.W .A.w asestab -
lished fourmillionid lehav e,b eenputtow ork
.DuringChristmasw eek
manyofthemw erestand ingina payrolllineforthefirsttimeineighteen
months .Youhav eev eryreasontob eproud ofC
.W.A.and itsad ministra-
1 9 4 1

5 5
tion .Itismyconsid ered opinionthatthishasav erted oneofthemost
seriouscrisesinourhistory .Rev olutionisanuglyw ord touse,b utI
thinkw ew ered angerouslycloseatleast,tothethreatofit."
Walkerw asnotalw ayssocord ialinhisapprov alofHopkins'ad min-
istrativ emethod s,b utinhisreportstothePresid entthroughoutthe
New Dealyears,hew asstanchinsupportingHopkinsagainstthe
numerousand v iolentcritics .AlargepartofHopkins'originalprestige
w ithRoosev eltw asund oub ted lyattrib utab letoWalker .Thed irectand
unmistakab leb enefitstothej ob lessand theirfamiliesw ereaugmented
b ymanyev id encesofb usinessrev iv al .Withinthefirstw eeksofC.W .A.
shoestoresallov erthecountryb egantoreportthattheyw eresold out
and shoefactoriesb egantoreopentomeettheenormouslyincreased
d emand .
C.W .A.camenonetoosoon .Thatw interof
19 33-34
w asaterrib le
one .Thetemperaturew entto5 6 ° b elow z eroinpartsofNew England
and to6 ° b elow ev eninWashington, D .C.,w herethelegislatorscould
feelit.Thisw asthefirstofaseriesofnaturalcalamities-includ ing
d roughts,flood sand hurricanes-w hichoccurred d uringtheseyearsas
iftotesttheRoosev eltAd ministrationinitsprogramfornational
recov ery .Hopkinshad toincreasehiseffortstomeetw id espread suffer-
ing .Bymid -Januarynearlytw entymillionpeoplew ered epend enton
Fed eralrelieffortheessentialsoflifeand the $4 0 0 millionsgranted to
C.W .A. .w asalmostgone .Hopkins,w ithWhiteHouseapprov al,w ent
$9 5 0
millionsmore .
TheRepub licanNationalCommitteed enounced himand C.W .A.
for" grossw aste" and " d ow nrightcorruption" and oneDemocrat,
.TerrellofTex as,arosetosay," TheConstitu-
tionisb eingv iolated hereev eryd ayb ecausethereisn'talineinthe
Constitutionthatauthoriz estheex pend itureofFed eralmoneyforother
thanFed eralpurposes
. . .
[C.W .A
isgoingtostartciv ilw ar
and rev olutionw henw ed ostopitanyw ay . . . .Theothers[inCongress]
cangothroughonthesethingsliked umb d riv encattleiftheyw antto,
b ut. . . Iw on'tsacrificemyind epend enceforanyofficeIev erheard of ."
ButTerrell'sw asalonev oiceonCapitolHill .Thememb ersofCon-
gressw erehearingfromtheirconstituenciesthesamekind ofreports
thatFrankWalkerhad b roughtb acktoWashington,and therew asan
19 34
SoHopkinsgotthemoney .Onelamentab ly
profaneSenatorw asq uoted b y Time magaz ineassaying," IfRoosev elt
ev erb ecomesJesusChrist,heshould hav eHarryHopkinsashis
. Time ranHopkins'pictureonitscov erand ,inalongarticleab out
him,paid trib utetohimforhav ingd one" athoroughlyprofessional
j ob " asad ministrator . Time reported :

$9 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 giv enhimb ythenew law ,Mr .Hopkinssaid
heintend ed touse
$4 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 totaperoffC
.A.grad uallyand
$5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ford irectrelief .Congressw ould likehimtousemore
forC.W .A
.b uthecameoutstronglyagainstit,d eclaringthatC .W.A.
w asanemergencymeasure,should notb epermanent,should b e
grad uallyd emob iliz ed .
Hopkinsw asnotthenspeakingfromtheheart
.Hew as,w ithutmost
reluctanceand d eepd isappointment,ob eyingord ers
.For,ev enw hile
hew asscoringtriumphsonCapitolHill,C.W .A.w asb eingtorped oed
attheotherend ofPennsylv aniaAv enueand thisw asd onenotb y
Repub licanenemiesoftheNew Dealb utb yconserv ativ eelements
w ithintheDemocraticpartyitself
.Thefirstcrackinitcamew hen
Southerninfluencecaused theab and onmentofthethirtycentsanhour
w ageminimum-causingw agesinsomepartsoftheSouthtod ropto
tencentsanhourorw orse .ThenRoosev eltw aspersuad ed b yLew is
Douglasand othereconomicad v isersthattherew assomethinginw hat
TerrellofTex ashad said .Theyfeltthattherew asseriouspotential
d angerinthew orkreliefprogram,theirargumentb eingthatifyou
gotlargenumb ersofpeoplesettled ingov ernment-mad ej ob s,w ith
guaranteesofsecuritythattheyw ould notread ilyob tainfrompriv ate
ind ustry, youmightnev erb eab letoget themoff thepub licpayroll .
Thatargumentcarried w eightw ithRoosev eltand hetold Hopkinsthat
C.W .A
.mustb eliq uid ated b eforespringand theformerF_ E .R.A.
programofd irectreliefresumed .
Althoughthisw asab itterb low toHopkins,itprov id ed himw ithhis
firstopportunitytod emonstratehisutterloyaltytoRoosev elt.Hed id
notafflictthePresid entw ithathreattoresign .Hew asharshin
compellinghisshocked associatestotakethissetb ackw ithoutcomplaint
and togetonw iththej ob ofrelief .Roosev eltw askeenlysensitiv eto
thisand hispersonalfond nessforasw ellasconfid enceinHopkins
Increased morethanev eratthistime .Themorehecontemplated the
C.W .A.record ,thelesshethoughtofthead v icegiv enhimb yDouglas,
w hosooncametotheb reakingpointw ithhisChiefand leftthegov ern-
ment.( Hereturned afterPearlHarb orand w orked v erycloselyand
amicab lyw ithHopkinsd uringthew aryears .)
Theend ingofC.W .A.prod uced proteststhroughoutthecountry
w hichcould notpossib lyb eignored .Inonew eekupw ard sof 5 0 ,0 0 0
lettersand 7,0 0 0 telegramscameintotheWhiteHouse
.Therew ere
riotsinv ariouspartsofthecountry .Thepeopleonthereliefrollsmad e
itclearthattheyagreed w ithHopkinsinhistheorythatd irectreliefhad
ad emoraliz ingeffect: theyd id notw antticketsforb asketsofgroceries-
theyw anted w ork . Inarev iew ofthew holeReliefProgramand prob lem.
magaz inemad ethefollow ingrathersuperciliousstatement
5 7
Directreliefis-purelyand simply-theDole .Almostaspurely
and simply,w orkreliefistheDole,too,ex ceptthatitd oesprov id e
alittlemoreselfrespectforitsrecipients : atleastitcreatesforthem
thefictionthattheyarestillusefulcitiz ensand thatthereisw orkfor
themtod o .
Fortune presented manyilluminatingin-
stancesofw orkreliefw hichb elied thecynicaluseofthew ord " fiction ."
Forex ample : Hopkinstookov er
25 0 ,0 0 0 b alesofsurpluscottonfrom
theA.A.A.forthed ualpurposeofsupplyingw orkreliefforw omenw ho
mad ethecottoninto,mattressesand thend istrib utingthemattressesto
peoplew hocould nototherw iseafford them.( Thisev oked how lsof
protestfrommattressmanufacturersb utitw aspointed outtothem
thattheyw erenotb eingsub j ected tounfaircompetitionsincethe
purchasingpow eroftherecipientsofthew orkreliefmattressesw as
z ero .)
Foranotherex ample,ascited b y
InBayCity,Michigan,anund erw earmanufacturingconcernw ent
b ankrupt,and theclosingofitsplantthrew some
25 0 w orkerson
relief .WhereupontheStateReliefAd ministrationrented theplant,
reopened it,and putthe 25 0 w orkersb ackattheirj ob sonasub -
sistencelev eltomakeenoughund erw eartogiv eev eryrelieffamily
inthestatetw osetsforthew inter .
TheC.W .A
.w asunq uestionab lyanex pensiv eprogramand could
nothav eb eencontinued forlongonitsoriginalscale .Butitsachiev e-
mentinthreeand ahalfmonthsw asamemorab leone .Itinclud ed
4 0 ,0 0 0 schoolsb uiltorimprov ed ;
12,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 feetofsew erpipelaid ;
4 6 9 airportsb uilt, 5 29 moreimprov ed ; 25 5 ,0 0 0
milesofroad b uiltor
improv ed
5 o,ooo teachersemployed toteachad ultsortokeepopen
ruralschoolsw hichmustotherw isehav eb eenclosed ; 3,70 0 playground s
and athleticfield sb uiltorimprov ed .
Amongthe 4 ,26 4 ,0 0 0 forw homw orkw asfound w ere3,0 0 0
w riters
and artists,theinceptionoftheFed eralArtsProgram,tothenumerous
criticismsofw hichHopkinsreplied ," Hell
!They'v egottoeatj ustlike
Inthegenerallythanklesstaskofgov ernmentserv ice-and inother
field sofend eav orasw ell-afew w ord sofencouragementfroma
respectw orthysourcecanw ipe'outtheeffectsofthousand sofw ord s
ofv ituperationfromthehostilepressortheCongress
., Aub reyWilliamsreceiv ed aletterfromGutz on
Borglum,theAmericansculptorofheroicmold .Williamsturned this
letterov ertoHopkinsw hotreasured italltherestofhislife
w rote
5 8
Youhav etheonlyd epartmentthatisfreetohelpthecreativ e
impulsesoftheNation,allotheraid stakeonthecharacterofhard
b usiness .TheGov ernmentcontinuesthehard b anker-b rokerb usiness
manw ehav eb ecome .
Mr .Hopkins-theC
.W .A.-almostimmed iatelyshifted pub licaid
fromcold b usinesstohumanhelpfulnessand thattousefulness,con-
v ertingmassemploymentintoanarmyofw orkersw hosegoalmust
b etob etter,tomakemoreliv ab leourtow nsand cities,ourschools
morecheerful,ourplayground sand parksaprid eand ad elight. . . .
Itisnotalongstepfromthistooneoforganiz ingthelatenttalent
w hoseb ellyhasb eenlongeremptyand w hocarriesad oub lehunger,
unex pressed ,creativ elonging,fitted and anx id ustob eapartinthe
greatcomeb ack
Mr.Hopkins'd epartmenthasopened thed oor,acrack,b utopened
tothisgreatfield ofhumaninterestand thought.Thew orld ofcre-
ativ eimpulse,w ithoutw hichpeopleperish .Frankly,apeoplehav e
asmuchrighttob esav ed asthetrees,theb ird s,thew holeanimal
kingd om,and nomore,b uttheirciv iliz ationmustb esav ed .
Iamnotorthod ox religiously,b utallthereisofGod increation
isw hatmanhasinlonelymartyrd omw rungfromnow hereand
ev eryw here,and ithasb eenhisconsciousnessofthatthatmakeshim
masterofthew orld ,and notb usinessormoney,w emustsav ethat,
civ iliz ationcontainsallthatispreciousinw hatw ethinkw eare .Will
ab asketofb read sav ethat,afullb ellyand ad ryb ack? Istherenoth-
ingab outthisfineyoung-stillyoung,stillv irgincontinent-that
civ iliz ationneed s,inw hichciv iliz ationcanspread agreaterw ing?
Hav ew eingold -thew orshipofAaron'scalf-mad eourfinalb ow
inthehallofw orld fame,tob erememb ered w ithRomeforourab use
ofw ealth ?
Wearetheheirs,ifnotthechild ren,ofWashington,Jefferson,
.Hav ew ereached thelifeline's
end ofthelittleRepub lictheyshaped forus,hav e w e w hollyforgotten
thatw hatw eareissomethingq uiteoutsid eb usinessand ourb ellies,
and thatsomethinginourmind sand w hatthereisinourheartsis
ofrealimportance? Mr .Hopkins,youand hisaid es,hav eitinyour
hand stogiv etoyoungAmericaachanceforheartand soulgrow th
w hichshehasnev erhad .Id on'tmind tellingyouIhammered T
foryearstothrow somesmallpartofourv astofficialpow erb ehind
theciv illifeintothesouland heartofhumanend eav or
.Iaw akened
interest,Rootw asforit,b utlittlehappened .Taftlaughed allsuch
plansoutofcourt,and Wilson,w hogav emead egree,said " the
creativ eimpulsemustsub mittob usinesscompetition ."
Iknew Hard ingalmostintimately,and hew asakind ,finesoul,
d estroyed b yhisfriend s .Hecould seea" w elfared epartment," b ut
thecreativ eimpulsed oesnotw antorneed aw elfared epartment
! . . .
Iansw ered acalltogototheWestand carv eMountRushmore .
Coolid ge . . .w asinterested ; heknew asmuchab outartasId oab out
thelateLlamaofThib et; b utheknew history ; heknew thestoryof
1 9 4 1

5 9
peoples ;
heknew theeternalfightciv iliz ationhad tomaketomaster
itsow nphysicalmass
. .
Hoov erw asind ifferentand d ead fromthetopd ow n
seemed tohav eceased b eatingtothecalloflaughter,tomusic,the
charmofletters,thecolorand mysteryofInnisand Millet-thepow er
ofAngeloortheb urningw ord sofTomPaine .Ev erythingseemed
tod ieinhishand s ; I- b eliev eifarosew asputintohishand itw ould
w ilt. . . .
Iw anttosuggesttoyouthatyoumakeyourthought,ofaid tothe
creativ eonesamongusgreater,moreeffectiv einitsscope,makeita
feature,makeyouraid morethan/ofonepercent; makeitatleast
fiv epercent; concentrateontheschools,thepoorschools,thelittle
schools,thepub licschools,putoured ucatorstow ork ; startw iththe
child ren ; maketheirclassrooms,stud yroomsand hallspleasant,w ith
colorand d esign,fairytalesand history,homelife .Youarenotafter
masterpieces,and youshould notb ed iscouraged ifyouhav emany
failures ; therealsuccessw illb eintheinterest,thehumaninterest,
w hichyouw illaw aken ; and w hatthatd oestotheNation'smind .
Therearetw enty-od d millionchild renthatw illb eaffected ; some
millionsofteachersand mothers,and anoccasionalfather ! Iw ish
youw ould thinkofthisv erystud iously ; Ib eliev ethat'sthed oor
throughw hichHopkins,youand hisaid escancoax thesoulof
Americab acktointerestinlife .
Gutz onBorglumtothecontrarynotw ithstand ing,theFed eralArts
Proj ectsw eresub j ected tomored erisionand morechargesof" un-
Americanactiv ities" thanalmostanyotherpartofthehugerelief
program.And ,theyw erethefirsttob elopped offb yCongressw hen
therev oltagainsttheprogramsetin
.Thew ord " b oond oggle" came
intothelanguagetod escrib ethemorefantasticproj ectsd reamed up
b yHopkinsand other" w ild -eyed rad icals" forthepurposeofw asting
thetax payers'money .Foryearstheanti-New Dealpresshad agreat
d ealoffund iggingupnew w orkreliefproj ectsw hichsound ed v ery
comical,particularlythoseinv olv ingj ob lessw hitecollarw orkersw ho
could notb uild b rid gesacrossSanFranciscoBay,ord amsinthe
Columb iaorTennesseeValleys .Oneoftheseproj ects,d iscov ered in
New YorkCity,inv olv ed thestud yofancientsafetypins .Thisled to
anex changeb etw eenHopkinsand reportersatapressconference,the
literaltranscriptofw hichprov id esanex cellentex ampleofhisex plosiv e
method ofspeech
AreyoucontemplatinganyFed eralinv estigationofany
kind ofthegeneralsituationinNew YorkCity?
Answ er( Hopkins)
paperad ayortw oago?
Q. Aproposoftheproj ectforsafetypins .
A. Sure,Ihav esomethingtosayab outthat.
Q.Iasked first,hav eyoucontemplated makinganinv estigation?
A.Whyshould I? Thereisnothingthematterw iththat
d amngood proj ects-ex cellentproj ects
.Thatgoesforalltheproj ects
upthere .Youknow somepeoplemakefunofpeoplew hospeaka
foreignlanguage,and d umb peoplecriticiz esomethingtheyd onot
und erstand ,and thatisw hatisgoingonupthere-God d amnit!
arealotofpeopleb rokeand w eareputtingthemtow orkmaking
researchesofonekind oranother,runningb igrecreationalproj ects
w herethew holematerialcosts3%,and practicallyallthemoneygoes
forrelief .Assoonasyoub egind oinganythingforw hitecollarpeople,
thereisacertaingroupofpeoplew hob egintothrow b ricks .Ihav e
noapologiestomake .Asamatteroffact,w ehav enotd oneenough .
Theplainfactofthematteristhattherearepeoplew ritingand talk-
ingab outthesethingsinNew Yorkw hoknow nothingab outresearch
proj ects .Theyhav en'ttakenthetroub letoreallylookintoit.Ihav ea
pileoflettersfromb usinessmen,ifthatisimportant,sayingthatthese
proj ectsared amngood proj ects
.Thesefellow scanmakefunand
shootatw hitecollarpeople,iftheyw antto
.Inoticesomeb od ysays
facetiously," repairallstreets ." Thatisalltheythinkab out-money
torepairstreets .Ithinktherearethingsinlifeb esid esthat.Wehav e
proj ectsuptheretomakeJew ishd ictionaries .Therearerab b isw hoare
b rokeand onthereliefrolls .Onehund red and fiftyproj ectsupthere
d ealw ithpurescience.Whatofit? Ithinkthosethingsaregood inlife .
Theyareimportantinlife .Wearenotb ackingd ow nonanyofthose
proj ects .Theycanmakefunofthesew hitecollarand professional
peopleiftheyw antto .Iamnotgoingtod oit
useapickand shov eltorepairstreets,w henthecityoughttob ed oing
.Ib eliev eev eryoneoftheseresearchproj ectsaregood proj ects .
Wed on'tneed anyapologies !
.Inthatconnection,Iamnottryingtoarguew ithyou .
A.Iamnotreallymad . . . .
Q.Ab outthisw hitecollar-thereare 30 0 millionforw hitecollar
relief.Would itb eyourid eainad ministering 30 0 million,thatyou
mightj ustasw ellcontinue?
A.Theb estofthemw illb econtinued ,sure .Thoseareresearch
proj ectstheyarej umpingon .
Q.Asamatteroffact,d on'tyouthinktherearealotofresearch
proj ectsthatw ould b emorev aluab letomankind ingeneralthanthe
classicex ampleofancientsafetypins?
.Youmayb einterested inw ashing
machines-someb od yelseinsafetypins .Ev eryoneofthoseproj ects
arew orked outb ytechnicalpeople .Inthefield ofmed icalscience,w e
hav ed octors ; inphysical,w ehav ephysicists ; inthesocial,social
economists .Ev eryoneofthoseisund erthed irectionofcompetent
researchpeople .Youcanmakefunofanything ; thatiseasytod o .A
lotofpeopleareopposed tothew holeb usiness .Letthesew hitecollar
professionalfellow ssithomeand getab asketofgroceries,thatisw hat
alotofpeoplew ant.
Q.Yousaythatpeopled on'tw anttow ork?

6 1
A.No,thesefellow sw anttow ork,b utthereare a lotofpeoplew ho
d on'tb eliev einthew orkprogramand w antpeopletogob ackto
d irectrelief .Thesepeoplew how antd irectreliefw illalw ayskickab out
thesetechnicalproj ects .Anythingthatfromtheirpointofv iew isn't
utilitarian .
Thereportsofthisconferenceq uoted Hopkinsassayingthat" people
aretood amned d umb ," and thisphrasew asgiv enplentyofcirculation
inthepress .Ev entenyearslaterinthemid stofw ar,Hopkinsw as
assailed inscathinged itorialsasthemanw hob eliev ed that" theAmeri-
canpeoplearetood amned d umb ." The WashingtonPost
pub lished a
poemb yaVirginialad yend ingw iththev erse
Thoughw estillpayupourtax ,
Mr .Hopkins !
Wearesharpeningtheax ,
( Mr .Hopkins)
Testingitw ithcautiousthumb -
And w e'retellingyou,b ygum,
Wearenotq uitetood amned d umb ,
Mr .Hopkins
Nev ertheless,Hopkinsgenerallygotonv eryw ellw ithw orking
new spapermen( notinclud ingpub lishers) .Theyappreciated theq uick-
nessand d irectnessofhisansw ersand theq uotab ilityofhiscracks
d escriptionofhimatapressconferencew asw rittenb ytheimmortal
ErniePyleinthe WashingtonNew s
And 'you,Mr
.Hopkins,Iliked youb ecause you looklikecommon
people .Id on'tmeananyslurb ythateither,b ecausetheyd on'tcome
anycommonerthanIam,b utyousittheresoeasysw ingingb ack
and forthinyoursw iv elchair,inyourb luesuitand b lueshirt,and
yourneckissortofskinny,likepoorpeople'snecks,and youact
honest,too .
And youansw erthereporters'q uestionsasthoyouw eretalking
tothempersonally,instead ofb eingab igofficial .Ittickled methe
w ayyouw ould say," Ican'tansw erthat," inatonethatalmostsays
outloud ," Now youknew d amnw ellw henyouasked methatI
could n'tansw erthat. . ."
And thatold officeofyours,Mr
.Hopkins,good Lord ,it'sterrib le.
It'ssolittleinthefirstplace,and thew allsarefad ed and w aterpipes
runupthew allsand yourd eskd oesn'tev enshine .ButIguessyou
d on'tcare.Mayb eitw ould n'tlookrightforyoutohav eaniceoffice
anyw ay,w henyou'red ealinginmiseryallthetime
Onenicethingab outyourofficeb eingsolittle,tho,thereporters
allhav etopackcloseuparound yourd esk,and theycan , seeand
hearyouw ell,and it'ssortofliketalkingtoyouinyourhome,ex cept
therethey'd b esittingd ow n,Ihope .
.Hopkins ; thatyou'reab outthefastest
6 2

thinkerofanyoftheb igmenw hohold pressconferences .Ickesis
fast,too,and soisFarley,theysay,b utyoualw ayscomeb ackright
now w ithsomethingprettygood
.And you'v egotapleasant,clean-cut
v oice,too,and theysayyounev ertry'tolieoutofanything
Hopkins'office,asd escrib ed b yErniePyle,w asintheWalker-
JohnsonBuild ing,onNew YorkAv enue,b etw eentheCorcoranGallery
and theGirlScouts'LittleHouse .Itw asashab b y,old b uild ing,w ith
ab lind new sd ealerb yitsfrontsteps .When
you w entintoityouw ere
assailed b yanod orofantisepticw hichsuggested thesmellofacom-
b inationofhospital,lockerroomand stab le
.As Fortune d escrib ed it,
" This,youmightalsosay,isthev eryod orofRelief.Itisatonce
prophylacticand unclean ." Hopkins'firstofficehad b eenintheFed eral
SecurityBuild ing,b uthefoughthisw ayoutofthatand continued for
fiv eyearstoresistallattemptstomov ehishead q uartersintonew gov -
ernmentb uild ingsw hichw eremarb led and aircond itioned .Inad d ition
tohisnaturalav ersiontopompand circumstancehehad foralongtime
thefeelingthathew asonlyatemporaryfigureontheWashington
scene.Hispositionseemed insecureintheex treme
; hehad arisen
sud d enlytothisprominenceand hemightassud d enlyb eb low nb ack
intoob scurity
.Althoughheattempted togiv etheimpressionofb eing
lighthearted and carefree,itw asob v ioustothoseclosesttohimthat
hew asforev erfearfulthatthecriticsoftheReliefProgrammightone
d ayachiev ev ind ication-thatsomeonew ould b eprov ed guiltyofgraft
forw hichHopkinshimselfw ould inev itab lyassumeresponsib ility,how -
ev erspotlesshispersonalrecord orthatofhisimmed iatestaff
alltoow ellhow pow erfulw eretheinterestsw hichw erecontinually
tryingtod etectand ex poseev id encesofgraftand corruption,and he
knew alsothatitw ashumanlyimpossib letokeepcompletelycleana
programthatw asad ministered tosuchalargeex tentb ylocalpoliticians
Itw asund erstand ab lethattheresultofhisconstantw orryingshould
b esev ered igestiv ed isord ers
.Actually,therew ereamaz inglyfew in-
stancesofactualemb ez z lementofpub licfund s,and ineachofthesethe
b lamew asv eryclearlyfix ed onlocalofficials( someofthemRepub li-
cans)and notontheFed eralGov ernment
DuringhisyearsinWashington,Hopkinsw rotev eryfew personal
letters-and inthosemanaged totellv erylittleofinterest-b utatthe
end ofJune,
19 34 ,
herev ealed somethingofhisstateofmind inaletter
tohisb rother,Lew is
IamplanningtosailforEuropeonWed nesd aythe4 thunless
somethinginterferesatthelastmoment.This,ofcourse,isalw ays
possib learound here .Icanscarcelyrealiz ethatIhav eb eenw iththe
Gov ernmentnow forayear
.Ihad nointentionofremaininglonger
thanthatb utIseemtob ew ellonmyw aytostaythroughnex tw inter
anyw ay
.Ithinkyouknow ,oneofthegreatd ifficultiesab outthisplace
9 4 1

6 3
isw hattouseformoney
.WhenId ecid ed tocomeitlooked fairly
simplefromthatpointofv iew b ecausetheBoard ofDirectorsofthe
.Associationd ecid ed togiv emeayear'ssalaryformyten
yearsw orkthere.Thefinancesoftheorganiz ation,how ev er,w ent
sourand thePresid entd ied .RecentlyoneoftheBoard told methat
theyareanx ioustoatleastfillpartofthatagreementand Ihav e
somesub stantialhopenow thatIcangetenoughmoneyatleastto
keepmefromgettinghead ov erheelsind eb t
Theothersid eofthepictureisthatthishasb eenafascinating
ex perience
.Itisw orthanyamountofmoneytohav earingsid eseat
.Ihav elearned enoughab outittoknow thatoneshould
notb anktooheav ilyonanythinghereformorethanafew monthsat
.Whilethew orkisfascinatingand thePresid entisagrand
persontow orkforIhav enod esiretostayhereind efinitely .
Hopkinsatthistimew asshow ingd efinitesignsofphysicalstrain
and theEuropeantripw astakenlargelyatRoosev elt'surging
.Ind eed ,
itw asmorethanurging-itw asanord er
.Alw aysamasterattheart
ofrelax inghimself,Roosev eltcould enforcerelax ationonanov erw orked
sub ord inateb ysend inghimoffonsomecomparativ elymeaningless
mission,preferab lyonew hichinv olv ed aseachange
.Hew roteto
Itismyd esirethatyoumakeatripab road assoonasyoucan
possib lygetaw ayand lookov erthehousingand socialinsurance
schemesinEngland ,Germany,Austriaand Italy,b ecauseIthink
youmightpickupsomeid easusefultousind ev elopingourow n
Americanplanforsecurity .
Incid entally,inv iew ofthestead ygrind youhav ehad ,Ithinkthat
theseatripw illd oyoualotofgood
Hopkinstold afriend thatthePresid entalsoasked himtohav ealook
atthepersonnelinAmericanemb assiesand legationsand toreportto
himconfid entiallythereon .Roosev eltfeltthenthattherew ereind iv id -
ualsintheForeignServ icew how erenotentirelysympathetictothe
policiesofhisAd ministrationand astheyearsw entb yand hereceiv ed
reportsfromHopkinsand manyothersw hotrav eled ab road heb ecame
Hopkinsand hisw ifesailed ontheS.S. WashingtononJuly4 , re-
turningAugust23. Duringthissummerthereoccurred theNaz ib lood
purge,follow ed b yHitler'sstatementtotheq uiv eringReichstag," The
SupremeCourtoftheGermanpeopled uringthese
ofmyself!" Whichshould hav eb eenenoughtoinformanyoneofj ust
w hattoex pectfromtheNaz iregime,Duringthatsamesummerthe
Naz ismurd ered ChancellorDollfussinVienna,and Hind enb urgd ied ,
thereb yremov ingthelastformalob stacletoHitler'sseiz ureoftotal
pow er .How ev er,Icanfind norecord oftheeffectonHopkinsofthese
6 4

rev ealingev entsorofanythingthathesaw and heard inthepolice
states .Inhisonlypub lished commentsonhistriptoEuropeheex -
pressed enthusiasmforthesocialsecurityand pub lichousingprograms
inBritain,sayingthatev entheConserv ativ estherew erew ellahead of
theNew Dealinsocialprogress .Thed ayofhisreturntoWashington
helunched w iththePresid entand thenspentthew eekend w ithhim
atHyd eParkb utheleftnonotesontheseconv ersations .Itisq uite
possib lethat,sinceRoosev elthimselfhad latelyreturned fromaio,ooo-
milecruiseonthe U.S.S. Houston throughtheCarib b eanand the
PanamaCanaltoCQcosIsland and Haw aii,and b acktoPortland ,
Oregon,Hopkinsw asnotcalled upontod omuchofthetalking
ACongressionalelectionw asthencomingupand thisw astob ethe
firstrealtestoftheNew Dealw iththev oters .Roosev elt'spolitical
opponents,w hohad b eenrend ered relativ elyspeechlessd uringthe
" honeymoon" period of
19 33,
w erenow regainingthepow ersofpub lic
protest,and v iolentcriticismsofthe" spend ingorgy" and theconv ersion
to" StateSocialism" w ereb eingheard throughouttheland
.TheRepub -
licansknew thattheyhad nohopeofregaininganyrealpow erin
9 34
b uttheyw ereenergeticallystartingthecounterrev olutionw hichmight
cometotriumphin19 36
campaignw asprov id ed w henHopkinslearned thathisb rother,Lew is,
w asrunningforthepostofcoronerofTacomaontheRepub licanticket.
WhenHopkinsw asinformed ofthishesaid ," Ithoughtthatpartyw as
b uried tw oyearsago .Whyd otheyneed acoronernow ? " Afew d ays
b eforetheelection,Hopkinssentthefollow ingaffectionatetelegram
tohisb rother
Well,Lew ,Tuesd ayistheb ad new s
lostcausew asmagnificentb utthatyouconfused thev oterssothat
theyarenotsurew hichticketyouarerunningonsothattheyw ill
allv oteforyouropponent,w hichisasitshould b e
.Now ,Lew ,the
telegraphcompanieshav eformmessagesford efeated cand id ates
Don'tfailtoob serv ethisold -timecustom.Theleastyoursupporters
ifanycand oisprov id earespectab leautopsy .Thenationisgoing
TheDemocratsw onthatelectionb yanov erw helmingmarginand
theRepub licansfound themselv esfeeb lerasaminorityinthenew
'Congressthantheyhad b eenatanytimesinceb eforetheCiv ilWar
Thisw asanemphaticv oteofconfid encefortheNew Dealand particu-
larlyfortheWorkReliefProgram.Roosev eltimmed iatelystarted to
d iscussaformid ab leex pansionofthatprogramalongthelinesthathad
b eenestab lished und erC.W.A
.TheHopkinsstarw asnow d efinitelyin
theascend ant.
Oneafternoon,w hiled riv ingw ithAub reyWilliamsand othersof
19 4 1

6 5
hisstafftoaracetracknearWashington,Hopkinssud d enlysaid " Boys
-thisisourhour.We'v egottogetev erythingw ew ant-aw orks
program,socialsecurity,w agesand hours,ev erything-now ornev er
Getyourmind stow orkond ev elopingacompletetickettoprov id e
securityforallthefolksofthiscountryupand d ow nand acrossthe
b oard
Theyw enttow orkintheWalker-JohnsonBuild ingand intheSt.
RegisHotel .Thed ayb eforeThanksgiv ing,Hopkinshead ed southw ith
theprograminhispocket-aprogramb ased ononethatheand Harold
Ickeshad j ointlyd raw nup .Heconferred firstw ithSenatorByrnes
in SouthCarolinaand thenw entontoWarmSpringstoseethePresi-
d entand Rex ford Tugw elland Donald Richb erg,w hohad succeed ed
FrankWalkerasEx ecutiv eDirectoroftheNationalEmergencyCoun-
cil .Theyplayed around foraw hileinthesw immingpool,tossingaw ater
polo b # 11 b ackand forth-lead ingareporterw atchingfromthecrest
ofanearb yhilltoremark," Theyseemtob epracticingpassingthe
b uck" ; thentheygotd ow ntow orkonthe
19 35
d ev elopmentofthe
New Deal
.Thenex td aythe New YorkTimes pub lished anarticleb y
Delb ertClark,saying
Thefire-eatingAd ministratorofFed eralEmergencyRelief,Harry
L .Hopkins,maysafelyb ecred ited w ithspoilingtheThanksgiv ing
Dayd innersofmanyconserv ativ esw hohad b eenled tob eliev ethat
Presid entRoosev elt'srecentz igtotherightw ould notb efollow ed
b yaz agtotheleft.
NotthatMr .Hopkinshad anyid eathathisEPIA( End Pov erty
inAmerica)planw ould leakoutunauthoriz ed ,b utnow thatithas
leaked outitw illb earex amination .
Fromthefragmentaryad v icesinWashington,w hatMr
proposestothePresid entisab outasfollow s
Anex pansionofthesub sistencehomestead sand ruralrehab ilita-
tionprogramstoinclud easmanyfamiliesasneed suchaccommod a-
Alarge-scaleremov aloffamiliesfromsub marginal( unprofitab le)
land tohomesitesw heretheycanliv eonamoreciv iliz ed scale .
Fed eralad v ancesof-fund stob othcategoriestoeq uiptheirhome-
stead sw ithtools,liv estock,etc.
Anex pansionoftheprogramalread yinprogressonanex perimen-
talscaletogiv efactoryw orktotheid le,throughw hattheFERA
softlycalls" canningcentres," " need lecraftcentres," orthelike .
Alarge-scale,low -costhousingprogramtoshelterthoseunab le
foronereasonoranothertomov etosub sistencehomestead s,since
itappearsthereisnopurposeentirelytod epopulatethelargecities
Asocialinsuranceprogramtogiv esecurityinthefuture
Whenthe74 thCongressconv ened amonthlater,Roosev eltan-
nounced thenew ReliefProgram
6 6

The Fed eral Gov ernment must and shall q uitthisb usinessof
relief . . . .
Workmustb efound for,ab le-b od ied b utd estitutew orkers
. . . .
Iamnotw illingthatthev italityofourpeopleb efurthersapped
b ythegiv ingofcash,ofmarketb askets,ofafew hoursofw eekly
w orkcuttinggrass,rakingleav esorpickinguppapersinthepub lic
.Wemustpreserv enotonlytheb od iesoftheunemployed from
d estructionb utalsotheirself-respect,theirself-relianceand courage
and d etermination .Thisd ecisionb ringsmetotheprob lemofw hat
theGov ernmentshould d oab outapprox imatelyfiv emillionunem-
ployed now onthereliefrolls .
Itis my thoughtthatw iththeex ceptionofcertainofthenormal
pub licb uild ingoperationsoftheGov ernment,allemergencypub lic
w orksshallb eunited inasinglenew and greatlyenlarged plan
Withtheestab lishmentofthisnew systemw ecansupersed ethe
Fed eralEmergencyReliefAd ministrationw ithacoord inated author-
ityw hichw illb echarged w iththeord erlyliq uid ationofourliresent
reliefactiv itiesand thesub stitutionofanationalchartforthegiv ing
ofw ork .
Id onotknow w hetherHopkinshelped w iththepreparationofthat
message,b utitcertainlyshow ed hisinfluence
.ThePresid entlaid d ow n
six fund amentalprinciplesforw orkrelief
( z )Theproj ectsshould b euseful .
( 2)
Proj ectsshallb eofanaturethataconsid erab leproportionof
themoneyspentw illgointow agesforlab or .
( 3)Proj ectsw hichpromiseultimatereturntotheFed eralTreasury
ofaconsid erab leproportionofthecostsw illb esought.
( 4 )Fund sallotted foreachproj ectshould b eactuallyand promptly
spentand notheld ov eruntillateryears .
( 5 )Inallcasesproj ectsmustb eofacharactertogiv eemployment
tothoseonthereliefrolls .
( 6 )Proj ectsw illb eallocated tolocalitiesorreliefareasinrelationto
thenumb erofw orkersonreliefrollsinthoseareas .
WhentheWorkReliefBillofnearlyfiv eb illiond ollarsw aspresented
totheCongresstherew erew ailsofprotestfromtheRepub licanminor-
ityand somesignsofrev oltb ySouthernDemocrats,b uttheBillpassed
theHouseofRepresentativ esq uicklyand ov erw helmingly
Senate,how ev er,itencountered roughgoing
.Thed aysoflegislation
b ythe" rub b erstamp" method w ereunq uestionab lyov er
.Therew as
muchpioustalkintheSenateand theRepub licanpressab outthe
Legislativ eb ranchmaintainingitsintegrityv is-a-v istheEx ecutiv e-
and thew ord sFascistand Communistd ictatorshipw erehurled ab out
.Buttheargumenthad nothingtod ow ith
id eology.Therew asnoreald isputeov ertheproprietyofspend ingthe
tax payers'moneyonsuchav astscaleforw orkrelief
.Itb oiled d ow n
simplytotheq uestion
w hyshould CapitolHillyield totheWhite
Houseab solutecontrolov erthespend ingoftheseb illionsw hichcould
yield suchrichreturnsinporkb arrelpatronage? Thelead ingpro-
ponentsofthisq uestion .w ereDemocratsratherthanRepub licans,the
latterb eingglad togoalongonanythingthatw asopposed toRoosev elt.
TheoppositiontotheBillw asstrengthened enormouslyb ytheunre-
futed claimthatRoosev eltw asaskingforab lankcheck .AsWalter
Lippmannw rote :
TheSenatorsw erenottold w how asgoingtoad ministerthepro-
.Theyw erenotgiv end efiniteinformationab outthescope
.Theyw erenotev enfurnished athorough,
cogent,and consid ered argumentinfav orofthe Bill. . . .
TheSenatew asconfronted notw ithapolicyb utamystery .This
aroused theoppositionofSenatorsw hod o,notb eliev einw orkrelief,
ofSenatorsw hoconscientiouslyob j ecttov otingmoneyand pow ers
b lind ly
.Itw astheopportunityofSenatorsw hoforpartisanreasons
w ereglad tofrustratethePresid ent,ofSenatorsw how ished toget
attheporkb arrel .
Hopkinsw ascalled b eforetheSenateAppropriationsCommitteeb ut
heev id entlyd id nothelpmuchtoclarifymatters,fortheAssociated
Presssub seq uentlyreported somuchd issensionand confusioninthe
Committeethatonememb erw hod id notw ishhisnameused pred icted
theBillw ould b ecompletelyred rafted fromb eginningtoend
w asthatHopkinshimselfd id notknow w hatw asreallyinRoosev elt's
.Henoted ,afterapriv atetalkw iththePresid ent," Wew entov er
theorganiz ationofthew orkprogram-morechartsinpencil-helov es
charts-notw oofthemareev erthesamew hichmakesitab itb affling
attimes ."
Thetw omenmostfreq uentlymentioned asAd ministratorsofthe
ReliefProgramw ere,ob v iously,Hopkinsand Ickes .Butitw aspartof
Roosev elt'stechniq uenottoletanyoneknow -includ ingthetw omen
themselv es-w hichonehefav ored .Thus,neitherofthemw asreally
inapositiontogob eforetheSenateand fightfortheBill
themknew j ustex actlyw herehestood orw ithw hatauthorityhemight
speakeithertotheCongressortothepress .Therew asnod efinite
spearhead ofoppositiontov ariousamend mentsproposed and theAd -
ministrationlead ersontheSenatefloorcould onlycompromisehereand
theretosafeguard themaininterestsoftheBill .Itw asfinallypassed ,
aftertw omonths,w ithrestrictionsw hichw erehighlyd isappointingto
.Oneoftheserestrictions,sponsored primarilyb ySenator
.Borah,had amelancholyringinv iew ofsub seq uentd ev elop-
: " Nopartoftheappropriations . . . shallb eused formunitions,
w arships,ormilitaryornav almateriel
." ( Roosev elthad alread yused
P.W .A
.fund sfornav alconstruction,includ ingAeaircraftcarriers
Enterprise and Yorktow n, b uttheisolationistsw erealread ycherishing
theb eliefthatthew aytokeepoutofw arw asnottoprepareforit.)
Themostimportantamend mentofallinitspoliticalimplicationsw as
oneprov id ingthat" anyAd ministratorreceiv ingasalaryof $5 ,0 0 0 or
moreperannuminthisProgramshallb eappointed b ythePresid ent
b yand w iththead v iceand consentoftheSenate ."
This,ofcourse,spelled j ustonew ord : patronage.Itprov id ed some
new ed ucationforHopkinsinthepoliticalfactsoflife .Inhisearly
d ealingsw iththeCongress,particularlyonthesoresub j ectofthe
minimumw age,hehad encountered v ehementassertionofStates'rights
b ytheconserv ativ eDemocrats .Butitw asav eryd ifferentmatterw hen
itcametopatronagepriv ilegesinconnectionw iththed isb ursementof
Fed eralfund s .TheSenatorsw anted tokeepcontrolofthesepriv ileges
intheirow nhand sratherthanlettheStates'-Gov ernorsgetfirstlicks
attheenormous .grav yspoon .Hopkinshad b eenab letocopew iththe
politicald emand softheGov ernorsand Mayors,sometimesb yresorting
totheprimitiv etacticsoftellingthemtogotohell .Buthecould not
d othattotheCongress
.Heknew thatfromhereonouthemustclear
eachappointmentineachStatew iththeappropriateSenators,and he
mustpayheed totherecommend ationsofJamesA.Farleyand the
DemocraticNationalCommitteeastow hoshould b e" takencareof ."
.w astherealb asisofthepoliticalcolorationoftheWorksProgress
Ad ministration .Ib eliev ethatthisw asthenearestthatHopkinsev ercame
toq uittingthej ob inWashingtonand thatRoosev elttalked himoutof
it,persuad inghimthathecould sq uarehisconsciencew iththerealities
ofthetw o-partysystemofgov ernment.Hopkinssaid later," Ithought
atfirstIcould b ecompletelynon-political .Thentheytold meIhad
tob epartnon-politicaland partpolitical .Ifound thatw asimpossib le,
atleastforme .Ifinallyrealiz ed therew asnothingforitb uttob eall-
political ." .So,thealtruisticw elfarew orker-thelov erofKeats-d e-
v eloped intooneofthetoughestofpoliticians .
With - thepassageoftheWorkReliefBill,Roosev eltw asb rought
facetofacew ithsomed ifficultpoliticalprob lemsofhisow n .Heleft
foraCarib b eanv acationj ustastheBillw asassured ofpassage,atthe
end ofMarch,and ,w henitb ecameknow nthatHopkinsw asonthe
Presid entialtrainhead ed south,thepressj umped totheconclusionthat
theF.E.R.A.Ad ministratorhad stolentheinsid etrack .Thecontrov er-
siesb etw eenHopkinsand Ickeshad b ythattimeb eenw id elyad v er-
tised ,and Roosev eltknew thatw hichev erofthesemenheappointed
tothetopj ob w ould b eaprimetargetforthesnipers'fire .Whereas,if
hepassed ov erthemb othand named anew man,itw ould implyrepud ia-
tionofthew holeReliefProgramuptod ate .Hesettled theprob lemin
asuperb lycharacteristicmanner : hecalled b acktoWashingtonthe
mod erate,reliab leFrankWalker-w how asev eryb od y'sfriend and no-
19 4 1

6 9
b od y'starget-and formed atriumv irateofWalker,Ickesand Hopkins
torunthegiganticshow .
Ihav eneithertheknow led genorthephysicalstrengthtosetd ow n
ind etailthew hole,intricated etailsofthew orkingsofthenew trihead ed
organiz ation .Icanonlyattempttod escrib e,inageneralw ay,w hatw as
thed iv isionofresponsib ility .
Walkerd irected the Div isionofApplicationsand Information, w hich
" receiv ed allsuggested plansfortheusefulex pend itureofpub licfund s,
nomatterw hatthesourceofthesesuggestionsmayb e," and sorted ,
checked ,stud ied and tab ulated theseplans,thenpassed themonto
TheAd v isoryCommitteeonAllotments, ofw hichIckesw asnamed
Chairman,and w hichw astorecommend proj ectstothePresid entfor
approv al .ThisCommitteew asd irected " tomeetinround tab lecon-
ferenceatleastonceaw eek ." Itw ascomposed oftheSecretariesofthe
Interior,Agricultureand Lab or ; theDirectorsoftheNationalEmer-
gencyCouncil,theProgressDiv ision,Procurement,theBureauofthe
Bud get,SoilErosion,EmergencyConserv ationWork,RuralResettle-
ment,Reliefand RuralElectrification ; theChiefofEngineers, U.S.
Army ;
theCommissionerofReclamation ; theChiefsoftheForest
Serv ice,BureauofPub licRoad s,Div isionofGrad eCrossingElimina-
tionand theUrb anHousingDiv ision ; togetherw ithrepresentativ esof
theBusinessAd v isoryCouncil,organiz ed lab or,farmorganiz ations,the
NationalResourcesBoard ,AmericanBankers'Associationand theU.S.
ConferenceofMayors .WhenthisCommittee-w hichmusthav ereq uired
q uitealargeround tab le-mad etheirrecommend ations,theproj ectsw ent
tothePresid ent'sd eskforfinalapprov al .
Thethird d iv isionoftheorganiz ation-the Hopkinspart-w as
giv enthename WorksProgressAd ministration .Its originaltermsof
reference,asoneread sthem,arenotentirelyclear .Itw asassigned
v ariousco-ord inating,inv estigating,recommend ing,regulating and re-
portingfunctions,and Roosev eltsuggested thatitw ould b emainlya
" b ookkeeping" organiz ation .OnlyasasortofafterthoughtintheEx ecu-
tiv eOrd erestab lishingW .P.A.d id thePresid entgiv eitauthorityalsoto
" recommend and carryonsmallusefulproj ectsd esigned toassurea
max imumofemploymentinalllocalities ." Thatw asaloophole for
Hopkins-and Roosev eltw asw ellaw areofit-w hichassumed conti-
nentalproportions .Those" smallproj ects" represented anex pend iture
ev entuallyofov ertenb illiond ollars .
Suchw asthecumb ersomehighcommand oftheReliefProgram : Ickes
atthehead ofanenormouscommitteeand w ithP.W .A.asanoperating
agencyinhisDepartment; Hopkinsw ithresponsib ilityforthemillions
ofind iv id ualsonthereliefrollsand w ithW .P.A.asthemaj oroperating
agency ; and FrankWalkersq uarelyinthemid d leasChiefAccountant,
custod ianoffactsand figuresand keeperofthepeaceb etw eenthetw o

j arringNew Dealers .Thus,w iththisapparentlyov erelab orateand
d iffusesetofcontrols,Roosev eltenforced atleastthesemb lanceofhar-
monyinoperationsb ut,moreimportantly,estab lished akind ofpolitical
insuranceforthereliefproj ects .Hecertainlyd id thisthehard w ayfor
himself,forheimposed uponhimselfapparentlystaggeringob ligations
inthemaintenanceofpersonalrelationsw ithallthed iv erseelements
inv olv ed ,includ ingorganiz ed lab orand theAmericanBankers'Associa-
; b uthew assupernallyconfid entofhisab ilitytod othis,and ev ents
prov ed thathisconfid encew asnotmisplaced .Inthefirstthreeyearsof
thisprogramsomethinglikeaq uarterofamillionind iv id ualproj ects
-rangingfromsuspensionb rid gestosew ingcircles-passed through
Walker'sofficetoIckes'committeeand thenceacrossthePresid ent's
ov ercrow d ed d eskfromw hichthev astmaj orityoftheproj ectsapprov ed
w erepassed toHopkinsw hoconv erted themintoactualmanhoursof
w ork .Theoperationofreliefw asnotalld irected b yHopkins
; there
w eresix tyd ifferentagenciesinv olv ed ,includ ingofcourseP
.W .A.and
theimportantFarmResettlementAd ministrationw hich,toHopkins'
regret,w asmov ed fromhisareaofauthorityand placed intheDepart-
mentofAgricultureund erthed irectionofRex ford Tugw ell
kinsw astheguard ianoftheentirereliefrollsand itw asthushis
responsib ilitytoseetoitthatthemillionsofd estitute,unemployed
ind iv id ualsw eregiv enw orkb ysomeagency-and hisW
.P.A.w asb y
allod d stheb iggestoftheFed eralemployersand spend ers
Atthispoint,itmayb ew ellformetoconfessthatIw asoneofthe
largenumb erofRoosev eltsupportersw ho,d uringtheNew Dealyears,
could notund erstand w hatw asthed ifferenceb etw eenW
.W .A.and w hythereshould hav eb eentw oofthemw iththesamethree
initials .Actually,thed ifferenceb etw eenthetw oorganiz ationsw as
fund amental
: itw asthed ifferenceb etw eentw oopposed philosophies ;
itw asessentiallythed ifferenceb etw eenHopkinsand Ickes
had thepointofv iew ofaw elfarew orker-thatthemainob j ectw asto
getthegreatestpossib lenumb erofpeopletow orkintheshortestpos-
sib lespaceoftimeand thattheprod uctiv ityofthew orkthattheyper-
formed w asamatterofonlysecond aryimportance .Ickeshad thepoint
ofv iew ofab usinessman( alb eitanex ceptionallylib eralone)
; heb e-
liev ed thattheb estw aytoreliev eunemploymentonalong-rangeb asis
w asto" primethepump" b ysub sid iz ingpriv ateenterpriseforthecon-
structionofmassiv e,self-liq uid atingproj ects
.Ickesw asproud ofthe
amountofheav y,d urab lematerialsthatw entintotheP
.W .A.proj ects,
suchasBonnev illeDam
; w hereasHopkinsb oasted ofthesmallper-
centageoftheW .P.A.d ollarthatw entformaterialsand theconse-
q uentlylargepercentagethatw entd irectlyintothepocketsofthe
w orkersonrelief.SincetheHopkinspointofv iew w astheonethat
prev ailed w ithRoosev elt,itw ould hav eseemed logicaltohav emerged

7 1
P.W .A
.A.and thereb yend theconfusion ; b utifthishad b een
d one,Ickesw ould und oub ted lyhav eresigned inacloud ofsulphur,and
Roosev eltw asalw aysread ytogotoalmostanylengthstoforestalla
resignationinhisow nofficialfamily .
Itw as( and ,asthisisw ritten,stillis)Ickes'conv ictionthatthe
confusionofinitialsw asd elib erate,thatHopkinspicked W .P.A.for
hisnew organiz ation,instead ofrev iv ingtheformer C.W .A
., sothat
thepub licw ould initsalphab eticb ew ild ermentgiv ehimcred itfor
theachiev ementsofP.W .A.Bethatasitmay,therecanb enod oub t
thattheinterminab lecriticismsofHopkins'" leaf-raking" proj ectshad
gotund erhisskinand hesoughttod ev elopproj ectsw hichcould b e
pointed tow ithprid easoflastingv aluetothenation .Thisled toanew
formofcutthroatcompetitionb etw eenHopkinsand Ickes : w henthe
possib ilityofanimportantnew proj ectappeared -forex ample,the
reconstructionand mod erniz ationofthesew agesysteminAtlanta,
Georgia-therew ould b ew arfareb etw eenP .W .A.and W .P.A
sessionofit.Therew ould b epoliticalmaneuv ering,propagand acam-
paigns,lob b yingamongtheGeorgiad elegationintheCongress,etc.,
untilthed isputehad tob ereferred totheharassed umpire,Frank
Walker,w how ould usuallyrend erw hatIckeshasd escrib ed asa
" Solomonianv erd ict," giv inghalfoftheproj ecttoeachagency
thisd ecisionusuallysatisfied neithercontestant,thed isputew ould end
w ithb othIckesand Hopkinsex ecutingsw eepsaround Walker'sflanks
tothePresid enthimself,and hew ould b eforced tod ecid ew hichof
them'w ould enj oytheprestigetob ed eriv ed fromlayingthesew erpipes
( InthecaseoftheAtlantaproj ect,itw asIckesw how onout
; b ut
Hopkinsw asnotoftenthusd efeated .)
Inthisconnection,Iintrud eapersonalrecollectionofRoosev eltw hich
fix ed itselfinmymemoryasarev elationofoneofthefacetsofhis
incomprehensib lecharacter
.Earlyinthew arIhad b eenonalongair-
planeflighttov isitoneoftheremoteoutpostsoftheOfficeofWar
InformationOv erseasBranchofw hichIw asd irector .Thereturntrip
w asv eryroughand Igotthesensationinmyearsthatonesometimes
hasaftersw imming.Aftermyreturn,Ispentthew eekend atShan-
gri-la,Roosev elt'sretreatintheMaryland hills
.Iw asstillinclining
myhead and shakingit,asthoughtopourthew ateroutofmyears
ThePresid entasked w hatw asthematterw ithme
.Itold himab outthe
long,b umpytrip .
" Id id n'tknow you'd b eenaw ay," hesaid
." Whatd id yougothere
( or? "
Iex plained thattherehad 'b eentroub leinouroutpostofficeand Ihad
.Ihastened toad d ,tothePresid ent
oftheUnited States,thatthemaninq uestionw asnotinanyw ayd is-
j ob
.Roosev eltlooked atmew iththatex pressionofw id e-eyed innocence
thathecould alw aysassumeand asked ," And d id youfirehim? "
" Yes,sir," Isaid .
Hisface'now ex pressed w ond eringincred ulity.
" How d id youd oit? " heasked .
Myansw erw asprettylame : " Well,sir-Ij ustasked themanuptomy
hotelroom,and thenIsaid tohim,Jack-I-I'mterrib lysorry,b ut
-I'v egottoaskforyourresignation .'Fortunately,hew asv eryd ecent
ab outthew holethingand resigned ."
Roosev eltnow had anex pressionofopenamaz ementand said ," I
can'tb eliev eit.Ican'tb eliev eyouhad thecouragetofireanyb od y .I
thoughtyouw ereacompletesofty-likeme."
Thatscrapofhighlyunimportantconv ersationcanind icatew hythose
w hoknew Roosev eltw ellcould nev erimaginehimassumingtheroleof
d ictator.Hecould b eand w asruthlessand implacab lew iththosew hom
heconsid ered guiltyofd isloyalty ; b utw iththoseinhisAd ministration
w how ereinefficientorev enrecalcitrantorhopelesslyinept,b utloyal,he
w as" acompletesofty ." Hew asted precioushoursoftimeand incal-
culab leq uantitiesofenergyand ingenuitytryingtofind face-sav ingj ob s
-or" kickingupstairs" method s-forincompetentsw hoshould hav e
b eenthrow noutunceremoniously .
Roosev elt'smethod sofad ministration-typified inhishand lingof
thew orkrelieforganiz ation-w ere,tosaytheleast,unorthod ox .They
filled somepractical-mind ed ob serv ersw ithapprehensionand d ismay,
and somew ithd isgust; theyfilled othersw ithaw eand w ond er . .Iam
surethatnofinalappraisalofthemcanb emad eforalongtimetocome ;
b utthereisonethingthatcanb esaid ab outthesemethod s-w hether
theyw eregood orb ad ,sensib leorinsane,they w orked .
Whilepreparingthisb ookIinterv iew ed Harold Smith,w how as
DirectoroftheBud getfrom19 39 to19 4 6 .Smithw asamod est,method -
ical,preciseman,temperamentallyfarremov ed fromRoosev eltand
Hopkins .ButIknow ofnoonew hosej ud gmentand integrityand
d ow nrightcommonsensethePresid enttrusted morecompletely
thecourseofalongconv ersation,Smithsaid tome," Afew months
ago,onthefirstanniv ersaryofRoosev elt'sd eath,amagaz ineasked me
tow riteanarticleonRoosev eltasanad ministrator .Ithoughtitov er
and d ecid ed Iw asnot,read ytomakesuchanappraisal
.I'v eb eenthink-
ingab outitev ersince
.WhenIw orked w ithRoosev elt-forsix years
-Ithoughtasd id manyothersthathew asav eryerraticad ministrator .
Butnow ,w henIlookb ack,Icanreallyb egintoseethesiz eofhis
programs .Theyw ereb yfarthelargestand mostcomplex programsthat
anyPresid entev erputthrough .Peoplelikemew hohad theresponsib il-
ityofw atchingthepenniescould onlyseethefiv eorsix orsev enper
centoftheprogramsthatw entw rong,throughinefficientorganiz ation
ord irection .Butnow Icanseeinperspectiv etheninety-threeor-four
or-fiv epercentthatw entright-includ ingthew inningoftheb iggestw ar
inhistory-b ecauseofunb eliev ab lyskillfulQrganiz ationand d irection .
And ifIw eretow ritethatarticlenow ,IthinkI'd saythatRoosev elt
musthav eb eenoneofthegreatestgeniusesasanad ministratorthat
ev erliv ed .Whatw ecould n'tappreciateatthetimew asthefactthat
hew as a real artistingov ernment."
Thatw ord " artist" w ashappilychosen,foritsuggeststheq uality
ofRoosev elt'sex traord inarycreativ eimagination .Ithinkthathew ould
hav eresented theapplicationofthew ord asimplyingthathew asan
impracticald reamer ; helov ed torepresenthimselfasaprestid igitator
w hocould amaz eand amusetheaud ienceb y" pullinganotherrab b itout
ofai'at." Buthew asanartistand nocanv asw astoob igforhim.
Hew asalso,ofcourse,amasterpolitician,and mostartistsarecer-
tainlynotthat; b ut,b ythesametoken,yourarelyfind aprofessional
politicianw how ould makethemistakeofb eingcaughtintheactof
creatinganoriginalid ea .Thecomb inationofthetw oq ualitiesinRoose-
v eltcanb ed emonstrated b ythefactthatitreq uired asoaringimagination
toconceiv eLend Leaseand itreq uired theshrew d estkind 'ofmanipula-
tiontogetitpassed b ytheCongress .
Itw asoftensaid b yb usinessmend uringtheRoosev eltAd ministra-
tionthat" Whatw eneed intheWhiteHouseisagood b usinessman ."
ButintheyearsoftheSecond World Wartherew ereagreatmany
patriotic,pub lic-spirited b usinessmenw how enttoWashingtontorend er
importantserv icetotheircountryand theylearned thatgov ernmentis
aw eird w orld b earinglittleresemb lancetoanythingtheyhad prev iously
know n-aw orld inw hichtheonlycompetitiv estrugglew asforauthor-
ityand prestigeinstead offorprofits
.Themoreanalyticaloftheseb usi-
nessmencametotheconclusionthatitw asnoaccid entthatnotoneof
thegreatorev enab ov e-av eragePresid entsinAmericanhistoryhad b een
trained inb usiness .( Ab rahamLincolnoncetried torun
a grocerystore
and failed d ismally
.Thereafter,henev ertried commerceagainb utw ent
w hereheb elonged -intopolitics .)
Therew ereev ensomeb usinessmenw hoob serv ed thattheNew Deal
w asnotw hattheyhad feared ittob e : theprologuetoCommunismin
.Itw as,infact,asRoosev eltconceiv ed itand cond ucted it,a
rev olutionoftheRight,risinguptofightinitsow nd efense
oneelectionafteranotherd uringhisAd ministration,hisb itteroppo-
nentsraised thecharge," IfThatManw ins-thisw illb ethelastfree
electionev erheld inthiscountry," freeelectionssomehow managed to
continueand morev otersthanev erw enttothepolls,giv ingnoev id ence
w hatsoev erthattheyw ereforced thereb yb ayonetpointscompelling
themtov oteinstrictob ed iencetotheDemocratic( orCommunist)
.Ithinkthattheb eststatementonthissub j ectw asw rittenb y

Gerald W .Johnsonin Roosev elt: DictatororDemocrat? Speakingof
Roosev eltasatrad itionalAmerican,hew rote
Nomanhasshattered morepreced ents .Nomanhastornd ow n
moreancientstructures .Nomanhasaltered morerapid lyand rad i-
callythew holeAmericanschemeofthings .Yetnomanb eliev esmore
implicitlythattheb uild ingofAmericaw as,onthew hole,apretty
good j ob .
Peopletow homthisseemsd oub tfulshould pond erthefactthat
nob od yhasb eenmoreb itterlyd isappointed inMr
.Roosev eltthan
theex tremerad icals .NoRepub licanhasd enounced himw ithsuch
inv ectiv easHueyLongused topouroutforhoursintheSenate .The
crustiestmemb eroftheUnionLeagueClub hasnev erhurled athim
suchob j urgationsastheCommunistpressused constantlyuntilsud -
d enlyitb ecameapparentthatw hereasheneed ed themnotatall, they
need ed himd esperately.Thereasonforthisrad icalhatred isnotfar
.Itarisesfromthefactthathew hotheyhad hoped w ould b e
theex ecutionerofcapitalism,b ecauseheapplied theknifetoitruth-
lessly,mayb e,infact,asurgeon,fromw hoseoperationscapitalism
mayemerge,notd ead ,b utstrongerthanev erand possessed ofare-
new ed leaseoflife.Therad icalsmaynotb ecertainofthis,b utthey
certainlyfearit,and theirfearsarepatentlyw ell-found ed . . . .
Callitw hatyouw ill,callitpatriotism,orcallitmerelyanintelli-
gentinterestintheperpetuationand b ettermentofthenation, a d esire
toimprov eupontheex istingsystemisthev eryantithesisofad esire
tod emolishit
Prid einit,prid ethatgoestothepointofcond oning
ev enthosev illainiesthroughw hichgreat,thingsw ered one,iscertainly
notlikelytob efruitfulofad esiretod emolishit.Thepoliticalex trem-
istmayb ethemosthonestofmen,b utheisalw aysad espairingman .
Nomatterhow b righthisv isionoftheid ealsocialord ermayb e,his
v iew oftheex istingord erishopeless ; and thatgiv esrisetohisw ish
tod emolishit.
Now FranklinD .Roosev elthasb eencalled manythingsinthe
courseofalongpoliticalcareer,b utitisnotonrecord thatanyone
hascalled himad espairingman
Thenond espairingq uality-thisq ualityofeffulgentfaithinthepeo-
ple-illuminated theNew Deal .ThecriticsoftheNew Deal,inthe
faceofRoosev elt'stremend ouselectoraltriumphs,could j ustifythem-
selv esonlyb yconclud ingthatthemassesoftheAmericanpeoplew ere
laz y,shiftless,ne'er-d o-w ellpanhand lersw how ould v oteforanyd ema-
goguew hopromised themahand out
.Thestand ard cartooninthecon-
serv ativ epresspictured themanonW
.P.A.reliefasahopelessd erelict
leaningonashov el,and theyoungmanorw omanw horeceiv ed aid
fromtheNationalYouthAd ministrationasacynicalRed and the
farmerw hob enefited fromRuralResettlementasapieceofcontempt-
ib lew hitetrash ; b utmorethantw entymillionsofAmericancitiz ens

w ereattimesd irectlyd epend entonreliefand immeasurab lymanymore
-contractors,manufacturers,w holesalers,shopkeepers,land lord s,etc
-w ereind irectlyd epend ent
.Thus,Roosev elt'sopponentsw ere,ineffect,
giv ingmortalinsulttoalargesectionoftheAmericanpeopleand w ere
thereb yhelpingtoid entifyhimasthechampionofthepeople'sd ignity .
Asitturned out,thisb ecameagreatassettoournationalsecurity
w henw arcame,theex traord inaryprestigeand popularityofFranklin
D .Roosev eltw asthemostpow erfulw eaponinourarsenal .
Thereisnoev id encethatHarryHopkinshad anyid ea,certainlynot
b eforetheMunichcrisisofSeptemb er,19 38 ,thathew ashelpingto
prepareand cond itionthecountryforw ar
.But,d espitetheprohib itions
againstanymilitaryactiv itiesw hichhad b eenw rittenintotheWorkRe-
liefBill,W .P.A.accomplished agreatd ealofconstruction-airports,
highw ays,b rid ges,etc.-thathad d elib eratelystrategicimportance .In
theb eginningsofthew orksprogram,Hopkinsencountered greatd iffi-
cultyinmeetingengineeringprob lems
.Heand hisenthusiasticstaff
w erelongonund erstand ingofhumanneed sb utshortontechnicalknow l-
ed ge,and itw asd ifficulttoemploycompetentciv ilianengineersatthe
civ ilserv icew agescale
.Oneoftheprincipalex ecutiv esin W.P.A.,
ColonelLaw renceWestb rook,areserv eofficer,urged Hopkinstob or-
row personnelfromthecorpsofengineersoftheArmy .Hopkinsw asat
firstcooltothissuggestion ; heknew nothingoftheArmyand w asin-
clined tob esuspiciousofallb rasshats,feelingthattheyw ould hav eno
sympathyw iththesociologicalpurposesofrelief .But,ascriticismof
.multiplied ,and afteroneespeciallyglaringex ampleofb ad en-
gineeringhad mad ethehead lines,Hopkinstold Westb rooktogoahead
and seew hathecould d oab outgettinganArmyofficertoserv easChief
EngineerofW.P.A.Roosev eltapprov ed ofthisand theWarDepart-
ment,w ithsomereluctance,agreed tolend Hopkinstheserv icesof
.Harrington,w how asthenstud yingattheEcoled e
.Harringtonremained w ithW .P.A.untilhisd eathin
19 4 oand d id amemorab lej ob .Westb rookhasw ritten :
Forthefirsttw omonthsafterHarringtonreported ,Hopkinssaw
v erylittleofhim.Hew asnotev eninv ited tosomeofthemostim-
portantstaffmeetings .Harringtonpitched intohisw ork,how ev er,
w ithgreatz ealand b egantogetrealresults
.Itookev eryopportunity
tob ringHopkinsand Harringtontogether,and finallyHopkinsb egan
torealiz ethelatter'sgreatw orthand potentialities
Therestofthestoryisw ellknow n
.Withinsix monthsafterHar-
ringtonreported ford uty,hehad Armyengineersinev eryregion
and manyassigned toimportantspecificproj ects .Theirw orkw as
ex cellentand Hopkinsgav ethemfullcred it.
Thereisnod oub tthattheex periencegained b yengineerofficers
inW .P.A
.played alargepartinq ualifyingthemfortheoutstand ing

partsthatsomanyofthemplayed inWorld WarII.Furthermore,
theex perienceofHopkinsw iththeseofficersgav ehimaknow led ge
oftheArmythathecould nothav eotherw isepossessed ,and ,Ithink,
prepared thew ayfortheclosecooperationthatw assoeffectiv ed ur-
ingWorld WarII
.Marshallb ecameDeputyChiefofStaffin
19 38
hemad eaconsid erab lestud yoftheReliefProgramasithad af-
fected theArmy .Hed iscov ered thatW
.P.A.and P.W .A.b etw eenthem
had spentab out$25 0
millionsonWarDepartmentproj ects .Thisfigure
mayseemd iminutiv e,b utitlooked tremend ousatthetime
.( Itw asnot
farfromtheav erageannualex pend iturefortheWarDepartmentfor
thepreced ingfifteenyears ;
w hichind icatestheaw fulaptnessofthestate-
mentthat,inpeacetime," w eAmericanstreatourArmylikeamangy
old d og
." )Whenhesaw w hatopportunitiestheReliefProgramhad of-
fered -and particularlyw henhetalked toofficersw hohad b eenasso-
ciated w ithW .P.A
.-GeneralMarshalld eplored theex tenttow hichthe
WarDepartmenthad failed totakefullad v antageoftheseopportunities
b utitseemed thatsomeoftheaginggeneralshad b eentooafraid ofthe
Congressionalcriticismtheymightincuriftheyb ecameinv olv ed in
d ealingsw ithsuchv ulgar,rad icalfellow sasHopkins .Marshallhimself
nev erhad anysuchq ualms .
AmongtheArmyengineersw hocameintoW
.P.A.w ereBrehonB.
Somerv ell,w how asCommand ingGeneraloftheArmyServ iceForces
intheSecond World War,and therew eremanyothersw homMarshall
marked forad v ancement
InitsissueofMay16 ,
19 4 2, the Army and Nav yRegister said :
19 35
19 39 ,
w henregularappropriationsforthe
armed forcesw eresomeager,itw astheW .P
.A.w orkerw hosav ed
manyArmypostsand Nav alstationsfromliteralob solescence .
tantthanthev astw orksofstrategicimportanceb uiltb yW
.P.A.und er
thed irectionofArmyengineers-w erethethingsthatw eresav ed from
ob solescencew ithinthereliefw orkersthemselv es,includ ingtheirself-
respectand theiressentialpatriotismand ,mostimportantly,theirskills
ThePresid entialBees
OMEofHopkins'associatesrecallthatitw asearlyin
19 35
firstb egantoconsid erthepossib ilitythathemightb ecomeacand i-
d ateforthePresid ency-not,ofcourse,in19 36 ,w henRoosev eltw ould
surelyrunforasecond term,b utin19 4 0 ,w henRoosev eltw ould retire
Itw astakenforgranted b yev eryoneintheAd ministration,thePresi-
d entinclud ed ,thatthesecond termw ould b ethelast,one
.Few ifany
w erethosew hocould conceiv ethatthepressureofw orld ev entsmight
b ecomestrongenoughtob reakthethird termtrad ition,althoughsome
ofRoosev elt'sopponentscharged repeated lythathew asplottingtomake
himselfpermanentd ictator
.SofarasIknow ,thereisnoactualproof
thatHopkinshad thePresid entialb eeinhisb onnetb efore19 36 b ut,as
hasb eenseen,hew asanex tremelyamb itiousmanand oncehehad
estab lished apositionforhimselfhestarted restlesslytolooktow ard the
nex tstepupw ard .
Hew asb ecomingincreasinglyprominentasafront-pagefigureand
increasinglyclosetothePresid ent.and toMrs
.Roosev elt,w how asun-
d oub ted lymored eeplyinterested intheReliefProgramthaninanyother
phaseofgov ernmentactiv ities .Inherconstant,tirelesstripsab outthe
country( thesub j ectofsomanyrepetitiousj okesatthattime)her
principalconcernw asw iththe" ill-housed ,ill-clad ,ill-nourished ," the
b eneficiariesofthew orkthatHopkinsw asd oing,and itw asthisw ork
thatsheb roughtrepeated lytoherhusb and 'sattention
toRoosev eltw ereHopkins'repeated ,w id elypub liciz ed fightsw ith
v ariousd ignitariesintheStates-HueyLongofLouisiana,GeneTal-
mad geofGeorgia,WilliamLangerofNorthDakota,MartinDav eyof
Ohio-forinthesetheFed eralGov ernmentappeared asthechampion
ofprob ityand theStateauthoritiesasplayersofpolitics .
OnMarch15 ,Hopkinsnoted

The Ohio politicians hav e b een raising campaignfund sthru out
officew hichpleasesmenotatall.
And thenex td ay
Theev id enceiscompleteonOhio-thepoliticalb oysw enttoofar
thistripand Ishalltakegreatd elightingiv ingthemthe" w orks ."
Tooktheev id encetothePresid entthismorning-hew anted toget
intothescrapand asked metopreparealetterforhimtosigntome
-instructingmetotakeov erthestate .Helatersigned itand approv ed
oneofmyow nw hichw asprettyhot.ThePresid entd oesn'ttakea
w eektod ecid ethingslikethisnord oesheneed thead v iceofthe
politicians-infactnoonew asconsulted ab outanactionw hichw ill
throw intotheashcanaDemocraticGov ernorand hispoliticalma-
chine .InfactIthinktheb ossliked theid eaoftheirb eingDemocrats .
Dav eyb lasted Hopkinsasone" w hocould b eex pected toteard ow n
theDemocraticParty ." ButHopkinssaid ," Politicshasnob usinessin
reliefand w herev eritgetsin,w eintend togetrid ofitd amned fast."
Ofcourse,Roosev eltw asw ellaw arethatsuchpub licityw asex tremely
helpfultotheDemocraticparty-or,atanyrate,tohisow nAd ministra-
tionw hichw ould facetheelectoratethenex tyear-and itw asd oingno
FarlesspleasingtothePresid entw eretheincreasingreportsofb ick-
eringsb etw eenHopkinsand Ickes
.Heliked fights,b utnotw ithinhis
ow nofficialfamily .Afterthetriumv iratecommand ingtheWorkRelief
Programw asformed inthespring,and d espitethepacifyinginfluenceof
FrankWalker,theHopkins-Ickes" feud " receiv ed moreand moreat-
tention.OnJuly3Roosev eltissued astatementspellingoutin d etail
thed iv isionofresponsib ilityb etw eenthetw o : roughly,Ickesw asto
hand letheproj ectscostingind iv id uallymorethan$25 ,ooo, Hopkins
thosecostinglessthanthat.Withtheresultthatw henW .P.A.und er-
tooktob uild amillion-d ollarhighw ay,orairport,thej ob w ould b ed i-
v id ed onpaperintofortyseparateproj ects .
Attheend ofSeptemb er,Roosev eltw entonatripw hichtookhim
acrossthecountryand then,againab oard thecruiser Houston, toCocos
Island and b ackthroughthePanamaCanal.Onthistriphetookalong
b othIckesand Hopkins,tocompeltheq uarrelsomeb oystolearntofish
and tolov eeachother .
Intheship'spaper, TheBlueBonnet, d uringthiscruise,appeared the
follow ingnew sitemund erthehead ing" Buried atSea"
Thefeud b etw eenHopkinsand Ickesw asgiv enad ecentb urial
tod ay .Withflagsathalfmast. . . thePresid entofficiated atthesolemn
ceremonyw hichw etrustw illtakethesetw ob ab iesoffthefrontpage
Hopkins,asusual,w asd ressed inhisimmaculateb lues,b row nsand
1 9 4 1

w hites,hisfinefiguremakingaprettysightw iththemoon-d rifted sea
intheforeground .
Ickesw orehisconv entionalfad ed grays,MonaLisa smileand
carried hisstampcollection . . . .
Hopkinsex pressed regretattheunkind thingsIckeshad said ab out
himand Ickesonhispartpromised tomakeitstronger-onlymore
so-assoonashecould getastenographerw how ould takeitd ow n
ThePresid entgav ethemaheartyslapontheb ack-pushingthem
b othintothesea
." Fullsteamahead ," thePresid entord ered .
Ofcourse,thatparticularb itofshipb oard b ad inagecould hav eb een
w rittenb ynooneb utthePresid enthimself .Itprov id esprettygood
ev id enceofthekind ofj oshinghumorthatprev ailed intheRoosev elt
entourage-humorsuggestiv eoftheatmosphereoftheElks'Club rather
thanofapotentialBerchtesgad enorKremlin
Duringthisgaycruise,onashipthatw astogotoitsd eathinthe
Jav aSeasix yearslater,Roosev eltreceiv ed new sofMussolini'sattack
onEthiopia,theb eginningoftheseriesofEuropeanFascistaggressions .
Noluckatfishingthoitw asagorgeousd ay .Ithinkw ew ereout
toofarfortherestofthepartyd id fairlyw ell
.Backatsix .
Thisev eningcocktailsasusual-PaWatsond oingthehonorsw ith
w hatappeared tob epow erfulMartinis .ThePresid entw asirritated
b ecausetheStateDepartmentw anted tohold uphisNeutrality'procla-
mationand d uringd innerw rotethenoteatthetab leinstructingits
.TheDepartmenthad w anted toaw aittheLeague's
actionb utF.D .R.w ould hav enoneofit
.Hew anted toactfirst." They
ared roppingb omb sonEthiopia-and thatisw ar
.Whyw aitfor
Mussolinitosayso ." ThePresid entsaid thatw orld sympathyw as
clearlyw ithEthiopia
.Hiscertainlyare .Hescanned thenew s d is-
patchesand ev erythingfav orab letoEthiopiab roughtaloud " Good ."
Hew entov erthelargew armapsw ithgreatcare-places ev ery
importanttow n-therailroad sand themountainsand riv ers .Tob ed
early .
OnreturningtoWashington,Hopkinsw rotetohisb rotherLew is
Iamj ustb ackfromthetripand aminnomood tod oanyw ork .I
terrib lysorrythatthetripoutw estd id notmaterializ e,b utthe
Presid entatthelastmomentasked metogow ithhim,and ,ofcourse,
therew asnothingtod ob utgo
.Ihad aperfectlygrand time,saw a
partofthecountrythatIhad nev erv isited b efore,and amreally
rested .
Ifitw ould pleaseyouanytoknow it,thisletterw illalsoad v iseyou
thatw earegoingtogetourfullq uotaofmentow orksometimein
Nov emb er .Ithasb eenatoughj ob load ed d ow nw ithgov ernmentred
tapeofar_ almostunb eliev ab lev ariety .Theyhav etied pinkrib b onson
ev erythingb utthetelephonepolesand mayhav etod othatyet!
ThePresid entgotagreatreceptionev eryw herehew entand unless
theRepub licanscantrotoutsomeb od yb etterthananyIhav eseen
suggested ,Ithinkthereisnoq uestionb utthathew illb ere-elected .
Formyow npart,how ev er,Ihav enod esiretoremaininGov ernment
serv iceforev er .Don'tb esurprised ifyouhearofmygettingoutsome-
timeb eforeanotheryearisout. . . .
Justw hathemeantb ythislasthint,Id onotknow .Hispoliticalac-
tiv itiesw ereconstantlyincreasingand theyw erenotthoseofaman
w hostillconsid ered himselfatransientingov ernment.How ev er,hew as
alsosufferingmoreand moreillhealth ; hehad d ev eloped ad uod enal
ulcerw hichresulted intheimpositionforaw hileofrigid d ietand total
ab stinenceand heprob ab lyhad d espairingmood s .Hew ascertainly
b ecominglesstolerantofthemountingattacksagainstW .P.A.and
himselfpersonallyand thew isecracksw ithw hichheretaliated w ere
sharpand w ellaimed b utnotalw ayspolitic.Hopkinslacked thegiftfor
picturesq ueinv ectiv epossessed b yHarold Ickesand GeneralHugh
Johnson .Hehad neithertheab ilitynortheinclinationtofind gaud y
w ord stoex presshismeaning .Hew asad d icted tothenaked insult
HughJohnsononcew roteofhimthat" hehasamind likearaz or,a
tonguelikeaskinningknife,atemperlikeaTartarand asufficientv o-
cab ularyofparlorprofanity-w ord skosherenoughtogetb ythecensor
b utacid enoughtomakeamule-skinnerj ealous . . . .He'sj ustahigh-
mind ed HolyRollerinasemi-religiousfrenz y ." OneofthemanyStates'
Gov ernorsagainstw homHopkinsd irected hisskinningknifew asAlfred
M.Land onofKansas ; w henareportermentioned thatLand onhad
b alanced theStateb ud get,Hopkinssaid ," Oh,yeah-and heistakingit
outofthehid esofthepeople!" Thisremarkw asgiv enw id ecirculation
and und oub ted lyw asofsomehelptoLand oninw inningtheRepub lican
nominationforPresid entin19 36 ,ad ev elopmentw hichprov ed tob eno
misfortuneforRoosev elt
Thatyearof19 36 w asoneinw hichaninestimab leamountofb reath
w asex pend ed and conserv ativ eb lood pressureraised -and allofit,as
itturned out,ad d ed uptothew inningofeightelectoralv otes
.Seld om
hasthereb eenmorepoliticalpassiontolessav ail
.Anorganiz ation
know nastheLib ertyLeaguew asformed tomob iliz eapopularcrusad e
againsttheNew Deal,b utthisLeagueassumed theaspectofav eritab le
caricatureofcapitalismatitsmostreactionary .Itsprincipalspokesman,
sad lyenough,w astheemb ittered Alfred E
.Smithw hohad b eenHop-
kins'( and Roosev elt's)heroinlib eralpolitics
.ATalb urtcartoonofthe
timeshow ed how the" TopekaTornad o" ( Land on)had b low nAlSmith,
Herb ertHoov erand WilliamRand olphHearstintothesamestew pan .

8 1
Theforcesofreactionw eremakingd esperateattemptstore-formtheir
linesb ehind therespectab leb utunex citingLand onand theirprincipal
hopew astoid entifytheNew Dealw ithMoscow inthepub licmind .
Theepithets" Communist" and " Bolshev ik" w erehurled attheRoose-
v eltAd ministrationand mostofallatHopkins,w how asgranted the
d ub ioussatisfactionofseeinghimselfand hisw orkprogramb ecomea
v iolentissueinthecampaign
.TheWashingtoncorrespond entofthe
DailyOklahoman w rote
No . 2
manintheUnited StatesGov ernmentj ustnow issaltyHarry
Hopkins,cz arofallhesurv eysinthereliefw orld and confid anteof
Presid entRoosev elt.
Althoughhehold snocab inetpost,d espitethefactthathisj ob is
" temporary" and notov erlookingtheclassificationofhisd epartment
as" emergency" -thescrappyHopkinshold smorepow erinhishand s
thanalmostanyothermanb esid ethePresid ent.
InaSenated eb ateov eranew $I/ b illionappropriationforw ork
relief,SenatorDickinson,aRepub licanofHopkins'nativ estateof
Iow a,ex plod ed
IfCongresspassesthisb illgiv ingHopkinsthishugeamount,w e
w illb eraisinganAmericanCaesarinourmid st.Thisb illissimplya
. . .
.Hehashiseyeonthepresid ency .Thisisa
laud ab leamb ition,b utIamagainsthisusingthetax payers'moneyto
b uild apoliticalmachine .Theuseofpub licmoneyinpoliticsisa
nationalscand al .
The ChicagoTrib une used amasthead and pub lished alead ed itorial
w hichHopkinshad enlarged and framed .Und ertheb old -faced head ing,
" TurntheRascalsOut," itsaid
Mr .Hopkinsisab ull-head ed manw hosehighplaceintheNew
Dealw asw onb yhisab ilitytow astemoremoneyinq uickertimeon
moreab surd und ertakingsthananyothermischiev ousw itinWash-
ingtoncould thinkof
Inthe AkronTimesPress and manyothernew spapersthroughoutthe
countryappeared a politicalad v ertisementfeaturingaphotographofan
anonymous " W .P.A. w orker," w hob oreastrikingresemb lancetoone
ofthosead v ertisingphotographer'smod elsw hoappearov erand ov er
againasgenialrailroad engineers( proud lyd isplayingtheirsplit-second
accuracyw atches)orasgenialforemen( pointingtomanhourssav ed ) .
Thehead ingofthis" statement" b ya " W .P.A
w orker" w as,
" IF
Ihad toregisterd emocratic,and getmyfriend sand relationsto
registerd emocraticOntopofthat,w ehav etosub scrib etoaNew
Q1ij cv z
FOR19 36
Only20 1d aysremaininw hichtosav e
yourcountry .
Whatareyoud oingtosav eit?
Mr.Hopkinsis a b ullhead ed manw hosehigh
placeintheNew Dealw as w onb y his ab ility
w astemoremoneyinq uickertimeonmore,ab
surd und ertakingsthananyothermischiev ous
w itinWashingtoncould thinkof
.Thescand al
ofthepoliticalmanipulationoffund sund erhis
controlisgrow ingand toitmayb ead d ed the
scand aloftheuncared ford estitute.
19 4 1

8 3
Dealpoliticalpaper,and kickinev erytimesomeonew antstosella
tickettoapoliticalshind ig
.And w ed oit or else . . . . Thew hole
troub leisw iththeb ossesputinb ytheNew Deal,notoneinahund red
know sw hatheisd oing
orw hy . Butyoucan'tb lamethem.They
w eren'tputonthej ob tolaysew ersorfix highw ays
.Theirrealtrad e
ispolitics,and b eliev eme,theyw orkitallthetime
.Coughlin,w how aslaterto
b ecomeoneofthearchisolationists,d enounced Roosev eltas" ascab
Presid ent" lead ing" agreatscab army ."
Variousnew spapersprinted eachd aythefearsomew arning," Only
27( or13,or3)mored aystosav etheAmericanWayofLife
Hopkinssentrepeated ,elab orateinstructionstoallW .P
formingallw orkersontherollsthattheyw erenottob eintimid ated in
anyw ay,shapeormannerb ypoliticians,norcompelled toind icatesup-
portofanypoliticalpartyorcand id ate,ortocontrib utetoanycampaign
fund s-and that,onelectiond ay,theyw eretov oteastheypleased
Thesenotificationshad somepatheticallyhumorousconseq uences,par-
ticularlyintheSouthernStates,w henW
.P.A.w orkersw hocould not
afford topaythepolltax w enttothepollsand d isplayed lettersfromthe
Honorab leHarryL
.Hopkinsw hich,theyfelt,gav ethemfullauthority
tov ote .
Hopkinsspentalargepartof19 36 ontheroad ,b eatingthed rumfor
W.P.A.and forRoosev elt
.Hisinnumerab lespeechesw erenotprepared
-sothattherew erenoread ingcopies-and w ereconsid ered insuffi-
cientlyimportanttob ereported atlengthintheoratory-crow d ed press .
Butatoneofthem,inLosAngeles,atranscriptw asmad eb ystenog-
.A.officethenund erthed irectionofColonel
Donald H .ConnollyoftheArmyengineers
.Hopkinsstarted offw ithone
ofthosej okesthatarecalculated togetanaud ienceintoaw armly
amiab lemood
Igained six pound sthissummerand amlookingprettyw ellafter
allthethingspeoplehav ecalled me,and thereasonisId on'tw orry
anymore .Afellow told methestoryab outtheeighteen-year-old girl
thathad herfirstd ate
.Herfathersentforherand told herthere
w erecertainthingssheshould know
." Thisyoungfellow isv eryaptto
hold yourhand ,and d aughter,thatisallright
.Thenhew illw ant
toputhisarmaround you,and thatisallright
.Thenhew illw antyou
toputyourhead onhisshould er-youmustnotd othatb ecauseyour
motherw illw orry ." Sotheyounggirlw entoutand thenex tmorning
herfatherasked herhow theev eninghad gone .Shereplied ," Well,
Dad ,ev erythinghappened j ustasyousaid itw ould , '
heheld my
hand ,thenheputhisarmaround me,thenhew anted metoput
myhead onhisshould er,b utIsaid ,` Hell,no!-youputyourhead
onmyshould erand letyourmotherw orry
." . .
Iamgettingsickand tired ofthesepeopleontheW .P.A.and local
8 4
reliefrollsb eingcalled chiselersand cheats .Itd oesn'td oanygood
tocallthesepeoplenames,b ecausetheyarej ustliketherestofus .
Theyd on'td rinkanymorethantherestofus,theyd on'tlieany
more,they'renolaz ierthantherestofus-they'reprettymucha
crosssectionoftheAmericanpeople . . . .
Iw anttofinishb ysayingtw othings .Ihav enev erliked pov erty.
Ihav enev erb eliev ed thatw ithourcapitalisticsystempeoplehav eto
b epoor .Ithinkitisanoutragethatw eshould permithund red sand
hund red softhousand sofpeopletob eillclad ,toliv einmiserab le
homes,nottohav eenoughtoeat; nottob eab letosend theirchild ren
toschoolfortheonlyreasonthattheyarepoor .Id on'tb eliev eev er
againinAmericaarew egoingtopermitthethingstohappenthat
hav ehappened inthepasttopeople .Wearenev ergoingb ackagain,
inmyopinion,tothed aysofputtingtheold peopleinthealmshouses,
w henad ecentd ignified pensionathomew illkeepthemthere .Weare
comingtothed ayw henw earegoingtohav ed ecenthousesforthe
poor,w henthereisgenuineand realsecurityforev eryb od y .Ihav e
goneallov erthemoralhurd lesthatpeoplearepoorb ecausetheyare
b ad .Id on'tb eliev eit.Asystemofgov ernmentonthatb asisis
fallacious .Ithinkfurtherthanthat,thatthiseconomicsystemofours
isanid ealinstrumenttoincreasethisnationalincomeofours,notb ack
to8 ob illionw hereitw as,b utuptoz oob illionor I2o b illion .The
capitalisticsystemlend sitselftoprov id inganationalincomethat
w illgiv erealsecurityforall .
Now Iw anttosaythis,Ihav eb eenatthisthingforthreeand a
halfyears .Ihav enev erb eenapub licofficialb efore .Iw asb rought
upinthatschoolofthoughtthatb eliev ed thatnoonew entonthe
pub lic payrollex ceptforpoliticalpurposesorb ecausehew asin-
competentorunlesshehad aj ob thathed id n'tw orkat.Oneofthe
mostinsid iousthingsisthepropagand athatsomethingisw rong
ab outonethatw orksforthepeople
.Ihav elearned somethingin
thesethreeand ahalfyears .Ihav etakenalookatalotofthese
pub licserv ants .Ihav eseenthesetechnicalfellow sw orkingfor
threeorfourthousand ayear-notw orkingsev enhoursad ay
b utw orkingfifteenhoursad ay .Ihav eseenthesefellow sinthe
Armyengineercorps .Themotiv ationcan'tb emoney-theyd on't
getv erymuch.Ihav eseenthemw orkj ustashard asanyengineers
inAmericaand j ustasq ualified and j ustascompetent,and Ihav e
cometoresentanattitud eonthepartofsomepeopleinAmericaathat
youshould nev erb epartofthisb usinessofpub licserv ice .Iam
proud ofhav ingw orked fortheGov ernment.Ithasb eenagreatex -
perienceforme .Ihav esigned mynametoab out$6 ,ooo,ooo,oooin
thelastthreeand ahalfyears .Noneofithasstucktothefingersof
ourad ministrators
.Youmightthinksomeofithasb eenw asted .Ifit
hasb eenw asted itw asintheinterestoftheunemployed .Youmight
sayw ehav emad emistakes .Ihav en'tathingtoapologiz eforab out
ourso-called mistakes
.Ifw ehav emad emistakesw ehav emad ethem
intheinterestsofthepeoplethatw ereb roke .
19 4 1

8 5
Whenthisthingisallov erand IamoutoftheGov ernmentthe
thingsIamgoingtoregretarethethingsIhav efailed tod oforthe
.Id on'tknow w hetheryouw ould hav eliked thej ob
Ev erynightw henyouw enthomeand afteryougothomeand -re-
memb ered therew asatelegramyoud id n'tansw er,thefactthatyou
failed toansw erthetelegramand thetelephonecallmayhav eresulted
insomeb od ynoteating
.Thatisthekind ofaj ob Ihav ehad forthe
lastthreeand ahalfyears,and stillhav e
.Whenitisallov er,the
thingIamgoingtob eproud estofarethepeopleallov erAmerica,
pub licofficials,v olunteers,paid w orkers,thousand sofpeopleofall
politicaland religiousfaithsw hoj oined inthisenterpriseoftaking
careofpeopleinneed .Ithasb eenagreatthing
.Iamnotashamed of
oneofthemand Ihopew henIamthroughtheyarenotgoingto
b eashamed ofme,and asIgoaround thiscountryand seetheunem-
ploymentand seethepeoplew hoarerunningthisshow ofours,
Iamtremend ouslyproud ofthiscountryofoursand Iamtre-
mend ouslyproud thatIamacitiz enofit
.Thankyouv erymuch.
ColonelConnollyw rotetoHopkinstellinghimw hataprofound
impressionthisspeechhad mad e,sayingthatsomew hohad heard it
w eread v isingJimFarleythatthesamespeechshould b erepeated all
ov erthecountry
.Itisev id entthatFarleyw asnotgreatlyimpressed
b ythesereportsfor,inthefinalstagesofthecampaign,Hopkinsw as
notencouraged tomakespeeches ; infact,hew asmuz z led
selfw asatargetforcriticismatthistime-thew ord " Farleyism"
- b eing
used b ytheRepub licanstosuggestthecorruptionofpoliticalmachines .
Thus,Farleyand Hopkinsw erelinked togetherined itorialsand cartoons
astw inconspiratorsintheheinousplotto" b uy" Roosev elt'sre-election
w ithrelieffund s .Ofcourse,Farleyw asnoNew Dealeratheartand
ev entuallygained thesamed egreeofrespectab ilityasAlSmithin
conserv ativ ecircles
.Itw asthereforeparticularlygallingtohimtob e
confused inanyw ayw ithHopkinsw homheconsid ered arad icaland
w ho,hew asconv inced ,w asamaj orpoliticalemb arrassmenttothe
Presid ent.
Hopkinsmad easav agereplyontherad iotoLand on'schargesagainst
.Hesaid thatRoosev elt'sAd ministrationhad
giv enthecountry" peaceand rapid recov ery" instead of" riotsand tear
gas," thelatteracrackattheHoov erAd ministration .Hesaid theW .P.A.
w orkersshould b egiv ena" v oteofthanks" b ythenation" instead of
b einglamb asted and caricatured asab unchofslow -motionleafrakers . "
Shortlythereafter,hew ascond emned tosilenceand hesuffered mutely
d uringthelastw eeksb eforeelectionastheattacksagainsthimpersonally
and theReliefProgramingeneralincreased stead ilyinsound and infury
Atthistime,Hopkins'oneand onlyb ook, Spend ing
to Sav e, w as
pub lished .Itappearstohav eb eenlargelythew orkofghostw riters
Althoughtherev iew sofitinthepressw ere,naturally,somew hat
8 6

colored b ythepoliticalb iasofeachpaper,theyseemtohav eb eenin
themainfairand calculated tohelptheb ook'ssale .Forex ample,
Lew isGannettsaid ,intheRepub lican New YorkHerald Trib une,
" TheWorksProgressAd ministratortellshisstoryproud ly .Ithink
hehasarighttohispassionand hisprid e ." Thepro-Land on Kansas
CityTimes said ," Thechaptersonthew orkofthereliefad ministration
areimportantinrev ealingtheimaginationand thev asteffortsthat
w entintothev ariousformsofrelief .Inmanyrespects,itisaninspiring
record ." But,the Times ad d ed ," Thereisnoad missionofmistakes-and
mistakesareinev itab leinsuchahugeenterprise ; noreplytothecharges
ofpoliticalad ministration ." How ev er,thecommentsonhisliterary
outputw ereofscantinteresttoHopkins .Hew anted togetoutand
talk-and shout-and thathew asnotpermitted tod o .Itseemsrid ic-
ulousthatanyoneasw ellinformed asHopkinsw asab outsentiment
throughoutthecountryshould hav eb eliev ed foraninstantthatLand on
had achancetow in .ButpeopleinWashingtonareb ound tob ecome
j itteryasthed ayofsolemnv erd ictapproaches,forthentheyare
j ud ged and thereisnohopeofappeal .Hopkinsw asparticularlysensitiv e
b ecausethisw ashisfirstex perienceasanissueinanelection : ifthe
oppositioncould conv icthimofmalfeasanceinthepub lic'seye,hemight
b eresponsib leforthed efeatofRoosev elt,and itw ould nev erd ohim
anygood toknow thathehad actuallyb eennotguilty .
Initspollofpub licopinion,the
LiteraryDigest announced that
Land onw ould w intheelectioneasily,carrying32Statesw ith370
electoralv otes,w hileRoosev eltw ould carryonly 16 Statesw ith
16 1
electoralv otes .The LiteraryDigest, itmayb erememb ered ,had nev er
prev iouslyb eenw ronginpred ictingtheoutcomeofanationalelection .
TheGallupand theRoperPolls,thenrelativ elyunknow nq uantities,
d isagreed v iolentlyw iththeirw ell-estab lished competitor ; Gallupgav e
Roosev eltaminimumof315 and amax imumofev en" morethanthe
4 72hepolled in
19 32"
; Roperfigured thepercentages : Roosev elt--
6 1 .7,Land on-38 .3.Thefinalscoreof5 23forRoosev eltand 8 for
Land onmarked theend ofthe LiteraryDigestand thestartofsuccess-
fulcareersforGallupand Roper .
ElectionnightHopkinsand hisw ife,togetherw ithDorothyThompson,
Mrs .How ard Wilson( MissThompson'ssister),and Law renceWest-
b rookw ereintheIrid iumRoomoftheHotelSt.Regisasthereturns
w erecoming-in .MissThompson,w how asthen a columnistonthe
Herald Trib une, w asw earingaLand onsunflow er .Sow aspractically
ev eryb od yelseintheroom,w iththeob v iousex ceptionoftheHopkinses
and Westb rook .MissThompsonhasd escrib ed thissceneinaletterto
me :
Theroomw asfilled w ithmuchd ressed upsupperguestsw how ere
d ancingind imlightstoaRussianb alalaikaorchestra .Ev erysoul
19 4 1

8 7
intheroomw asob v iouslyforLand on
.Thescreenthathad b een
setupflashed ,how ev er,onlyland slid esforFDRex ceptforone
New Jerseycountyw hichhad goneov erw helminglyforLand on
Thereturnsfromthiscountyw erereported ov erand ov eragain,
ev erytimetoapplause,and Harrystarted tochuckleinhisthroat
attheid ioticw ayinw hichthemanagementw astryingtokeepup
.Finally,how ev er,thereturnsw ereallforFDR
and thed ancingRepub licanssimplyceased lookingatthescreen
When,somew herearound mid nightLand onconced ed theelection
and histelegramw asflashed onthescreen,nooneev enstopped
d ancingtolook
.Harryw hispered ," MyGod ,theyd on'tknow w hat's
goingtohitthem," and laughed outright
.Id id n'taw fullylikethis .
ButId id thinktheb ehav iorofthecrow d w aspreposterous,and
said toHarryand Law rence," Getupand proposeatoasttothe
Presid entoftheUnited States
." Harrysaid ," Here? Areyoucraz y?
We'd prob ab lyb elynched
." Iw asob stinateand insisted .Iw asn't
forRoosev elt( noragainsthim)inthatcampaign,and Harrysaid ,
slyly," Whyd on'tyoud oityourself? " Isaid ," Ifyouw on'td rink
atoasttoyourow ncand id ate,w hyshould I? " Hesaid ," Because
." Isaid ," Allright;
thinkI'mafraid ,Iw ill
." SoIgotup,rapped onmychampagne
glass,and said :
" Lad iesand Gentlemen," inasfullav oiceasIcould
.Afew peoplestopped and looked around ,and Isaid ,
liftingmyglass," Ishould liketoproposeatoasttothePresid entof
theUnited States,FranklinD
.Roosev elt
." Harry,Law rence,and
mysisterhad meanw hile,ofcourse,stood upand w eallraised oui
.Atthatmomenttheorchestraw hichhad paused fora
momentstarted toplayagainand ev eryb od ystarted tod ance,not
aneyelookinginourd irection
.Wed rankourtoastsand Harry
choked onhis,hew assoamused ,and spurted champagnej ustpast
mynose .
Ithinkthatw asthefirsttimeIw asev erreallyforRoosev elt
and ,asev erafter,itw asnotsomuchheashisopponentsw homad e
.IthoughtIhad nev erseensuchrottensportsmanship
all,thed ecisionw asmad e,thepeopleintheroomw ould hav e
: to
acceptit,sow hynotw ithb ettergrace?
Still,IthoughtHarry'sow nfeelingalittlehilariouslyv ind ictiv e
WhereasIw asperturb ed b ytheattitud eofthecrow d ,hew as
d elighted w ithimaginingthefurtherchagrinstheyw ould feelb efore
thenex tad ministrationw asov er
Id id notseeHarryforalongtimeafterthat
.Ithoughtheb ecame
progressiv elymoremellow and -tolerant
Westb rookhastold methatafterMissThompsonsatd ow n,she
" pub liclycastoffhersunflow er-forev er
." In19 4 0 ,shesupported
Roosev eltagainstherold friend ,Wend ellWillkie,and in19 4 4 she
gav easpeechforRoosev eltagainstDew eyw hichmanypeoplecon-
8 8

sid eroneofthemostpow erfuland effectiv ecampaignspeechesthey
ev erheard ov ertherad io
Thefollow ingd ayHopkinsreturned toWashington .Onthetrain
w ithhimand Mrs
.Hopkinsand " Pa" Watsonw asHelenEssary,w ho
reported inthe
WashingtonTimes thathesaid ,amongotherthings
" Whatad aythisis ! Whatad ay ! ItellyouI'mthehappiestmanin
thew orld .Iw assupposed tob ethemillstonearound thePresid ent's
neck .AmIrej oicing? AmI !"
But,inthisex pansiv emoment,hew as
farfromread ytoforgiv eand forget,toletb ygonesb eb ygones
thenex tthreeyears,hehad onepurposeinmind : tomaketheNew
Dealpermanent-and heb eliev ed thathew asthechoseninstrument
.Hecontinued topursuethat
ob j ectiv euntilthew orld 'sand hisow ngrav eillnesscompelled himto
Duringthew interof19 36 -37,therew eremanyrumorsab outWash-
ingtonthathew asgoingtoleav ethegov ernmentserv iceand accept
oneofsev eral" attractiv eoffers" frompriv ateind ustry .Itisq uite
prob ab lethattherew eresomeind ustrialistsw how ould hav epaid
Hopkinsplentytogethimoutofthegov ernment,b uthed enied the
reportsas" cockeyed ." Morereasonab lesound ingw asthepersistent
reportthatthePresid entplanned toestab lishanew Cab inetpost-a
SecretaryofPub licWelfare,orsomethinglikethat-and giv ethej ob
toHopkins .
OnJanuary15 ,19 37,w hileRoosev eltw aspreparinghisSecond
InauguralAd d ress-" Iseeonethird ofanationill-housed ,ill-clad ,ill-
nourished " -tw othousand marchers,marshaled b ytheWorkers'Alliance
ofAmerica,circled theWhiteHouse,chanting," Wed on'tw ant
promises ; w ew antj ob s
. . . .Presid entRoosev elt,keepyourpromises
. . .
Presid entRoosev elt,w e'v ej ustb eguntofight. . .
.Giv etheb ankers
homerelief ;
w ew antj ob s!" Buttheprotestsand rumorsw erew ashed
aw ayb yanotherofthenaturalcalamitiesw hichw eresentperiod ically
totestand strengthentheNew Deal
.Thegreatw atersroseinthe
v alleysoftheOhioand theMississippiand ov erflow ed theirb anks
v astprogramofemergencyreliefand rehab ilitationhad tob eorganiz ed
and putintoeffectw ithinafew d ays
.Lessthantw ow eeksafterthe
flood sstarted ,HughS.Johnsonw rote,inhiscolumn
: " Nev erinour
historyhav eone-tenthsomanypeopleb eenaffected b yagreatd isaster
and certainlynev erb eforehav eaffected peopleb eensoskilfullyre-
liev ed
." Hegav ethecred itforthistoGeneralMalinCraig,Chiefof
Staff,GeneralEd w ard Markham,ChiefoftheEngineerCorps,Ad miral
.Grayson,oftheRed Cross,and HarryHopkins,w homhe
d escrib ed as" ad oerofgood d eed s,ex ecutoroford ers,go-getter,Santa
Clausincomparab le,and priv y-b uild erw ithoutpeer,b ut
. . .
hotasareorienterofeconomicuniv erses
9 4 1

8 9
Largelyasaresultoftheshockoccasioned b ytheflood s,theCongress
appropriated nearlyab illiond ollarsforreliefd uringthenex t.fiv e
months,and therew erenomoreprotestmarchersaround theWhite
Houseforalongtime .How ev er,asthew atersreced ed ,Roosev elt
prov id ed anotherspectacularfront-pagestory,and thisw ithoutanyaid
w hatsoev erfromDiv ineProv id ence
.OnFeb ruary5 ,hepresented to
theCongress .a" PlanfortheReorganiz ationoftheJud icialBranchof
theGov ernment," w hichcameinstantlytob eknow nasthe" Supreme
CourtPackingScheme ." Thisw asthemoststartling-and ,tomany,
themostalarming-d ev elopmentofRoosev elt'sad v enturousAd minis-
tration,and itw asthefirstmaj orb attlethathelost.Ev id entlyHopkins
knew nothingab outthissud d enmov e,and had nopartinpreparing
it-hew asaw ayfromWashingtononaflood surv eytripd uringthe
w eekpreced ingtheMessage-b utassoonasitb ecameahotcontro-
v ersialissue( asitd id ,almostimmed iately)hew ascalled uponto
d efend itov ertherad io .Inhisb road castonMarch1, Hopkinssaid :
Itisaplainfactatthepresenttimethatunlessthecomplex ionof
theSupremeCourtcanb echanged ,tw oorthreeeld erlyj ud gesliv ing
incloistered seclusionand thinkingintermsofab ygoned aycan
b locknearlyalltheeffortsofapopularlyelected Presid entand a
popularlyelected Congresstocorrecttheseills
. . . .
Thosew ho
opposethisplanarenotafraid for d emocracy .Theyareafraid of
d emocracy .
How ev er,Hopkins'd efenseoftheSupremeCourtplanw asmad e
merelyinthelineofd utyand ofunq uestioningloyalty .Tw oyears
later,onav isittoWarmSprings,hew roteamemorand uminlonghand ,
d escrib ingaconv ersationhehad w ithThomasJ .Corcoraninw hichhe
learned oftheb ackground oftheSupremeCourtfight
.Hopkinsq uoted
Corcoranassayingthat,afterhisfamous" Horseand b uggy" press
conference,thePresid entw asthoroughlyaroused " and d etermined
toprev ent" theCourtfromb lockingw hatheb eliev ed tob ethev ery
fund amentalsofourd emocracy .TheCourt,inhisopinion,w as" prej -
ud iced and d eliv eringopinionsb ased ontheiroutmod ed political
philosophies ." Hopkinscontinued hisq uotationofCorcoran
Cummings[HomerS.Cummings,thenAttorneyGeneral]d is-
cov ered thatMcReynold s,ourb itterestopponentontheCourt,had
w hileAttorneyGeneralintheWilsonAd ministrationproposed a
schemetoprov id esub stitutesforj ud gesw how ered isab led .Cum-
mingsb roughtthisto .theWhiteHouse-receiv ed thePresid ent's
approv aland w astold tow orkv eryconfid entiallyw ithRichb ergon
amessagetoCongress .Cummingsprepared thefirstd raft-b ut
Richb ergad d ed thev enom.Noonesaw thed raftortherew ritingso
farasIknow b utCummings-Richb ergand SamRosenman .The
latteracq uainted mew ithsomeofthestatementsw hichIw assure
9 0

w erew rong-notab lytheoneab outthecrow d ingoftheCourtcalen-
d ar-Itried toseethePresid enttocautionhim
. . . b utRosenman
said thePresid entw asd etermined tosend themessageatonce
d id getintoseehimthemorningthemessagew enttothehill-I
urged himtotellBrand eisinad v ance,hopingtosoftentheb low on
him-thePresid enttold metoseehimatonce-Icrashed thesacred
rob ingroom-hew alked w ithmeinthehallw hiletheb alanceofthe
Courtfiled b y-notknow ingoftheb omb shellthatw asaw aiting
.Brand eisasked metothankthePresid entforlettinghimknow
b utsaid hew asunalterab lyopposed tothePresid ent'sactionand
thathew asmakingagreatmistake
ThefightintheSenatew asb ungled fromtheb eginning-the
messageitselfw asw eak-w ehad noad eq uatelineofcommunication
w iththelead ers-thePresid ent'smessengersw ereincompetentand
perhapsd isloyal
.Itried tokeepSenatorWheelerinlineb uthehated
Cummingsand w alked outonus .Wemissed acompromisew hen
thatcould hav eb eenaccomplished -Cummingsand Richb ergw ere
ad v isingthePresid enttostand patalthoneitherofthemhad any
influenceintheSenateand infactcompletelymisj ud ged thesenti-
mentofthatb od y
.Cummingsw entforaholid ayrightinthemid d le
.Id on'tb eliev ew ew ould hav ew onthecompromiseev en
thoJoeRob insonhad liv ed
.Agrand id eaw aslostb y . . .
b ad political
strategy .
Tow hichHopkinsad d ed afootnote
NeitherTommyCorcoranorBenCohenhad anythingmuchtod o
w iththeCourtfight
.Tommyb eliev ed theCourtshould hav esimply
b eenenlarged b ythreememb ers
.OncethePresid entmov ed Tommy
and Bend id w hattheycould b utCummingsand Richb ergw ere
j ealousofallotherlegalad v iceand keptTommyatarm'slength
Inthespringof19 37,intherancorousatmosphereprod uced b ythe
Courtfight,Hopkinsw entb eforetheCongressw ithareq uestforan-
otherappropriation .Hereceiv ed aslapfromtheHouseofRepresenta-
tiv es,w hichinserted aclauseintheBillcuttinghissalaryfromtw elv e
totenthousand d ollarsayear
.The BaltimoreSun commented onthis
Itw asatemarkab leoutb urstintheHouseyesterd aythatcut
$12,0 0 0 to$io,ooo .Thisw aspurespite,
forw hatisasav ingof $2,ooo
ayearinaj ob likethat?
Butw hiletheb usinesshas no
significantasrev ealingtheemotionalstateofmemb ers
hateHopkinsw ithafrantichatred w hentheyared riv entod oas
child ishathingascutting $2,0 0 0 offhissalarytoex presstheiranger
and resentment.
Nomemb erv oiced onthefloortherealreasonforthisfeeling
tow ard Hopkins,b utthereisnomysteryab outit.TheyhateHopkins
b ecausetheyareafraid ofhim; and theyareafraid ofhimb ecause
19 4 1

9 1
they think he
capab le
ofb uild ingupanorganiz ationintheir
ind iv id uald istrictstofightthem,iftheyd onotv oteaccord ingto
hisord ers .
Thereisaw id espread b eliefamongmemb ersthatHopkinsisa
v ind ictiv eman
.Whetherthisistrueorfalsemakeslittled ifference ;
foraslongasmemb ersb eliev eittheyw illactontheb elief
q uestionab lythisfeelinghad somethingtod ow iththe" ear-marking"
thatturned thereliefb illintoapork-b arrel,and itislikelyto
influencelegislationinmanyw ays
.Itisonefactorthatmustb ekept
inmind b yanyonew hohopestound erstand thecourseoftheHouse
d uringtheremaind erofthesession .
Lessob j ectiv eincommentonthissalaryslashw ascolumnistFranklyn
Waltmanofthe Washington Post. Hesaid
Nothingthathashappened around hereinalongtimehasgiv en
. . . itw asapleasantsighttoseesomeoneslap
thesmartaleckyHarryHopkinsd ow n .
19 37,
av otehostiletoHopkinsintheCongresscould hav eb een
achiev ed onlyb yacoalitionoftheminorityRepub licansw iththecon-
serv ativ e( mostlySouthern)Democrats
himw as,ofcourse,b ased onhisespousaloftheminimumw age
.Itw as
alsob ased onthefearthathemightb eacand id atefortheDemocratic
nominationin19 4 0
.Thatw asapossib ilityw hichw asb eginningtore-
ceiv econsid erab leattentioninthepress .GeneralJohnsonw rote
HarryHopkinsw ho,uptorecently,w asj ustaloyal,mod estand
highlyefficientgo-getter,ischanginginsev eralrespects
place,hehasb ecomeNo .ib oyintheinnercircleoftheNew Deal
economists . . .
.Inthesecond ,hispersonalstaffofad ulatingw ater-
b oyshasfilled hishead w iththeineffab lenonsensethathehaspolitical
possib ilities-heirapparentNo .4 2.
Butthe Ab erd een (
SouthDakota) New s w asnotso
w as" ineffab lenonsense ." Itsaid ,ed itorially,thatHopkins
und oub ted lyisclosertoRoosev eltthananyofhisCab inetmemb ersor
unofficialad v isers
.HopkinsistheonlyprominentNew Dealerw ho
19 33
w hohasd oneagood enoughj ob ofhis
d ifficultassignmenttokeepfromemb arrassinghissuperior . . .
then,atthisearlystage,hasanyb etterrightforconsid erationasa
[Presid ential]cand id atethanMr
.Roosev elt'sright-hand man-
Hisow nhome-tow npaper,the
Sioux CityJournal-for
w hichhis
father,AlHopkins,had w orked -v iew ed hiscand id acyw ithrestrained
localprid e
.Hopkins'firstq ualificationforthej ob isthefactthatheis
e,*hremelylib eral,ev encharitab le
.Hecanhand outmoneyfromthe
9 2

United StatesTreasuryinaw aytoglad d entheheartsofv otersin
city,intow n,incountry.Heismostgenerous,hav inggiv enaw ay
b illionsalread yand b eingw illingtod ispensemoreb illionsasthe
need arises .
IntheDecemb er,19 37,issueof Forum
magaz inethereappeared an
articleonHopkinsb yRaymond Clapper,oneoftheab lestand fairest
Americancolumnists,w how askilled inactionatEniw etokinthePacific
in10 4 4 .Clapperw rote," Someofhisfriend shav etalked ofhimasapresi-
d entialpossib ility .Mr .Hopkinsistoorealisticab outhimselftotakethis
seriously ." Foronce,Raymond Clapperw asw rong-ormayb enot
w rong,merelyfriend ly.Hopkinsd id takehimselfseriouslyasacand id ate
atthattime,and oneofthelastreq ueststhathemad eb eforehisd eath
w asthat,ifanythingshould b ew rittenab outhim,thereshould b eno
attempttod isguisethefactthatheoncehad amb itionsforthehighest
officeand thathew orked and schemed tofurtherthem.
Itisimpossib letotellw hetherhisamb itionsw ereimpelled primarily
b ythenormalpolitician'shungerforpow erand gloryorb yanatural
d esireforrev enge.Myguessisthatthelattergoad w asthestronger .
Althoughheliked topicturehimselfasthickskinned and imperv ious,he
w asactuallyex tremelysensitiv e .Hisprid ehad b eenhurtb ythefreq uent
statementsthathew asaliab ilitytoRoosev elt,b utoffarmoreimportance
inhisw illtohitb ackw astheinj uryd onetohisid ealistic,Iow ancon-
ceptofthepurityofthed emocraticprocess .Somemen,w henconfronted
w iththed iscov erythatv ariousCongressmenw eremoreinterested in
feed ingthemselv esoutoftheporkb arrelthaninfeed ingthehungry
people,w ould hav eelected toq uitind isgust,and somed id j ustthat
ButHopkinsd id theopposite : hed ev eloped thefierced eterminationto
possesshimselfoftheBigStickw ithw hichtosmitethev enalpoliticians
hipand thigh .
Icannotpretend toknow j ustw henRoosev eltfirstconsid ered Hop-
kinsasapossib lesuccessor,b utitisq uiteclearthatafter19 36 heb egan
totoyw iththeid ea,tosaythev eryleast.( Tosaythev erymost,the
Presid entev entuallyacted asanunofficialb utex tremelycompetent
campaignmanagerforHopkins .)
Thesummerof19 37prod uced atragicinterruptioninHopkins'career
acid almostputanend toit.Heknew thathisw ifew asd yingofcancer
and hesuspected thathetoow assufferingfromthisd iseasew hichhad
killed hisfather .HetookMrs .HopkinstoSaratogaSpringsforafinal
holid ay.Theyw ereentertained thereb ytheSw opesand otherfriend s
and eachpretend ed totheotherthatitw asallv erycarefreeand gay ;
b utaw arenessofd eathw asinb othofthem.Afew w eekslaterMrs .
Hopkinsd ied ,and afew w eeksafterthatHopkinsw enttotheMayo
Clinicw herealargepartofhisstomachw asremov ed .Theanalysis
show ed thathed id hav ecancer .Itnev errecurred ,b uttheoperation
19 4 1
9 3
prod uced nutritionalmalad j ustmentsw hichmad ehimpreytov arious
w eird d iseasesthatafflicted himov erand ov eragaind uringthefollow -
ingyearsand ultimatelyprov ed fatal
Afterthed eathofBarb araHopkins,and b eforeHopkinshimself
cav ed inand w enttotheMayoClinic,hehad atelephonecallfromhis
implacab leantagonist,Harold Ickes,w hohad losthisow nw ifeb yd eath
tw oyearsprev iously
.Ickestold Hopkinsthathew asaloneathisfarm
inMaryland and inv ited himtocomeoutand stayforaw hileifhe
w anted togetaw ayfromWashingtonand fromallassociationsw hich
inv olv ed harrow ingmemories
.Hopkinsaccepted thisinv itation-and
thisw asoneisolated occasionw henthefeud w assuspend ed
.Describ ing
thistome,Ickessaid ,w ithasortofreluctantw istfulness," Harryw as
anagreeab lescound rel,w henhew anted tob e
HopkinslefttheMayoClinicab outNew Year's,19 38 ,and w entto
Florid atostayatthehouseofJosephP .Kenned y
.ThePresid entthen
w rotehim
Missyhastold methatyoutelephoned onSaturd aynight
sorryIhad notreturned fromthespeech,asitw ould hav eb een-grand
tohav etalked w ithyou .
tomealmostincred ib lethatyoushould b ew alkingaround sosoon
How ev er,itis,ofcourse,grand new s
JoeKenned y'ssound slikeanid ealspotforpeaceand q uietand
recuperation .
Weallhad greatfunw ithDianaatChristmastime
.Sheisalov ely
youngsterand stoletheshow thatd ay
.Asyouknow ,ofcourse,sheis
now atJimmy's" political" farminMassachusettsw hereJimmyand
Betssaytheyareallhav ingagrand time
Thefigurehead pictureisb ullyand Iamreallyaw fullyglad tohav e
.Thankyouev ersomuch .
Dokeepusintouchw ithw hereyouareand how youare,and take
good careofyourself .
WhileinFlorid a,Hopkinsw asab letod osomew orkw ithAub rey
Williamsand CorringtonGilland w asaccused ofpolitickinginconnec-
tionw iththeprimarycampaignofSenatorClaud eE
.Pepper .Here-
turned toWashingtoninAprilafteranab senceofsomesix months
and w asinv ited tospend tend aysintheWhiteHouse,w herehis
d aughter,Diana,had b eenliv ingsincehermotherd ied
.Roosev elttook
ov erthesuperv isionofHopkins'healthand attempted tocontrolhis
hab its .Hestarted tob uild himupinmorew aysthanone
had notprev iouslyb eentold thathew asRoosev elt'scand id atefor19 4 0 ,
hew asunq uestionab lytold sonow
.Therearenotesofanex traord inary
priv ateconv ersationinthespringof19 38
Roosev eltstarted offonthesub j ectoftheSupremeCourt
thatithad b eenthecustomeachyearw hentheCourtconv ened ,early
9 4

inOctob er,forthesecretarytotheChiefj ustice( thenCharlesEv ans
Hughes)totelephonetheWhiteHouseand announcethattheCourtis
insession,w hereuponthePresid entw ould send amessageinv itingthe
Justicestocalluponhim.Whentheyarriv ed ,hew ould greetthemin
theBlueRoom,w hencetheyallproceed ed intotheRed Roomw here
thePresid entand Chiefj usticew ould sitonacouchand taketurns
cond uctingthegeneralconv ersation .Alw aysontheseoccasions,Roose-
v eltsaid ,j usticeMcReynold sw ould tellastoryab outthehottemperof
Wood row Wilsonand ofthemistakesinhisMex icanpolicy .
Roosev eltsaid thatinOctob er,19 36 ,hew asaw aycampaigningb ut
returned toWashingtontob epresentfortheannualSupremeCourt
v isit.Heknew theCourtconv ened onMond ay ; heread itinthenew s-
; b uttherew asnotelephonecalltotheWhiteHouse . After
w aitingthreed ays,hehad Marv inMcIntyregetintouchw ithj ustice
Stone'ssecretarytofind outw hatw asgoingon . McIntyrew asin-
formed that" Therew illb enov isittotheWhiteHousethisyear." This
w asinterpreted asad elib eratesnub ." And rememb er," .said Roosev elt
toHopkins," thisw assix monthsb eforetheCourtfightstarted ." ( It
w as,how ev er,morethanayearafterRoosev elthad started toassail
the" NineOld Men" forthinkingintermsofthehorseand b uggyera .)
Roosev eltthend iscussed hisnex tappointmenttotheSupremeCourt
intheev entthatj usticeBrand eisresigned .Anob v iousselectionw ould
b eFelix Frankfurter,tow homthePresid entsaid hew asb othfriend ly
and grateful,b uttheneed w asforamanfromw estoftheMississippisince
thatentireareaw asthenunrepresented ontheCourt
( Asitturned
out,Frankfurterw asappointed
.)Afterw hich,theconv ersationsettled
d ow ntothesub j ectinw hichHopkinsw asmostinterested
: theid entity
oftheDemocraticnomineein19 4 0 .
IgatherfromHopkins'notesthatRoosev eltd id notentirelyruleout
thepossib ilitythathemightseekathird term.Heseemstohav elefta
v eryslightmarginofd oub tab outitintheev entofw ar .Buthespokeof
hisow n" personald isinclination" and thestrongopposition ofMrs .
Roosev elttoathird term.Hetold Hopkinsthattherew erefinancial
reasonsforhisw ishtoreturntopriv atelife-thathismotherw asd ig-
gingintocapitaltokeeptheplaceatHyd eParkgoing
. ( Icannotd e-
cipherthefinancialfiguresthatHopkinsj otted d ow ninthisconnection .)
Comingd ow ntoind iv id uals,Roosev eltstated hisoppositiontothese
menascand id ates : Cord ellHull,HenryWallace,Harold Ickes,Paul
McNutt,FrankMurphy( thenGov ernorofMichigan) and George
Earle( thenGov ernorofPennsylv ania) .Theonlyapparent reasons
noted w erethatIckesw astoocomb ativ eand Hulltooold
.Therew ere
alsosomecommentsonHull'sd irectionoftheStateDepartmentb utthe
notesarenotclearastoj ustw hatRoosev eltsaid
Roosev eltmentioned Rob ertM .LaFollette.Thenoteonthisw as
1 9 4 1

9 5
" fine-later-SecretaryofStatesoon" -w hichisparticularlyinteresting
inv iew ofthefactthatLaFollettesub seq uentlyb ecameid entified w ith
theex tremeisolationistgroupand thereforev iolentlyopposed toRoose-
v elt'sforeignpolicy .
Thereappearstohav eb eenmored iscussionofJimFarleythanofany
oftheothers .Roosev eltconsid ered him" clearlythemostd angerous" of
thecand id ates .Heknew thatFarleyw asactiv elycampaigningforthe
nomination,thathemightrunthatyearforGov ernorofNew York
Stateand ,ifhew on,hemightw ellb enominated and elected Presid ent
in19 4 0 .Roosev eltw asagainstFarleyontw omaincounts : hisopposi-
tiontotheNew Dealand hisattitud etow ard foreignaffairs .
ThenthePresid entcametoHopkinshimself,d w ellingfirstonthe
liab ilities .Therew asthecircumstanceofhisd iv orce,b utGrov erClev e-
land had surv iv ed amuchmored amagingscand alonhisrecord and the
second Hopkinsmarriage,tragicallyend ed ,had b eenaconspicuously
happyone .Ontheq uestionofHopkins'health,Roosev eltw asaw are
thattheMayoClinicd octorshad said theod d sw eretw otooneagainst
arecurrenceofcancer,b uthealsow asaw arethatthePresid encyisa
killingj ob and thatHopkinshad b ettergethimselfcompletelyrecov ered
b y19 4 0 .Herecalled thathehimselfw ould hav eb eenab letoshed the
b racefromhisleftlegifhehad notb eenpersuad ed b yAlSmithto
leav ehiscureand returnprematurelytopub liclifein19 28 .
Hav ingconsid ered theseliab ilities,Roosev eltex pressed theb elief
thatHopkinsw ould b eelected and w ould d otheb estj ob asPresid ent
ofanyofthosethenintherunning .Hethend iscussed strategy,saying
thathew ould appointHopkinsSecretaryofCommerceand LouisJohn-
sonSecretaryofWar .HefeltthatHopkinsshould " keepb ackalittle,"
statingthatalthoughhisow naspirationsforthe19 32nominationhad
started in19 30 ,hehad notb eguntow orkactiv elyforituntiltheautumn
of19 31 .
Thisconv ersationend ed ,Hopkinsnotes,w ithanex pressionb yRoose-
v eltof" assurancesand hopes ."
Somemonthsafterthisconv ersationJimFarleyw roteinapriv ate
memorand umthat" Roosev eltisav erystrongcharacter,and hemight
insistonnaminghissuccessor." Itseemsstrangethat,know ingRoose-
v elt,Farleyshould hav eused thew ord " might." Itw asFarley'sguess
thatthePresid entfav ored " HarryHopkins,Rob ertJacksonorFrank
Murphy,intheord ernamed ." Farleylisted ashisow nselections,John
NanceGarner'( thenVicePresid ent),Hulland Farley-also" inthe
ord ernamed ." IntheHopkinsnotesonhisintenselyconfid entialtalk
w ithRoosev eltthereisnomentionofeitherJacksonorGarner
caseofthelatter,itseemsev id entthatthePresid enthad ruled himout
asapossib ilitylongb efore .
Hopkinstold afew friend s,allund eroathsofstrictestsecrecy,that
Tw opagesfromHopkins'notesofapriv ateconv ersationw ithRoosev elt,
record ingRoosev elt'spromisetob ackhimforthePresid ency
inJ9 4 0
9 8

Roosev elthad d efinitelygiv enhimthegreenlightand thecampaign
w ason.
Bernard M
.Baruchad v ised Hopkinsthatheshould gointothe
Cab inetasSecretaryofWarratherthanCommerce
consciousofthestormw arningsheard fromab road inthatyearofthe
Sino-JapaneseWar,theSpanishCiv ilWar,theAnschlussand Munich,
b eliev ed thattheWarDepartmentw astob ecomethemostimportantof
allagenciesand thatHopkins,atthehead ofit,w ould hav eimmeasur-
ab leopportunitiestogaind istinction
.Id onotknow w hetherHopkins
w asgiv enanychoiceinthematter
; someofhisfriend sb eliev ethathe
w as,b uttheonlynotesIhav eseensuggestotherw ise
.Itisprob ab le
thatRoosev elthimselfb eliev ed thatHopkinsw ould b eb etteroffinthe
CommerceDepartmentasitw ould helphimtoestab lishsomerespecta-
b ilityforhimselfamongthemoreconserv ativ eelements,and particularly
theb usinesscommunity,w hereheneed ed itmost.
Actually,theinclusionofHopkinsintheregularCab inetseemed to
b enopromotionw hatsoev er. .AsReliefAd ministratorhereceiv ed far
morepub licitythand id DanielC : Roper,thenSecretaryofCommerce,
and had farmorecontactw ithmassesofv oters .But,toomuchprom-
inenceatthistimemightb ed etrimental .Therew asaCongressional
electioncomingupin19 38 and itseemed possib lethat,inv iew ofthe
SupremeCourtfightand theunpopularpurgeattempt,theAd ministra-
tionmightsufferseriousrev ersesatthepolls .AhostileCongress-ev en
w iththeDemocratsstillincontrol-w ould b eb ound toconcentrateits
.and onHopkinspersonally.Ammunitionhad b eenpro-
v id ed b yaseriesofarticlesintheScripps-How ard papersb yThomas
L.Stokes" ex posing" thepoliticalactiv itiesofW .P
.A.inb ehalfof
SenatorAlb enW .BarkleyinKentucky
.Stokeslaterw onthePulitz er
Priz eforthisseries .Therew ereagreatmanySenatorsand Representa-
tiv esw hopiouslyapprov ed theStokesarticles,asslamsatthehated
HarryHopkins,and w hosecretlythanked heav enthatthisinv estigation
had b eencond ucted inKentuckyand notintheirow nStates
w ithassurancethattherew erenotmanymemb ersofCongressatthattime
w hohad nev erused W.P
.A.inonew ayoranothertoshoreuptheirow n
.Justaspost-officeemployeeshav eb eenused fromtime
immemorialtob eattheb ushesinb ehalfofthe" right" cand id ates,so
itw asinev itab lethatlocalpoliticiansallov erthecountryw ould find
w aysand meansoftakingad v antageofthev astW .P.A
.organiz ation .
Hopkinshated theseactiv ities,b uthemostcertainlyknew ab out
themand hemad eonlyoccasionalattemptstostopthem,and to
thatex tenthew asculpab le
.Had Hopkinsb eenhauled b eforeaCongres-
sionalinv estigationof W.P.A.,
hecould hav ed oneenormousd amage
tothereputationsofmanyofhisinq uisitorsb ut,intheprocessof
d oingso,hew ould hav eruined himselfpolitically
.Thus,itw asimportant
19 4 1

9 9
togethimoutofthatparticularb eamoflimelight
.Buthemustnotb e
relegated tod ignified ob scurity
.The" b uild -up" mustgoon .APresi-
d entialaspirantlikeamov iestarmustkeepinthepub liceye,otherw ise
peoplew illnotrecogniz ehisnamew hentheyseeitontheb allot.That
isw hyRoosev eltnev ermentioned thenameofhisopponentinaspeech_
" Thereareagreatmanypeoplew honev erheard ofhim," thePresi-
d entw ould say." Whyshould Iad v ertisehim? " Youmaycallthat
cynicism,ifyouw ill,oryoucancallittheplaintruth
.Toonew ho
ob serv ed Roosev eltinpoliticalactionitseemed thathehad ab etter
graspofthefund amentalrealitiesand theultimatefinesseofthisart,
orscienceortrad e,thand id allofhisenemiesand allofhisfriend sput
together .Althoughtheastuteb utlimited JimFarleyhaspromulgated
thed octrine-w hichIamsurehehimselfb eliev esw ithallhisheart-
thathe" mad e" Roosev eltand w asrew ard ed onlyw ithb aseingratitud e,
therew ould seemtob esomereasonforplacingthisparticularshoeonthe
otherfoot.Norw asFarleytheonlyonew hosenamew illb ementioned
intheind ex esofthehistoryb ookssolelyb ecausehemanaged tohitch
hisw agontotheascend antRoosev eltstar .
Thereisnoq uestionthatin19 38 Roosev eltd id allhecould -and that
w asav erygreatd eal-toaid theHopkinsb uild -up
d entw asphotographed atab aseb allparkorontheb ackplatformofa
train,oronafishingcruise,hehad Hopkinsathiselb ow .Thisw asnot
b yaccid ent.Therew eremanypeoplew how entalongw iththePresi-
d entw henheappeared inpub licw hod id notfeatureprominentlyin
thenew sphotographs .Ind eed ,itw asamatterofd iscretionasw ellas
courtesytomakeoneselfinconspicuousw hentheflashb ulb sw ere
poppingunlessthePresid entd istinctlyasked onetob ew ithhim
w asplaintoseethatw hileHopkinsw asreceiv ingthispreferred treat-
mentotherpotentialcand id atesw erenot.
Mrs .Roosev elt,w hooftenreflected herhusb and 'sv iew sinher
column," MyDay," w rotethefollow ingsignificantreference
Itw asgood toseeMr .HarryHopkinsyesterd ayand tohav ehim
spend thenightw ithus
.Heisoneofthefew peopleinthew orld w ho
giv esmethefeelingofb eingentirelyab sorb ed ind oinghisj ob w ell
. . . Heseemstow orkb ecausehehasaninnerconv ictionthathisj ob
need stob ed oneand thathemustd oit.Ithinkhew ould b ethatw ay
ab outany j ob heund ertook . Hew ould notund ertakeitunlesshefelt
thathecould reallyaccomplishsomethingw hichneed ed tob ed one .
[Theitalicsthereinaremine .]
OnSeptemb er 12, 19 38 ,Hopkinsand How ard Hunterw erew ith
Roosev eltonhisrailroad caratRochester,Minnesota,w henthePresi-
d entlistened toAd olfHitler'sNuremb ergspeechofthatd ate,tw ow eeks
b eforetheb etrayalofCz echoslov akia .( Roosev eltw asinRochesterb e-
causehissonJamesw asund ergoinganoperationattheMayoClinic
I0 0

AlsolisteningtothatHitlerspeech,inPragueitself,w asWilliamL .
Shirerw how rote,inhis BerlinDiary : " I hav enev erheard Ad olfsofull
ofhate,hisaud ienceq uitesoontheb ord ersofb ed lam
inhisv oice . . . ." ThereafterRoosev elt,w hocould und erstand theGer-
manlanguage,amongotherthings,told HopkinstogoouttothePacific
Coastand takealookattheaircraftind ustryw ithav iew toitsex pan-
sionforw arprod uction .
ShortlyafterPearlHarb or,Hopkinsw rotethefollow ingnote
Thisletterw hichColonelWilsongav emew astheresultofasecret
surv eyImad ein19 38 forthePresid entonthecapacityofairplane
factoriestob uild militaryairplanes .
ThePresid entw assurethenthatw ew eregoingtogetintow arand
heb eliev ed thatairpow erw ould w init.
Ab outthistimethePresid entmad ehisstartlingstatementthat
w eshould hav e8 oooplanesand ev eryb od yintheArmyand Nav y
and allthenew spapersinthecountryj umped onhim.
Theletterreferred tob yHopkinsw asareportthatColonelArthurR.
WilsonsenttotheWarDepartmentfromtheWestCoastw hereheand
ColonelConnolly,thelocalW .P
.A.Director,had b eenw ithHopkinson
hisv isitstoairplanefactories .( Fiv eyearslater,Wilsonw asCommand er
inCasab lancaw hentheConferencew asheld thereand Connollyw as
Command erinthePersianGulfareaatthetimeoftheTeheran
Conference.)Wilsonacted asliaisonofficerb etw eentheArmyGeneral
Staffand W .P.A.d uringtheprew aryearsw henthearmed forcesw ere
b eingstarv ed tod eathb ythepacifist-mind ed Congressand hew as
und erstand ab lyex cited w henhew rote :
Mr .Hopkinssangthesametunehed id inWashington-thatthe
Armyand theNav yaresittingprettytogetalotofmoneyinthenex t
reliefb illforthenationald efensei ftheycanselltheid eatothe
Presid ent. . . .
Mr .HopkinsthinksthattheWarDepartmentshould presenta
b igprogramw hichw illinclud ethemanufactureofmod ernarma-
theycangoattopspeed -allthisw ithout_ regard tothepresentrules
ofrelieflab orand material . . . .
.HopkinshastheearofthePresid entasno
otherman,prob ab ly-rateshigherthanagreatmanyoftheCab inet
And asw ehav etalked ab outb efore,thew ay,orrathertheentry
tothePresid entisthroughMr .Hopkins . . . .TheChiefofStafforthe
Deputy[should ]getanappointmentw ithhim. . . Thisq uestionisnot
amatterofw eeksand generalstaffstud iesb utamatteroffastaction
and d ays .
Asad irectresultofthis,afterHopkinsreturned toWashingtonhe
w asv isited b ythenew DeputyChiefofStaff .Brigad ierGeneralGeorge
19 4 1

10 1
C.Marshall ; thisw astheb eginningofafriend shipthatw asd eepand
end uringand important
.InMay,19 4 5 ,afew d aysaftertheGerman
surrend er,Hopkinsw roteMarshallthathew asleav ingthegov ernment
and Marshallreplied
Youhav eliterallygiv enofyourphysicalstrengthd uringthepast
threeyearstoad egreethathasb een,inmyopinion,heroicand ,w ill
nev erb eappreciated ex ceptb yyourintimates
FormyselfIw ishtotellyouthis,thatyoupersonallyhav eb een
ofinv aluab leserv icetomeinthed ischargeofmyd utiesinthisw ar
Timeaftertimeyouhav ed oneformethingsIw asfind ingitex ceed -
inglyd ifficulttod oformyselfand alw aysinmattersofthegrav est
.Youhav eb eenutterlyselflessasw ellascourageousand
purelyob j ectiv einyourcontrib utiontothew areffort
Afterheb ecameSecretaryofState,Marshalltold methatheb eliev ed
19 39
had b eenprimarilyd ue
.Itw asMarshall'simpressionthatRoosev eltd id not
d ev elopcompleteconfid enceinhimuntilafterthew arhad actually
.Forthreeyearsb eforePearlHarb or,and foratleastayear
thereafter,Hopkinsw asMarshall'sprincipalchannelofcommunication
w iththeWhiteHouse .
GeneralWilsonhasw rittenmeofhiscontactsw ithHopkinsin
9 38
Irememb erw elltheev entslead inguptomymemorand umasa
memb eroftheGeneralStaffw henitw asev id entthatasleepyWar
Departmentplusanov erz ealousattitud eonthepartofmanyWPA
officialsb acked b yalocal,ratherthananationalmind ed Congress,
w asspend ingmillionsinuselessproj ectsand lettingthenational
d efensestarv e
.Aftersev eralpersonaltalksw ithHarryHopkins,w ho
shared myv iew sand w asv erycriticalofthelackofplansoftheWar
Departmentforsharinginthe" reliefmoney" ( theyw eregoingafter
itw ithpitchforksw hentheyshould hav eb eenusingshov els),Iw rote
amemorand umtoGeneralMarshallw hohad j ustrecentlyb eenmad e
DeputyChiefofStaffand w how asinamood and inapositionto
moreuseb emad eofrelieffund stofurtherthenationald efense
mayknow thatafterhismeetingw ithHarryHopkinssev eralmillions
ofd ollarsofWPAfund sw eretransferred ( secretly)tostartmaking
.Thisw as
b eforeHitlerd eclared w arinEurope ;
and thisonemov eputthe
prod uctionofsmallarmsammunitionatleastayearahead w hen
England w entintothew arand started toplaceord ersinthiscountry
forthemanufactureofsmallarmsammunition .
Thus,therew asatleastonetangib le,immed iateresultoftheWilson
memorand um
.Butthetotaleffortsatrearmamentatthattimew ere
pitifullysmall ;
itisev id entfromthed ismalrecord ofunprepared ness
10 2

in 19 38 ,
19 39
and w ellinto19 4 0 thatneitherRoosev elt,Hopkins,
Marshallnoranyoneelsegotv eryfarw iththeplantorearmanation
w hichb eliev ed thatthew aytoav oid w arw astod enyb ylegislativ eaction
thepossib ilityofit
.Theominousev entsinEuropeand Asiaw ereonly
serv ingtomaketheCongressmoreisolationistintemperand more
truculentinitsrelationshipw iththeWhiteHouse
.Congressw anted
norelieffund sspentforarmaments
.Itmustb ead d ed thatHopkins
himself,w ithhisamb itionfocused onnew goals,d id littletoad v ancethe
.Hew asw orkingfortheelec-
tionofaDemocraticCongressinNov emb erand fortheultimate
promotionofhisow ncand id acy
.InaspeechatChautauq ua,hemad e
furtherattemptstoingratiatehimselfw iththeb usinesscommunity
Icansayfrompersonalknow led gethattheGov ernmentisnot,
and nev erhasb eenopposed tob usiness
.Ithasnod esirew hatev erto
harassorpunishb usiness
.Itfullyrealiz esthatb usinessmustsucceed ,
and mustb eab letow orkw ithGov ernment,ifoureconomicsystem
istob epreserv ed
.Itseeksanund erstand ingand ameetingofmind s,
notonlyastopresentpointsofconflictb utastomethod sw hichw ill
assureforthefuture,ontheonehand ,j usticeand faird ealingtoall
thepeople,and ontheother,theconfid ence,successand legitimate
profitsoflegitimateb usinessenterprise.
Thosew orthysentimentsreceiv ed farlesspub licitythand id aremark,
attrib uted toHopkins :
" Weshalltax and tax ,and spend and spend ,
and electand elect."
Thisw aspub lished firstb yFrankR
.Kentand thenb yJoseph
Alsopand Rob ertKintnerintheirsynd icated columnsand b yArthur
New YorkTimes .
( Alsopand Kintner,b eitsaid ,d escrib ed
theq uotationas" prob ab lyapocryphal
." )Hopkinsstated categorically
thathehad said nosuchthing
: " Id enythew holew orksand the
w holeimplicationofit
." Butthephrasew astooj uicytob ecanceled
Itw asgiv ennationalcirculationand enj oyed av erylongrun
; ind eed ,
asthisisw ritten,nearlytenyearslater,itisstillq uoted b yRoosev elt's
d omesticenemiesw hentheirhatred oftheNew Dealregurgitates
w asthesub j ectofintenseinv estigationw henHopkinsappeared b efore
.Kent,Alsop,and Krockw erecalled
.Allofthemw rapped themselv esinthecloakofj ournal-
isticimmunityand refused torev ealthe" source" ofthisremarkab le
q uotation
.Kent,theonlyonew hohad actuallytalked tothe" source,"
d id notev enappearinpersonb eforetheCommittee,b utw rotealetter
ex plaining," Iw asfirsttold oftheremarkinNew Yorkb yafriend of
Mr.Hopkinsw hoisalsoafriend ofmine
.Itw asrepeated w ithagood
d ealofemphasisaspartofaconv ersationthatoccurred b etw een
.Hopkinsand thismutualfriend inAugust( 19 38 )atoneofthe
New Yorkracetracks
.Thisfriend isamanofreputationand stand -
9 4

10 3
." But,w roteKent,aftertheremarkhad b eenpub lished and Hop-
kinshad d enied it," Icalled upthefriend w hohad told meand asked
ifhew ould lethisnameb eused tosub stantiatethetruth
.Somew hat
alarmed attheprospectofacontrov ersy,hew asmuchav ersetothis
Hegav esev eralpersonalreasonsw hyitw ould onlyemb arrasshim
and asked menottousehisname
.Itold himthatifthat-w asthe
w ayhefelt,ofcourseIw ould protecthim-and Ihav e
WhenKrockw asonthestand head mitted thathehad notinter-
v iew ed anyoftheeyew itnessestotheconv ersationinq uestion,includ ing
Hopkins,b utsaid thatthephrase" seemed tomeaconcentrated gem
.Hopkins'philosophy ." TheKrocktestimony,assetforthinthe
record ofthehearings,prov id esafairlygood ex ampleofthesanctimoni-
ousnessw ithw hichtheAmericanpresscanseektoj ustifyitsoccasional
ab usesofthesacred rightoffreed omofthepress
.Ab itofd ia-
Mr.Krock .I
mad ew hatseemed tomeseriouseffortstod iscov er
w hetheritw asachanceremark,inw hichev entIw ould nothav e
printed it
.Itw asamostlogicalstatement,itseemed tome,ofw hat
Mr.Hopkinsmighthav esaid
SenatorClarkofMissouri .Do
younotthinktheb alanceofcred ib il-
ityw ould b ev erystronglyonthesid eofaprominent,responsib le
officeroftheGov ernment,w henhecomesintoahearingofthissort
and makesanex plicit,categoricald enial,asagainstananonymous,
cland estine,and mysteriousw itness,w hohasnotmanhood tocome
forw ard w ithaconfirmationofthestatementw hichithasb eensaid
hemad e,and w hichhasb eenprinted b yyouand Mr
Mr.Krock .
Senator,Ithinkthatisatenab lepositionforyouto
take .
The" anonymous,cland estine,mysteriousw itness" inthecasew as
Max Gord on,asuccessfulNew Yorktheatricalprod ucer
Alsopresentw ereHeyw ood Brounand DanielArnstein,thetransporta-
tionspecialistw ho,in19 4 1,mad eaprod igiousb utfutileattemptto
.Bothofthemreported their
v ersionsofthemomentousconv ersation,w hichw asex tremelyoffhand
and perhapssomew hatb ored onHopkins'part,and neitherrecalled
thathehad mad ethefamous" tax and tax " statementoranyother
statementw orthyofq uotation
.Accord ingtoGord on'srecollectionof
theracetrackconv ersation,ev enthoughHopkinsd id n'tactuallysay
thoseprecisew ord s," That'sw hathemeant!"
Thusaretheeggsofcanard slaid
.Theyarehappilyhatched outb y
presumab lyreputab lej ournalistsand ,w hentheyhav etakenw ing,the
d enialsseld omcatchupw iththem.Thisparticularone'created agreat
d ealoftroub leforHopkinsand prod uced consid erab lew earand tear
10 4

onhisfraz z led nerv oussystem,b utitd id notgreatlyaffectthecourse
ofev ents.Itw astoolatefortheelectionsof19 38 and b y19 4 0 much
largercircumstanceshad superv ened .Buttheunw orthyb iasw hich
impelled itisofmuchmoreend uringimportancethantheincid ent
itself .( Yearslater,Krockcametothed efenseofGeneralEisen-
how erw how astheintend ed v ictimofanothercanard
.Krockw rote
thatthed iscussioninw hichthegeneralmad etheimputed remarksw as
" ofthepriv ateand informalcharacterthatimportantpub licmenshould
b eab letoengageinw ithoutd istortionthrough'leaks
." ')
Justb eforethe19 38 elections,Hopkinsw enttoHyd eParkw iththe
Presid entand issued pred ictionsw hichprov ed tob egrotesq uelyov er-
.Foronething,hepred icted thatFrankMurphy,running
forre-electionasGov ernorofMichigan,w ould w inb yhalfamillion
v otes .Theelectionw ascloseand Murphylost
.Furthermore,thefab u-
lousDemocraticmaj oritiesintheHouseofRepresentativ esw erere-
d uced from24 4 to9 3and ,intheSenate,from5 8 to4 6
maj oritiesw erestillformid ab leb utthecoalitionofconserv ativ e( mostly
Southern)Democratsand Repub licansw asformingw ithsufficient
strengthtoserv enoticeonRoosev eltthatCapitolHillw ascapab leof
rev olt;
thehostilitythathad b eengenerated w astob easev erehand i-
captohiminhisattemptstogetincreased appropriationsfortheArmy
and Nav yasw arapproached
. .Theex pected Congressionald emand sfor
inv estigationsoftheReliefProgramw ereimmed iatelyraised .The
sw ashb ucklinghead linehunterMartinDies,ChairmanoftheCommittee
fortheInv estigationofUn-AmericanActiv ities,announced thathew ould
askthenew Congressforonemilliond ollarstofinanceafull-d ressin-
v estigationofW .P.A.and P.W .A
.Hestated hisd eterminationtorid
thegov ernmentofsuchsub v ertersasHarryHopkins,Harold Ickes,
FrancesPerkinsand other" Communistsand fellow -trav ellers
Therew eretw opollsofpub licopiniononHopkinstakeninDecemb er,
19 38 ,j ustb eforehisappointmentasSecretaryofCommerce
Gallupq uestionand resultsaspub lished w ere
Hopkinshasb eenmentioned forthepostofSecretaryofCommerce.
Would youapprov eofhisappointment?


34 %


6 6 %
Thesefiguresw erefollow ed b ytheinconspicuous,parentheticalad -
missionthat" Approx imately4 v otersinev ery 10 , how ev er,said they
had formed noopinion
." Thus,thefiguresforthoseinfav orshould hav r
b eenapprox imately2opercentand thoseopposed 4 opercent,w ith4 C
percentsaying" Don'tknow
Thc- : : ouerpolltakenatthesametimew asmored etailed
19 4 1

10 5
WhatisyouropinionofW .P.A.Ad ministratorHarryHopkins,-d oyoufeel that:
Hehasd oneafine
j ob and should b e
keptinmind for
higheroffice .
Hehasmad emistakes
b utonthew hole
hashand led a
d ifficultj ob w ell .
Hehasd onea
fairlygood j ob
b utnotgood
Hehasd oneab ad
j ob and should
retiretopriv ate
Hereitw illb eseenthatthosegenerallyinfav orrepresented 4 0
.9 per
cent,thoseopposed 27 .5 percent,w ithfew erconfessing ignorance .It
isund erstand ab lethatHopkins-and Roosev eltas
w ell-alw ayspre-
ferred theRopertotheGalluppolls,and fortunatelyRoperprov ed tob e
phenomenallyaccurateinhisforecastsofv otes . ( In19 36 hismarginof
errorw asninetenthsofonepercent,in19 4 0 ,onehalfofonepercent
and in
19 4 4 ,
threetenthsofonepercent.)Roosev eltw asalw ayskeenly
aw areoftheimportanceofthe" Don'tKnow " percentage, w hichw as
largeronthelow ereconomiclev elsand thereforemoreinclined tob ehis
supporters .Heb eliev ed that,innationalelections,therew eremanyw ho
had ev eryintentionofv otingforhimb utw hoansw ered " Don'tKnow "
forfearofprov okingcontrov ersyand ev enj eopard iz ingtheirj ob s .Inthe
caseofanappointmentsuchasthatofHarryHopkins,hepresumed that
thethirtyorfortypercentw hod id notknow how theyfelt ab outit
alsod id notgreatlycareand therew ould b eneitherd ancingnorriotous
mob sinthestreetsw henhemad eknow nhischoice.
Onthed aythattheGalluppollonHopkinsw aspub lished ,new spaper-
menasked himw hether,ifhew erenamed SecretaryofCommerce, he
w ould acceptthepost
.Heemitted hischaracteristicshort,sharplaugh-
alaughthatseemed tohav eanex clamationpointattheend ofit-and
said ," Don'tkid me,b oys .ThisistheChristmasseasonand I'm.accept-
inganything ." Laterthatsamed ayRoosev eltannounced the appoint-
Sex EconomicLev el
HighestLow est Total Male Female
9 .4 11 .2 7.6 3.7 13.0
31 .5 33.8
29 .2
29 .5 32. 5,
15 .0 16 .5 13.5 20 .0 11 .0
12.5 16 .1 8 .g 24 .2 8 .3
31 .6 22 .4 4 0 .8 22.6 34 .8
I0 6

mentand thefollow ingd ay,ChristmasEv e,Hopkinsw enttotheWhite
Housetob esw orninb yj usticeStanley'Reed oftheSupremeCourtin
thepresenceofPresid entRoosev elt.Six ofHopkins'closeassociatesw ere
there-Aub reyWilliams,ColonelHarrington,Dav id Niles,EllenWood -
w ard ,CorringtonGilland MalcolmMiller-and hissecretary,MaryVan
Meter,w how entonw ithhimtotheCommerceDepartment.Therew as
prid eov erthispromotionintheW
.A.staffand therew asalsolamenta-
tion .Hopkinscommand ed ad egreeofloyaltyand d ev otioninhisstaff
thatapproached theJesuitical .Manyofthemb eliev ed himtob etheonly
maninWashingtonw how asreallyw holesouled inhisconcernfor
humanw elfare ; theylov ed himfortheslingsand arrow sthathehad
w ithstood ; theylov ed himforthev eryeccentricityofhisad ministrativ e
method s .Theyhoped thathissuccessorinW .P.A.w ould b eAub rey
Williams,forHopkinsand Williamshad b eenanunusualteaminthat
theyparalleled ratherthancomplemented oneanother ; Williamsw as
alsotautand sharp,intolerantofcant,contemptuousofred tapeand
" channels ." Roosev eltd id notappointhimforheb eliev ed thatWilliams
w ould prov id ethesamekind oftargetasHopkinsforCongressional
criticism-and thisprov ed tob ethecasefor,inthepositionofNational
YouthAd ministrator,w hichhenow assumed ,hew assub j ected tocon-
tinuous,sav ageattack .
AsAd ministratorofW .P.A.thePresid entnamed ColonelHarrington,
and itw asapoliticchoice .Foronething,Harringtonw asserv ingforhis
Armypay,and thereforehisappointmentd id nothav etob econfirmed b y
theSenateasw ould hav eb eenthecasew ithaciv ilianappointee ; for
anotherthing,asaregularofficerhew aslesslikelytob e-confused w ith
Hopkinsand hissix -year-old d aughter,Diana,w ereguestsinthe
WhiteHouseov ertheholid ays,and hehad aconv ersationw ithMrs .
Roosev eltforw hichhew asforev ergrateful .Solicitousab outHopkins'
health,Mrs .Roosev eltasked himw hatprov isionhehad mad eforDiana
ifhew eretod ie.Itappeared thathehad d onenothingab outmakinga
new w illsincethed eathofhissecond w ifeayearprev ious ; soMrs .
Roosev elttold himhemustattend tothisimmed iatelyand said thatshe
w ould liketob enamed guard ianofDiana.Hopkinsd escrib ed thiscon-
v ersationinalettertohisd aughteryearslater .Hew rote
AtthattimeId iscussed w ithhertheamountofmyinsuranceand
_ financialaffairsand shesaid shew ould und ertaketoseethatyougot
agood ed ucationand hav ealittlemoneyw henyouw erethroughyour
schooling .
Mrs .Roosev elthasalw aysb eliev ed thatthemainb usinessofa
mod erned ucationistoteachpeoplenotonlytoliv einthisw orld w ith
otherpeople,b utforgirlstohav ethekind ofed ucationw hichw ould
enab lethemtoearntheirow nliv ing
.Roosev eltw asq uiterightab outmyb eingd isturb ed ab out
19 4 1

10 7
yourcareintheev entthatanythinghappened tomeand ,naturally,I
w asgreatlyreliev ed atherofferw hichw asmad ew ithgreatsincerity
Shehad b ecomev eryfond ofyoud uringthetimeyouhad liv ed atthe
.Iw as,naturally,q uiteov ercomeb yhersuggestion,not
onlyb ecauseitw asanofferthatw ould reliev emymind ,b utb ecause
Iw assurew asonethatw ould b ev erygood foryou .
Hopkinsmad eoutanew w illinaccord ancew ithMrs .Roosev elt's
w armhearted suggestionand she tookcareofhissmalld aughteruntilhis
marriagetoLouiseMacyinJuly,19 4 2 .
New softheappointmentofHopkinsasSecretaryofCommerce
receiv ed w hatisknow nasa" mix ed reception" inthepress-and itw as
GeorgeS.Kaufmanw hoonced efined theterm" mix ed reception" as
meaning" good and rotten ." The ChicagoDailyNew s
said ," Surely,this
isthemostincomprehensib le,asw ellasoneoftheleastd efensib le,
appointmentsthePresid enthasmad einhissix and one-halfyearsinthe
WhiteHouse ." Said the LosAngelesTimes," By neithertrainingnor
ex perienceisHopkinsacq uainted w iththeprob lemsw hichariseinthe
CincinnatiTimesStar w asmorephilosophical : " Wefailtosee
ground forex citementintheappointment. . . . Ob v iouslyHopkinsisn't
uptoCab inetsiz e .Buthow manymemb ersofMr .Roosev elt'sofficial
familyare? " Raymond Clappercalled thisa" w ell-earned promotion" and
ad d ed ," Hopkinsmayprov eanotab lesuccessinCommerce-b utifhe
d oes,hew illhav etochangerolesinaw aythatw illstamphimasthe
mostv ersatilecharacteractorofthesetimes ."
The Lansing ( Michigan) StateJournal summed upitsv iew sw ith
thew ord s," Thenominationoffend scommonsense ." Perhapstheshrew d -
estcommentofallw asmad eb ySenatorDav is( Repub lican)ofPennsyl-
yaniaw ho'said ," IthinkthatthePresid entsaw thattheDepartmentof
Commercehad b eenaprettygood routetothePresid ency
( i .e ., for
Herb ertHoov er)and hew astrainingHarry ."
Sincemostoftheed itorialb lastsagainstHopkinsappeared onChrist-
masDay,itisimprob ab lethatanygreatnumb ersofpeoplepaid any
attentiontothem; itisalsonotentirelyimpossib lethatRoosev elttimed
itthatw ay
.Bythetimetheholid ayseasonhad passed ,and thenew
Congresshad conv ened ,Hopkinsw asestab lished inthegrand eurofthe
CommerceBuild ing,farfromtheraffishatmosphereofReliefHead -
q uartersw herehehad spentthepastfiv ehappyand fruitfulifcostly
years .Hew asnow d ignified
.Whenphotographed athismassiv eand
relativ elycleand esk,inhisenormouspaneled and v aulted office,hed id
notappearlounginginshirtsleev es
: hesaterect,w earingnotonlyacoat
b utaw aistcoat.Hehad ,how ev er,anotherhurd letocross
: hisappoint-
mentmustb econfirmed b ytheUnited StatesSenate
." God b lessyou,
; mayw ealw aysb efriend s," w asthecord ialgreetingofSenator
10 8

ArthurH .Vand enb ergw henHopkinsappeared forhearingsastohis
fitnessb eforetheSenateCommerceCommittee .ItislikelythatVand en-
b ergmeantj ustw hathesaid ,ev enthoughheultimatelyv oted against
Hopkins .Therew ere,how ev er,sev eralmenofHopkins'ow nparty,
notab lySenatorsGuyM.Gilletteand Millard Tyd ings-intend ed
v ictimsoftheunsuccessfulpurge-w hod id notd isguisetheiropinionof
Hopkinsas a
" WhiteHousetermite," ev enthoughev entuallytheyv oted
forHopkinsorab stained fromv otingatall .
Attheoutsetofhishearingsb eforetheSenateCommitteehesur-
prised hischop-lickinginq uisitorsb yad isplayofd isarmingcand or .
SenatorJosiahBailey,theCommitteeChairman,q uestioned himatgreat
lengthab outpoliticalspeecheshehad mad einhissupposed lynon-
politicalroleasanad ministratorofrelief
.Hopkinsreplied ," Id onot
w anttod uckthatq uestion .Id onotw anttoimplyIw ithd raw thecon-
tentsofthosespeeches,b utifIhad theroad togoov eragainIw ould
nothav emad ethemasReliefAd ministrator
Duringthehearingstherew erelonghoursofnagging,hairsplitting
q uestioningb ySenatorHiramJohnsonofCalifornia-und erw hich
Hopkinsappearstohav ed isplayed commend ab lepatienceand self-
control-b utthepassagesb etw eenhimand otherRepub licanSenators,
Vand enb ergand WallaceWhite,w erecharacteriz ed b yad egreeof
courtesyand good humorthatisnotalw aysev id entinsuchCongres-
sionalinv estigations .( Vand enb erg,b ythew ay,w aslikeHopkinsthe
sonofaharnessmaker.)Hereisonepassagefromtherecord :
SenatorVand enb erg. Ithink,perhaps,b eforegoingintoanyW .P .A.
phase,Iw ould liketoaskyouab outoneothermatter,w hichisof
personalinteresttome .Mr
.Hopkins,intheNew YorkTimesof
May18 ,19 38 ,afteryouhad appeared asaw itnessb eforetheSenate
sub committeew hichw asconsid eringtestimonyontheW
priation,youw ereq uoted asfollow s
Asked ifhehad stud ied SenatorVand enb erg'splanofreturning
reliefd istrib utiontotheStates,and req uiringtheStatestoprov id e
25 percentofrelieffund s,Mr .Hopkinsansw ered : " Hehad notseen
itb utthathew asopposed toitanyw ay,w hichisaRepub licanmeasure,
and Inaturallyassumeitisnogood
.Thatisaprettygood assumption
togooninreliefmatters .OfcourseIamopposed toanythingSenator
Vand enb ergw ould introd uce ."
( Laughter,follow ed b yapplausefromtheaud ience .)
SenatorVand enb erg .Is thatafairq uotation? Donotd isappoint
yourfriend southereintheaud iencew hoareclappingtheirhand s .
Mr.Hopkins . Senator,Ireallyd onotrecallit.
SenatorVand enb erg
Well,Ithinkitisratherinterestingifyoud id
sayit,b ecause-w ell,Iw ould notq uarrelw ithyouab out-
Mr .Hopkins
( interposing) .Imighthav esaid it,Senator
.Id onot
d enyhav ingsaid it.
19 4 1

10 9
SenatorVand enb erg. Well,itisgoingtob esomew hatimportantto
find outw hatyoud id sayonsomeoftheseoccasions,and Iamw ond er-
inghow closethatcomestoyourstatement
Mr.Hopkins .I thinkthatw asprettyclose,Senator .( Laughter.)
Veryclose ; yes
.( Applauseonthepartoftheaud ience .)
SenatorVand enb erg . Thereforeitb ecomesimportant,inthefirst
place,ifthatisyourstateofmind ,and w ew illeliminatew hatyou
thinkab outSenatorVand enb erg-
Mr.Hopkins ( interposing) .Ithinkv eryw ellofSenatorVand en-
b erg.
SenatorVand enb erg. Well,thatisnotofanyimportance .Butifit
isagood assumptiontogoon,thatanythingthatemanatesfroma
Repub licansourceisw orthcond emningb eforeyouhav eheard it,I
w ond erhow youaregoingtod ealasSecretaryofCommercew iththe
b usinessofAmerica,w hichisstilloccasionallyinthehand sofRepub -
licans . .
Mr.Hopkins ( referringtotheq uoted statement) .Thatw asapoliti-
calasid e,Senator .
SenatorVand enb erg. Well,now ,letmecometoanotherpolitical
asid e .Iamv erymuchinterested inthestatementmad eJune27,19 38 ,
b yyourd eputy,Mr .Aub reyWilliams,w how asad d ressingarelief
conferenceinWashington .Inthecourseofhisad d ressMr .Williams
said ,inpart
" Wehav egottosticktogether .Wehav egottokeepourfriend sin
pow er ."
Doyourememb erthereportsofthatstatement?
Mr.Hopkins . Yes ; v eryw ell
SenatorVand enb erg . Did youapprov eit?
Mr.Hopkins . No ; Id id notapprov eit.Ithinkitw asanind iscreet
remarkonMr .Williams'part.
SenatorVand enb erg. Did 'youcensureMr.Williamsforitinany
w ayorsuggesttothepub licthatyoud id notapprov eofit?
Mr.Hopkins. Well,IthinkMr .Williamshappenstob eav erygreat
manand av erygood pub licserv ant,tow homthiscountryisgreatly
ob ligated ; b utIthink,perhaps,thatallofusd oingj ob saround here
areentitled tosomeind iscretions
.And IthinkWilliamsw asentitled
toone .
SenatorVand enb erg. Doyoureserv eafew foryourself,asw eall
d o,Iassume,inthesameconnection? ( Laughter .)
Hopkinsw asillateaseand somew hatev asiv eatonepointinthe
hearingsw henVand enb ergasked ifhehad ev erregistered asamem-
b eroftheSocialistparty .Hopkinssaid hehad v oted forWilsonin
19 16 ,forCox in19 20 ,forLaFollette( Progressiv e)in19 24 ,forSmith
in19 28 and thereafterforRoosev elt.Heev entuallyad mitted thathe
mighthav eregistered asa .SocialistinaNew Yorkmunicipalelection
manyyearsb eforeas" Iw asthenprofound lymov ed b yad esiretosee
reformsinNew YorkCityand toseetheUnited Stateskeepoutofw ar ."

( Thislastw asund oub ted lyashrew d lychosenpoint,forVand enb ergat
thetimew asalead ingisolationist.)
Ex ceptforthatoneb itofuncertainty,Hopkinsmad eanex cellent
show ingand impressed theCommitteew ithhisd ow nrighthonesty.Atthe
end ofthefirstd ay'shearings,SenatorWhitesaid tohim: " Afterlisten-
ingfortw enty-oneyearstow itnessesatCongressionalhearings,Iam
ab outtoaw ard youfirstplaceasaw itness ." HughJohnsonw rote," It
w asHarryHopkinsw homthisCommitteesaw and heard .Itw asallof
him-theb estand w orstofhimw ithoutanyfalsew hiskersofb luff,
pretense,alib iorex cuse .Itw asashisfriend shav eheard himeitherin
` momentsofrelax ation'oronsomeotherhotspot-ab le,b rilliant,cand id ,
intense,impulsiv e,insomethingsimpracticaland ab ov eallthings,per-
sonallyloyal ."
AtthesametimethatHopkins'appointmentw asb eingconsid ered ,
theSenatew asalsoconsid eringRoosev elt'sappointmentsofFrank
MurphyasAttorneyGeneraland Felix FrankfurtertotheSupreme
thelatterb eingconfirmed ,afterthreed aysofhearingsand aw eekofsome
truculentd eb ate,b yav oteof5 8 to27.Fiv eDemocratsv oted w iththe
Repub licansagainsthimand atleastthreeothersd elib eratelyab stained
Thenex td aythe New YorkHerald Trib une said ed itoriallyand d e-
spond ently," IfthePresid entsitsunrepentantintheWhiteHouse,splash-
ingthenation'smoney . . .d emand ingmoreand highertax esand d is-
playingnotthefaintestev id enceofanyfund amentalchangeofheartor
mind oroutlook,how canthemostw illingofb usinessmenseeany
salv ationintheshoutingofone .repentantsinner in theCommerceDe-
partment? "
Hopkinsw entfaithfullytow orktoprov ethat.theprocessoftrans-
mogrificationhad reallysetin .Hisold hauntsand croniesknew himnot.
Hisgood friend ,Heyw ood Broun,attempted togiv ehimahelpinghand
ontheroad torespectab ility .Brounw rote," Notb yanystretchofthe
imaginationcould Hopkinsb ecalled arad ical .Heisnotd ed icated to
rev olutionarychangesinthepoliticaland economicstructureofAmerica .
. . . Hisd ev otiontoAmericand emocracyiscompleteand uncom-
promised b yanyreserv ations .Tosumitallup,astrong,ab leand
progressiv epersoncomesintothePresid ent'sofficialfamily ." This,
particularlyascomingfromBroun,failed toconv eymuchreassuranceto
theb usinesscommunity,b utHopkinstried hard tomakenew friend sin
Chamb erofCommercecircles .Thenamesthatb egantoappearw ith
increasingfreq uencyinhisd ailyengagementb ooktellthestory : Av erell
Harriman,oftheUnionPacific; How ard Coonley,Presid entofthe
N.A.M. ; GeneralRob ertE.Wood and Donald Nelson,ofSearsRoe-
b uck ; E.A.Cud ahy,Cud ahyPackingCo . ; FranklinW .Hob b s,Arling-
tonMills ; JamesD .Mooney,GeneralMotors ; ClarenceFrancis,General
BEFORE 19 4 1

Food s ; WilliamL.Batt,S.K.F. ; Ed w ard R
.Stettinius,U.S.Steel ; M.
B.Folsom,EastmanKod ak ;
Sid neyJ.Weinb erg,Gold man,Sachs ;
CarleC.Conw ay,ContinentalCan
; JohnD .Biggers,Lib b ey-Ow ens-
Ford ;
and ,ofcourse,Bernard Baruchand JesseJones .Significantly,
oneold associatew homov ed w ithHopkinsintohisnew w orld w asDav id
.Nilesw hohad b eenhischiefpoliticalad v iserand campaignstrategist
IntheCommerceDepartment,Nilesw asflanked b ytw oenergeticyoung
men,VictorSholisand Fred Polangin,inpromotingHopkinsasan
ascend antstatesman
.Itw astheirpurposeto" playup" Hopkins'grass-
rootsb ackground and hisex perienceasahard head ed ,tw o-fisted ex ecu-
tiv eand to" playd ow n" hiscareerasasocialw orker,thislastb eing
suggestiv eofstarry-eyed id ealismifnotofsinisterrad icalism.Their
greatestpub licityassetw astheBusinessAd v isoryCounciloftheDe-
.Thisinclud ed manyofthemenw hosenameshav e
alread yb eenmentioned
.Someofthem-notab lyHarriman,Stettinius
and Batt-w ereclosefriend sofHopkins'and associated w ithhim
throughoutthew ar ; theycametob eknow n,amonglessfriend lyb usi-
nessmenand alsoamonginv eterateNew Dealers,as" Hopkins'tame
millionaires ."
Becauseofhisd esiretoid entifyhimselfasanIow an,Hopkinsselected
DesMoinesasthesceneofhisfirstmaj orspeechasSecretaryofCom-
.Whenheappeared there,attheDesMoinesEconomicClub ,he
w asaccompanied b yHarrimanw hoacted asasortofchaperonor
guarantorofeconomicstab ility
.TheHopkinsspeech,b road castnation-
ally,w asapersuasiv ed ocument,and generallyreassuringtob usinessmen,
b utitw astoocarefullyprepared ,toometiculouslyconciliatorytoall
groups,tob eacharacteristicex pressionofHopkinshimself
.Itw asthe
kind ofspeechw hichappeared tohav eb eenw rittenb yalargecom-
mitteeratherthanb ytheind iv id ualspeaker ; itw assynthetic,charac-
.Thepoliticalov ertonesand und ertonesofthisDesMoines
speechw eresoob v ioustoanytrained ob serv erthatFarleyreferred toit
as" Hopkins'AcceptanceSpeech
." Neartheend ofthislengthyoration,
Hopkinstooksomecogniz anceoftheperilousstateofthehumanraceas
ofFeb ruary,
19 39 .
Wefind ourselv esinaw orld w hichseemstohav egonealmost
craz yinaw elterofhatesand fears,and inw hichanew and competi-
tiv ephilosophyhassud d enlyemerged
.Aw orld inw hichd ictatorships
-b othred and b lack-hav esw eptasid ew ithruthlessd ecisionalmost
allofthelib ertiesand 'freed omsthathav emad elifeb eautifuland
w holesome
.Itissaid thatinrespecttosomeoftheharshb rutalitiesof
life,thesed ictatorshipsarev astlymoreefficientthanthed emocratic
gov ernmentw ithw hichw earefamiliar
theycanraisearmiesand manufacturegunsand mob iliz emilitary
pow ermoreq uicklyand mored estructiv elythanad emocraticnation

Buthehad nosolutiontoofferotherthantheob v ious,isolationistone
thattheUnited Statesmustb esuretoputand keepitsow nhousein
ord er
WhileinIow a,Hopkinsv isited hisold friend s,Rob ertand Florence
.Hetold themthathew asanx ioustob uyafarminIow a,and they
w orked inhisb ehalfontheinv estigationofpropertiesaround Grinnell
and theyalsolooked intothelegalaspectsoftheproposalthathere-estab -
lishhisv otingresid enceinhisnativ eState
.Kerrreported d iscouragingly
thatthemerepurchaseofpropertyw ould notb eenough .Iow answ ere
inclined tob esuspiciousofsuchmeasures
.Hopkinsw ould hav etoprov e
thesincerityofhisintentionsb ymov ingallhishousehold good sand his
d aughtertoIow aand v isitingtherehimselfj ustasoftenand foraslong
ashisofficiald utiesw ould permit
; itw ould helpfurtherifhew ereto
rej ointhelocalMethod istChurchand alsotoj oinsomelocalclub sand
emphasiz erepeated lythroughpub licitythatIow aw ashishomeand that
heintend ed toreturnand liv etherepermanentlyassoonashistermas
SecretaryofCommerceshould cometoanend ." Iknow ," said Kerr,
w ithauthority," youd on'tw anttod othesethings ."
Thissituationamused Roosev eltw hosaid ," We'v egottopassthehat
toraisethemoneytob uythatfarmforHarry ."
Hopkinsfinallytookatw o-yearleaseonafarmnearGrinnell,Iow a,
and thenrented itinturntothetenantfarmerw hohad b eenoperating
.Asastrictlyab senteeland lord ,Hopkinsd eriv ed aprofitoftw oor
threehund red d ollarsayearfromhisfarm,b uthenev erliv ed onitand
v isited itonlyonce .
AfterhisreturntoWashingtonfollow ingtheDesMoinesspeech,he
w rotetohisb rother,Lew is
Ihad av eryd elightfultriptoIow aalthoughIw asfeelingpretty
miserab leallthetimeIw astheresinceIhad atouchoftheflub efore
.Imetsomeofourold friend sand allofthemasked ab out
you.Iamgreatlytempted togetahouseouttheresothatIw illhav e
someplacetocallmyow n
w hichIw ould ratherspend myd ecliningyearsthanthatlittlecollege
tow n,and now thatIamapproachingfiftyImightasw ellgetread y
Hopkinscould b eex cused fromthechargeofarranthypocrisyin
,thoseremarksonlyontheground thathew asasickman .The" touch
oftheflu" d ev eloped intoacomplex ityofnutritionald iseasesw hich
laid himlow and ,afew monthslater,nearlykilled him
nex tyearand ahalfb eforehisresignationasSecretaryofCommerce
hespentnomorethanthirtyd aysoffand onathisoffice
.Hed id con-
d uctacertainamountofb usinessfromhishouse,largelythrough
Ed w ard J.Nob lew hohad takenleav eofab senceasChairmanofthe
Board ofLife-Sav ers( Cand y)Corporationtoserv efirstw iththe

Civ ilAeronauticsAuthorityand thenw ithHopkinsasUnd erSecretary
ofCommerce.Thepub licrelationsmenintheDepartmentw orked
ov ertimetokeepHopkinsinthenew s,issuingstatementstosuggest
thathew asstillad ynamoofactiv ity .Butitw asamasq uerad eand it
prov id ed ,inmyopinion,theoneseriousb lotonHopkins'pub licrecord .
Tob eginw ith,thefactthathehad cancerin
19 37
w ascompletely
hushed up .Hopkinsmightpossib lyhav eb eenab letoj ustifythiscon-
cealmentontheground thathisoperationhad b eensuccessful .How -
ev er,onhisow nad mission,theMayoClinicspecialistshad told him
theod d sw eretw otooneagainstrecurrenceofthed isease,and those
od d sseemhard lylongenoughinthecaseofonew hoaspired tob e
Presid € ntoftheUnited States .Fortunately,theq uestionofHopkins'
healthb ecameanacad emiconeinsofarasthepeople'sinterestw as
concerned .Near-fatalillnessd rained himofallpersonalamb itionand
conv erted himintotheselflessind iv id ualw horend ered suchgreat
serv icetothePresid entd uringthew aryears .
19 39 ,
Hopkinsw asstillfeelingw ornoutand spent
fromthat" touchofflu" and hew asglad toacceptaninv itationfrom
Bernard Baruchtospend afew d aysatHob caw BaronynearGeorge-
tow n,SouthCarolina .Baruch'shugeplantationw asnearthecoast,at
theconfluenceofthePeeDeeand Waccamaw Riv ers,ab eautifuland
largelyw ild place,fullofliv eoaks,Spanishmoss,magnolias,camellias,
az aleas,manykind sofgameand fish-and theserenew isd om,the
ov erw helmingprestigeand theunshakab leself-confid enceofitsow ner .
Inthecultiv ationofhisow npoliticalgard en,Hopkinscould d ono
b etterthanseekoutthead v iceand counsel( and ,ab ov eall,thesupport)
ofBernard Baruch,w hoheld thetitleofEld erStatesmanNumb erOne
longerthananymanhad sinceThomasJefferson .
Butw henHopkinsv isited Hob caw ,Baruchw asnotinclined togiv e
muchattentiontopoliticalprospectsorb usinesscond itionsathome .
Hisconcernw asw iththegatheringcalamityab road .Hescoffed ata
statementmad eonMarch
1o b yNev illeChamb erlainthat" theoutlook
ininternationalaffairsistranq uil ." . Baruchagreed passionatelyw ith
hisfriend ,WinstonChurchill,w hohad told him," Wariscomingv ery
.Wew illb einitand you[theUnited States]w illb einit.You
[Baruch]w illb erunningtheshow ov erthere,b utIw illb eonthesid e-
linesov erhere
." ( Thatlastprophecyw asprov ed inaccurate .)Baruch
talked toHopkinsoftherealitiesofthesituationashehad seenthem
inEuropeand reported thempriv atelytoRoosev elttheprev iousyear
hetalked oftheamountofmisinformationthatw asb eingcollected and
transmitted b yourofficialrepresentativ esinEurope ; hetalked ofthe
w oefulstateofourunprepared nessand ofthemeasuresthathad b een
takentomeetprod uctionprob lemsintheFirstWorld War .Years
later,Baruch'said : " IthinkittookHarryalongtimetorealiz ehow
greatlyw ew ereinv olv ed inEuropeand Asia-b utoncehed id realiz e
it,hew asall-outfortotaleffort." And head d ed ," Harryd id n'tw ant
muchtolistentome,b utIkeptathim."
Chamb erlain'sassuranceoftranq uillityheld good forj ustab out
longashislaterproclamationthatHitlerhad " missed theb us ." On
March 14
Cz echoslov akiaw asb rokenintw ob ytheNaz ififthcolumn
and thefollow ingd ayHitlerand hisarmymarched fromthesurrend ered
Sud eten ' b astiontoPrague,incontemptuousv iolation ev enofthe
humiliatingassuranceshehad giv enatMunich .Europeand thew orld
w ereagainplunged intoastateofcrisisw hichmightmeanw aratany
.Churchillgav easpeechtohisconstituents,someofw homw ere
complainingthathew asd isloyaltothePrimeMinisterand tothecause
Tosupposethatw earenotinv olv ed in w hat is happeningisa
profound illusion .Althoughw ecand onothingtostopit,w eshallb e
sufferersonav erygreatscale .Weshallhav etomakeallkind sof
sacrificesforourow nd efensethatw ould hav eb eenunnecessary if
afirmresolv ehad b eentakenatanearlierstage .Weshallhav eto
makesacrificesnotonlyofmoney,b utofpersonalserv iceinord er
tomakeupforw hatw ehav elost
.Thisisev enmoretrueofthe
Frenchthanofourselv es .
Afterthev isittoHob caw ,Hopkinsund erw entex haustiv etestsand
Xraystomakesurethattherew asnorecurrenceofcancer ;
apparentlyw asnone .Dr .GeorgeB.Eustermanw rotefromtheMayo
ClinictoDr .KennethJohnson," Ifw ecangetourd istinguished patient
togiv eusalittlemorecooperationw ithrespecttoamorehygienicmod e
ofliv ingthisw ould payb igfutured iv id end s ." ButHopkinshimselfw as
thentood iscouraged ab outhishealthtotakemuchinterest
societyorinthesituationinEurope .
Attheend ofMarchhew enttoWarmSpringsw iththePresid ent.He
w rotead escriptionofthisv isit
WeleftWashingtonearlyintheafternoonofWed nesd ay,March
29 --Mrs.Roosev elthad inv ited DianatostayattheWhiteHouse
w hileIw asinWarmSprings-sopromisingrealliv ed ucks for
Easter-Ikissed myad orab leonegood -b yand forthefirsttimein
tw ow eeksstepped outofd oorsonmyalltoow ob b lylegs .Ihad a
roominthePresid ent'scarand slepttheafternoonthrough-and
now morethanaw eekhaspassed and I
feelingev ersomuch
b etter
Thereisnoonehereb utMissy-thePresid entand me-solife
issimple-ev ersoinformaland altogetherpleasant.And w hynot-
IlikeMissy-thePresid entisthegrand estofcompanions-I read
forhours-and sleepev ersow ell .Thefood asev eraround theW.H .
menageismed iumtod ow nrightb ad .

The Presid ent w akes up ab out eight thirty-b reakfasts in b ed -
read sthemorningpapersand ifleftalonew illspend ahalfhouror
soread ingad etectiv estory .Iw ould goinab outninethirty-usually
muchtalkofEuropeanaffairs-Kenned yand Bullittouramb assad ors
inLond onand Parisw ould telephone-Hulland Wellesfromthe
StateDepartmentsow ehad thelatestnew sofHitler'smov esinthe
internationalcheckerb oard .Hissecretariesand aid esw ould comein
attenthirtyw ithmail,sched uleofappointments-gossip
Found ation-lightchit-chatforhalfanhourw hen
thePresid ent
d ressed b eforegoingtothepoolforhisd ailytreatmentatelev en
maykeepanappointmentb eforeelev en-getsinhislittlecar-d riv es
b ythepresscottageforaninterv iew -this takesab outtw enty
minutes-afterthepoolhew illd riv eb ythegolflinks-homefor
Lunchhasusuallyb eenF.D .R.w ithMissyand me-thesearethe
pleasantestb ecauseheisund ernorestraintand personaland pub lic
b usinessisd iscussed w iththeutmostfrankness
. Theserv icein-
cid entallyisasb ad asthefood
.Therearethousand sofmeninAmerica
w hogetinfinitelyb ettercarethanthePresid ent-thisinspiteofthe
factthatheiscrippled .Iw ould firethemall .
Hew ill sleepab itafterlunch-and atthreed riv eov erthecountry-
sid ew ithaguest-v isithisfarm-lookatthenew treeplantings-
b ackaround fourthirtyforanhour'sd ictation. Thenrelax till
d inneratsev en .Theceremonialcocktailw iththePresid entd oing
thehonors-ginand grapefruitj uiceishiscurrentfav orite-and a
v iled rinkitis!Hemakesafirstrate" old fashioned " and a: fair
martini-w hichheshould stickto-b uthislow and uncultiv ated taste
inliq uorslead shimw oefullyastray .Missyand Iw illnotb eb ullied
intod rinkinghisconcoctionw hichlead shimtotakethreeinstead of
hisusualq uotaoftw o .
b e-and thePresid ent
reminisceslongov erthepersonalex periencesofhis
incid entsw ell-thohehasab ad hab itofrepeatingthemev eryyear
orso .IfancyMissyhasheard themallmanytimesb utshenev er
flickersaneyeb row
Afterd innerthePresid entretreatstohisstamps-magaz inesand
theev eningpaper .Missyand Iw illplayChinesecheckers-occasion-
allythethreeofusplayed b utmoreoftenw eread -alittleconv er-
sation-importantornot-d epend ingonthemood .GeorgeFox comes
intogiv ehimarub d ow nand thePresid entisinb ed b yten .
Theab ov eisinteresting-asid efromHopkins'rand omstyleand his
peculiarad d ictiontotheemb ellishment" ev erso" -inthat itshow s
thathew asstillafterfiv eyearssomethingofastrangerintheRoosev elt
.Italsoshow show q uicklyRoosev eltcould passfroma
stateofutterrelax ationtooneofhistoricaction
.OnApril 14 , afew
d aysafterhisreturnfromWarmSprings,thePresid entad d ressed a
messagetoAd olfHitler,inw hichhesaid

Youhav erepeated lyasserted that,youand theGermanpeople
hav enod esireforw ar
.Ifthisistruethereneed b enow ar .
Nothingcanpersuad ethepeoplesoftheearththatanygov erning
pow erhasanyrightorneed toinflicttheconseq uencesofw aronits
ow noranyotherpeoplesav einthecauseofself-ev id enthomed efense
Inmakingthisstatementw easAmericansspeaknotthrough
selfishnessorfearorw eakness .Ifw espeaknow itisw iththev oice
ofstrengthand w ithfriend shipformankind .Itisstillcleartomethat
internationalprob lemscanb esolv ed atthecounciltab le .
Hitler'sreplytothat,tw ow eekslater,w asad erisiv espeechtothe
Reichstagw hichled SenatorWilliamE.Borahtosuggestw ithsome
satisfactionthat,intheGermanFuehrer,Roosev elthad methismatch
AtthesametimetheWarDepartmentreceiv ed alongreportfromthe
ActingMilitaryAttacheintheAmericanEmb assyinBerlinex pressing
theex pectationthatifGermanycould notcoercePoland throughnegotia-
tionsshew ould attackw ithinthenex tthirtyd ays .Head d ed
Thepresentsituationw henv iew ed inthelightofanactiv ew ar
w hichGermanyisnow intheprocessofw agingb ecomesclear .It
isaneconomicw arinw hichGermanyisfightingforherv eryex ist-
.Germanymusthav emarketsforhergood sord ieand Germany
w illnotd ie .
Fromw hichitisev id entthattheMilitaryAttachew asnotonly
attend ingtohisj ob ofob serv ingtheWehrmachtand theLuftw affe
; he
w asalsolisteningfaithfullytoGoeb b els'propagand aand reflectingit
inhisofficialreports .
Theex tenttow hichRoosev eltsuspected theaccuracyofhisofficial
sourcesofinformation-asw ellastheex tenttow hichhew asinterested
inod d d etails-isrev ealed b yab itofhighlyunimportantcorrespond -
encethatpassed b etw eenhimand Hopkinsd uringthatsamecritical
period .Roosev eltsentHopkinsthefollow ingmemorand um
Willyougetformeamemorand umontherelativ ecostofliv ing
'inCaracas,Venez uela,ascompared w ithWashington,
D.C .-in
termsofAmericand ollars? TheStateDepartmenttellsmethatfoi
agiv enincomeofsay $2,0 0 0
inWashington,thesamepersonw ould
hav etob epaid ab out $5 ,0 0 0
inAmericanmoneyinord ertoliv ein
thesamew ayinCaracas
.Id on'tb eliev eit.
Inhav ingthislooked up,d on'tlettheStateDepartmentknow
ab outthisq uery
ThereplytothePresid entcamenotfromHopkinsb utfromWillard
L.Thorp,and prov ed thattheStateDepartment'sinformationw as
.Thisreportcov ered morethanfiv etypew rittenpagesofd etails
onthecostofliv inginVenez uela,suchas
: " b ottleofcatsup ( I4
. . . 9 8 c
." IfeelsurethatRoosev eltread allofthisw ithutmostinterest
9 4

and perhapsw ithsomed isappointmentthathehad notcaughtthe
ForeignServ iceoffb ase
AfterreturningfromWarmSpringsw iththePresid ent,Hopkins
w asagaintooilltogotohisofficeand afew d ayslaterheleftWashing-
tonforanotherrest,thistimeatthehomeofhisfriend ,RoyCarruthers,
inVersailles,Kentucky .There,w ithMr
.and Mrs .JohnHertz ,he
attend ed theKeeneland RaceTrackand paid av isitofhomagetothe
.Thereafter,foraw hile,hew asab letod o
somew orkinWashingtonand togiv esomerepliesinpersonrather
thanthroughpressagentstotheincreasingcriticismsofhisab sences
fromhisd eskintheCommerceDepartment
.( Allofthecamouflagein
thew orld could notfooltheWashingtonnew spapermenw hoknew
that,w henHopkinsw asreallyw orking,hew asaccessib letothemand
unfailinglytalkativ e .)
Itw asatthistime-June,
19 39 -that
Hopkinsfirstspokepub licly
ofhisad v ocacyofathird termforPresid entRoosev elt
aUnited Pressreporterthathew asd etermined tourgeRoosev eltto
seektheDemocraticnominationin19 4 0 ,thereporterasked ," How is
Presid entRoosev eltgoingtogetaround thethird termb ugab oo? "
Hopkinsansw ered ," Youhav egottheansw erw henyousay` Presid ent
Roosev elt
." 'Someofthosew how ereclosetoHopkinsatthistime
hav etold methatb ynow Hopkinsw ashopingtogettheVicePresi-
d entialnominationand thusb eRoosev elt'srunningmateontheDemo-
.Hisattemptstore-estab lishhimselfasanIow anw ould
.How ev er,Ihav enorecord ofthatnorofthe
Presid ent'spossib leattitud etow ard suchasuggestion
.Thereisapriv ate
memorand umw rittenb yHopkinsonMay28 ,19 39 ,w hichgiv esan
ind icationofMrs
.Roosev elt'sattitud e-asfollow s
Ihad luncheontod ayw ithMrs
.Roosev eltattheWhiteHouse .
Sheasked Dianatocomew ithme,and togetherw ithtw oorthree
ofherfriend sw elunched outontheporch .Afterluncheonw ew ent
outinthegard ens-Mrs
.Roosev elthad herknitting-and d iscussed
forthreehourstheStateoftheNation .
Mrs .Roosev eltw asgreatlyd isturb ed ab out19 4 0
anx iousnottohav ethePresid entrunagain,b utIgathered thed is-
therestofus .ShefeelsthePresid enthasd onehispartentirely .That
hehasnotthesamez estforad ministrativ ed etailthathehad and is
prob ab lyq uitefranklyb ored .Shethinksthatthecausesforw hich
hefoughtarefargreaterthananyind *id ualperson,b utthatifthe
New Dealisentirelyd epend entuponhim,itind icatesthatithasn't
asstrongafound ationassheb eliev esithasw iththegreatmasses
ofpeople.Mrs .Roosev eltisconv inced thatagreatmaj orityofthe
v otersarenotonlyw iththePresid ent,b utw iththethingshestand s
for,and thatev eryeffortshould b emad etocontroltheDemocratic
j ib

Conv entionin19 4 0 ,nominatealib eralcand id ateand electhim
hasgreatconfid enceinhisab ilitytod othis,if,and itseemstob ea
prettyb ig" if" inhermind ,heisw illingtotakehiscoatoffand go
tow orkatit.
EarlyinJune,Hopkinshad torenthisoneand onlycutaw aycoat
and striped pantsfortheceremoniesattend antuponthev isittoWash-
ingtonofKingGeorgeVIand QueenEliz ab eth,w homhew astomeet
againd uringtheBlitz inLond oninJanuary,19 4 1 .( Hehad nocut-
aw ayorstriped pantsonthatoccasion .)SinceJamesA.Farleyhas
mad esomethingofapointofthefactthatthePresid entand Mrs
Roosev elt'd id notinv itehimtoHyd eParkw hentheKingand Queen
v isited thereaftertheirtriptoWashington,itmightb ead d ed that
Hopkinsw asnotinv ited either,nor,sofarasIknow ,w asanyother
Cab inetmemb erex ceptHenryMorgenthauw how asanearneighb or .
Duringtheroyalv isit,Mrs .Roosev eltw roteinhercolumn," My
Day," ofanencounterw ithQueenEliz ab ethand DianaHopkinsand ,
w ithcharacteristicconsid erateness,shehad thispassagetyped outon
WhiteHousestationeryand signed itsothatDianamighthav eitas
a souv enirofthisex perience .Thed escriptionfollow s
TheyoungpeopleintheCab inetgrouphav eb eengiv entheoppor-
tunitytomeetTheirMaj esties .Onlyonev eryyoungmemb er,Diana
Hopkins,hasnotasyethad thisopportunity,and Itold theQueen
thatIthoughtDianaenv isioned herw ithacrow nand sceptre .
Withtrueund erstand ing,sherespond ed thatperhapsthechild
w ould b emoresatisfied ifshesaw herd ressed ford inner, as that
mightb emorelikeherd ream,sothishasb eenarranged .
: 4 5 littleDianaHopkinsand Iw erew aitinginthehallfor
TheirMaj estiestocomeoutoftheirroomsontheirw aytothe
BritishEmb assyford inner .Dianaisasolemnlittlegirland shew as
speechlessw hentheKingand Queencamed ow nthehall .Shemad e
herlittlecurtsytoeachoneand w hentheyasked herq uestionsshe
managed toansw er,b uthereyesnev erlefttheQueen
.Afteritw as
ov erIsaid :
" Diana,d id shelookasmuchlikeafairyq ueenasyou
,x pected ? " Withalittlegaspshesaid : " Oh,yes ." And shed id ,for
theQueen'sspangled tulled ressw ithherlov elyj ew elsand her
tiarainherhair,mad eherseemlikesomeoneoutofastoryb ook .
Duringthetensesummerof19 39 ,atthesuggestionofRossMcIntire,
HopkinsspentmostofhistimeatDelab rooke,ab eautiful,old ,pre-
Rev olutionhouseonthePatux entRiv erinMaryland somefiftymiles
southeastofWashington .HitsonsRob ertand Stephenspentpartof
theirholid aysw ithhimthere
.Rob erthasw rittenme
Wew ereb othamaz ed athow sickhew as
.Hislettersnev erin-
d icated this
.Whenw efirstarriv ed ,hew asq uiteactiv e .Hew entout
fishinginthemotorlaunchalmostev erymorning

• 1 19
.Thenheb eganhav ingtroub lew ithhislegs .Themuscles
inhiscalv esseemed totightenup
.Soonhed id n'thav ethestrength
tostepintotherow b oat
.Hespentmoreand moretimeinb ed
Onab outJuly5 th,thePresid entcameuptheriv eronthe" Poto-
." Hew asd uetoarriv eatsix intheev ening
.Dad sentStephen
and meupontheroofofDelab rookesothatw ecould lethimknow as
soonasw esighted the" Potomac
." Thisw ould giv ehimtimetod ress .
Irememb er,atthispoint,thatDad w asfuriousw henLottied ressed
Dianaupinalittlestarched w hited ress
.Hemad eherchangeintoa
.ThePresid ent'sshiparriv ed ex actlyonsched ule
.Wew ent
ab oard and the" Potomac" head ed outfortheChesapeakeBayw here
w ew eretofish . . . .
ApparentlyRossMcIntireputDad onaprettyrugged d iet
w asasourceoffrustrationforDad
.Heconstantlytalked ab outthe
richand w ond erfulfood sthathecould n'thav e
.Hetalked ab outd e-
liciousw aysofpreparingsteaksand seafood ,and thenw ould sitd ow n
toad innerofstrained v egetab les
.Stillhemaintained hissenseof
humour .OnmorethanoneoccasionIcanrememb erhimsaying,
" Well,it'stimeformetohav emyspinach" -w hereuponhew ould
w hipoutahypod ermicand giv ehimselfashotintheleg
OnAugust22, Hopkinsw entagaintotheMayoClinic
25 ,Roosev eltw rotetohim
Yourb irthd ayhascomeand goneand althoughIhad itv erymuch
onmymind tosend youarib ald rad io,thingsb egantopopinEurope
and Iletthed aypassb y
.Thisistosend youmycongratulationsand
ev erykind ofgood w ishformanyhappyreturnsofthed ay
Iamd elighted thatyouareatMayo's
.Itw astheonlyw isething
tod o .
Whyd on'tyoustopoffatHyd eParkonyourw ayb ackifIam
there-w hichmeansifthereisnow arinEurope
alittleb rightertod ay .
Dotelephonemetoletmeknow how youare .
Asev eryours,
.S. Iamcountingonyoutohelpentertainthe
w how ill
b eb ackthisFallifthereisnow ar
.How ev er,d on'tprayforaw ar
[Thenamed eleted w asoftw ofriend sofRoosev elt'sw homHopkins
found b oring .]
Whilethecrisisd ev eloped and finallyb urstinEurope,Roosev eltkept
intouchw ithHopkinsand w ithhisd octorsb ytelephone
.Hiscond i-
tionw asv erygrav e
.OnAugust31, Hopkinsw rotetothePresid ent
Itw assogood totalktoyoutheothernight.Yousound ed so
cheerfuland encouraginginspiteofthefactthatthew orld seemsto
b etumb lingaround ourhead s
.IthinkyourlettertoHitlerw asgrand
and Iamsureitishav ingav eryrealeffectonthepresentd elays

ThethingIamd isturb ed ab outmorethananythingelseisthed anger
ofanotherMunichw hichIthinkw ould b efataltothed emocracies .
Theyarenotthroughw ithmytestshereyetand Id oub tifthey
w illb eforanothertw oorthreed aysb utId on'timagineIw illb e
outofhereuntilafterLab orDayatleast.Itlooksmoreand morelike
ad ietaryprob lem
.Iamsurethereisnothingw rongw ith my stomach.
Iw illb eintouchw ithyoud uringthenex tfew d aysand w illsurely
acceptyourcord ialinv itationtocometoHyd eParkifthed octors
herew illprescrib eit.Theplaceisfullofyouracq uaintances,allof
w homaskab outyou .
Itisamatteroftragicrecord thatw hatev erthe" d elays" -prod uced b y
Roosev elt'smessagetoHitler,theyd id notlastmorethanafew hours
afterHopkins'letterw asw ritten
.TheGermansattacked Poland that
nightand thereb ystarted theSecond World War
Hopkins'b rother,Emory,ofPortland ,Oregon,w rotehimaletter
w hichcontained thefollow ingprescientparagraph
Thew arw ill,ofcourse,changeallourliv esmorethanw ecannow
anticipate .Youmayb ecalled uponforastillb iggerj ob oforganiz ing
and ad ministratingthantheW
.A.w as .Ihopeyourhealthw ill
anyj ob thatmaycomeyourw ay .
How ev er,Hopkinsw asnotthenconcerned w ithanythoughtsof
changesinhislifew hichthew armightb ringab out; hew asconcerned
onlyw iththeincreasinglyslimchancethathislifecould b esav ed .On
Septemb er8 ,hesentalettertohisb rother,Lew is,w hichcaused the
d octortotrav eleastw ithallpossib lehaste .Thisletter,ind icativ eof
near-d espair,w asasfollow s
IamsorryIhav en'tw rittenyoub eforeb utIhav eb eenund ergoing
someprettyheroictreatmentshereand hav enoconclusiv enew sto
giv eyou.Onthepositiv esid e,Ithinkthiscanb esaid -Iamnot
ab sorb ingproteinsand fatsinanyad eq uatemanner .Myproteincount,
orw hatev eryoucallit,isone-third normal .Thisisinspiteofav ery
w ell-regulated d iet.Inotherw ord s,nothingthatIcantakeb ymouth
seemstomakeanyd ifferencesotheyarepushingav arietyofthings
intrav enouslyand intra-muscularly,includ ingsomematerialw hich
theyareusingex perimentallyhere .
Ihav ehad av eryserioused emainmyfeetw hichisfairlyw ell
cleared up .Myeyesightisgoingb ackonme,and Ihav elostab out
.thirtypound sfrommytopw eightayearago
.Iw eighab out 130
pound snow .Ofcourse,iftheycanfind thetechniq uetoassurethe
ab sorptionofproteinsand fats,myw eightnaturallyw illgob ackup
Theyhav efound noev id enceofarecurrenceofmyold d ifficulty
althoughthereareoneortw osuspicioussignsb utinthemainthe
d octorstellmethattheyb eliev earecurrenceisnotinthepicture
Theysimplyhav en'truled itoutasyet.

Ihav enoid eahow longIamtob ehere,b utIamgoingtostay
untilthed octorseithercanorcannotgetab sorptionofproteinand fats
Iftheycan't,thenofcoursethereisnothingmorethatcanb ed one
ab outithereor,forthatmatter,anyw hereelse
.Iassumetheyw ill
makead ed uctionfromthatthatIhav eotherd ifficultiesnotd irectly
associated w ithmalnutrition
.Iamq uiteconfid enthow ev erthatthey
aregoingtob reakthroughthisand find atreatmentthatw illsub -
stantiallyclearupthew holeb usiness .
Thisthingb eganab outnearlyayearagoand hasgrow nprogres-
siv elyw orsethroughthemonthsuntilIfinallyq uitw orkentirelyon
the4 thofJuly
.Ihav eb eeninb ed mostofthetimesincethen .Ihav e
ageneralfeelingofw ellb eing,ex cellentappetite,nonauseaorhead -
aches,and hav ehad nod iarrheasinceIhav eb eenhere .
DoctorEustermantold mehew asw ritingyoutod ayand Iw illlet
youknow laterab outmyprogress .Iw ould n'tb esurprised ifIstayed
hereanothertw oorthreew eeks,b utattimesIgetprettyd iscouraged
ab outit,particularlyab outthed octor'sab ilitytofind anad eq uate
treatmentformyd ifficulties
.Theb estIcantellyouisthatIhav ea
v erysev eremalnutrition
.ButIamrelax ed and altogethercomfortab le
and ,asyouknow ,gettingtheb estpossib lecare
.Need lesstosayI
hav ethegreatestconfid enceinthephysicianshere .
Aletterw hichHopkinsw rotefromtheMayoClinictohisd aughter,
Diana,suggested thathethoughtthismightb ethelastcommunication
hew ould ev erhav ew ithher
Ihad hoped thatIw ould b eb ackhomew ithyoulongb eforethis
b utIamgoingtostayhereforafew d aysmorev isitingw ithold
friend sofmine
.Somed ayw henyouareold eryouw illlearnofw hat
Ihopeyouaresw immingev eryd ayand hav egiv enuptheuseof
w aterw ingsb ecausenolittlegirlev erlearned tosw imw ithw ater
w ings .Ihav en'tforgottenthatyouw anttogototheFairand some-
how ,somew ayw ew illgetupthereb eforeschoolb egins
.Iw ishev er
somuchyouw ereherew ithmeand seethislov elyfarmingcountry
Hereareend lessnumb ersofrealcow sand herd sofcattle .
Ipresumeyouhav efinished " Hittie" b ythistime
.Id ohopethe
poord ollfinallyland ed inthemuseumw ithouttoomuchd amage
Dotakecareofyourselfand Mr
.and Mrs .Hunterand Lottieand
Maryatthesametimeand rememb ermetoallofthem
Asforyourself,ev errememb erthatIlov eyouv erymuch
Hopkins'son,Dav id ,w asinformed atthistimethathisfatherhad
ab outfourw eeksmoretoliv e
.And Roosev elttold friend s," Thed octors
hav egiv enHarryupford ead
." Hopkinshimselfb eliev ed hecould not
liv emorethanafew w eeks
.How ev er,Roosev eltproceed ed toassume
.Ev erintolerantofthed efeatistattitud e,he
ind ignantlyrej ected thepossib ilitythatHopkins'lifecould notb esav ed
Heturned theprob lemov ertotheU.S.Nav y,,and Dr .McIntirecalled
inAd miralEd w ard R.Stitt,SurgeonGeneraloftheNav yand oneof
thegreatestauthoritiesontropicald iseases .Hopkinsw asmov ed from
RochestertoWashingtontob ecomeaguineapigforallmannerof
b iochemicalex periments ; itw asatremend ousord eal,b utitw asulti-
matelysuccessfulinprolongingafew w eeks'marginoflifeintosix years
ofmemorab leaccomplishment.
Hopkinsoffered thePresid enthisresignationasSecretaryofCom-
merceb utRoosev eltw ould n'thearofit,saying," Whyyou'llb eb ack
inyourofficeinacoupleofw eeksand goinggreatguns!" Itw aseight
monthsb eforeHopkinscould emergefromhisGeorgetow nhouseand
therecord sind icatethathed id notputinafulld ay'sw orkinhisoffice
attheCommerceDepartmentuntilnearlyayearlaterw henhew ent
theretocleanouthisd eskpreparatorytoretirement.Hislifehad b een
sav ed ,forthetimeb eing,b uthiscareerasapoliticalaspiranthad end ed
forev er-ad ev elopmentw hichprod uced agreatimprov ementinhis
characterand w hichmakesthetaskofafriend lyb iographerconsid er-
ab lymoreagreeab lefromhereonout.
Iw ould ad d that,d uringthefiv eyearsthatIspentasatransientw ith
atemporaryv isaintherealmofpolitics,Icametotheconclusionthat
Lord Acton'soft-q uoted statement," Pow ercorrupts .Ab solutepow er
corruptsab solutely," isoneofthosepontificalpronouncementsw hichd o
notb earanalysis .Inad emocraticsociety,thed esireforpow erand the
ruthlesspursuitofitmayhav eacorruptiv einfluence ; thatw astrueof
Periclesand itw astrueev enofAb rahamLincoln ; b uttherealiz ation
ofpow erand oftheresponsib ilitythatitentailscanand oftend oes
prod uceanennob lingeffect.( Insuchob v iousmod erninstancesasHitler
and Mussolini,BossTw eed and AlCapone,and v arious' b usinessmen
and lab orlead ersw homonemightname,itisnotunreasonab letoassume
thattheyw eresufficientlycorrupttob eginw ith.Certainly,themanw ho
aspirestoab solutepow eriscorrupt,perse .)TheriseofFranklin
Roosev elttopow erw asd uemoretotheex traord inarycircumstances
ofthetimesthantoanyclev erconspiracy
; b utHarryHopkins,inthe
promotionofhisow nslend erchances,w asimpelled toconniv e,plotand
ev entomisrepresent,and thisw asund oub ted lythe
cred itab lephase
ofhispub liccareer.Inthew aryearsw hen,w ithnomoreauthoritythan
Roosev elt'spersonalconfid enceinhim,heachiev ed tremend ouspow er
in theshapingofhistoricev ents,heb ecameand remained oneofthe
mostincorruptib leofmen .
HENtheSecond World Warstarted thed efensesoftheUnited
Statesconsisted primarilyofascrapofpapercalled theNeutrality
Law ,w hichtheCongresshad passed and w hichPresid entRoosev elt
had signed " w ithreluctance
." Thatpieceoflegislation,passed originally
in19 36 ,w ascarefullyd esigned toprev entusfromgettingintow arin
19 17 .Itw aspurelyretroactiv e,asthoughitsframersb eliev ed thatit
w ould restorelifetotheb rav emenw hohad d ied atChateauThierry
and intheArgonne
.Itw asb ornoftheb eliefthatw ecould legislate
ourselv esoutofw ar,asw ehad oncelegislated ourselv esoutofthe
saloons( and intothespeakeasies)
.LikeProhib ition,itw asanex peri-
ment" nob leinmotiv e" b utd isastrousinresult.
TheSecond World Warstarted w ithHitler'sb rutalinv asionof
Poland fromtheWest,follow ed b ytheSov ietUnion'smarchinto
Poland fromtheEast
.Britainand Franced eclared w aronGer-
many,infulfillmentoftheirpled getoPoland ,b utfornearlyeightmonths
therew asnofightingb ytheWesternAlliesex ceptforisolated nav al
.TheSov ietUnionattacked Finland and gained certain
territorialad v antagesthereb y,b utHitlerremained q uiescentand al-
low ed hisneighb orstocontinueinastateofq uiv eringsuspensed uring
theautumnand w interof
19 39 -4 o
. Thisb ecameknow nastheperiod
of" thePhonyWar" and itw astheheyd ayofisolationismintheUnited
.Itw asonecrisisinRoosev elt'scareerw henhew ascompletely
atalossastow hatactiontotake-aperiod ofterrib le,stultifying
v acuum.
InOctob er,19 39 ,Hopkinsw rotefromhissickb ed tohisb rother
EmoryinPortland ,Oregon .Hesaid

Theonlyinteresthere,asev eryw here,isthew arand Ib eliev e
thatw ereallycankeepoutofit.Fortunatelythereisnogreatsenti-
ev eryonew antstoseeEngland and Francew in .
Inthosetw osentencesHopkinsunconsciouslystated thegreatestprob -
lemthatRoosev elthad tofaceinhisentireAd ministration,thegreatest
prob lemanyPresid enthad faced atleastsinceLincolnmad ethe
d eterminationagainsttheurgentad v iceofalmost all ofhisCab inetto
send relieftoFortSumter .Ib eliev ethatHopkins'tend encyw as
naturallyisolationist,hew ascertainlyapacifist,asw eresomanyother
lib erals ; hehad onlythev aguestconceptofthed ead lyperiltoAmerican
securitythatRoosev eltsaw inthew orld situation
InhisspeechtoaCanad ianaud ienceatQueensUniv ersityinKings-
ton,Ontario,ayearprev iously,Roosev elthad said
WeintheAmericasarenolonger a faraw aycontinenttow hich
theed d iesofcontrov ersiesb eyond theseascould b ringnointerest
ornoharm.Instead ,w eintheAmericashav eb ecomeaconsid eration
toev erypropagand aofficeand toev erygeneralstaffb eyond theseas .
Thev astamountofourresources,thev igorofourcommerceand the
strengthofourmenhav emad eusv italfactorsinw orld peacew hether
w echooseitornot.
WhenRoosev eltsaid that,asw henhemad etheQuarantineSpeech,
hew asaccused b ytheisolationistsofex aggeratingd angerouslyforthe
purposeofcreatingund uealarm." WhatEuropeangeneralstaff," they
asked ," could p ossib ly .b e concerned w iththeWesternHemisphere? "
ButRoosev eltinhisow nmind w asnotex aggeratinginanyofhis
prew ar
speeches :
hew aserringonthesid eofund erstatement.Although
hew asnogreatauthorityonmilitarystrategy,and gav ealmostun-
q ualified freed omofd ecisiond uringthew artohisChiefsofStaff,the
know led gethathed id possessw asb asic.Thefirstpointinhismilitary
cred ow asthatanoceanisnotnecessarilyab arrier-itisa .b road
highw ay .Hisconsid erab leknow led geofgeographyand ofnav igation
gav ehimund erstand ingoftheimportanceoftheb asesfromw hich
trafficonthathighw aycould b econtrolled .Histhinkingw as,ofcourse,
essentiallynav al,w hichmeantthathed id notlookv eryfarb eyond
theb rid gehead ssecured b yMarines ; how ev er,heknew w hattheessen-
tialb rid gehead sw ere-theBritishIsles,France,theIb erianPeninsula,
theNorthand WestCoastsofAfricaand ,inthePacific,theNether
land sEastInd ies,thePhilippinesand theMarianas .Earlyin
1 9 39 ,
someunid entified Senatortold thepressthat,inthecourseofasecret
WhiteHouseconferenceontheEuropeansituation,'thePresid enthad
said ," OurAmericanfrontierisontheRhine ." Thatq uotationw as
hailed j oyouslyinBritainand inFrance,and w iththreateningin-

d ignationinNaz iGermanyand FascistItaly
setupangryhow lsofprotest
.Whenq uestioned ab outitatasub seq uent
pressconference,Roosev eltd enounced theq uotationasa" d elib erate
lie" and referred totheanonymousinformantas" someb oob
." Nev er-
theless,w hetherornotRoosev eltactuallymad ethestatement,hemost
certainlyd id b eliev ethatAmerica'seasternfrontierw asontheRhine
and itw asonthisb eliefthatheacted w henherisked politicalsuicid e
inhiseffortstob reakthroughtheNeutralityLaw and togetaid tothose
w hofoughtagainstAx isaggression
.Hew asunab letogetsuchaid
througheffectiv elyintimetokeepthefrontierontheRhine ; b uthew as
ab letohelpincalculab lyinkeepingitontheEnglishChannel-and the
StraitsofGib raltar.
Whenw aractuallyb rokeoutinEurope,Roosev eltw astameenough
inhisfirstpub licstatementstosatisfythemosttimid .Hesaid
Thisnationw illremainaneutralnation,b utIcannotaskthat
ev eryAmericanremainneutralinthoughtasw ell
.Ev enaneutral
hasarighttotakeaccountoffacts .Ev enaneutralcannotb easked ,
toclosehismind orhisconscience . . . .
IhopetheUnited Statesw illkeepoutofthisw ar .Ib eliev ethat
itw ill .And Igiv eyouassuranceand reassurancethatev eryeffort
ofyourGov ernmentw illb ed irected tow ard thatend .
Thislastmayb ed enounced as,atw orst,d elib eratelymislead ingor,
atb est,asw ishfulthinking
.Theinescapab lefactisthatthisw asw hat
Roosev eltfeltcompelled tosayinord ertomaintainanyinfluenceov er
pub licopinionand ov erCongressionalaction .Tw ow eeksafterthew ar
started hecalled Congressintoex traord inarysessiontorepealthearms
emb argoprov isionsoftheNeutralityLaw and thuspermitthesaleof
w armaterieltoEngland and Franceona" cashand carry" b asis .Ev en
thismeagerconcessionhad tob easked forontheground sthatthe
emb argoprov isionsw ere," inmyopinion,mostv itallyd angerousto
Americanneutrality,Americansecurityand ,ab ov eall,Americanpeace ."
Itismyb elief-and thisispurespeculation-thatatthistimeand up
tothefallofFranceRoosev eltw asw ishfullyhopingthatBritainand
Francew ould prov eind omitab leintheWest,thattheSov ietUnion
w ould keepGermanycontained intheEast,thatthisstalematew ould
lastuntiltheGermanpeoplew ould b ecomefed upw ith" gunsb efore
b utter" and rev olt,thereb yb urstingtheNaz ib ub b lesothatpeace
w ould b erestored w ithouttheneed forAmericanarmed interv ention .
Itseemsq uiteev id entthatRoosev eltd id nothav efullcomprehension
ofthereal,paralyz ingforceoftheNaz ifury,noroftheimminenceof
thed angertotheUnited States,untiltheBlitz kriegw ashurled into
Franceinthespringof19 4 o.Atthatpoint,Iamsure,heb ecamecon-
v inced -and thisisnotspeculation-thatifBritainfelld isastrousw ar

fortheUnited Statesw ould b einev itab le,thatGermanyw ould attack
theWesternHemisphere,prob ab lyatfirstinLatinAmerica,assoon
asshehad assemb led a sufficientnav alforceand transportand cargo
fleet( nottoolongaprocess,w ithalltheshipb uild ing facilitiesof
EuropeatGermany'sd isposal)and thatJapanw ould concurrentlygo
on therampageinthePacific.
Onemaj orfactorinRoosev elt'sthinkingasthew arb egan isa
matterofcertainty : hisgreatestfearthenand sub seq uentlyw asofa
negotiated peace,anotherMunich .Hereagainw asd emonstration of
thefearoffearitself .Hecommunicated hisconcerntothe British
Gov ernmentthroughex tra-officialchannels( specifically,Lord Beav er-
b rook)and hestarted hishistoriccorrespond encew ithWinstonChurch-
ill-w homhead d ressed asthe" Nav alPerson" -recogniz ingin him
hisforemostBritishallyinaw arenessofthefollyofanyattempttod o
b usinessw ithHitler .( Churchill'scab lestoRoosev eltw ereusually
ad d ressed to " POTUS," theinitialsof" Presid entoftheUnited States ." )
Roosev elt'sfearofanegotiated peacew asb ased ontheconv ictionthat
itw ould b ed ictated b ythesamecrav enconsid erationsthatd ictated
thesurrend eratMunich-fearofNaz imightand fearthat,if Naz i
mightw ereeliminated ,Germanyw ould nolongerb eab uffer
b etw eenRussiaand theWest.Itw asob v ioustoRoosev eltasitshould
hav eb eentoanyotherinformed ob serv erthat Hitlerw anted a
negotiated peaceb ecauseitw ould w orkinsomanyw aystohisad v antage
( I) Itw ould furtherstrengthenhispositioninGermany,prov id ing
conclusiv eprooftotheGermanpeoplethathecould hood w inkBritain
and Franceintosellinganothersmallcountryinto slav ery( inthis
case, Poland )ratherthantoriskactualw ar
( 2) Itw ould giv eGermanytimetoconsolid atehergainsinCz echo-
slov akiaand Poland and furthertoincreaseherrearmament,par-
ticularlyintheb uild ingofsub marines,airplanesand theSiegfried Line .
( 3)Itw ould tend topushpub licsentimentinBritainand France-
and mostofallintheUnited States-b ackintothepeacetimeisola-
tionistruts,and thereb yretard ifnotnullifyalleffortsinthed emocracies
toprepareforw ar.
( 4 )Itw ould conv incetheRussians-and theJapanese-that the
Westernd emocraciesw erecompletelyspinelessand d ecad ent,asHitler
and Mussolinihad solongand soloud lyproclaimed themtob e
Thus,Roosev eltw asonsureground w henheurged thatanegotiated
peacew ould giv eHitlertheoneortw oyears'respitethatheneed ed
toprepareforconq uestofEurope,Africa,theMid d leEastand the
maj orpartoftheAtlanticw orld ; b ut,w hentheEuropeanAlliesasked
Roosev elt, as Franceineffectd id ," Whatw ill you
d otob ackus up? " -
hecould onlyreplythathehad v irtuallynothingtooffermoretangib le
thanhispersonalgood w ill .Hecould utterb rav ew ord sb ut, w hen
19 4 1

d eed sw erecalled for,hew ashogtied b ytheprev ailingisolationist
SinceIusethew ord " isolationists" freq uentlyinthesepages,perhaps
itw ould b ew elltoclarifyit.Actually,inthefirstyearormoreofw ar,
theranksoftheisolationistsinclud ed theov erw helmingmaj orityof
theAmericanpeoplew how ould hav eb eenglad toseetheEuropean
w arend onalmostanyinconclusiv etermsmerelyasaguaranteethat
theUnited Statesw ould notb ed raw nintoit.Pub licopiniononthis
scorew asmuchmorenearlyunanimousand moreclearlyex pressed
thanithad b eenin19 14 -17 .ItistruethatintheFirstWorld War
therew assub stantiallymorepro-GermansentimentintheUnited
States : largenumb ersofGerman-Americansthenstillheld closecul-
turaland emotionaltiesw iththeFatherland ,fortheHohenz ollern
b rand ofimperialism,w hileob j ectionab letotheav erageAmerican,d id
notinspirethesamehorrorand loathingasNaz ism.TheAmerican
peoplew ere,inaw ay,moretrulyneutralin19 14 thantheyw eretw enty-
fiv eyearslater
.How ev er,Americansin
19 39
w erefortified w iththe
ex periencethattheprev iousgenerationhad conspicuouslylacked ,the
ex perienceofinv olv ementinEuropeanw ar,and theyw anted nomore
.Theimpulsetolet" Europestew initsow nj uice" w asav ery
pow erfuloneand anentirelyund erstand ab leone,fortherew eretoo
manyAmericansw hoconsid ered thattheircountry'sonlyrew ard
forcomingtotheaid ofBritainand Francein19 18 w astob egiv enthe
nameof" UncleShylock
." ( AsRoosev eltremarked manytimes," We
fortunatelynev erhad achancetofind outw hatour` rew ard 'w ould
hav eb eenifGermanyhad w onthatw ar
." )Thus,isolationistsentiment
19 39
w asnotlimited toAmericansofGermanb irthord escent,or
tothosew holov ed Germanmusicand ad mired Germanscienceand
ind ustry,ortothosew how erepurepacifists : itw asrepresentativ eof
theentireAmericanpeoplesav eforad iminutiv eminorityofthosew ho
b eliev ed thatav ictoryforHitlerw ould putthesecurityofourow n
countryand ourow nconstitutionald emocracyind ead lyperil .The
firstw artimeRoperpolltakeninSeptemb er,
19 39
( seep .
128 ), gav eelo-
q uenttestimonytothestateofthenation'sthinking
Itw illb eseenthattheex tremeinterv entionistsentimentw aslimited
to2 .5 percentofthepopulation
.Isolationistsentimentw as,ofcourse,
muchstrongeramongw omenthanamongmen .Thesectionalb reak-
d ow nofthisanalysisshow ed v erylittled ifferenceb etw eentheNew
England and Mid d leAtlanticStatesand thoseintheMid d leWestb ut
farmoreinterv entionistsentimentb elow theMason-Dix onLineand ,
somew hatsurprisingly,intheRockyMountainand PacificCoastStates
( Itshould b erememb ered thatthispub licopinionpolld id notcon-
templatethepossib ilityofw arw ithJapan,theRome-Berlin-Tokyo
Ax isnothav ingb eenformed atthattime

Whichofthesecomesclosesttod escrib ingw hatyouthinkAmericashould d o
ab outthepresentEuropeanw ar?

Total Male

FemaleUnd er4 0 Ov er4 o
Enterthew aratonceonthe
sid eofEngland ,Franceand
Poland .
Find somew ayofsupporting
Takenosid esand stayoutof
thew arentirely,b utofferto
selltoanyoneonacash-and -
carryb asis . '
Donotenterthew arb utsupply
England ,Franceand Poland
w ithmaterialsand food ,and
Stayoutfornow and foraslong
asw ecan,b utgointow aronthe
sid eofEngland and Franceif
theyareinreald angeroflosing,
and inthemeantimehelpthat
sid ew ithfood and materials .
Hav enothingtod ow ithany
w arring country-d on't ev en
trad ew iththemonacash-and -
carryb asis .
Other-Fav oringneithersid e
Theall-outisolationistfactionw hichw ould hav e" nothingtod o
w ithanyw arringcountry" w asclosetothirtypercentand thisre-
mained aprettyconstantfigurethroughalloftheopinionteststhat
w eremad eov ersuchissuesasSelectiv eServ ice,thed estroyers-for-
b asesd eal,Lend Lease,etc.Thisthirtypercentrepresented thehard
coreofisolationistsand includ ed initw eresuchstrangeb ed fellow sas
allthenativ eFascistorganiz ations,w hichhailed Hitlerasthechampion
againstBolshev ism,and allthememb ersoftheCommunistpartyand
theirfellow trav elers ; forthisw astheageofthatcolossalanomaly,the
Naz i-Sov ietmutualnonaggressionpact.TheFascistgroupsand in-
d iv id ualsw ereunimportantnumericallyb uttheyhad analtogether
2 .5 3.6 1 .3 2 .1 2.8
.2 .2
.1 .1 .3
37 .5 4 3.0 32 .2 37.8 37 .2
8 .9 9 .0
8 .7 8 .8 9 .0
14 .7 16 .1
13.3 15 .4 14 .0
29 .9 23.6 36 .1
29 .9 29 .9
.6 .8 .6 .7 .6
1 .8 1 .8 1 .9 1 .5 2.2
3.9 1 .9 5 .8 3
.7 4 .0
19 4 1

d isproportionatecapacityfornoisemaking( liketheCommunists)and
theyw ereb ynomeansanegligib leforceinspread ingthepropagand a
lineasd ictated b yGoeb b elsfromBerlin
Immeasurab lystrongerw eretheracialand religiousgroupsw ho
fav ored ex tremeisolationism
.Id onotb eliev ethattheGerman-
Americansshould b einclud ed amongtheseforthegreatmaj orityof
themw ereappalled b yw hatHitlerhad d onetotheland oftheirfore-
fathersand thosew hoj oined orev entolerated theGerman-American
Bund w erefortunatelyfew innumb er
.TheScand inav ians,particularly
intheNorthMid d leWest,w ereconsid erab lymoreemphaticthanthe
Germansinchampioningstrictneutralityb utthissentimentw aslater
affected b ytheinv asionsofDenmarkand Norw ay
Americansasagroupw erenotnecessarilyinfav orofFascismb utthey
ad mired theseemingaccomplishmentsofMussoliniinrestoringItaly
tothed ignityofagreatpow erand therew eremanyofthemw how ere
mortallyoffend ed b yRoosev elt'sreferencetothe" stab intheb ack
Themorerab id Irish-Americansw hoconstituted apotentpolitical
forceinsomeofthelargermetropolitanareasw ere,asalw ays,inclined
tocheerforanyonew how asfightingagainstEngland and theyw ere
atthistimegiv eneffectiv elead ershipb ythev iolentpamphleteerand
rad iostar,FatherCharlesE
.Coughlin .BecauseofFatherCoughlin
and theactiv itiesofsuchsub v ersiv eorganiz ationsastheChristian
Front,asw ellasthesentimentsofsomanyIrish-and Italian-Americans,
theCatholicChurchb ecameid entified toacertainex tentinthepub lic
mind w iththecauseofex tremeisolationism
.How ev er,thePolish-
Americans,w hoformed animportantpartoftheCatholiccommunity,
w ereofcourseb itterlyanti-Naz iasw ellasanti-Communist
Organiz ed lab or,thegreatestunitofsupportforRoosev elt,w asnow
anuncertainq uantity
.Theunionsund erCommunistd ominationd uti-
fullyfollow ed thepartylineofall-outisolationismand sod id thoseund er
.Lew is,theb itterestRoosev elt-haterofthemall .
Thegreatb ulkoflab orw hileunq uestionab lyanti-Naz iw asalsoanti-
w ar,fearingthatUnited Statesinv olv ementw ould retard orev en
d estroythegainsmad eb ylab orund ertheNew Deal
.Ib eliev ethat
muchthesamesentimenthad prev ailed intheLab orpartyinGreat
Britainb eforethew ar ;
ithad certainlyprev ailed intheC
.G .T.in
France .
Thechieflead ershipand theessentialfinancingofisolationismasa
politicalfactionw ereprov id ed b ymenand w omenw hob elonged tono
particulargroup :
therew ereanumb erofb usinessmen,likeGeneral
Rob ertE.Wood ,JayHormel,and JamesD
.Mooney,w hosimply
b eliev ed thatHitlerw asgoingtow inand thattheUnited Stateshad
b etterplanto" d ob usiness" w ithhim;
and therew eretechnicians,of

w homthearchex amplew asColonelCharlesA.Lind b ergh,w how ere
soimpressed w iththetechnologicalachiev ementsofHitler'sregimented
state,ascontrasted w iththehopelessinefficiencyofd emocracy,that
theyb eliev ed Fascismconstituted " thew av eofthefuture
." Itw assuch
asthese,togetherw ithassorted sufferersfromthev irulentx enophob ia
oftheHearst-Patterson-McCormickpress,w hoformed theAmericaFirst
Committee,theultimatespearhead ofisolationism
Therew ere,inad d ition,consid erab lenumb ersoflib erals,and many
ofthemintheRoosev eltAd ministrationitself,w hoopposed thePresi-
d ent'sunneutralpolicyb ecauseofapacifisticfearthatinv olv ementin
w ar,orev enpreparationtherefor,w ould prod uceaninterruptionin
socialprogressand anassaultuponciv illib ertiessuchasthatw hich
occurred und erA
.MitchellPalmer,AlienPropertyCustod ianand
AttorneyGeneralintheWilsonAd ministration
.AsIhav eind icated ,
HarryHopkinsw ould und oub ted lyhav eb eeninclud ed w ithhisfriend s
SenatorRob ertM.LaFolletteand Rob ertM
oflib eralisolationistshad itnotb eenforhisferv entconv ictionthat
Roosev eltcould notpossib lyb ew rongonanymaj orissue
.Itw asthe
lib eralgroup-and ,toamuchlesserex tent,theCommunists-w homad e
thegreatestappealtoyouthinthecountryand inspired somany" Keep
UsOutofWar" d emonstrationsonsomanycampuses
Therew asanotherand ex tremelyimportantelementinthethinking
oflib eralsand ofcountlessmid d le-of-the-road Americansw hosepolitical
affiliationsw erehaz yb utw hoseimpulsesw ereessentiallyd ecent : that
w asprofound d istrustofthereactionarylead ersinBritainand France
w hohad gonetoMunichonceand mightw ellgothereagain
w asanhonestand intelligentsentimentw hichd ishonestand d angerously
stupid mencould ex ploit.Therecord sofcalculated Britishpropagand a
inAmericaintheFirstWorld Warastheyhad b eensetd ow nb ysuch
thoughtfuland reasonab lew ritersasWalterMillisand QuincyHow e
ev oked toomanymalod orousmemories
.Beforethead v entofcalamity
inWesternEuropeand ofWinstonChurchill,theAllied caused id
nothav eagood smellev eninthenostrilsofthosew hohated Fascism
and allitsev ilw orks
.Thesamegeneralsentimentapplied -although
toafarlesserex tent,b ecauseofpub licignoranceofthearea-tothe
.Itw asnoteasytoansw ertheq uestion
should Americanb oysd iefightingFascisminEuropeand Asiain
ord ertod efend neo-Fascism? Theunw orthyFrenchmenw horaised
thecry," Whyshould w ed ieforDanz ig? " raised moreechoesin
AmericanheartsthanGoeb b elsorGayd aev erd id .Earlyin
19 39
und erstand ing,ob j ectiv e,sharp-w itted Scot,Rob ertBruceLockhart,
authorof BritishAgentand manyotherb ooks,w entonalecturetour
oftheUnited States .Inalaterb ook, ComestheReckoning, hew rote

Theeffectofmylectures,likethatofmostBritishlecturers,w as
insignificant,ifnotind eed harmful,and theonlyb enefitofmytour
w asself-ed ucation .
Lockhartsummariz ed theav erageAmerican'sattitud etow ard Brit-
ain'sprob lemsinthesew ord s
" WeAmericansw entintothelastw artosav ed emocracy.We
pulled yououtofaholeand w ereceiv ed v erygrud gingthanks .At
Versaillesand afterVersaillesyoutrampled ond emocraticid eals .
Now ,
.largelythroughyourow nfault,youareintroub leagainand
youw antourhelp
.Well,w e'v elearntourlesson ."
Lockhartlaterb ecameDirectorGeneralofthePoliticalWarfare
Ex ecutiv e,w hichw asattached totheForeignOfficeand theMinistryof
Information .Perhapsb ecauseofhisow nex perienceand hisremarkab ly
Statesd uringtheentirew ar,ex ceptw henspecificallyreq uested tod oso
b ytheAmericanauthorities .ThemistakesoftheFirstWorld Warw ere
notrepeated .
WhatLockhartencountered mayb ed escrib ed astheessential" grass
roots" sentiment,w hichw asstronglyrepresented intheCongressto-
getherw ithallthev ariousprej ud icesand fearsthatalw aysb esetlittle
men .Therew asanotherpow erfulinfluenceintheCongress : thisw as
thekind ofcrossroad schauv inismw hichafflictsminorpoliticiansw ho
know theycanalw aysgetapplauseb yind ulgingineagle-screaming-
thekind ofpicayuneparochialismw hichcontend sthatall" furriners,"
particularlyEnglishmenand Frenchmen,areslickd eceiv ersw hoare
outtopullthew oolov ertheeyesofpoor,innocent,gullib leUncleSam
thew hiletheyd eftlyex tractthegold fromhisteeth .Iamnotsuggesting
thatCongressw asd ominated b ythisspirit,northattheRepub licans
had anymoreofitthantheDemocrats ; b utitw asalw aysthereand
alw ayshighlyv ocaland suchforcefulisolationistlead ersasSenator
BurtonK.Wheeler( Democrat,ofMontana),and Representativ e
JosephW .Martin,Jr .( Repub lican,ofMassachusetts),knew w ellhow
tomob iliz eit.
WhenIspeakofthe" isolationists," fromnow on,Ishallreferpartic-
ularlytothoseintheCongressw how ereinapositiontob lockthe
Roosev eltmeasuresand ,fromtheirrostrumonCapitolHill,topub liciz e
w hattheyconsid ered hisattemptstod upetheAmericanpeopleintoa
-oarw hichtheyb eliev ed w asnoneofourb usiness .Itw asacuriousfact
thattheseex tremeisolationistsw erenotpacifistsinthesensethatthey
opposed w ar,assuch
; ind eed ,theirattitud etow ard theSov ietUnion-
and also,insomecases,tow ard Japan-w asoneofex tremeb elligerency .
Theyseemed tob einfav oroffightingund ertw oessentialcond itions
( 1) thatallb attlesb estaged onourow nhomeground s,intheWestern

Hemisphere( otherw ise,itw ould b ea" foreign" w ar) ; and ( 2) thatin
thew arw ekeepourselv espure,and therefore " 10 o percentAmerican,"
b yhav ingnoalliesw hatsoev er
.Ev id entlyitw asfeltthatw ehad mad e
aterrib lemistakein18 18 b yfightinginFrancetogetherw ithAlliesw ho
had turned outtob eingrates,and sow emustb ecarefulnev ertod o
thatagain .TheRoosev eltd octrinew asthatifw ew eretogetintoaw ar
w eshould fightitasfarfromourow nshoresaspossib leand w iththe
greatestnumb erofallies,regard lessofid eology,thatw ecould enlist,
acceptingw hatev erriskstheremightb eofpotentialingratitud eafter
thecommonenemieshad b eend isposed of .
ThemyopicformofCongressionalisolationismcanb estb eex pressed
b ytw oq uotationsoftheperiod .Thefirstw asfromRepresentativ eJohn
G.Alex and er,aMinnesotaRepub lican .InalettertothePresid enton
Selectiv eServ ice,hew rote
Whytakeouryouthfromtheirhomesand outofthew holesome
env ironmentinw hichmostofthemareliv ing,and transplantthem
intothelonelyinhospitab leand d isturb ingand d iscouragingarenaof
atrainingcamp? Theirmental,moraland physicalw ell-b eingistoo
importanttob ed isregard ed inthatw ay . . . .Mr .Presid ent,w ew ant
noforeignw ars,w ew antnoneofourAmericanb oystofightin
foreignland sorseas,w ew antonlytopreparetoprotectand d efend
ourow nshoresand b ord er .
Theotherq uotationw as-fromSenatorRob ertA.Taft
Id onotknow w hattheGermansmayd o,and nooneknow sw hat
theymayd ountiltheyarefreed fromthepresentw arand hav ean
opportunitytoshow .Whentheyd o,w ecanad optthesamemethod s
Wecantakethesamestepsthatmayb enecessarytomeetthepartic-
ularkind ofGerman" b litz krieg," ifthereissuchab litz krieg,atthe
timew efind outw hatitis .
Inotherw ord s,w ew eretofightonly( 1)w hentheenemy,hav ing
prev iouslyd isposed ofallofourpotentialallies,had arriv ed atour
shoresor" b ord er" and
( 2)
afterhehad rev ealed tousallofthenew
w eaponsand tacticsthatheproposed toemployforourd estruction .
Thesetw oq uotationsmightw ellb eprinted atthestartofthemost
elementarytex tb ookused atWestPointand Annapolisinord ertoteach
stud entofficersw hattheymustfirstcontend w ithintheircareersof
serv icetotheUnited States .
Inhisconstantlyd elicateand d ifficultrelationsw iththeCongressin
mattersofforeignpolicy,Roosev eltw asconstantlycarefultoav oid w hat
Tolstoycalled " theirrev ocab leact." Henow carried aheav yshare
ofresponsib ilityforthefuturehistoryofthew orld .Ifhew eretogo
b eforetheCongressw ithareq uestforactiononanissueofinternational
importanceand w ered efeated ,itw ould inv olv emorethangleeful
1 33
ed itorialsinthe Chicago Trib une and possib lelossesfortheDemocratic
partyatthenex telections ; itcould w ellinv olv eutter,w orld -w id e
d isaster.Themelancholystoryhasb eentold ofthemeetinginthe
Presid ent'sstud yoneev eningafew w eeksb eforew arb rokeoutin
Europeatw hichRoosev eltand Cord ellHulltold VicePresid entGarner,
SenatorWilliamE.Borahand otherSenatorsoftheirconv ictionthat
w armightb eav erted b yimmed iateamend mentoftheNeutralityAct
Hullargued thepointw ithtearsinhiseyes,b utBorahb rushed himoff
w iththestatementthathispriv atesourcesofinformationassured him
therew ould b enow ar( " Germanyisn'tread yforit" ) ; and Garner
end ed themeetingb ysaying,cheerfully,toRoosev elt: " Well,Captain,
w emayasw ellfacethefacts .Youhav en'tgotthev otes,and that'sall
thereistoit." Roosev eltd id notforgetthatex perienceand neitherd id
Hull,w hohad morerespectthanRoosev eltd id forthed ignityand
.BeforeRoosev eltasked foranythingelsein
thenex ttw oyears,hew asex tremelycarefultomakesurethathehad
" thev otes ." Hehesitated totakeachancew hichmightresultinan
ad v ersev ote-orev enafairlyclosev ote-intheCongressand thereb y
rend eraid and comforttotheGermansand Japaneseand d iscourage-
mentand d emoraliz ationtothosew hofoughtthem
av eragecitiz entoappreciatetheex tenttow hichev eryw ord ,ev ery
implication,uttered b ythePresid entoftheUnited States,asw ellas
ev eryactioncommitted b yhim,mayb olsterthecourageord eepenthe
d espairofhund red sofmillionsofpeopleinland sov erseas
v eltappreciated it.Hiscautiouspolicyofonestepatatimeoftenin-
furiated theex tremeinterv entionistsw hooftenasked ," Whyd oesn't
hegotoCongressand d emand ad eclarationofw ar
now ? " Had hed one
sointhesummerof19 4 0 ,forex ample,w henBritainw asfightingalone,
hew ould und oub ted lyhav eb eenrepud iated b ytheCongressand that
mightw ellhav eb eenthesignaltotheBritishpeoplethattheircause
w ashopelessand thattheyhad nochoiceb utsurrend er .Ithinkthatthe
criticismaimed atRoosev eltb ytheinterv entionistscaused himmore
temporaryirritationthanthathurled athimd ayafterd ayb ytheisola-
tionists .Shortlyb eforeChristmas,19 39 ,someonesenthimacopyofa
poemw rittenb yJosephWarrenin1775 ,thefirstv erseofw hichw asas
follow s
Liftupyourhand s,yeheroes,
And sw earw ithproud d isd ain ;
Thew retchthatw ould ensnareyou
Shalllayhissnaresinv ain
Should Europeemptyallherforce
And fightand shoutand fightforfreeAmerikay .

Thecorrespond ent-nameunknow ntome-w hosentthattothe
Presid entex plained that" accord ingtoCarlSand b urg,thepronunciation
'Amerikay'w ascustomaryw ithb othLincolnand JeffDav is
Roosev eltsentacopyofthisv ersetoHopkinsw iththefollow ing
Thosev ersesb yJosephWarren,w rittenin 1775 , areinterestingas
show ingthatamatteroffourmillionpeoplew ithfew resources
thoughtev eninthosed aysthattheycould lickthew orld .Ifearthat
tod ayaltogethertoomanypeopleinAmerikayw ant,astheyd id then,
to" fightand shoutand fight." Someofusb eliev etherew ould b e
Roosev elt,normallyonew hointerpreted hisconstitutionalpow ersin
theb road estpossib leterms,mighthav eused theimmed iateimpactof
Europeanw artoassumeauthorityfarb eyond thatofthenormalpeace-
timePresid ent.Buthed id j usttheopposite .Inapressconferencefol-
low inghisProclamationofLimited Emergency,onSeptemb er8 ,19 39 ,
heclarified hisintentionsb ysaying
Thereisnointentionand noneed ofd oingallthosethingsthat
could b ed one . . . .Thereisnothoughtinanyshape,mannerorform,
ofputtingtheNation,eitherinitsd efensesorinitsinternaleconomy,
onaw arb asis
.Thatisonethingw ew anttoav oid .Wearegoingto
keeptheNationonapeaceb asis,inaccord ancew ithpeacetime
authoriz ations .
Thosew ereprob ab lythew eakestw ord sthatRoosev eltev eruttered .
Hew asoutd oingev enWarrenG .Hard ingb ygettingthecountry" b ack
tonormalcy" b eforethew arhad reallystarted .Hew asrev ealingthe
w oefulw eaknessofhisow nAd ministration,especiallyinthethree
Departmentsthatmattered mostinatimeofinternationalcrisis-the
StateDepartment,WarDepartmentand Nav yDepartment.
Itisalw ayseasytopokefunattheStateDepartment-ind eed ,it
rankssecond onlytotheCongressasatargetforthosew holiketo
ind ulgeintheinex pensiv epastimeofrid iculingourgov ernment-b utit
isconsid erab lylesseasytound erstand thepeculiard ifficultiesw hich
afflicted theDepartmentin19 4 oand thereafter .Cord ellHullhad setas
hisw orthygoaltheprev entionofaSecond World War .Hew asd eeply
inj ured w henBorahcontemptuouslyd ismissed theDepartment'sinfor-
mationasinferiortohisow n ; forHull,anyreflectiononhisDepart-
mentconstituted anaffronttohispersonalhonorand prid e-and ,as
anold sold ierofTennessee,hehad plentyofb oth .Hull'sad mirab le
crusad eforreciprocaltrad ew asfrustrated b ythew ar,and hefound
himselflargelyrestricted tothemaintenanceofhemisphericsolid arity-
initselfaformofisolationism,accord ingtotheRoosev eltconcept-as

1 35
Fed eralGov ernment
.WhiletheBritishForeignOfficew asorganiz ed on
ab asisthatcontemplated theconstantpossib ilityofw aras" continuation
ofpolicyb yothermeans," theStateDepartmentw ascompelled b y
tw entyyearsofisolationismtooperateontheprinciplethattheAlpha
and OmegaofAmericanforeignpolicyisto keepoutofw ar .
b ecameimpossib le,thefunctionsoftheStateDepartment,ex ceptin
regard toneutralcountries,b ecameatrophied .Thisw asab itterpillfor
Hulltosw allow ,and henev erd id fullyd igestit.Hew asex tremely
j ealousofhisreputationasoneofficeroftheAd ministrationw hohad
b eenguiltyofnoconspicuousb lund ersand w hohad b eenspared the
criticismlav ished onalltheothers,includ ingthePresid enthimself .
How ev er,intimesofd esperateemergencyw hend rastic,d aringaction
had tob etakenq uickly,Roosev eltw asb ound tob ecomeimpatientw ith
anyonew hoseprimaryconcernw asthemaintenanceofapersonalrecord
of" noruns-nohits-noerrors ." To .anev ergreaterex tent,Roosev elt
b ypassed Hulltod eald irectlyw ithSumnerWelles,ortoassignw hat
should hav eb eenStateDepartmentfunctionstotheTreasuryDepart-
ment,theWarDepartment,ortoanyotheragencyorind iv id ualw ho
mightgetthingsd one,includ ingev entuallyHarryHopkins,thearche-
typeofw hatHullcalled " theex tremeleftfringe" surround ingthe
Presid ent.Hullb eliev ed thathehad b eenselected b yRoosev eltas
themantosucceed himattheend ofthesecond term,and this
b eliefw asassid uouslycultiv ated and encouraged b yJamesA.Farley-
asisd iscussed elsew hereinthesepages .AlthoughHullhad cond ucted
nocampaigninhisow nb ehalf( Farleyw asd oingthatforhim)hefelt
thathehad b eenb etrayed ,ifnotb yRoosev elt,thenb yHopkinsand the
" ex tremeleftfringe ." How ev er,unlikeFarley,hefinallystood b y
Roosev eltinthecampaignof19 4 0 and w asapow erfulforceinhis
re-election ; and Roosev eltd id notforgetthis .
Unq uestionab ly,themostlastingand mostd eplorab leelementinthe
d istantrelationsb etw eentheWhiteHouseand itsnex t-d oorneighb or
tothew estw asthePresid ent'scloseassociationw ithSumnerWelles-
anassociationb ased onlongfriend shipand genuinead miration .Icannot
pretend togiv ethereasonsfortheanimositythatex isted b etw eenthe
Secretaryand Und erSecretaryofState .Butthereis no q uestionof
d oub tthattheirconflictb ecamesouglyand soex tremelyd angerousthat
itev entuallycompelled theresignationofWelles,w hichw asaserious
losstoRoosev elt,forheplaced greatd epend enceonWelles'sj ud gment
particularlyinallmattersrelatingtotheframingoftheultimatepeace .
Thesearecircumstancesofw hichitisnotagreeab letow rite,and im-
possib leforacontemporarytow ritew ithoutev id enceofb iasinoneform
oranother.How ev er,historyw illachiev enocompleteund erstand ingof
FranklinRoosev elt'sAd ministrationw ithoutknow led geoftheintra-
muralfeud sw hichsofreq uentlyb esetit.( Id onotb eliev ethatev en

historyw illev erb eab letound erstand w hyhetolerated themtothe
ex tentthathed id .)
TheWarDepartmentw asw eakened b yamoreob v iousand ev en
moreimpoliterunningb attleb etw eentheSecretary,HarryH .Wood -
ring,and LouisA.Johnson,AssistantSecretary .Wood ringw asisola-
tionistatheartw hileJohnsonb eliev ed inall-outarmament.Their
sev ereclashesw erehard lyhelpfultotheArmyatatimew henitsneed s
w eremostd esperate .
TheNav yDepartmentw asinmuchb ettershapealthoughitsSecre-
tary,CharlesEd ison,w asfrailinhealthand insufficientlyenthusiastic
ab outhisj ob .Furthermore,Ed ison • appearstohav eb eensingularly
complacentab outthew orld situation .OnJune 21, 19 4 o-thev eryd ay
w henHitlerd ictated hisarmisticetermstoPetain'sstunned representa-
tiv esintheforestofCompiegne-Ed isonw rotetoHopkinsurgingthe
useofairships( d irigib les)fortheincreaseoftrad ew ithSouthAmerica .
Thefollow ingw ord sinthisletterw ereund erscored b yHopkins
in Europe,Germanyw illimmed iatelyresumeherSouthAmericanair-
shipserv ice,ev end espiteherlackofheliumorpossib lyw ithRussian
TheNav y,liketheWarDepartment,w astoalamentab leex tentcow ed
b ytheforceofisolationistsentimentonCapitolHilland w astrained to
b etimid inreq uestsforappropriations .Theofficersmostsuccessful
intheDepartmentinpeacetimew erethosew homCongressid entified as
themosteconomymind ed -and sailorsorsold iersw hoareeconomy
mind ed rarelyw inw ars .
Theofficerpersonnelinb othserv icesw ereanythingb utb lind ind ev o-
tiontothepoliciesoftheirCommand erinChief .IntheArmy,therew as
atend encyamongofficersofb othground and airforcestoad mireGer-
manyforherachiev ementsinb uild ingupthesearms .Thisled insome
ex tremecasestothehopethatGermanyw ould conq uerEngland thereb y
prov id inghistoricd emonstrationofthesuperiorityofland and air
pow erov erseapow er .Ob v iously,thesesentimentsw erenotshared b y
Nav yofficersb ut,formanyofthem,themaininterestw asintheFar
East,ratherthanEurope,and itw astheirhopethatiftheUnited States
mustgotow arthemainb attleground w ould b ethePacific
Therew asanotherreasonforthew eaknessofRoosev elt'sposition
d uringtheperiod ofthePhonyWar,and itw asprob ab lythemostimpor-
tantreasonofall : hew asinthelastyearofhissecond termasPresid ent,
and itisoneoftheclassicalw eaknessesofourAmericanconstitutional
systemthataPresid entw hoisapproachingtheend ofhistenureofoffice
canex erciselittleauthorityinthecond uctofforeignaffairs .Theold
theorythatpolitics" end satthew aterline" isnonsense .Intimesofpar-
tisanstruggleforpow erthereisnopointatw hichpoliticsend sand this

w asparticularlytruein
19 39 -4 0
w henalld omesticissuesb ecameind is-
tinctand insignificantintheshad ow ofw ar .IfRoosev elthad ind icated in
9 39 orearly19 4 0 thathe w ould
runforathird term,thenhew ould
hav eb ecomeacand id ateratherthanaPresid ent; hisow npartyw ould
hav eb eend iv id ed intoprosand consand theRepub licansw ould hav e
b eenunited inattackinghisev erypolicy,foreignand d omestic.Ifhehad
ind icated hew ould notrunagain,thenhisauthorityw ould hav eb ecome
negligib leathomeand nonex istentab road .Hisonlysolutionw asto
shroud hisintentionsinmystery ; inad d itiontow hich,itisapparentthat
foralongtimehehimselfd id notknow j ustw hattheseintentionsw ere .
Thisw asaperiod ofimpotencew hen,w ithallofciv iliz ationinperil,the
lead erofthemostpow erfulnationonearthhad tow ait,d ayafter
anx iousd ay,forhisow ncourseofactiontob eshaped b yev entsov er
w hichhehad nocontrol .Itw asparticularlyagoniz ingforoneofhis
v enturesomespirittob eunab letoactb old lyorev encautiouslytoplan
actioninfaceofimpend ingcalamity,ofw hichtheBlitz krieginPoland
had giv enasuggestion .Thew orld now knew how theNaz iscould strike
-how theirAirForcecould paralyz ecommunications-thattheirtanks
w erenot,ashad hopefullyb eenreported ,mad eofersatz steel .Butthe
Frenchcould onlycrouchb ehind theMaginotLine,and theBritish
b ehind theRoyalNav y,and theAmericansb ehind theNeutralityLaw .
And Roosev eltw as,foronceinhislife,d eed lessand ,sofarashew as
ab letosayanythingofanyconseq uence,speechless .EarlyinJanuary,
19 4 0 ,hesentforSumnerWelles,w hohasw ritten," Head mitted
franklythatthechancesseemed tohimab outoneinathousand thatany-
thingatallcould b ed onetochangethecourseofev ents ." Theonechance
asRoosev eltthensaw itw astosend WellestoEuropetotalktothe
head sofgov ernmentinGermany,Italy,Franceand Britaintod etermine
" thepossib ilitiesofconclud inganyj ustand permanentpeace" b utnot
any" temporaryortentativ earmed truce ." IfRoosev eltb eliev ed there
w asanypossib ilitythatHitlerw ould agreetod isarm-orev entogiv e
uponeacrethatGermanyhad seiz ed -hemostcertainlyw asthinking
w ishfully .Wellesreturned fromhismissionw ithd iscouragingreports
ab outev erythingex ceptthetemperoftheBritish,b utw ithmuchuseful
informationonthepersonalitiesofthemenhehad met,and Roosev eltw as
onew hoknew how tousesuchinformation .Itw asalw aysoftremend ous
importancetohimtob eab letosiz eupthecharactersofthelead ersof
b othenemyand friend lystates .
Onemayw ond erw hyWellesd id notalsogototheSov ietUnionatthe
time,b utRoosev elt" d id notfeelthatav isittoMoscow w ould serv e
anyusefulpurpose ." Ind eed ,then,theprestigeoftheSov ietUnionw as
solow thatitw ascounted asonlyapotentialv ictimofGermanyand not
asav alid aggressiv efactor .Russiaw astheninv olv ed tothed iscred it
ofitsarmsintheWinterWarw ithlittleFinland and w asmakingaw oe,
1 38
fullyunimpressiv eshow ing.Therew asnohintrev ealed oftheev entual
magnificenceoftheRed Armyinaction .Manypeoplehav eassumed that
thisw asanactofd elib erated eceptiononRussia'spart-simulatingw eak-
nessinord ertomaskherrealstrength-b utaremarkmad eb yJoseph
Stalin,printed laterinthisb ook,ind icated thatthew eaknessthenw as
real .
Thew arinFinland caused intensificationoftheisolationistactiv ities
oftheCommunistpartyintheUnited Statesand led toasingularepisod e
attheWhiteHouse : AnAmericanYouthCongressheld aconv entionin
WashingtoninFeb ruary,19 4 0 ,and thed elegatesassemb led onthe
southlaw noftheWhiteHouseonaraw ,rainyd aytohearaspeechb y
thePresid ent.Itw asoneofthefew occasionsinhislifew henRoosev elt
w asb ooed and hissed tohisfaceb yanaud ienceofAmericans .He
referred toaresolution,passed b yoneofthecouncilsofthisYouth
Congress,againstthegrantingofAmericanaid toFinland ontheground
thatsuchactionw as" anattempttoforceAmericaintotheimperialistic
w ar." Roosev eltsaid
Morethantw entyyearsago,w hilemostofyouw erev eryyoung
child ren,Ihad theutmostsympathyfortheRussianpeople .Inthe
earlyd aysofCommunism,Irecogniz ed thatmanylead ersinRussia
w ereb ringinged ucationand b etterhealthand ,ab ov eall,b etteroppor-
tunitytomillionsw hohad b eenkeptinignoranceand serfd omund er
theimperialregime .Id isliked theregimentationund erCommunism.
Iab horred theind iscriminatekillingsofthousand sofinnocentv ictims .
Iheartilyd eprecated theb anishmentofreligion-thoughIknew
thatsomed ayRussiaw ould returntoreligionforthesimplereason
thatfourorfiv ethousand yearsofrecord ed historyhav eprov enthat
mankind hasalw aysb eliev ed inGod inspiteofmanyab ortiv eattempts
toex ileGod .
I,w ithmanyofyou,hoped thatRussiaw ould w orkoutitsow n
prob lems,and thatitsgov ernmentw ould ev entuallyb ecomea .peace-
lov ing,populargov ernmentw ithafreeb allot,w hichw ould notinter-
ferew iththeintegrityofitsneighb ors .
Thathopeistod ayeithershattered orputaw ayinstorageagainst
someb etterd ay .TheSov ietUnion,asev eryb od yw hohasthecourage
tofacethefactknow s,isrunb yad ictatorshipasab soluteasanyother
d ictatorshipinthew orld .Ithasallied itselfw ithanotherd ictatorship,
and ithasinv ad ed aneighb orsoinfinitesimallysmallthatitcould
d onoconceiv ab lepossib leharmtotheSov ietUnion,aneighb orw hich
seeksonlytoliv eatpeaceasad emocracy,and alib eral,forw ard -
lookingd emocracyatthat.
Ithasb eensaid thatsomeofyouareCommunists
.Thatisav ery
unpopulartermthesed ays .AsAmericansyouhav ealegaland con-
titutionalrighttocallyourselv esCommunists,thoseofyouw hod o .
'Youhav earightpeacefullyand openlytoad v ocatecertainid ealsof
theoreticalCommunism; b utasAmericansyouhav enotonlyaright
1 3 9
b utasacred d utytoconfineyourad v ocacyofchangesinlaw tothe
method sprescrib ed b ytheConstitutionoftheUnited States-and you
hav enoAmericanright,b yactord eed oanykind ,tosub v ertthe
Gov ernmentand theConstitutionofthis Nation .
Thosew ord s,w hichappeartohav eb eenv erycarefullychosen,and the
b oosthatgreeted them,prov id eeloq uenttestimonytothew eird nessof
theatmospherethatprev ailed d uringthePhonyWar
.ForRoosev eltw as
thePresid entw hohad firstestab lished .friend lyrelationsw iththeSov iet
Union,aftersix teenyearsofattemptsb ytheU
.S.Gov ernmenttoignore
itsex istence,and w hosub seq uentlyrend ered d ecisiv eaid totheRussians
w hentheyb ecamev ictimsofthesav ageforcestheyhad soughttoappease .
Duringthisw interofthePhonyWar,Churchillpaid hisrespectsto
theneutralnationsofEuropew hosoughttob uyimmunityfromGer-
managgressionb yappeasement
.Hesaid ," Eachonehopesthatifhe
feed sthecrocod ileenough,thecrocod ilew illeathimlast." Churchill
ev id entlyliked tousethecrocod ileasthesymb olofNaz iv oracity
later,w henhew asex plainingtheNorthAfricanoperationtoStalin,
hed rew apictureofacrocod ileonasheetofKremlinpaperand said ,
" Weshallstrikehimhere,inthesoftund erb elly[theMed iterranean]
w hileatthesametimew ehithimhere,inthesnout" [NorthernFrance]
InMarch,19 4 0 ,Hopkinsw assufficientlyrecov ered togetoutof
b ed forafew hourseachd ayand god ow nstairsand ev en,w henthe
w eatherw assunnyand w arm,gooutforanoccasionald riv e
w asstillv eryw eak
.Hew rotetoHenryWallace,SecretaryofAgricul-
ture,askingforhelpinob tainingsomeseed sforhisgard en .Amongthem
w erepetunias,b egonias,ageratums,cand ytufts,sw eetalyssum,pansies,
forget-me-nots,calliopsis,b achelorb uttonsand w hiteand yellow rose
b ushes
.Hetold Wallace," Thisistob etheex tentofthekind ofthingI
amgoingtob eab letod othisspring ." ( IntheyearsthatIknew Hopkins
Inev ersaw himtakeanyinterestinaflow er .)
TheFormerNav alPerson
NTHEIRsw iftinv asionofNorw ay,theGermanground troopsw ere
transported secretlytomanypoints)nthatlongand complicated
coastlineund erthev eryeyesand gunsoftheBritishHomeFleet
Thisw asthecontemptuousansw ertoNev illeChamb erlain'sstu-
pend ouslyunfortunateremarkab outHitlerhav ing" missed theb us
WhentheBritishattempttointerv eneinNorw ayprov ed afiasco,an
eld erPrimeMinister,Dav id Lloyd George,d escrib ed itas" another
traged yoftoolittle-and toolate
." Thoselastw ord sformed theepitaph
onthegrav eofw ishfulthinkinginthed emocracies
.Theyw ereb urned
intothev erysoulofFranklinRoosev elt
.Theyhad acontinuingeffect
throughtheyearsonallthosew how ereinv olv ed inthed irectionofthe
Allied w areffort.Theycreated thesenseofd esperateurgency
w hich the
d esperatetimesd emand ed
.Ascrisisaftercrisisb urstitw asrepeated
that," Nev eragainmustw eb e toolittleand toolate!" Butw ealmost
w ere
.Themarginb etw eenv ictoryand d efeatprov ed tob ev erynarrow
ind eed : itw asnow id erthantheEnglishChannel-now id erthanone
streetinStalingrad -now id erthantheSolomons'" Slot." Theinv asions
ofNorw ayand DenmarkonApril9 ,19 4 0 ,marked theb eginningofthe
end ofthePhonyWarand ,w iththeinv asionsofHolland ,Belgium,
Lux emb ourgand FranceonMay 10 , theperiod ofimpotenceatlast
cametoitsov erd ueconclusion .Inthecourseofthenex tsix months,
Roosev eltmad eb yallod d sthemostmomentousd ecisionsofhiscareer
-and hemad ethem,itmustb erememb ered ,w ithoutprev iousauthoriz a-
tionb yCongressand againsttheearnestad v iceofmanyofhismost
influentialassociatesand friend s
Onthed aythattheGermansmarched -or,rather,hurtled -intothe
Low Countries,Chamb erlainresigned and WinstonChurchillw asatlast
called toBuckinghamPalacetoacceptthepostoftheKing'sFirst
14 0
19 4 1

1.4 1
Minister.( Hethereuponb ecame,inhiscorrespond encew ithRoosev elt,
the" FormerNav alPerson
." )Hetold theHouseofCommons," Ihav e
nothingtoofferb utb lood ,toil,tearsand sw eat." AnthonyEd en,w ho
had b eenoutoftheCab inetforayearb eforethew arstarted b ecause
ofhisoppositiontoChamb erlain'spolicies,w asb roughtb acktoprom-
inenceasSecretaryofStateforWarinthenew coalitiongov ernment
TheBritishpeoplenow had lead ersw orthyofthem.
OnMay14 ,theDutchArmysurrend ered and theGermanBlitz -
kriegb egantoturnw estw ard tow ard theclassicb attlefield sofNorthern
.TheArd ennesagainb ecamethesceneofmassiv e,Germanv ic-
.ThehaplessFrenchCommand erinChief,GeneralGamelin,w as
replaced b yGeneralWeygand ,and Churchillb road casttothew orld ,
" Wemaylookw ithconfid encetothestab iliz ationofthefrontin
." Butthew orld looked inv ain .Thefamous" sickle" mov ement
w asinfullstrid eand w ithintw od aysofChurchill'sreassurancethe
mob ilecolumnshad cutthroughnorthoftheSommetotheEnglish
ChannelatAb b ev ille,had thensw ungnortheastw ard alongthecoast
toBoulogneand Calaisand w erew ithinsightofEngland .TheGermans
und erHitlerhad accomplished inelev end aysw hattheyhad failed to
d ointhefouryearsofb itterfightingintheFirstWorld War
.Itw asa
b rilliantcampaignofcalculated panicw hichled tofierced emoraliz a-
tion .OnMay
28 , KingLeopold ofBelgiumsurrend ered .Weygand
attempted toformalineofd efenseontheSomme .Foratimethere
w asgreatq uestioninthepub licmind w hetherHitlerw ould attack
thislineand strikesouthw ard toParisorw ould d irecthiscatapulting
forceacrosstheChannelfortheinv asionofEngland .
WhentheBlitz kriegintheWestw asinitsfifthd ay,Churchill
sentRoosev eltacab lew hichw asfullofd arkforeb od ingsforthe
Germanconq uestofEuropew ith" astonishingsw iftness
." Hecon-
templated thepossib ilityofheav yb omb ingofBritainand ofparatroop
.Hepred icted thatMussoliniw ould b urstintothew artocollect
hisshareofthe" lootofciv iliz ation ." ( Thisw astw enty-fiv ed ays
b eforeMussolinid id so .)Heasked thePresid enttoproclaimastate
of" nonb elligerency" fortheUnited States,w hichw ould meansupply-
ingallkind sofaid b utnoarmed action .Theaid thatChurchill
w anted immed iatelyinclud ed theleaseoffortyorfiftyd estroyers,sev eral
hund red w arplanes,antiaircraftgunsand steel
.Heasked forAmerican
d iplomaticco-operationtopersuad etheIrishFreeStatetotakemeasures
toprev entGermaninv asion .Heasked forco-operationinprev enting
.Inconnectionw iththe
latter,Churchillsuggested theU.S.Nav yuseSingaporeasab ase
Mostimportantofallinthiscab le,Churchillsaid that,ifnecessary,
Britainw ould fightonalone .Inacab lesentfiv ed ayslater( May 20 )
said that.ifBritainw entd ow n,heand hisgov ernmentw ould
14 2

perishw ithit,and hecould notb eresponsib leforthetermsthatmight
b eimposed onw hatev erformofBritish" authority" theGermansmight
d ecid etorecogniz e .Roosev eltd id notd iscounttheseand sub seq uent
cab led reportsfromChurchillasex aggerations .Duringthesew eeks
w henhorrorw aspiled uponhorror,Roosev eltb eliev ed thatif
Churchillerred atallinhisestimatesheerred onthesid eofoptimism;
b utRoosev eltrarelyob j ected tothatkind oferror .
BritishtroopsinBoulogneand Calaismanaged b yd etermined
ifultimatelyhopelessresistancetod elaytheGermanad v ancej ustlong
enoughtopermittheflood ingofthew aterlinesatGrav elines,w hichin
turncould b ed efend ed b yFrenchtroopsforafew d ays
d aysw ereofhistoricimportance,forw ithintenmilesofGrav elines
w asthefinalob j ectiv eofthesicklemov ement,Dunkirk,thelastre-
mainingportofev acuation .Had theGermansmanaged toreachit,
attheratetheyhad maintained sincetheBlitz kriegstarted ,they
w ould hav ecompleted thed estructionoftheFrenchforcesofthenorth
asw ellastheentireBritishand Belgianarmies-w hiletheb ulkof
theFrenchArmysat,helplessand innocuous,intheunmolested Maginot
Line.Butinthisone,laststageoftheirtimetab letheGermansfailed ,
and theythereuponturned theirmainattentionaw ayfromtheEnglish
ChanneltotheRiv ersSommeand Aisneand thed riv eonParis .
Asenseofterrorsw eptthroughtheciv iliz ed w orld asaresultof
theseb ew ild eringev ents,theseincred ib leachiev ementsofmechaniz ed
b arb arism.Thehorrib leconfusionand hysteriaoftheciv iliansofthe
Low Countries-d riv entopanicked flightalongnarrow road sb ythe
fifthcolumnand machine-gunned and b omb ed astheyfled b ythescream-
ingStukad iv eb omb ers-communicated itselftopeoplesfarfromthe
sceneofcomb at.Itw asthesupremetriumphofw hatEd mond Taylor
hascorrectlycalled the" StrategyofTerror ." Itseeemed tomanythat
theb oastsofNaz ipropagand aw erenotmereb omb ast,afterall ; the
w ere supermen,and nothingw ould ev erb eab letostopthem.
Therew asaperceptib leliftingofheartsw henannouncementw asmad e
oftheev acuationatDunkirk-b utthosew ithanyknow led geofmilitary
realitycould d eriv elittleimmed iatesatisfactionfromthisremarkab le
achiev ement,forthe335 .5 8 5 mentakenofftheb eacheshad b een
forced toleav ealloftheirheav yeq uipmentb ehind themand there
w erepitifullyinad eq uatereplacementsinGreatBritain .Itw asatthat
pointthattheUnited Statesb ecamethed ecisiv estrategicfactorinthe
w ar.
Therecould b enofurtherd oub tinthemind sofRoosev eltorhis
ChiefsofStaffthat,w ithv irtuallyalloftheBritishArmy'seq uipmentlost
and w ithmetropolitanFranced oomed ,thesurv iv aloftheUnited King-
d omand ofanyremnantsofFrenchpow erw ould d epend ontheex tent
ofthesuppliesprod uced inand d eliv ered fromtheUnited States
9 4

4 3
Thesesuppliescould b efinanced forthetimeb eing,amatterofafew
months,,onthe" cashand carryb asis"
; b utw henthelastd ollarof
Britain'sd w ind lingreserv ehad b eenspentRoosev eltw ould b efaced
w iththechoiceoffind ingsomeotherb asisforfurnishingaid ( un-
d oub ted lyattheAmericantax payers'ex pense)orofconced ingv ictory
OnJune4 ,WilliamBullitt,theAmericanAmb assad orinParis,
had lunchw ithPetainand reported toRoosev eltthattheold Marshal
had said thattheBritishw ould permittheFrenchtofightw ithout
helpuntilthelastav ailab led ropofFrenchb lood should hav eb eenshed
and thatthen,w ithq uantitiesoftroopsonBritishsoiland plentyof
planesand ad ominantfleet,theBritishafterav eryb riefresistance,
orev enw ithoutresistance,w ould makeapeaceofcompromisew ith
Hitler,w hichmightev eninv olv eaBritishGov ernmentund era
BritishFascistlead er
How ev er,onthatsamed ay,Churchillelectrified theBritishpeople
and mostofthew orld w ithoneofthegreatestofallhisgreatspeeches .
Heseld omimposed uponhislistenerstheb urd enofhav ingtoread
b etw eenhislinesand onecould hard lymisinterprettheex actmeaning
ofthesethund eringw ord s
Weshalld efend ourIsland ,w hatev erthecostmayb e,w eshall
fightontheb eaches,w eshallfightontheland ingground s,w eshall
fightinthefield sand inthestreets,w eshallfightinthehills ; w e
shallnev ersurrend er,and ev enif,w hichId onotforamomentb e-
liev e,thisIsland oralargepartofitw eresub j ugated and starv ing,
thenourEmpireb eyond theseas,armed and guard ed b ytheBritish
Fleet,w ould carryonthestruggle,until,inGod 'sgood time,the
New World ,w ithallitspow erand might,stepsforthtotherescue
and thelib erationoftheold .
Thisw asthegreatrallyingcryfortheslow lyaw akened peopleof
Britain-w hothemselv eshad b eenafflicted w ithisolationismand com-
placency-and itw asthefirstcallforhelpfromAmerica
.Roosev elt
mad eanattempttoansw eritinhisCharlottesv illespeechonJune
io,thed aythatItalyentered thew ar
.Timid soulsintheStateDepart-
mentb lanched w ithhorrorw hen,onhisow ninitiativ eand w ithout
consultationw ithanyone,heinserted thew ord s," thehand thatheld
thed aggerhasplunged itintotheb ackofitsneighb or
." Theyfelt
thathew asgoingmuchtoofar
.Buthew asalltoow ellaw arethathe
could notpossib lygofarenough .Inthatsamespeech,hegav etothe
w orld atremend ousassurance,forw hichhehad noCongressional
authorityb utonw hichheev entuallymad egood
InourAmericanunity,w ew illpursuetw oob v iousand simultaneous
; w ew illex tend totheopponentsofforcethematerialresources
: and ,atthesametime .w ew illharnessand speed up
14 4

theuseofthoseresourcesinord erthatw eourselv esintheAmericas
mayhav eeq uipmentand trainingeq ualtothetaskofanyemergency
and ev eryd efense .
Thisw asthefirstpled geofaid tothe" opponentsofforce" -thefirst
proclamationofthepolicyw hichled toLend Leaseand totheall-out
prod uction" w ithoutw hich," asStalinsaid atTeheran," thisw ar
w ould hav eb eenlost."
Whennew sofRoosev elt'sspeechw asb road casttoFrance,Premier
Reynaud cab led hisd esperateappealfor" aid and materialsupport
b yallmeansshortofanex ped itionaryforce
." ButRoosev eltultimately
could offerinreplyonlyassurancesof" myutmostsympathy" and
promisethattheUnited StatesGov ernmentw ould not , " recogniz ethe
resultsofconq uestofterritoryacq uired throughmilitaryaggression ." By
meansofsomesub tleand possib lyq uestionab lelegalshenanigansw orked
outb yHenryMorgenthau'slaw yersintheTreasuryDepartment,ab out
ahund red and fiftyAmericanw arplanesw ereflow ntoCanad aand there
load ed ab oard theFrenchaircraftcarrier Bearn,
b uttheynev erreached
theird estination ; theyand thecarrierw ereatseaw henFrancesur-
rend ered and theyand alotofuselessFrenchgold spentthew arid ly
intheCarib b eanisland ofMartiniq ue .
Thed ayaftertheCharlottesv illespeechChurchilland Ed enmad ea
sud d entriptoFrancetoconferw ithReynaud and othersnearTours
Weygand told Churchillv eryb luntlythatFrancecould nolongercon-
d uctw hathecalled " co-ord inated w ar
." Reynaud w asd etermined to
continuethefightund eranyand allcircumstancesand w assupported
v igorouslyb yhisnew Und erSecretaryforWar,GeneralCharlesd e
Gaulle .Ad miralDarlanw asinfav orofsend ingtheFrenchFleetto
Canad a.
Yearslater,aftertheEuropeanw arhad end ed ,Ed ouard Herriotw as
interv iew ed b ythe New YorkTimes
and hesaid thatonthisoccasion,
Juneii,19 4 o,Churchillhad b rokend ow nand w eptlikeachild ,b ut
clenched hisfistsinfierced eterminationand said thathe'almosthoped
thatHitlerw ould now turntoattemptanattackonBritainand thus
giv eWeygand anopportunitytostab iliz ethefrontontheSomme
Churchillpromised thathew ould makemoreattemptstoind ucethe
Cab inettosend sq uad ronsofR.A.F.fighterplanestoFrance
GreatBritainrefusestoab and onthecontestunlessutterlycrushed
IftheFrencharmyisob liged tostopfighting,England w illcarryon
inthehopethatHitlerw illb eruined b yhisv eryv ictories
airforceand itsfleet,theBritishEmpirecanlastoutforyears,and can
imposeuponEuropethemoststringentofb lockad es
ChurchillsentafullreportofthismeetingtoRoosev elt
.Hesaid that
theaged MarshalPetain,w hohad b een" nonetoogood " ev enin19 18 ,
1 9 4 1

1 4 5
appeared tob enow read ytonegotiateanarmisticew ithHitler
13,Roosev eltsentthefollow ingcab leto .Reynaud
Ihav eb eend eeplymov ed b yyourmessageofJuneloth
.Thisgov -
ernment,asIhav ealread ystated toyouand Mr .Churchill,isd oing
ev erythinginitspow ertomakeav ailab lethematerialtotheAllied
Gov ernmentsw hichtheyreq uiresourgentlyand w earered oub ling
oureffortstod ostillmore
.Thisisanex pressionofoursupportofand
ourfaithintheid ealsforw hichtheAllied Gov ernmentsarefighting
TheAmericanpeoplehav eb eenprofound lyimpressed b ythemag-
nificentresistanceoftheFrenchand Britisharmies
particularlyb yyourd eclarationthatFrancew illfightoninb ehalf
ofd emocracyev enthoughitmeans'd elib eratew ithd raw al,ev ento
theAtlanticand NorthAfrica .Itisofutmostimportancetorememb er
thattheFrenchand BritishNav iesshallcontinuetheirmasteryof
theAtlanticand otheroceans,and also'torememb erthatallarmiescan
b emaintained onlythroughsuppliesofv italmaterialsfromtheoutsid e
w orld
.Ihav eb eengreatlyheartened alsob yw hatMr .Churchillsaid a
few d aysagopled gingcontinued resistanceb ytheBritishEmpireand
Iamsurethisd eterminationapplieseq uallytothegreatFrenchEmpire
throughoutthew orld .AsAd miralDarlanw ellknow s,w ecanlearn
fromhistorytheimportanceofnav alpow erinw orld affairs .
Churchillcab led thePresid entex pressinghisenthusiasmforthis
" magnificent" messageand b egged thatitb emad epub licsothatthe
Frenchand Britishpeople,and alsotheGermans,w ould fullyappreciate
theuncompromisingpositiontakenb ytheUnited StatesofAmerica
Roosev eltq uicklyreplied throughKenned ythatthePrimeMinisterhad
ev id entlymisinterpreted hismessage .Heemphasiz ed thefactthat,
und ertheConstitution,hecould makenocommitmentsb eyond themate-
rialaid alread yannounced .
Thatsamed ay,June13,thed ayb eforethefallofParis,Churchill
againflew toFranceinafinalefforttob egtheFrenchGov ernmentto
fightitoutonanyand ev erylinethatcould b eestab lished and ,in
theev entofb itternecessity,toev acuateitselftoNorthAfricaand con-
tinuethew arfromtherew hiletheFrenchFleetmerged w iththeRoyal
Nav y .
Reynaud informed Churchillthatitw ashopelesstocontinuefighting
unlesstheBritishgav ehimmoresq uad ronsofR
.A.F.fighterplanes .
Accord ingtoGeneralSirHastingsIsmay,PersonalChiefofStaffto
thePrimeMinister," Beforew eleftforthemeetingatBriare,Air
MarshalDow d ing,Command er-in-Chief,FighterCommand ,had giv en
theCab inetthemostsolemnw arningthatifanymorefightersq uad rons
w eresenttoFrance,hecould notguaranteethesecurityoftheBritish
." SomeofChurchill'sassociatesfeared thathew ould notheed this
w arningb ecauseofhisemotionalattachmenttoFranceasw ellashis
14 6

senseofob ligationtoanAlly ; b utherefused Reynaud 'sreq uest.When
hew astold ofWeygand 'spred iction," Inthreew eeksEngland w illhav e
herneckw runglikeachicken," Churchillfiled thosew ord sintheb ack
ofhismind forpossib lefuturereference .Reynaud w asthereuponcom-
pelled toyield toMarshalPetainw hoimmed iatelystarted tosuefora
.WhenChurchilland hispartyhad returned toLond on
'flying,incid entally,ov erGerman-held territory)hesentacab leto
Roosev eltsayingthatFrancemightstillb esav ed b yaPresid ential
announcementthattheUnited Statesw ould ,ifnecessary,enterthe
w ar.Roosev eltreplied againthathecould makenosuchcommitment,
onlyCongresscould makesuchacommitment.Churchillw asw ellaw are
ofthatb ut,inthemomentofd esperation,hew asread ytotryanything .
Henow knew thatBritainmustfightaloneand thatthefirstphaseof
thecomingd ecisiv ecampaignw ould b eanall-outb attleforcontrolofthe
airov erEngland itself ; thesecond phasew ould b efoughtonthew aters
oftheChannel,and Churchillrepeated sev eraltimesincab leshishope
thatthePresid entcould arrangefortheleaseofAmericand estroyersto
Inthed aysw hilethev enerab led efeatist,Petain,w asnegotiatingw ith
Hitler,thecab lesb etw eentheWhiteHouseand Dow ningStreetcon-
tinued ,b utnow itw asRoosev eltw how asaskingmostoftheanx ious
q uestions
.First,thePresid entw anted toknow w henChurchillex pected
thattheGermanattackagainstBritainw ould start.Theansw erw as : in
allprob ab ilityimmed iately .ThenRoosev eltasked w hatw ould b ed one
w iththeBritishHomeFleetintheev entofsuccessfulGermaninv asion .
Heex pressed thehopethatthefleetw ould b ed isposed amongb asessuch
asNew found land ,Ad en,Capetow nand Singapore,statingthatthe
Americanfleetw ould assumeresponsib ilityforthed efenseoftheWestern
Hemisphere,includ ingCanad a .Roosev eltsaid ," Asnav alpeople,you
and Ifullyappreciatethatthev italstrengthoftheFleetand command of
theseasmean,inthelongrun,thesav ingofd emocracyand therecov ery
ofthosesufferingtemporaryrev erses
ThereplyfromLond oncontained uglytruthsd ressed upinimmaculate
terminology .Roosev eltw asinformed thatofcoursetheRoyalNav yor
anypartofitw ould nev erb esurrend ered toHitler,and thatallsurv iv ing
unitsoftheHomeFleetw ould b ed isposed inov erseasb asesasthe
Presid entsuggested ; how ev er,itw aspointed out,ev eryav ailab leBritish
armed shipw ould b ev iolentlyengaged inthed efenseoftheBritish
Islesand ,therefore,thev eryfactofsuccessfulGermaninv asionw ould
presupposethetotald estructionoftheHomeFleet.
Thatw aspreciselyw hatRoosev eltw anted tohear .Heknew now
thattheFormerNav alPersonw asd etermined that,ifBritainw ereto
god ow n,shew ould gow ithcolorsflyingand gunsb laz ing,and w ithno
serv ilereq uestsforterms
.Beinganav alpersonhimself,h2now b eganto

14 7
feelconfid entthatw ithsuchd etermined spiritand w ithsuchafleetshe
w ould notgod ow n .Hefurtherasked w hatw eretheintentionsastothe
transferoftheseatofgov ernmentfromLond ontoCanad aor some
otherpointintheCommonw ealthintheev entofsuccessfulinv asion .
Hew anted tob eassured thattheBritishw ould d ow hattheDutch,
Belgians,Norw egians,Cz echsand Poleshad d oneand set up aGov ern-
mentinEx ile-w hich
, Petainhad failed tod o .Hereceiv ed onlyan
eq uiv ocalreplyonthispoint.Butw henHarryHopkinsw enttoLond on,
sev enmonthslater,helearned thetruth : theBritishGov ernmentd id not
hav eev enaskeletonplanforev acuation toCanad aoranyw hereelse
ov erseas . Churchillb eliev ed thatiftheUnited Kingd omfell,theEmpire
w ould b eend ed -atleasttemporarily-and thelead ershipoftheremain-
ingunitsoftheBritishCommonw ealthw ould passtoWashington .
TheDominionGov ernmentsw eresend ingmessagestoLond onatthat
timeurgingthattheroyalfamily,oratleastthetw oyoungprincesses,b e
senttoaplaceofsafetyatoncesothattheinstitutionoftheCrow nb e
continued regard lessofthefateofthehomeisland s .Thisreq uestw as
notaccepted .QueenEliz ab ethsaid ," ThePrincessescould notleav ew ith-
outme-and Icould notleav ew ithouttheKing-and ,ofcourse,the
Kingw illnev erleav e ."
Therew asaplanfortheev acuationofLond on,w orked outinutmost
d etail,accord ingtow hichmostofthegov ernment w ould mov eto
Malv ern,inthew estofEngland .Id onotknow w hetherChurchillhas
ev ercommitted himselfastohisow npersonalopinionofthisplan,b ut
memb ersofhisstaffatthattimehav eex pressed theconv ictionthathe
nev erhad anyintentionofq uittingLond onund eranycircumstances
w hatsoev er.IftheNaz issucceed ed intakingLond on-w hichhew as
pleased tocall" thisImperialCity" -theyw ould takehimw ithit,
anythingthatmightb eleftofhim.
Icannotq uoteinfullthecab lesthatpassed b etw eenDow ningStreet
and theWhiteHouseatthistimeb ecause,althoughIhav eread them,
theyarenotpartoftheHopkinspapers .ThosefromtheBritishend mad e
thefollow ingfurtherpoints
TheonlyBritishhopeofd efeatingGermanyw asintheretentionof
theUnited Kingd omitselfasab ase,and tothatend ev eryresourceand
ev erylifew ould b ed irected .IftheUnited Kingd omw ereconq uered ,and
thefleetd estroyed ,thenNorthand WestAfricaasw ellasEuropew ould
inev itab lyfallund erGermand omination .AllthattheBritishcould d oin
theMed iterraneanw ould b etod enytheGermansuseoftheSuez Canal,
notb yd efend ingb utb yd estroyingit.Germanyw ould hav eaformid ab le
nav alstrikingforcew iththeItalianFleetand sub stantialunitsofthe
FrenchNav yj oined toherow n .Furthermore,w ithalltheshipyard sof
WesternEuropeatherd isposal,Germanyw ould hav eenormousnav al
prod uctiv epow er .Hitler'striumphsinEuropew ould und oub ted lystimu
14 8

latetheJapanesetoactsofaggressionagainstFrenchInd o-Chinaand
theNetherland sEastInd ies,thereb ygainingforthemselv esb asesfor
attacksonotherpoints,includ ingBritishand Americanterritory .
Churchillex pressed theb eliefthatthew holew orld situationcould b e
greatlyhelped iftheUnited States,Gov ernmentw ould proclaimthatany
v iolentattempttoalterthestatusq uointheFarEastw ould " prod uce
astateofb elligerence" or( toningitd ow nalittle)w ould " notb e
tolerated ."
Roosev eltrepeated ( notonceb utsev eraltimes)that,forconstitutional
reasons,hecould notgiv eanyassurancethattheUnited Statesw ould
d eclarew arnomatterw hattheprov ocation,shortofd irectattackupon
theUnited Statesitself
.Buthemad eitq uiteclearthatifBritainfellhis
ow npurposew ould b etod oallthathepossib lycould -" morethanmere
w ord sb utshortofw ar" ; forheknew thatw ithBritainand herNav y
goneallofourtrad itionalconceptsofsecurityintheAtlanticOcean-
theMonroeDoctrine,theprincipleoffreed omoftheseas,thesolid arity
oftheWesternHemisphere-w ould b ecomemerememories,and the
Americanpeoplew ould b eliv ingconstantly" atthepointofaNaz igun ."
Inthenotesthathemad eforaspeechatasecretsessionoftheHouse
ofCommonsonJune 20 , Churchillstated thatifBritaincould get
throughthenex tthreemonthsshecould getthroughthenex tthreeyears .
Heplaced greatstressuponsuperiorityinairpow erand said thatthe
issued epend ed primarilyupontheoutcomeoftheimpend ingairBattle
.Heex pressed theopinionthatnothingw ould sostirthe
peopleoftheUnited Statesasfightinginorov erEngland .Hefeltthat
theb estprov ocationtotheAmericanpeopletoenterthew arw ould b e
furnished b ytheheroicstruggleoftheBritishpeople .Hepaid trib ute
toFranklinRoosev eltand said thatalld epend ed upontheBritishpeople's
maintainingaresoluteb earingand hold ingoutuntiltheelection
issuesw eresettled inAmerica .( AlthoughChurchillconstantlyw arned
hisassociatesand thepeopleingeneralagainstw ishfulthinking,he
w ashumanlyincapab leofresistingthetemptationtoind ulgehimselfin
thatagreeab lev icenow and then ; neither,asIhav esaid ,w asRoosev elt.)
BritishGov ernmentfaced theprob lemoftheFrenchNav y .Thed eci-
sionw astaken," w ithachinghearts," tod estroyallpossib leshipsofthis
Nav yw hichw ould notv oluntarilyj oinw iththeBritishorconsentto
mov eoutofGermanreachand b ed emilitariz ed forthed urationofthe
w ar .Variousalternativ esw erepresented totheshipsatOran,inAlgeria,
amongthemthepossib ilitythattheymightb e" entrusted totheUnited
Statesand remainsafeuntiltheend ofthew ar,thecrew sb eing
repatriated ." Theproposalsmad eatOranw ererefused b yfheFrench
Ad miralGensouland theBritishNav yattacked w ithgunsand nav al
aircraft.Thed amaged oneand thelossoflifew ereheav y-although
1 9 4 1

1 4 9
onev aluab lecruiserescaped toToulon .Thisactionprov id ed pow erful
ammunitionforNaz ianti-Britishpropagand ainFrancethroughout
thenex tfouryears,b utithad atremend ouseffectonw orld opinion,
in theUnited States .Itserv ed forcib lytound erscore
Churchill'sd efiantassurancethat" w ew illfightthem in
and " nev ersurrend er
." Itex erted aparticulareffecton .Roosev eltw ho,it
isreasonab letoassume,knew oftheactionw ellinad v ance .
ThePresid enthad scraped theb ottomoftheb arrelinAmerican
arsenalsforhalfamillionrifles,eightythousand machineguns,ahund red
and thirtymillionround sofammunition,ninehund red 75 mm
amillionshells,asw ellassomeb omb s,TNTand smokelesspow d er,allto
b eshipped toBritain
.Thisw asd oneb ymeansofmorelegalmanipulation
ina" d amnthetorped oes" spirit
.Itw asd oneatamomentw henmany
menclosetotheWhiteHousew ereshoutingalmosthystericallythatthis
represented suicid eforRoosev eltand q uitepossib lyforthenation-
thatBritainw asfinished and thatallthismaterialw ould merelyfallinto
thehand sofHitlerw how ould turnitagainstusinourow nrelativ ely
d efenselessstate
.But-itw asd one,and itw asofinestimab lev alueto
of greatestneed .Theseshipmentsw ereofsuchv ital
and immed iateimportancethatChurchillgav einstructionsthattheir
d eliv eryb etreated asa" militaryev olution ." Trucksand v answ ere
aw aitingthematthed ocksid esothat,attheinstantofunload ing,they
could b erushed tov ariousstrategicpointsex actlyasthoughtheyw ere
armsd eliv ered tosorelyb esettroopsfightingtohold aprecariousb each-
head .TheBritishHomeGuard sman,w hohad b eenpreparingtomeet
Germaninv asionw ithapitchforkoraflail,now had
a rifleinhishand s
and ammunitioninhisb elt.Hefeltmuchb etter
.Hefelt,infact,unb eat-
ab le.
WhentheBlitz w asatitsheight,Churchillsaid inasecret-session
Thed eploymentoftheenemy'sinv asionpreparationsand the
assemb lyofhisshipsand b argesarestead ilyproceed ing,and atany
momentamaj orassaultmayb elaunched onthisisland . . .
w ard sofsev enteenhund red self-propelled b argesand morethantw o
hund red seagoingships . . .
arealread ygathered atthemanyinv asion
ports . . .
Iamconfid entthatw eshallsucceed ind efeatingand largely
d estroyingthismosttremend ousonslaughtb yw hichw earenow
threatened ,and anyhow ,w hatev erhappens,w ew illallgod ow nfight-
Itisperhapsab itofunnecessarilygrimspeculation,b utIb eliev e
therew eresomeinEngland -and Ishould notb esurprised ifChurchill
w ereoneofthem-w holaterregretted ratherw istfullythatHitlernev er
.tried thatinv asion .Asamemb erofthestaffremarked latertoHopkins,
" Itw ould hav eb eenahellofafight." TheBritishw ered eficientin
i5 0

mod ernw eapons,b uttheyhad millionsofantitankgrenad es,mad ew ith
b eerb ottlescontainingTNTand sulphur,and theyw ereliterallyspoiling
forachancetohurlthem.Theyknew thatthePresid entoftheUnited
States,how ev erlimited hisand theirmeans,w asw iththem,atleast
inspirit.Thisconsid erationw asw orthfarmoretotheirmoralethan
thepaperthatitw asnotw rittenon .
This,then,w asRoosev elt'sfirsttremend ousw artimed ecision : tob ack
theseeminglyhopelesscauseofBritainw ith'ev erythingthathecould
possib lyofferinthew ayofmaterialand moralencouragement.This
d ecisionw asentirelyonhisow n .Therew asnotimeinhisPresid ential
careerw henhemetw ithsomuchoppositioninhisow nofficialfamily
orw henhispositioninthecountryw aslesssecure .Histw oprincipal
amb assad orialad v isers,BullittinFranceand Kenned yinBritain,w ere
b leaklyd efeatistab outBritain'schances
French,feltthattheBritishhad b etrayed theiralliesb ecauseofChurchill's
refusaltosend thefinalR.A.F.fighterstrengthtoFrance .Kenned y
v ehementlyad v ised thePresid entagainst" hold ingtheb aginaw arin
'*ichtheAlliesex pecttob eb eaten ." ButRoosev eltmad ehisd ecision
and proclaimed it-letitb erememb ered -ontheb rinkofaPresid ential
politicalcampaignand ev enb eforehehad announced thathew ould run
forathird termorb eforeheknew thattheRepub licannomineew ould
b eWend ellWillkieinstead ofRob ertA.Taft,ThomasE.Dew eyor
ArthurH .Vand enb erg,allofw homw erethenav ow ed isolationists .In
thisd ecision,Roosev eltw asinfluenced und oub ted lyb ystrategiccon-
sid erations : hew ellknew theimportanceoftheUnited Kingd omasa
b aseand oftheRoyalNav yasaw eaponforthed efenseoftheWestern
Hemisphere .Buttherew ereconsid erationsofmoralityw hichw ereev en
moreimportanttohim.Hisinab ilitytoofferanykind ofsatisfactory
replytothed esperatecallsforhelpfromFrancehad giv enhim,Ib e-
liev e,theb itterestsenseofd efeatthathehad ev erex perienced
.Hew as
d etermined nottorepeatthatnationalhumiliation .Hew asnow asserting
lead ershipoftheAmericanpeople-and mostofthepeople,b eitsaid ,
w ereglad of,itfortheyhad b eenshocked and stunned b ytheimpactof
ev ents .
Thev astmailthatcameintotheWhiteHouseinthosed aysw asfull
offear,notofanyknow nperil,b utoftheaw fuluncertaintyand con-
tusionthatafflicted thepeople .Manyletterscarried pitifulappealsfrom
mothersand w iv estothePresid entto" Tellthecountrythatyouw on't
send ourb oysintoanyforeignw ars
.Promiseustheyw on'tb esentout
oftheWesternHemisphere ." ( Asthoughitw erepreferab letohav ethe
w arinthispartofthew orld and theb oystoperishintheBraz ilian
j unglesortheAlaskanw astes .)Therew erelettersthatex pressed fear
forournationalhonorand thefutureofourfreed om.Onesuchw asfrom
Hopkins'old friend ,WilliamHod son,CommissionerofWelfareinNew

15 1
YorkCity,w hohad b eensolargelyresponsib leforb ringingHopkinsto
theattentionofFranklinD .Roosev elt.Hod sonw rote
Therecanb enod oub tthatAmericaisontheb rinkofd isaster,
and Iamconsciousoftheappallingresponsib ilityw hichthePresid ent
and allhisad v isersareassuminginthisd arkhour .Ihopethatthe
Presid entw illspeakoutand tellAmericathew orst,asChurchill
hasd oneinGreatBritain,sothatw emaysteelourselv esforthe
trialsahead w hichtheAmericanpeopled onotfullyund erstand
Whatcanb ed oneatthispointb ythecitiz enstob ringab out
immed iateAmericanhelptotheAlliesinev erypossib lew ay? What
canthecitiz ensd otosupportand sustainthePresid ent'seffortto
reorganiz eand enlargethearmamentsofthecountryw ithoutd elay?
Itseemstomethatthereisstillalethargyand inertia,w hichmay
confuseand d ead enourefforts,unlessw ehearq uicklytheclarion
call,w hichonlythePresid entcangiv e .God grantthatw earenot
alread ytoolate !
Hod sonw askilled tw oand ahalfyearslaterinthecrashofanArmy
airplaneenroutetoNorthAfricaw herehew astoorganiz ethefirst
programoftheUnited NationsReliefand Rehab ilitationAd ministration
Hehad liv ed toseethew arreachitsturningpointatMid w ay,El
Alameinand Stalingrad
. .ButRoosev eltnev erclearlysound ed " the
clarioncall" w hichHod sonand manyothersd emand ed ; hew aited until
theJapanesew arlord ssound ed itforhim.Hehasb eencriticiz ed for
thisb ymanythoughtfulpeople,includ inghismostloyal" lieutenant,"
HenryL.Stimson .Perhapshistoryw illfind himatfaultfornothav ing
laid hiscard sonthetab lein19 4 0 or19 4 1and d emand ed ashow d ow n
w ithCongressastow hetherornottheUnited Statesshould enterthe
w arand fight.Id onotknow ab outthat.Icanonlyex presstheb elief
thathad hed onesohew ould hav eb eenb ad lyd efeated and Germany
and Japanb etw eenthemw ould hav econq uered allofEuropeand
Asia,includ ingtheSov ietUnion,b y19 4 2
.Ihesitateev entoguess
w hattheresultsofthisw ould hav eb eenintheWesternHemisphere .
Notthatitmatters .Forb etterorforw orse,historynev erneed stob e
seriouslyconcerned w ithw hatmighthav ehappened .Whatev erFranklin
Roosev eltmighthav ed onethathed id notd o,thefactremainsthatthe
d ecisionshemad ein19 4 0 ,onhisow nauthorityand w ithoutclarion
calls,inv olv ed commitmentoftheUnited Statestotheassumptionof
responsib ilityfornothinglessthanthelead ershipofthew orld .Itw as
acoincid enceb utanappropriated ev elopmentofthepatternofhistory
thatRoosev eltshould hav eproclaimed hisd ecisionatCharlottesv ille,
Virginia,inthepresenceofthegeniusofThomasJefferson,w hohad
b old lyand w ithoutCongressionalauthoritysettheyoungUnited States
sonthew aytocontinentald ominanceand thereb y,hehoped ,had giv en
itstrengthtoav oid theentanglementsoftheOld World .
generally assumed that propagand a is nothing b ut a maz e
ofw ord sd reamed upb yfiend ishmind sforthepurposeofd eceiv ing
and caj oling,lullingorfrightening
.Buttheonlyw arpropagand a
thatreallymattersisthatw hichproclaimsactionor
.w hichthreatensit,
and inthelattercasetheactionmustalw ays .
follow orthepropagand a
b oomerangs
.Thed ev astatingNaz ipropagand acampaign,thestrategy
ofterror,w asnotthemerecreationofGoeb b els'phrasefactory ; .itw as
theseq uenceofev ents-theb lood purges,thepogroms,therearmament,
theannualBlackMassofforcew orshipatNuremb erg,theconcentra-
tioncamps,therealityofthefifthcolumnsoperatingw ithb raz en,con-
temptuouscand orb ehind thefrontiersofintend ed v ictimsallov er
Europeand theWesternHemisphere ; finally,itw asthesud d en
applicationofov erw helmingforceitselfand theproofthat" resistance
isfutile ." Hitlerd ancingaj igonthegrav eofthe19 18 Armistice-
Hitlerpayingmagnanimoustrib uteatthetomb ofhislatecolleague,
NapoleonBonaparte-theseillustrated ev entsprov id ed thesupreme
peakinthecourseofNaz ipropagand a
.Ifthestrategyofterrorw ere
enoughinitselftoconq uerthew orld ,Hitlerneed fearnofuture
b attles
.Buttherearesomepeoplesw homitisd angeroustoalarm,and
thefirstofthesew astheBritish,and thesecond theRussiansand the
third theAmericans .
Oneofthemostforcib leand persuasiv ealthoughunw ittingpurv eyors
ofNaz ipropagand aw asthefamousAmericanhero,ColonelCharles
A.Lind b ergh
.Largelyb ecauseofpersonaltraged y,and therefusalof
themoresensationalpress( w hichw asalsothemostv ehemently
isolationistsectionofthepress)toallow himand hisfamilytolead any-
thingresemb linganormallife,Lind b erghhad liv ed forsev eralyears
inEuropeb eforethew ar
.Hehad seentheflab b yw eaknessofthe
England ofStanleyBald w inand Nev illeChamb erlain,and thechaotic
15 2
1 9 4 1

1 5 3
d isunityofFrance,and theapparentd eficiencyofRussianind ustry,as
contrasted w iththesuperb organiz ationand regimentationofHitler's
and Goering'sGermanyw hichpresented amod elofefficiencytohis
.Hew asgiv enev eryopportunityb yGoeringto
stud ytheb uild ingofthemightyLuftw affe .Becausehehad anex cep-
tionalund erstand ingofthepow erofmachines-asopposed tothe
principlesw hichanimatefreemen-hecametotheseeminglylogical
conclusionthatNaz iGermanyw asinv incib leand thatBritain,France,
theUnited Statesand ev eryb od yelseshould w akeupand ,facingthe
factsofmod ernlife,yield to" thew av eofthefuture
." Aretiringand
taciturnmanb ynatureasw ellasb yforceofcruelcircumstance,Lind -
b erghb ecameav iolentand ex tremelyeloq uentcrusad erforthecause
.Hew asund oub ted lyRoosev elt'smostformid ab lecom-
petitorontherad io .
WhentheBlitz kriegintheWestw asatitsheight,Roosev eltasked
theCongressforaprogramw hichw ould inv olv e,amongotherthings,
theprod uctionof 5 0 ,0 0 0 w arplanesfortheArmyand Nav y
Theb rutalforceofmod ernoffensiv ew arhasb eenloosed inall
itshorror .New pow ersofd estruction,incred ib lysw iftand d ead ly,
hav eb eend ev eloped
; and thosew how ield themareruthlessand
d aring .Noold d efenseissostrongthatitreq uiresnofurther
strengtheningand noattackissounlikelyorimpossib lethatitmay
b eignored .
Lind b erghd enounced thisas" hystericalchatter," ad d ing
Weareind angerofw artod ay,notb ecauseEuropeansattempted
tointerfereinourinternalaffairs,b utb ecauseAmericansattempted
tointerfereintheinternalaffairsofEurope .
Ourd angersareinternal .Weneed notfearinv asionunlessAmer-
icansb ringitthroughtheirow nq uarrelingand med d lingw ithaffairs
ab road
.Ifw ed esirepeace,w eneed onlystopaskingforw ar .Nob od y
w ishestoattackus,and nob od yisinapositiontod oso .
Lind b erghd id notsaymuchpub liclyatthistimeofw hathehad seen
ofGermanmightand ofBritish,Frenchand Russianw eakness
w henherecited factsand figuresatpriv atemeetingshecould generally
scaretheliv ingd aylightsoutofhislistenersand someofthemw ere
impelled tow ritetoRoosev elturginghimtocomtttand Churchillto
surrend eratoncetoprev enttheimpend ingcarnage
.ButoneofLind -
b ergh'slistenershad a,somew hatd ifferentreaction .Thisw asDr .
Vannev arBush,formerlyDeanofEngineeringattheMassachusetts
InstituteofTechnology,now Presid entoftheCarnegieInstitutein
Washington .TheeffectuponDr
.Bushofthescaringprocessw asnot
atallw hatLind b erghhad intend ed
.Hew asimpelled toactionb ythe
v erythreatw hichLind b erghsoforcefullypresented
.Bushw asincon-
1 5 4
sultationand correspond encew ithv ariouslike-mind ed menofscience,
amongthemPresid entsJamesB
.ConantofHarv ard ,KarlT.Compton
oftheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyand FrankB .Jew ettof
theBellTelephoneLab oratories .Theyhad d iscussed aplanforthe
mob iliz ationofAmericanscientiststow orkonnew w eaponstomeetand
ov ercometheaw fulchallengethatNaz itechnologyhad presented tothe
freeand civ iliz ed w orld
.Bushhad b eennamed spokesmanforthisgroup
principallyb ecausehew astheonew hohappened tob einWashington,
b utheprov ed tob e( inthew ord sofConant)" anid eallead erof
Americanscientistsintimeofw ar . . .
hisanalysisofatangled situa-
tionand hisforcefulpresentationofacourseofactionprod uced results
farremov ed fromhisofficialsphereofinfluence ."
Bushhad noq uickaccesstoanyoneonthehigherlev elsofgov ern-
ment,b utheknew thatthemantoseeenroutetoRoosev eltw asHarry
Hopkinsand heaccord inglyw enttohimw ithhisplanfor a National
.Hopkinsw asalread yinterested inthesub -
j ect,fortheBureauofStand ard softheCommerceDepartmentw as
engaged inresearch,and throughtheBureauofPatentshehad receiv ed
a suggestionalongsomew hatsimilarlinesoffered b yLaw renceLangner,
apub lic-spirited New Yorkerw hod iv id ed histimeb etw eenthepractice
ofpatentlaw and d irectingtheTheatreGuild ( Langner'sproposalw as
foraNationalInv entor'sCounciltostimulated ev elopmentofnew
w eaponsand eq uipment,and thisw asestab lished ) .
Alw aysreceptiv etonew id easthatw ereb othd aringand b ig,Hopkins
w asimmed iatelyimpressed w ithBush'sproposaland w ithBushhimself
Therew erecertainpointsofresemb lanceb etw eenthetw omen .Bush
w asalsothin,q uick,sharpand untrammeled inhisthinking .Heknew
w hathew astalkingab outand hestated itw ithb rev ityand ,likeHop-
kins,w ithagood sprinklingofsalt
.Hehad prepared asuccinctmemo-
rand umoutlininghisproposals .Hopkinsread itw ithapprov aland then
arranged anappointmentforBushtotalkw iththePresid entab outit.
WhenBushw enttotheWhiteHousehew asprepared toansw erall
kind sofq uestionsand meetprob ab leob j ections,b uthefound that
Roosev elthad alread ystud ied thememorand umw ithHopkins : after
utteringapleasantryortw o,hew roteonit, " O.K.-F.D .R." -and
Bushw asoutofthePresid ent'sofficeafew momentsafterhehad
entered it.

Sub seq uentlyBush,inconsultationw ithHopkins,d rafted aletterto
himselfforthePresid ent'ssignature
.Thatletter,w ithafew ad d itions
w hichprov id ed forcloseco-operationb etw eenN.D .R.C.and themili-
taryauthorities,w assigned b yRoosev eltonJune15 ,thed ayafterthe
fallofParis,w henitseemed thatChristianciv iliz ationw ascomingto
.Itw asthed ayw henChurchillsenthismostd esperatecab le,
askingthePresid enttoannouncethattheUnited Statesw ould ,ifneces-
1 5 5
sary,enterthew ar,and w henRoosev eltmad ehisd iscouragingreply
.Includ ed inthatlettertoDr
.Bushw erethesew ord s
RecentlyIappointed aspecialcommittee,w ithDr
BureauofStand ard sasChairman,tostud yintothepossib lerelation-
shiptonationald efenseofrecentd iscov eriesinthefield ofatomistics,
notab lythefissionofuranium
.Iw illnow req uestthatthiscommittee
reportd irectlytoyou,asthefunctionofyourCommitteeinclud esthis
specialmatter,and yourCommitteemayconsid eritad v isab leto
supportspecialstud iesonthissub j ect . . .
.Themethod sand mechanismsofw arfarehav e
altered rad icallyinrecenttimes,and theyw illalterstillfurtherinthe
future .Thiscountryissingularlyfitted ,b yreasonoftheingenuityof
itspeople,theknow led geand skillofitsscientists,theflex ib ilityofits
ind ustrialstructure,toex celintheartsofpeace,and toex celinthe
artsofw arifthatb enecessary
.Thescientistsand engineersofthe
country,und ertheguid anceofyourCommittee,and inclosecollab -
orationw iththearmed serv ices,canb eofsub stantialaid inthetask
w hichliesb eforeus
.Iassureyou,asyouproceed ,thatyouw illhav e
mycontinuinginterestinyourund ertakings .
Suchw astheauthoriz ationtoVannev arBushtogoahead w ithhis
plans-w hichhed id w ithoutd elayand w ithoutceremony .And suchis
thestoryofhow Hitler'sstrategyofterror,relayed throughLind b ergh,
influenced theestab lishmentoftheorganiz ationw hichw asresponsib le
fortheinv entionoftheatomicb omb .
AsafootnoteonLind b ergh,w hohad 'd erid ed Roosev elt'scallfor
5 0 ,0 0 0 w arplanesas" hystericalchatter"
: heev entuallyprov ed himself
highlyusefulinex perimentalw orkfortheAirForce
; hisprecisere-
cord ing .mind retained alltheintelligencematerialthathad b eenso
hospitab lyoffered tohiminGermanyand heapplied iteffectiv ely
; he
rend ered v aluab leserv iceasaciv ilianflyertestingsomeofthemorethan
30 0 ,0 0 0 w arplanesthatthisnationactuallyd id prod uceb eforev ictory
1 9 4 5
.Incid entally,Lind b erghofallpeopleshould hav eknow nthismuch
ab outhisow ncountrymen
: youmaysaytotheav erageAmerican( if
thereisone)thatsomeothercountryhasab etterformofgov ernment
thanours,orasuperiorculture,orapurerreligiousfaith,and heisapt
toreply,w ithoutmuchinterest," Mayb eyou'v egotsomethingthere,
b rother"
; b uttrytotellhimthatsomeothercountrycanoutd ousinthe
manufactureand useofanykind ofgad getand hew illb eupinarms .
Anotherob j ectofthechainreactiontothestrategyofterrorw asa
groupofmeninNew YorkCityw hohad b eenofficersintheFirst
World Warand w hohad formed theMilitaryTrainingCampsAssocia-
tiontokeepaliv ethe" Plattsb urgid ea
." Oneofthemw asGrenv ille
Clark,ad istinguished law yer,ChairmanoftheBoard ontheBillof
Q-~ yII
t.-U~ " e r
1. 0 1-
Roosev elt'slettertoVannev arBush,signed thed ayafterthefallof
Paris, in w hichhesetuptheorganiz ationlead ingtothed ev elopmentof
theatomicb omb .
19 4 1

15 7
RightsoftheAmericanBarAssociation,aRepub licanand anold friend
ofFranklinRoosev elt's
.Atapriv atemeetingd uringthed aysofDun-
kirk,Clarkcameforthw iththestartlingproposalthatthenationmust
conscriptitsmanpow er
.Itw asasupremelyd aringsuggestionand a
seeminglyhopelessoneatatimew henyoungmenallov erthecountry
w ered emonstratingagainstincreased armament
.Nev erb eforehad the
United Statesenacted ad raftlaw untilitw as'inaw arand actually
.ButClarkand hisassociatesprepared thefirstd raftofthe
Selectiv eServ iceBilland persuad ed SenatorEd w ard R
Neb raska( oneofthemostisolationistoftheStates)and Representativ e
.Wad sw orth,aRepub licanfromupstateNew York,tosponsor
theBillinCongress .Itw asofcoursehighlyd esirab letogiv eitab i-
partisanappearance,and thew ord s" Selectiv eServ ice" prov id ed an
effectiv eeuphemism
.Clarkmad eanappointmenttoseethePresid ent
onMay31tourgehimtocomeoutinfav orofSelectiv eServ iceand
.StimsonasSecretaryofWarand Jud geRob ert
P.PattersonasUnd erSecretary
.Thisappointmentd id notcomeoff .
GeneralWatsoncalled Clarkand told himthatitw asinconv enientfor
thePresid enttoseehimatthattimeand thathisappointmenthad b een
shifted toHarryHopkins,w how ould b eglad totalkw ithhim.Clark,
how ev er,w asafraid thatHopkinsw ould merelyad v isehimtocalloff
thew holed angerousSelectiv eServ iceproj ect,atleastuntilafterthe
Nov emb erelection .SinceClarkhad nointentionofretreatingund erany
circumstances,heconclud ed itw asb estnottotalktoHopkins
threew eekslater,Clarkand Hopkinsd id meetand talked fortw ohours
Hopkinsmad enocommitmentsonb ehalfofthePresid entinsupportof
Selectiv eServ ice-thisb eingan" irrev ocab leact" w hichRoosev elt
w ished toav oid untilhew assurehecould w inthev oteintheCongress
-b utHopkinsgav eClarkhisow npersonalencouragementand atleast
theintimationthatRoosev eltw ould supporttheBillw henhefeltthat
thetimew asrightforhimtod ogo
.Ind eed ,Roosev eltb ythenhad -
alread yd ecid ed ontheappointmentsofStimsonand Patterson,tw oof
theforemostchampionsofSelectiv eServ ice
Thisw asoneofHopkins'firstappearancesinarolethatw asto
b ecomeofmaj orimportance-theconfid entialcontactmanb etw een
Roosev eltand priv atecitiz ensw how eread v ocatingsomepolicyof
w hichthePresid entapprov ed b utw hichhed id notw anttoad v ocate
pub liclyforpoliticalreasonsatthetime
.Therew asmorethanone
occasionw henRoosev eltw anted tob e" attacked " forinactiv ityand
thus" goad ed " intoactionb ypub licd emand
Inthesesamegrimd aysattheend ofMay,Hopkinsparticipated in
theformationoftheNationalDefenseAd v isoryCommission,theparent
ofallthew arprod uction,food prod uction,prioritiesand pricecontrol
organiz ations
.Thisw astheb eginningofthemob iliz ationofmanpow er
15 8

forciv ilianpurposesasw asSelectiv eServ iceforthemilitary
N.D .A
.C.w ascomposed ofthefollow ing
WilliamS.Knud sen,Ind ustrialProd uction
Sid neyHillman,Lab or .
Ed w ard
R. Stettinius,Ind ustrialMaterials .
LeonHend erson,PriceStab iliz ation .
RalphBud d ,Transportation .
.Dav is( Grinnell'ii), FarmProd ucts .
Dr .HarrietElliott,ConsumerProtection
WilliamH .McReynold s,Secretary.
Later,Donald M
.Nelsonb ecameassociated asCo-ord inatorof
NationalDefensePurchases .
Itw illb eseenthattherew asnochairman
.Forthenex tyearand a
halfRoosev eltw ascriticiz ed b itterlyforhisfailuretoappointanyone
manhead oftheprod uctioneffort
.Hestead fastlyand perhapsstub -
b ornlyrefused tod osountilamonthafterPearlHarb or
.Ihav enev er
know nw hathisrealreasonsw ereforthisd elay .
Therew assomepreliminaryd isputeastoj ustw heretheN
.D .A.C.
w ould b eplaced inthegov ernmentstructure
.TheUnd erSecretaryof
Commerce,Ed w ard J
.Nob le,b eliev ed thatitb elonged logicallyinthe
CommerceDepartment,and IimaginethatHopkinsw asnotopposed to
hav ingitund erhisow nd irection
.ButthePresid entd ecid ed thatthe
new agencyshould b ekeptind epend ent,placed inthatlimb oesq uearea
know nastheOfficeofEmergencyManagement
.Roosev eltthereb y
estab lished thepatternforhisw arad ministration :
thespecialw ar
agenciesw ereforthemostpartsetupb ythemselv es,apartfromthe
permanentstructure,w iththeirDirectorsreportingtothePresid ent
ratherthantoanyCab inetofficer .Thus,thew aragencies-or" d efense
agencies," astheyw ereknow nintheeuphemisticd aysb eforePearl
Harb or-formed akind ofgov ernmentw ithinagov ernment
.Roosev elt
w ascriticiz ed alsoforthis,particularlyb ymemb ersofhisow nCab inet
w hosaw allthatpow erand allthosefund sgoingtothenew mushroom
.ButRoosev elt'stw omainreasonsforthispolicyareq uite
( i)TheCongressw asinclined tov iew w ith-suspicionanyincreases
intheauthority,personneland moneyofthepermanentDepartments-
foritistrad itionalthatonceanew functiongetsintoapermanent
agencyitisex tremelyd ifficulttogetitout
simplyb eab olished w hentheemergencyend s
.Forinstance,therew ere
logicalargumentsthatthead ministrationofpricecontrolb eputin
thepermanentSecuritiesEx changeCommissionorw armanpow erin
theDepartmentofLab or
; b utRoosev eltknew thattheCongressw ould
b emuchmorelikelytosupportthesehighlyunpopularmeasuresifthey
w eresosegregated thattheycould b ecanceled atanytime .
19 4 1
1 5 9
( 2)
Ofgreaterimportancew asRoosev elt'sconv ictionthattheregular
Departmentsw erenotgeared tomeettheex traord inaryd emand sofw ar
Bound b yconv ention,trad ition,red tapeand b ureaucraticfearof
irregularity,theymov ed atglacialpace-w henthetimesd emand ed j et
.The" careerman" ingov ernmentisinclined toconsid erthe
interestsofhiscareerab ov etheimmed iateprob lemsofanygiv en
moment,hiscard inalprincipleb eing," Nev erstickyourneckout
." In
peacetime,patienceisareq uirementasw ellasav irtueinaciv ilserv ant
w hoknow sthathastemakesw asteand w astemakesyouliab letoCon-
gressionalinv estigation ; w hereas,inw artime,impatienceisessential
Impatiencew as .
rifeinthetemporaryagenciesw hichw ererunand
staffed toalargeex tentb ymenand w omenw hosemainconcernw as
tod oalltheypossib lycould tohelp ' w inthew arintheshortest
possib letimeand then" getthehelloutofgov ernmentserv ice
forev er
." Suchtemporarypeople,Repub licansand Democratsalike,
started sw armingtow ard WashingtonastheGermanPanz erssw armed
intoFrance-and itmustb ead mitted thatsomeofthemshow ed remark-
ab leaptitud eforpickingupthepettyj ealousiesand w ranglingsand
w anglingsthatsometimesb esetb ureaucracy .Harold Smith,w artime
DirectoroftheBureauoftheBud get,talked tomeyearslaterofRoose-
v elt'smethod ofhand lingtheseemergencyprob lemsinad ministration,
and said
ThePresid entw astheonlyonew horeallyund erstood themean-
ingofthetermtotalw ar
and thenecessityforit.Theothersb eliev ed
youcould fightaw arw ithonehand and carryond omesticb usiness
prettymuchasusualw iththeother .Roosev eltsaw theCab inet
officersnotasmemb ersofhisow nstaffb utastheatercommand ers,
eachw ithhisow nspecialarea,interests,prob lemsand d emand s .
Youcould n'tex pectanyoneofthemtoseethepicturew hole,asthe
Presid enthad tod o .Thatisw hereHopkinsb ecame
so v aluab leafter
helefttheDepartmentofCommerce .Hopkins'solej ob w astosee
ev erythingfromthePresid ent'spointofv iew
.Hew asb ound b yno
preconceiv ed notions,nolegalinhib itionsand hecertainlyhad ab so-
lutelynorespectfortrad ition .
Smithex pressed theb eliefthatifRoosev elthad had ampletimeto
prepareforw ar-and theauthoritytod oso-hemighthav ereorganiz ed
theDepartmentstomeettheemergency,w hichw ould certainlyhav e
inv olv ed somed rasticchangesinpersonnel .Buttherew asnotample
timeand Roosev elthad toimprov iseasb esthecould .
ArsenalofDemocracy, Donald Nelsonw rote :
Butlet'sthinkb acktothatJuneof19 4 0 : Whoamongus,ex cept
thePresid entoftheUnited States,reallysaw themagnitud eofthe
j ob ahead ,theaw fulmissionoftheUnited Statesinaw orld running
b ercrk? IcantestifythatallthepeopleImetand talked to,includ ing
I6 o

memb ersoftheGeneralStaff,theArmyand Nav y'shighestranking
; d istinguished statesmenand legislators,thoughtofthed efense
programasonlyameansforeq uippingourselv estokeeptheenemy
aw ayfromtheshoresoftheUnited States
thatIknow of,ex ceptthePresid ent-saw thatw emightb efighting
Germanyand Japanallov er
' thew orld .Hetookhisstand against
thead v iceofsomeofthiscountry'sb estmind s,b uthisforesight
w assuperiortotheirs,and thisforesightsav ed usall .
Hopkinsw ascertainlyoneofthemanyw hohad nocomprehension
oftotalw ar,b uthew asb eginningtolearnfromRoosev elt,asheind i-
cated inapressconferenceneartheend ofMay
.Asked b yNicholas
New YorkHerald Trib une,
w hathethoughtofthew ar
situationingeneral,asitaffected theUnited States,hereplied
Wecannotgoonsittinghereand sayingthatthew arissomany
milesaw ayand w ed onotneed tow orryab outitb ecausew eare
arichcountryand itw illnotaffectusoroureconomiclife
getourselv esintoaneconomicv acuumhere
and putourmind sonit,and d ecid ew hatw earegoingtod oand
thenmakeev erymov enecessarytocarryoutthatd ecision
Mr .Hermann,of
TheAmericanBanker, asked ," Justhow farcanw e
proj ectthat? "
Hopkinsreplied ," Toanypointyouw anttoputit-j ustasfarasyou
w anttogo ."
Mr .Hermannthenstarted toask," Ev enif-"
Hopkinsd id notpermithimtofinishsaying," -ifitmeansourgetting
intothew ar? " Heinterposed
! SupposethatGermanyw ins
thew arinthenex ttw omonthsand d oesontheeconomicfrontsw hat
theyhav ed oneonthemilitaryfronts
.Whatw illtheyd oinSouth
Americapresumingthey,w in,and then,w hatarew egoingto
d o
ab outit? Or-supposethisw arlaststw oorthreeyears
isthatgoingtohav eontheeconomyofthiscountry? Thisisnota
matterofsittingd ow natthed innertab leand talkingab outit, . . . .I
b elongtotheschoolthatd oesnottalkab outthings-you
d o them.
Hopkinsnow b egantoacq uireex perienceinw arprod uction
allocation,sub j ectsw ithw hichhew astogainsomuchfamiliarityinso
.Heb ecamecloselyassociated w ithMaj orGeneralJamesH .
Burns,oftheArmy'Ord nanceDepartment,and thisassociation re-
mained throughoutLend Lease,theVictoryprod uctionprogram,
programofaid fortheSov ietUnionand thew orkoftheMunitions
.McCloy,AssistantSecretaryofWarund er
Stimson,hasw rittenofBurns," Hegav einspirationand impetus
theprograminamannerforw hichheforev erd eserv esw ellofhis

16 1
country." Burnsw as w hat Hopkinsliked most-a" d oer" -and he
w orked fast.EarlyinJunetherew asaconferenceb etw eenKnud sen,
LouisJohnsonand Burnsatw hichKnud sen-theab le,genialauto-
motiv eprod uctionman,w ithnoex perienceinw eapons-keptask-
ing," How manypiecesd oyouw ant? " Thew ord " pieces" referred to
suchitemsasheav yb omb ers,b ullets,paratroopb oots,tanks,etc.
TheArmy'sestimatesonev erythinghad b eensod elib eratelytimid and
mod est,b ecauseofthefearofev eraskingformorethanaminimum,
thatthesud d enrushofCongressionalappropriationscaughtitsofficers
unprepared .Theyd id notknow how many" pieces ." ButHopkinsad -
v ised Burnstoaskforev erything .Workingw ithhisstaffincessantly
fortw enty-fourhours,Burnsprod uced anew programw hichinclud ed
prov isionfor,amongotherthings,constructionofthe 5 0 ,0 0 0 w arplanes
forw hichthePresid enthad asked .Thisprogramw asrushed through
theGeneralStaffand presented toKnud senw ithintw od aysafter
hehad req uested it.
Itisd ifficulttoex aggeratetheb ew ild ermentand frenz ied uncertainty
thatprev ailed inWashingtoninthosed ays .Itw asrid iculous,inaw ay,
and inaw ayitw asintenselyinspiring ; itpresented theconcentrated
pictureofagreatpeoplegroping,w ithoutd irection,fortheopportunity
ofserv ice .Amongthemanypatrioticind ustrialistscalled toWashington
w asRob ertT.Stev ens,oneofthecountry'slead ingtex tilemanufacturers
Whenhearriv ed hehad onlythev aguestid eaofhisd uties,b utDonald
Nelsontold him," Lookatound intheWarand Nav yDepartmentsand
find outw hattheirreq uirementsareintex tilesand figureoutaw ayto
meetthem." Stev ensfound outab outtheneed sforuniforms,b lankets,
b lackoutcurtains,etc.,w hichreq uired nospecialtalents,and thenhe
b egantothinkthatperhapshew ascalled uponfortheex erciseofhisow n
imagination .Tryingtoconsid erev eryphaseofw aractiv itythatmight
inv olv etheuseoftex tileshethoughtofparachutes .Itthenoccurred to •
himthatw ithFrenchand Italianmanufacturersofsilkclosed tous,our
onlysourcew asJapanand ,w hileheknew nex ttonothingab outthe
internationalsituation,itseemed conceiv ab letohimthatthissource
mightb eshutoff,also .Hethereforefeltthatperhapsw eshould start
stockpilingsilk .Helearned thattheav eragereq uirementw asfourpara-
chutesperw arplane-figuringtheheav yb omb ers( elev enmen)plus
thepursuitplanes( oneman) plus theessentialreserv es .Heconsulted
theprocurementofficersintheArmyand Nav yand w astold thatthey
estimated theyw ould need atotalof 9 ,0 0 0 parachutesforthecomingyear,
19 4 0 -4 1-6 ,5 0 0 fortheArmyAirCorps, 2,5 0 0 fortheNav y .Stev ensd id
somemultiplicationofhisow nand told theofficersthathefigured they
w ould need 20 0 ,0 0 0 parachutesinstead ofthe 9 ,0 0 0 forw hichtheyw ere
asking .Theyasked himhow hehad arriv ed 'atthisfantasticfigure
16 2

replied ," ThePresid enthasasked for
5 0 ,0 0 0 w arplanes
.Ij ustmultiplied
thatb yfour ."
So,thenumb erofparachutesontheprod uctionprogramw as
b oosted from9 ,0 0 0 to 20 0 ,0 0 0
and ,later,thisfigurew asincreased into
.Thismayhav eb eenanex tremecase,b utin
1g4 o the
ex tremecasew asthetypicalone
.Id onotcitethisinanysenseofd is-
cred ittotheprocurementofficersinv olv ed b ut
theex tenttow hichthenormalpeacetime,ind octrinated concernforthe
sanctityofthetax payers'moneycanintimeofperilend angerthetax -
payers'liv es,nottomentionthesecurityoftheRepub licitself
Itisimportanttorememb erthatRoosev eltestab lished theparent
agenciesforw arprod uction,w armanpow er,pricecontrol,food pro-
d uction,transportation,etc
.,w ithouttheneed foranylegislationb ythe
.Inthis,herev erted toalaw passed intheFirstWorld War,
j ustasinthecreationoftheVannev arBushorganiz ation,
herev erted toauthoriz ationsd atingfromtheCiv ilWar
.Inb othultra-
mod erninstancesheused antiq uated and generallyinad eq uatelegislation
ashisauthorityforactionb ecausehed id notw anttoriskpossib lecon-
flictw iththeCongressonanyissueotherthanw hatheconsid ered the
mainone-w hichw asSelectiv eServ ice
.AsCommand erinChiefina
timew henthenationalsecurityw asimperiled ,hehad toputfirstthings
: hemayhav eb eenw ronginhisj ud gmentofw hatw erethefirst
things,b ut-rightorw rong-hehad totakeaction,inthenational
interest,and hetookit
.Hispersonalpositionw asfarw eakerthanat
anyothertimeintheNew Dealorw aryears
.Whatev erunityand
harmonyand ev enloyaltytherehad b eeninhisAd ministrationw asto
aseriousd egreed isrupted b ythethird termissueand theselectionof
theVice-Presid entialnominee
.Duringthemostcriticalw eeksofM,ay
and June,itw asnotknow nw hetherRoosev eltw ould runagainor,ifhe
d id ,w hetherhew ould b eab letoov ercometheob staclesofisolationist
sentimentand ofpopularrespectforthetrad itionestab lished b yGeorge
Washingtonand solid ified b yThomasJefferson
Outsid eoftheServ iceDepartments-w hich,ashasb eensaid ,w ere
atthetimeinenfeeb led cond ition-theTreasuryw astheonlyonethat
w asfunctioningonanemergencyb asis
.Ind eed ,inhisprolonged ,d eal-
ingsw iththeFrenchand BritishPurchasingCommissions,and inhis
promotionofaid forChina,HenryMorgenthauhad b eenex ercising
someofthemostv italfunctionsoftheWarDepartmentand ev enof
theStateDepartment,notb yaprocessofusurpation,b utb yd efault
Inmid -June,Roosev eltw asb itterlyattacked fromb othsid esofthe
politicalfencew henheappointed Stimsonand FrankKnox ,b othd is-
tinguished Repub licans,toserv easSecretariesofWarand Nav y
menhad ex pressed themselv esv eryv igorouslyinfav orofRoosev elt's
foreignpolicyand inoppositiontotheisolationisttend enciesoftheir

16 3
ow nparty .Ind eed Stimson,asSecretaryofStateund erHoov er,had
laid thefound ationforthatpolicyw henhead v ocated collectiv eresistance
tothefirstactofFascistaggression,theJapaneseinv asionofManchuria
in19 31 .Stimsonhad b eenmuchtoofarahead ofhistimeinatimorous,
shortsighted w orld ,and Roosev eltad mired himallthemoreforthat.
Knox ,pub lisherofthe Chicago
New s, had runasVice-Presi-
d eiitialnomineew ithLand onagainstRoosev eltfouryearsprev iously
and had b eenoneofthehard est-hittingcriticsoftheNew Deal,b uthe
had alsob eenafellow RoughRid erand lifelongfriend ofTheod ore
Roosev eltand ,assuch,capab leofunorthod ox y .BothStimsonand Knox
had held therankofcolonelintheFirstWorld Warand b othcould
recogniz enational,perilw hentheysaw it
WhenRoosev eltcalled Knox onthelongd istancetelephoneand
inv ited himtotakeov ertheNav yDepartment,Knox accepted b ut
ex pressed theconv ictionthatitw ould b eunw isetomakeannouncement
ofituntilaftertheRepub licanConv ention,w hichw asthenab outto
assemb leinPhilad elphia .Hesaid thathew anted toattend thiscon-
v entionand fightforanonisolationistpolicyand anonisolationistcand i
d ate,Wend ellWillkie,w hichw ould ob v iouslyb einthenationalinterest
foritw ould remov ethishighlyd angerousissuefromthecampaign
Roosev eltreplied thatitw asallimportantthattheannouncementb e
mad e b efore theConv ention,forthefollow ingreasons :
TheentryofKnox intotheCab inetmustb epub liclyrecogniz ed for
w hatitw as-anactofpurepatriotism,animated b ytheb eliefthatthe
cond uctofthew holed efenseeffortand offoreignpolicyingeneral
should b eplaced ab ov eallpartisanconsid erations
.Thisw ould b ed if-
ficultifnotimpossib leifKnox w aited untilaftertheConv entionw hen
theissuew asj oined .IftheRepub licanpartyespoused anisolationist
? policyand nominated anisolationistcand id ate,thenhisentryintothe
DemocraticAd ministrationw ould b einterpreted asanactofd isgruntle-
mentand b ad sportsmanship .If,ontheotherhand ,Willkieand the
nonisolationistsw onoutatPhilad elphia,Knox could hard lyd esertw ith
good gracethecand id ateand principleshehad foughtfor,and thus
hisserv icesw ould b ed enied tothePresid entatthiscriticaltime .
Stimson,alsonotified b ytelephone,ind icated hisacceptanceund er
certainstringentcond itions,thechiefofw hichw asthatalltracesofthe
w arringfactionsintheWarDepartmentb eeliminated and thatGren-
v illeClark'sproposalofRob ertP.Pattersonb eapprov ed .Roosev elt
agreed .
Announcementoftheappointmentofthesetw opub lic-spirited men
w asmad eontheev eofthePhilad elphiaConv entionand itb rought
roarsofprotestfromlead ingRepub licanpoliticians,w hocharged a
" d oub lecross" and d emand ed thatStimsonand Knox b e" read outof
theparty." Farleyand otherlead ingDemocraticpoliticiansd ecried the
16 4

appointmentsasab etrayalofpartyregularity.Ickesw asangryb ecause
hew anted tob eSecretaryofWarhimself
Itisimpossib letoex aggeratetheex tenttow hichStimsonand Knox
strengthened Roosev elt'shand ind ealingw iththeimmed iateprob lems
of19 4 0 and thelonger-rangeprob lemsofaid toBritainand theb uild ing
upofourarmed forces,asw ellasintheev entualfightingofthew ar .
Ofthetw omen,Stimsonb oreappreciab lyheav ierresponsib ilities
b ecauseofthePresid ent'spred ilectionfortheNav y .Stimson,w ith
GeneralMarshallathissid e,had tostartv eryclosetoscratchinthe
creationofagiganticArmyand AirForceestab lishment
.Hesurround ed
himselfw ithciv ilianaid esofremarkab leab ility-theUnd erSecretary,
Jud gePatterson,and AssistantSecretaries,JohnJ .McCloyand Rob ert
A.Lov ett.Knox w assimilarlyw iseand fortunateintheselectionof
hisUnd erSecretaryand ( in
19 4 4 )
successor,JamesForrestal .None
ofthesemenw asnaturallysympatheticw iththeNew Dealphilosophy .
Und oub ted lymostofthemnev erchanged intheirantipathytoRoose-
v elt'sd omesticpolicies ; ev enso,theyprov id ed amemorab leex ampleof
d ev otionand ofsuperb capab ilityintheserv iceoftheRoosev eltAd min-
istrationinw artime .
TheChiefofStaffoftheArmy,GeneralMarshall,and theChief
ofNav alOperations,Harold R.Stark,had b eenappointed b yRoosev elt
shortlyb eforetheoutb reakoftheEuropeanw arin19 39 ,and had b een
hisad v isersonallmattersrelatingtow orld strategy .Bothofthemw ere
militaryphilosophers,possessed ofthelongv iew onmaj orprob lems,
and b othhad thesenseofstatesmanshipthatenab led themtoconsid er
thepoliticalasw ellaspurelymilitaryaspectsoftheglob alsituation .
Starkhad b eenond utyintheNav yDepartmentmostofthetimed uring
theprew aryears,particularlyasChiefoftheBureauofOrd nance .He
had ex ceptionalq ualitiesasastaffofficer,b utlacked theq uicknessand
theruthlessnessofd ecisionreq uired inw artimeand ,afterPearlHarb or,
hew asreliev ed b yAd miralErnestJ .King,w holacked neither .Stark
serv ed outthew armostfaithfullyand usefullyinLond on,asCom-
mand erofU.S .Nav alForcesinEurope ; hiscontrib utiontotheforma-
tionofgrand strategyw asimmeasurab leasw illb eseeninlaterchapters .
AsaresultofhisyearsintheBureauofOrd nance,Starkhad mad e
manyfriend sonCapitolHilland had theconfid enceofCongressmenw ho
regard ed himasamanmod estinhisd emand s .Marshallgained con-
fid enceb yhisq uietassurance,masteryoffactsand ex ceptionalcourtesy,
althoughhew assuspectw henhetalked intermsofarmored d iv isions
and long-rangeb omb ers,forthisseemed tosuggestthathemighthav e
mind takingtheoffensiv e,instead ofconcentratingonthew orkof
b uild ingand manningcoastd efensefortifications
.Faced w ithstupid ity
and shortsighted nessw hichw ould hav ed riv enaw eakermantod espair,
Marshallmaintained atleastthesemb lanceofcalmnessand patience ;

16 5
b utitcannev erb ed oub ted thatheend ured intenseinw ard suffering,
notfromfrustrationforhimselfb utfortheintegrityand securityof
theRepub lic.Therecanb efew peopleofanyAllied nationw hocame
incontactw ithMarshalld uringthew arw how ould q uestionthestate-
mentmad etohimb ySecretaryStimsononthed ayofGermany'suncon-
d itionalsurrend er : " Ihav eseenagreatmanysold iersinmyd ayand
you,sir,arethefinestsold ierIhav eev erknow n ."
Ifpub licopinionhad b eenind icativ eofind ifferenceand lethargy in
thed aysofthePhonyWar,giv ingw aytoconfusionand fearapproach-
inghysteriad uringtheBlitz krieg,itb eganrapid lytoassumeamore
intelligentand respectw orthyappearanceonceChurchillinBritainand
Roosev eltintheU.S.had mad eev id entthepatternofpolicyforthe
immed iatefuture .Theknow led gethatBritainw ould fightaloneand
Americaw ould ex tend allpossib leaid asanoncomb atantclarified the
situationinthepub licmind ,atleastuntilthenex tcrisisshould arise
and thatrepresented farmoreclarificationofissuesthanthepeoplehad
had atanytimesinceMunich .Roosev eltnow d iscov ered thathew as
gainingpopularsupportforhispoliciestoagratifyingand surprising
ex tent
.Hew asgiv enunpreced ented supportb ythepress,thegreat
maj orityofw hichhad opposed himw ithmountingfurythroughoutthe
New Deal .Mostofthew id elysynd icated columnistsw erew ithhim,
althoughtherew ereex ceptions,notab lytheincreasinglyintemperate
GeneralHughS.Johnson .Lead ingRepub licannew spapers,suchasthe
New YorkHerald Trib une, the BostonHerald , the ChicagoDailyNew s,
the DesMoinesRegister, and the SanFranciscoChronicle, w hichhad
b eenamonghissev erestcriticsond omesticissues,now gav ew hole-
hearted approv altohismeasuresofaid forBritain
foreigncorrespond entshad foryearsb eenw arningofthemenaceof
Germanand Japaneseimperialism.Therew asnogroupinoroutof
gov ernmentw hohad b eensoconsistentlyaccurateintheirestimates
Now itw aspossib letob road casttheirw arningsallov erthecountryand
thev oicesofEd w ard R
.Murrow and Fred BatefromLond on,William
L .ShirerfromBerlin,ElmerDav isfromNew York,Raymond Gram
Sw ingfromWashington,amongmanyothers,d id much'tostrengthen
Roosev elt'sposition
Organiz ationsofpriv atecitiz ensb egantob ecomeactiv einthe
mob iliz ationofpub licopinion .Thelargestofthesehad started ona
smallscaleinSeptemb er,
19 39 ,
w henv ariousmemb ersoftheLeague
Roosev elt'sreq uestforrepealofthearmsemb argoprov isions .The
Chairmanofthis" Non-PartisanCommitteeforPeacethroughRev ision
oftheNeutralityLaw " ( w hatatitle)w asthed istinguished and w id ely
b elov ed Kansan,WilliamAllenWhite,w homnoonecould accuseof
b eingatoolofBritishImperialismoroftheNew Deal
.AstanchRepub -
16 6

licanand ad miringb iographerofCalv inCoolid ge,Whitew asalsoone
ofthegreatfriend sand priv atecounselorsofFranklin
Roosev elt.
AfterCongresshad repealed thearmsemb argo,thefirstWhiteCom-
mitteew asd issolv ed ,itsob j ecthav ingb eenachiev ed ; b utitw asrev iv ed
inMay,z g4 o,and w ascalled the" CommitteetoDefend Americab y
Aid ingtheAllies ." Itw asthefirstorganiz ationtocomb atisolationism
onanationalscale .Whitecertainlyw asnointerv entionistand itis
significantofthespiritofthetimesthathestipulated thattheCommittee
should accept" nomunition-makers'money,nointernationalb ankers'
money,and nomoneyfromthesteelinterests" -theseb eingtheinterests
w hichw erepopularlysupposed toimpelnationstow ar .Whitehad
w rittenw henthePhonyWarw asinitslaststages
Whatanav alancheofb lund ersGreatBritainhasletlooseupon
thed emocraciesofthew orld ! Theold Britishlionlooksmangy,
sore-eyed .Heneed sw ormingand should hav ealotofd entalw ork .
Hecan'tev enroar .Unlessanew gov ernmenttakesthehelmin
Britain,theBritishempireisd one .Thesearesad w ord stosay,b ut
thetruthisthetruth .
EarlyinMay,Whitew asurgingaid forBritainb ecause,w iththe
BritishFleetintact," w ecould hav etw oyearsinw hichtopreparefor
theinev itab leattackofthetotalitarianpow ersuponourd emocracy,
w hichmustcomeunlessGreatBritainw insthisw ar ." Whenanew
gov ernmentd id takethehelminBritain,Whitecameforthasoneof
itsfirmestand mostv aluab lefriend s .
FatherCoughlinw roteoftheWhiteCommitteeinhisj ournal, Social
Likethiev esw hooperateund erthecov erofnight,thereareinour
mid stthosew hooperateb eneaththecloakofprotected auspicesto
stealourlib erty,ourpeaceand ourautonomy
." TheCommittee
toDefend Americab yAid ingtheAllies" isahigh-sound ingname
composed ofhigh-hand ed gentlemenw hoareleav ingnostoneun-
turned tothrow ev erythingprecioustoanAmericantothed ogsof
w ar. . . .
Sneakingly,sub v ersiv elyand un-Americanlyhid ingb ehind
asanctimoniousstuffed shirtnamed WilliamAllenWhite,thesemen
formthemostd angerousfifthcolumnthatev ersetfootuponneutral
.TheyaretheQuislingsofAmerica .TheyaretheJud asIscariots
w ithintheapostoliccollegeofournation .
Theyarethegold -protected ,Gov ernment-protected ,foreign-pro-
tected snakesinthegrassw hod arenotstand uprightand speaklike
menfacetoface .
Withsuchtrib utesasthat,theWhiteCommitteesoonhad
operatingv igorouslyinalltheStatesand w asputtingoncoast-to-coast
rad iob road castsb ysuchpub licfiguresasPresid entJamesB .Conant,
ofHarv ard ,HenryR.Luce,thepub lisher,and Mrs .Dw ightW .Mor-

16 7
. row ,themother-in-law ofColonelLind b ergh
.Myow nfirstcontrib ution
tothecampaignw asafull-pagead v ertisement,und erthehead line
crow ," w hichw aspub lished innew spapersthroughout
thecountryonJune 1o, thed ayItalyentered thew ar .Thisad v ertise-
mentw asgiv enpub licend orsementb yPresid entRoosev elt( w homI
d id notthenknow )and ev oked thesneeringq uestion" StopHitler?
Withw hat? " fromDr .JosephGoeb b elsinBerlin .Imad ethesomew hat
strongstatementinthisad v ertisementthat'Anyonew hoarguesthat
theNaz isw illconsid eratelyw aituntilw eareread y[togotow ar]is
eitheranimb ecileoratraitor ." Thissub j ected WilliamAllenWhite
tomanyprotestsinclud ingonefromhisfriend ,Osw ald GarrisonVillard ,
w how rotethatheand millionslikehimfelttherew asnod angertothe
United Statesand " w earej ustasloyal,j ustassincere,and j ustas
earnestAmericansasSherw ood oranyb od yelse
." Whitew asimpressed
w iththeseprotestsand ticked meoffforhav inggonetoofar .Butit
w asnotlongb eforesuchepithetsasminew erecommonplace .Thegreat
d eb atew asonand itsurged and seethed and w asb roughttoanend only
b ytheJapaneseb omb sonPearlHarb or .
Inthemorev iolentisolationistargumentsw astheuglyund ercurrent
ofaccusationthatw hatthecountryfaced w asaJew ishplottogetus
intow ar .Lind b erghev entuallyb roughtthisoutintotheopenw ithhis
statementthattheonlypeoplew hofav ored Americaninterv entionw ere
theRoosev eltfamily,theBritishand theJew s .Ob v iously,theJew ish
communityhad amplereasontob eanti-Naz i,b utitw asb ynomeans
unanimousinoppositiontoisolationism.Therew ereJew s,particularly
ontheuppereconomiclev els,w hosupported theAmericaFirstCom-
mitteeb ecausetheirfearofanti-SemitisminAmericafartranscend ed
theirresentmentofNaz ib arb arisminEurope ; and therew eresome
Jew sw how erej ustasread yasanyoneelseto" d ob usiness" w itha
v ictoriousHitler .
ThestrengthoftheWhiteCommitteew asthatitcould notb esuc-
cessfullyattacked as" un-American" althoughtherew eremanylike
FatherCoughlinw hotried tod oso .Itcould b eid entified w ithnogroup
orfactionorpartisaninterest; infact,mostofitsfound ersw erelike
WhitehimselfRepub licans .Itw asb itterlyassailed b ytheCommunists
fromtheleftas w ell asb ytheFascist" lunaticfringe" organiz ationson
theex tremeright.Thus,itenj oyed acertainrespectab ilityintheeyes
ofthemassoftheAmericanpeopleinthemid d le .
TheWhiteCommitteeand itsnumerousoffshoots-notab lytheFight
ForFreed omCommittee-nev erd ented thehard coreofAmerican
isolationism,b uttheyd id ex ertaneffectonthethinkingofmillionsw ho
w ereneitherisolationistnorinterv entionistand theyhelped immeasur-
ab lytopromotepopularacceptanceofSelectiv eServ ice,thed estroyers-
for-b asesd ealand Lend Lease .Mostimportantly,thisCommittee,
16 8

b ecauseofitsb ipartisannature,acted asanunofficialliaisonchannel
b etw eentheriv alpoliticalcampsofRoosev eltand Willkieforthe
achiev ementofagreementonthed ev elopmentofforeignpolicy .
Hereind eed ,inthefield ofAmericanpolitics,w eresomeofthemost
importantconseq uencesoftheGermanBlitz krieg ; itb roughtab outthe
nominationofWend ellWillkie,instead ofaRepub licanisolationist; it
prov id ed thefinalpushthatw asneed ed toimpelRoosev elttorunfor
athird term; itw asb yall'od d sthemostimportantfactorinRoosev elt's
re-election .
TheThird TermCampaign
HEq uestionhasoftenb eenasked :
j ustw hend id Roosev eltfinally
and d efinitelyd ecid etoseekathird term? SofarasIknow ,that
q uestionw illnev erb eansw ered authoritativ ely
end lesslyand fruitlesslyastow hatw entoninthatmysteriousmind
Itissafetosaythat,iftherehad b eennointernationalcrises,hew ould
nothav erun
; b utonemightasw ellsaythat,iftherehad b eenno
flood ,Noahw ould nev erhav eelected toland onthetopofMount
.Anyonew how atched Roosev eltcloselyw ould know that in
mattersrelatingtopoliticshehad mostacutepow ersofcalculation
and heused themw ithutmostcareand finesse
.Itistruethatheb urned
hisfingersb ad lyontheSupremeCourtpackingissuew hen,follow ing
hissmashingv ictoryinthe19 36 election,hesuffered fromanex cess
ofov erconfid ence,and hisex asperationresultingfromd efeatonthis
issueled himtob urnhisfingersagainintheattempted purge
ex perienceshad av erysob eringeffectand led himtob eifanything
ov ercautiousinhishand lingofissuesarisingfromthecalamitousw orld
.Thethird termw assuchanissueand hestud ied itfromev ery
conceiv ab leangle,and mostofall in
relationtohisow npositionin
history,asub j ectofsupremeimportancetohimand oneofw hichhe
w asrarelyforgetful .Itseemed inthespringand earlysummerof19 4 0
thathew ould hav elittletogaininthew ayofgloryfromfourmore
yearsintheWhiteHouse,w hereashemighthav eav astamounttolose
Hehad alread yb eenb yanystand ard sonemightapplyamemorab le
Presid ent.Hefirmlyb eliev ed thattheNew Dealachiev ementw ould
stand outontherecord asaremarkab leone ;
b ut,now ,theNew Deal
w asnolongernew orex citingorurgentand allthesignsind icated that
itmustyield atleasttemporarilytoaphaseofreaction
.Ind eed ,from.
19 38 on,itb ecameev id entthatifRoosev eltshould runagainonpurely
d omesticissueshew ould b enonetoosureofw inningtheelectionand ,
16 9

ifhed id w in,hew ould facethereasonab lecertaintyofaCongress
d etermined tob lockhimatev eryturnand atlastpossessed ofthe
pow ertod oso .Itw asab leakprospectand ,althoughRoosev eltnev er
rev ealed hisinnermostthinkingonthistoanyman,Ifeelsurethatfor
alongtimehew asd etermined toav oid it.Inthis,Iamspeakingofa
third consecutiv e term.Therew asanotherpossib ilitythat,Ib eliev e,
w asnotab sentfromRoosev elt'smind .Fromchanceremarksthathe
mad etov ariousfriend s,itw ould seemthathecontemplated thepos-
sib ilitythat,afterfouryearsofretirement,and ofconceiv ab lyb lund ering
mismanagementofthepub licinterestsb yareactionaryCongressand a
reactionaryAd ministrationinWashington,hemightb ecalled b ackto
runforathird termin19 4 4 .Buthew asinnohurrytocrossthat
remoteb rid geuntiland ifheshould cometoit.
Allofthisthinking,Irepeat,w asb ased solelyond omesticconsid era-
tions,and theseb ecameoflessand lessimportance,especiallytoRoose-
v elthimself,afterMunich .Itw asthenthatthethird termissueb egan
tocomeoutintotheopen,and theCab inetofficerw hob roughtitout
firstw asHarold Ickes .Hav inggonetoEuroped uringthesummerof
19 38 -hew asonhishoneymoontherefollow inghissecond marriage,
w hichtookplaceinDub lin-Ickeshad talked w ithChamb erlain,Church-
illand AttleeinEngland and thengoneontoFrance .Hehastold me
Ev eryw hereIw ent,Iheard thesamething : " w arisinev itab le"
-" w arisimminent." Itw asMrs .Ickes'firstv isittoFranceand she
w asenchanted w ithit,and w henw esailed aw ayand looked b ackat
thatlov elycoastlineshesaid sad lythatw emightnev erseeitagain
-or,ifw ed id ,itmightnotstillb eFrance,itmightb eaprov ince
ofGermany.Duringthev oyagehome,Ithoughthard ab outthisw ar
prospectand ab outthePresid entialelectionin19 4 0 .Iconsid ered in
mymind thew holefield ofcand id atesand Icametotheconclusion
therew asonlyonemanb igenoughtohand lethew orld situation
Roosev elt.WhenIgothome,Icameoutforathird termand Iw ent
rightonurgingitatev eryopportunity
.ThePresid entd id notgiv e
meonew ord ofencouragementonthis .Buthealsod id nottellme
tostop .Iw asthentheonlyoneintheCab inetforRoosev elt.Most
oftheothersw erecand id atesthemselv es-Hopkins,Hull,Farley,
Wallace,Garner-youcould n'tthrow ab rickinanyd irectionw ithout
hittingacand id ate .
AsIhav esaid inaprev iouschapter,Hopkinsw aspub liclyurging
athird terminJune,
9 39 ,d espitethed etermined oppositiontoitof
.Roosev elt.Farleyhasrecord ed hisow nv igorousoppositiontoit
-and Hull'sand Garner's-and hasstated thatthePresid enttold him
1 9 39 ,
" OfcourseIw illnotrunforathird term."
( TheitalicsareFarley's .)Icannotq uestionFarley'saccuracyor
Roosev elt'ssincerity .How ev er,Roosev elt'sintention( atthattime)not

torunhimselfcertainlyd id notimplyanylackofinterestintheselection
ofhissuccessor .Farleyq uotesGarnerashav ingsaid atab outthesame
time," Jim,thetw oofuscanpull'togethertostopRoosev elt," and
therecanb enod oub tthatRoosev eltw asd etermined tostopthetw o
ofthemfromgainingcontroloftheDemocraticpartyforheb eliev ed
theyrepresented theforcesofreactionand isolationism.Farleyhasoften
protested thathisantipathytoathird termw asb ased onhisrespect
forthesanctityoftrad ition,and nod oub tthisistrue-b uthemayhav e
had otherreasonsinmind and oneofthemmayhav eb eenthefactthat
b othheand Roosev eltw erenativ esofNew YorkState .TheConstitu-
tionprov id esthatcand id atesforthePresid encyand VicePresid ency
should notcomefromthesameState .SinceFarley,onhisow nad mis-
sion,w asnotentirelyind ifferenttohischancesofw inningthenomina-
tionascand id ateforPresid entor,failingthat,forVicePresid ent,itis
ob v iousthathew aspersonallyconcerned inprev entingRoosev eltfrom
b ecomingagaintheDemocraticcand id ate .
Anypoliticianasknow led geab leasFarleymusthav eb eenfullyaw are
thattherew asnorealpossib ilitythatGarnercould b enominated and
elected ; b utGarner,w iththeTex asd elegationsolid forhim,w ould b e
animportantfactorintheDemocraticConv entionand itisq uiteplain
that,w ithRoosev eltoutofthepicture,Farleyplanned tosw ingthe
GarnerstrengthtothesupportofHullforPresid entand himselffor
VicePresid ent
.Thegreatq uestionw as :
how togetRoosev eltoutof
thepicture? Thatprov ed tob eaprob lemthatneitherFarleynoranyone
elsecould solv e .
Theoutb reakoftheEuropeanWargav eRoosev eltalegitimate
reasontod eclareamoratoriumonallpoliticald iscussionsinv olv ing
himselfforthetimeb eing .Impenetrab lesilenceonthissub j ectthen
settled d ow nab outtheWhiteHouseand ,atpressconferences,w hen-
ev erareporterasked thePresid entab outhisthird termintentions,
Roosev eltw ould tellhim,ineffect,orinsomanyw ord s,togostand
inthecorner .Id onotknow tow hatex tentthesemattersmayhav e
b eend iscussed b etw eenRoosev eltand Hopkins,w how asb ed rid d en
throughoutthisperiod .Itisd oub tfulthatRoosev eltev erw enttosee
Hopkins,fortheHopkinshouseinGeorgetow nw astinyand thestairs
v erynarrow and steep .ButHopkinsw asintouchw ithRoosev elt'sstate
ofmind throughfreq uenttelephonecallsand v isitsfromMrs .Roosev elt
and MargueriteLeHand ," Missy," w hohad b eenRoosev elt'strusted
secretaryformanyyears .Iknow thatRoosev eltw asthenteemingw ith
plansforhisretirementini9 4 i : hew asgoingb acktoHyd eParkto
w orkonhispapers,amongotherthings,and Hopkinsw astogow ith
himtocollab orateonthehistoryoftheNew Deal .TheFranklinD.
Roosev eltLib rary,Inc
.,had alread yb eensetupand Roosev elthad
arranged w ithFrankWalker,treasureroftheLib raryCommittee,that

Hopkinsb egiv enaj ob there
.Incid entally,w henWalkerheard ofthese
plansfromRoosev elt,heknew thattheHopkinsforPresid entinI9 4 o
b oomhad end ed -Walkerhav ing'b eenoneofthev eryfew ofRoose-
v elt'sconfid antsw hoknew ofthepartthePresid entw asplaying in
promotingthisb oom.
22, I9 4 o,Hopkinstold mehew asv irtuallycertainthat
Roosev eltw ould d ecid etorunforathird term,b utthreemonthslater,
April 23, heex pressed grav ed oub tsab outit.Hesaid thenthatthe
Presid entseemed d isinclined tod oanythingab outthenomination or
topermitanyofhisfriend stod oanything,w hichw ould hav emeant
thatitw ould gototheFarleyfactionb yd efault
.( Hopkinshimselfw as,
ofcourse,completelyoutoftherunningb ythistime
meifIreallyb eliev ed Roosev eltshould run .Iansw ered that Icon-
sid ered itw ashisd utytorun .Hethenasked mew hatw eremyreasons
forthisconv iction,and Imad etheob v iousansw ers : theUnited States
w astheonlypow erthatcould prev entthew orld fromgoingtohell,
and Roosev eltw astheonlymanw iththepersonalstrengthand prestige
asw ellasintelligencetolead theUnited Statesinthew ayitshould go .
Hopkinsthensaid tome," Iw ishyou'd sitd ow nand w riteallofthat
tothePresid ent,emphasiz ingthe` d uty'partofit."
" But," Isaid ," he'd paynoattentiontoaletterfromme .Hew ould n't
ev enread it."
" You'd b esurprised ," said Hopkins," how manylettersfrompriv ate
citiz enshed oesread and how seriouslyhetakessomeofthem."
Hopkinsurged metopersuad ethegreatestpossib lenumb erofmy
friend sw hofeltasId id tow ritesimilarletterstothePresid ent, and
Id id so .Thoselettersw erenotacknow led ged ,ev enb ythecustomary
notefromasecretarysaying," ThePresid enthasd irected 'metoex press
hisappreciation . . ." etc.Id oub tthatany or allofthemex erted the
slightestinfluenceonRoosev elt'sfinald ecision
.Farleyhasw rittenthat
itw assometimeafterMay17thatheb egantob eliev ethatRoosev elt
had mad euphismind ; Ed w ard J
craticpolitician,hassaid muchthesamething
.Pend ingtheappearance
offurtherev id ence( w hichisalw ayspossib leb ut,Ishould j ud ge,highly
unlikely)itmayb eassumed thatitw asHitlerand Mussolini-and
alsoChurchill-w homad eupRoosev elt'smind forhim.Had the
PhonyWarstillcontinued ,w ithnosignofab reak-or,afterit
d id
b reak,had theBritishGov ernmentad v ised theWhiteHousethatit
mustsueforpeaceintheev entofthefallofFrance-thennothingb ut
ov erinflated personalv anitycould hav eind uced Roosev eltto
third term.Granted thatRoosev elthad hisfullshareofpersonalv anity
-nomanw ould runforPresid entoftheUnited Statesinthefirst
placew ithoutit-healsohad theab ilitytoformahighly realistic
estimateoftheod d sagainsthimand ,takingthemostcynicalv iew of
1 9 4 1

1 73
theprospect,and leav ingallq uestionsofpatrioticd utyoutofit,he
w ould b estserv etheinterestsofhisow npresentprestigeand hisulti-
mateplaceinhistoryb yretiringgracefullyb eforethestormb rokeand
thereb yleav ingthereapingofthew hirlw ind tohissuccessor .How ev er,
aslongasBritainheld out,and aslongasthereremained achancethat
Germanv ictorymightb eprev ented ,Roosev eltw anted tostayinthe
fightand sincerelyb eliev ed thattherew asnoneamongalltheav ailab le
cand id atesasw ellq ualified toaid intheprev entionashe
OnMayio,thed ayoftheattackontheLow Countries,Hopkins
w enttohisofficeintheCommerceDepartment-and , as nearlyasI
canmakeout,thisw asthesecond timehehad appeared thereinten
months .Thatev eninghew enttod innerattheWhiteHouse
.Hew as
feelingmiserab leand Roosev eltprev ailed onhimtostaythereov er-
night.Heremained ,liv inginw hathad b eenLincoln'sstud y,forthree
and ahalfyears
.Later,MissyLeHand remarked ," Itw asHarry
Hopkins .w hogav eGeorgeS
.Kaufmanand MossHarttheid eafor
thatplayoftheirs,` TheManWhoCameToDinner ." 'Fromthenon,
hisw orkw asd oneinhisroomattheWhiteHouse.Afterb reakfastin
themorningand afterd innerintheev eningand atod d timesd uring
thed ayhetalked w iththePresid entab outtheshockingcab lesthatw ere
; Hopkinsund oub ted lyhad littlerealund er-
stand ingofthefullimportofthisnew s,b utRoosev eltw asteachinghim.
OnSund aystheyusuallyw entcruisingontheyacht, Potomac.
Juneao,Hopkinsw entw iththePresid entforafourd ays'stayatHyd e
Park,d uringw hichthenew sarriv ed ofFrance'ssurrend ertogether
w ithsomeofthecab lesfromChurchillw hichhav eb eenmentioned ina
prev iouschapter .Aw eekafterthereturntoWashington,Hopkinsw ent
toChicagotod iscussarrangementsfortheConv entionw ithMayor
Ed w ard J.Kelly .Actingw ithoutex pressinstructionsfromRoosev elt,
b utalsow ithoutprohib ition,Hopkinsw asnow mov ingtotakecharge
ofthethird termnominationhimself .
Willkie'snominationattheRepub licanConv entionhad represented an
ex traord inarytriumphb yagroupofsud d enlyorganiz ed amateurz ealots
ov erthesteam-rollingpoliticalb ossesoftheRepub licanparty
b ossesd istrusted Willkie,d espitethefactthat,asPresid entoftheCom-
monw ealthand SouthernCorporation,hew asoneofthefew b usinessmen
w hohad ev erfoughtagainstaNew Dealagency( theTennesseeValley
Authority)and w onatleastamoralv ictoryinhisfight.Foronething,he
w asd eeplysuspectb ecausehehad formerlyb eenaDemocrat.Foranother
thing,theisolationistfetishw assostrongintheRepub licanhierarchythat
anyonew hoopposed itmust,theyfelt,b etainted insomesinisterw ay
w iththepoisonofRoosev eltism.Furthermore,theyd id notknow w hether
Willkiew ould prov etob ethekind ofamenab le,controllab letime-serv er
thattheypreferred tohav einpub licoffice .( Theyfound outlater!)On
1 74

theev eoftheRepub licanConv ention,WalterLippmannshocked many
conserv ativ eread ersofthe
New YorkHerald Trib une and otherd igni-
fied papersb yputtingthecasethusstrongly
ForeighteenmonthstheRepub licanpartyhasb eenw alkingin
itssleep .Atnooneofthecriticalj uncturesofthisperiod hasthe
partyund erstood thesituationorproposed measurestod ealw ithit
oroffered thecountrypositiv elead ership
.Therehav eb eenmany
ind iv id ualRepub licans,ofcourse,w how ereaw areofw hatw asgoing
.Buttheyhav eb eeninahelplessminorityand ,asanorganiz ed
party,theRepub licanshav ehad nopolicyatall .Ayearand ahalf
agow hentheyw eretold thatw arw ascoming,thepoliticianssaid
thatthisw arningw as" b allyhoo" and " w ar-mongering ." . . .
can,Ithink,searchthespeechesofMr .Taftand Mr.Dew ey,and
searchtheminv ain,foranyev id enceofforesightastow hathas
happened ,forasingleproposalw hichw assought,inad v anceofthe
Ad ministration,tostrengthenthenationald efense
.Taftand Dew eyd uringthesecriticalmonthsmakeMr .
Nev illeChamb erlainseemlikeafar-sighted and strongstatesman
Thisw aspreciselythekind ofsupportfromsob erauthoritythat
Willkieneed ed
.Luckily,theold Repub licansteamrollerprov ed tob ea
rusty,rattletrapv ehicle,d irected b y" sleepw alkers," and theWillkie
forcesprev ailed ,b acked astheyw ereb ytheunmistakab lyspontaneous
enthusiasmofthemoreind epend entRepub licanv otersfortherugged ,
untrammeled and picturesq uecand id ate
Roosev eltconsid ered Willkiethemostformid ab leopponentforhim-
selfthattheRepub licanscould hav enamed
.Willkiehad theglamor
w hichprev iousRepub licanopponentshad soconspicuouslylacked
Whatismore,Willkiehad noprev iouspoliticalrecord toattackasd id
thosew ho,forisolationistreasons,had opposed ev erymov etow ard
nationald efense
.Nev ertheless,d espiteRoosev elt'srespectforWillkie
asad angerouscompetitor,heconsid ered thisnominationa" God send
tothecountry," forittend ed toremov etheisolationist-interv entionist
issuefromthecampaign( atleast,untilthefinald ays)and thereb y
prev ented thesplittingofthepeopleintotw oemb ittered factions
guaranteed totherestofthew orld -and particularlytothew arring
nations-acontinuityofAmericanforeignpolicyregard lessofthe
.Theimportanceofthisconsid erationcould
hard lyb eov erestimated
.Tob eginw ith,Willkiecameoutinfav orof
Selectiv eServ ice,thereb yeliminatingthatex tremelycontrov ersialissue
Anotherimportantissuecameup-thed estroyersd eal
.Asw ehav e
seen,Churchillhad firsttold Roosev eltofBritain'sd esperateneed for
d estroyersinacab lew rittenfiv ed aysafterheb ecamePrimeMinister
19 4 1

fiftyorsix tyU.S.d estroyersofFirstWorld Warv intagetothe
British,sayingthatw ithoutsuchnav alreinforcementBritainmight
notb eab letohold theChannelagainstinv asion .Cohenconv eyed this
tohischief,Harold Ickes,w hotookitupw iththePresid ent.Ickes
: " Ispentalotoftimearguingw iththePresid entthat,b yhook
orb ycrook,w eoughttoacced etoEngland 'sreq uest.Hesaid that,
consid eringtheamend mentthatw asputintothelastNav alAppropri-
ationsBill[June28 ,19 4 0 ]w ecould notsend thesed estroyersto
England unlesstheNav ycould certifythattheyw ereuselesstousfor
d efensepurposes ." Theamend mentreferred tow asanex pressionof
Congress'profound d istrustofRoosev elt
: itprov id ed thatnoitemof
militarymaterielcould b eturned ov ertoaforeigngov ernmentw ithout
thecertificationb ytheChiefofStaff( Marshall)ortheChiefofNav al
Operations( Stark)thatitw asuselessforthed efenseoftheUnited
States.ThisputMarshalland Starkintheemb arrassingpositionof
b eingab letocountermand ord ersoftheirCommand erinChief
caseofthed estroyers,Starkcould notcertifythemuseless,forhehad
latelytestified totheirpotentialv alueb eforeCongressionalCommittees
w hichhad asked him," Whyshould w egoon,yearafteryear,w asting
thetax payers'moneykeepingtheseold ` b oats'incold storage? " Thus
w ascreated oneofthev acuumsthatab ound ed inWashingtoninthose
d aysand Roosev eltw elcomed anyone,inthegov ernmentoroutofit,
w how ould rushintofillthem
.Manyofthesev acuumsw erefilled b y
theSecretaryoftheTreasury,rangingfaroutsid ehisow nprov ince,
and ,althoughthed estroyersd ealrepresented apurelynav aland d iplo-
maticmatter,itw astheSecretaryoftheInterior,ofallunlikelypeople,
w how asamongthefirsttorushin .
Varioussuggestionsw eremad etothePresid entfornew legislation
tob easked ofCongresstofreehishand s-b uthew ashav ingnoneof
that.Hew asd etermined tofind aw aytocircumv entCongressonthis
prob lem,and hefound it.Therew ereconcurrentnegotiationsforthe
grantingofleasesforAmericanb asesoneightBritishpossessionsin
.Roosev eltd ecid ed thatthesecould b eused asa
q uid proq uo forthed estroyers,thereb yenab lingStarktocertifythatthe
totalmeasurew ould strengthenratherthanw eakenAmerica'sd efense,
w hichw asofcoursethetruth .Churchillatfirstresisted this
.Hew anted
thetransferoftheb asestob easpontaneousgestureb yHisMaj esty's
Gov ernment-anex pressionofBritain'sgratitud eforAmericanaid -
and notmerelypartofasord id " d eal ." Hehad toyield onthis,b ut
heinsisted that
.thetw omostimportantb ases,Bermud aand New -
found land ,should remainfreegifts,apartfromthed eal," generously
giv enand glad lyreceiv ed " -anacad emicpoint,asitturned out
Theprogressofthesesecretnegotiations-announced totheCongress
asanaccomplished factonSeptemb er3-w asknow ntoWend ell

Willkie, w ho had priv ately approv ed of it ( through William Allen
White) and agreed nottomakeacampaignissueofRoosev elt'saction .
Ind eed ,Willkie'smaincriticismw asontheground thatthetransferof
fiftyov er-aged estroyersw asnotnearlyenoughaid forBritain,w hich
w asv eryd ifferentfromthecriticismsw hichmighthav eb eenheard had
theRepub licannomineeb een,forinstance,SenatorTaft
. Asitw as,
isolationistsaccused Roosev eltofhav ingtakenthefirst,long,treasonous
steptow ard d eliv eringtheUnited Statesb ackintotheBritishEmpire,
b uttheAmericanpeopleasaw holew erenotgreatlyinterested ,forb y
thetimethed ealw asannounced ,theairBattleofBritainhad started
and thesw appingofafew old d estroyersforafew d otsonthemap
seemed arelativ elytriv ialmatter .
Theagreementsb etw eenRoosev eltand Willkieonforeignaffairs
w erestrictlycircumscrib ed and ev enthosew entb ytheb oard b efore
thecampaignend ed .Otherw ise,Willkiew asloud lyand v igorouslyout
forthekill .Ev enb eforehisnomination,hehad challenged Roosev elt
torunforathird term,sayingthathew anted thepriv ilegeofmeeting
and b eatingthetoughestopponenttheDemocratscould name .Hiscry
w as," BringonTheChamp!" Ashrew d erpoliticianw ould nothav esaid
that.Thepeopleinterpreted Willkieliterallyassaying," Thehellw ith
thethird termtrad ition .Let'smakethis areal fight!" Thatd ramatiz ed
thecontest-mad eitanex citingsportingev ent-and themorepopular
ex citementtherew asinacampaign,theb etteritalw aysw asforRoose-
v elt.WhenRoosev eltagreed torun,peopletookitnotsomuchas
v iolationofatrad itionasacceptanceofachallengetoanold -fashioned ,
b are-knuckled slugfest.
TheDemocraticConv entionopened inChicagoonJuly15 .Prev ious
toit,therew eremeetingsattheWhiteHouseofpro-Roosev elt ( w hich
meantanti-Farley)Cab inetofficersand Congressionaland partylead ers
tod iscussw aysand means .Roosev eltw asurged toputinanappearance
attheConv entionhimself,b utrefused .Whenasked ab outstrategyand
organiz ationofhissupportersasopposed totheFarleyfaction,he
seemed ratherv ague,sayingonlythattheConv entionshould hav e its
ow nw ayand hew ould acceptitsv erd ict.Ev eryoneknew ofcourse
thatiftheRoosev eltforcesd id notcontrolthe Conv ention,Farley
w ould .AtoneofthemeetingsRoosev eltw asasked ," Supposeatsome
pointw ew anttoknow yourd irectionsonstrategy-w homd ow eask? "
Roosev eltthoughtforamomentand thenreplied ," Inthatev ent,ifI
w ereyou,I'd consultJimmyByrnes ." How ev er, w henSecretaries
FrancesPerkins,Ickes,Wallaceand therestarriv ed inChicagothey
found ,tothed ismayofsomeofthem,thatRoosev elthead q uartershad
alread yb eenfirmlyestab lished inaBlackstoneHotelsuiteb y Harry
.Herew astheChicagoend ofthepriv atelinetotheWhite
House.( Thistelephonew asintheb athroom,theonlyplace w here

priv acycould b eassured
.)The r arleyoffices-w hichw ould normally
hav eb eenDemocraticNationalHead q uarters-w ereacrossthestreetin
theStev ensHotel,w hichmad eitconv enientfortheb ew ild ered lead ers
oftheStated elegations,red ucingthed istancethattheyhad tow alkgoing
fromoneriv alhead q uarterstotheothertoreceiv etheirconflictingin-
.Beitsaid thatmostifnotalloftheselocallead ersgreatlypre-
ferred FarleytoHopkins,w homtheyconsid ered thekingpinofthe
left-w ingNew Dealersand thereforetheav ow ed enemyoftheregular
Democraticorganiz ation
.TheirchiefcomplaintagainsttheNew Dealers
w asthattheyw erepoliticalamateursw ithnoknow led geoforrespectfor
thesacred trad itionsofpartyregularity
.AsEd w ard J .Flynnhasw rit-
ten," manyoftheappointmentsinWashingtonw enttomenw how ere
supportersofthePresid entand b eliev ed inw hathew astryingtod o,b ut
w how erenotDemocratsinmanyinstances,and inallinstancesw ere
notorganiz ationDemocrats ." ( e .g
.-Stimson,Knox ,FiorelloLaGuar-
d ia,WilliamS
.Knud sen,Felix Frankfurter,JohnG .Winant, etc.)
Hopkinscarried inhispocketthreepenciled paragraphsinRoose-
v elt'shand w ritingonasheetofyellow ,ruled paper
.Itw asad d ressed to
theSpeakeroftheHou§eofRepresentativ es,WilliamB
. Bankhead ,
TemporaryChairmanoftheConv ention
WhenyouspeaktotheConv entiononMond ayev eningw illyou
saysomethingformew hichIb eliev eoughttob emad eutterlyclear?
Youand myotherclosefriend shav eknow nand und erstood that
Ihav enottod ayand hav enev erhad anyw ishorpurposetoremain
intheofficeofPresid ent,orind eed anyw hgreinpub licofficeafter
nex tJanuary .
Youknow and allmyfriend sknow thatthisisasimpleand sincere
.Iw antyoutorepeatthissimpleand sincerefacttotheConv en-
Totheb estofmyknow led ge,thatistheonlyinstructionthatRoose-
v eltputinw ritingb eforetheConv ention .Therew asachangeofplan
; themessagew asnotd eliv ered b yBankhead onthefirstd ay,
Mond ay,b utb ySenatorAlb enW
ontheev eningofthesecond d ay
.Thisw asthesignalforthefifty-three-
minute" d emonstration" led b yMayorKelly'snotorious
" v oicefrom
thesew ers
." ThemachineDemocratsob ed ientlyclimb ed ab oard the
b and w agon .Thev oteonthefirstb allotw asRoosev elt9 4 6 ,Farley72,
Garner 6 1, Tyd ings9 ,Hull5 ( fractionsomitted )
.Thisw asonWed nes-
d ay,thethird d ayoftheConv ention .'Againq uotingFlynn : " Theyd id
notsupportRoosev eltoutofanymotiv eofaffectionorb ecauseofany
politicalissuesinv olv ed " -or,itmightb ead d ed ,anysympathy w ith
orev enund erstand ingofhisob j ectiv es-" b utrathertheyknew that
opposinghimw ould b eharmfultotheirlocalorganiz ations .TheRoose-

v eltnamew ould helpmorethanitcould hurt,and forthatreasonthese
citylead ersw entalongonthethird -termcand id acy ." Theyw eregiv en
anev enmoreb itterpilltosw allow w henHopkinsannounced thatthe
Presid ent'schoiceforhisVicePresid entialrunningmatew asHenry
Wallace,and forsometimetheygav ereb elliousev id enceofrefusing
Roosev elt's letter to William ,Bankhead , Temporary Chairman of
theDemocraticNationalConv entionstatinghispositionontheThird
tochokethisoned ow n
.Ev ensomeofthePresid ent'smostloyal
ad herentsw ereshocked atthisselection ; Ickes,w homightw ellhav e
accepted theVicePresid entialnomination .himself,threatened tob olt
thepartyand itlatertookallofRoosev elt'spow ersofpersuasionto
hold himinthefold .IntheWhiteHouse,ontheev eningofthefourth
and lastd ay,Roosev elthad b ecomesoangered b ythesord id shamb les
in Chicagothathew asactuallypreparingad raftofaspeechrefusing
19 4 1

thenomination .( Hehad notyetpub liclystated thathew ould runif
nominated .)Hopkins,w how asnotev enad elegatetotheConv ention
and gotinonlyb ycourtesyofab ad gefromMayorKellyd esignating
himaDeputySergeantatArms,w asfev erishlytelephoningtheWhite
Housealmostfromminutetominutew hiletherad iointhePresid ent's
stud yb lared forththeraucousex pressionsofd iscord .Oneimpassioned
d elegateshouted intothemicrophone : " Justb ecausetheRepub licans
hav enominated anapostateDemocrat[Willkie],letusnotforGod 's
sakenominateanapostateRepub lican[Wallace]
." How ev er,theinsur-
rectionw asnotq uitestrongenoughtostopWallace'snominationon
thefirstb allot,and Roosev eltrelax ed and started tod ictatehisaccept-
ancespeechw iththeaid ofSamRosenman,forw homthisw asoneof
thew orstnightsofhislife .AttheConv ention,Wallacew anted to
giv eanacceptancespeechofhisow n,b utHopkinsharshlyad v ised him
nottoshow himself-therehad b eenenoughhostiled emonstrations
b road castalread y.TheConv entionclosed w ithnumerousresolutions
ofthankstov ariousd ignitariesw hohad participated ,notinclud ing
HarryHopkins .
Thej ob thatHopkinshad tod oatthisd read fuld isplayofd emocracy
atitstaw d riestw asd isagreeab leand thankless .Hew asund erfirefrom
allsid es,friend and foealike .Buthehad assumed thisj ob onhisow n
initiativ eb ecauseithad tob ed oneand therew asnooneelsew hohad
thecourageorperhapstheeffronterytod oitw ithoutw ritteninstruc-
tionsfromthePresid ent.Hehand led itonlyb yd intofsupremetough-
nessand ad emonstrationofpoliticalruthlessnessw hichmusthav e
caused someoftheprofessionalpoliticianstoreconsid ertheirestimate
ofhimasanamateur .Hopkinsknew ,how ev er,thathisd ilemmain
Chicagow asonlyaminorproj ectionofRoosev elt's .Inord inarytimes,
Roosev eltw ould prob ab lyhav eenj oyed aknock-d ow nd rag-outpolitical
Donnyb rookagainstsuchopponentsasFarleyand Garnerand legions
ofw ard heelersand hew ould hav ehand led itw ithoutmuchperceptib le
d ifficulty .ButthisConv entionw asstaged againstab ackground ofw orld
catastrophe,ofw hichthed elegateshad scantconception,and Roosev elt,
inhisd istasteforthew holev ulgarproceed ing,d isplayed noneofhis
customaryad roitnessincontrollingtheunrulysituation
.Itw asalucky
thingforhimand forthecountrythathehad Hopkinstheretoab sorb '
somuchofthehatred thatw asgenerated .
AfterChicago,itb ecamealltoocleartoHopkinsthathemustresign
asSecretaryofCommerceand ,ifhehad nothad theid eahimself,there
w ereplentyofRoosev elt'sfriend sread ytoconv eyittohim
.Hew as
moreofapoliticalliab ilitythanev er
: hew asnolongerintheconspic-
uousroleofchampionoftheund erpriv ileged -unemploymentw asb e-
ginningtogod ow nasthed efenseeffortincreased -and ,b ecauseofhis
longillness,hehad littletoshow forhimselfinthew ayofaccomplish-

mentasaCab inetofficer
hesub mitted hisresignation
inaletterw hichstated hisphysicalinab ilitytoperformhisd utiesund er
therigorousd emand sofw ar-w hichseemsanod d ex cuseinthelight
ofhissub seq uentactiv ities
ThetenthofMay,I9 4 ow asanimportantand fatefuld ate
Itseemed tomethenthatoursituationw assimilartothatofthe
Britishb eforetheoutb reakofw ar
.Inthemonthspreced ingthat
ev entmanyEnglishmenb eliev ed theconflictcould b eav oid ed b ycon-
.Othersthoughttherew asnoimmed iatethreatfromGermany
thatd efensepreparationcould b ed elayed w ithsafety
maintained thatanyonew how ished tostrengthenthed efensesof
Britainw asa" w armongerer ."
Theex perienceofBritainhasshow nthatw herethenationalin-
terestand securityareatstake,w earej ustified inmakingonlythe
.Tod ootherw iseistob etoolateat
ev erystage,toinv iteattackw henitsuitstheaggressor,tofacecon-
Theonlyq uestionsatthistimearew ithregard tothecharacter,
paceand magnitud eofourd efenseeffort
.Wemustb uild armaments,
and b ecauseofyourow nforesightand d etermination,thisisb eing
d one
ofd efense
.Thismeansthatinstead ofretreatingfromoursocialand
economicob j ectiv es,w eshould pushforw ard v igorouslyw ithapro-
gramtoab olishpov ertyfromtheland
.Tod olessw ould b etound er-
mineoursecurity .
Thatyouhav eresolv ed thesefund amentalq uestionsinyourow n
mind ;
thatyouarenow lead ingthenationinitsgiganticeffortto
d efend itself
; isthesurestguaranteeofpeaceforAmerica
Iw anted toresignlastMayb ecauseitseemed tomethatyouand
thecountryneed ed theserv icesofcab inetofficersw hosestrengthper-
mitted v igorousand continuousassumptionofthed utiesreq uired of
.Youind icated thenthatIshould remainthroughouttheSum-
merinthehopethatIw ould completelyrecov ermystrength
recov eryIhav enotfullyaccomplished ,therefore,IfeelthatImust
resignasSecretaryofCommerce,theresignationtob ecomeeffectiv e
intheimmed iatefuture
Anex pressionofgood -w illand appreciationfrommetoyouatthis
.Myab id ingd ev otionand affectionforyouand
.Roosev eltcannotb eauthenticated inanyex changeofletters
Roosev eltreplied asfollow s
Ihav eyourletterofAugusttw enty-second and Ifullyund erstand
allthatyousayand muchthatyouhav eleftunsaid
Ingiv ingmethisletterofresignationitispossib leonlyforyouto
b reaktheofficialtiesthatex istb etw eenus-notthetiesoffriend ship

18 1
thathav eend ured sohappilythroughtheyears
resignation,therefore,totakeeffectatad atetob ed etermined later
and ,Irepeat,thatthisresignationisaccepted onlyinitsofficialsense .
Inotherw ord s,youmayresigntheoffice-onlytheoffice-and
.Ourfriend shipw illand mustgoonasalw ays
Therew asacord ialex changeb etw eentheold feud ists,Ickesand
Hopkins .Ickesw rote
Icanund erstand yourreasons[forresigning]b utIshallmissyou .
Wehav en'talw aysseeneyetoeyeonev erymatter,b utIhopethat
youhav enev erd oub ted mypersonalfeelingtow ard you .Ev enw hen
w ehav ed iffered youhav ead d ed z esttomylife .
Hopkinsreplied :
Yournicenotetomeneed nothav eb eensent.True,ourrelations
fromtimetotimehav eb eenstrained and d ifficult,b utnow thatthe
timehascomeformetoleav etheGov ernmentIthinkIcould sum
upmyfeelingthisw ay .Noonehasb attled asconsistentlyfortheNew
Dealand forthePresid ent,w eekinand w eekout,ashav eyou .You
hav enev erfailed thePresid entand lib eralsofthiscountryinasingle
instancethatIcanrecalland Ithinkthatisimportantand nothing
canev ertakethataw ayfromyou .Theremustgow ithsucharecord
apersonalintellectualintegritythatfew peoplepossess
ThetruthofthematteristhatthismorningthethingsIthinkab out
youarethemanypleasantassociationsw ehav ehad -thetriptoCocos
Island ,thatlittleholid ayw etooktogetherinFlorid a,d innerw ith
youand Jane,and thew armcord ialityofourinformalev eningsw ith
thePresid ent.Ihav ecompletelyw ashed upinmymind asIleav ethe
Gov ernmentmanyoftheunpleasantriv alriesorclashofpersonalities
w hichmad eourrelationsattimesunsatisfactory
.Thoseareov erfor
mej ustasIamsuretheyareforyou .
( Note . Theyw erenotov erforeitherofthem.)
Vannev arBush,w homHopkinshad helped togetstarted w iththe
N.D .R.C., w rote" Iw asv erysorrytohearthatthechangeistob emad e,
forthev eryselfishreasonthatIsincerelyregretthatourpleasantasso-
ciationsaresoontoceaseinaformalmanner ." Hopkinsthanked him
and ad d ed ," Iw illb eseeingyousoon ." Thisassociationcertainlyd id
notend ,forHopkinsnev erlostinterestinthefissionofuranium.
Inad d itiontohisformalletter,Hopkinsw roteoneinlonghand tothe
Presid entw hichrepresented oneofhisrareoutpouringsoftheheart
Apub licletterofresignationisalmostav ulgarinstitution .Why
d on'tyouab olishit? AtanyrateIhav etold youlittlethatisinmy
mind and heartasIleav ethegov ernment'sserv ice .
Ithinkofthethingsthathav emad emyyearsw ithyouthehappiest
timeofmylife .Thefirstex citingd ays-theex altationofb eingpart

ofgov ernment-ourfirstformald innerattheWhiteHousew henI
metCard oz oand another[w hen]Bob Jacksontried tosellmesome
old und erw ear-and CocosIsland -d id youev erseeanything
green? Thentherew erethosecigarettesinmypocket-itseemsto
meinalld ecencyyoushould forgetthatone .
And oned ayyouw enttochurchw ithmew henthegoingw asn't
sogood -and lifeseemed ev ersod ark .
Thosenineold men-ab etterfightnoneofusev ertookin-
And therew asalw aysNew Year'sEv e-and thew armglow of
Auld LangSyne-w ithchampagne .That'sab outtheonlytimew e
getchampagnearound yourhouse
.OramIw rong?
I'v ealw aysb eengettingonand offtrains-and Isaw Americaand
learned toknow itspeople .Ilikethem.Whenev erIw asw ithyou
therew eretheev erlastingSecretServ icemen-theyseemed to b e
alw aysatad ogtrot-how manymilesd oyousupposetheyhav ed og
trotted b esid eyourcar?
Yourememb erthed ayw egotyouupab lind road inNev ad aand
Me[Marv inMcIntyre]w anted togiv e_ uphislifeifthecarrolled
ov erthehill? And peopleattrainsw ithnicefacesthatsmiled .Allof
themw orkhard foraliv ingand ared ev oted toyou .
And oned aytw onicepeoplecametov isityou-hew asaking-
and Ihopew illb eforalongtimeand shew asaScotchgirlw hogot
tob eaQueen .And afterd innerthatnightyouand Missyand Italked
itallov ertill 2A.M.
Thentherew erepicnics ! IsupposetheRoosev eltshav ealw ayshad
picnics-cold w eatherand nothingtod rink .
Inev erknew therew eresomanymayorsand gov ernorsand con-
gressmenand senatorsand countyaud itorsand schoolb oard s
irrigationd istrictsinthew orld
.Ihav emetthemall .Oneofthem
had mearrested and youthoughtitw asfunnyand promised tov isit
meinj ail .
IpresumeHenryMorgenthauw illev ergototheb athroomw hen
hegetsahead -and " DollarWatson" w illtalkab outthe Pow d er
Riv er.
Thecheesestoreon4 2nd St
.-and freshfishinIow a-and maps
and riv ersand forestsand Ad miralsand d amsand pow erplants-
funnythingsthatnoPresid entev ertalked ab outb efore
AllthesethingsIthinkof-and Macand Stev eand Tommyand
Benand Rex and Felix and Samand Missy-Iknow theyareim-
portantb ecauseIrememb erthem-and theyaregood
ThisletterissimplytosaythatIhav ehad anaw fullygood time-
and tothankyouv erynruch .And b ythew ay-myw eatherb ureau
tellsmethatitw illb efairtomorrow .
The" b lind road inNev ad a" referred toanoccasionw henthePresi-
d entand Hopkinsw ereinspectingaW
.P.A.proj ect.WhenthePres-
id ent'scarteetered ontheb rinkofasteephill,thefrailMarv inMcIn-
tyrerushed tohold itupsinglehand ec
; _ TheallusionstoMorgenthauand
BEFORE 19 4 1

18 3
Watsonrefertopokergamehab its
.The" cheesestoreon4 2nd St." w as
neitheracheesestorenoron4 2nd Street; itw asthed elicatessenof
BarneyGreengrass,know nas" TheSturgeonKing," patroniz ed b ySam
Rosenmanw hooftenb roughtspecialfood toaugmentthePresid ent's
SpartanWhiteHoused iet
; itcametob eastand ingj okethatw hen
Roosev elthad somespeciald elicacyputb eforehimhew ould say," I
supposethiscamefromthatcheesestoreon4 2nd Street." Thefinal
referencetothew eathermeantthatHopkinshad informationfromthe
Mid d leWestex pressingconfid encethatRoosev eltw asgoingtow in
the19 4 0 election .
Therew asnod oub tthatHopkinshated toleav ethegov ernmentfor
hew asw ellaw arethat,d espitethesincerityofRoosev elt'sassurance
thathecould notresignfromtheirfriend ship,thePresid entw asd e-
pend entforad v iceand counseluponthosew hoared eeplyand continu-
ouslyinv olv ed inhigh-lev elactiv itiesand associations,and onew hois
ontheoutsid ecanq uicklylosetouchw iththerapid lychangingcourse
ofev entsand ofpolicy
.Althoughhisstand inginv itationtostayatthe
WhiteHouseremained ,Hopkinsw enttoNew Yorkand tookasuite,
b ed roomand sittingroom,attheEssex House
.Hew asplanningthen
totakethej ob attheHyd eParkLib raryand ,v aguely," tod osome
w ritingonthesid e
." Buthew assoonb ackinthefray .EarlyinOctob er
Iw enttoseehimathishoteland hesaid ," ThePresid enthastogiv ea
speechonColumb usDay
.It'ssupposed tob eoneofthoseroutineState
Departmentspeechesab outWesternHemispheresolid arity,d irected
.ButthePresid entw antstotalktothe
Americanpeopleab outHitler .Sofarasheisconcerned ,thereisab so-
lutelynothingimportantinthew orld tod ayb uttob eatHitler
." Hopkins
looked atmesharplyasthoughhemightb eex pectingmetod isputethis
point,w hichId id not.Thenheasked me," Whatd oyouthinkthe
Presid entoughttosay? "
Somew hatflab b ergasted ,Iex pressed somev iew sand w etalked ab out
themforaw hileand thenHopkinssaid ," Comeon-Let'sgoand see
." Ihad nev ermetRosenman,b uthad heard ofhimas
oneofthosev aguefiguresintheb ackground oftheRoosev eltpalace
.Althoughtherew asalw ayscriticismoftheseex traofficialpeople
.-theterm" BrainsTrust" persisted longafteritsoriginalmemb ershad
melted aw ay-Icould nev erund erstand w hythePresid entoftheUnited
Statesshould nothav ethesamerightasanyoneelseto" choosehisow n
personalfriend sand ev en,onoccasiontolistentotheirad v ice
; b utthe
v erysuggestionofapalaceguard hasaneternallysinisterconnotation .
BorninSanAntonio,Tex as,Rosenmanhad b eengrad uated from
Columb iaLaw School,entered New Yorkpoliticsand serv ed intheState
Legislatureand ,in19 29 ,b ecameCounseltothenew Gov ernor
.In19 32
hew asappointed and laterelected j usticeoftheNew YorkStateSu-
18 4

premeCourtb ut,inhissparetime,hew orked forthePresid ent inall
sortsofhelpfulcapacities,receiv ingforthisw orkneitherglorynorpay .
From19 4 0 onhew asaconstantcommuterb etw eenNew Yorkand
Washingtonuntilfinally,in19 4 3,heretired fromtheb enchatRoose-
v elt'sreq uestand b ecameCounseltothePresid entw orkingfulltime
intheWhiteHouse .Roosev eltlov ed him,and w ithgood cause .
WhenHopkinsand Iw enttoseehimhew asliv ingonCentralPark
West,afew b locksfromtheEssex House .Wefound himinhisd ining
room,thetab lelittered w ithpapersinclud ingnotesfromtheWhite
Houseand materialthatRoosev elthad d ictated
.Atfirst,Id id notknow
w hy Iw asthereb utIsoonfound outthatIhad b eenpressed intoserv -
iceasa" ghostw riter" ( anothersinisterterm) .Ialsofound outw hat
anunsub stantialw raithaghostw riterreallyis ; w henw orkingfor
FranklinD .Roosev elt,hisonepurposew astohaunttheWhiteHouse,
d ayand night,untilaspeechb yFranklinD .Roosev elt( and nob od y
else)had b eenprod uced
.Hopkinsand Rosenmanw erepracticed hand s
atthisw orkand Ib ecamesointerested intheirtalkthatIforgottob e
impressed and ev enstarted arguing
.Afteraconsid erab leamountofd is-
cussionRosenmansud d enlyslapped apencilonthed iningroomtab le
and said ," Well,gentlemen-therecomesatimeinthelifeofev ery
speechw henit'sgottob ew ritten ." Sothisw asmyind uction .From
thatmomenton,forthenex tfiv eyears,Hopkins,Rosenmanand I
w orked closely togetheronallthemaj orRoosev eltspeechesuntilthe
Presid ent'sd eath.( Therew ereafew ex ceptionsw henoneoranother
ofusw asoutofthecountryorilland thereforeunav ailab le ; b utatleast
oneofthetriow asalw aysthere .)
AtthistimeWillkiew asb arnstormingupand d ow nthecountry,
giv ingsev eralspeechesad ay,shoutinghimselfhoarse,cond uctinga
v igorous,aggressiv eb utlargelyaimlesscampaign .Thepub licopinion
pollsshow ed himtrailingb yasub stantialmargin .Hemad eanappeal-
ing,gallantappearancetothecrow d sw hoheard him-b ut,asalw ays,
thesecrow d sw erelargelycomposed ofRepub licansw how ould v otefor
himanyw ay ; ov ertherad io,w hichhad b ecomethesupremetestfora
Presid entialcand id ate,hisspeechessound ed harsh,hurried and d iffuse
-short-rangeb lastsofb ird shotratherthanpinpointed highex plosiv e
shells .Thetroub lew asthathehad nopreciseissuestoemphasiz e
attacked Roosev elt'sd omesticand foreignpoliciesingeneraltermsb ut
d id notpromisetorepealanyoftheNew Dealreformsortostopaid to
Britainortoad v ocateappeasementofGermanyorofJapan,w hichhad
b ynow b ecomeformallyapartnerintheAx is .Itseemed thattheone
realtargetforattackw asthearroganceofRoosev eltinconsid ering
himselfw orthyofathird term-and ,asanincid entalb utpopulartarget,
theappointmentofthePresid ent'sson,Elliott,tob eaCaptaininthe
Army AirCorps .Itw asstrictly
ad hominem
attack,and itex tend ed to
19 4 1

18 5
thepersonalitiesoftheAd ministration
.WhatWillkiew assaying,in
effect,w as," Youcantrustmetod othesamething,onlyb etter" -or
asthemoreemb ittered memb ersoftheRepub licanOld Guard putit,
" Metoo
." Willkiew asex tremelyeffectiv einonew ay
: b ygiv ingthe
Repub licansthekind ofd ynamiclead ershiptheyhad lacked fortw enty
years,hearoused manylong-d ormantv otersand impelled themtothe
pollsinstead oftotheCountryClub *ortheGreatNorthWood sonelec-
tiond ay ;
thus,hesw elled hisow nparty'sstrength,b uthecould make
noappreciab led entinRoosev elt'sonanyissueotherthanthatofAmeri-
caninv olv ementinw ar
.Inhisz estfullamb astingsofRoosev elt,Wallace,
Mad amePerkins,Ickes,Morgenthau,Hopkinsand therest-Hopkins
w asoutofthegov ernmentb utb ackintheWhiteHouse-Willkiew as
mostcarefultoav oid anyattacksonCord ellHull
.Ind eed ,Hull'spres-
tigew assogreatatthetimethatWillkiemad eitclearthat,intheev ent
ofhiselection,hew ould urgeHulltocontinueinofficeasSecretaryof
.Thisinev itab lyw eakened theRepub licans'position,forw hile
theiroratorscould hammeraw ayattheAd ministrationw ithchargesof
b oond oggling,leafraking,w illfulw aste,stranglingoffreeenterprise-
pointsw hichhad b eenb elab ored in19 36 w ithnegligib lesuccess-they
could notprosecutetheattackd irectlyagainstthecond uctofforeign
affairs,w hichw asthemostov erw helminglyimportantfactorofall
Duringthefirstw eeksofthecampaignRoosev eltgav eWillkiew hat
isknow nas" thesilenttreatment
." Inhisacceptancespeech( thespeech
totheChicagoConv entionthathealmostd id notd eliv er)Roosev elt
had said
" Ishallnothav ethetimeortheinclinationtoengageinpurely
politicald eb ate
.'ButIshallnev erb eloathtocalltheattentionofthe
nationtod elib erateorunw ittingfalsificationsoffact
This,ofcourse,leftthed oorw id eopenforRoosev elttostartcam-
paigningw henev erhefeltthemomentw aspropitious
Willkiew ascompelled toroaracrosstheland ,cond uctingaunilateral
d eb ate,w ithoutreply
.IntheColumb usDayspeech,Octob er 12, Roose-
v eltnev erev enallud ed totheex istenceofapoliticalcampaign
course,w asallcarefullycalculated
.Willkierepeated lychallenged " The
Champ" togetuponthesamehustingsw ithhimand fightit-outinthe
old -fashioned Lincoln-Douglasmanner
.ButRoosev eltappeared tob e
toopreoccupied w ithw orld ev entstob epayingattention-and hehad
amplereasonforthis,inv iew ofthemanifold perilssuggested b ythe
formationoftheBerlin-Rome-TokyoAx is,theBlitz onEngland ,the
increaseinU-b oatw arfareintheAtlanticand theind icationsofnew
ex plosionsinSoutheasternEurope
naturalgood humorthusd elib eratelyimposed w asb ecomingintolerab le
EarlyinOctob er,fourw eeksb eforeelectiond ay( w hich,thatyear,
w asNov emb er5 )theDemocratsw ereb ecomingmoreand morew or=
.Theimpactofthev astsumsspentb ytheRepub licansw asb eing
18 6

.Thepressw asov erw helminglypro-Willkie-suchnew spapersas
the New York Times, Daily New s
and theScripps-How ard chain,
w hichhad supported Roosev eltprev iously,hav ingnow turned v iolently
.TheWhiteHousemailw asfulloflettersprotestingthe
tend encyofthepresstominimiz eorev entosuppressnew sfav orab leto
Roosev eltw hiled ev otinghead lines,columns,ed itorialsand cartoonsto
thed eificationofWillkie.Theselettersb egged thePresid enttoex pose
thesepartisanmalpracticesinhisb road casts,therad iob eingconsid ered
hisonlymeansoffulland freeaccesstothepeople
TheDemocraticpartyitself,how ev er,w asnod ev oted b and ofloyal-
ists,united againsttheforcesofentrenched greed
machine,suchasitw as,had b eenseriouslyw eakened b ythed issensions
.AftertheConv ention,Farleyhad " takenaw alk," asAl
Smithhad d oneb eforehim,and theNationalChairmanshiphad b een
takenov erb yEd Flynn,amostagreeab lemanand asuccessfullead er
inahighlyspecializ ed d istrict( theBronx ,New YorkCity),b ut
hard lyatthattimeanationalfigure
.Themostspirited elementin
theDemocraticcampaignw asthenew lyformed Ind epend entCom-
mittee,head ed b ySenatorGeorgeW
.Norrisand MayorFiorello
LaGuard ia,b utthisCommittee-more" amateurs," accord ingtothe
professionals-w asw orkingfortheelectionofRoosev eltw ithoutregard
fortheregularDemocraticorganiz ation
.Thelocalpoliticiansw erenot
muchw orried ab outRoosev elt'selection
; theyfeltthatthisprob lem
could b elefttothe" GreatWhiteFather" himself
.Theyw ereconcerned
ab outtheCongressmen,theGov ernors,Mayors,CountySuperv isors,
.,and theyw ereloud lyd emand ingthatthePresid entcomed ow n
fromhishighhorseofw orld statesmanshipand startfightingand sav e
.Roosev elt,how ev er,stucktohisplantolimithimselftofiv e
franklypoliticalspeechesinthefinaltw ow eeksofthecampaign
. In the
firstofthesespeechesinPhilad elphiaonOctob er
23, hesaid : " I consid er.
apub licd utytoansw erfalsificationsw ithfacts
.Iw illnotpretend that
Ifind thisanunpleasantd uty
.Iamanold campaigner,and Ilov ea
good fight."
Thisw asthesignalthatw asneed ed toproclaimthat" TheChamp"
had goneintoaction
.ThisPhilad elphiaspeech,reread aftersev enyears,
d oesnotappeartoq ualifyasoneofRoosev elt'sb etterefforts .Butit
w aseffectiv eatthetime,and thegleefulroarsofthepartisancrow d in
Conv entionHallthatgreeted eachprecisionpunchw ereasimportant
w henb road castasanythingspecificthathesaid .Roosev eltd id notonce
mentionWillkie'snameinthisspeech,noratanyothertimed uringthe
campaign,nord id heev ermentionDew eyfouryearslater
thisspeech,Willkieb road castfromthe New
York Herald Trib une
Forumand listenersnoted thathesound ed shaken
.Willkie'sconfid ence
inthetriumphofhiscausehad b eenalmostfanatical,b utb ynow the
19 4 1

18 7
politicans,supported b ynew spaperpub lishersforw hoseopinionshehad
morerespect,w ereb eginningtob ringhometohimthepossib ilitythat
d efeatstared himintheface .Asid efromhisow npersonalamb itionw hich
had led himtoseekthenominationand tod riv ehimselfunsparinglyinthe
campaign,hew ould hav eb eenlessthanhumanifhehad notcometo
b eliev ehisow nw ord sand thoseofotherRepub licanoratorstotheeffect
thatthere-electionofRoosev eltw ould b eanunutterab lecalamity,tob e
prev ented b yanyand allmeans,fairorfoul .Hisprincipalad v isersinthe
firstpartofthecampaignw erethesame" amateurs" w hohad b acked
himforthenominationand helped himtow init-honorab le,intelligent
menlikeRussellDav enport,w hod espised theOld Guard reactionaries
and isolationistsastheyd espised the" cynicalmen" ( likeHopkinsof
thefree-spend ingNew Deal) .TheRepub licanNationalChairman,Con-
gressmanJosephW .Martin,and otherhard -b oiled v eteransofinnumer-
ab le" smoke-filled rooms," scorned theseamateursand told Willkie
v ehementlythathishigh-mind ed ad v isersw eremakinghimaneasy
markforRoosev elt.TheRepub licanprofessionalsb egged Willkieto
ab and onthisnonsenseab outab ipartisanforeignpolicy-toattack
Roosev eltasaw armonger-toscaretheAmericanpeoplew ithw arnings
thatv otesforRoosev eltmeantw ood encrossesfortheirsonsand b roth-
ersand sw eethearts
.Willkiesuccumb ed totheseheated urgingsfrommen
w holov ed himnomorethantheprofessionalDemocratslov ed Roosev elt
b utw hoknew theymustw inw ithhimorsufferanotherfouryears in
thepoliticalw asteland sw herenoflow ersofpatronagecould b loom.
WhenWillkiestarted toshoutchargesthatAmericanb oysw erealread y
onthetransports-thatw eshould b einv olv ed inaforeignw arw ithin
fiv emonthsifRoosev eltw on-thecampaignreallyd escend ed tothelow er
d epthsand b ecame,fortw oimpassioned w eeks,prettymuchofanational
d isgrace .Willkieknew thatthesechargesw erecontemptib le,and w hen
someofthemw ererepeated tohimb ytheisolationistSenatorBennett
ChampClark,d uringWillkie'stestimonyinfav orofLend Leaseafew
monthslater,hed ismissed themw ithd isarmingcand orb ysaying," In
momentsoforatoryincampaignsw eallex pand alittleb it
How ev er,therew asnod oub tab outtheimmed iateefficacyofWillkie's
d iscred itab leattacksonthew arissue .Thead v iceoftheRepub licanpro-
fessionalsthattheonlyw aytogetv otesw astoterrifypeopleprov ed
unhappilysound .Theeffectsofthisw erefeltpow erfullyintheWhite
Housed uringthelastw eekofOctob er .Ihad toread thelettersand
telegramsand reportsthatflood ed inand ,b einganeophyteinsuchmat-
ters,Iw asamaz ed and horrified attheev id encesofhysteria
communications,themostd isturb ingw erethosefromnew spapermen
w ho,ev enthoughmostofthemw orked forRepub licanpapers,w ere
personallyd ev oted toRoosev eltand w ered oingalltheycould priv ately
tohelphim.Theyreported mo!-ntingw av esoffearthroughoutthecoun-
18 8

tryw hichmighteasilymergeintotid alproportionsb yelectiond ayand
sw eepWillkieintooffice .Therew ereallsortsofotherreports .fromall
ov er : noticesfrominsurancecompaniestopolicyhold ersthatRoosev elt's
electionw ould maketheirpoliciesrelativ elyw orthless ; telegramsto
d octorsw arningthatRoosev elt'selectionw ould meanthesocializ ation
ofmed icine ; anex tremelysolv entb ankad v ertised inthe
Trib une : " Inalaststand ford emocracy,ev eryd irectorand officerof
thisb ankw illv oteforWend ellWillkie" -aw arningtod epositorsthat
theyhad b etterd olikew iseiftheyw anted toprotecttheirmoney .There
w erev ariousotherscarecrow sd esigned tofrightenw orkers,farmers,
housew iv es .Someofthese,how ev er,had b eensetupb ytheRepub li-
cansin19 36 and had fooled practicallynoone
.Thefearofw arw asan-
othermatter ; itw assomethingnew and unreasoningand tend ingtow ard
asenseofpanic.Or,atanyrate,sothereportsind icated .Read ingthem,
itw asd ifficulttoav oid thed ismayingthoughtthatperhapstheAmeri-
canpeoplew ereread ytostamped ealongtheroad w hichled toBord eaux
and sotoVichyev enb eforethePanz ersarriv ed onourhomesoil
; it
seemed possib lethatthestrategyofterrorhad w onitsgreatestv ictory
here,thattheNaz ishad mad egood theirb oastthattheconq uestofthe
WesternHemispherew ould b ean" insid ej ob ." Ev enmorealarming
reportsw erecomingintoDemocraticNationalHead q uartersinNew
Yorkand w ererelayed ,perhapsinsomew hatmagnified form,'from
theretotheWhiteHouse.Allthemessagessaid muchthesamething
" Please,forGod 'ssake,Mr .Presid ent,giv esolemnpromisetothe
mothersofAmericathatyouw illnotsend theirsonsintoanyforeign
w ars
.Ifyoufailtod othis,w elosetheelection!"
Strangelyenough,theprev iousWillkieargumentsw hichhad most
effectiv elyb ruised Roosev elthad ,tend ed tochargehimw ithakind of
.Willkielikened Roosev elttoLeonBlum,w hohad at-
tempted tosteerFrancetow ard socialprogressratherthanprepared -
ness ; heid entified himselfw ithWinstonChurchill,w homheq uoted
often,Churchillhav ingmad esomeremarksafew yearsb eforeind is-
paragementoftheAmericanNew Deal .Willkietried toassigntoRoose-
v eltashareoftheguiltfortheMunichsurrend erand thefallofFrance,
and fullguiltforthetorped oingoftheLond onEconomicConference
sev enyearsearlier .Mostofall,Willkieb lamed Roosev eltand his" So-
cialistic" Ad ministrationforthepresentmilitaryw eaknessoftheUnited
States-and thoseaccusationsstungRoosev eltw orsethananyothers
b ecauseheknew alltoow ellj usthow frighteninglyw eakw ew ere .
Roosev eltspentagreatd ealoftimeansw eringtheseearlieraccusations
ev enthoughtheyhard lytallied w iththelaterchargesthatAmerican
troopsw erealread yonthetransportshead ed forEuropeorAsiaor
b oth.Thed iv ersityofWillkie'sattackand itsfined isregard forconsist-

18 9
encyw ereb ew ild eringev entoRoosev eltand hew asforced foratime
totakead efensiv eposition,w herehew asathisw orst.
OnOctob er 28 , Roosev eltw enttoNew YorkCityand mad earegular
campaigntouroffourb oroughs,speakingattw oceremonies,theground -
b reakingforonetunneland thed ed icationofanother,b othtimed con-
v enientlyforthisoccasionb yLaGuard ia.Therew ereshortspeeches
alsoatHunterCollegeand Ford hamUniv ersity,attheQueensb rid ge
HousingProj ectand Roosev eltPark,and thegrand w ind upw itha
rallyatMad ison'Sq uareGard enthatev ening .Thenightb efore,Musso-
linihad contrib uted tothed ramaofthemomentand ,althoughthisw as
certainlynothisintention,had thereb yhelped Roosev elt,b ylaunching
hisshamefuland ultimately( forItaly)d isastrousinv asionofGreece .But
Roosev eltd id notd enouncethis ; hemad enofurtherreferencetoa" stab
intheb ack," forb ynow theItalian-Americanv otew asofsub stantial
importance,particularlyinNew Yorkand otherlargecities .Hesaid ,
" Iamq uitesurethatallofyouw illfeelthesamesorrow inyourhearts
thatIfeel-sorrow fortheItalianpeopleand theGrecianpeople,that
theyshould hav eb eeninv olv ed togetherinconflict-'7anunassailab ly
safestatement.Ironicallyenough,tw oparagraphslaterinthesame
speech,heq uoted Theod oreRoosev elt'sfamousterm," w easelw ord s ."
ThatMad isonSq uareGard enspeechw asoneofthemosteq uiv ocal
ofRoosev elt'scareer .Thefirsttw othird sofitw asareplytoWillkie's
chargethattheAd ministrationhad neglected ournationald efense,
Roosev eltread ingtherecord ofRepub licanoppositiontoallattempts
toincreasethearmed forceand togiv eaid toemb attled Britain .The
lastthird ofthespeechw asareplytothechargeofw armongering
Roosev eltw enttothelengthord epthoftakingcred itfortheNeutrality
Law and othermeasuresw hichhehad thoroughlyd isapprov ed and had
foughttorepeland had contriv ed b yallpossib lemeanstocircumv ent.
Whileb oastingofthe'NeutralityLaw aspartoftheAd ministration
record ,hed elib eratelyneglected tomakeanymentionofhisow nQuar-
antineSpeech ; inacampaignasirrationalasthisone,hefeltitneces-
sarytosoft-ped al-thefactthathehad b eenahead ofotherw orld
statesmenintellingthew orld thetruth .
Thisspeechw asb rightened b y'onefortuitouscatchphrase .Inciting
thev otingrecord sofsuchprominentRepub licansasCongressmenJoe
Martin,HamiltonFishand BruceBarton,thethreenamesfellintosuch
aeuphoniouspattern-Martin,Bartonand Fish-thatRoosev eltre-
peated thephraselaterinthespeech,and w henhed id so,thecrow d
roared thenamesw ithhim.Tw od ayslater,inhisBostonspeech,Roose-
v eltmentioned Martin,and immed iatelysomeoneinthegalleryshouted
" Whatab outBartonand Fish? " and thecrow d thereupontookupthe
chant.Americancrow d slov etoind ulgeinorganiz ed ex ercisesofd eri-
sion .Willkiesaid later," WhenIheard thePresid enthangtheisolation-

istv otesofMartin,Bartonand Fishonme,and getaw ayw ithit,I
knew Iw aslicked ." ( ImustsaythatId oub tthatstatement; itw asa
v irtueofWend ellWillkie'sthathenev erknew w henhew aslicked .)
Thed ayaftertheNew Yorkappearance,Roosev eltw asb ackin
: thed raw ingofthefirstnum-
b ersund ertheSelectiv eServ iceAct.Thislotteryw ould d eterminethe
namesofthefirst8 oo,ooomen-roughly,fiv epercentofthetotalregis-
trants-tob ed rafted intotheArmy .Thisw ould hav eb eenatense,
nerv ousoccasionatanytime ; w iththecurrentstateofthew orld ,and
w iththew ord " w armonger" b eingthrow nab outsorecklesslyitw asall
themoreharrow ing
.Roosev elthad tochoosehisw ord sw ithex traor-
d inarycare .Thisw asnomomentfortrickphrases
.Thenationw as
listeningb reathlesslyfortheb road castannouncementofthefatefulnum-
b ersastheyw ered raw n .Withhismarv elousgiftforfind inghomely,
old -fashioned w ord stofitnew circumstances,Roosev eltd id notreferto
Selectiv eServ iceasa" d raft" -certainlynot" conscription" -hecalled
ita" muster," thereb yev okingracememoriesoftherugged farmersof
Lex ingtonand Concord takingtheirflintlockmusketsd ow nfromab ov e
thefireplace .Roosev elthad prepared himselfw ithlettersfromlead ers
oftheProtestant,Catholicand Jew ishfaiths,supportingSelectiv eServ -
iceasad emocraticproced ure,and heq uoted fromtheseinhisb road -
cast.Theb estofthese-and ,inv iew oftheuncertaintyoftheCatholic
attitud e,themostimportant-w asfromArchb ishop( laterCard inal)
FrancisJ .Spellman,w how rote
Itisb ettertohav eprotectionand notneed itthantoneed protec-
tionand nothav e it. . . . Wereallycannotlongerafford tob emoles,
w hocannotsee,orostrichesw how illnotsee .
. .
. WeAmericans
w antpeaceand w eshallprepareforapeace,b utnotforapeacew hose
d efinitionisslav eryord eath .
Thosew erestrongerw ord sofj ustificationofRoosev elt'sposition
thananyhehimselfuttered inthiscampaign .
Itseemed asthoughthefear-of-w arhysteria,asex pressed inthemes-
sagestoWashington,reached itspeakonthisd ay .TheGalluppoll
ind icated thatWillkiew asstead ilygaininginstrength .Roosev elthim-
selfw asinclined toshrugthisoffonthetheorythatGallup'sconclusions
could b ecolored b yw ishfulthinkingasw ellasthoseofanyoneelse .But
theDemocraticlead ersw ereb ecomingmoreand morej itteryand attrib -
utingev erythingtothepeacemania .Itseemed thatRoosev elthad gone
ab outasfarintheNew Yorkspeechasonecould gointheprov ision
ofreassurance,b utthefrightened politiciansprotested thathehad not
gonefarenough : theyd emand ed thatheprov id eab soluteguaranteeto
themothersofAmericathattheirsonsw ould notfight.
OnOctob er30 ,w ew ereonthePresid entialtraingoingupintoNew
9 4

19 1
England ,w ithstopsforshortspeechesatNew Hav en,Merid en,Hartford ,
and Worcester,and thefinalspeechattheBostonArena
speechw asaterrib leonetoprepareand alsotorememb er .Ev erytime
thetrainstopped moreand moretelegramsw ered eliv ered statingalmost
tearfullythat,ifthePresid entd id notgiv ethatsolemnpromisetothe
mothers,hemightasw ellstartpackinghisb elongingsattheWhite
Roosev eltasalw aysw orked hard onthespeechb etw eenstops
satinalow -b acked armchairinhispriv atecar,thelatestd raftofthe
speechonhislap,w ithMissyLeHand ,GraceTully,Hopkins,Rosen-
manand me,allw orkingw ithcarb oncopies
w hichgav eassurancetothemothersand fathersthattheir" b oys" w ould
b ew ellfed and w ellhoused intheArmyand theirhealthw ellguard ed
Hopkinshand ed thePresid entatelegramfromEd Flynncontainingthe
usualurgentreq uest
" Buthow oftend otheyex pectmetosaythat? " Roosev eltasked
" It'sintheDemocraticplatformand I'v erepeated itahund red times
WhereuponIremarked ," Iknow it,Mr .Presid ent,b uttheyd on't
seemtohav eheard youthefirsttime .Ev id entlyyou'v egottosayit
again-and again-and again
Soitw asputin,asfollow s
And w hileIamtalkingtoyoumothersand fathers,Igiv eyouone
moreassurance .
Ihav esaid thisb efore,b utIshallsayitagainaid againand again
Yourb oysarenotgoingtob esentintoanyforeignw ars
Thatpassagehasb eengiv enalmostasmuchq uotation( intheisola-
tionistpress)asRoosev elt'ssomew hatcomplementaryob serv ationthat
" Theonlythingw ehav etofearisfearitself
Rosenman,w hosed utyitw astorememb erev erything,mentioned the
factthattheDemocraticplatformhad ad d ed thew ord s," ex ceptincase
." Roosev eltsaid hecould seenoneed totackthatonnow
." Of
coursew e'llfightifw e'reattacked
.Ifsomeb od yattacksus,thenitisn't
aforeignw ar,isit? Ord otheyw antmetoguaranteethatourtroops
w illb esentintob attleonlyintheev entofanotherCiv ilWar? " Hew as
plainlysickand tired ofthesej ugglingsofeuphemisms,asw ellhe
mightb e .
TheBostonspeechprov oked apoliticalissueov ertheuseofapersonal
.AsagesturetotheBostonIrish,Roosev eltpaid trib utetoone
ofthem,JosephP.Kenned y,w hohad j ustreturned fromhispostat
.James .Roosev eltd escrib ed himas" myAmb assad or
BothHopkinsand Rosenmanprotested this,askingifitw ould notb e
b etterto
say" our
Amb assad or ." ButRoosev eltinsisted that" my" w as
correctand hew astechnicallyright,foranAmb assad oristhepersonal
19 2

representativ eofthehead ofonestatetothehead of .another.Thatex -
planationd id nogood w hatev eroncethefatalpronounw asout.Ev ery
Repub licanoratorfromthenonpointed tothew ord " my" asproofof
Roosev elt'scolossalegotismand d ictatorialamb itions .
BeforetheBostonspeech,Roosev eltw entforarestand q uietd inner
attheapartmentofhissonJohnonthe,CharlesRiv er .Anad j oining
.b uild ingw assomesortofclub forund ergrad uatesoftheMassachusetts
InstituteofTechnology .Theyhad d isplayed ahugeb annerinscrib ed
w iththew ord sWE WANT WILLKIE!-and w henthePresid entw as
pushed outinhisw heelchair,thestud entschanted ," Poppa-Iw anna
b eacaptain!" w hichw asthepopular, ' tauntingreferencetothecommis-
siongiv entoJohnRoosev elt'sb rother,Elliott.Whilew aitingforthe
Presid enttocomeoutatthattimeIw ascollared b yBostonpoliceb e-
causeIcould notgiv easatisfactoryex planationofmypresencethere .
Whileb eingled aw ay,Iw asfortunatelyspotted b yGeneralWatsonand
CaptainCallaghan,theNav alAid e,and rescued .Theyturned meov er
toColonelStarling,oftheSecretServ ice,and Irod etotheArenainthe
openSecretServ icecarw hich,b ristlingw ithsub machineguns,follow ed
thePresid ent'scarthroughtheBostonstreets .PassingthroughBack
Bay,thecrow d sseemed nonetoofriend lyand therew ereoccasional
catcallsand b oosforRoosev elt.But,aftertheturnfromBoylstoninto
TremontStreet,and thencethroughScollaySq uare,thecrow d sin-
creased tremend ouslyinnumb ersand enthusiasm.
AfterthisBostonspeech-w hich,Ithink,ranksb elow ev entheone
atMad isonSq uare'Gard en-thePresid entseemed toreturntoform
OnOctob er31,hew asab letogiv esomeattentiontothew ar,hav ing
onlyonenonpoliticalspeechtomake,atthed ed icationoftheNational
HealthCenterinBethesd a,Maryland .Thefollow ingmorningthePres-
id entialtrainleftforBrooklyn .Weallfeltcheerfulonthattrip-itw as
anund efined feelingthatthew orstw asov er-and thespeechthatnight
w asav astimprov ementov eritsunw orthypred ecessorsinthisstrange
campaign.Roosev elthad ab and oned thed efensiv e,hehad stopped listen-
ingtothepartyprophetsofcalamity,hew asgoingintotheattackw ith
theconfid entb uoyancyand v italitythatw erehis .
Thefearsomelab orlead er,JohnL
.Lew is,inoneoftheugliest
speechesonrecord ,had proclaimed thatheand themillionsofw orkers
w hopresumab lyd id hisb id d ingw ould v oteforWillkie
; moreov er,he
promised that,ifRoosev eltw eretow intheelection,hew ould q uitthe
CongressofInd ustrialOrganiz ationsofw hichhew asthenPresid ent
and gosulkinhistent.Sonow itb ecameapersonalissueb etw eenLew is
and Roosev elt.Thisw asmorelikeit!ItismyopinionthatRoosev elt
had notreallyb eenab letoputhisheartintothecontestagainstWillkie,
w hopresented soind istinctatarget; b utab attletod iscred itJohnL .
Lew isloomed asarealpleasure .Willkiehad nomoreincommonw ith
9 4 1

1 9 3
Lew ispolitically,id eologicallyorsociologically,thanhehad w ithsuch
implacab leToryd ie-hard sasTomM.Gird lerorErnestT.Weir,b ut
hew asstuckw iththisd iscord antsupportand could notd isow nit.The
Repub licand ilemmaw asillustrated b yastorytold ruefully( afterthe
election)b yAlb ertLasker,ahighlysuccessfulad v ertisingmanand a
v igorousforceintheRepub licanNationalCommittee .Withthecam-
paigninitsfinal,franticstages,Laskerw enttoChicagotogathera
groupofprominentb usinessmenab outthed innertab leand ex tract
fromthemsomehund red softhousand sofd ollarsfortheRepub lican
fund .Itw asnoeasyj ob ,forallpresenthad und oub ted lycontrib uted
heav ilyalread yand someofthemw erenonetooenthusiasticab outWill-
kie'stend enciestosay" MeToo" ontheNew Dealreformsand aid for
.Duringtheev eningtherad iow asturned onand theassemb led
companylistened toJohnL .Lew isb road casthisHymnofHateagainst
Roosev elt
.Attheend ofit,therew ereafew momentsofpained silence,
b rokenb yLasker,w hosaid ," Now ,gentlemen-hav ingheard that
speechinoursupport,youw illund erstand w hytheneed oftheRepub li-
canPartyistrulyd esperate ." Hew asgiv enthefund sforw hichhe
asked .
IntheBrooklynspeech,Roosev eltsaid
Thereissomethingv eryominousinthiscomb inationthathasb een
formingw ithintheRepub licanPartyb etw eentheex tremereactionary
and theex tremerad icalelementsofthiscountry
Thereisnocommonground uponw hichtheycanunite-w eknow
that-unlessitb etheircommonw illtopow er,and theirimpatience
w iththenormald emocraticprocessestoprod uceov ernightthein-
consistentd ictatorialend sthatthey,eachofthem,seek .
NoelementsinAmericanlifehav emad esuchv iciousattacksupon
eachotherinrecentyearsashav ethememb ersofthisnew unholy
allianceagainsteachother .
Id onotthinkthatsomeofthemen,ev ensomeofthelead ers,w ho
hav eb eend raw nintothisunholyalliancerealiz ew hatathreatthat
sortofanalliancemayb ringtothefutureofd emocracyinthis
country .
Iamcertainthattherankand fileofpatrioticRepub licansd onot
realiz ethenatureofthisthreat.
Theyshould rememb er,and w emustrememb er,w hatthecollab ora-
tiv eund erstand ingb etw eenCommunismand Naz iismhasd oneto
theprocessesofd emocracyab road .
Somethingev ilishappeninginthiscountryw henafullpagead -
v ertisementagainstthisAd ministration,paid forb yRepub licansup-
porters,appears-w here,,
ofallplaces? -inthe Daily Worker, the
new spaperoftheCommunistParty
Somethingev ilishappeninginthiscountryw henv astq uantities
ofRepub licancampaignliteratureared istrib uted b yorganiz ations
19 4
thatmakenosecretoftheirad mirationforthed ictatorshipformof
gov ernment
Thoseforceshated emocracyand Christianityastw ophasesofthe
sameciv iliz ation
.Theyopposed emocracyb ecauseitisChristian
TheyopposeChristianityb ecauseitpreachesd emocracy
Theirob j ectiv eistoprev entd emocracyfromb ecomingstrongand
.Wearestrongand purposefulnow and intend tore-
Thesew erestrongw ord sand onemayperhapscallthemunfairones
consid eringthattheirhaplessv ictimw asamanofthecharacterof
Wend ellWillkie
.Buttheyw ereatthetimeunansw erab le,and thisw as
thekind offightingtalkthatthepeoplew anted tohearfromthePresi-
d entratherthanarraysofstatisticssummoned forpurposesofd efense
Onerelativ elyminoritemw hichgreatlyenliv ened thepreparationof
theBrooklynspeechw asaclippingfromArthurKrock'scolumninthe
New YorkTimes
.Krock,w ritinginthetoneofab enev olentuncle,w as
w arningtheRepub licanpartythatsomeofitsoratorsw ereind ulgingin
ex cessesw hichd id moreharmthangood tothecause
.Herecommend ed
thatsuchw ell-intentioned z ealotsshould b ed iscreetlycurb ed
.Hecited ,
forex ample,thisstatementmad eb yaPhilad elphiaj ud geinthecourse
ThePresid ent'sonlysupportersarepaupers,thosew hoearnless
than$1,aooayearand aren'tw orththat,and theRoosev eltfamily
Whenthisincred ib lyill-ad v ised remarkw asread aloud onthetrain
toBrooklyn,thechortlingw asunb rid led ,foritw ashastilyestimated
.d efinitionof" pauper" applied toapprox imatelyhalfofthe
totalpopulationoftheUnited States
.Whatmad etheb lund erev enmore
w elcomew asthefactthat,had Krocknotprinted itinafriend lyad mo-
nitiontotheRepub licans,nooneintheRoosev eltentouragew ould ev er
hav eheard ofit
.ThePresid entused thisq uotationasthekeynoteof
" Paupers'w hoarenotw orththeirsalttherespeaksthetruesen-
timentoftheRepub licanlead ershipinthisyearofgrace
CantheRepub licanlead ersd enythatallthisall-too-prev ailing
Repub licansentimentisad irect,v icious,unpatrioticappealtoclass
hatred and classcontempt?
That,myfriend s,isj ustw hatIamfightingagainstw ithallmy
heartand soul .
IamonlyfightingforafreeAmerica-foracountryinw hich
allmenand w omenhav eeq ualrightstolib ertyand j ustice
Iamfightingagainsttherev iv alofGov ernmentb yspecialpriv ilege
-Gov ernmentb ylob b yists-Gov ernmentv ested inthehand sof
thosew hofav orand w how ould hav eusimitatetheforeignd ictator-
. . . .
And Iw illnotstopfighting .

9 5
AftertheBrooklynspeechw eleftforClev eland w hereonthefollow -
ingnightRoosev eltw astow ind uphiscampaign .Hopkins,Rosenman
and Ihad ad j oiningcompartmentsinthecarnex ttothePresid ent'sand
theseformed themainw orkshop
.Therew erefoursecretariesond uty-
GraceTully,DorothyBrad y,Rob ertaBarrow sand Ruthj aneRumelt.
Inothercarsforw ard w ereothermemb ersoftheWhiteHousestaff,
thepressand rad iorepresentativ es,thecommunicationscarand ,of
course,massesofSecretServ icemen .Therew asad iningcarinthe
mid d leofthetrainw hichw asasortofpressclub and itw asafineplace
togotogetid easforthespeechtheninprogress
correspond entsprov id ed ex tremelypleasantand stimulatingcompany
and someofthosew how orked forthemoststanchlyRepub licanpapers
w eremosthelpfulinsuggestingw hatpointsRoosev eltshould make .
Manyofthesecorrespond entsw eretired ofRoosev eltand annoyed b y
him,b ut,w henitcametoachoiceb etw eenhimand Willkieor( espe-
cially)Dew ey,theyw ereforhim.
TheClev eland speechw asconsid ered tob eofd ecisiv eimportance,it
b eingthelastSaturd aynightofthecampaignand theoccasionfora
resumeofallthepointsatissue,b uttherehad b eennotimeforanyreal
preparationuntilw eb oard ed thesleepingcarsaftertheBrooklynspeech
Fortunately,thePresid ent'strainalw aystrav eled slow ly
.Therew ere
: ( 1)security,tored ucechancesofseriousacci-
d ent
; ( 2)togiv epeoplealongtherightofw ayagood chancetow atch
thetraingob y ; and ( 3)Roosev elt'srepugnanceforspeed inanyv ehicle
inw hichhew astrav eling( heliked tolookatev eryd etailofthescen-
ery ; w henpassingthroughasmalltow n,hecould oftentellyouw hat
w ereitsprincipallocalprob lemsand how itv oted inthelastelection) .
Hopkins,Rosenmanand Iw entthroughallthespeechmaterialthat
had b eenb roughtfromtheWhiteHouse : passagesd ictated b ythe
Presid entatrand ommoments,d raftsw rittenand sub mitted b yv ariots
peopleinthegov ernment,innumerab lesuggestionsinlettersand tele-
gramsfromRoosev elt'ssupportersallov erthecountry .( Itmight b e
ad d ed thatinthisw eekofintensiv ecampaigningnotoneofusread or
listened toanyofWillkie'sspeeches .Wemerelylooked atthehead lines
and talked tothenew spapermentolearnifhew asmakinganynew ,
importantpoints .)Theb estsuggestionsintheassemb led materialcame
fromDorothyThompson,w how asstillw iththe New York Herald
Trib une, and DeanAcheson,w hohad w alked outoftheNew Dealinits
firstyearb utw asnow giv ingstrongsupporttothePresid ent
Hopkinsw astooilltocontinuew orkand w enttob ed ab out2A.M.,
b utRosenmanand Iw orked therestofFrid aynight,hav ingaseriesof
sand w ichesb roughtinfromthed iningcar,thensleptforab outanhour
inb ed slittered w ithtoastcrustsand gob sofcottagecheese .OnSat-
urd ay,thePresid ent,gav eshortspeechesatBatav ia,Buffalo,Rochester,
Dunkirk,New York,and Erie,Pennsylv ania .Heinspected airplane
19 6

.Whenw egathered forlunchinhiscar,helooked grayand w orn
and sagging
.Iw asshocked athisappearanceand thought," Thisistoo
muchpunishmenttoex pectanymantotake
." Ialmosthoped hew ould
losetheelectionforitseemed thatfleshand b lood could notsurv iv e
anothersix months-letalonefouryears-inthisterrib lej ob
lunchhestarted reminiscingab outhisold sailingd aysalongtheNew
Brunsw ickand New England coastsand told long,ratherd ullstories
ab outMainelob stermenthatev eryb od yelsepresenthad heard many
timesb efore,and Isaw forthefirsttimehispow ersofrecuperationin
.Thegraynessofhisfacegav ew aytohealthycolor,thecircles
v anished fromund erhiseyes,thesaggingj ow lsseemed totightenup
intomusclesab outhisj aw b one
.Bytheend ofab rief,lightlunchhew as
inw ond erfulshapeand w asd emand ing," Now !Whathav eyouthree
cutthroatsb eend oingtomyspeech? " Hew orked w ithusforthenex t
six hours,pausingev erysooftenw henw arned thatthetrainw asab out
toslow d ow n ; thenhew ould putonhislegb racesand w alkouttothe
b ackplatformonthearmofGeneralWatsontogreetthecrow d that
had gathered atsomesmallstationtoseehim
.Itw asalw aysthefactory
w orkersand theirw omenfolkw how eremostemotionalintheirenthu-
siasm.Theysurged outonthetracksand ranafterthetrainshouting
" God b lessyou!" Thefaiththesepeoplehad inthismanw asw ond erful
tob ehold ,and Ifeltashamed ofmyselfforhav ingmisinterpreted the
hysteriaofthepastd aysinWashingtonasrepresentingthev oiceof
Thecrow d inClev eland w asthemostv ociferousofthecampaign,and
w ithreason,forthisw asfarand aw aytheb estspeech
.Ind eed ,Sam
Rosenman,w how orked w ithRoosev eltonspeechesov er
a courseof
sev enteenyears,b eliev esthisw asthesecond -b estcampaignspeechhe
ev ermad e-firstplaceb eingheld b ythespeechattheTeamsters'Union
d innerinSeptemb er,19 4 4 .Becausetherehasb eensomuchtalkab out
theghostw ritingofRoosev elt'sspeeches( and therew illb emoreon
thatsub j ectthroughoutthesepages)itmayb ew ond ered w hythe
speechesw erenotmoreurfiforminq uality .Theansw ertothatisthat
thespeechesasfinallyd eliv ered w erealw aystheex pressionofRoosev elt
himself : ifhew ereinaconfid ent,ex ub erant,affirmativ estateofmind ,
thespeechw asgood and sometimesgreat; ifhew eretired ,and d efen-
siv e,and petulant,alltheghostw ritersonearthcould n'teq uiphimw ith
impressiv ew ord s .
IntheClev eland speech,hemad ehisfirstand lastreferencetothe
third termissue
.Itw asaglancingreferenceand prod uced asurprising
reactionfromthecrow d
.Roosev eltsaid that,w henthenex tfouryears
areov er," therew illb eanotherPresid ent" -atw hichpointthecrow d
started toshout" No!No!"
. Thinkingremarkab lyq uickly,Roosev elt
thrusthismouthclosetothemicrophoneand w entrightontalkingso
19 4 1

19 7
thattheshoutsw hichsuggested thathemightb eelected permanently
should notb eheard ov ertherad io
AfterClev eland ,therew asnotmuchmoretod oex cepttocloseupthe
Presid ent'sfinalspeechtob ed eliv ered fromHyd eParkat
ii : 0 0 P.M
onelectionev e
.Thatfinalspeechw asprettymuchthesameinthree
campaignsforre-election-in19 36 ,19 4 0 and
19 4 4 .
Itw asshortand
nonpartisan,amov ingreaffirmationoffaithinthed emocraticprocess,
ex pressingassurancethatregard lessoftheoutcomeoftomorrow 'sb allot-
ing," theUnited Statesw illstillb eunited
." Thesespeechesw erepure
Roosev elt
.Nomerepolitician,and certainlynomereghostw riter,
could putintothemthesamed egreeofconv ictionand thesamed eep
spiritualq ualitythatheconv eyed .Itw asnaturalforRoosev elt'senemies
toassumethathisprofessionsofreligiousfaithmustb ehypocritical
b utthosew hoknew himb est-includ ingsomeirretriev ab leagnostics-
knew thatonecould j okew ithhimonalmostanyand ev erysub j ect,b ut
notthisone( anotheronew ashisfamily) .Hecould b ecalled ex tremely
irrev erentinregard tomanytemporalsacred cow s,b utnotinregard
tohisow nreligionorthatofanyotherformallyreligiousman
b eliev e,ex tremeasitmayseemtosayit,thatheregard ed thesenon-
partisanspeechesattheend ofarow d ycampaignasaformofex piation
foranyex cessesofw hichhemightprev iouslyhav eb eenguilty
gard ed themliterallyas" lastw ord s" b yw hichhew ould prefertob e
rememb ered intheev entofhisd efeat.
Forthis19 4 0 speech,ev enb eforetheintensiv ecampaignstarted ,he
had said thathew anted toclosew ithaprayerforthenationw hichhe
rememb ered had b eeninanEpiscopalianBookofCommonPrayerin
usew henhew asatGrotonSchool .TheLib raryofCongressw asputto
w orktolocatethisand had d ugupallsortsofold prayerb ooksw ith
v ariousprayersforthenation .Eachhad b eensub mitted tothePresid ent
and hehad ex amined itand said ," No-that'snottheoneIw ant." He
w ould recitepartsoftheprayerfromamemorythatw entb ackmore
Whenw ereturned totheWhiteHouse,fromClev eland ,w efound
thatsev eralmoreprayerb ookshad b eensentov erfromtheenergetic
Lib raryand oneofthem-pub lished ,asIrecall,inthe18 8 o's-prov ed to
b etheonehew anted .Itw asab eautifulprayer,containingthesew ord s
Blessourland w ith'honourab leind ustry,sound learning,and pure
manners .Sav eusfromv iolence,d iscord ,and confusion ; fromprid e
and arrogancy,and fromev eryev ilw ay.Defend ourlib erties,and
fashionintooneunited peoplethemultitud esb roughthitheroutof
manykind red s,and tongues .
Hopkinsmad eonenegativ econtrib utiontothisspeechw hichrev ealed
anold sore
.ThePresid enthad includ ed aq uotationfromtheClev eland
19 8

speechthat" freed omofspeechisofnousetothemanw hohasnothing
tosayand freed omofreligionisofnousetothemanw hohaslosthis
God " and ad d ed " afreeelectionisofnousetothemanw hoistooin-
d ifferentortoolaz y tov ote ." Hopkinsurged thattheitaliciz ed w ord sb e
strickenout.Hesaid ," Id on'tthinkyououghttoinsultthepeoplein
thisspeech ." Aftersomeargument,Roosev eltagreed .LaterIsaid to
RosenmanthatIcould n'tund erstand w hyHopkinshad mad esuchan
issueofthis,sincethereund oub ted lyw erefartoomanypeoplew ho
w eretoolaz ytov ote.Rosenmansaid ," Iguessthatw ord getsund er
Harry'sskin .Itremind shimoftheaccusationsthatmostofthepeople
w how entonW.P.A.d id soonlyb ecausetheyw eretoolaz ytow ork ."
Iamsurethisw ascorrect; Hopkinsw asonew honev erforgotnor
forgav esuchslurs.
OnSund ayev ening,thePresid entand Hopkinsw eretogob ytrain
toHyd eParkand Rosenmanand Iw ereflyingb acktoNew York .
Beforew eleft,w eoffered somew hatself-consciousb estw ishes ." Ithas
b eengrand fun,hasn'tit!" said Roosev elt,w ithmorew armththan
accuracy." And ,d on'tforget-theMissusisex pectingyouand Dorothy
and Mad elineforsupperTuesd ayev ening ." Asifanyonecould forget
aninv itationtoHyd eParktolistentothereturnsonelectionnight!
( Dorothyw asMrs .Rosenmanand Mad elinemyow nw ife,w homthe
Presid enthad metonceb utw how as,ofcourse,know ntohimim-
med iatelyb yherfirstname
ThefinalGalluppollshow ed WillkiesoclosetoRoosev eltthat,if
the" trend " continued ,thechallengermightw ellhav eov ertaken" The
Champ" b yd aw nonelectiond ay .TheRoperpollshow ed Roosev elt-
5 5 .
2 percent,Willkie-4 4 .8 percent,w hichw as/ofipercentaw ay
Isupposethat,onthed ayb eforeev eryPresid entialelectionin
Americanhistory,eachriv alcamphasb eennerv eracked w ithrumors
that,atthefifty-ninthminuteoftheelev enthhour,theoppositionw ould
comeoutw ithsomeunspeakab lechargesofcorruptionorpersonal
scand alw hichcould notpossib lyb eansw ered and ex posed untiltoo
late .Id onotknow w hetherthishasev eractuallyhappened ,b utitw ill
prob ab lyalw aysb eex pected ,makingforthatmuchex tratension .I
know Isatconstantlyattherad iothatelectionev e .Iheard atranscrib ed
Repub licanb road castthatw asb lood curd ling .Itw asad d ressed tothat
ov erw orked aud ience,theMothersofAmerica,and d eliv ered inthe
ominous,insid ioustonesofamurd ermysteryprogram : " Whenyour
b oyisd yingonsomeb attlefield inEurope-ormayb ein Martiniq ue-
and he'scryingout,` Mother
Mother!-d on'tb lameFranklinD .
Roosev eltb ecausehesentyourb oytow ar-b lameYOURSELF,b e-
.Roosev eltb acktotheWhiteHouse!"
Therew asnothingnew in that,how ev er ; thatsortofthreathad b een
19 4 1

19 9
uttered manytimes .( Martiniq uew asmentioned b ecauseitw asthen
thestrongestVichyoutpostintheWesternHemisphereand therew ere
rumors,notentirelyb aseless,thatAmericantroopsmightb esentto
seiz eit.)
TheDemocratshad possessionoftheelectionev eairw av esfrom
10 : 0 0 P
tomid nightand d ev oted thesetw ohourstoshortspeeches
b yRoosev elt,Hull,CarlSand b urg,Alex and erWoollcottand Dorothy
Thompsonmix ed inw ithagreatd ealofentertainmentfromBroad w ay
and Hollyw ood .TheRepub licanshad therad iofrommid nightto
2 : 0 0 A.M. Therew erenoshockinglast-minutesurprises,and thenex t
d ay4 9 ,8 15 ,312peoplew enttothepollsand v oted -mostofthem,inall
prob ab ility,hav ingmad euptheirmind sb eforeasinglew ord oforatory
had b eenuttered b yeithercand id ate .Toonew hohad nev erb efore
know nanythingfrompersonalob serv ationoftheinnerw orkingsof
politicsitw asov erw helmingtothinkofthisv astmassmov ingintothe
priv acyoftheb allotingb ooth ; theyhad b eengiv enev eryopportunity
tolistentoallthechargesand countercharges,allthe ad hominem
thrustsand ripostes,allthepromisesand allthethreats,alltheformulae
forab etterfutureand thew arningsthatthisw asthe" laststand for
d emocracy" ; and now theycould resttheireard rumsand goontheir
ow ntorend erthev erd ictonw hichtherecould b enoappealshortof
armed reb ellion .
Onelectionnight,afterastand -upsupperatMrs .Roosev elt'scottage,
w ed rov ethroughtheHyd eParkw ood s,b elov ed b yFranklinRoosev elt,
totheb ighousetolistentotheelectionreturns .Inalittleroomtothe
leftoffthefronthallsatthePresid ent'smotherw ithsev eralold lad y
friend s .Theyw eresew ingorknittingand chatting .Arad iow ason,
softly,b uttheyseemed tob epayinglittleattentiontoit.Intheb ig
liv ingroomtherew asanotherrad iogoingand alargegatheringd f
w eird lyassorted guests .ThePresid entw asinthed iningroominhis-y
shirtsleev es,w ithhissonsand hisUncleFred Delanoand memb ersof
hisstaff .Largechartsw erelittered onthed iningtab leand new stickers
w ereclatteringinthepantry .TheRoosev eltb oysw ereex cited ,b utnot
theirfather .Mrs.EleanorRoosev eltmov ed ab outfromoneroomto
another, seeing .to thew antsoftheguests,apparentlynev erpausingto
listentothereturns .Ifyouasked herhow shethoughtthingsw eregoing
shew ould reply,impersonally," Iheard someonesaythatWillkiew as
d oingq uitew ellinMichigan," inex actlythetoneofonesaying," The
gard enertellsmethemarigold sareapttob eab itlatethisyear ."
Myw ifeand GeorgeBackerand Ij oined Hopkinsinhisb ed room.He
had asmall,$15 rad io,similartotheonehelatergav eChurchill
achartand had b eennotingd ow nafew returns,b utmostofitw as
cov ered w ithd ood les .Thefirstreturnsearlyintheev eningind icated
thatWilikiew asshow ingunex pected strengthand Hopkinsforatime
20 0

seemed reallyw orried
; Ihav eb eentold thatearlyintheev eningev en
Roosev elthimselfw asd oub tfuloftheoutcome,b utIsaw nosignsof
.Afterteno'clock,thesw eepofRoosev elt'sv ictoryw assocom-
pletethattherew asnopointintryingtokeeptheex actscore
Presid entand alltheguestsw entoutonthefrontporchtogreetaparad e
ofHyd eParktow nspeople,oneofw homcarried ahastilyimprov ised
placard b earingthelegend , " SAFEON 3RD." Roosev eltw asparticularly
elated b ecausehehad carried hisow nhomed istrict,normallysolid ly
Repub lican,b yav oteof376 to
30 2 . Thatw astheb estheev erd id on
electiond ayinHyd ePark .
Ofallthepoliticalb attlesinw hichhehad b eeninv olv ed ,thiscam-
paignof19 4 0 is,Ib eliev e,theonethatRoosev eltliked leasttorememb er
Itw asnoclean-cutissueb etw eentw ophilosophiesorid eologies,nor
ev enb etw eentw ocontrasted personalities .Ithad theatmosphereof a
d read fulmasq uerad e,inw hichtheprincipalcontestantsfeltcompelled
tow earfalsefaces,and thereb yd isguised thefactthat,intheirhearts,
theyagreed w ithoneanotheronalltheb asicissues
.Ihav esaid that
Willkiepresented anind istincttarget
.Thisw asnotb ecausehew as
ev asiv e,anartfuld od ger ; hew asinfacttheex actrev erse-atoe-to-toe
slugger ; b ut,asacand id ate,hepresented tw oimagesw hichseemed to
mov efartherand fartherapart.Oneimagew asWillkieasasymb olof
reactionaryoppositiontotheNew Deal-theWallStreetlaw yer,the
pub licutilitieshold ingcompaniestycoon-w hereas,theotherimage
w asWillkiehimself .Hew asthenarelativ elyunknow nq uantity-to
Roosev elt,atanyrate-b uthew asb eginningtoestab lishtheid entity
w hichlaterb ecamesoclear :
afightinglib eral-ev ensomethingofa
freethinkeroftheold -fashioned ,Rob ertG
ofafierce,b ull-in-a-china-shophostilitytow ard theiconsofToryism
w hichcaused himtob ecomemorecord iallyhated b ytheex tremereac-
tionariesev enthanRoosev elthimself .
AlthoughRoosev elthad ob v iousad v antagesinthiscampaign,the
chiefofthemb einghislongex perienceinpub liclifeascompared w ith'
Willkie'stotallackofex perienceinelectiv eorev enappointiv eoffice,
Willkiehad onesub stantialad v antageofhisow n-freed omfrom
responsib ility
.Thechallengercould laterd ismisshis,statementsas
" campaignoratory"
; thePresid entoftheUnited States,inthemid st
ofanunpreced ented w orld crisis,knew thathecould not.Willkiecould
saythat,ifRoosev eltw ereelected ,w emightw ellb einaw arb yApril ;
Roosev eltcould nottruthfullysaythat'w ew ould not,nomatterw ho
w aselected .Dayb yd ay,Roosev elthad toread theintelligencefrom
Tokyo,Mad rid ,Athens,Moscow ,Chungkingand ev eryw hereelse-
hehad toconfrontthesomb erfactsofBritain'spositionw hich,ina
matterofmonthsorev enw eeks,w ould b ecomeutterlyhopelessw ithout
somenew formofaid asd rasticasLend Lease-and hecould notstep
19 4 1

20 1
upontherostrumatMad isonSq uareGard enand recitethesefactsto
.Perhapshemighthav ed oneab etterand morecand id j ob
.Formyow npart,Ithinkitw asamistakefor
himtogosofarinyield ingtothehystericald emand sforsw eeping
reassurance ; b ut,unfortunatelyformyow nconscience,Ihappened
atthetimetob eoneofthosew hourged himtogothelimitonthis,
feelingasId id thatanyriskoffutureemb arrassmentw asnegligib le
ascompared w iththeriskoflosingtheelection
.Ib urninw ard lyw hen-
ev erIthinkofthosew ord s" again-and again-and again
Roosev eltprob ab lymeantitw hen,inthePhilad elphiaspeech,he
said ," Iamanold campaignerand Ilov eagood fight." Buthecer-
tainlyw asnotenj oyinghimselfw hen,afew d ayslater,hew asim-
pelled tomakethoselame,eq uiv ocalspeechesinBostonand New
York.Bythen,thisw asafightthathed espised .Itleftasmearonhis
record w hichonlytheaccomplishmentsofthenex tfiv eyearscould
remov e .
NCE d uringtheearlyNew Dealyears,Hopkinssaid
: " Ifyou
w anttogetahead inWashington,d on'tw asteyourtimetrying
tocultiv atethefav orofthemenw ithhigh-sound ingtitles .Makefriend s
w iththeirofficeb oys
.They'retherealBigShots .Ifyouw anttoget
somethingd oneinsomeDepartment,concentrateontheofficeb oy .
Ifhelikesyou,hew illputyouthroughstraighttotheonemanw ho
cand ow hatyouw ant.Ifhed oesn'tlikeyou,hew illshuntyouoff
ontosomeb od yw how illgiv eyouanotetosomeb od yelseand soon
d ow nthelineuntilyou'resow ornoutand confused you'v eforgotten
w hatitw asyouw ereaskingforinthefirstplace ."
Duringthew aryears,w henHopkinsliv ed intheWhiteHouse,he
said impatientlytoapersistentpetitioner : " Whyd oyoukeeppestering
ab outthis? I'monlytheofficeb oyaround here!"
Iamsurethathew asunconsciousofanyconnectionb etw eenthese
w id elyseparated statements ; b utitw ascertainlythere
thatHopkinsb ecame,b yhisow nearlierd efinition,thesupremeoffice
b oyofthemall .Hew asofcourseachannelofcommunicationb etw een
thePresid entand v ariousagenciesoftheAd ministration,notab lythe
WarDepartment,and theread ymeansofinformalcontactw ithforeign
d ignitaries
.( ABritishofficialoncesaid tome," Wecametothinkof
HopkinsasRoosev elt'sow n,personalForeignOffice ." )Healsoacted in
thecapacityofab ufferstate .Hekeptprob lem-lad enofficialsaw ayfrom
Roosev elt;
oneofhismostfreq uentstatementsw as," ThePresid ent
isn'tgoingtob eb othered w ithanythingasnonsensicaland unimpor-
tantasthatifIcanhelpit!" Itw asthisfunctionthatmad emanyof
Roosev elt'smostloyalfriend sagreew ithhisw orstenemiesthatHop-
kinsw asanunmitigated menace .Forinstance :
w hen,foraperiod of
sometenmonths,Harold Ickesd id nothav eonepriv ateappointment
w iththePresid ent,heb lamed itallonthev ind ictiv enessofHopkins
20 2

20 3
Whetherthisw asj ustorunj ust,itw ascertainlyacomforttoRoosev elt
tohav esomeonearound totaketheb lame .Itcannotb esaid that
Hopkinssuffered und ulyintheperformanceofthisunsympatheticrole
HisloyaltytoRoosev eltinthew aryearsw asthesupremej ustification
ofhiscontinued ex istenceand heenj oyed ev eryopportunitytoex ercise
.AsMarq uisChild sw rote
Should thePresid entonad ulld aysuggestcasuallytohisfriend
and confid ant,HarryL
.Hopkins,thatthenationalw elfarew ould
b eserv ed ifMr
.Hopkinsw eretoj umpofftheWashingtonMonu-
ment,theappointed hourw ould find Mr .Hopkinspoised forthe
.Whetherw ithorw ithoutparachutew ould d epend onw hat
thePresid entseemed tohav einmind .
.Hopkinsw ould know ab outthat,forhehasmad eacareerof
und erstand ing,sensing,d iv ining,oftenguessing-and usuallyguess-
ingright-w hatisinFranklinRoosev elt'smind
hastakenhimfromthed ullroutineofsocial-serv icew orktotheupper
reachesofd iplomacy,w herehehashad athrillingprev iew ofthe
.And ,w hatismore,historymayshow that
hew asoneoftheshapers .
Hopkinsd id nothav etod osomuchsensing,d iv iningorguessingw hile
heliv ed intheWhiteHouse
.Hecould traipsed ow ntheupstairshall
inhisold d ressinggow ntothePresid ent'sroomand askw hathis
chiefw anted d oneornotd oneab outanygiv enprob lem,and ,thenact
accord ingly,w ithouthav ingtorev ealtoanyonethathew asguid ed
notb yhisow nprej ud icesorhunchesb utb yRoosev elt'sex pressinstruc-
tions .
Theq uartersoccupied b yHopkinsforsolongintheWhiteHouse
w asasuiteonthesecond floor,inthesoutheastcorner
.Itconsisted of
onelargeb ed room,w ithahugefour-posterd oub leb ed ,asmallb ed room
( used atfirstasofficeforHopkins'secretary)and ab ath
.Thew hole
suitehad originallyb eenoneroom,w iththreehighw ind ow slooking
acrossthelonglaw ntow ard theWashingtonMonument,theJefferson
Memorialand theVirginiahills
.Thishad b eenAb rahamLincoln's
stud y,and therew asaplaq ueov erthefireplacestatingthattheEman-
cipationProclamationw assigned here
.Itw asconsid ered theb est
guestroomand had b eenassigned toKingGeorgeVId uringhisv isit
9 39
Therew asasimilararrangementofroomsineachcornerofthe
second floor .Inthesouthw estcorner,thelargeroomw asMrs
v elt'ssittingroomand thesmallonew asherb ed room
.Thenorthw est
suitew asforguestsand contained themassiv efurnitureused inLin-
coln'sb ed room
.Thenortheastsuitew asalsoforguests
.Ithad b eenused
b yQueenEliz ab ethand especiallyd ecorated forthatoccasionw ithb eauti-
.Thisw asWinstonChurchill's
20 4

b ed roomd uringhisv isitsinthew aryears
.Itw asconv enientlylocated
forChurchill,b eingrightacrossthehallfromHopkins
Thesecond floorw asb isected fromeasttow estb yalong,d ark,
d ismalhall .Theeasternend w as,forsomereason,higherthanthe
restand approached b yashortflighCofsteps,onw hicharub b er-matted
ramphad b eenconstructed forthePresid ent'sw heelchair .Thishall
w asfurnished inahaphaz ard manner .Therew erelow b ookcases,con-
tainingsomehund red sofmod ernb ookspresented d uringtheRoosev elt
Ad ministrationb ytheAmericanBooksellersAssociation ; otherw ise,the
WhiteHousepossessed nolib raryofitsow n
.On-topoftheb ookcases
w eresilv er-framed ,autographed photographsofcrow ned head s,mostof
themthroneless .Thehallcould b eeq uipped w ithaproj ectionb ooth
and screenfortheshow ingofmotionpicturesd uringtheev ening .Later,
aregularproj ectionroomw asb uiltalongthecolonnad elead ingtothe
new EastWingoutsid etheHouseitself .Thew estend ofthehall,par-
tiallyshutoffb yascreenand somepotted palms,w asused b yMrs .
Roosev eltforsmallteapartiesand sometimesthePresid enthad d inner
herew ithhisfamilyormemb ersofhisstaff .
Onthesouthsid eofthesecond floor,nex ttoHopkins'room,w asa
stuffysittingroom,called theMonroeRoomb ecauseherethegreat
Doctrinew asw ritten .Nex ttothatw asthePresid ent'sOv alStud yand
offthathis'b ed roomand b ath .Acrossfromthestud y,onthenorthsid e,
w eretw osmallerb ed rooms,eachw ithb ath ; w hichw ereusuallyallotted
toSamRosenmanand mew henw ew erethere .Onthew allofthe
roomthatIsometimesoccupied w asaftoriginalofacolored cartoon .It
w assigned b y" McKay" and came,Ithink,from Esq uire magaz ine.It
show ed theex teriorofasub urb anhouse .Themotherw asonthe,porch
intheb ackground .Alittlegirlonthegard enpathw ascallingmother's
attentiontoanastylittleb oyw ho,w ithfiend ishmalice,w aschalkingan
inscriptiononthesid ew alk .
Thecaptionw as," Look,Mother-Wilfred w roteab ad w ord !" -
and thew ord w as ROOSEVELT.
BeforeIev erw entupstairsintheWhiteHouseIhad imagined it
w aspermanentlyfurnished liketheground floorand thatliv inginit
w ould b esomethinglikeliv inginamuseum.Suchw ascertainlynot
thecase.Itseemsthateachnew familythatmov esincanshiftthings
around atw ill,conv ertb ed roomsintoofficesorv icev ersa,and change
notonlytheappearanceb utthev eryatmosphereoftheplacetosuit
itsow ntastes .Presid entRoosev elt'sOv alStud y-w hichw asthefocal
pointofthenationand ,inasense,ofthew holew orld -had ,Ib eliev e,
b eenused hard lyatallex ceptasaformalreceptionroomd uringthe
preced ingHoov erAd ministration
.Onthew allsw ereagreatmanyof
Roosev elt'sold nav alprintsand portraitsofhismother,hisw ifeand
JohnPaulJones ;
therew asalsoad read ful-lookingmechanicalpipe-

20 5
organd ev icew hichsomeonehad presented tohimb utw hichhenev er
learned how tooperate .
Theprogressiv ismofFranklinand EleanorRoosev eltcertainlyd id
notex tend tointeriord ecoration
.Theyd id nothold w iththemod ern
Americantheorythatfurniture,curtains,etc.,should b eornamental
firstand utilitariansecond ,northatacertainuniformityofd ecorshould
b eob serv ed ,w ithd ueregard forperiod and styleasw ellascolor
scheme.Tothem,achairw assomethingtositd ow non-and allthat
oneasked ofitw ascomfort; atab lew assomethingtoputthingson
and aw allw assomethingtob ecov ered w iththegreatestpossib lenum-
b erofpicturesofsentimentalv alue .Thus,theroomsoccupied b ythe
Presid entand Mrs
.Roosev eltintheWhiteHousecametob easnearly
aspossib led uplicationsoftheroomsatHyd ePaik,w hichseemed to
hav echanged hard lyatallinfiftyyearsex ceptasmoreenlarged snap-
shotsofnew child renand poniesand sailb oatsw eretacked uphereand
there .Theotherupstairsb ed roomsintheWhiteHousecontained some
furnishingsthatmighthav ecomeoutofanold and ultrarespectab le
summerresorthoteland somethatappeared tohav eemerged froma
W.P.A.Artsand CraftsProj ect.Althoughtheappearanceofthese
roomsmusthav egiv enshud d ersofrev ulsiontoanyprofessionalin-
teriord ecoratorsw homayhav ehappened in-w hethertheyw eread -
d icted tothePetitTrianon,Ad am,earlyAmerican,RococoorMod ern
Functionalschools-therew asageneralsenseofunstud ied comfort
and alsoofliterald emocracy .Mostoftheroomsw ered ingyw iththe
d arknessofsouthernmansionsfromw hichthesunlightisex clud ed b y
surround ingcolonnad esand b igtrees,b utw hattheWhiteHouselacked
inlightitmorethanmad eupinw armthofhospitality .Therew asa
remarkab leairofsmall-tow nfriend linessab outtheplacew hichex tend ed
throughallthev aried memb ersofthelargestaff,includ ingtheneces-
sarilygrimand suspiciousSecretServ icemenand uniformed armed
guard s .Youw eremad etofeelreallyw elcome .
Onthethird and topfloortherew eremoreguestrooms,used largely
fortheov erflow ofgrand child renatChristmastimeand otherfamily
reunions,and therew asasmallb ed roomand sittingroomoccupied b y
MissyLeHand w hichprov id ed apleasantretreatforthoseofusw ho
w erew orkingintheWhiteHouse .Missyw asalov elypersonand an
ex traord inarilylev el-head ed one ; thecripplingillnessw hichcameupon
hersud d enlyinI9 4 Iand hersub seq uentd eathw eresev ereb low sfor
thePresid ent.In i9 2o, shehad b eeninthestenographicpoolofthe
FleetEmergencyCorporationand w ascalled fromthattow orkfor
CharlesH .McCarthy,afriend ofFranklinRoosev elt'sand hismanager
intheunsuccessfulVicePresid entialcampaignofthatyear .Afterthe
electionofWarrenG .Hard ing,and theretreattonormalcyand isola-
tionism.Missyw asinv ited b yMrs .Roosev elttocometoHyd ePark
20 6

tohelpcleanupahugeaccumulationofcorrespond ence .Sub seq uently,
Roosev eltb ecameVicePresid entoftheFid elityand DepositCompany
ofMaryland ; MissyLeHand w entw ithhimashissecretaryand con-
tinued inthatcapacitythroughhisb attlew ithinfantileparalysis,his
returntothepracticeoflaw and hisserv iceasGov ernorofNew York .
In19 33,shew entw ithhimtotheWhiteHouse,GraceTullygoing
alongasherassistantand ev entualsuccessor .Gracealsohad w orked
atfirstforMrs .Roosev elt,startingd uringthecampaignof19 28 .When
theRoosev elfsmov ed intotheEx ecutiv eMansioninAlb any,shew ent
w iththemand remained w iththem.Shew asatthePresid ent'ssid ein
WarmSpringsw henhed ied and laterb ecameEx ecutiv eSecretaryof -
theFranklinD .Roosev eltMemorialFound ation .
Thefriend lyatmospherethatprev ailed intheWhiteHousew asthe
creationofthepeoplew how ereinit.WhenIlooked atthefacesof
some of thepastPresid entsw hoglared d ow nfromthew alls,Icould
imaginethattherehad b eentimesw hentheatmospherew aspainfully
austere.( Therew ered oub tlessothertimesw henitw asd eplorab ly
row d y
.)IntheyearsofFranklinRoosev eltthew holeplacew asob v i-
ouslyfilled w iththefierceloyaltyand w armaffectionthatheinspired .
Ifyoucould prov epossessionofthesesentimentsinab und ance,you
w ereaccepted asamemb erofthefamilyand treated accord ingly .
Roosev eltstarted hisd ayw ithb reakfastinb ed -generallyw earingan
old b luesw eaterov erhispaj amatoporab luecapew ithared F .D .R.
monogramonit.Hew orethecapeb ecauseab athrob ew astood ifficult
forthesamereason,hew oreacapeoutofd oors
incold w eatherinstead ofanov ercoat.Theusherond uty-Mr .Crim,
Mr .SearlesorMr .Claunch-b roughthimthemorning'sd ispatchesand
thesocialsched ulew hich,inpeacetime,isformid ab leenoughtoruin
thestoutestd igestionand tod isruptthemostev entemperb utw hich
w asgratefullyab and oned inw artime .Duringb reakfasthelooked
throughthed ispatchesand read thenew spapersw ithgreatspeed b ut
w ithremarkab lecare,seld ommissinganythingofimportancetohim-
self.Inad d itiontotheWashingtonpapers,heread the ChicagoTrib une,
the New YorkTimes and Herald Trib une and the BaltimoreSun. For
yearsfriend stried totalkhimoutofread ingthe ChicagoTrib une b ut
heev id entlyw anted toknow thew orstab outhimself .Ashew asfinishing
b reakfast,hispersonalstaffcamein-usuallyGeneralEd w inM.Watson,
.Early,Marv inH .McIntyre,WilliamD .Hassett,Rosenman
and Hopkinstod iscussthew orkprogramforthed ay-appointments,
pressconferences,etc.ThePresid ent'sphysician,Ad miralRossT.
McIntire,w ould alsob epresenttow atchhimcloselyforanyind ica-
tionsofillhealth .Thesemorningsessionscov ered agreatd ealof
ground inav eryshorttime,foralltheaid esparticipatingknew
Roosev eltsow ell,and hetrusted themsofully,thatb eatingsab outth

20 7
b ushw ereunnecessary
.Theycould gaugehisstateofmind and its
prob ab leresultsd uringthed ay .Astheylefttheb ed room,theycould
b eheard muttering," God helpanyb od y
.w hoaskshimforanyfav ors
tod ay," or," Hefeelssogood he'llb etellingCottonEd Smiththatit's
perfectlyallrightfortheSouthtogoahead and seced e
GeneralWatson,alw aysknow nas
" Pa," w asab ig,florid ,j ov ial
Virginianw how asd escrib ed b yev eryb od yas" lov ab le" and b yafew
assomew hatsimplemind ed .Thelatterappraisal,sometimescarefully
encouraged b yPahimself,w ashighlyinaccurate .Hissold ierlyb luff-
nessand hispersonalsw eetnessmasked ad ev astatingastutenessin
penetratingthed isguisesofothersfew ifanyw erethephoniesw ho
succeed ed infoolinghim
.Hehad b eenthePresid ent'sMilitaryAid e
fromtheb eginningsoftheAd ministrationand ,intheord inarycourse
ofev ents,w ould hav eb eentransferred longsincetootherd utyinthe
Army ; b uthehad b ecomeind ispensab letoRoosev eltasatow erof
strengthinev erysenseoftheterm.Hehad thehighlyresponsib leposi-
tionofPresid entialSecretaryinchargeofappointments .Itw asa
d ifficultand d elicatej ob and themeasureofhissuccessinitw asthe
respectinw hichhew asheld b yinnumerab leimportunatepeoplew ho
hammered athimcontinuallyforashareofthePresid ent'stime
Stev eEarlyw astherankingv eteraninpointofserv ice-hehad
b eenaclosefriend ofRoosev elt'ssincetheDemocraticConv entionof
19 12-and hew astheonlyoneoftheoriginalstaffstillaliv ew hen
Roosev eltd ied
.Whenhefinallyretired inJune,
19 4 5 ,
hew asaw ard ed
theDistinguished Serv iceMed alb yPresid entTrumanand theWhite
Housecorrespond entsw ereunanimousforonceinagreeing-thathe
had earned it
.Earlyw as,likeWatson,aVirginianand passionately
loyaltohisChief,b utotherw isetherew asnoresemb lanceb etw eenthe
tw omen
; Earlyw asq uicktempered and ,b eingintolerantofthearts
ofd iplomacy,feltnogreaturgetohid ehisemotions
.( Thatmayb ethe
mainreasonforhissurv iv al .)Afinenew spapermanhimself,hew as
superlativ elyskillfulinhand lingthePresid ent'sfreq uentlystrained
relationsw iththepress
.Inthis,hisunassailab lecand orw ashisgreatest
.Hew asrigorouslyuninq uisitiv eab outWhiteHousesecrets ; he
w anted tob etold nomilitaryplans,hew anted toav oid read ingspeeches
inad v ancelesttheycontainsomeimportantannouncementonpolicy,
sothathecould truthfullytelltheCorrespond entsw how erealw ays
onhisd oorstep," Youknow asmuchab outthatasId o
." Hehad sense
enoughtoknow thatanyonew orkingforFranklinD .Roosev eltd id
notneed toind ulgeinthepressagent'spracticeoffab ricatingnew s,or
mintingslogans,b utw henhed id hav eastorytorelease( and few w ere
thed aysinthetw elv eyearsw henhed id n't) .heknew how to " play"
itforthelastounceoffront-pagehead linev alue
.Hesuffered acutely
fromhisChief'stend encytosnapb ackatthehostilepressb utthere

w asnothinghecould d oab outthat.Early'sassistant,BillHassett,w as
; hew asscholarlyand d ev oted and agood ,
q uietcompanionforRoosev eltw henhew anted togetaw ayfromthe
hurly-b urlyofWashington .
Marv inMcIntyrew asanotherWashingtonnew spaperman
friend ofJosephusDaniels,hehad serv ed d uringtheFirstWorld War
asChiefofthePressOfficesoftheNav yDepartmentand itw asthen
thathecameintocontactw ith'FranklinRoosev elt.In19 32,he
trav eled ab outthecountryw ithRoosev eltasPressOfficerand then
b ecameSecretaryinchargeofappointmentsintheWhiteHouse
thesecond term,illnessmad eitimpossib leforhimtocontinueinthis
ex actingj ob ,and itw astakenov erb yPaWatson,b utMcIntyrecon-
tinued tow orkforthePresid entuntilhisd eathin
19 4 3.
Hew aspar-
ticularlyv aluab leasacontactmanb etw eentheWhiteHouseand
CapitolHill,tw opointsonthesameav enueinthesamecityw hich
sometimesseemed tob elocated ond ifferentplanets .
RossMcIntirew asw ellknow ninhiscapacityasWhiteHouse
physicianb utreceiv ed insufficientrecognitionforhisachiev ementsas
ChiefoftheNav y'sBureauofMed icineand Surgerythroughoutthe
Second World War
.Becauseoftheenormousd emand softhisj ob in
thew aryears,McIntireleftalargepartofthed ailyclinicalroutine
Command erGeorgeFox ,w hohad earned hisw ayupw ard fromthe
ranksintheNav y.
Asid efromtheSecretaries,therew ereanumb erofAd ministrativ e
AssistantstothePresid ent,ananonymousand shiftinggroupw hich
includ ed fromtimetotimeJamesForrestal,JamesRow e,Dav id K
Niles,LauchlinCurrieand JonathanDaniels
.Theirfunctionw as" to
get,informationand tocond enseand summariz eitforhis[thePresi-
d ent's]use
." Theyhad " noauthorityov eranyoneinanyd epartment
oragency" and w ereex presslyprohib ited from" interposingthem-
selv es" b etw eenthePresid entand anyotherofficerofthegov ernment
Theb estd escriptionoftheactiv itiesoftheseAssistants-know nfor
their" passionforanonymity" -hasb eenw rittenb yoneofthem,Daniels,
inhis FrontierOnThePotomac
ThemostimportantpermanentWhiteHouseofficialw astheEx ecutiv e
Clerk,Rud olphForster,w ho,w ithhisAssistantand successor,Maurice
Latta,w asresponsib lefor" theord erlyhand lingofd ocumentsand
correspond ence" and thesuperv isionofthelargeclericalstaff
Forsterand Lattahad b eenintheWhiteHousesincetheMcKinley
Ad ministration
.Forthem,ind iv id ualPresid entscameand w ent,b utthe
officew entonforev er,and sod id thed oz ensand hund red sofstate
papers-law s,ord ers,commissions,etc
.-w hichhad tob eproperly
signed and record ed and d istrib uted ev eryw orkingd ay
.Itw asaproud

. 20 9
momentinFranklinRoosev elt'slifew hen,inOctob er19 4 4 ,ashew as
ab outtoleav eonacampaigntrip,Forstercametohimand ,w iththe
airofonew how asw illfullyb reakingalloftheTenCommand ments
b utprepared totaketheconseq uences,w armlyshookhishand and
w ished himgood luck .Forsterstood outsid etheEx ecutiv eOfficesand
w av ed asthePresid ent'scarpulled aw ayand Roosev eltsaid ,w ithreal
emotioninhisv oice," That'spracticallythefirsttimeinalltheseyears
thatRud olphhasev erstepped outofcharacterand spokentomeasif
Iw ereahumanb einginstead ofj ustanotherPresid ent."
Alloftheaid esontheWhiteHousestaffw ere,ineffect,officialsof
thePresid ent's" household " and notofficersinanychainofad ministra-
tiv ecommand
.Thus,thePresid entb efore
19 39
had norealex ecutiv e
organiz ationofhisow n .Therew asnooneb etw eenhimand the
Cab inetofficersthroughw homhecould ex erciseauthority .Onemight
presumethattheVicePresid entw ould performthefunctionofDeputy
Presid entorChiefofStaff ; theConstitution,how ev er,prov id esthat
theVicePresid entshallserv easPresid entoftheSenateand thatthe
pow ersand d utiesofthePresid encyshalld ev olv eonhimonlyinthe
ev entofthePresid ent's" Death,Resignation,orInab ilitytod ischarge"
said pow ersand d uties .Thus,theinnumerab lelinesofauthorityw hich
conv erged intheWhiteHouserannottothePresid ent'sstaffb utto
thePresid ent'ssolitaryperson,and hehad noconstitutionalmeansof
" interposing" anyoneb etw eenhimselfand thetenCab inetmemb ers
and thed oz ensofhead sofagenciesand missionsw horeported d irectly
tohimand w how ereoftenreluctanttomakeanimportantmov ew ithout
hisauthoriz ationinw riting.WhenoneDepartmentcameintoconflict
w ithanother,thePresid entmustresolv eitaccord ingtohisow nj ud g-
mentb ased on theinformationw hichcametohimofficiallyonlythrough
thecontestantsthemselv es-although,ofcourse,hemightb einformed
unofficiallythroughthepressorthroughfriend sincontactw iththe
omnipresentWashington" grapev ine ." Itw asasystemw hichcould
nothav eex isted inanyw ell-ord ered b igb usinessorganiz ation .When
Department" A" asked foranappropriationofthreehund red million
d ollars,and Department" B" protested thatthisreq uestw assooutof
proportionthatitw ould tend toinfluencetheCongresstomakecuts
in " B's" req uestforsix hund red millions,thePresid entcould fairly
appraisethemeritsofthecaseonlyb ygoingthroughalltheb ooksof
b othDepartmentsand figuringtheirlegitimateneed sd ow ntothelast
penny .Ofcourse,hecould assignthisfiguringtotheTreasuryDepart-
ment,b utthatitselfmighthav eb eeneitherDepartment" A" or" B" in
theargument; ifitw ereneither,and mad eitsd ecisioninfav orof
" A," then" B" could and oftenw ould b ringthematterrightb acktothe
Presid entforrev iew .
In19 38 Roosev eltproposed asw eepingreorganiz ationofthegov ern-

ment,thepurposeofw hichw as" tomaketheb usinessend , i .e ., the
Ex ecutiv eBranch,oftheFed eralGov ernment,moreb usinesslikeand
: ient" and alsoto" eliminateov erlappingand d uplicationof
effort" ofthekind w hichprod uced theend lessand oftenv irulentj uris-
d ictionald isputesb etw eenCab inetofficersasw ellaslesserofficials
req uestforreorganiz ation,how ev er,camemostunfortunatelyatatime
w henRoosev elt'sprestigew aslow ,follow ingtheSupremeCourtfight
and d uringtheattempted purge .Thecriesof" w ould -b eDictator" w ere
raised and itd id Roosev eltnogood toprotest," Ihav etoomuchhis-
toricalb ackground and toomuchknow led geofex istingd ictatorshipsto
makemed esireanyformofd ictatorshipforad emocracyliketheUnited
StatesofAmerica ." liew asd efeated intheCongress,b utayearlater
hemanaged tohav eapartoftheReorganiz ationBillenacted intolaw .
OnSeptemb er8 ,19 39 ,thed ayw henRoosev eltissued his" Limited
NationalEmergency" Proclamationaftertheoutb reakofw arinEurope,
healsoissued anEx ecutiv eOrd erw hichreceiv ed scantattentioninthe
pressand thev italimportanceofw hichhasnev erb eenev enremotely
apparenttotheAmericanpeople .Itprov id ed forreorganiz ationofthe
Ex ecutiv eOfficeofthePresid entand inv olv ed thetransferoftheBureau
oftheBud gettothatofficefromtheTreasuryDepartment.Ihav eheard
thisactioncompared totheinv entionoftherad ioasanassettoRoosev elt
inhisex erciseofauthority,and thatisnotsomuchofanex aggeration
.IntheDirectoroftheBud getheacq uired anoper-
ationalofficer,w ithalargeand potentorganiz ation,w how asresponsib le
solelytohimselfincarryingouthisov er-allpolicies .Thed utiesofthis
Director,Harold Smith,comprised farmorethanthemerekeepingof
b ooks : hew asenj oined ,amongotherthings," tokeepthePresid ent
informed oftheprogressofactiv itiesb yagenciesoftheGov ernment
w ithrespecttow orkproposed ,w orkactuallyinitiated ,and w orkcom-
pleted ." TheBureauoftheBud getcould and mustsend itsagentsinto
ev eryDepartmentofthegov ernment-intoev eryAmericanMission
ab road and ev erytheaterofw ar-tofind outforthePresid enthimself
ex actlyhow themoneyw asb eingspent,and b yw hom,and w ithw hat
results .Thus,theBureauw asactuallythePresid ent'spersonalintelli-
genceserv ice-or,assomed isgruntled officerscalled it," hisow npriv ate
Gestapo ."
Harold Smithhassaid ," BeforetheBureauw asmov ed ov er,Ioften
thoughtofthePresid encyasastatelycolonialmansion,inw hichliv ed
and w orked themostpow erfulind iv id ualinthemostpow erfulnation
onearth .Attached tothatstatelymansionw asanold ,ricketyshantyor
` lean-to,'w hichw astheEx ecutiv eOffice,theonlyw ork-shopav ailab le
tothatmostpow erfulind iv id ual .WhentheBureauw asmov ed ov er,
w eatleastad d ed onenew w ingw ithmod erneq uipmentand anad eq uate
staffforonepartofthew ork .Butanotherw ingshould b ead d ed ,and

Ib eliev eitw ould hav eb eenad d ed ifRoosev elthad b eengiv entime
enoughtofinishhisj ob
ThestatelymansioninSmith'smetaphorw astheex pressionofthe
Presid entialpow erasgranted b ytheConstitution,and theshantythe
ex pressionofthemannerinw hichtheex erciseofthatpow erhad b een
restricted b ytheCongress,ev erj ealousofitsow nprerogativ es
criesof" d ictatorship" raised againstRoosev elt'sreorganiz ationpro-
posalsw eremuchthesameasthoseraised b ytheenemiesofratification
oftheConstitution,ex ceptthatthenthescarew ord used w as" mon-
." TheFed eralistscertainlyfostered theprincipleofthestrong
Ex ecutiv e,restrained fromex cessb utnothob b led fromactionb ythe
systemofchecksand b alances
.AftertheAd ministrationofJefferson,
astrongPresid enthimself,b utanapostleofd ecentraliz ation,theoriginal
conceptionw aned ,b eingrev iv ed onlyw hensuchstrongind iv id ualsas
Jackson,Lincoln,Theod oreRoosev eltand Wilson-aid ed b ytheex -
ceptionalcircumstancesoftheirtimes-chosetoassertthepow erw hich
had alw aysb eentherefromtheb eginning
.FranklinRoosev eltcame
intooffice,asd id Lincoln,amid suchcond itionsofd omesticcrisisthat
pow ertoactinarapid and ev enarb itrarymannerw asthrustuponhim
w hileafrightened Congressrepresentingafrightened peoplemeekly
rub b er-stamped . hisd rasticproposalsforrecov ery
ofreorganiz ation,w hichcamefortuitouslyasthew aremergencyw as
mounting,d id notad d aniotatohisconstitutionalpow ersb utgreatly
facilitated hisab ilitytoex ercisethem
Harold Smithd ied ,fromsheerex haustion,inJanuary,19 4 7,and I
nev erd id learnfromhimj ustw hathehad inmind forthatunb uiltw ing
oftheEx ecutiv eOffices,b utitinv olv ed theregulariz ationb ylaw ofthe
functionthathad b eenimprov ised forHopkinsb yRoosev elt
amountoflov ew aslostb etw eenSmithand Hopkins,w how asind iffer-
enttotheprob lemsofd ollarsand centsforw hichSmithw asresponsib le
ToonelikeSmith,w holiked tohav eev erythingtid y,Hopkins'harum-
scarummethod sw erenaturallyd isturb ing,and Hopkinsw asimpatient
w ithSmith'sd eterminationtocountthecost
.Buttherew asaconsid er-
ab leamountofrespectb etw eenthetw omenand thed isputestheymay
hav ehad w erenev erpermitted totroub lethePresid ent
thefunctionthatHopkinsshould hav eperformed -and w hichshould
hav eb eend ulyprov id ed forb yActofCongress-itw as,roughly,
thatofaCab inetOfficerw ithoutPortfolio-aciv ilianChiefofStaff
w ithoutmuchofastaffofhisow nb utw ithconstantaccesstothe
Presid ent'smind and toalltheofficialintelligenceav ailab letothat
mind -anad v iseronpolicyfreed ofthespecialinterestsand prej ud ices
imposed onanyofficerw hohad specialresponsib ilityforanyonephase
ofthetotalgov ernmenteffort.Hopkinscameasclosetofillingthat
postasw aspossib leinv iew ofthefactthathehad nolegalauthority

w hatev erforit.Roosev eltcould d elegateallsortsofauthoritytohim,
b utanyCab inetmemb erw how anted toignorethiscould d oso,on
firmlegalground s,and mostofthemd id .Theex traord inaryfactw as
thatthesecond mostimportantind iv id ualintheUnited StatesGov -
ernmentd uringthemostcriticalperiod ofthew orld 'sgreatestw ar
had nolegitimateofficialpositionnorev enanyd eskofhisow nex cept
acard tab leinhisb ed room.How ev er,theb ed roomw asintheWhite
House .
AsIhav esaid ,Hopkinsd id notoriginatepolicyand thenconv ince
Roosev eltitw asright
.Hehad toomuchintelligenceasw ellasrespect
.Hemad eithisj ob to
prov id easound ingb oard ford iscussionsoftheb estmeansofattaining
thegoalsthatthePresid entsetforhimself.Roosev eltliked tothinkout
loud ,b uthisgreatestd ifficultyw asfind ingalistenerw how asb oth
und erstand ingahd entirelytrustw orthy .Thatw asHopkins-and this
w astheprocessthatRosenmanand Iw atched ov erand ov eragainin
thepreparationofthespeechesand messagesinw hichRoosev eltmad e
know nhispoliciestothenationand tothew orld
.Thew orkthatw as
putinonthese'speechesw asprod igious,forRoosev eltw ithhisacute
senseofhistoryknew thatallofthosew ord sw ould constitutetheb ulk
oftheestatethathew ould leav etoposterityand thathisultimatemeas-
urementw ould d epend
on thereconciliationofw hathesaid w ithw hat
hed id
.Therefore,utmostimportancew asattached tohispub licutter-
ancesand utmostcareex ercised intheirpreparation .Intheprev ious
chapterIhav ementioned theClev eland speechw hichtookanightand
ad aytoprepare,b utsuchspeed inpreparationw asunusual,ev enfor
acampaignspeech,w hichw asnecessarilyacreatureofthemoment
importantspeechessometimesreq uired aw eekormoreofhard lab or,
w ithaconsid erab leamountofplanningb eforetheintensiv ew orkstarted .
Id on'tknow w hatw astherecord numb erofd istinctd raftsofasingle
speechb utitmusthav eb eenw ellov ertw elv e,and inthefinald raft
theremightnotb eonesentencethathad surv iv ed fromthefirstd raft
Therew ereofcoursenumerousroutinespeechesofaceremonialnature
w hichw erenotconsid ered ofmaj orsignificance-b ut,inw artime,ev en
theseRoosev eltw asaw arethathehad aw orld aud ienceand that
ev erythinghesaid mightb ematerialforthepropagand aw hichflood ed
theairw av es
.Ifsuchaspeechw ereopeningaBond Driv e,afirst
d raftw ould b eprepared intheTreasuryDepartment
; ifitw erelaunch-
inganew campaignforfund sfortheRed Cross,theCommunityChest,
NationalBrotherhood Week,etc
.,theorganiz ationconcerned w ould
send insuggestionsastow hatitw anted thePresid enttosay
.Thissub -
mitted materialw asalmostalw ayssorhetorical,sostud iouslyliterary,
thatitd id notsound atalllikeRoosev elt'snormalstyleand ithad to
b esub j ected totheprocessofsimplificationorev enov ersimplification
19 4 1

thathed emand ed .Hew ashappiestw henhecould ex presshimselfin
thehomeliest,ev entritestphrases,suchas" commonorgard en," " clear
ascrystal," " ruleofthumb ," " neitherherenorthere," " armchairstrate-
gists," or" simpleasABC."
Whenhew anted togiv easpeechforsomeimportantpurpose,w hether
itw asconnected w ith a specialoccasionornot,hew ould d iscussit
firstatlengthw ithHopkins,Rosenmanand me,tellingusw hatpar-
ticularpointshew anted tomake,w hatsortofaud iencehew ished
primarilytoreachand w hatthemax imumw ord limitw astob e( he
generallyputitfartoolow ) .Hew ould d ictatepagesand pages,ap-
proachinghismaintopic,sometimeshittingitsq uarelyonthenosew ith
terrificimpact,sometimesramb lingsofaraw ayfromitthathecould n't
getb ack,inw hichcasehew ould say," Well-somethingalongthose
lines-youb oyscanfix itup ." Ithinkhegreatlyenj oyed thesesessions,
w henhefeltfreetosayanythinghepleased ,utteringallkind sof
personalinsults,w iththeknow led gethatnoneofitneed appearinthe
finalv ersion .Whenhestopped d ictating,b ecauseanotherappointment
w asd ueoritw astimetogotob ed ,w ew ould gototheCab inetRoom
intheWestWingand startread ingthroughalltheassemb led material .
ThePresid entkeptaspecial" SpeechFold er" intow hichheputnew s-
paperclippingsthathehad marked ,ind icatingeitherhisapprov alof
somesentimentex pressed orind ignationthatsuchfalsehood should get
intoprint( hecould notalw aysrememb erw hatthemarkingsignified ) .
Therew erealsoallsortsoflettersfromallsortsofpeople,know nand
unknow n,containingsuggestionsastow hatheshould say,and there
w ererand omb itsofhisow nd ictation,thoughtsthathad sud d enly
occurred tohimd uringpreced ingd aysand w eeksw hichmightb euse-
fulsometime .Allofthismaterialw assifted ,and ad d ed tothenew ly
d ictated materialw iththeaid ofscissorsand pasteand afew connecting
clauses,untilsomethingresemb lingacoherentspeechw asputtogether
and faircopiesofitmad e .Itw asgenerallytw oorthreetimestoolong .
WhenthePresid entw asfreetoseeusagain,w ehand ed himthisd raft
and helooked immed iatelyatthelastpagetoseeitsnumb er,w here-
uponheannounced thatatleastninety-tw opercentofitmustb ecut.
Hethenstarted toread throughit,pausingfreq uentlytod ictate" Insert
A," " InsertG," etc.Eachtimehed ecid ed tod ictatesomethinghesaid ,
" Grace-takealaw ," alineheglad lyb orrow ed fromtheKaufman-Hart-
Rod gersmusicalshow ," I'd RatherBeRight," inw hichGeorgeM .
Cohanplayed thepartofFranklinD
.Roosev elt
.ThePresid enthimself
had nev erseenthisshow b utheenj oyed w hatheheard ab outit
Whenhehad finished d ictatinginserts,thespeechw asfarlonger
thanithad b eenand fartherfromanycoherentform.Wethenreturned
totheCab inetRoomand started asecond d raft.Thisprocessw enton
d ayand night.Sometimes,w hilethew orkw asinprogress,ev entsw ould

interv ene-forinstance : onaSund ayev eninginJuly,
19 4 3,
w ew ere
atShangri-lafinishingupaspeechd ev oted primarilytohome-front
prob lems-pricestab iliz ation,rationing,manpow er,etc.-w hennew s
cameofthefallofBenitoMussolini,and thespeechhad tob estarted
all ov eragain
; this,how ev er,w asapleasureforall
MostofRoosev elt'sw orkonspeechesw asd oned uringtheev ening .
Wew ould gatherforthestand ard cocktailceremonyintheOv alStud y
at7 : 15
.ThePresid entsatb ehind hisd esk,thetrayb eforehim.He
mix ed theingred ientsw iththed elib erationofanalchemistb utw ith
w hatappeared tob eacertainlackofprecisionsincehecarried ona
stead yconv ersationw hiled oingit.Hisb ourb onold -fashioned sw ere
ex cellent,b utId id notcareforhisMartinis,inw hichheused tw o
kind sofv ermouth( w henhehad them)and sometimesad ashof
ab sinthe .Hopkinsoccasionallytalked himintomakingScotchw hisky
sours,althoughhed id n'treallylikethem
cheeseorfishpasteonsmallcirclesoftoastw ereserv ed ,alsopopcorn .
Roosev eltw asanex tremelymild d rinker-hed id nothav ew inew ith
mealsex ceptatlarge,formald inners,and Id on'trecallev erhav ing
seenhimd rinkb rand yorotherliq ueursorahighb all ; b uthecertainly
lov ed thecocktailperiod and thestreamofsmalltalkthatw entw ithit.
Dinnerw asgenerallyserv ed inthestud yab out7 : 4 5 .Itillb ecomes
aguesttosayso,b uttheWhiteHousecuisined id notenj oyav ery
.Thefood w asplentifuland ,w hensimple,good -b ut
thechefhad atend encytorunamuckonfancysalad s .Therew asone
fav oriteinparticularw hichresemb led theprod uctionsonefind sinthe
flossiertypeofteashoppe : itw asamountainofmayonnaise,slicesof
canned pineapple,carv ed rad ishes,etc.Itw asserv ed freq uentlyand
eachtimethePresid entmerelylooked atitand shookhishead and
murmured sad ly," No,thankyou ." Oncew henthishappened ,Sam
Rosenmanlaughed and said ," Mr .Presid ent,you'v eb eeninthisHouse
foreightyears,and forallIknow you'llb ehereeightyearsmore-b ut
they'llnev ergiv euptryingtopersuad eyoutofind outw hatthat
salad reallytasteslike ." Roosev eltw asalw aysgratefulford elicacies,
particularlygame,w hichfriend ssentintoenliv enhisd iet.Inev er
heard himcomplainab outfood oranythingelseinthew ayofserv ice,
b uthe,d id complainb itterlyab outthesecuritysuperv isionofev ery
articleoffood senttohim.Oncehesaid ," Ihappentob ev eryfond of
roasted peanuts .Butifsomeb od yw anted tosend meab agofpeanuts,
theSecretServ icew ould hav etoX-rayitand theDepartmentofAgri-
culturew ould hav etoopenev eryshelland testev erykernelforpoison
orhighex plosiv es .So,tosav etroub le,theyw ould j ustthrow theb ag
aw ayand nev ertellmeab outit." Deeplymov ed b ythis,Rosenmanand
Iw enttothecornerofPennsylv aniaAv enueand _ 25 thStreetand
19 4 1

b oughtalargeb agofpeanutsand sneaked itintothePresid ent.He
putitund erhiscoatand atethew holecontents .
Afterd innerhesatonthecouchtotheleftofthefireplace,hisfeet
uponthestoolspeciallyb uiltforhim,and started read ingthelatest
speechd raft.GraceTullysatnex ttohim,takingmored ictationuntil
DorothyBrad yorToinetteBacheld ercameintoreliev eher .Some-
timesRoosev eltread thespeechoutloud ,toseehow itsound ed ,for
ev eryw ord w asj ud ged notb yitsappearanceinprintb utb yitseffectiv e-
nessov ertherad io .Ab out 10 o'clock,atrayw ithd rinksw asb rought
in.ThePresid entsometimeshad aglassofb eerb utmoreoftena
horse'sneck( gingeraleand lemonpeel) .Hew asb ynow yaw ningand
losinginterestinthespeechand heusuallyw enttob ed b eforeelev en .
Duringtheseev eningsessions,thetelephonealmostnev errang
and thenad ispatchmightb eb roughtin,w hichRoosev eltw ould read
and passontoHopkinsw ithoutaw ord orachangeofex pression,b ut
otherw iseonew ould hav ethoughtthishousethemostpeaceful,remote
retreatinaw ar-w racked w orld .
Afterleav ingtheStud y,w ew ould spend mostofthenightinthe
Cab inetRoomprod ucinganotherd raftw hichw ould gotothePresid ent
w ithhisb reakfastinthemorning .Sometimesw ew ould send acallfor
helptoArchib ald MacLeish,Lib rarianofCongress,w how ould comein
lateatnighttohelpb ringad iffusespeechintofocus .Morethanonce,
b eforetheWhiteHousew ind ow sw ereb lacked outafterPearlHarb or,
Mrs .Roosev eltsaw thelightsb urningintheCab inetRoomat3 : oo A.M.
and telephoned d ow ntotellusw ew erew orkingtoohard and should go
tob ed
.Ofcourse,thefactw asthatsheherselfw assittingupw orking
atthathour .
Wehad togetupearlyinthemorningtob eread yforsummonsin
casethePresid entw anted tow orkonthespeechb eforehisfirstappoint-
ment.Wegenerallyhad b reakfastontraysinHopkins'roomand itw as
.Thed raftthathad b eencompleted afew
hoursprev iouslylooked aw fulinthemorninglightand thej ud gment
onitthatw emostoftenex pressed w as," Ionlyhopethatthereputation
ofFranklinDelanoRoosev eltd oesnotd epend onthisterrib lespeech ."
AfterthesessioninthePresid ent'sb ed room,Rosenmanand Iw ent
ov ertotheCab inetRoomtoaw aitthesummons .Thesignalb ellsan-
nounced thePresid ent'sapproachtohisofficeand w estood b ythe
Frenchw ind ow slead ingouttothecolonnad eand w atched himgob y
inhisarmless,cushionless,uncomfortab lew heelchair,pushed b yhis
Negrov alet,ChiefPettyOfficerArthurPrettyman .Accompanyinghim
w asthed etailofSecretServ icemen,someofthemcarryingthelarge,
ov erflow ingw ireb asketsofpapersonw hichhehad b eenw orkingthe
nightb eforeand thed ispatchesthathad comeinthatmorning.When
Falacameab reastofthew heelchairasitrolled along,Roosev eltw ould

reachd ow nand scratchhisneck .Thisprogresstothed ay'sw orkb ya
crippled manw asasighttostirthemosttorpid imagination ; forhere
w asaclearglimpseoftheRoosev eltthatthepeopleb eliev ed himtob e
-thechinup,thecigarettehold ertilted atw hatw asalw aysd escrib ed
as" aj auntyangle" and theairofirrepressib leconfid encethatw hatev er
prob lemsthed aymightb ring,hew ould find aw aytohand lethem.The
factthatthisconfid encew asnotalw aysj ustified mad eitnonetheless
authenticand reassuring .
WhenIsaw thePresid entgob yonthesemornings,Ifeltthatnob od y
w how orked forhimhad arighttofeeltired
.Thatw asnotanunusual
feeling :
itw entallthroughthew artimeAd ministrationinWashington,
ex tend ingtoallsortsofpeople,someofw homd isagreed w ithhim
politicallyand mostofw homnev erlaid eyesonhim.Itw as,Ithink,
HenryPringlew ho,w henw orkinginagov ernmentagencyshortly
afterPearlHarb or,suggested asaw allsloganforb ureaucrats'offices

Thespeecheshad tob echecked and counterchecked w ithv ariousd e-
partmentsand agencies,mostofallw iththeArmyand Nav y ; many
speechesthatw eresentov ertotheWarDepartmentcameb ackw ith
correctionsand suggestionspenciled inthehand w ritingofGeneral
Marshall .Thew orkoftheso-called " ghostw riters" consisted largelyof
thepainstaking,ard uousv erificationoffactsand figures .Wefelt," The
New YorkTimes canmakemistakesthe
World Almanac
mistakes-b utthePresid entoftheUnited Statesmustnotmakemis-
takes ." Thisconstantthoughtimposed aharrow ingresponsib ility.
After19 4 0 ,theWhiteHousehad itsresid entstatistician-Isad or
Lub in,theCommissionerofLab orStatistics,w how asconstantlyav ail-
ab leand incalculab lyv aluab letoRoosev eltand toHopkinsinchecking
ev eryd ecimalpoint,
Althoughthespeechesw ereusuallyseeninad v anceb ytheWarand
Nav yDepartmentsand sometimes( thoughnotalw ays)b ytheState
Department,theyw erekeptotherw iseund erclosew rapsofsecrecy .
Therew erealw aysv ariouseminentofficialsw how anted toknow w hat
thePresid entw asgoingtosay
.Theyw ereparticularlyanx ioustomake
surethathew asgoingtoinclud ethesev eralpagesofmaterialthat
theyhad sub mitted ontheirow nparticulard epartments .Theyknew
theycould getnow herew ithHopkinsintheirq uestofinsid einforma-
; sotheyconcentrated onRosenman,w how ould fob themoffw ith
themisstatementthat," ThePresid entisw eighingthatinhismind right
." Weused tod eriv eenj oymentfromthethoughtofv ariousim-
portantpersonagesaround WashingtonlisteningtothePresid ential
b road castsand then,asthestrainsof" TheStarSpangled Banner"
b rokeoutatthefinish,cursing," Hed id n'tuse a w ord ofthatstuffthat
Isenthim." Itw asev enmoreenj oyab letopicturetheamaz ed ex pres-
19 4 1

sionofsomeanonymouscitiz eninCouncilBluffsw hohad w rittena
lettertothePresid entand thenheard somethingfromthatletterin-
corporated inaFiresid eChat.
Onthefinaltw od aysofpreparationofaspeechRoosev eltw ould
reallyb uckled ow ntoseriousw orkand thenw hathad seemed aform-
less,aimlessmessofw ord sw ould b egintoassumetautnessand sharp-
ness .Hestud ied ev eryimplicationforitseffectonv ariousgroupsinthe
nationand onalliesand enemiesand neutrals .Hepaid agreatd ealof
attentiontothepunctuation,notforitscorrectnessb utforitsaid or
hind rancetohiminread ingthespeechaloud .GraceTullyliked toinsert
agreatmanycommas,and thePresid entlov ed tostrikethemout
oncesaid toher," Grace ! How manytimesd oIhav etotellyounotto
w astethetax payers'commas? " Heliked d ashes,w hichw erev isual
aid s,and hated semicolonsand parentheses .Id on'tthinkheev erused
thesonorousphrase," And Iq uote-
." Ifhehad tohav eq uotation
marks,hed id notrefertothem,know ingtheyw ould appearinthe
printed v ersion .
Inthefinald raftofaspeech,ev eryw ord w ascounted and Roosev elt
finallyd ecid ed theprecisenumb erthathew ould b eab letocrow d into
thirtyminutes .Hissenseoftimingw asphenomenal .Hisnormalrate
w asioow ord saminute,b uthew ould say," Therearesomeparagraphs
inthisspeechthatIcantakeq uicklysoIcanhand leatotalof 3,15 0
w ord s" -and thatd id notmean 3,16 2 . Atothertimes,hew ould feel
thathehad tob ed elib erateinhisd eliv eryand thew ord sw ould hav eto
b ecutto 2,8 0 0 . Thiscuttingw asthemostd ifficultw orkofallb ecause,
b ythetimew ehad cometotheninthortenthd raft,w efeltsurethe
speechhad b eenb oiled d ow ntotheultimatemonosyllab le .Roosev elt's
estimatesw ererarelyoffmorethanasplitsecond onhisb road casts .
Speechesb eforeaud iencesw ered ifficulttoestimate,ofcourse,b ecause
crow d responsesareunpred ictab le,b uthew asgenerallyaccurateev enon
these .IntheTeamsters'speech,theroarsoflaughterand applausew ere
sofreq uentand prolonged thatthespeechransomefifteenminutesov er-
time,b utthatd id notupsetRoosev eltatalld espitethefactthat,since
itw asacampaignspeech,theDemocraticNationalCommitteehad to
paytheheav yex cesscharges .
Whenaspeechw asfinallyclosed up,ab outsix o'clockintheev ening,
thePresid entw asw heeled ov ertoDr.McIntire'sofficeforthesinus
treatmentsthatw erearegularpartofhisd ay
.Thenhew entupstairs
forcocktailsand d inner,afterw hichhechatted orw orked onhis
correspond ence or
hisstampalb ums,w ithoutseemingtogiv emuch
attentiontothefinalread ingcopyofhisspeechw hichw astyped on
speciallimppaper,toav oid rustlingnoisesasheturned thepages,and
b ound inab lackleatherloose-leaffold er .Butw henhestarted tob road -
castheseemed toknow itb yheart.Whenhelooked d ow nathis

manuscript,hew asusuallynotlookingatthew ord shew asthenspeak-
ingb utatthenex tparagraphtod eterminew herehew ould puthis
pausesand w hichofhislargeassortmentofinflectionshew ould em-
ploy .Asonew hohashad consid erab leex perienceinthetheater,I
marv eled attheunfailingprecisionw ithw hichhemad ehispoints,his
graceinreconcilingthesub limew iththerid iculous,asthoughhehad
b eenrehearsingtheselinesforw eeksand d eliv eringthemb eforeaud i-
encesformonths .Thosew how orked w ithhimonspeechesw erealltoo
w ellaw arethathew asnoslav etohisprepared tex t
.Hecould and d id
ad -lib atw ill,and thatw assomethingw hichalw aysamused himgreatly
Duringthed aysofpreparation,Hopkins,Rosenmanand Iw ould some-
timesuniteinoppositiontosomeline,usuallyofaj ocosenature,w hich
thePresid entw anted toinclud e .Itw asourd utytomakeev eryeffort
toav oid b eingyesmenand sow ekeptathimuntilw ehad persuad ed
himthatthelineshould b ecutout; b ut,ifhereallyliked itw ellenough,
hew ould keepitinmind and thenad -lib it,and laterw ould b efullof
apologiestousforhis" unfortunateslipofthetongue ." Hew asalmost
alw aysimmenselygood humored ab outtheargumentsw eoffered him
-heliked toappearpersecuted and complainthat" Theyw on'tlet
mesayanythingofmyow ninmyow nspeech." Therew eretimes,
how ev er,w henhew asw ornoutand angered b ysomethingelseand
thenhew ould b ecantankerousw ithusb ecausew ew eretheonlycon-
v enienttargets ; w elearned thatonsuchoccasionsitw asb esttoshutup
and torev iv eourargumentslaterafterhehad had somerestand feltmore
amiab le .Referringagaintomyex perienceinthetheater,Icantestifythat
hew asnormallythemostuntemperamentalgeniusIhav eev eren-
countered .Thatisoneofthereasonsw hyhew asab letosleepsow ell
Duringthecampaignof19 4 0 ,CarlSand b urgcametocallatthe
WhiteHouseand had alongtalkw iththePresid entw hosaid tohim,
" Whyd on'tyougod ow ntoMissyLeHand 'sofficeand d ictatesome
ofthethingsyou'v ej ustb eensayingtome? " Sand b urgd id soand said ,
TheGettysb urgspeechofAb rahamLincolnorthefarew ellad d ress
ofRob ertE.LeetohisArmy,w ould b e,inourAmericanstreet
talk," j ustalotofw ord s," unlessw elookb ehind thew ord s,unless
w eseew ord sthrow inglongshad ow s-and outoftheshad ow sarises
themysteryofmanconsecrated tomysticcauses . . . .
Ifw egob ackacrossAmericanhistoryw efind thatasanation
amongtheothernationsofthew orld thiscountryhasnev erkept
silenceastow hatitstand sfor .Forahund red and fiftyyearsand more
w ehav etold thew orld thattheAmericanRepub licstand sfora
certainw ayoflife
.Nomatterw hathappened tothemapofEurope,
nomatterw hatchangesofgov ernmentand systemsw entonthere,
19 4 1

nomatterw hatold thronesand d ynastiescrashed tomakew ayfor
somethingelse,nomatterw hatnew philosophiesand orb itsofinfluence
w ereproclaimed ,Americanev erkeptsilence.
Despitehisstrenuousav oid anceofsolemnity,and thefriv olousness
and irrelev anceofhissmalltalkw henhew asofftherecord ,Roosev elt
knew thathew asthev oiceofAmericatotherestofthew orld
d arkestd aysb eforeand afterPearlHarb orheex pressed thehopesof
civ iliz ed humanity
.Churchill'sw asthegallantv oiceoftheunconq uer-
ab lew arrior,b utRoosev elt'sw asthev oiceoflib eration,thereassurance
ofthed ignityofman
.Hisb uoyancy,hiscourage,hisconfid encerenew ed
hopeinthosew hofeared thattheyhad forev erlostit
.Roosev eltseemed
totakehisspeecheslightly,b utnooneknew b etterthanhethat,once
hehad themicrophoneb eforehim,hew asspeakingfortheeternal
record -hisw ord sw ere,asSand b urgsaid ," throw inglongshad ow s
Inaforew ord toananthologyofRoosev eltspeeches,HarryHopkins
w rote
Roosev eltmad emanygreatspeeches .Butsomew erenotsogood .
Heoccasionallyd id nottry,b ecausehew asfranklyb ored .APresid ent
oftheUnited Stateshastospeakmanytimesonsub j ectsw hichd o
.Hew ould prefertoread ab ookorgotob ed .
Thisw asparticularlytrueofthelasttw oyearsofRoosev elt'slife,
w henhemad ej ustasfew speechesaspossib leand rarelyappeared th
takeagreatd ealofinterestinthosethathed id make .Thetime
challengew henw ord sw eretheonlyw eaponshad atlastpassed and great
and terrib leev entsw erespeakingforthemselv es .Heseemed torelax
tosav ehimselfforthetimew henev entsw ould ceaseand w ord sw ould
againb ecometheinstrumentsofinternationalpolitics .
TheGard enHose
MMEDIATELYafterelectiond ay,themaj orprob lemconfronting
Roosev eltw asonethathad notb eenmentioned eitherb yhim
or b y
Willkied uringthecampaigns :
GreatBritainw asonthev ergeofb ank-
ruptcyintermsofd ollarcred its
.Herb alancesw hichhad amounted to
fourand ahalfb illiond ollarsb eforethew arw eregone,includ ingthe
hold ingsinAmericaofBritishind iv id ualsw hichhad b eenex propriated
b yHisMaj esty'sGov ernmentand liq uid ated
.Itw asob v iousthatBritain
could notsurv iv emuchlongerw ithoutsuppliesfromtheUnited States
and ,und erthe" Cashand
.Carry" law ,shecould notob tainthesesupplies
w ithoutd ollars
.Intheend lessd iscussionsofthisprob lemRoosev elt
b egantosay," Wemustfind somew aytoleaseorev enlend thesegood s
totheBritish," and fromthiscamethev astconceptw hichChurchill
laterd escrib ed as" anew MagnaCarta
. . . themostunselfishand
unsord id financialactofanycountryinallhistory
Inmid -Nov emb ertheGermanAirForce,d efeated intheBattleof
Britain,gav eashockingd emonstrationofitspow erintheintense
raid onCov entryinw hichmorethanathousand peoplew erekilled or
w ound ed
.Thissaturationb omb ingw asex tend ed tooneBritishtow n
afteranother,thepropagand istsinBerlinb oastingthatthew hole
island w astob esystematically" Cov entryiz ed ," w hiletheBlitz on
Lond oncontinued w ithd ead lymonotony
.Tow ard theend ofNov emb er,
theBritishAmb assad or,Lord Lothian,returned toWashingtonfrom
atriptoLond onand saw thePresid ent.Atapressconference( on
Nov emb er26 )Roosev eltw asasked
Question . Mr
.Presid ent,d id theBritishAmb assad orpresentany
specificreq uestsforad d itionalhelp?
ThePresid ent.I
amsorry,Ishallhav etod isappointq uiteanumb er

ofpapers ;
nothingw asmentioned inthatregard atall,notonesingle
thing-shipsorsealingw ax oranythingelse .
( Laughter)
Itisd oub tfulthatLord ,Lothianw asgreatlyamused atthetime,for
hiscountry'sstockw asv erylow and Roosev eltd id notappeartob ein
anyhurryincomingtotherescue .Therehad b eenanotab leBritish
v ictoryintheMed iterraneanw hend iv eb omb ersoftheRoyalNav yAir
Arminflicted heav yd amageonItalianshipslyinginapparentsecurity
attheirTarantob ase .( Thisaction,b ythew ay,mighthav eprov id ed an
intimationofw hatcould happenatPearlHarb or .)Itw asw ellknow n
inBritishGov ernmentcirclesthatGeneralSirArchib ald Wav ell,com-
mand ingtheBritishforcesinEgypt,had b eenso,stronglyreinforced
w ithtroopsand tanksand aircraftfromtheUnited Kingd omthathe
w asread ytotaketheoffensiv eagainsttheItaliansand d riv einto
Lib ya.How ev er,itw asimpossib letob egreatlyimpressed b yv ictories
ov erMussolini'sreluctantlegions,w how erethenb eingsub j ected toa
sev ereand humiliatingmaulingb ythesurprisingGreekArmy .The
Germanmonsterremained ,relativ elyq uietonland forthemoment,
b utalw aysab sorb ingnew strengthw hilepreparingforthed eliv eryof
thenex td ev astatingattack .Anyand alllocalv ictoriesthatmightb e
gained intheMed iterraneanw ould b einconseq uentialunlesstheUnited
Statesw eretoprov id eformid ab leaid b eforethe" inv asionseason"
should b ereopened ontheEnglishChannelinthespring .
Itseemed tosomealarmed BritishofficialsthatRoosev elt,follow ing
hisv ictoryatthepolls,had lostinterestinthew arsituation-or,atany
rate,w asb lithelyw astingthetimethatw asrunningsoshort.On
Decemb er
thePresid entleftWashingtonascarefreeasyoupleasefor
aCarib b eancruiseon U.S.S. Tuscaloosa, takingw ithhimonlyhis
immed iatestaff-PaWatson,Dr
.McIntireand CaptainCallaghan-
w ithHarryHopkinsastheonlyguest,and itw asnoted thattheparty
includ ed nooneq ualified toad v iseorev enconsultonthegriev ous
prob lemsofEuropeand theFarEast.TheWhiteHouseannounced
thatthemainpurposeofthecruisew ould b etoinspectsomeofthenew
b asesitesrecentlyacq uired intheWestInd ies,b utthosemostfamiliar
w ithRoosev elt'sv acationhab itssuspected thatsuchinspectionsmightb e
somew hatd esultoryand superficialand thatthemainb usinessofeach
d ayw ould b efishing,b askinginthesunand spoofingw ithcronies .This
impressionw asb orneoutb ythescrapsofnew ssentb ackb ythethree
pressassociationrepresentativ esonthetrip-ThomasF
.Reynold s,
DouglasB.Cornelland GeorgeE
.Durno .Itseemed thatthiscruise
w asab outthesameasallothersw henRoosev elthad nothinggrav er
tow orryab outthantheHopkins-Ickesfeud .
AtGuantanamoBay,alargestockofCub ancigarsw aspurchased

AtJamaica,St.Luciaand Antigua,thePresid ententertained British
colonialofficialsand theirlad iesatlunch
.OffEleutheraIsland hew as
v isited b ytheDukeofWind sor,Gov ernorGeneraloftheBahamas
hetold theDukethatw hattheBritishneed ed mostintheirWest
Ind iancoloniesw assomethingalongthelinesoftheCiv ilianConserv ation
Therew asoneseriousmeetingw henthe
Tuscaloosa laytoj ustoutsid e
theterritorialw atersofMartiniq ueand theU
.S.Nav alOb serv erthere
and theConsulcameab oard togiv ethePresid entafirsthand reporton
cond itionsonthatpotentiallyd angerousFrenchisland
: Duringthisb rief
conferencemanyonb oard the
Tuscaloosa w erefocusingtheirb inoculars
Bearn, lyingintheharb orofFort-d e-France,an
ominoussymb oloftheFrench" fleetinb eing" w hichw asstillund erthe
flimsycontroloftheVichyGov ernment
Accord ingtocustom,ev eningsonb oard shipw ered ev oted eitherto
pokergamesortomov ies,thelatterinclud ing" Northw estMounted
Police," starringGaryCooper,PauletteGod d ard and Mad eleineCarroll ;
" ILov eYouAgain," w ithWilliamPow elland MyrnaLoy
; " They
Knew WhatTheyWanted ," w ithCaroleLomb ard and Charles
Laughton ; " Ariz ona," w ithJeanArthurand WilliamHold en
; and " Tin
PanAlley," w ithAliceFayeand BettyGrab le-thelastq uitenaturally
b eingthefav oritew iththecrew
Therecord softhefishingonthiscruisew ereprettyunimpressiv e
Thelargestcatchb yfarw asatw enty-pound grouperw hichw ashooked
b yHopkins,b uthed id nothav ethestrengthtoreelitinand turned
therod ov ertoDr.McIntire
.Arad iomessagew asreceiv ed from
ErnestHemingw aysayingthatmanyb igfishhad b eencaughtona
stretchofMonaPassageb etw eentheDominicanRepub licand Puerto
Rico ; thePresid enttraw led hereforanhourormore,usingafeathered
hookb aited w ithapieceofporkrind asd irected b yHemingw ay,b uthe
failed togetastrike .
Atstated pointsalongtherouteNav yseaplanesland ed alongsid ethe
and d eliv ered theWhiteHousemail,includ ingtheq uantities
of,StatepapersforthePresid ent'ssignature
.Oneofthesed eliv eries,
onthemorningofDecemb er9 ,b roughtalongletterfromWinston
Churchill .
Inupw ard sof 4 ,0 0 0
w ord s,Churchillcov ered theb road pictureand
mostminuted etailsofthew arsituationfromtheNorthSeatoGib raltar
toSuez toSingapore
.Hed ealtatgreatlengthw iththecriticalprob lems
ofprod uctionand shippingand ex plained thed angerstob othfrom
thepersistentattacksb yb omb ersand U-b oats
.Hestated Britain's
presentfinancialpositioninafew ,b luntw ord s
.Heasked formore
d estroyerseitherb yaprocessofgiftorloan
.Heconclud ed this
memorab led ocumentw ithanex pressionofconfid encethattheAmerican

nationw ould supportBritain'scauseand meetherurgentneed s,b uthe
offered nosuggestionsastohow thePresid entw astogoab outaccom-
plishingallthisw iththeCongressand thepeople .
ThismessagefromthePrimeMinisterhad aprofound effecton
Roosev elt,and itfilled Hopkinsw ithad esiretogettoknow Churchill
and tofind outhow muchofhimw asmeregrand iloq uenceand how much
ofhimw ashard fact.
Threed aysafterRoosev eltread thatletter,hereceiv ed arad iomessage
fromSecretaryHullinforminghimofthesud d end eathofLord
.Roosev eltimmed iatelysentamessagethroughtheState
DepartmenttoKingGeorgeVIinw hichhesaid thathew asshocked
b eyond measuretohearofthed eathofhisold friend ,and thathew as
certainthatthelastmessagethatLord Lothianw ould w ishtogiv eto
thew orld w asthatv ictorymustand w illcomeinthisw ar
Thisw asnoperfunctoryex pressionofroutineregret
.Lord Lothian
had b eenanotab lysuccessfulAmb assad or .ALib eraland acloseassoci-
ateofLloyd GeorgeintheFirstWorld War,hew asw ellq ualified to
talkRoosev elt'slanguageand ,inturn,tointerpretRoosev elttoChurchill .
Hehad b eenab letound erstand ,asalessflex ib leBritonmighthav e
failed tod o,themanifold d omesticob staclesthatb esetRoosev elt'spath
and hemostscrupulouslyav oid ed ad d ingtothePresid ent'semb arrass-
mentsb ymakingex cessiv e,impatientd emand s .Hislossatthisparticular
momentw asasev ereone,forheseemed almostirreplaceab le
Thefollow ingd ay,w henhomew ard b ound ,Roosev eltheld apress
conferencew iththethreecorrespond ents,and talked affab lyab outsome
ofthead v antagesand d isad v antagesthathehad noted inthev ariousb ase
sitesv isited ,b uthegav ethemnothinginthew ayofnew scalculated to
causetheslightestex citementintheirhomeoffices .Itstillseemed that
hehad spenttw ow eeksinastateoftotalrelax ationand utterind ifference
tow ard theprospectsofw orld calamity .
That,how ev er,w asonlyasitseemed .
Hopkinssaid later," Id id n'tknow forq uiteaw hilew hathew as
thinkingab out,ifanything
.Butthen-Ib egantogettheid eathathe
w asrefueling,thew ayhesooftend oesw henheseemstob eresting
and carefree .SoId id n'taskhimanyq uestions
.Then,oneev ening,he
sud d enlycameoutw ithit-thew holeprogram
.Hed id n'tseemtohav e
anyclearid eahow itcould b ed onelegally
.Buttherew asn'tad oub t
inhismind thathe'd find aw aytod oit."
That" refueling" processw asav italfunctionforRoosev elt.Nob od y
thatIknow ofhasb eenab letogiv eanyconv incingex planationofhow
itoperated .Hed id notseemtotalkmuchab outthesub j ectinhand ,
ortoconsultthead v iceofothers,orto" read up" onit.Onthisoccasion
hehad Churchill'sremarkab lelettertoprov id efood forthought
; b ut
this-thoughitw asamasterlystatementoftheprob lemsinv olv ed ,of

w hichRoosev eltw asalread yq uitew ellaw are-presented nokeytothe
solutionotherthananex pressionofconfid encethat" w aysand means
w illb efound ."
OnecanonlysaythatRoosev elt,acreativ eartistinpolitics,had put
inhistimeonthiscruiseev olv ingthepatternofamasterpiece,and once
hecould seeitclearlyinhisow nmind 'seye,hemad eitq uicklyand v ery
OnDecemb eri6 ,hereturned toWashington,tanned and ex ub erant
and j aunty .Thenex td ay,heheld apressconference,startingoffw ith
hisusualstatementthat," Id on'tthinkthereisanyparticularnew s . . . ."
Hav ingthuspav ed thew ay,hesaid ," Thereisab solutelynod oub tin
themind ofav eryov erw helmingnumb erofAmericansthattheb est
immed iated efenseoftheUnited StatesisthesuccessofBritainin
d efend ingitself ." Thenhej umped b acktotheoutb reakoftheFirst
World Warand told ananecd oteattheex penseofb ankersonthe
BarHarb orEx press
." Inallhistory," hesaid ," nomaj orw arhas
ev erb eenlostthroughlackofmoney
." Hew entontosaythatsome
peoplethoughtw eshould lend moneytoBritainforthepurchaseof
Americanmateriel,w hileotherpeoplethoughtw eshould d eliv eritas
.Roosev eltd escrib ed thiskind ofthinkingas" b anal
( Actually,therew erev eryfew peoplew hoseriouslymad esuchrid iculous
suggestions,neitheroneofw hichw ould hav estood achanceinCongress ;
b utRoosev eltb roughtthemintohisintrod uctiontoshow w hata
reasonab lemid d le-of-the-road erhereallyw as
.)Hesaid ,
Now ,w hatIamtryingtod oiseliminatethed ollarsign
issomethingb rand new inthethoughtsofev eryb od yinthisroom,
Ithink-getrid ofthesilly,foolish,old d ollarsign
Well,letmegiv eyouanillustration
.Supposemyneighb or'shome
catchesfire,and Ihav ealengthofgard enhose
. . .
Ib eliev eitmayaccuratelyb esaid thatw iththatneighb orlyanalogy,
Roosev eltw onthefightforLend Lease
.Therew eretob etw omonths
ofsomeoftheb itterestd eb atesinAmericanhistory,b utthroughitall
theAmericanpeopleasaw holemaintained theconv ictionthatthere
could n'tb eanythingv eryrad icalorv eryd angerousinthePresid ent's
proposaltolend ourgard enhosetotheBritishw how erefightingso
heroicallyagainstsuchfearfulod d s
.Therew ereprob ab lyv eryfew w ho
had anyex pectationthatw ew ould ev ergetthehoseb ack
; therew as
ind eed ad ev outpopularhopethatthisnew measurew ould eliminatethe
possib ilityofanothertw entyyearsoffruitlessb ickeringand niggling
ov erw ard eb ts .
Follow ingthepressconference,Roosev eltd etermined togoontheair
w ithaFiresid eChattoex plaintheseriousnessofthew arsituation
could notgiv emuchattentiontothespeechuntilafterChristmas,w hich

w asalw aysareal,old -fashioned familyfestiv alintheWhiteHouse,
w ithauntsand uncles,child renand grand child ren,stockingsand pack-
agesgalore,and inv ariab lyahighlyd ramaticread ingb ythePresid entof
AChristmas Carol.
InhismessagetotheAmericanpeoplehesaid ,
" LetusmakethisChristmasamerryoneforthelittlechild reninour
mid st
.Forusofmatureryearsitcannotb emerry
." Thisw ell-meant
statementw asnotreallytrueinRoosev elt'sow ncase
; forhim,w ithhis
superhumanresilience,anyoccasionund eralmostanycircumstances
could b emerry
; IamsurehisChristmasw asmerryw henfirsthew as
felled b yd iseaseand had notyetregained thepow ertomov e .
InthepreparationoftheFiresid eChat( d eliv ered Decemb er29 )
Hopkinsprov id ed thekeyphrasew hichhad alread yb eenused in
somenew spapered itorial
: " Wemustb ethegreatarsenalofd emoc-
." Ihav eb eentold thatthephrasew asoriginated b yWilliamS .
Knud senand alsob yJeanMonnet,b utw hoev eroriginated it,Roosev elt
w astheonew hoproclaimed it
.Therew assomed eb ateatfirstov erits
useb ythePresid ent,sinceitmightseemtopreclud etheev entual
ex tensionofaid totheSov ietUnionortocertainLatinAmerican
" repub lics," b utthephrasew astoogood tob estopped b yanyq uib b les
Roosev eltreallyenj oyed w orkingonthisspeechfor,w iththepolitical
campaignov er,itw asthefirstchancehehad had inmonthsand ev en
yearstospeakhismind w ithcomparativ efreed om
.Hehad ind ulged
himselfonce,six monthsprev iously,inthe" stab intheb ack" reference,
b utthepoliticalconseq uencesofthatw eresoaw kw ard thathehad felt
compelled sub seq uentlytoconfinehimselftothemostnamb y-pamb y
.Now ,forthe
firsttime,hecould mentiontheNaz isb yname .Hecould lashoutagainst
theapostlesofappeasement.He'could say," Wecannotescaped anger,
orthefearofd anger,b ycraw lingintob ed and pullingthecov ersov er
ourhead s ." Hecould speakplainlyonthesub j ectw hichw asalw ays
inhismind -thed isastrousfollyofanyattemptatanegotiated peace
Anationcanhav epeacew iththeNaz isonlyatthepriceoftotal
surrend er . .
Such,ad ictated peacew ould b enopeaceatall .Itw ould b eonly
anotherarmistice,lead ingtothemostgiganticarmamentraceand
themostd ev astatingtrad ew arsin'history . . . .
Allofus,inalltheAmericas,w ould b eliv ingatthepointofaNaz i
gun-agunload ed w ithex plosiv eb ullets,economicasw ellasmilitary .
Thatw asRoosev elt'sprofound b elief .Itw asanessentialessencein
; ; heformulationofallhisw artimepolicies
.Herepeated itov erand ov er
again,b uttherew eremorethanafew intheUnited Statesand inother
countriesw horemained permanentlyconv inced thatBritainw ould hav e

d oneb ettertocometotermsw iththeNaz is,and Chinaw iththew arlord s
ofJapan .
AsRoosev eltsatattheend ofthelongtab leintheCab inetRoom
w orkingonthatspeechand otherspeechesd uringthew aryears,he
w ould lookupattheportraitofWood row Wilson,ov erthemantelpiece .
Thetraged yofWilsonw asalw ayssomew herew ithintherimofhis
consciousness .Roosev eltcould nev erforgetWilson'smistakes, w hich
had b eenmad ew iththenob lestw illinthew orld ,impelled b ythepurest
.Wilsonhad ad v ocated " peacew ithout
v ictory," hehad prod uced theFourteenPointsasab asisonw hich
Germanycould surrend erhonorab ly
.Thev iolationoftheseprinciples
had plagued thepostw arw orld ,had led totheriseofHitlerand a
Second World War,and therew asnomotiv atingforce inallof
Roosev elt'sw artimepoliticalpolicystrongerthanthed eterminationto
prev entrepetitionofthesamemistakes
The" arsenalofd emocracy" speechw asoneofthe mosttightly
packed ofalltheFiresid eChats .Ithad tocov erthemapofthew orld .
Therew ereinnumerab lepointsforinclusion,includ ingthed angerto
Ireland and theAz ores,theaid toGermanyrend ered b ytheSov ietUnion
and Sw ed en,thepresenceofourFleetinthePacific,b ottlenecksinpro-
d uction,theMonroeDoctrineand B-29 s( w hichw erenotmentioned
b yname)
.When,afterd aysand nightsofhard lab or,thespeechw as
insomethinglikeitsfinalform,itw assentov ertotheStateDepartment
forcomment-ofw hichplentyw asforthcoming
suggested insertionsand d eletionsw eremarked onthed raft w itha
red pencil .
Atonepointinthespeech,Roosev eltspokeoftheagents ofthe
fifthcolumnoperatingthroughouttheUnited Statesand LatinAmerica .
Thenfollow ed thesentence," TherearealsoAmericancitiz ens, many of
theminhighplaces,w ho, unw ittinglyinmostcases,areaid ingand
ab ettingthew orkoftheseagents ."
Thew ord sthatIhav eitaliciz ed cameb ackfromtheStateDepartment
circled inred toind icatetheyshould b ecutout.WhenRoosev eltread
thisd raftand saw thatmark,heasked ," Whoputthisred lineinhere? "
Weex plained thattheStateDepartmentsuggested itw ould b ew ellto
d eletethesed angerousw ord s .
" Oh, d o they!" hesaid ." Veryw ell .We'llchangeittoread -'There
arealsoAmericancitiz ens,manyoftheminhigh places-especially
in theStateDepartment-and so
forth . "
Duringthev erylastsessiononthespeechlateintheafternoonofthe
d ayitw astob ed eliv ered ,Hopkinssaid ," Mr
.Presid ent-d oyoufeel
thatyoucould includ einthisspeechsomekind ofoptimisticstatement
thatw illheartenthepeoplew hoared oingthefighting-theBritish,the
Greeksand theChinese? " Roosev eltthoughtthatov erforalongtime-

tiltinghishead b ack,puffingouthischeeksasw ashishab it.Atlength
hed ictated : " Ib eliev ethattheAx ispow ersarenotgoingtow inthis
w ar
.Ib asethatb eliefonthelatestand b estinformation ." Rosenlnan
and Iw ond ered atthetimew hatthat" latestand b estinformation"
could b e .Welearned laterfromHopkinsthatitw asnomorethan
Roosev elt'sow n,priv ateconfid encethatLend Leasew ould gothrough
and hiscertaintythatthismeasurew ould makeAx isv ictoryimpossib le .
Otherw ise,hissecretsourcesofinformationw erenotagreatd ealb etter
thanw erethoseofthe
New YorkTimes orthe ChicagoDaily New s
and w ereinsomeimportantrespectsshockinglyinaccurate .
Onthenightw henRoosev eltgav ehisFiresid eChat,theGermans
sub j ected Lond ontooneoftheheav iestb omb ingsofthew ar ; thisw as
theraid inw hichsolargeapartofthecityw asd estroyed b yfire,St.
Paul'sCathed ralescapingmiraculously .TheGermansused thispsycho-
logicalw arfaretacticfreq uentlyonRoosev eltspeeches,and solaterd id
.Theytimed thecreationofsomemaj ord isturb anceinthe
hopethatitw ould b lanketthespeechinthemorning'snew sand
mitigatetheeffectthatRoosev elt'sw ord smightprod uceonAmerican
and Britishmorale .Buttheyneed ed farmoreb omb sand b omb ersthan
theypossessed tonullifythelastingeffectofthosew ord s," thearsenal
ofd emocracy."
TheLend -LeaseBillw asd rafted largelyintheTreasuryDepartment
b yEd w ard H .Foley,GeneralCounsel,and hisassistant,OscarCox ,
w hosub seq uentlyb ecameGeneralCounselforLend Leaseand oneof
Hopkins'mostb rilliantaid es .Importantspad ew orkonthew holeBrit-
ishfinancialprob lemhad prev iouslyb eend oneb yanotherTreasury
law yer,HermanOliphant,w hohad literallykilled himselfintheprocess
TheWarDepartmenthad b eenw orkingalongsimilarlines,forb oth
Stimsonand Marshallhad b eend etermined tob reakthroughthelegal
restrictionsprev entingaid forBritain,notb ecauseofanysentimental
attachmenttotheland ofShakespeare,Keatsand leafylanes,b utb ecause
itw astheird utytopromotetheinterestsofournationalsecurity .An
old statuteof18 9 2had b eend ugoutofthefiles,w hereb yCongress
authoriz ed theSecretaryofWartoleaseArmyproperty" w heninhis
d iscretionitw illb eforthepub licgood ." Id onotknow how itw as
arranged togiv etheLend -LeaseBillthesignificantd esignation,
" HR-1776 ," b utitsound slikeaRoosev eltianconception,foritw asthe
v eritab led eclarationofinterd epend ence
Thisw asoneofthefew " irrev ocab leacts" tow hichRoosev eltcom-
mitted himselfb eforePearlHarb or
rev olutionarylaw ,grantingtohimsuchtremend ouspow ersov erthe
liv esand fortunesofhiscountrymen,hew asrunningw hatthenappeared
tob eb yallod d sthegreatestriskofhiscareer .Theisolationistshad
notb eensetb ackb ytheelection,fortheyconsid ered thattheAmerican

people had b een compelled
to choose b etw eentw o interv entionists .
Ind eed ,w iththeformationofthepow erfulAmericaFirstCommittee,
theisolationistsb ecameforthefirsttimew ellorganiz ed ,and also
v eryw ellfinanced ,and theyw eremob iliz ed fortheb attleagainst
Lend Lease
.Certainly,theCongressprov id ed fav orab leground on
w hichRoosev elt'sopponentscould fighthim.Roosev eltknew thisand
heknew theconseq uencesifheshould losethisb attle .Buthew as
confid entthathew ould notloseit.HisAd ministrationw asnow far
strongerthanithad b eend uringtheterrib leev entsofthepreced ing
: Stimsonand Knox w erein,and Farleyand Garnerw ereout
Whatev erHull'sprev iousfeelingsab outthethird termand hisow n
prospectsofb eingRoosev elt'ssuccessor,hehad b eenactiv einthe
Presid ent'sb ehalfinthecampaignagainstWillkieand heputhis
w eightb ehind Lend Lease
.SomeoftheNew Dealers,suchasHenry
Wallace,w hohad b eenhesitantab outsupportingthePresid ent'sforeign
policy,w erenow realiz ingthatthisinv olv ed somethingmorethanamere
surrend erto" Britishimperialism." So,forthefirsttimeinyears,the
Ad ministrationpresented aunited fronttotheCongress
Roosev elthad b eengiv enov ertw enty-sev enmillionv otesb ytheAmLr-
icanpeople,and thosev otesw erethekind offactsthatCongressmen
ignoreattheirperil .
Therew asstillplentyofv enom
.Wheeler,w hohad
himselfj ustb eenre-elected and w asthereforesafefromthev otersfor
anothersix years( theyd efeated himin19 4 6 ),coined aslogantothe
effectthatLend Leasew ould mean" ploughingund erev eryfourth
Americanb oy
." Roosev eltd escrib ed thisas" themostuntruthful,the
mostd astard ly,unpatrioticthingthathasb eensaid inpub liclifeinmy
." Head d ed ," Quotemeonthat."
WhatLend Leasemeantprimarilyw astheend oftheperiod ofsham
inw hichtheUnited Statessoughttoprotectitsow nsecurityb yb oot-
leggingmethod s
.Theconceptofw heretheinterestsofournationalse-
curityb eganw asd etermined notb yRoosev eltalone,b utw iththeem-
phaticconcurrenceofhisconstitutionalad v isers,theSecretariesofWar
and Nav y,and theChiefofStaffoftheArmyand theChiefofNav al
.Itw astheird ecisionthatsincetheBritishw erehold ing
positionsv italtoAmericand efense,itw asourd utyeithertostrengthen
theBritishb yallpossib lemeansortosend ourow narmed forcesto
occupythesepositionsand d efend themourselv es .
Lend LeasekepttheAllied causealiv eand fightingonallfrontsfor
thetw oyearsneed ed fortheUnited Statestob ecomead ecisiv eforce
inactualcomb at
.Itfurtherprov id ed anhistoricpreced entformeeting
acomparab lecrisisab road b ymethod sshortofimmed iatearmed inter-
v ention.
No . I oDow ningStreet
ROUND Christmas, i9 4 o,
Roosev eltw asmullingov erthenumer~
ousimplicationsoftheletterhehad receiv ed fromChurchill,
Ireland and the
partthattheUnited Statesmightplayinnegotiationsw ithDeValera .
.Kenned yand
.Donov anw erementioned aspossib leemissaries
.Roosev elt
said ,
" Youknow -alotofthiscould b esettled ifChurchilland Icould
j ustsitd ow ntogetherforaw hile ."
" What'sstoppingyou? " Hopkinsasked .
" Well-itcould n'tb earranged rightnow .Theyhav enoAmb assad or
here-w ehav enoneov erthere
Thegleamofhighad v enturecameintoHopkins'sharpeyes ." How
ab outmegoingov er,Mr .Presid ent? "
Roosev eltturned thatsuggestiond ow ncold
.Hepointed toall the
w orkhehad ahead ofhim-aStateoftheUnionMessage,agigantic
b ud get,theThird Inaugural,theLend -Leasefight
" I'llb eofnousetoyouinthatfight," said Hopkins
." They'd nev er
payanyattentiontomyv iew s,ex cepttov otetheotherw ay
. But-if
Ihad b eeninEngland and seenitw ithmyow neyes,thenImightb e
ofsomehelp ."
StillRoosev eltrefused tohearofsuchaproposal .How ev er,Hopkins
now had anid eathatseemed tohimeminentlysound ,and certainly
intenselyex citing,and hew ould notletgoofit.Heenlisted the
ofMissyLeHand and ofJusticeFelix Frankfurterw hoseld omoffered
anyad v icetoRoosev eltafterhiselev ationtotheSupremeCourt,
b ut
w how aslistened tow henhed id speak .
Roosev eltremained ob d urateand ,afterd ays ofintensiv eeffort,
Hopkinsw asab outread ytogiv eup .Wew erew orkingatthetimeon

.Itw astheonew hichproclaimed theFour
Freed oms
.Nob od yghost-w rotethose
.Roosev elthad mentioned them
somew hatcasuallyatapressconferencesix monthsprev iouslyw hen
asked aq uestionab outhislong-termpeaceob j ectiv e
.Therew erethen
fiv efreed oms-tw oofthemcomingund erthehead ingof" Freed omof
." Roosev elthad noname in
mind fortheThird Freed om,though
hew asclearab outitssocialimport,and 'Richard L
,Philad elphiaInq uirer
suggested itb ecalled ," Freed omFromWant
AfterthatconferencetheFreed omsw ereforgottenuntilRoosev eltsud -
d enlyrecalled themtousonNew Year's,19 4 1 .
OnthemorningofJanuary3,Hopkinsw asinhisroomw henStev e
Earlytelephoned fromtheWestWingtosay," Congratulations!"
" Onw hat? " said Hopkins .
" Yourtrip!"
" Whattrip? " Hopkinssuspected someill-timed j okeinspired ,no
d oub t,b yRoosev elthimself
" YourtriptoEngland ," said Early
." ThePresid entj ustannounced
itathispressconference ."
Tw od ayslater,Hopkinsw asoff.
Roosev elthad told thepressthatHopkinsw ould go" asmypersonal
representativ eforav eryshorttrip-acoupleofw eeks-j usttomaintain
-Isupposethatisthew ord forit-personalrelationsb etw eenmeand
theBritishGov ernment
Theq uestionsfollow ed
.Hopkinshav eanyspecialmission,Mr
.Presid ent?
ThePresid ent
. No,no,no !
ThePresid ent. No,no ! . . .
Q. Mr .Presid ent,isitsafetosayMr
.Hopkinsw illnotb ethe
nex tAmb assad or?
ThePresid ent.You
know Harryisn'tstrongenoughforthatj ob
.Willheb eonthegov ernmentpayroll?
ThePresid ent.I
supposetheyw illpayhisex penses-prob ab lyon
aperd iem,notv erylarge-eitherforyouorHopkins
( Laughter) . . .
ThePresid ent.No .
And hew illhav enopow ers.
Q.Willhehav eanymissiontoperform?
ThePresid ent
. No ; you
can'tgetanythingex citing .( Laughter)
He'sj ustgoingov ertosay" How d oyoud o? " toalotofmyfriend s!
( Laughter)
( Theb oysseemed tohav elaughed easilyin those
d ays .)
BeforeHopkinsleftWashingtonhew aspersuad ed tohav ealong
talkw ithJeanMonnet,w homhehad nev ermetb utw ithw homhew as

tob ecomecloselyassociated lateronintheprob lemsofprod uctionand
ev entuallyinthed iplomaticmessw hichfollow ed theAllied land ings
.Monnetw asoneoftheleastob trusiv emeninWash-
ingtond uringtheearlyyearsofthew ar,b utoneofthemostd etermined
and mostuseful
.AFrenchb usinessman,memb erofthefamouscognac
family,hehad b eeninAmericain19 38 and
19 39
d uctionoffightingaircraftforFrance
.Hew asinLond onasamemb er
oftheAllied EconomicCoord inatingCommitteew henFrancefelland
hethenoffered hisserv icestotheBritishGov ernment
.Hew assentto
Washingtontow orkw ithArthurPurv isontheBritishPurchasing
.Hehad thekind ofcalm,cool,reasoningand self-d isciplined
mind w hichissupposed tob etypicallyFrenchb utw hichisalltoo
seld omfound inFrenchmen
; hew aspositiv elypuritanicalinhisrefusal
tod ev iatefromthestraightlinew hichled tohisob j ectiv es
.Hisad v ice
toHopkinsw astow astenotimew iththeMinisterofThis
or Thatin
theBritishCab inetb uttoconcentrateonChurchill,for" Churchillis
theBritishWarCab inet,and nooneelsematters
." Hopkinsb ecameab it
fed upw ithhearingab outthealmightyChurchilland ex claimed ," I
supposeChurchillisconv inced thathe'sthegreatestmaninthew orld !"
Afriend w how aspresentsaid ," Harry-ifyou'regoingtoLond on
w iththatchiponyourshould er,likead amned littlesmall-tow n
chauv inist,youmayasw ellcancelyourpassagerightnow
." Hopkins,
how ev er,maintained hisreserv ationsab outChurchillashesetoffon
thePan-AmericanClippertoLisb on
.Healsomaintained thegnaw ing
fearofairtrav elw hichhad oncecaused himtorefuseaninv itationto
makeaninspectionflightov erBould erDam-saying,inex planation
ofhisrefusal," No,God -d amnit,I'mscared !" Sev eralpeopletried to
thumb arid ew ithhimontheClipper,includ ingAv erellHarrimanand
thepresentb iographer,b uthepreferred totrav elalone
Hecarried w ithhimhisofficialletterofauthoriz ation
Reposingspecialfaithand confid enceinyou,Iamaskingyouto
proceed atyourearlyconv eniencetoGreatBritain,theretoactas
mypersonalrepresentativ e
.Iamalsoaskingyoutoconv eyacom-
municationinthissensetoHisMaj estyKingGeorgeVI
Youw ill,ofcourse,communicatetothisGov ernmentanymatters
w hichmaycometoyourattentionintheperformanceofyourmission
w hichyoumayfeelw illserv etheb estinterestsoftheUnited States
Withallb estw ishesforthesuccessofyourmission,Iam,
Enclosed w iththisw asaletterfromthePresid enttoKingGeorgeVI
Ihav ed esignated theHonorab leHarryL
representativ eonaspecialmissiontoGreatBritain
.Mr .Hopkins
19 4 1-MORE

isav erygood friend ofmineinw homIreposetheutmostconfid ence
Iamaskinghimtoconv eytoyouand toHerMaj estytheQueen
mycord ialgreetingsand mysincerehopethathismissionmay
ad v ancethecommonid ealsofourtw onations
Cord iallyyourfriend ,
TheHopkinsmissionreceiv ed alargelyunfav orab lepressw ithmany
referencestothetrav elsofColonelHousetw enty-fiv eyearsb eforeand
toHopkins'record asafreeand easysq uand ererofthetax payers'
.Raymond Clapper,alw aysmorefriend lythanmostofhiscol-
leagues,assumed thatHopkinsw asgoinginhiscapacityasav eteran
w elfarew orkertomakeastud yofthenew d emocracythatw asarising
fromtheruinsinBritainand tomakechartsofsocialprogress
; inthis
guess,Clapperw asuncharacteristicallyw id eofthemark
.Attheothei -
ex tremew astheCommunist
DailyWorker w hichlikened Hopkinsto
ColonelHousesayinginitsed itorialthatHousehad pled ged " American
entranceintothefirstimperialisticw aronthesid eoftheAlliesw hile
Wood row Wilsonw asassuringtheAmericanpeoplethathew ould keep
thecountryoutofthew ar
. . . . Thesecretd iplomacyinv olv ed inthe
insistingthatnofurtheraid b egiv enBritishimperialism,sincesuchaid
b ringstheshad ow ofw arcloserand closertoourhomes ." The Daily
Worker urged theAmericanpeopletoshoutloud ly," TheYanksare
( Lessthansev enmonthslater,Hopkinsarriv ed in Moscow totalk
toJosephStalinand thesame
DailyWorker said ,ed itorially,
Thesend ingofMr
pled gesw illmeettheapprov aloftheentireAmericanpeople . . . .The
timeislongov erd ueforthepeopletoinformtheirRepresentativ es
and Senatorstoestab lishunitytod efend thecountryand tod efeatthe
.Thefactthatconcretestepshav eb een
takeninthisd irection,throughMr .Hopkins'v isitstoLond onand
Moscow ,makesthisunityimperativ e
.Anyv oicesraised toprev ent
thesestepsfromb eingtakenarehelpingHitler,orareagentsofHitler
and FifthColumnistsinthecountry
ShortlyafterHopkins'd eparture,thesuggestionw asmad ethatWen-
d ellWillkiealsomakeatriptoLond on .Itw asob v iousthatRoosev elt
w ould heartilyapprov eofthis
.Therew asfarmorenew sv alueinWillkie
thaninHopkins ; and ,astheLend -Leased eb atestarted ,thisev id ence
ofsolid ificationofb ipartisanforeignpolicyw asallimportant.When
Willkiew enttotheWhiteHouseontheev eofhisd eparture,Roosev elt
w asw orkingonhisThird InauguralAd d ressw ithRosenmanand me .
Wew ereintheCab inetRoomw henitw asannounced thatWillkiehad
arriv ed inGeneralWatson'soffice .Roosev eltshifted intohisw heel-

chairand w asgoingthroughMissyLeHand 'sofficeintohisow nto
greetthemanw hohad b eenhisopponentintherecent,b ittercampaign .
Helooked intohisofficeand saw thathisd eskw ascleanofpapers
Thenhestopped hisw heelchair,and turned tous,and asked ustogiv e
himahand fulofpapersfromthelitterontheCab inettab le
.Weasked ,
" Whichparticularpapersd oyouw ant,Mr .Presid ent? "
" Oh,itd oesn'tmatter," said Roosev elt," j ustgiv emeahand fulto
strew around onmyd esksothatIw illlookv eryb usyw henWillkie
comesin ."
Sometimelater,w henIcametoknow Wend ellWillkie,Itold himof
thatepisod e,and hew asconsid erab lyamused
.Hiscommentw as,
" That'stypical!" Itw asd uringthisb riefmeetingofthetw omenthat
Roosev elttookasheetofhispersonalstationeryand ,w ithoutapparent
premed itation,w rotethefamousmessagetoChurchillinLongfellow 's
w ord s
Sailon,0 ShipofState !
Sailon,0 Union,strongand great!
Humanityw ithallitsfears,
Ishangingb reathlessonthyfate!
Roosev eltnev ermad eamoregracefuloreffectiv egesturethanthat,
and noneofusw how erew ithhimintheWhiteHouseatthetimehad
anyid eahow hehappened tothinkofit
WhenChurchillw asinformed thatHarryHopkinsw ascomingto
v isithimhisfirstq uestionw as, " Whof
Hew asq uicklyinformed b y
hisParliamentaryPriv ateSecretary,Brend anBracken,w hohad met
HopkinsattheSw opes'housesomeyearsb eforeand had w atched his
careerw ithinterestev ersince
.Astheclosefriend and confid antofthe
PrimeMinister,Brackenoccupied apositionthatcorrespond ed inone
ortw orespects( b utnotmore)toHopkins' .WhenChurchillheard
w hohiscuriousguestreallyw as,heord ered theunrollingofanyred
carpetsthatmighthav esurv iv ed theBlitz .
Hopkinsw asfiv ed aysenroute,trav elingthelastleg,Lisb onto
PooleontheSouthCoastofEngland ,inaBritishOv erseasAirw ays
Clipper .Inthosed aysoftheNeutralityLaw ,thePanAmericanClip-
pers,ratingasmerchantv essels,could notgointotheportsofb elligerent
countries.ChurchillsentBrackentoPooletomeettheairplane,b ut
w henthepassengersd eb arked Hopkinsw asnotamongthem.Bracken
gotab oard and found Hopkinsstillsitting,lookingsickand shrunken
and tootired ev entounfastenhissafetyb elt.Hehad torestforalong
timeb eforehefeltw ellenoughtotakethetrainj ourneytoLond on .But
thenheb egantoperkup .Helooked w ithgreatinterestattheb omb
d amageontheSouthCoastand felt,likeev eryotherAmericanw hy

,reached England inthoseb leakd ays,thathehad arriv ed ontheother
sid eofthemoon .Asthetrainmov ed throughthecountrysid e,w hich
seemed astranq uiland untroub led asev er,Hopkinssaid toBracken,
" AreyougoingtoletHitlertakethesefield saw ayfromyou? " That
w ashisfirstlead ingq uestionab outBritishintentions .Brackenansw ered
w ithauthority,and w ithunaccustomed b rev ity, " No."
TheHopkinsentryintoLond ononThursd ay,January9 ,w asd e-
scrib ed yearslaterinalettertothe Sund ayTimes fromSirEustace
Missend en,GeneralManageroftheSouthernRailw ay
Mr .Churchillhad giv eninstructionsthattheb estw astob ed one,
and arrangementsw eremad eforthemostmod ernPullmancarstob e
formed inthetrain .Thecond uctorsw orew hiteglov es ; agood meal,
w ithliq uid refreshment,w asav ailab le,togetherw ithpapers,period i-
cals,etc.Mr .HarryHopkinsw asob v iouslyimpressed .
Itw aslateafternoonand theengine-d riv erputupagrand perform-
ance,b utw hennearingClaphamJunctionthesirenw asheard ,and
d uringthatperiod Claphamj unctionw asparticularlyfav oured b ythe
Luftw affe
.How ev er,onw ew ent,and w ithinoneminuteofthetrain's
arriv alatWaterloo,j ustafter7 p.m., hund red sofincend iaries
show ered d ow nonthelineb etw eenClaphamJunctionand Waterloo,
b lockingalltracksforsev eralhours .Theintensereliefonthefaces
ofthetraincrew sw illalw aysb erememb ered astheyw atched the
w aitingcarspringintolifecarryingourd istinguished v isitoronhis
w aytoDow ningStreet.
Hew asmetatthestationb yHerschelV.Johnson,Charged 'Affaires
attheAmericanEmb assy .AlthoughHopkinsw asinv ited tod innerat
No . Io Dow ningStreetthatfirstev ening,hefelttootired tofaceChurch-
illand had d innerw ithJohnson'inhisroomatClarid ge'sHotelw herehe
could heartheantiaircraftb atteriesb laz ingaw ayinHyd ePark .Johnson,
w how asrankingAmericand iplomatinLond ond uringtheinterv alb e-
tw eenAmb assad orsKenned yand Winant-and laterMinistertoSw ed en
and Representativ eontheUnited NationsSecurityCouncil-hastold
methatb eforeHopkins'arriv alhehad b eeninastateofd eeppessimism
astoAmericanab ilitytoappreciatetheseriousurgencyofBritain's
plight.Ab outallthathereceiv ed officiallyfromhomew asaseriesof
ad monitionstomaintainstrictob serv anceoftheNeutralityLaw and to
d oorsaynothingthatmightb ringd ow nisolationistcriticismontheState
Department.Hav ingb eenthroughalmostsix monthsofintensiv eBlitz ,
and hav inghimselfnarrow lyescaped d eathmorethanoncew henb omb s
land ed inand around Grosv enorSq uare,hehad b eguntofeelacertain
senseoffrustrationand impotenceasofonew hoisaguestinanupstairs
roomofab urningb uild ingand istold tob ecarefultotakenosid esas
b etw eenthefired epartmentand thegames .
" Iw asimmed iatelyheartened ," Johnsonhassaid ," b ythesincerity

and theintensityofHarryHopkins'd eterminationtogainfirsthand
know led geofBritain'sneed sand offind ingaw aytofillthem.Some
otherAmericansw hohad cometoLond ond ev oted themselv estoin-
v estigationstod etermineiftheBritishreallyneed ed thethingstheyw ere
askingfor .Harryw anted tofind outiftheyw ereaskingfor enough to
seethemthrough .Hemad eitperfectlyclearthathed id notknow how
orw herehew asgoingtob egin,orw hathismethod sw ould b e,b uthe
knew preciselyw hathew astherefor .Hemad emefeelthatthefirstreal
assuranceofhopehad atlastcome-and heacted ontheBritishlikea
galv anicneed le."
AnotherAmericanw homHopkinsw anted toseeand d id seeatthe
b eginningofhisLond onv isitw asEd w ard R .Murrow ,oftheColumb ia
Broad castingSystem.Fromtheoutb reakofw ar,w henhehad laininthe
MayoClinicb eliev ingthathew assoontod ie,Hopkinshad listened to
Murrow 'sgrimv oiceannouncing," This-isLond on," inatonew hich
seemed tosuggestthethud softheGermanb omb s
.WhenMurrow w as
summoned toClarid ge'stoseeHopkinshethoughthew asb einggranted
aninterv iew ,w hichprov ed tob ethecaseex ceptthathe,Murrow ,w as
theoneinterv iew ed .Hopkinsplied himw ithsearchingq uestions,most
ofthemconcerned w ithpersonalitiesand w ithpub licmoraleratherthan
w ithphysicalcond itions .AllthatHopkinstold himofhisow nmission
w as," Isupposeyoucould saythatI'v ecomeheretotrytofind aw ay
tob eacatalyticagentb etw eentw oprimad onnas," w hichw asnotfor
q uotation .Hopkinsthenb eliev ed thattheformid ab leegosofRoosev elt
and Churchillw ereb ound toclash,and ,inanticipationofthat,hesaid ,
" Iw anttotrytogetanund erstand ingofChurchilland ofthemenhe
seesaftermid night."
Churchillhad b eeninformed ofHopkins'd ev otiontoRoosev eltand
ofhispossib lesuspicionofanyonew homightpresumetochallenge
Roosev elt'spositionofpre-eminenceamongw orld statesmen .Onthed ay
ofHopkins'arriv al,thePrimeMinistermad easpeechataluncheonin
honorofLord Halifax ,thenew BritishAmb assad ortotheUnited States,
and inthecourseofhisremarksonthelongb elab ored sub j ectofAnglo-
Americanamityhesaid ,
Ihailitasamostfortunateoccurrencethatatthisaw e-striking
climax inw orld affairsthereshould stand atthehead oftheAmerican
Repub licafamousstatesman,longv ersed and ex perienced inthew ork
ofgov ernmentand ad ministration,inw hoseheartthereb urnsthefire
ofresistancetoaggressionand oppression,and w hosesympathiesand
naturemakehimthesincereand und oub ted championofj usticeand
offreed om,and b fthev ictimsofw rongd oingw herev ertheymay
d w ell .
And notless-forImaysayitnow thatthepartystruggleinthe
United Statesisov er-d oIrej oicethatthispre-eminentfigureshould

new lyhav ereceiv ed theunpreced ented honorofb eingcalled forthe
third timetolead theAmericand emocraciesind aysofstressand
WhenHopkinslearned ofthisspeechfromJohnson,w hohad b een
presentattheluncheon,heb egantob eliev ethatheand theBritishPrime
Ministermightb eab letogetalongw ithoneanother .
Thenex tmorning,Johnsonb roughttheMilitaryAttache, General
Raymond E.Lee,and theNav alAttache,Ad miralRob ertLeeGhorm-
ley,toClarid ge'stogiv eHopkinstheAmericanestimateofthew ar
situation-and itw asnotanoptimisticone-and thenJohnson took
HopkinstotheForeignOfficefortheinev itab lecourtesycall .Hopkins
w asnotatfirstfav orab lyimpressed w ithAnthonyEd en,thoughthey
laterb ecamev erygood friend s .OtherAmericansonfirstacq uaintance
w ithEd enhav emad ethemistakeofw ritinghimoffasacharming,
ornamental,casualyounggentlemanofMayfair .Thosew hoj umped to
thisconclusionhad forgottenthatEd enhad thestrengthand courageto
riskpoliticalex tinctionb yrefusingtogoalongw ithNev illeChamb erlain
Hopkinsw rotehisfirstreportstoRoosev eltinlonghand onClarid ge's
stationeryand theyw ered ispatched b ycourier .Hesaid
He( Ed en)thoughtHitlerw ould hav ea" go" atEngland and un-
successfully-thatTurkeyw ould fightiftheGermanmov ed through
Bulgaria-thattherefore,Hitlerw ould morelikelymov ethroughItaly
toattacktheGreeks-thatRussiaw asfrightened and w ould keepout
-thattherew asarealchanceofAb yssiniakickinguparumpussoon
-thattheBritishArmyinEgyptw ereusingsuccessfullysomeb ig
tanksov erthed esert.
Thatw asab outallthatemerged fromthatb riefmeeting,afterw hich
JohnsontookHopkinstoseeLord Halifax ,w homhed escrib ed as,
Atallstoop-should ered aristocratgreeted meinanold officetaken
ov erb ytheministersofChurchill'sgov ernment.Id id thetalking-or
mostofit-tellinghimthepeoplethatIthotw ereimportantforhim
toseeand know inWashington .WhenIgotb eyond thePresid entand
HullIw asind eepw aterand q uit.Iliked him.Ithinkand hopethe
Presid entw illlikehim.Hehasnosid e-hasb eenab out-Ipresume
isahopelessTory-thatisn'ttooimportantnow ifw ecanb utgeton
w ithourb usinessoflickingHitler .Iw ould notliketoseehimhav e
muchtosayab outalaterpeace-Ishould liketohav eEd ensayless .I
und erstand heisofftoAmericaonTuesd aynex tab oard aBritish
Hopkinsthenreturned toClarid ge's,mad eanunsuccessfulattemptto
neatenup,and thend rov ed ow nthroughBerkeleySq uareand Trafalgar
Sq uaretoDow ningStreetfortheb igmoment.Hew roteRoosev elt

Numb er IoDow ning St. is
ab itd ow nattheheelsb ecausethe
Treasurynex td oorhasb eenb omb ed morethanab it.ThePrime
Ministerisnolongerpermitted tosleephereand Iund erstand sleeps
.Hetold metheyareb uild ingarealshelterforhim
sothathecansleepinpeacenearb y
.Ev eryonetellsmethathew orks
fifteenhoursad ayand Icanw ellb eliev eit
.HismanFrid ay-Brend an
Bracken-metmeatthed oor-show ed meab outtheold and d elight-
fulhousethathasb eenhomeofprimeministersofthe Empire
fortw ohund red years .Mostofthew ind ow sareout-w orkmenov er
theplacerepairingthed amage-Churchilltold meitw ould n'tstand
ahealthyb omb .
Brackenled metoalittled iningroomintheb asement-poured me
someSherryand leftmetow aitforthePrimeMinister .Arotund
-smiling-red faced ,gentlemanappeared -ex tend ed afatb utnone
thelessconv incinghand and w ished mew elcometoEngland
b lackcoat-striped trousers-acleareyeand amushyv oicew asthe
impressionofEngland 'slead erasheshow ed mew ithob v iousprid e
thephotographofhisb eautifuld aughter-in-law and grand child .
Thelunchw assimpleb utgood -serv ed b yav eryplainw omanw ho
seemed tob eanold familyserv ant.Soup--cold b eef-( Id id n'ttake
enoughj ellytosuittheP.M
.and hegav emesomemore)-green
salad -cheeseand coffee-alightw ineand port.Hetooksnufffroma
littlesilv erb ox -heliked it.
Itold himthePresid entw asanx ioustoseehiminApril-heex -
pressed regretthatBermud aw ould notb etheplace-theclimatew as
nice-hew ould b ringasmallstaff-goonacruiserand b yaccid ent
meetthePresid entattheappointed place-and d iscussourprob lems
atleisure .Hetalked ofremainingaslongastw ow eeksand seemed
v eryanx ioustomeetthePresid entfacetoface.Wed iscussed the
d ifficultyofcommunicationw iththePresid entatlongrange-thereis
noq uestionb utthathew antstomeetthePresid ent-thesoonerthe
b etter .
Itold himtherew asafeelinginsomeq uartersthathe,Churchill,
d id notlikeAmerica,AmericansorRoosev elt.Thissethimoffona
b itterthofairlyconstrained attackonAmb assad orKenned yw hohe
b eliev esisresponsib leforthisimpression .Hed enied itv igorously-
sentforaSecretarytoshow meatelegramw hichhehad senttothe
Presid entimmed iatelyafterhiselectioninw hichheex pressed his
w armd elightatthePresid ent'sre-election .
Itold ofmymission-heseemed pleased -and sev eraltimesassured
methathew ould makeev eryd etailofinformationand opinionav ail-
ab letomeand hoped thatIw ould notleav eEngland untilIw asfully
satisfied -oftheex actstateofEngland 'sneed and theurgentnecessity
oftheex actmaterialassistanceBritainreq uirestow inthew ar
Herev iew ed w ithob v iousprid ehisow npartinthew artod ate-
hed id n't know thatEngland could w ithstand theonslaughtafter
Francefell-b uthefeltsurethatitcould -itd id -and itw illw ithstand
thenex tone-hethinkstheinv asionw illnotcomeb utiftheygaina

inEngland w ithioo,ooomen" w eshalld riv ethemout" -
b esid e,itsex cellentcoastd efensesBritainhastw entyfiv ew elltrained
and eq uipped d iv isions-trained onlyinoffensiv ew arfarew hichw ill
d riv eGermany'sarmyintothesea
.Germanycannotinv ad eBritain
.HethinksHitlermayusepoisongasb utiftheyd oEng-
land w illreplyinkind killingmanforman-" forw etoohav ethe
d ead liestgasesinthew orld " -b utund ernocircumstancesw illthey
b eused unlesstheGermansreleasegasfirst.Hesaid heb eliev ed Hitler
w ould notstrikeatSpainnow b ecausethepopulationisstarv ingand
Hitlerd oesnotw antsullenpeoplearound hisarmies-hehasenough
ofthatalread y-b utthespringmighttellad ifferentstory-and left
metheimpressionthatSpainw ould b eov er-runinthespring .
HethinksGreeceislost-althoheisnow reinforcingtheGreeks-
and w eakeninghisAfricanArmy-heb eliev esHitlerw illpermitMus-
solinitogoonlysofard ow nhill-and isnow preparingfortheattack
w hichmustb ringitsinev itab leresult.Heknow sthisw illb eab low
toBritishprestigeand isob v iouslyconsid eringw aysand meansof
preparingtheBritishpub licforit.Herealiz esitw illhav eaprofound
and d isappointingeffectinAmericaasw ell .Churchilltoo,thinksTur-
keyw illstayputand prob ab lyb einthew arw henGermanymov es
thruBulgaria.ThisChurchillthinksw illb etheroute .
Thisd eb acleinGreecew illb eov er-comeinpartb yw hathecon-
sid erstob ethesured efeatoftheItaliansinAfrica .HefeelsEngland
canb ringgreatmilitarypressureonItaly-and fullyintend s to-
Britainw illcontroltheMed iterraneanand theSuez againstGermany .
Hehasoffered Weygand six d iv isions-iftheformerstrikes-heis
inclosetouchw ithPetainonthispoint-hespokew ithnogreatassur-
anceab outit-b utitisclearChurchillintend stohold Africa-clean
outtheItaliansand cooperatew ithWeygand iftheopportunityper-
mits .Heex pressed the,hopethatw ew ould notgotoofarinfeed ing
anyofthed ominated countries .Hefeelsthattoughasitisthatoneof
Hitler'sgreatw eaknessesistob eincontrolofterritoryinhab ited b y
ad ej ected and d espairingpeople.
Churchillsaid thatw hileGermany'sb omb ersw ereattheratioof
2-/ toiatthepresenttime-thatw ould b esoonred uced to 1-/ to
1-and thenhefelttheycould hold theirow nintheair-ind eed he
looksforw ard w ithourhelptomasteryintheairand thenGermany
w ithallherarmiesw illb efinished .Heb eliev esthatthisw arw illnev er
seegreatforcesmassed againstoneanother
HetookmeuptotheCab inetRoomw heretherew as" ab etterfire"
and show ed meonthemapw heretheconv oysarecomingthruto
Liv erpooland Glasgow -and oftheroutetheGermanb omb ersare
takingfromFrancetoNorw aytointercepttheships . .
Thesentenceintheforegoing, " Heb eliev esthatthisw arw illnev er
seegreatforcesmassed againstoneanother," should b enoted asasug-
gestionofthestrategicthinkingw hichlaterled Churchillintosomany
argumentsov ertheSecond Front.
24 0

Afterthatluncheon,Hopkinsheld tw opressconferences,onew iththe
Britishpressand onew ithAmericancorrespond ents,and managed in
b othofthemtosaynothing.ButhispresenceinLond onw asused toa
consid erab leex tentinBritain'spropagand ab arragetothecontinentof
Europe,v iaBBCb road castsand leafletsd ropped b ytheR
giganticGoeb b elsmachined id notignoreit,either,theprincipalline
b eingthatHopkinshad comeforthepurposeoftakingov ertherestof
theBritishEmpire( follow ingBermud a,Trinid ad ,etc.)inreturnfor
somemorerustyand ob soleteAmericanmateriel .
Thefollow ingd ayw asSaturd ayand ,w arornow ar,manyofthehigh
officialsofHisMaj esty'sGov ernmentw entoffforthew eekend
Churchillnormallyw enttoCheq uersb utthesecurityauthoritiesw ould
notlethimusethisofficialand w ell-know nhousew hentherew asafull
moon .Sohew entinstead toDytchleyw hichisnearWood stock,north
ofOx ford ,and oneofthemostb eautifulofallthestatelyhomesofEng-
land .Builtinthelatterpartofthesev enteenthcentury,thegreatest
period ofEnglisharchitecture,ithad b ecomethepropertyofRonald
Tree,w hosemotherw asthed aughteroftheoriginalMarshallField of
Chicago .Treew asParliamentarySecretarytoBrend anBracken,and he
w asskillfulenoughasahosttomeettheex actingreq uirementsofWin-
stonChurchill .Threeofthehand someroomsontheground floorw ereset
asid easofficesforthePrimeMinisterand eq uipped w ithallthed ev ices
b yw hichhecould keepintouchw ithev eryd ev elopmentofthew arat
ev eryinstantd ayornight
.Weekend sw ereanythingb utrestful,b ecause
oftheincessantconcernofChurchillw ithev erythingthatw asgoingon
ev eryw here( Roosev eltcould getaw ayfromitallnow and then,b ut
Churchillnev erev enw anted totry)and alsob ecauseofthehab itsof
theAx ispow ers ; ind eed ,Churchillw asw eek-end ingw henhereceiv ed
thenew softhew ar'smostimportantev entsintheyearsw hentheenemy
w asmakingthenew s-includ ingtheattacksontheSov ietUnionand
PearlHarb or .
DuringHopkins'tw od aysatDytchleytheonlynew sw asofthe
of Germand iv eb omb ersintheMed iter-
ranean ; theyattacked Britishnav alunitsand inflicted seriouslosses
Hopkinsw asamaz ed atthecalmnessw ithw hichChurchilland hisstaff
tookthisb ad new s
.Hav inghad nod irectex perienceoftherealitiesof
w arfare,hew asshocked b ythestarkimmed iacyoftheinformationthat
shipshad b eensunkand thatBritishsailorshad b eenkilled and maimed
Buthehad tolearnthatthosew homakethegreatd ecisionsinthisb rutal
b usinesscantakenotimeoutformourningorforpenitence
; and Win-
stonChurchill,norespecterofhisow nsafety,w asagood manfrom
w homtolearnit
.Asitturned out,thepresenceoftheStukab omb ersin
theMed iterraneanhad asignificancew hichw asnotapparentatthetime

24 1
theGermanrecord sev entuallyshow ed thatthisw asthew eekend se-
lected b yHitlerforthecaptureofGib raltar .
Hopkinsw asparticularlystruckb ytheex tremed ifferenceb etw een
Churchill'smenageand Roosev elt's
.Althoughhellmightb epoppingall
ab outRoosev elt,itw asrarelyaud ib leinhisimmed iatepresence,w here
tranq uillityprev ailed
.Churchill,ontheotherhand ,alw aysseemed tob e
athisCommand Postontheprecariousb eachhead and thegunsw ere
continuallyb laz ing-inhisconv ersation
; w herev erhew as,therew asthe
b attlefront-and hew asinv olv ed intheb attlesnotonlyofthecurrent
w arb utofthew holepast,fromCannaetoGallipoli
PearlHarb ororanationalelectionoraparticularlytensepokergame
tokeepRoosev eltupaslateasmid night,Churchillw asgettingfullsteam
upalongab outteno'clockintheev ening
; oftenafterhisharassed staff
had struggled tob ed at
: 0 0 or
3 : 0 0 A.M. theyw ould b erouted outan
hourormorelaterw ithanentirelynew proj ectforw hichaplanmust
b ed raw nupimmed iately .Churchillneed ed little sleep
atnightb uttook
anapafterlunch,w hereasitw asRoosev elt'scustomtow orkhard all
d ayand sleepsound lyallnight
b eenw id elyad v ertised :
itcould b ed escrib ed asuniq ue,foritcontinued
atq uiteregularinterv alsthroughmostofhisw akinghoursw ithout
v isib leeffecton hishealthoronhismentalprocesses
.Anyonew hosug-
geststhatheb ecameb efud d led w ithd rinkob v iouslynev erhad tob ecome
inv olv ed inanargumentw ithhimonsomefactualprob lemlateatnight
w henev eryoneelsepresentw asd roopingw ithfatigue
.Hew asreally
.Hisprincipalaid es-GeneralSirHastingsIsmay,
.Lind emann,Command erCharlesThompson,SirDes-
mond Morton,J .M
.Martinand Bracken-mad enoattempttokeepup
w ithhiminconsumptionofchampagne,Scotchw hiskyand b rand y( he
d etested cocktailsand hisw hiskiesw erew eakb yAmericanstand ard s),
and theyhad tosummonreserv esofenergytob eab letokeepupw ith
himinw ork .
Roosev eltengaged insociallifenomorethanw asab solutelynecessary,
and heeliminated italmostentirelyw henthecircumstancesofw argav e
himagood ex cuseford oingso
.Churchill,how ev er,lov ed tohav egay
and amusingcompanyatthed innertab le
.Hehad littleopportunityfor
it,ofcourse,d uringtheBlitz inLond on,w henhew aslargelyconfined
d uringthehoursofd arknesstotheelab oratesystemofofficesand small
liv ingq uartersintheair-raid sheltersund ertheCab inetofficeb uild ing
inGreatGeorgeStreet,afew stepsfromDow ningStreet.Butonw eek
end stherew asusuallyapeacetimehouse-partyatmospheresurround ing
Churchillw henev erhew anted somerelax ation
therew asnod oub tthatthemostcharmingand entertainingofallthe
,3eoplethathemetonthesew eekend sw asMrs
.Churchill .
OnSaturd aynight,intheb eautifullib raryatDytchley,heheard
24 2

Churchillforthefirsttimelaunchforthintooneoftheafter-d innerw ar
summariesforw hich,amongotherthings,hew asfamous
could talkforanhourormoreand hold anyaud iencespellb ound ,in-
clud ing-thosew hohad heard himmanytimesand tow homnothingthat
hesaid w asnew s
.Itmightb emislead ingtosaythattheseChurchilltalks
w ere" impromptu" -foritisd oub tfulthathew asev erunprepared for
aspeech-b uttheyw erealw aysex ercisesinincred ib lev irtuosity
Hopkins,thisw astheopeningofnew horiz ons
.Churchill'seloq uence
cameasnosurprise,b uthisremarkab le,encycloped icknow led geofthe
situationinallofitsintricateinv olutionsconv inced Hopkinsthathere
w asonew hocertainlyknew hisstuff,w hocould recitefactand figure
and chapterand v erse,and insuperb Englishprose .
Thereisastoryw hichhasb eenoftentold and sometimesprinted ,to
theeffectthatChurchill,hav ingb eenad v ised ofHopkins'b ackground as
asocialw orkerand rab id New Dealer,attempted tow oohimb ytalking
attheoutsetofallthattheBritishGov ernmentw asd oingfortheund er-
priv ileged and theforgottenman,and ofhow hisd earestd reamforthe
postw arw orld w asthemoreab und antlifeforall . . .
w hereuponHopkins
rud elyinterrupted himb ysaying," ThePresid entd id n'tsend mehere
tolistentoanyofthatstuff .Allhew antstoknow is
: how d oyoupro-
posetob eatthatsonofab itchinBerlin? "
.right,b utinsofarasIknow itisnottrue
Churchillsub seq uentlystated that,w ithinafew minutesaftertheirfirst
meetinginDow ningStreet,hefeltsurethathehad atlastestab lished " a
d efinite,heart-to-heartcontactw iththePresid ent
." Itmayb ead d ed
thatthememb ersofChurchill'sentouragew eremostlymenofsuperior
w it-thatmayhav eb eenanimportantq ualificationintheirselection
forthesehighlyconfid entialposts-and theyw eread roitind ev eloping
anecd otesab outtheirgustychief
.Thusthereex istsaw holelib raryof
Churchillj okesalmostasex tensiv e
as thatfab ricated ab outthelegend ary
figureofSamuelGold w yn
AfterhisreturntoLond on,Hopkinspaid hisrespectsatBuckingham
Palace ;
thisw asonlyab riefmeetingb utsub seq uentlyHopkinshad
alongerv isitw iththeKingand Queen,hisd escriptionofw hichappears
.OnJanuary14 ,Hopkinscab led Roosev elt
Isaw theKingyesterd ayafterspend ingthew eekend w ithChurchill
TheKingisw elland confid entand send shisw armregard stoyou
Tod ayIamleav ingforatourofnav alb asesw ithChurchill
messagetoCongresshasb eenw ellreceiv ed here
BritishGov ernmentnottoad v ertiseoraccentuateanyd ifferencesthat
mayex istb etw eenuspend ingpassageoftheLend LeaseBill
isyourb estj ud gmentastow henthisBillw illpass? Ihopenomaj or
amend mentsw illb emad e
.Pleasekeepusinformed astotheBill's
.Thegoinghereisprettyroughb utallisw ell

24 3
ev erythingherefromGermanb omb stosomeofyourcousins
isd eliv eringalettertoyoufromme.
ThePresid entalsoreceiv ed acab lefromtheFormerNav alPerson
saying," Iammostgratefultoyouforsend ingsoremarkab leanenv oy
w hoenj oyssohighameasureofyourintimacyand confid ence ."
Thelettertow hichHopkinsreferred inhiscab lew asw ritten,like
theprev iouslyq uoted report,inlonghand onsmallClarid gestationery
and nev erpassed throughanyd iplomaticchannelsw hatsoev er
Thesenotesaresentb yCol
.Leew hoisreturningw ithHalifax .
Willyousav ethemformeuntilIgetb ackw henIshalltrytoput
themintoread ab leform.
Thepeoplehereareamaz ingfromChurchilld ow nand ifcourage
alonecanw in-theresultw illb einev itab le.But,theyneed ourhelp
d esperatelyand Iamsureyouw illpermitnothingtostand inthew ay .
Someoftheministersand und erlingsareab ittryingb utnomorethan
someIhav eseen .
Churchill isthegov 'tinev erysenseofthew ord -hecontrolsthe
grand strategyand oftenthed etails-lab ortrustshim-thearmy,nav y,
airforceareb ehind himtoaman
.Thepoliticiansand uppercrust
pretend tolikehim
.Icannotemphasiz etoostronglythatheistheone
and onlypersonov erherew ithw homyouneed tohav eafullmeeting
ofmind s .
Churchillw antstoseeyou-thesoonertheb etter-b utIhav etold
himofyourprob lemuntiltheb illispassed
.Iamconv inced thismeet-
ingb etw eenyouand Churchillisessential-and soon-fortheb atter-
ingcontinuesand Hitlerd oesnotw aitforCongress .
Iw asw ithChurchillat2A.M.
Sund aynightw henhegotw ord of
thelossofthe Southampton-the seriousd amagetothenew aircraft
carrier [Illustrious]-a second cruiserknocked ab out-b uthenev er
faltersord isplaystheleastd espond ence-tillfouro'clockhepaced the
floortellingmeofhisoffensiv eand d efensiv eplans
Icannotb eliev ethatitistruethatChurchilld islikeseitheryouor
America-itj ustd oesn'tmakesense .
Churchillisprepared forasetb ackinGreece-theAfricancam-
paignw illproceed fav orab ly-Germanb omb ersintheMed iterranean
makethefleet'soperationmored ifficult-conv oysmustallgoaround
.Aninv asiontheyfeelsurecanb erepelled -Churchillthinks
itw illnotcomesoonb utBeav erb rookand othersthinkitw illcomeand
soon .
Thisisland need sourhelpnow Mr .Presid entw ithev erythingw e
cangiv ethem.
Thereisnotimetob eoutofLond onsoIamstayinghere-the
b omb saren'tniceand seemtob eq uiteimpersonal
.Ihav eb eenoffered
asocalled b omb proofapartmentb yChurchill-atinhatand gasmask
hav eb eend eliv ered -theb estIcansayforthehatisthatitlooks
Tw opagesofaletterfromHopkinstoRoosev elt,w rittend uringhis
firstv isittoEngland ,inw hichHopkinsb y-passed d iplomatic channels
tostateEngland 'surgentneed .
24 6
w orsethanmyow nand d oesn'tfit-thegasmaskIcan'tgeton-so
Thereismuchtotellb utitw illhav etow ait-forImustb eoffto
CharingCross .
Thereferencetob eingoutofLond onreferred toasuggestionthathe
stayatahouseinthecountrytoav oid theb omb ing,b utthatnaturally
w asthelastthinghew anted tomiss .Thetrainhew astotakeleftfrom
King'sCross,notCharingCross,b utluckilyhew asguid ed b yanEm-
b assyrepresentativ e so
hew enttotherightstation .
Hetrav eled w ithChurchillinhispriv atetraintoScotland w hereLord
Halifax w asab outtoemb arkonthenew b attleship, King
hisj ourneytotheUnited States .ThefinalstageofthetriptoScapa
Flow had tob emad eonad estroyerw hichw asb oard ed und erutmost
d ifficulties,w hilepitchingb ad ly .Churchillw astalkingrapid lyatthe
timeab outtheAfricancampaign .Hescramb led ab oard thed estroyer
easily,b utHopkins,b eingnoold salt( norev enayoungone),missed
hisfootingand w asnarrow lysav ed fromfallingintothesea .Hew as
d ragged ab oard b ythescruffofhisneckw hileChurchillw entrighton
.Onb oard thed estroyer,offtheNorthCoastofScotland in
January,Hopkinsw ashorrib lycold ,tired and generallymiserab le
b orrow ed GeneralIsmay'sflyingb ootstokeephisfeetw armand sat
d ow ntorestonsomeob j ectonthed eck,b utw aspromptlyhauled off
itb yachiefpettyofficerw hosaid ,apologetically," Ex cuseme,sir-b ut
Id on'tthinkyoushould sitj ustthere,sir-that,sir,isad epthcharge ."
Whenthed estroyercameinv iew oftheHomeFleet,rid ingatanchor
inScapaFlow ,Churchillorsomeoneelse( Id onotknow w ho)w av ed
totheimpressiv esightand said toHopkins," Thereisourshield ! If
thatshould go,w e'd b eforit.TheGermanshav eattempted someb omb -
.Iftheyshould intensifyit,and had someluckw iththeirhits,
ourshield w ould b egoneand w eshould b ed efenseless ." ( Elev enmonths
laterHopkinsthoughtthatitw asaluckythingforciv iliz ationthatthe
Germansnev erd ev eloped thecarrier-b ased airpow ernorthepeculiar
tacticalskillthattheJapaneseconcentrated onPearlHarb or .)
Hopkinsw ished good -b yand good lucktoLord Halifax ,w ithw hom
hew astohav ecloseand cord ialassociationd uringthenex tfouryears .
WhenHalifax arriv ed offAnnapolis,Maryland ,Presid entRoose-
v eltd id him,thesignalhonorofsailingouttomeethim.Therew as
consid erab leq uietmirthintheWhiteHouseov erthatepisod e .Weall
knew thatofcoursethePresid entw asglad oftheopportunitytow elcome
thenew BritishAmb assad orand thereb ytoad v ertiseagainhissupport
; b utw eallsuspected that,asanav alenthusiast,he
w asalsoimpelled b yanirrepressib led esiretohav eagood lookatthe
new b attleship .

24 7
ThecareerofLord Halifax asAmb assad orw asaremarkab leone
Hestarted outund ermanyhand icaps,b eingb rand ed asoneofthemen
ofMunich .Hew asphotographed ind ulginginhisfav oritesportoffox
huntinginVirginiaw hilehiscountrymenw ereab sorb ingfearfulpunish-
ment,thereb yev okingad iatrib efromCarlSand b urg,amongmany
.Somemonthsafterhisarriv alinWashington,anacid ulousand
irrev erentrepresentativ eoftheBritishGov ernmentintheUnited States
returned toLond onand ,w henasked how Lord Halifax w asgetting
along,replied ," Oh,he'sd oingfamously
z erotofreez ingpoint." And yet,w henfiv eyearslaterHalifax completed
hismissionand lefttheUnited States,hetookw ithhimaw ealthofre-
spectand affectionsuchascould hav eb eengiv entov eryfew Amb as-
sad orsanyw hereatanytime .Thesiz eand characteroftheob staclesthat
hehad b eenforced tofaceintheb eginningmad ehisultimateaccomplish-
mentallthemoread mirab le .
Onthereturnj ourneyfromScotland ,Churchillstopped atv arious
points,alw ayskeepingHopkinsw ithhimand alw aysb eingatpainsto
ex plainthatthisod d -looking,unkemptind iv id ualw as" thepersonal
representativ eofthePresid entoftheUnited StatesofAmerica," an
assurancew ellcalculated tob olsterlocalmorale .AtGlasgow therew as
alargeinspectionb ythePrimeMinisterofanti-air-raid personnel.They
w ereformed upinrankafterrank .Churchillw anted Hopkinstow alk
w ithhimtheentired istanceand tob eintrod uced ov erand ov eragain .
Churchillw astirelessb utHopkinsw asex hausted and tried sev eraltimes
tod uckoutand hid eb ehind thespectators .Butev erytimeChurchill
noted hisab senceand summoned himforth .
ThatnightChurchilland Hopkinsattend ed ad innergiv enb ytheLord
Prov ostofGlasgow .Churchillspoke,makinggracefulreferencesto
Presid entRoosev elt,toHopkinsand to" theDemocracyofthegreat
AmericanRepub lic" ( aphrasecalculated topleaseb othsid esofthe
.Hopkinsalsow ascalled uponforafew w ord s
.Heq uoted
theBookofRuth-" Whitherthougoest,Iw illgo . . . ev entotheend ."
Pub licationofthisunprepared speechw ascensored ,b utw ord ofit
spread allov erBritainand ithad aneffectfargreaterthanHopkinshad
d ared tointend : itw asinterpreted asassurancethat" theAmericans
arew ithus ." Lord Beav erb rooktold meyearslaterthatHopkins'w arm-
hearted sympathyatthistimeand hisconfid enceand theconv ictionthat
w entw ithitprov id ed moretangib leaid forBritainthanhad allthe
d estroyersand gunsand riflesand ammunitionthathad b eensent
prev iously .
Itw asonthistrip,and othertripstoDov er,Southamptonand Ports-
mouth,thatHopkinsnoted theab soluterev erenceinw hichChurchill
w asheld b ytheBritishpeople
.Theyliterallyw anted totouchthehem
24 8

ofhisgarments .Hehad b eenafamousmanintheseisland sforthirty
yearsb eforethew ar,b uttheyd id notentrusthimw iththej ob ofKing's
FirstMinisteruntiltheyw ere in ex tremis . And assoonastheyw ereout
ofittheyv oted ov erw helminglyforhisopponents .Butthisw astheir
" finesthour" and Churchillw astheir'acknow led ged lead erand spokes-
manand theliv ingsymb oloftheirw illtosurv iv easafreepeople
PrimeMinisterand thePresid ent,asHopkinssaw them,w erew id ely
d ifferentcharacters,b uttheyb othpossessed toasuperlativ ed egreethe
ab ilitytoprov okeloyalty,enthusiasm,d ev otion,ev enakind ofad oration
-and alsotheab ilitymerelytoprov oke .
ReturningtoLond on,Hopkinsplunged intoasched uleofappoint-
mentsw ithBritishand Americanofficials,and thoseofv ariousgov ern,
mentsinex ile
.Oneofficialw ithw homheestab lished alastingfriend ship
-afteranunpropitiousstart-w asLord Beav erb rook,thepressb aron
and MinisterofAircraftProd uction .( Theyfirstmetatluncheonw ith
HerschelJohnsonand d isliked eachotherautomatically
tend ed asessionoftheHouseofCommonsatw hichChurchillmad eone
ofhishistoricreportsonthew arsituation .Inthisonehed escrib ed the
compositionand functionsofhisWarCab inet.ComingtoBeav erb rook,
hesaid ," TheMinisterofAircraftProd uction,w how asd escrib ed asan
` old searaid er,'w hichisaeuphemisticmethod ofd escrib ingapirate,is
amanofaltogetherex ceptionalforceand geniusw hoisathisv eryb est
w henthingsareattheirv eryw orst
." TherelationshipofChurchilland
Beav erb rookw asamatterofconsid erab leinterestand oftenamusement
.Herew eretw od etermined and inherentlypow erfulmen
w hosev erysimilaritiesclashed : b othw eresupremepatriotsonanim-
perialscale,b othw eretirelessand tenacious,b othex tremelyw orld ly,
w ithgreatz estand capacityforgood liv ing,b othw eresuperb show men
w ithanalertab ilityforspottingand appreciatingthemainchance ; and
eachofthemanyd isagreementsb etw eenthemseemed utterlyirrecon-
cilab leuntilacommoncontemptforthepurelytransientissueb rought
themtogetheragain .
Beav erb rookgav ead innerforHopkinsatClarid ge's,inv itinghiscol-
leaguesand competitorsoftheLond onpress
.Thisd innerw asoffthe
record b utanaccountofithasb eenw rittenb yoneoftheed itorspresent
Wew erealltired men,sufferingfromasuccessionoflongnights
d uringw hichLond onhad b eenb omb ed b yex plosiv esand incend iaries,
and d uringw hichthe - d ifficultiesofnew spaperprod uctionhad b een
ex treme.Butonthatmid w interev eninginthepeakperiod ofthefirst
seriesofLond onb litz esw ew erealsointenselycuriousmen-w hich
isthehappiestand healthieststateforaj ournalistinanyclimeofcir-
.Allofusw erew ond eringasourcarsad v anced cautiously
throughtheb lackouttow ard Clarid ge's( and theymiraculouslyfound
it,thoughitspatricianand once-b rilliantentrancew asassub tlycon-

4 9
cealed asthatofanyd ub iousd iv e)w hatHopkinsw ould hav etosay
tous .

Hehad said solittlesincehearriv ed inLond on,tothetuneofan
anti-aircraftb omb ard ment,onJanuary9 .Ourreporters,w henthey
methimonarriv al,w ereob liged torecord thathe" smiled q uiz z ically"
inansw ertotheirq uestions
; and ev enafull-d ressPressConference
attheAmericanEmb assytw od ayslaterhad prod uced nothingmore
d efinitefromthePresid ent'senv oythanthathew ashere" tod iscuss
mattersofmutualinteresttoourtw ocountries ." Thoughitmustb e
ad mitted thatherew ard ed thez ealofoneparticularlyd etermined
q uestionerb yagreeing," Yes,Ithinkyoucansay urgent matters ."
ThegatheringatClarid ge'sw asoneoftheb iggestoftheBeav er-
b rookw ar-timeoccasions .Notonlyw eretheed itorsand someofthe
lead ingw riterspresent.Proprietorsand managersw erethere,and the
prov incialPress,asw ellasthatofLond on,w asrepresented .
Whenthew aitershad cleared thetab lesthed oorsw ereclosed ,and
Beav erb rookstood up,smiling .Head d ressed himselfnottous,b ut
toHarryHopkins .Ford ays,hesaid ,Hopkinshad b eentalkingto
memb ersoftheGov ernment.Buttonightw asayetmoreimportant
occasion,forthosepresentw ere" themastersoftheGov ernment" -
thelead ersoftheBritishPress .And soheinv ited Mr .Hopkinsto
speaktous .
Hopkinsrose,lookinglean,shyand untid y,graspingtheb ackof
hischair,and hecontinued tolookshythroughouthisspeech .
Hisw ord sw erepriv ate,sononotesw eretaken .Butifithad b een
possib letorecord thesentencesthatcameq uietlyand d iffid entlyfrom
thelipsofHarryHopkinstheyw ould hav ecompared w ellfornob ility
ofex pressionw iththesplend id orationw hichMr .Roosev elthad d e-
liv ered tw od aysearlierw henhew assw orninforthethird timeas
Presid entoftheUnited States .
NotthatHopkinsrepeated orev enechoed thePresid ent'sspeech .
Hetalked inmoreintimateterms .WherethePresid enthad spoken
ofAmerica'sd utytothew orld ,Hopkinstold ushow thePresid entand
thosearound himw ereconv inced thatAmerica'sw orld d utycould b e
successfullyperformed onlyinpartnershipw ithBritain .Hetold us
oftheanx ietyand ad mirationw ithw hichev eryphaseofBritain's
lonelystrugglew asw atched fromtheWhiteHouse,and ofhisow n
emotionsashetrav elled throughourb litz ed land
w iththefeelingthatalthoughAmericaw asnotyetinthew ar,shew as
marchingb esid eus,and thatshould w estumb leshew ould seew ed id
notfall .Ab ov eallheconv inced usthatthePresid entand themen
ab outhimb laz ed w ithfaithinthefutureofDemocracy
Inad d itiontoad d ressingusasaw hole,Hopkins,encouraged b y
Beav erb rook,w entonaslow j ourneyaround thetab le,pullingupa
chairalongsid etheed itorsand managersofv ariousnew spapersand
talkingtothemind iv id ually .Heastonished usall,Right,Leftand
Centre,b yhisgraspofournew spapers'separatepoliciesand prob lems .
Wew entaw aycontent-Hopkinstob ed ; Beav erb rooktohisd esk
15 0

attheMinistryofAircraftProd uctiontoread thenight'sreportsand
prepareord ersforhisfactorymanagersonthemorrow
; therestof
ustoouroffices,tofind thatprod uctionhad goneforw ard w ellinthe
ev eningb lessed lyfreefromthecrashofb omb sorthesmellofb urning
b uild ings .
Manyatragicand terrib lechapterw astob ead d ed toourcountry's
historyb eforeourprayersw ereansw ered and oureffortsrew ard ed .
NoneofusBritishj ournalistsw hohad b eenlisteningtothemanfrom
theWhiteHousew asinanyillusionab outtheperilw hichencom-
passed ourisland .Butw ew erehappymenall
; ourconfid enceand our
couragehad b eenstimulated b yacontactforw hichShakespeare,in
" HenryV," had aphrase : " AlittletouchofHarryinthenight."
Afootnotetothisisprov id ed inaletterfromJ .Ed garHoov erto
GeneralWatsonforthePresid ent'sinformation .Itseemed therew ere
.meninClarid ge'sthatev ening .Hoov erw rote
Attheconclusionofthed inneritappeared fromfacialex pressions
thatalltheguestsw ereq uitehappyastheresultofthed innerand
d iscussions .Smallgroupsofthemstopped inthecoffeeroom,w here
representativ esofthisBureauw ereseated atthemoment,and thegist
oftheconv ersationsrelated tothev erycharmingmannerofMr .Hop-
kins,hiskeeninsightintocurrentprob lemsand thev eryremarkab le
factthathecomb ined av erycharmingb utalmostshypersonalityw ith
av eryv igorousand d ynamicmentality
.Innoinstancew asanyun-
fav orab lecommentmad eand theentiregistoftheirconv ersations
relativ etoMr .Hopkinsw aspositiv eand commend atory .
Itd elighted Roosev elttoknow thattheG-menw erecheckingupon
hispersonalrepresentativ e.
AlthoughHopkinshad paid hisrespectsatBuckinghamPalaceshortly
afterhisarriv alhed id nothav eanopportunityforarealtalkw iththe
Kingand Queenuntiltw ow eekslater .Hisd escriptionofthismeeting
follow s
January30 ,19 4 1
Ihad lunchtod ayw ithTheirMaj estiesTheKingand Queenat
BuckinghamPalacetod ay
.SirAlanLascellesand theEq uerryin
Waitinggreeted meatthed oorand tookmethroughthelong,cold ,
narrow ,w ind ow lesspassagestotheKing'soffice,w hereapparently
hemeetsallhisv isitors
FirsttheKingand thentheQueencamein .Wechatted amoment
ab outinconseq uentialthingsand theKingthenasked meab outmy
triptoScapaFlow w ithHalifax ,and Itold himd etailsoftheamusing
incid entsinclud ingthefiringoftheU.P.gun,and ab outtheb omb
land ingfiv efeetfrommeinstead ofontheenemy
.Hetold methatthe
PrimeMinisterhad failed totellhimofthisincid ent.Itold theKing
thereasonforthatw asthatthePrimeMinisterd id n'tthinkitw as
funnyand Id id !

25 1
Thethreeofushad lunchtogetherinthenex troom.Wed iscussed
atgreatlengththeirv isittoAmericaayearagolastMay,and itw as
perfectlyclearthatthePresid entmad eagreatimpressiononb othof
1told theKinghow muchthePresid entenj oyed meetingthem,how
d earhisfriend shipw astohimpersonally,and how greathispleasure
w asinreceiv ingpersonalmesagesfromtheKing
.Iurged theKing,
w henev erhew asofamind ,tosend thePresid entappropriatepersonal
notesb ecauseIb eliev ed thatthatw asoneofthew aystokeepourtw o
countriescloselyrelated d uringthesetryingtimes .
TheQueentold methatshefound itex tremelyd ifficulttofind
w ord stoex pressherfeelingtow ard sthepeopleofBritaininthese
d ays
.Shethoughttheiractionsw eremagnificentand thatv ictoryin
thelongrunw assure,b utthattheonethingthatcounted w asthe
moraleand d eterminationofthegreatmassoftheBritishpeople
TheKingd iscussed thenav yand thefleetatsomelengthand
show ed anintimateknow led geofallthehighrankingofficersofthe
nav y,and forthatmatter,ofthearmyand airforce
.Itw asperfectly
clearfromhisremarksthatheread sv erycarefullyalltheimportant
d ispatchesand ,amongotherthings,w asq uitefamiliarw ithad ispatch
w hichIhad sentSund aynightthroughtheForeignOffice.
Hethinksv eryhighlyoftheCommand er-in-Chiefofthemilitary
forcesand ,asw ithev eryb od yelse,hasgreatconfid enceinChurchill
Hed iscussed q uitefreelyw ithmethegreatd ifficultiesthiscountry
w ould hav eifanythingshould happentoChurchill .
Ifev ertw opeoplerealiz ed thatBritainisfightingforitslifeitis
thesetw o
.Theyrealiz efullythatthisconflictisd ifferentfromthe
otherconflictsinBritain'shistoryand thatifHitlerw instheyand the
Britishpeoplew illb eenslav ed foryearstocome .
TheQueentold anamusingstoryab outgoingtoChurchw ithMrs
Roosev eltseniorand thePresid ent
.Itappearsthattheold lad y
d ropped herPrayerBookov erand ov eragainand theQueenhad to
.Thisw asnosoonerd onethanshew ould d ropherhand ker-
.Ev entuallythePrayerBookw entov ertheb enchand therew as
nothingfurtherthatcould b ed one
.TheQueenhad b eenamused at
thefactthattheRectoroftheChurchhad urged theparishionersto
cometoChurchev enw hensuchd istinguished v isitorsw erenot
TheKingtalked atgreatlengthab outthePresid entand hisob v ious
d eepinterestinthed efeat,ofHitler
Theairraid alarmhad goneoffj ustasw esatd ow ntolunch,and
asw ereached coffeeand porttheb ellranginthePalaceand theKing
said ," Thatmeansw ehav egottogototheairraid shelter," sow e
immed iatelyw alked d ow ntw oorthreeflightsofstairs,throughad ark
hallw ay,led b yaguard ,throughsev erald oorsand finallyland ed ina
smalllighted roomw ithatab leand chairs
Wetalked intheshelterforanhourlongerab outWashingtonand
America'srelationshiptothew ar
.TheQueenurged theKingtotake
25 2

thetimetow ritetothePresid entasfreq uentlyashecould ,and said
onherpartshew asgoingtocontinuetow ritetoMrs .Roosev elt.
Heasked ab outMr .Willkieand hisv isit,and seemed greatly
pleased thatIw assureMr .Willkieand thePresid entw ould seeeye
toeyeinregard tothePresid ent's'foreignpolicy .
Hetold methestoryofQueenWilhelmina'sescapefromHolland .
Itseemsshehad ,aftersomeurging,,asked forfighterplanes,w hich
could notb esent,b uttheBritishGov ernmentinstead sentad estroyer .
Shew asrefusingtoleav eHolland and tookthed estroyerinord erto
gettoFlushing.Thecommand erofthed estroyercould notgetinto
Flushingand told theQueentherew asnothingtod ob utgotoaBritish
port,w hichshed id .ShegottoBuckinghamPalaceat5 : ooo'clock
intheafternoonw earingatinhatgiv enherb ythecommand erofthe
d estroyer.TheQueensaid shew asafinecourageousw oman,and it
w asperfectlyclearfromthisconv ersationthatshearriv ed inEngland
entirelyb yaccid entand notb yintentonherow npart.
Itold theKingthestoryab outtheBelgianKing,and ofQueen
Wilhelmina'sd esirethatthePresid entsend amessagetohim.He
ex pressed a good d ealofsympathyw iththeKingoftheBelgians .It
w asperfectlyclearthathefeltthattheKinghad had tw oresponsi-
b ilities-oneasCommand er-in-ChiefoftheBelgianArmyand the
otherhisj ob asKing,and thathehad gotthetw oj ob smix ed up
apparentlyhad littleornocriticismofhimasCommand er-in-Chiefof
theArmy,b utasKinghethoughtheshould hav eleftthecountryand
estab lished hisgov ernmentelsew here .
TheQueensaid shefeltHitlerand theGermanpeoplew ereapretty
cruellotand realiz ed theyw ould hav enomercyonthem
; thatshe
liked thefactthattheBritishpeopled id notseemtohav emuchhatred
intheirheartsb utratherd eterminationtoresisttotheend .She
seemed tohav eaw id eacq uaintancew ithBritishpoliticsand affairs
and show ed greatinterestinallIhad totellherab outmytripsthrough-
outthecountry,particularlymyv isittoGlasgow . . . .
TheKingex pressed thegreathopethatsomehow thePresid entand
Churchillcould gettogetherpersonallyinthenearfuture
.Heb eliev ed
thatitmightb earranged
WhenIemphasiz ed thePresid ent'sgreatd eterminationtod efeat
Hitler,hisd eepconv ictionthatBritainand Americahad amutuality
ofinterestinthisrespect,and thattheycould d epend uponaid from
America,theyw ereb othv eryd eeplymov ed .
TheQueenasked particularlyab outDianaand told metob esure
togiv eherherlov e .Shetoow ished tob erememb ered w armlytoMr .
and Mrs .Roosev elt
.TheKingonhisparttold mehow greatlyhe
appreciated thePresid ent'sspeechesand said hew assurefromthelast
v isitthatheknew w hatw asd eeplyemb ed d ed inthePresid ent'smind
Hetold metotellthePresid enthow muchb elov ed hew asb ythe
peopleofBritainand asked thatIgiv etothePresid enthisw armest
ex pressionsofthanksand appreciationand apersonalw ord offriend -
ship .

5 3
Ihav emad esomed elib erated eletionsintheforegoingd ocument
relatinglargelytotheBritishpoliticalscene .Noneofthematerial
d eleted w asconcerned w ithPresid entRoosev eltorU.S.Gov ernment
policyorprob lems
.Thesameappliestothefollow ingd ocumentinw hich
Ihav emad eoned eletionofapassageconcerned solelyw ithNorw egian
January30 ,
19 4 r
Isaw theKingofNorw aythismorningathishouse,theNorw egian
Emb assy, Io PalaceGreen,Kensington,W .8 .Dr .Benes,theformer
Presid entofCz echoslov akia,w asj ustcomingout.Ij usthad achance
toshakehand sw ithhim.
TheKingtold mesomethingofhisflightfromNorw ayand men-
tioned thefactthatitw asimpossib leforw omenand child rento
follow him,and thatisw hyheord ered theCrow nPrincessand hertw o
child rentoleav eand gointoSw ed en
.Thesamethingapplied toMrs .
Harriman,w hohew assurecould notstand theard uousnessofthe
retreatand heasked thatshetooleav eforSw ed en .Heseemed to
hav eav eryw armfeelinginhisheartforMrs .Harriman .
TheKingw asatallmanand 'spokev eryv igorouslyand inperfect
English .Hed eprecated hisow npartinthew holeaffairand said that
Norw aycould nothav eresisted unlesstheNorw egianpeoplehad
w ished toresistand w ithouttheirsupporthecould nev erb ecarrying
onagov ernmenthere .Hesaid hetried toimpressonthe
30 ,0 0 0
sailorsofthemerchantmarinethattheyw erenotw orkingfortheir
employersb utreallyw orkingfortherehab ilitationofNorw ay .
Heex pressed greatappreciationofthekind nessoftheBritish
Gov ernmentand hisv eryhighregard forthespiritoftheBritish
people .
Heasked metogiv ethePresid enthisw armestthanksnotonlyfor
hiskind nesstohisfamily,b utforthew armsympathyw hichAmerica
had forNorw ay .
WhenRoosev elthad firstannounced theHopkinsmissionatapress
conferencehesaid thatthetripw ould lastnomorethantw ow eeks
lasted nearlysix w eeks
.Hopkinsw anted tostayonand thePresid ent
cab led himpermissiontod oso,ad d ing," Dogetsomesleep!" Roosev elt
told HopkinstoinformtheFormerNav alPersonthathehoped foraction
ontheLend -LeaseBillsometimeb etw eenFeb ruary
2o and Marchib ut
thatb ehad 'mad earrangementstoenab lenearlyalltheBritishord ers
.Hesaid thatthegeneralsituationinthe
United Statesw asv eryencouraging,and w ished Hopkinstheb estof
luck .January 30
w asRoosev elt'sfifty-ninthb irthd ayand Hopkins
cab led thathew ished hecould b ew ithhimfortheannuald innerofthe
CuffLinksGangb utthat,ev enthoughab sent,hecould b ecounted on
atthepropermomenttoraisehisglassand d rinktothelonglifeand
good healthofthePresid entoftheUnited States .
2 5 4
Hopkinsspentthreew eekend sw ithChurchillatCheq uersand one
w ithBeav erb rookathisplace,Cherkley,nearLeatherhead
inv ited Hopkinsforthisone,too,b utWillkiew asalsotob ethereand
Hopkinsfelt( prob ab lycorrectly)thatWillkiew ould prefernottohav e
himpresentw henhew asengaginginintimatetalksw ithChurchill
Thereisrecord ofonlyonemeetingofHopkinsand WillkieinLond on,
reported inacab letothePresid ent
LastnightIsaw Wend ellWillkie
.Hetold methatheb eliev esthe
oppositiontoLend Leaseisgoingtob ev ehementlyex pressed and it
should notb eund errated und eranycircumstances
.Itishisb eliefthat
themaincampaignagainsttheBillw illb ed irected fromChicagoand
heav ilyfinanced
.Asperhapshetold youitishisopinionthatHerb ert
Hoov eristherealb rainsb ehind thisopposition
.Willkiesaid hehoped
thatyouw ould makearad iospeech,preferab lyfromChicago,and
thereb ytakeyourcaserighttothepeople
.Hesaid thathehimself
mightmakesomespeechesafterhereturnshomeinab outtw ow eeks
Hesaid thatheapprov ed theBillw ithsomeamend mentsb utd id not
specifyw hattheyw ere
.Heisreceiv ingalltheattentionsw hichthe
Britishknow sow ellhow toprov id eford istinguished guests
hav efurtherob serv ationstomakeonWillkie'sv isitherew henI
seeyou .
Hopkinshad imagined thatlifeinEngland w asfraughtw ithhard ship
asw ellasd angerd uringtheBlitz and hew assurprised attheamount
ofcomfortw hichheatleastenj oyed
.Hed iscov ered ,asd id thousand sof
otherAmericansw how eretocometoLond oninthenex tfiv eyears,
thatliv ingcond itionsinClarid ge'scould hard lyb ed escrib ed as" rugged
MostoftheotherLond onhotelshad ,ofnecessity,d eteriorated inserv ice
and conspicuouslyintheq ualityoffood
.ButClarid ge'shad somesortof
.Beingj ustaround thecornerfromtheAmericanEmb assy
and Grosv enorSq uare( laterknow nas" Eisenhow erplatz " )itw as
usuallyhousingoneormoreAmericanmissionsasw ellasallv arieties
ofroyaltyinex ileand Allied militarylead ersand ev en,now and then,a
few fortunatenativ es
.Itsserv icew asofprew arstand ard and themeals
serv ed intheroomsw eremuchmoreinterestingthoughnomorenourish-
ingthantheord inaryEnglishfare
.Hopkinsq uestioned thew aiters
ab outthis,askingthemtotellhimind etailw hattheirfamilieshad to
.Theyw ereglad totellhim,and theyfound theformer
W.P.A.Ad ministratorq uicktound erstand
.Oneofthew aiters,Wilfred
Harold Hall,told me," Mr
.Hopkinsw asv erygenial-consid erate-if
Imaysayso,lov ab le-q uited ifferentfromotherAmb assad orsw e'v ehad
here." Hopkinsaw okeat7
: 3oand hisstand ard b reakfastord erw as
" Coffee,toastand w hatev eryou'v egotinthew ayoffruit," w hich
generallyturned outtob easourcompoteofplums
.Hopkinsreceiv ed
giftsofsuchrareitemsaseggs( ord inarilytherationofeggsw asone

5 5
ortw oamonth)fromfriend sw hohad countryplaces,b uthegenerally
gav etheseaw aytothestaff .Hew anted tob escrupulousinav oid ing
specialpriv ileges,b utthatw asob v iouslyimpossib le
Hisroomw asalw aysamess,w ithpapers,someofthemhighlysecret,
littered ab out.Hehad notyetlearned themeaningofthataw esomew ord ,
Security,and hecaused plentyofalarminthestaffoftheEmb assyand
theF.B.I.menand ,nod oub t,amongtheBritishw homad eitapointto
w atchsuchthings .Thehotelv alets,w hentheycould persuad ehimtopart
w ithaw rinkled suitforpressing,oftenfound thepocketsstuffed w ith
secretpapers,asw ellashisw alletand passport,w hichhehad for-
gotten .( Therew as
storyinWashingtond uringthew arthatHopkins
oncekeptanunopened cab lefromStalininthepocketofhisold b ath-
rob eforthreew eeks,b utthatunfortunatelyisapocryphal .)One
Clarid gev alet,Alb ertPerry,told methathealw aystried tob eonhand
w henMr
.Hopkinsw asgoingoutsothathecould straightenhiscollar
and tie .Hopkinsaccepted theseministrationsmeekly,saying," Oh,yes-
I'v egottorememb erI'minLond onnow -I'v egottolookd ignified ."
Anotherv alet,JamesDenyer,learningearlyinthemorningthatHopkins
w ould notb eleav ingthehotelb eforelunchtime,sw iped hisold felt
hatand mad eanunsuccessfulattempttosteamitand b lockitintosome
semb lanceofshape .
Theonlyrealhard shipthatHopkinsex perienced inliv ingcond itions
inEngland w asatCheq uers,theofficialcountryseatofPrimeMinisters .
Hopkinsv oted thatthecold esthousehehad ev erv isited .Although
Churchillseemed tothriv ethereinhissirensuit,Hopkinsseld omtook
hisov ercoatoff .Hisfav oritehauntw asthed ow nstairsb athroom,the
onlyroomw herethe" centralheating" w asd etectab le .Hew ould gothere
and sitread ingnew spapersand d ispatches ; b uthew orehisov ercoat
ev enthere .Hew asenormouslypopularw ithhisBritishhostsw holike
Americansb estw hentheyaremakingtheleastefforttob eanything
else .Hopkinsnaturallyand easilyconformed totheessentialBenj amin
Franklintrad itionofAmericand iplomacy,actingontheconv ictionthat
w henanAmericanrepresentativ eapproacheshisoppositenumb ersin
friend lycountriesw iththestand ard striped -pantsfrigid ity,thestrict
ob serv anceofprotocoland theamenities,and astud ied airoflip-curling
Americaofw hichFranklinD .Roosev eltw asPresid ent.Hopkins'
approachtoBritainintheBlitz w asfund amentallythesameashis
approachtosouthernIllinoisinthegreatflood ortotheConnecticut
coastinthehurricane : allheknew w asthatherew erehumanb eings,
friend sofours,w how ereintroub le,and itw ashisj ob tofind outw hat
theyneed ed and togetitforthem
.Hehad thesameessentialattitud e
w henhew enttoMoscow inJuly,19 4 1 .
Hew rotethisrecord ofonew eekend atCheq uers
25 6

ThismorningIhav eaw akened onacold ,d rearymorning-and the
formalgard enofthislov elyold placeseemsv eryunhappyund erthe
onslaughtsofw ind and snow and cold .Ihav ej ustfinished myb reak-
fastinb ed -ofkid neyand b aconand prunes-thepapershav eb een
read tellingofHalifax 'sarriv aland thePresid ent'spersonalw elcome .
Thisw illpleasetheP
.noend .
Ihav ej ustread theamaz ingd ocumentgiv entomelastnight.Itis
aw arcab inetd ocumentof17pagesprinted onlightgreenpaper-
8 x 14 -and containstheprincipaltelegramsrelatingtooperationsinthe
Mid d leEastex changed b etw eenthePrimeMinisteroftheDefense
and theCommand erinChief-Mid d leEasttogetherw ithcertain
telegramsfromSecretaryofStateforWarand theChiefsofStaff .
Itinclud esthegenerald irectiv estoWav ellw rittenb ythe P.M.-
layingtheMid d leEastcampaignoutind etail .Whenyourealiz ethat
thisd irectiv ew asw rittenand ind eed ord ered inSeptemb er19 4 0
w hilstBritainw asfightingforherlife-itgiv essomeind icationof
Churchill'sb old ness-d aringand d etermination .Italyinv ad esGreece
-preciousplanesmustb etakenaw aytob olstertheGreeksand
gunstoo-b uttheP
.M.ev erurgingWav elltopresson-planes
d esperatelyneed ed inEngland rushed toWav ell'ssupportb ythe
P.M.'sinsistentord ers-theP.M.impatient-prod d ingWav ell-b ut
ev ergiv inghimhisconfid entsupport-b utGreecemustb esupported
forpoliticalreasonsand Wav ellgrud ginglyagreesfortheseare
ex plicitord ersfromtheMinisterofDefense-b utthe" Compass" has
b eenmad eand thepersonalthoauthoritativ etelegramsshow theev er
Dec.T8 '¢ oP.M.toWav ell
" St.Matthew ,Chapter7,Verse7-thev erseread s` Ask,and it
shallb egiv entoyou ; seek,and yeshallfind ,knockand itshallb e
opened untoyou ." '
Dec.z 9 Wav elltoP.M.
" St.James,Chap
immed iateneed .Thev erseread s` Ev erygood giftand ev eryperfect
giftisfromab ov e,and comethd ow nfromtheFatheroflights,w ith
w homthereisnov ariab leness,neithershad ow ofturning ." '
Afew d ayslaterHopkinsfiled b ycab lehisfullreporttothePresid ent.
Ittookupsomethirtypagesofcab leformsmostlyd ev oted tod etailsof
Britishreq uirements
Inthetw ow eekssincemyarriv alinEngland Ihav espenttw elv e
ev eningsw ithMr
.Churchilland Ihav eex plored ev eryaspectofour
mutualprob lemsw ithhim.Ihav ealsohad ex tend ed conferencesw ith
alltheCab inetMinistersand mostoftheUnd ersecretaries .Ihav e
had longand d etailed conferencesw iththeChiefoftheImperialGeneral
Staff,SirJohnDill,and w iththeFirstSeaLord ,Ad miralPound ,
and w iththeChiefoftheAirStaff,SirCharlesPortal,and w iththe
ChiefsoftheFighterand Bomb erCommand s .Ihav ev isited Scapa

Flow and theCoastDefensesatDov erand v ariouscitiesand tow ns
and airfield s
.Theyhav egiv enmecompleteaccesstoallconfid ential
materialw hichisconcerned w ithmymissionhere
.Ib eliev ethat
insofarasitispossib letogetapictureofthesituationhereinashort
time,Ihav egotareasonab lyclearperceptionnotonlyofthephysical
d efensesofBritainb utoftheopinionsofthemenw hoared irecting
.Your" formerNav alperson" isnotonlythe
PrimeMinister,heisthed irectingforceb ehind thestrategyand the
cond uctofthew arinallitsessentials
.Hehasanamaz inghold on
theBritishpeopleofallclassesand groups
b othw iththemilitaryestab lishmentsand thew orkingpeople
mostimportantsingleob serv ationIhav etomakeismostofthe
Cab inetand allofthemilitarylead ershereb eliev ethatinv asionis
.Theyarestrainingev eryeffortnightand d aytomeetthis
Theyb eliev ethatitmaycomeatanymoment,b utnotlaterthanMay
.Theyb eliev ethatitw illcertainlyb eanalloutattack,includ ingthe
useofpoisongasand perhapssomeothernew w eaponsthatGermany
mayhav ed ev eloped
.Thespiritofthispeopleand theird etermination
toresistinv asionisb eyond praise
.Nomatterhow fiercetheattack
mayb eyoucanb esurethattheyw illresistit,and effectiv ely
Germansw illhav etod omorethankillafew hund red thousand people
hereb eforetheycand efeatBritain
thatanyactionyoumaytaketomeettheimmed iateneed sheremust
b eb ased ontheassumptionthatinv asionw illcomeb eforeMayist
Germanyfailstow inthisinv asionthenIb eliev ehersunisset
conv inced thatifw eactb old lyand promptlyonafew maj orfrontsw e
cangetenoughmaterialtoBritainw ithinthenex tfew w eekstogiv e
herthead d itionalstrengthsheneed stoturnb ackHitler
. . . .Iread
inthepapersthatyouaresickinb ed w ithflu .Youcanb esurethere
aremanypeopleherew hohopeasId othatyouw illtakegood care
ofyourself .
Intheremainingcab lesHopkinsstated Britain'sspecificreq uirements
and mad ehisrecommend ationsformeetingthem.WhenHerschel
Johnsonread thesecab lesastheypassed ov erhisd eskintheEmb assy,
hew asamaz ed b ytheaccuracyofHopkins'reportsand ev enmoreb y
hisd isregard forthetab ooofisolationism
.Hopkinslaterd rew upthe
follow ingmemorand umforthePresid ent,summariz inghisrecom-
mend ationsforaid toBritain
( z )iod estroyersamonthb eginningAprilist
.Destroyerstob e
recond itioned intheUnited States-recond itioningtob egin
med iately.
( 2)
Theurgentneed ofmoremerchantshippingatonce
cannotw aituntilnew shipsareb uilt.
( 3) 5 0
PBYPlanesinad d itiontothePBYw hichtheBritishare
receiv ingontheirow naccount;
fullyeq uipped w ithrad io,d epth
charges,b omb s,gunsand ammunition
.Ad eq uateoperatingspare
supplies .Urgentneed forcrew s .
25 8

( 4 ) Thereare29 enginelessLockheed planesinEngland
need 5 8 Wright18 2o enginesatonce .
( 5 )ThereareiooCurtissTomahaw ksw ithoutpropellersin
England .76 4 fiftycalib erand iooothirtycalib ermachineguns
req uired tocompletearmament.CurtissTomahaw ksalread yin
England .
( 6 )Consid erationtob egiv enimmed iatelytothereplacementof
fiftycalib ergunsmanufactured b yColtw hichareunsatisfactoryw ith
thesamegunw hichhasalread yb eenmanufactured b yourow n
arsenals .
( 7) 20 millionround soffiftycalib erammunitionand asmany
ex trafiftycalib ergunb arrelsasareav ailab leurgentlyneed ed .
( 8 ) Themax imumnumb erofB-i7,BSC'sorD'sinad d itionto
the 2oalread yagreed upontob esenttoEngland immed iately .Planes
should b esentcompletelyread yforimmed iateoperation,includ ing
spareparts,b omb sand ammunition .Crew surgentlyneed ed .
( 9 )TransfertotheBritish 20 o NorthAmericanHarv ard sor
VulteeValiantstrainersinex cessofallpresentd eliv eries .
( io)Atleast
ad d itionalciv ilianflyingtrainingschoolscom-
pletelyeq uipped .
( ii)Workoutplantoferryb omb erstoEngland .Thisw ould
releasenearly 8 oo BritishR.A.F.personnel .
( 12)25 0 ,0 0 o Enfield riflesand 5 o,ooo,ooo round sofammunition
hav eb eensent.
( i3)Giv eprioritytotoolsforthemanufactureofPoint30 3rifles
fortheBritish .Sameappliesto30 3ammunition
( i4 )Send 8 o trained ob serv ers-halffromthefactoriesand half
fromtheArmyand Nav y-toacq uaintBritainw iththeuseofour
Hopkinshad furthertalksw ithEd enconcerningGermaninfiltration
intheBalkansw hichled totheattackslateronYugoslav iaand Greece,
Ed enreported thattheappointmentofJohnG .WinantasAmerican
Amb assad orw ould b ereceiv ed v eryw armlyinEngland and thatColonel
WilliamJ .Donov an'sconfid entialmissiontotheBalkanshad b eenmost
helpful .Afterameetingw ithEd en,SirAlex and erCad ogan,SirOrme
Sargentand Johnson,Hopkinscab led Roosev elt
Ed entold methathehad had astiffconv ersationw iththeJapanese
Amb assad orhereinLond onyesterd ayinw hichhetookav erystrong
line,themainpointb eingthathew asaskingtheJapanesetostatew hat
w eretheirrealintentions .Heinformed theAmb assad orthattheBritish
Gov ernmentintend ed tostand
Britishintereststherew ould b eprotected tothelimitiftheyw ere
.Ed enhascab led Halifax ab outthis .Heand hiscolleagues
fromtheforeignofficerev iew ed atlengthallofthev ariousmov esmaj or
and minorw hichtheythinkJapanismaking.Ed enb eliev estnatthe
Japaneseconsid erthepresenceofourfleetatPearlHarb ortob e

5 9
purelyaroutinematter .Ed enisv eryanx iousthatw efind aw ayto
emphasiz eourd eterminationtoprev entJapanfrommakingfurther
.Heb eliev esthatifw etakeapositiv elinetow ard s
Japanw emightmakethempauseb eforeattackingHongKong .I
w anttoemphasiz etoyoutheBritishb eliefthatJapan,und erthe
influenceofGermany,isconsid eringmakingapositiv emov eagainst
Britishterritoryinthenearfuture .Ed enfearsthatJapanw ould b e
ab leatleastforthetimeb eingtocutoffthetransportroutearound
theCapefromtheirThailand b ases
.Fromthesameb asestheycould
alsocutofftheroutefromtheEasternMed iterraneantoAustralia
and New Zealand .Ed enb eliev esthatarecenttemporaryb locking
oftheSuez Canalw asaGermanmov etoimpresstheJapanesew ith
theirab ilitytoclosetheCanal .
Itseemsstrangethattherew asapparentlylittleornod iscussionof
theSov ietUnionasapotentialfactord uringthefirstHopkinsv isitto
Lond on,althoughb ythentheU.S.Gov ernmentw asinpossessionof
intelligence( w hichitcommunicated totheBritishand Russians)in-
d icatingstronglythatthed irectionofHitler'snex tmaj ord riv ew ould
b eeastw ard ,and Churchillinab road castatthetimesaid ," Inord erto
w inthew arHitlermustd estroyGreatBritain .Hemaycarryhav oc
intotheBalkanstates ; hemayteargreatprov incesoutofRussia ; he
maymarchtotheCaspian ; hemaymarchtothegatesofInd ia ."
Inanotew rittenlater,Hopkinsrev ealed moreofhisconv ersation
w ithEd enthanhecared toputinacab lew hichmustnecessarilypass
throughv arioushand sintheEmb assyand theStateDepartmentb efore
itreached thePresid ent
Ed enasked merepeated lyw hatourcountryw ould d oifJapan
attacked SingaporeortheDutchEastInd ies, .sayingitw asessential
totheirpolicytoknow .Ofcourse,itw asperfectlyclearthatneither
thePresid entnorHullcould giv eanad eq uateansw ertotheBritish
onthatpointb ecausethed eclarationofw arisuptoCongress,and
theisolationistsand ,ind eed ,agreatpartoftheAmericanpeople,
w ould notb einterested inaw arintheFarEastmerelyb ecause
Japanattacked theDutch
Theseurgentq uestionsb ytheBritishastoAmericanintentionsin
theev entoffurtherJapaneseaggressionintheFarEastw ererepeated
manytimesd uringsub seq uentmonthsb uttheyremained unansw ered
untilthed ayofPearlHarb or .
Attheconclusionofhisex tend ed seriesofcab lestoRoosev elt,
Hopkinssaid ," Ib eliev ethatIhav einnow ayov erstated Britain's
.Infact,thecab leprov id esanaltogetherinad eq uatemeansof
ex pressingthed eterminationoftheBritishtod efend thisisland and
finallytow inthisw ar .Ithasb eenemphasiz ed morethanev erinmy
mind thatChurchillislead ingthiscountrymagnificentlyinev eryrespect
26 0

and thatthew holenationisb ehind him.Ihesitatetourgeyouin
mattersab outw hichIknow youarealread yconv inced ,ortopresume
toad v iseyousinceyouhav eseentheneed sherefarmoreclearlythan
anyoneelseintheUnited States .ButIfeelsurethattherehasb een
notimeinyourAd ministrationw hentheactionsthatyouhav etaken
and thew ord sthatyouhav espokenhav emeantsomuchtothecauseof
freed om.Yourd ecisiv eactionnow canmeanthed ifferenceb etw een
d efeatand v ictoryinthiscountry ."
Becauseofthev erynatureofhisassignmentinEngland ,Hopkins'
associationsw erealmostentirelyonthehigherofficiallev els ; hehad
littleopportunitytomov eab outfreely,asitw ould hav eb eenhis .natural
inclinationtod o,and talktothepeoplethemselv es .( Willkiew asnotab ly
successfulind oingthatand receiv ed agreatd ealofpub licityw hich
w asfarmorev aluab letoBritainthantohimself .)Onatleastone
occasionHopkinsmanaged togetoutand w alkthestreetsatnight
d uringanairraid and ,w henaGermanb omb w asfallingnearathand ,
hew aspushed flatonhisfaceinthegutterb yanex perienced com-
panion .
How ev er,ifhed id notgettomeetthepeoplefacetoface,hehad a
v erylargenumb eroflettersw hichmusthav eremind ed himofthetype
ofmailthatflow ed intoW .P.A.Head q uarters .Therew erelettersask-
inghimw hetherhew asrelated totheHopkinsesofSomersetshire ;
lettersd escrib ingnew w eaponsthatw ould w inthew arb etw eend aw n
and d usk ; letterscomplainingthattheRoyalSocietyforthePrev ention
ofCrueltytoAnimalsw asnotd oingenoughtoprotectd ogsand cats
d uringairraid s ; lettersenclosingstampsforPresid entRoosev elt's
collectionand appealstoMrs
.Roosev elttosend ov ersomew armclothes
forthechild ren ;
therew ereinv itationstov isit" anav erageEnglish
home" and toad d ressthisorthatlocalgrouponthesub j ectofsocial
progress ; therew asoneletterw hichd eclared d efinitelythatEngland
w ould nev erb ev ictimiz ed b ytheb lood stained Americand ollar,and
onefromtheninety-three-year-old w id ow ofanAmericanCiv ilWar
v eteranw hocomplained thatherpensionchecksw ereb einglostatsea
throughU-b oatactionand w ould Mr
onhisreturntoWashington? Lad yAstorsenthimab riskmessage,
inv itinghimforaw eekend atCliv ed en,informinghimthathehad
b eenmakinggreatmistakesintheselectionofpeoplethathehad seen
and assuringhimthatshecould prov id emuchb ettercompanythanhe
had picked upthusfar
.( Hehad tod eclinethisinv itation
OnSaturd ay,Feb ruary8 ,Hopkinsw enttoCheq uerstosaygood -b y
totheChurchillfamily.Theyhad receiv ed w ord thatd aythatthe
HouseofRepresentativ eshad passed theLend -LeaseBillb yav oteof
26 oto16 5 .ThePrimeMinisterw asw orkingonaspeechw hichhew as
tob road castthefollow ingev eningtotheentirew orld ,b utw ithAmerican

26 1
pub licopiniontheprincipaltarget.Thisw astob eChurchill'scontrib u-
tiontotheLend -Leased eb ateintheSenateand heconsulted Hopkins
.Therew asb ynow anintimacyb etw eenthetw o
menw hichd ev eloped tosuchad egreethatitisnoex aggerationtosay
thatChurchillreposed thesameconfid enceinHopkinsthatRoosev elt
d id .Inthelengthyd iscussionsofthisimportantspeechHopkinsw as
fascinated toob serv eChurchill'smethod sofspeechpreparation,w hich
w erev eryd ifferentfromRoosev elt's .Trained tothinkonhisfeetb y
hisfortyyearsofgiv e-and -taked eb ateintheHouseofCommons,he
usuallyd ictated hisspeechespacingupand d ow n,actingouthispoints
asthoughhisaud iencew erealread ythere,sometimeskeepingatitfor
hours,occasionallyreferringtonotesthathehad b eenmakinginpre-
ced ingd aysorw eeks,b utmostofthetimecarryingthematerialinhis
head .ToHopkinsitw asanastonishingperformance
WhenHopkinsleftCheq uerslateSaturd aynighthetookaspecial
traintoBournemouth.Hew asaccompanied againb yBrend anBracken
and Command erThompson,representingthePrimeMinister,and b ya
Britishsecurityofficer,LieutenantAnthonyMcComas,w hotrav eled
allthew aytoWashingtonw ithhimtocarryand safeguard hisb ynow
v oluminouspapers .Hopkinsb ynow had learned enoughab outsecurity
totakenochancesofleav ingv itald ocumentslyingaround aroomin
theHotelAz iz inspy-infested Lisb on .Forhew asgoingb ackb ynomeans
emptyhand ed ; theBritishhad turned ov ertohim.someoftheirmost
importanttechnicalsecretsw hichw erenow mad eav ailab letotheU
Armed Forces .
Inacab letoRoosev eltChurchillsaid thatHopkinshad b een" a
greatcomfortand encouragementtoev eryonehehasmet.Onecan
easilyseew hyheissoclosetoyou ."
Arriv inginBournemouthSund aymorningHopkinsfound that
w eathercond itionsprev ented aflighttoLisb onthatd ay .Hemad euse
oftheex tratimeb yv isitingtw ogov ernmentofficialsw holiv ed inthe
neighb orhood : ColonelJ .I.Lew ellin,w how asBeav erb rook'sParlia-
mentarySecretaryand laterhissuccessorasMinisterofAircraftPro-
d uction,and Lord Cranb orne,SecretaryofStateforDominionAffairs .
TheCranb ornestold Hopkinsthattheirson,alieutenantintheGren-
ad ierGuard s,w asstationed nearb y( w aitingfortheGermaninv asion)
so,earlythenex tmorning,b eforehisairplanetookoff,Hopkinsw entto
v isithimand w ascalled upontomakeanafter-b reakfastspeechtothe
Guard smen .
Sund ayev ening,intheloungeoftheBranksomeTow erHotel,Hop-
kins,Brackenand therestlistened totheb road castofChurchill's
famous" giv eusthetoolsand w e'llfinishthej ob " speechw hichHopkins
had seeninpreparationthed ayb efore .InthatspeechChurchillsaid ,
" Itseemsnow tob ecertainthattheGov ernmentand peopleofthe
26 2

United Statesintend tosupplyusw ithallthatisnecessaryforv ictory .
Inthelastw artheUnited Statessenttw omillionmenacrossthe
Atlantic. Butthisisnotaw arofv astarmies,firingimmensemasses
ofshellsatoneanother . Wed onotneed thegallantarmiesw hichare
.Wed onotneed themthisyear,
nornex tyear ; noranyyearthatIcanforesee."
Somesuspiciouspersonsconsid ered thatstatementtheultimatein
insincerity .Butthesentencew hichIhav eitaliciz ed represented another
ex pressionofChurchill'sprofound conv ictionand hestucktoitinthe
-yearsthatfollow ed PearlHarb orand intheprotracted and sometimes
b itterargumentsov erGeneralMarshall'splantoend thew arinEurope
b yafrontalattackagainsttheGermanarmiesintheWest.Itw asmost
certainlynofaultofChurchill'sthattw oAmericanEx ped itionaryForces
w entintoFrance,northand south,inthesummerof19 4 4
Hopkinstrav eled b ackb yw ayofthenew Clipperroute-fromLisb on
toBolamainPortugueseGuineaontheWestCoastofAfricaand thence
toBraz iland northov ertheCarib b ean
.Thisw asthefirstairroute
linkingthefourcontinents ; itsestab lishmentw asthefirstpioneering
mov etow ard ex ploitationofoneofthemostv italstrategiclinesofcom-
municationintheSecond World War-therouteacrosstheSouth
Atlanticatitsnarrow est,acrossAfricatothePersianGulfand thence
totheSov ietUnionortoInd iaand theFarEast,w ithspurlinesv ia
NorthAfricatotheUnited Kingd omortopointsintheMed iterranean
b asin .Thisw asthenetw orkofairlanesthatRoosev eltw asd etermined
tocontrolb eforeHitlercould , .fortheyw erealltw o-w aystreets .
Whenhearriv ed inNew York,Hopkinshad atalkw ithJohnG .
Winantw how asab outtoflytotakeuphispostinLond on .Winant
d id notneed tob etold thathefaced oneofthemostd ifficultj ob sev er
und ertaken,inv olv ingd angersfarw orsethanthosepresented incid entally
b ytheGermanb omb s .Heapproached thatj ob w iththeeagerenthusiasm
and thealtruismand theq uietcouragew hichd istinguished himtothe
tragicend ofhislife .
BackintheWhiteHouse,Hopkinsb roughtforthamonghis
souv enirsab ottleofpillsChurchillhad giv enhimw iththeassurance
thathehimselftookthemfreq uentlyand found themv eryb racing
Roosev eltasked w hatw asinthemand ,w henHopkinssaid hehad n't
thefaintestid ea,ord ered thatsomeofthemb egiv entoDr .McIntire
foranalysis .Theanalysisw asd ulysenttoHopkinsfromtheNav al
Med icalCenterand henoted ," Iamtold b ytheNav ythatthew hole
prescriptionisaconglomerationofev erythingthatcould n'td oanyb od y
muchharm.Itcould n'tpossib lyd othemv erymuchgood ,either ."
Hopkinstold Roosev eltthatj ustab outthemostd ifficultprob lem
hehad tofaceinEngland w asex plainingourconstitutionalprov ision
thatonlyCongresscand eclarew ar .Churchillund erstood this-nerhans

26 3
hehad learned itathismother'sknee-b uttherew ereothersofeminent
rankintheBritishGov ernmentw hocould n'tseemtogetitthrough
theirhead s ." Butsurely," theyw ould say," yourPresid entund erstand s
thesituation .Heisthelead erofCongress .Surely,theyw ill loyally
follow himifhesaysthatthetimehascomefortheUnited Statesto
enterthew ar ."
Despitealltheex planationsgiv enb yHopkins-and ,afterhim, b y
Winant,Harrimanand otherAmericans-therepersisted theb eliefin
Lond onthatRoosev eltw ould hav etheUnited Statesinthew arb yMay
i,19 4 1 .Thisstrangemisapprehensionmayhav eb eend ueinparttothe
pred ictionmad eb yWillkie,aspartofhis" campaignoratory," thatif
Roosev eltw erere-elected w ew ould b eatw arinApril .Itmayalsohav e
b eend uetotheeternalconv ictionthathistoryrepeatsitself : therew as
thev iv id memoryoftheDemocraticparty'scampaignsloganof19 16 ,
" Hekeptusoutofw ar," and ofWood row Wilson'scontrad ictory
actionthefollow ingApril .
Had thosew honourished theirmoralew iththisw ishfulthinking
b eenfamiliarw ithRoosev elt'srealcharacter,theyw ould hav eknow n
thatthelastthinghew anted tod ow asrepeatanyofthehistoryofthe
FirstWorld Warorofthephonypeacethatfollow ed it.
TheCommon-Law Alliance
LTHOUGHd eb ateov ertheLend -LeaseBillcreated consid erab le
uproarfortw omonths-and althoughsod istinguished acitiz en
asPresid entRob ertM.HutchinsoftheUniv ersityofChicagopred icted
thatw ithitspassage" theAmericanpeopleareab outtocommitsuicid e"
-therew aslittleseriousargument-ov ertheessentialprincipleofgiv ing
aid toBritain,GreeceorChina .Theb igstickingpointw asov erthe
prov isionthatLend Leasecould b eex tend ed to" anycountryw hose
d efensethePresid entd eemsv italtothed efenseoftheUnited States ."
Thatputthed ecisionentirelyinthePresid ent'shand s ; itmeantthat,
ifhesod ecid ed ( asheev entuallyd id ),aid could b erend ered tothe
Sov ietUnion .Thatw asw hattheisolationistsfeared most; ev enthose
w hogrud ginglyconced ed thatperhapsBritainmightb ed eserv ingof
somecharityw erehorrified atthethoughtthatAmericantax payers
mightb ecalled upontopayforsuppliesfortheRed Army .Therew asa
d etermined fightonthisprov ision,and someofRoosev elt'smoretimid
friend surged himtocompromiseontermsthatw ould ex clud ethe
Sov ietUnion ; b uthew asfirmonthispoint,foritthenseemed
possib leifnotprob ab lethatRussiaw ould b eattacked b yGermanyor
Japanorb othand w ould b ed esperatelyinneed ofAmericanhelp .The
Ad ministrationlead ersintheSenate,ofw homJamesF.Byrnesw asthe
mostv igorousand theshrew d eststrategist,w aged theb attleonthe
Presid ent'slines,and onSaturd aynight,March8 ,theBillfinallypassed
theupperhouseb yav oteof6 oto 31 .
Thisw asahistoricv ictoryfor
Roosev elt
.Churchillcalled it" TheThird Climacteric" oftheSecond
World War
.( Thefirsttw ow erethefallofFranceand theBattleof
Britain,thefourthw astheattackonRussiaand thefifthPearlHarb or .)
Whenw ord ofthev otew assentfromtheCapitoltotheWhiteHouse,
Hopkinsimmed iately,picked upthetelephoneand putthroughacallto
Cheq uers
.Because . ofthetimed ifference,itw aspastev enChurchill's
26 4

b e d t i m e
.Ho p k i n s s p o k e t o o n e o f t h e s e c r e t a r i e s w h o s a i d t h e P r i m e
Mi n i s t e r w a s a s l e e p a n d s h o u l d h e b e a w a k e n e d ? Ho p k i n s s a i d n e v e r
m i n d -t o g i v e h i m t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Se n a t e v o t e i n t h e m o r n i n g
.Wh e n
h e g o t i t , C h u r c h i l l i m m e d i a t e l y c a b l e d Ho p k i n s
: " Th e s t r a i n h a s b e e n
s e r i o u s s o I t h a n k G o d f o r y o u r n e w s
Af e w d a y s l a t e r , Ho p k i n s w r o t e C h u r c h i l l
I s e e m t o h a v e h a d n o o p p o r t u n i t y t o w r i t e l e t t e r s s i n c e I r e t u r n e d ,
b e c a u s e o f a m u l t i t u d e o f t h i n g s t h a t h a v e i n t e r f e r e d
.Th i s n o t e i s j u s t
t o t e l l y o u h o w g r e a t l y I a p p r e c i a t e t h e m a n y c o u r t e s i e s w h i c h y o u a n d
Mr s
.C h u r c h i l l s h o w e d m e w h i l e i n En g l a n d
.I s h a l l e v e r b e g r a t e f u l
t o y o u f o r y o u r m a n y k i n d n e s s e s t o m e
I a m g o i n g o f f w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t o n a s h o r t t r i p i n t h e So u t h
I h o p e b y t h e t i m e w e g e t b a c k t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n b i l l w i l l h a v e b e e n
s i g n e d
.I n t h e m e a n t i m e , I h a v e w o r k e d o u t a s c h e m e w i t h P u r v i s l a s t
n i g h t w h i c h w i l l k e e p y o u r o r d e r s m o v i n g
.I h a v e a g r e e d t o t a k e o n ,
i n b e h a l f o f t h e P r e s i d e n t , a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h e r e f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f
t h e w h o l e o f o u r a i d t o B r i t a i n p r o g r a m a n d I a m t r y i n g t o a v o i d
g e t t i n g m y m i n d c l u t t e r e d u p w i t h a n y o t h e r p r o b l e m s
.I a m s u r e t h e
c o u n t r y i s b e h i n d t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d I h a v e g r e a t h o p e s o f o u r a b i l i t y
t o b e o f v e r y g e n u i n e h e l p t o y o u
I t l o o k s v e r y m u c h a s t h o u g h w e a r e g o i n g t o g e t f o u r m i l l i o n t o n s
o f b r a n d n e w s h i p p i n g o u t o f t h e Ma r i t i m e C o m m i s s i o n a n d I h a v e
h i g h h o p e s o n o t h e r f r o n t s w h i c h a r e a b i t p r e m a t u r e t o d i s c u s s n o w
Th e P r e s i d e n t i s i n g o o d s p i r i t s a n d e v e r s o d e t e r m i n e d
I h a v e s e e n L o r d Ha l i f a x s e v e r a l t i m e s a n d I a m i n d a i l y t o u c h w i t h
y o u r P u r c h a s i n g C o m m i s s i o n
.U n d e r m y n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a l l
B r i t i s h p u r c h a s i n g r e q u e s t s a r e n o w r o u t e d t h r o u g h m e
Mo r g e n t h a u , St i m s o n a n d K n o x a n d Hu l l a r e a t o w e r o f s t r e n g t h
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t r a i l o f a St i l t o n c h e e s e .
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w i t h h i m a n d Ho p k i n s a n d Mi s s y L e Ha n d o f f a c a r d t a b l e i n t h e Ov a l
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To i e
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.He h a d h i s s p e e c h
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t h a t l i e h a d s a v e d f o r t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y
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.Th e r e
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b i l l " ( t h a t ' s w h a t h e c a l l e d i t t h e n ) " a n d s o m a n y d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t s
t o s c a r e t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e y h a v e g o t t h e m a i n i s s u e a l l c o n f u s e d
c o u l d n ' t a n s w e r a l l t h e s e l i e s w h i l e t h e B i l l w a s s t i l l b e i n g d e b a t e d
.B u t
n o w I ' m r e a l l y g o i n g t o h a n d i t t o t h e m
He t h e n s t a r t e d t o d i c t a t e , r e f e r r i n g c o n s t a n t l y t o t h e c l i p p i n g s , d r a g -
g i n g o u t o n e a f t e r a n o t h e r o f t h e v i c i o u s c h a r g e s t h a t h a d b e e n f l u n g
a b o u t s o r e c k l e s s l y i n t h e C o n g r e s s a n d i n t h e P r e s s d u r i n g t h e p a s t
m o n t h s .I t w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t s c a t h i n g , m o s t v i n d i c t i v e s p e e c h e s I
h a v e e v e r h e a r d .He n e v e r m e n t i o n e d a n e w s p a p e r o r a n i n d i v i d u a l b y
n a m e -i t w a s a l w a y s " a c e r t a i n c o l u m n i s t " o r " a c e r t a i n Se n a t o r " o r
" c e r t a i n Re p u b l i c a n o r a t o r s ." Af t e r a n h o u r o r s o , h e g r e w w e a r y o f i t a n d
I s a i d g o o d n i g h t a n d w e n t t o t a l k t o Ho p k i n s , t o t e l l h i m t h e n a t u r e
o f t h e d i c t a t e d m a t e r i a l a n d t o c o n f e s s t h a t i t m a d e m e f e e l v e r y d e -
p r e s s e d .I t h o u g h t i t w a s a t e r r i b l e m i s t a k e f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t a k e t h a t
p e t u l a n t t o n e .No w , i t s e e m e d t o m e , i n t h e h o u r o f h i s g r e a t t r i u m p h , i t
w o u l d b e i n c h a r a c t e r f o r h i m t o b e m a g n a n i m o u s , a n d r e a s s e r t h i s f a i t h
i n t h e w i s d o m a n d t h e c o u r a g e o f t h e p e o p l e w h o h a d a c c e p t e d t h e r e v o -
l u t i o n a r y d o c t r i n e o f L e n d L e a s e .Ho p k i n s l i s t e n e d t o m e a n d t h e n s a i d ,
s h a r p l y , " Y o u o u g h t t o k n o w t h a t i s p r e c i s e l y w h a t h e w i l l d o .He h a s
n o i n t e n t i o n o f u s i n g a l l t h a t i r r i t a b l e s t u f f y o u s a y h e d i c t a t e d
.He ' s
j u s t g e t t i n g i t o f f h i s c h e s t .I t h a s b e e n r a n k l i n g a l l t h i s t i m e a n d n o w
h e ' s r i d o f i t .He p r o b a b l y f e e l s a l o t b e t t e r f o r i t a n d h e ' l l h a v e a f i n e
s l e e p ." Ho p k i n s t h e n s p o k e i n a w a y t h a t w a s v e r y u n u s u a l f o r h i m
" Y o u a n d I a r e f o r Ro o s e v e l t b e c a u s e h e ' s a g r e a t s p i r i t u a l f i g u r e , b e c a u s e
h e ' s a n i d e a l i s t , l i k e Wi l s o n , a n d h e ' s g o t t h e g u t s t o d r i v e t h r o u g h
a g a i n s t a n y o p p o s i t i o n t o r e a l i z e t h o s e i d e a l s .Oh -h e s o m e t i m e s t r i e s t o
a p p e a r t o u g h a n d c y n i c a l a n d f l i p p a n t , b u t t h a t ' s a n a c t h e l i k e s t o p u t o n ,
e s p e c i a l l y a t p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s
.He w a n t s t o m a k e t h e b o y s t h i n k h e ' s
h a r d -b o i l e d .Ma y b e h e f o o l s s o m e o f t h e m , n o w a n d t h e n -b u t d o n ' t
e v e r l e t h i m f o o l y o u , o r y o u w o n ' t b e a n y u s e t o h i m . Y o u c a n s e e t h e
r e a l Ro o s e v e l t w h e n h e c o m e s o u t w i t h s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e F o u r F r e e -
d o m s .An d d o n ' t g e t t h e i d e a t h a t t h o s e a r e a n y c a t c h p h r a s e s .
b e l i e v e s t h e m ! He b e l i e v e s t h e y c a n b e p r a c t i c a l l y a t t a i n e d
.Th a t ' s w h a t
y o u a n d I h a v e g o t t o r e m e m b e r i n e v e r y t h i n g w e m a y b e a b l e t o d o f o r
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t r y i n g t o c u t h i m d o w n t o t h e i r s i z e , a n d s o m e t i m e s t h e y h a v e s o m e
i n f l u e n c e .B u t i t ' s y o u r j o b a n d i t ' s m i n e -a s l o n g a s w e ' r e a r o u n d h e r e
-t o k e e p r e m i n d i n g h i m t h a t h e ' s u n l i m i t e d , a n d t h a t ' s t h e w a y h e ' s
g o t t o t a l k b e c a u s e t h a t ' s t h e w a y h e ' s g o i n g t o a c t .Ma y b e w e ' l l m a k e
o u r s e l v e s u n p o p u l a r n o w a n d t h e n -b u t n o t i n t h e l o n g r u n , b e c a u s e h e
k n o w s w h a t h e r e a l l y i s , e v e n i f h e d o e s n ' t l i k e t o a d m i t i t t o y o u o r m e o r
a n y b o d y ."
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h a d d i c t a t e d t h a t e v e n i n g .On t h e f i n a l d a y o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s p e e c h ,

w e w e r e h a v i n g l u n c h o f f t r a y s i n t h e C a b i n e t Ro o m -i t w a s c o r n e d
b e e f h a s h w i t h p o a c h e d e g g , f o l l o w e d b y c h o c o l a t e p u d d i n g -a n d Ho p k i n s
s u g g e s t e d t h a t , s i n c e C h u r c h i l l h a d m a d e s o m a n y r e s p e c t f u l r e f e r e n c e s
t o Ro o s e v e l t i n h i s s p e e c h e s , p e r h a p s t h e P r e s i d e n t m i g h t c a r e t o m e n -
t i o n h i m
.So Ro o s e v e l t d i c t a t e d , " I n t h i s h i s t o r i c c r i s i s , B r i t a i n i s
b l e s s e d w i t h a b r i l l i a n t l e a d e r i n Wi n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ." He t h o u g h t t h a t
o v e r f o r a m o m e n t , t h e n a d d e d , " Ma k e t h a t ` a b r i l l i a n t a n d
g r e a t
l e a d e r .' "
I n t h e s p e e c h a s f i n a l l y d e l i v e r e d , Ro o s e v e l t s p o k e w i t h a n u n u s u a l
a m o u n t o f e m o t i o n i n h i s v o i c e
.He w a s s t i r r i n g b e c a u s e h e h i m s e l f
s e e m e d d e e p l y s t i r r e d
.Th e r e w a s n o e v i d e n c e o f p e t t y v i n d i c t i v e n e s s
n o w
.He s t a r t e d b y p r a i s i n g t h e c o -o p e r a t i o n g i v e n h i m t h r o u g h o u t h i s
y e a r s i n o f f i c e b y h i s h o s t s , t h e p r e s s c o r r e s p o n d e n t s .He s p o k e o f t h e
m i s t a k e s o f t h e p a s t a n d s a i d , " Th a t i s w a t e r o v e r t h e d a m .Do n o t l e t
u s w a s t e t i m e r e v i e w i n g t h e p a s t , o r f i x i n g o r d o d g i n g t h e b l a m e f o r i t .
We , t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e , a r e w r i t i n g n e w h i s t o r y t o d a y ." He g a v e t h e
B r i t i s h p e o p l e t h e s p e c i f i c a s s u r a n c e f o r w h i c h t h e y h a d b e e n w a i t i n g ,
s a y i n g , " Th e B r i t i s h p e o p l e a n d t h e i r G r e c i a n a l l i e s n e e d s h i p s
.F r o m
Am e r i c a , t h e y w i l l g e t s h i p s
.Th e y n e e d p l a n e s .F r o m Am e r i c a t h e y
w i l l g e t p l a n e s
.Th e y n e e d f o o d .F r o m Am e r i c a t h e y w i l l g e t f o o d .Th e y
n e e d t a n k s a n d g u n s a n d a m m u n i t i o n a n d s u p p l i e s o f a l l k i n d s .F r o m
Am e r i c a t h e y w i l l g e t t a n k s a n d g u n s a n d a m m u n i t i o n a n d s u p p l i e s o f
a l l k i n d s
." ( I n t h e c a s e o f G r e e c e , h o w e v e r , t h e Na z i s g o t t h e r e b e f o r e
a n y o f t h e Am e r i c a n s u p p l i e s d i d
Ro o s e v e l t d e s i g n a t e d Ho p k i n s t o " a d v i s e a n d a s s i s t " h i m o n L e n d
L e a s e b u t n e v e r f o r m a l l y g a v e h i m t h e t i t l e o f Ad m i n i s t r a t o r .Ho w -
e v e r , Ho p k i n s p e r f o r m e d t h a t f u n c t i o n .Th i s w a s t h e f i r s t o f f i c i a l g o v e r n -
m e n t p o s t h e h a d h e l d s i n c e h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a s Se c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e
s e v e n m o n t h s p r e v i o u s l y
.Du r i n g t h a t t i m e h e h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n a p r i v a t e
c i t i z e n w i t h n o t i t l e a n d n o p a y , e x c e p t t h e p e r d i e m a l l o w a n c e o n h i s
t r i p t o En g l a n d
.Wh e n Ro o s e v e l t a n n o u n c e d t h a t Ho p k i n s w a s b a c k
o n t h e p u b l i c p a y r o l l h e s a i d t h a t h i s r o l e w o u l d b e m e r e l y t h a t o f a
" b o o k k e e p e r , " r e c o r d i n g t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d w a t c h i n g t h e
b a l a n c e s b u t e x e r t i n g n o a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e a l l o t m e n t o f f u n d s
.Ro o s e -
v e l t h a d s a i d m u c h t h e s a m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f Ho p k i n s ' j o b
w h e n W
.P .A.w a s s t a r t e d , a n d t h e a n a l o g y w a s e v e n l e s s a c c u r a t e n o w
t h a n i t h a d b e e n t h e n
.Th e L e n d -L e a s e a p p o i n t m e n t b r o u g h t Ho p k i n s
o u t o f t h e s h a d o w s i n w h i c h h e h a d d w e l t a s a m y s t e r i o u s c o n f i d a n t
a n d m a d e h i m , i n o n e h u g e a r e a o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e d e f a c t o De p u t y P r e s i -
d e n t .Th e n i n e b i l l i o n d o l l a r s e x p e n d e d o n r e l i e f a p p e a r e d t r i v i a l b y c o m -
p a r i s o n w i t h t h e b u d g e t f o r t h e n e w a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r a m
.C o n g r e s s
f i r s t a p p r o p r i a t e d s e v e n b i l l i o n s f o r L e n d L e a s e , a n d b y t h e t i m e J a p a n
s u r r e n d e r e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s h a d a m o u n t e d t o o v e r s i x t y b i l l i o n s
.Re p -
r e s e n t a t i v e J o h n W.Ta b e r , t h e r e d o u b t a b l e Se n i o r Mi n o r i t y L e a d e r a n d

l a t e r C h a i r m a n o f t h e Ho u s e Ap p r o p r i a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , r o a r e d i n t h e
C o n g r e s s t h a t t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t w a s " t h e w o r s t b l o w t h e P r e s i d e n t h a s
s t r u c k a t n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e ." He s a i d t h a t Ho p k i n s ' r e c o r d a s Ad m i n i s -
t r a t o r o f W.P .A
.w a s , " t h e g r o s s e s t r e c o r d o f i n c o m p e t e n c e o f a n y o f
t h e n o t o r i o u s i n c o m p e t e n c e t h a t t h i s Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s p r o d u c e d ."
J o s e p h Al s o p a n d Ro b e r t K i n t n e r h a d t h i s t o s a y i n t h e i r c o l u m n
Ho p k i n s i s a c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d m a n
.B e f o r e h e w e n t t o L o n d o n
h e w a s o n l y j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o g r a s p t h e w a r p i c t u r e , a n d w a s s t i l l a n
a d v o c a t e o f c o m p r o m i s e a n d s l o w -m o t i o n a c t i o n
.As a l l m a j o r p o l i c y
m u s t b e p a s s e d o n a t t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e , t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e i s i n e v i t a b l y
t h e m a j o r b o t t l e n e c k , i n t h e G o v e r n m e n t .Ho p k i n s , l i v i n g i n t h e Wh i t e
Ho u s e , a l w a y s t e l l i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t t o g o s l o w , w a s a m a j o r o b s t r u c -
t i o n i n t h e b o t t l e n e c k
.Hi s o n l y t r o u b l e w a s , h o w e v e r , t h a t h e h a d n o t

c o m e i n t o s u f f i c i e n t l y d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f a c t s
Hi s t r i p t o B r i t a i n w a s w i d e l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s p o l i t i c a l i n p u r p o s e ,
a n d p a r t o f a g r a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l o t b e t w e e n B r i t i s h a n d Am e r i c a n
l e f t -w i n g e r s .Ac t u a l l y , o f h i s l e s s t h a n a m o n t h o n B r i t i s h s o i l , h e
p a s s e d n e a r l y t h r e e w e e k s l i v i n g i n t h e s a m e h o u s e w i t h Wi n s t o n
C h u r c h i l l , w h o i s h a r d l y a l e a d i n g l e f t -w i n g e r .On m a n y d a y s , h e
s t a r t e d w i t h C h u r c h i l l a t b r e a k f a s t , a n d s t a y e d w i t h h i m u n t i l i t w a s
t i m e f o r a l a s t C h u r c h i l l i a n c i g a r , a n i g h t c a p a n d a f i n a l c h a t a b o u t t h e
d a y ' s e v e n t s .Th u s h e f o r m e d a n i n t e n s e a d m i r a t i o n f o r C h u r c h i l l , t h e
m a n .Th u s a l s o , h e a c q u i r e d a g r a s p o f t h e w a r p i c t u r e f a r m o r e
d i r e c t a n d c o m p l e t e t h a n t h a t o f a n y o t h e r m a n i n t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s e n -
t o u r a g e
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i n t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e b o t t l e n e c k , h e h a s s h o w n a f u l l e r s e n s e o f u r g e n c y ,
a n d h a s p u s h e d a f f a i r s f o r w a r d f a s t e r t h a n m o s t o f h i s c o w o r k e r s
Ho p k i n s w a s n o t , a s Al s o p a n d K i n t n e r s t a t e d , a " c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d "
m a n
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o f a t t a c k o n t h e m a n i f o l d p r o b l e m s a t h a n d w a s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f t h e
Ne w De a l d a y s .No w , i n s t e a d o f b r e a d l i n e s , d r o u g h t s , f l o o d s o r h u r r i -
c a n e s , h e w a s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e g r e a t e s t d i s a s t e r t h a t h a d e v e r b e f a l l e n
t h e h u m a n r a c e .Ho p k i n s h a d t o a i d Ro o s e v e l t i n p r o m o t i n g i n t h e Am e r i -
c a n p e o p l e a n e n t i r e l y n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d t h e i r
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t e m p e r a m e n t
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Wh i t e Ho u s e ."
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n a t i o n s a n d m a n y n e u t r a l s a s w e l l , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t m o r e a n d m o r e
f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s i n Wa s h i n g t o n w e r e c o n d u c t i n g , o r a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n -
d u c t , t h e i r m o s t i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s d i r e c t l y w i t h Ho p k i n s , t h u s b y -p a s s -
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.Av e r e l l Ha r r i m a n a s " Ex p e d i t e r "
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Th e Ha r r i m a n Mi s s i o n w a s h o u s e d i n t h e Em b a s s y i n G r o s v e n o r
Sq u a r e , b u t i t w a s l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f Em b a s s y a u t h o r i t y a n d Ha r r i -
m a n w a s a b l e t o r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o Ho p k i n s t h r o u g h Na v a l c o m m u n i c a -
t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n ' t h r o u g h t h e u s u a l St a t e De p a r t m e n t c h a n n e l s
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t h o u g h Wi n a n t a n d Ha r r i m a n w e r e g o o d f r i e n d s , n e i t h e r o f w h o m h a d
b e c o m e i n f e c t e d w i t h t h e b u r e a u c r a t ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e o f j u r i s d i c -
t i o n a l j e a l o u s y , t h e s i t u a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m b e c a m e u n c o m f o r t a b l y e m b a r -
r a s s i n g
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p r e s t i g e -a s w e l l a s t h e e n o r m o u s a f f e c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e -i t
w a s Ha r r i m a n w h o h a d t h e p r i n c i p a l , p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h No
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Do w n i n g St r e e t o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e o n t h e o t h e r
C h u r c h i l l l e f t r e l a t i o n s w i t h Am b a s s a d o r s l a r g e l y t o t h e F o r e i g n Of f i c e
b u t L e n d L e a s e w a s a m a t t e r o f w a r t i m e l i f e o r d e a t h a n d c a m e d i r e c t l y
i n t o h i s d e p a r t m e n t a s Mi n i s t e r o f De f e n s e
.F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w a s e v i d e n t
t h a t Ha r r i m a n w a s Ho p k i n s ' m a n a n d t h u s p r o v i d e d a n e a s y , d i r e c t a n d
s e c u r e p i p e l i n e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n
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i n f o r m a l , o f f -t h e -r e c o r d b u t n o n e t h e l e s s o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n
t h e h e a d s o f t w o g o v e r n m e n t s -t h r o u g h a t h i r d p a r t y , Ho p k i n s , i n w h o s e
d i s c r e t i o n a n d j u d g m e n t e a c h h a d c o m p l e t e c o n f i d e n c e
.Ti m e a n d a g a i n ,
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s o m e n e w m o v e , h e w o u l d a d d r e s s a p r i v a t e c a b l e t o Ho p k i n s s a y i n g ,
i n e f f e c t , " I f y o u t h i n k w e l l o f i t , p e r h a p s y o u w o u l d a s k o u r g r e a t f r i e n d
f o r h i s o p i n i o n o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l . . .e t c
." Ho p k i n s , h a v i n g c o n -
s u l t e d Ro o s e v e l t , m i g h t d e c i d e t h a t h e d i d n o t " t h i n k w e l l o f i t " a n d
w o u l d r e p l y t h a t t h i s d i d n o t s e e m a n o p p o r t u n e m o m e n t t o s u b m i t t h e
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t h a t y o u s h o u l d g o a h e a d w i t h y o u r p r o p o s a l t o
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s o m e w a y o n m i l i t a r y e s t i m a t e s a n d p l a n s , t h e s e c u r i t y a u t h o r i t i e s r e -
q u i r e d t h a t i t m u s t p a s s t h r o u g h m i l i t a r y c h a n n e l s , t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t
c o d e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d v u l n e r a b l e
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m u n i c a t e d m o r e a n d m o r e w i t h Ho p k i n s t h r o u g h Na v y o r Ar m y o r e v e n
s o m e t i m e s B r i t i s h c h a n n e l s
.He r e a g a i n t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t w a s b y -
p a s s e d , a n d i t p r o v i d e d i n a d e q u a t e b a l m t o Hu l l ' s p r i d e t o r e c e i v e o c c a -

s i o n a l p o l i t e n o t e s f r o m Ho p k i n s e n c l o s i n g c o p i e s o f c a b l e s " f o r y o u r
i n f o r m a t i o n ." I t w a s a l l i r r e g u l a r , b u t s o w a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n
m w h i c h t h e U n i t e d St a t e s G o v e r n m e n t f o u n d i t s e l f a t t h a t t i m e .
Th e We b s t e r ' s Di c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f " c o m m o n -l a w m a r r i a g e " i s
An a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n a m a n a n d a w o m a n t o e n t e r i n t o t h e m a r r i a g e
r e l a t i o n w i t h o u t e c c l e s i a s t i c a l o r c i v i l c e r e m o n y , s u c h a g r e e m e n t b e i n g
p r o v a b l e b y t h e w r i t i n g s , d e c l a r a t i o n s , o r c o n d u c t o f t h e p a r t i e s
.I n
m a n y j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i t i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d .
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e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n f o l l o w i n g t h e p a s s a g e
o f L e n d L e a s e .I t w a s c e r t a i n l y " n o t r e c o g n i z e d " i n s u c h " j u r i s d i c t i o n s "
a s t h e C o n g r e s s , a n d i f t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s h a d k n o w n t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f i t
t h e i r d e m a n d s f o r t h e i m p e a c h m e n t o f P r e s i d e n t Ro o s e v e l t w o u l d h a v e
b e e n a g r e a t d e a l l o u d e r .B u t i t w a s a f a c t o f i n c a l c u l a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n
t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s o f Am e r i c a n p r e p a r e d n e s s f o r w a r
.B y t h e s p r i n g o f
1941, s i x m o n t h s b e f o r e t h e ' U n i t e d St a t e s e n t e r e d t h e w a r , t h e f o l l o w -
i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s , a m o n g o t h e r s , w e r e i n p r o g r e s s
i .Th e e x c h a n g e o f s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n -o n a l l m a n n e r o f s u b j e c t s ,
i n c l u d i n g a t o m i c e n e r g y a n d r a d a r -h a d s t a r t e d w i t h Si r He n r y Ti z a r d ' s
Mi s s i o n ( a p p r o v e d b y Ro o s e v e l t ) t o Wa s h i n g t o n i n Se p t e m b e r , i 94o .
Du r i n g h i s L o n d o n t r i p , Ho p k i n s h a d u r g e d m u c h c l o s e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n
a n d f u l l e r e x c h a n g e i n t h i s f i e l d a n d , s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n , P r e s i d e n t
J a m e s B .C o n a n t o f Ha r v a r d w e n t t o En g l a n d a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
Va n n e v a r B u s h ' s Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l .
2 .
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t h e e f f o r t s o f G e n e r a l Ma r s h a l l a n d h i s As s i s t a n t C h i e f o f St a f f , G e n e r a l
G e o r g e V.St r o n g .( Th e U .S.Na v y r e m a i n e d f o r a
l o n g t i m e r e l u c t a n t
t o p o o l i t s o w n i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h a n y o n e , e v e n w i t h t h e U .S.Ar m y .) '
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q u a l m s , e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e c o -o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n J
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.Th e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c o -o p e r a t i o n w a s t h e
d e t e c t i o n a n d f r u s t r a t i o n o f e s p i o n a g e a n d s a b o t a g e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e
We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e b y a g e n t s o f G e r m a n y , I t a l y a n d J a p a n , a n d a l s o o f
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c u l a b l y v a l u a b l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e t h w a r t i n g o f a t t e m p t e d Na z i P u t s c h e i n
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d e c o r a t e d b y t h e B r i t i s h a n d St e p h e n s o n b y t h e U .S .G o v e r n m e n t f o r
e x p l o i t s w h i c h c o u l d h a r d l y b e a d v e r t i s e d a t t h e t i m e .
.As t e a d y s t r e a m o f Am e r i c a n m i l i t a r y a n d c i v i l i a n s p e c i a l i s t s , m o s t l y
t e c h n i c a l , h a d s t a r t e d t o En g l a n d , t o s t u d y B r i t i s h a n d i n s t r u c t i n
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p l a n e s a n d o t h e r w e a p o n s u n d e r a c t u a l c o m b a t c o n d i t i o n s .( F o r i n s t a n c e .
t h e a r m a m e n t o f t h e B -17F l y i n g F o r t r e s s w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d a s
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s o m e n e w s h i p s a n d s o m e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e P a c i f i c , f o r t h e p u r p o s e
o f g u a r d i n g t h e s e a l a n e s i n t h e We s t e r n At l a n t i c a n d t h e r e b y r e l i e v i n g
t h e B r i t i s h Na v y o f a l a r g e a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
6.P l a n s w e r e d r a w n u p f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n b y U .S .F o r c e s o f G r e e n -
l a n d , I c e l a n d , t h e Az o r e s a n d Ma r t i n i q u e .( Th e r e w e r e o t h e r p l a n s f o r
o p e r a t i o n s a l l o v e r c r e a t i o n , b u t t h e s e w e r e t h e n e a r e s t t o f r u i t i o n ; i n t h e
c a s e s o f G r e e n l a n d a n d I c e l a n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e y w e r e c a r r i e d o u t
7 .Da m a g e d B r i t i s h w a r s h i p s w e r e r e p a i r e d i n Am e r i c a n s h i p y a r d s
8.R.A.F .p i l o t s a n d a i r -c r e w s w e r e t r a i n e d i n t h e U
.Mo s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l -t h e f i r s t Am e r i c a n -B r i t i s h s t a f f t a l k s h a d
b e e n i n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f j o i n t g r a n d s t r a t e g y i n t h e e v e n t o f
Am e r i c a n e n t r y i n t o t h e w a r .Th e s e t a l k s s t a r t e d o n a p u r e l y e x p l o r a t o r y
b a s i s i n m i d -Au g u s t , 1940, w h e n Ma r s h a l l a n d St a r k s e n t a m i s s i o n
h e a d e d b y Ad m i r a l G h o r m l e y , G e n e r a l De l o s C .Em m o n s ( o f t h e Ai r
C o r p s ) a n d G e n e r a l St r o n g t o L o n d o n .Th e y a r r i v e d i n t i m e t o o c c u p y
f r o n t -r o w s e a t s a t t h e B a t t l e o f B r i t a i n a n d t h e B l i t z .Th e i r p r i n c i p a l
f u n c t i o n w a s t o g a i n t h e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o B r i t a i n ' s
s t r e n g t h a n d p r o s p e c t s , a s w e l l a s e s t i m a t e s o f G e r m a n s t r e n g t h a n d i n t e n -
t i o n s , t h e m a i n p u r p o s e b e i n g , a s Sa m u e l El i o t Mo r i s o n h a s p o i n t e d o u t ,
t o a v o i d t h e d i s a s t r o u s m i s t a k e s m a d e b y t h e K i n g o f t h e B e l g i a n s t h e
p r e v i o u s w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g w h e n , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f a n o v e r s c r u p u l o u s
r e g a r d f o r n e u t r a l i t y , h e r e f u s e d t o c o n d u c t a n y c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h
B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s o n p l a n s i n t h e e v e n t o f a G e r m a n i n v a -
s i o n o f B e l g i u m .I n t h e m i d s t o f t h e s e L o n d o n t a l k s , o n Se p t e m b e r 27,
c a m e t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e Tr i p a r t i t e Tr e a t y i n B e r l i n ,
w h e r e b y J a p a n r e c o g n i z e d G e r m a n a n d I t a l i a n l e a d e r s h i p i n c r e a t i n g t h e
" Ne w Or d e r " i n Eu r o p e a n d G e r m a n y a n d I t a l y r e c o g n i z e d J a p a n ' s
l e a d e r s h i p i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e " G r e a t e r Ea s t As i a C o -P r o s p e r i t y Sp h e r e ."
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t a l k s a s s u m e a m o r e f o r m a l a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r
b u t a n e l e c t i o n
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i n g t h e n a t i o n i n " s e c r e t t r e a t i e s , " a n d h e w o u l d n o t a g r e e t o a n y e x t e n -
s i o n o f t h e n e b u l o u s a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d t o t h e G h o r m l e y -Em m o n s -St r o n g
m i s s i o n
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o f t h e l o n g -r a n g e p l a n s f o r p o s s i b l e o p e r a t i o n s .He w a s t o o b u s y d e n y i n g
t h e r e p o r t s t h a t " t h e b o y s a r e a l r e a d y o n t h e t r a n s p o r t s ."
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o f t h e We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e a n d " p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e

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t h a t i t w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y b e n e c e s s a r y f o r Am e r i c a " t o s e n d l a r g e a i r a n d
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d e f e n s e : -
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t h a t t h r e a t e n s o u r s e c u r i t y .
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t r a i n e d i n m o d e r n w a r f a r e
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i n e n e m y w a t e r s . Th e f r o n t i e r m u s t b e t h e e n e m y c o a s t
I h a v e i t a l i c i z e d t w o s e n t e n c e s i n t h e a b o v e b e c a u s e t h e y e x p r e s s e d a
t h e o r y w i t h w h i c h , I b e l i e v e , Ro o s e v e l t a g r e e d a t t h a t t i m e -a n d s o , i n a
w a y , d i d C h u r c h i l l
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a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u p e r i o r s e a p o w e r a u g m e n t e d b y e v e r -i n c r e a s i n g a i r p o w e r
a n d b o t h s h i e d a w a y f r o m c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f g r e a t m a s s e s o f l a n d f o r c e s
c o m i n g i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n b e y o n d t h e " f r o n t i e r " o n t h e e n e m y c o a s t
C h u r c h i l l ' s r e a s o n s f o r t h i s w e r e o b v i o u s
: B r i t a i n c o u l d n e v e r h o p e
t o m e e t G e r m a n y o n e q u a l t e r m s o n l a n d ;
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d u e t o s u p e r i o r m o r a l s t r e n g t h , a n d ( d ) s h a r p e r w i t s
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s e n t i n g a n a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d f a r o u t m a t c h G e r m a n y i n m a n p o w e r a n d
r e s o u r c e s , s t i l l t h o u g h t i n s t r i c t l y Na v y t e r m s , h i s c o n c e p t o f l o g i s t i c s
b e g i n n i n g a t t h e h o m e b a s e a n d e n d i n g a t t h e s t r i p o f h o s t i l e s h o r e l i n e
s e c u r e d b y t h e Ma r i n e s
; i t w a s a l o n g t i m e b e f o r e h e c o u l d a d j u s t h i m -
s e l f t o t h e Ar m y c o n c e p t , w h i c h b e g a n a t t h e b e a c h h e a d b a s e , m a i n t a i n e d
b y a s t e a d y , s e a -b o r n e " s u p p l y t r a i n , " a n d f r o m t h e r e p e n e t r a t e d t e n s
o r h u n d r e d s o r t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s i n t o e n e m y t e r r i t o r y , e n d i n g o n l y
w i t h a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s ( B e r l i n a n d To k y o )
w h i c h
r e p r e s e n t e d t o t a l v i c t o r y .
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J a n u a r y ,
1941 .
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Ad m i r a l s
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.G .K i r k , C .M.
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.D.Em b i c k ,
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.Mc Na r n e y , f o r t h e
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.M.B e l l a i r s a n d V
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t h a t u t m o s t s e c r e c y s u r r o u n d t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s , s i n c e a n y p u b l i c i t y m i g h t
p r o v i d e a m m u n i t i o n f o r t h e o p p o n e n t s o f L e n d L e a s e a n d p r o d u c e o t h e r
c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h " m i g h t w e l l b e d i s a s t r o u s
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g u i s e d t h e m s e l v e s a s " t e c h n i c a l a d v i s e r s t o t h e B r i t i s h P u r c h a s i n g C o m -
m i s s i o n ." I t s e e m e d v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o k e e p t h e c o n f e r e n c e s e n t i r e l y
h i d d e n f r o m t h e p r y i n g e y e s o f t h e p r e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t
t h a t , w h e r e Am e r i c a n r e p o r t e r s f a i l e d , Ax i s a g e n t s w e r e g l a d t o h e l p
o u t w i t h t i p s d i s p a t c h e d b y w a y o f So u t h Am e r i c a t o t h e D.N.B .Ne w s
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b r o a d c a s t t o t h e w o r l d
; h o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e n o s e r i o u s l e a k s .
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a s AB C -i , w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h e g r a n d s t r a t e g y f o r t h e w a r .Th e b a s i c
p o i n t w a s t h a t i n t h e e v e n t o f An g l o -Am e r i c a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n w a r w i t h
b o t h G e r m a n y a n d J a p a n , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f o r c e s h o u l d b e o n
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J a p a n p e n d i n g G e r m a n y ' s d e f e a t .( Th i s w a s p r e c i s e l y i n l i n e w i t h t h e
c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d b y Ma r s h a l l a n d St a r k m o n t h s p r e v i o u s l y
.) Th e
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i .B l o c k a d e .
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p l a n n e d a t t h i s t i m e .)
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An g l o -Am e r i c a n m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n s a s a f o c u s f o r e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a -
t i o n a n d c o -o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n s
; t h e B r i t i s h J o i n t St a f f Mi s s i o n a c c o r d -
i n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Wa s h i n g t o n p r o v i d e d t h e w o r k i n g b a s i s f o r t h e
C o m b i n e d C h i e f s o f St a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h c a m e i n t o b e i n g a m o n t h
a f t e r P e a r l Ha r b o r .
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w e l l a s f a c t s t h a t t h e y p r o d u c e d , p r o v i d e d t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f
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n a t i o n h a s e v e r h a d b e f o r e e n t r y i n t o w a r .Th i s m a d e f o r f a r g r e a t e r
e f f i c i e n c y i n a l l p l a n n i n g o f Ar m y a n d Na v y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g ,
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So m e s y s t e m o f p r i o r i t i e s c o u l d n o w b e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f
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m e n t s , a n d w i t h t h e Of f i c e o f P r o d u c t i o n Ma n a g e m e n t a n d t h e Ma r i t i m e
C o m m i s s i o n
.P l e n t y o f c o n f u s i o n r e m a i n e d , o f c o u r s e , b e c a u s e n o c i v i l i a n
b e l o w t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l c o u l d k n o w o n w h a t t h e s y s t e m o f p r i o r i t i e s w a s
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Al t h o u g h t h e c o m m o n -l a w a l l i a n c e i n v o l v e d t h e U n i t e d St a t e s i n n o
u n d e r c o v e r c o m m i t m e n t s , a n d n o v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e v e r y

e x i s t e n c e o f a n y Am e r i c a n -B r i t i s h j o i n t p l a n s , h o w e v e r t e n t a t i v e , h a d
t o b e k e p t u t t e r l y s e c r e t .I t i s a n i r o n i c f a c t t h a t i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y n o g r e a t
d a m a g e w o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e h a d t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e p l a n s f a l l e n i n t o
t h e h a n d s o f t h e G e r m a n s a n d t h e J a p a n e s e ; w h e r e a s , h a d t h e y f a l l e n i n t o
t h e h a n d s o f t h e C o n g r e s s a n d t h e p r e s s , Am e r i c a n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w a r
m i g h t h a v e b e e n w e l l n i g h w r e c k e d a n d r u i n e d a s , i n d e e d , i t c a m e
p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o b e i n g w h e n t h e Ho u s e o f Re p r e s e n t a t i v e s v o t e d o n t h e
e x t e n s i o n o f Se l e c t i v e Se r v i c e .
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t h e m o r e r e p u t a b l e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t p o l i c y , h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y
w r i t t e n a s e v e r e i n d i c t m e n t o f Ro o s e v e l t ' s d e a l i n g s ( " b i n d i n g a g r e e -
m e n t s " ) w i t h B r i t a i n b e f o r e P e a r l Ha r b o r a n d w i t h t h e So v i e t U n i o n
a t Y a l t a .He h a s w r i t t e n , " I f t h e s e p r e c e d e n t s a r e t o s t a n d u n i m p e a c h e d
a n d t o p r o v i d e s a n c t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d c o n d u c t o f Am e r i c a n f o r e i g n
a f f a i r s , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n m a y b e n u l l i f i e d b y t h e P r e s i d e n t , o f f i c i a l s , a n d
o f f i c e r s w h o h a v e t a k e n t h e o a t h , a n d a r e u n d e r m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o
u p h o l d i t ."
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i m m e d i a t e o r e v e n t u a l i m p e a c h m e n t .Ha v i n g t a k e n t h e o a t h o f o f f i c e
a s P r e s i d e n t t h r e e t i m e s , h e k n e w i t b y h e a r t , a n d w a s w e l l a w a r e t h a t
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o f t h e U n i t e d St a t e s .I t w a s a m a t t e r o f h i s o w n j u d g m e n t -a n d t h e
j u d g m e n t o f h i s a d v i s e r s w h o m h e w a s e m p o w e r e d t o a p p o i n t -a s t o
w h e r e t h a t d e f e n s e s h o u l d b e g i n .Th e s a m e i n d e p e n d e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
h a s d e v o l v e d o n e v e r y C h i e f Ex e c u t i v e i n t h e p a s t -i n c l u d i n g Ab r a h a m
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a n d d u t i e s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t .
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t i m e .
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.Th e d e f e n s e o f C r e t e m e a n t f a r m o r e
t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a n t h e m e r e s a v i n g o f p r e s t i g e i n v o l v e d i n t h e a t t e m p t
t o r e n d e r a i d t o a b r a v e Al l y , a n d t h e d e f e a t a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e G e r m a n
p a r a t r o o p e r s w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t d e c i s i v e a n d h u m i l i a t i n g o f t h e w h o l e
w a r
.Se r i o u s i n j u r y w a s d o n e t o B r i t i s h m o r a l e i n g e n e r a l a n d , i n
p a r t i c u l a r , d i s a g r e e a b l e d i s p u t e s w e r e p r o v o k e d b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e B r i t i s h
s e r v i c e s , Na v y , Ar m y a n d Ai r F o r c e
.F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s a s t e r , G e n e r a l
Ro m m e l , w h o h a d t a k e n o v e r c o m m a n d i n Af r i c a f r o m t h e h a p l e s s
I t a l i a n s , l a u n c h e d t h e f i r s t o f h i s d a s h i n g c a m p a i g n s a n d r e g a i n e d a l l
t h e g r o u n d i n L i b y a ( e x c e p t t h e f o r t r e s s o f To b r u k ) t h a t Wa v e l l h a d
c a p t u r e d t h e p r e v i o u s w i n t e r .Th e B r i t i s h w e r e t h r o w n b a c k i n t o Eg y p t
a n d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d e f e n d t h e Su e z C a n a l w a s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t
I n t h e m i d s t o f t h e G r e e k f i g h t i n g , Ro o s e v e l t a n d Ho p k i n s r e a d a
r e m a r k a b l y p r e s c i e n t m e m o r a n d u m p r e p a r e d i n t h e Na v y De p a r t m e n t
I t w a s w r i t t e n b y Ad m i r a l Ri c h m o n d K e l l y Tu r n e r , w h o w a s l a t e r t o

b e c o m e o n e o f t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s o f a m p h i b i o u s w a r f a r e i n t h e Me d i t e r -
r a n e a n a n d t h e P a c i f i c
.He f o r e s a w t h e o m i n o u s p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , b y
J u n e , t h e B r i t i s h m i g h t h a v e b e e n d r i v e n o u t o f t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n a n d ,
i f t h a t h a p p e n e d , " Th e G e r m a n Ar m y w i l l g o b y s e a t o Sy r i a , a n d t h e
e n d w i l l t h e n b e i n s i g h t
." Th e l a s t t w o p a r a g r a p h s o f Tu r n e r ' s m e m o -
r a n d u m w e r e a s f o l l o w s
B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n t t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t ,
I d o n o t r e c o m m e n d t r o u b l i n g t h e m f u r t h e r a t t h i s t i m e b y i n f o r m i n g
t h e m a s t o o u r o p i n i o n o n t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n
.Th e y
r e a l i z e i t p r e t t y w e l l t h e m s e l v e s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e s o m e w h a t t o o
o p t i m i s t i c
.Wa r n i n g t h e m o n t h i s s c o r e c o u l d h a v e o n l y a b a d i n -
f l u e n c e o n t h e i r m o r a l e , a n d c o u l d s e r v e n o u s e f u l p u r p o s e
On t h e c o n t r a r y , I b e l i e v e t h a t a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t b y t h e P r e s i d e n t
p r a i s i n g t h e c o u r a g e a n d s e l f -s a c r i f i c i n g s t a n d t a k e n b y t h e B r i t i s h i n
s e n d i n g t r o o p s t o G r e e c e w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n Mr
.C h u r c h i l l ' s p o s i t i o n ,
m i g h t g i v e s o m e u p l i f t t o m o r a l e , a n d m i g h t i n f l u e n c e n e u t r a l s , p a r -
t i c u l a r l y i f c o u p l e d w i t h p r a i s e o f t h e G r e e k s t h e m s e l v e s .Ho w e v e r ,
I s u g g e s t t h a t a n y s u c h s t a t e m e n t n o t b e m a d e u n t i l w e c l e a r l y s e e
t h e e n d o f t h e h o s t i l i t i e s i n G r e e c e .
Ha r r i m a n w r o t e f r o m L o n d o n i n a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o Ho p k i n s
I t h a s b e e n a s i f l i v i n g i n a n i g h t m a r e , w i t h s o m e c a l a m i t y h a n g i n g
c o n s t a n t l y o v e r o n e ' s h e a d
.I h a v e n o t e x p e c t e d a n y w a r n e w s t h a t
w o u l d m a k e u s h a p p y . . . .
I a m w i t h t h e P .M.a t l e a s t o n e d a y a w e e k a n d u s u a l l y t h e w e e k e n d
a s w e l l .He l i k e s t o t a k e m e o n h i s t r i p s t o t h e d e v a s t a t e d c i t i e s -s o
I c a n r e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , b u t a l s o , I a m s u r e , s o t h e p e o p l e c a n
s e e a n Am e r i c a n a r o u n d , f o r t h e m o r a l e .At P o r t s m o u t h l a s t w e e k
t h e d e s t r u c t i o n w a s f a n t a s t i c ( I t h i n k d e t a i l s h a d b e s t b e o m i t t e d ) ,
b u t t h e p e o p l e a r e a m a z i n g -( 5a l l -n i g h t r a i d s o u t o f n i n e )
.P e o p l e
w h o h a d l o s t e v e r y t h i n g t h e y p o s s e s s a n d p e r h a p s a m e m b e r o f t h e
f a m i l y , a l l s e e m e d m o r e d e t e r m i n e d t h a n e v e r t o c a r r y o n -a n d
s m i l i n g a b o u t i t .B u t h o w l o n g c a n t h e y l a s t o u t u n l e s s t h e r e c o n -
t i n u e s r e a l c o n f i d e n c e i n v i c t o r y ?
Ha r r i m a n ' s e x t r e m e d e s p o n d e n c y w a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e
p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e u p p e r l e v e l s o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t a t t h a t t i m e -
n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e m o u n t i n g a n g e r o f t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e a s a w h o l e a t
t h e n e w d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f " t o o l i t t l e a n d t o o l a t e
." Th i s , i t w i l l b e
r e m e m b e r e d , w a s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o m e n t t h a t h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d b y
t h e B r i t i s h , w i t h n o r e a l a u t h o r i t y b u t w i t h r e a s o n -s h a t t e r i n g h o p e f u l -
n e s s , f o r Am e r i c a n e n t r y i n t o t h e w a r
.He r e i t w a s Ap r i l , t h e f a t e f u l
m o n t h , a n d t h e B r i t i s h l i s t e n i n g p o s t s w e r e t u n e d t o b e a m s f r o m t h e
We s t e a g e r t o p i c k u p a n y s h o u t s o r e v e n m u r m u r s t h a t " t h e Y a n k s
a r e c o m i n g , " b u t t h e r e w e r e n o n e
; i n f a c t , i f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o m i n g
t h r o u g h w a s a c c u r a t e , i t s h o w e d t h a t t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e w e r e f a r t h e r

t h a n e v e r f r o m a n y i n c l i n a t i o n t o i n t e r v e n e i n Eu r o p e
.Th i s c o u l d h a r d l y
b e c a l l e d u n r e a s o n a b l e
.F r o m t h e Am e r i c a n p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e w a s n o
Eu r o p e .l e f t .Af t e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f Y u g o s l a v i a a n d G r e e c e , t h e r e w a s n o
p a r t o f t h e C o n t i n e n t t h a t w a s n o t p h y s i c a l l y p o s s e s s e d , b y Hi t l e r w i t h
s u c h d u b i o u s e x c e p t i o n s a s Vi c h y F r a n c e , F r a n c o ' s Sp a i n , Sa l a z a r ' s
P o r t u g a l , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s a t e l l i t e n a t i o n s ( Hu n g a r y , B u l g a r i a ,
Ru m a n i a a n d F i n l a n d ) , a n d t h e So v i e t U n i o n
.To t h e a v e r a g e Am e t -
i c a n , B r i t a i n w a s n o w a l a s t o u t p o s t s e e m i n g l y a s l o n e l y a n d a s e x p o s e d
a s G u a m .Th e p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s s h o w e d t h a t , w h i l e p u b l i c s e n t i m e n t
i n f a v o r o f a i d t o B r i t a i n e v e n a t a r i s k o f g o i n g t o w a r t o o k
, a m a r k e d
d i p d o w n w a r d
i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1941, t h e p u b l i c c o n v i c t i o n t h a t w e
w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y g e t i n t o t h e w a r a g a i n s t G e r m a n y z o o m e d
u p w a r d ,
b e i n g h e l d b y m o r e t h a n e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n
.Th i s s e e m i n g
c o n t r a d i c t i o n w a s , a g a i n , n o t e n t i r e l y u n r e a s o n a b l e , f o r i t s u g g e s t e d
t h a t t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e w e r e n o w s u r e t h a t t h e G e r m a n s w o u l d e v e n -
t u a l l y m o v e a g a i n s t t h e We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e a n d a d e f e n s i v e w a r
w o u l d h a v e t o b e f o u g h t
.No b o d y w i t h s u p e r i o r s t r a t e g i c k n o w l e d g e o r
a u t h o r i t y e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p e o p l e t h e e x t r e m e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s t a r t i n g
t h i s Am e r i c a n d e f e n s e f r o m b a s e s i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s a n d Af r i c a ; f o r
s u c h a c t i o n , b y t h e p e c u l i a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h a t b e f u d d l e d p e r i o d , w o u l d
h a v e i n v o l v e d a d v o c a c y o f e n t r y i n t o a " f o r e i g n " w a r , a g a i n s t w h i c h s o
m a n y s o l e m n p l e d g e s h a d b e e n m a d e
On Ma r c h 19, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e p a s s a g e o f L e n d L e a s e , Ro o s e v e l t
a n d Ho p k i n s h a d g o n e o n t h e y a c h t , P o t o m a c , f o r a c r u i s e i n t h e
B a h a m a s .Th i s , a s i t h a p p e n e d , w a s t h e l a s t o f t h e " c a r e f r e e " f i s h i n g
t r i p s f o r e i t h e r o f t h e m .Th e r e w a s n o p r e t e n s e o f i n s p e c t i n g b a s e s t h i s
t i m e a n d t h e y a c h t n e v e r v e n t u r e d m o r e t h a n a f e w h o u r s ' s a i l f r o m t h e
F l o r i d a C o a s t
.Al s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e s h i p ' s c o m p a n y o n t h i s c r u i s e w e r e
Ro b e r t H
.J a c k s o n , t h e At t o r n e y G e n e r a l , Ha r o l d I c k e s a n d St e v e
Ea r l y
; o d d l y e n o u g h , t h e p r e s e n c e o f J a c k s o n a n d I c k e s a m o n g t h e
g u e s t s w a s c a u s e f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n a m o n g t h e m o r e r a b i d
Ne w De a l e r s i n Wa s h i n g t o n , w h o t o o k i t a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t
w a s a g a i n p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o h i s s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s a t h o m e a n d n o t
c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e a l i e n w a r i n Eu r o p e -a l t h o u g h , b e i t s a i d , n e i t h e r
J a c k s o n n o r I c k e s w a s a n y m o r e l i k e l y t h a n Ho p k i n s w a s t o u n d e r r a t e
t h e G e r m a n m e n a c e
Si n c e , i n a n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , s o m e r e f l e c t i o n h a s b e e n c a s t o n Ho p k i n s '
p r o w e s s a s a f i s h e r m a n , i t s h o u l d b e r e c o r d e d i n j u s t i c e t o h i m t h a t o n
t h i s c r u i s e h e n o t o n l y h o o k e d b u t a c t u a l l y l a n d e d a t w e n t y -f i v e -p o u n d
k i n g f i s h , f o u r f e e t l o n g .Ot h e r w i s e , I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t h e e n j o y e d t h i s
c r u i s e v e r y m u c h
; h i s t h o u g h t s w e r e e l s e w h e r e .On Ma r c h 28, a r a d i o
m e s s a g e t o t h e P o t o m a c
i n f o r m e d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e c o u p d ' e t a t i n
Y u g o s l a v i a b y w h i c h t h e p r o -G e r m a n Re g e n c y h a d b e e n o v e r t h r o w n
a n d a n e w g o v e r n m e n t , u n d e r y o u n g K i n g P e t e r , w a s p u t i n t o p o w e r

t o f u l f i l l t h e p e o p l e ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o f i g h t Hi t l e r .Th e P o t o m a c t h e n
r e t u r n e d t o P o r t Ev e r g l a d e s , F l o r i d a .
Th e r e w a s a G e r m a n s h i p , t h e Ar a u c a , t i e d u p a t P o r t Ev e r g l a d e s .
Sh e h a d b e e n c h a s e d i n t h e r e b y a B r i t i s h c r u i s e r i n De c e m b e r ,
1 939,
a n d h a d r e m a i n e d e v e r s i n c e , f l y i n g o n e o f t h e l a s t Na z i f l a g s v i s i b l e
f r o m Am e r i c a n s o i l .Ea r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e l a s t d a y o f Ro o s e v e l t ' s
h o l i d a y , w o r d c a m e t o t h e P o t o m a c t h a t t h e F .B .I .h a d u n c o v e r e d a
p l a n f o r t h e w h o l e s a l e s a b o t a g e o f Ax i s s h i p s b y t h e i r c r e w s , s o t h e
P r e s i d e n t o r d e r e d t h e m s e i z e d i m m e d i a t e l y .L a t e r t h a t d a y , Su n d a y ,
Ma r c h 30, C o a s t G u a r d s m e n b o a r d e d t h e Ar a u c a , r e m o v e d h e r c r e w
" f o r s a f e k e e p i n g , " a n d h a u l e d d o w n t h e Na z i f l a g .Th i s e p i s o d e g a v e
Ro o s e v e l t a n d Ho p k i n s c o n s i d e r a b l e p l e a s u r e : a t l e a s t , i t w a s a c t i o n o f
a s o r t .
On r e t u r n i n g t o Wa s h i n g t o n , Ho p k i n s p l u n g e d i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f L e n d L e a s e
.I t w a s b e l i e v e d a t f i r s t t h a t t h e h u g e n e w p r o g r a m
w o u l d b e u n d e r a C a b i n e t C o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e Se c r e t a r i e s o f
St a t e , Tr e a s u r y , Wa r a n d Na v y , w i t h Ho p k i n s a s a s o r t o f Ex e c u t i v e
Se c r e t a r y .B u t t h e P r e s i d e n t f o u g h t s h y o f t h a t .Af t e r s e v e r a l w e e k s '
d e l a y , h e s e t u p a n e w a g e n c y c a l l e d Di v i s i o n o f De f e n s e Ai d Re p o r t s
o f t h e Of f i c e o f Em e r g e n c y Ma n a g e m e n t w h i c h , b y i t s t i t l e , s u g g e s t e d
a d u s t y , f u s t y b o o k k e e p i n g a g e n c y a t t h e e n d o f s o m e b l i n d a l l e y i n
t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c l a b y r i n t h
.Th u s , i t w a s a n i n c o n v e n i e n t t a r g e t f o r
c r i t i c i s m .( I t d i d n o t b e c o m e f o r m a l l y d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e L e n d -L e a s e
Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l s e v e n m o n t h s l a t e r .) Ha r r y Ho p k i n s ' n a m e w a s
n o t e v e n o n i t s r o l l s
.Hi s v a l u e d a s s o c i a t e , G e n e r a l B u r n s , w a s a p p o i n t e d
b y t h e P r e s i d e n t t o b e Ex e c u t i v e Of f i c e r o f t h i s Di v i s i o n , b u t t h e r e w a s
n o Di r e c t o r o r C h a i r m a n , w h i c h m e a n t t h a t Ro o s e v e l t k e p t c o n t r o l i n
h i s o w n h a n d s -o r , r a t h e r , Ho p k i n s ' -a n d f o r t h i s , a s a l w a y s , h e w a s
s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d .Th e St a t e De p a r t m e n t d i d n o t l i k e t h e a r r a n g e m e n t
w h i c h s e p a r a t e d a n a l l -i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y f r o m i t s
c o n t r o l e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s Hu l l o r We l l e s c o u l d b r i n g i n f l u e n c e t o b e a r
o n t h e P r e s i d e n t p e r s o n a l l y
.Mo r g e n t h a u d i d n o t l i k e i t f o r i t t o o k f r o m
h i s Tr e a s u r y De p a r t m e n t t h e f u n c t i o n i t h a d e x e r c i s e d s o l o n g o f
h a n d l i n g s u p p l i e s f o r B r i t a i n a n d C h i n a .Th e B u r e a u o f t h e B u d g e t ,
h o w e v e r , s u p p o r t e d t h e P r e s i d e n t .I t s t a t e d t h e p r o b l e m s o f L e n d L e a s e
i n i t s r e c o r d , " Th e U n i t e d St a t e s a t Wa r "
Wh a t c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d r e c e i v e l e n d -l e a s e a i d ? On w h a t t e r m s
s h o u l d t h e y r e c e i v e i t ? I n w h a t q u a n t i t i e s s h o u l d g o o d s b e t r a n s -
f e r r e d t o p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r i e s ? Wh a t w e i g h t s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e
i m m e d i a t e n e c e s s i t i e s o f o u r o w n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h
t h e a d v a n t a g e s t o b e g a i n e d b y a i d i n g o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ? On l y t h e
P r e s i d e n t c o u l d d e c i d e t h e s e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s
; t h e y w e r e n o t
d e l e g a b l e .Op e r a t i n g a u t h o r i t y , h o w e v e r , w a s f r e e l y d e l e g a t e d
I 99

2' 79
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U n d e r s e c r e t a r y P a t t e r s o n i n t h e Wa r De p a r t m e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e i n
i m m e d i a t e t o u c h w i t h t h e h u g e p r o c u r e m e n t p r o b l e m
.Os c a r C o x a n d
P h i l i p Y o u n g w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o L e n d L e a s e f r o m t h e Tr e a s u r y De p a r t -
m e n t , t h e f o r m e r a s c o u n s e l a n d g e n e r a l i m p r o v i s e r , a n d t h e l a t t e r a s
a d m i n i s t r a t o r
.On e G e n e r a l Sp a l d i n g ( Si d n e y P .) w a s i n c h a r g e o f
t h e p r o d u c t i o n d i v i s i o n a n d a n o t h e r G e n e r a l Sp a l d i n g ( G e o r g e R .) w a s
i n c h a r g e o f s t o r a g e a n d s h i p p i n g .Th e L e n d -L e a s e s t a f f g r e w i n t h e
f i r s t f e w m o n t h s t o a b o u t a h u n d r e d p e o p l e , a m e r e h a n d f u l b y Wa s h -
i n g t o n w a r t i m e s t a n d a r d s .Th e y w e r e h o u s e d i n t h e F e d e r a l Re s e r v e
B u i l d i n g .
B e c a u s e L e n d L e a s e i n v o l v e d m a t t e r s o f u t m o s t s e c r e c y , Ho p k i n s
f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h i s l i f e w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f m e a s u r e s o f
s t r i c t s e c u r i t y .He w r o t e s h a r p l y t o Y o u n g
B e s u r e a n d o r g a n i z e a f i l i n g s y s t e m o v e r t h e r e t h a t i s a b s o l u t e l y
s e c r e t w i t h l o c k s o n a l l f i l e s a n d a g u a r d w h o h a s b e e n c a r e f u l l y
i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e F B I o r t h e Se c r e t Se r v i c e a s t o h i s r e l i a b i l i t y .
We s i m p l y c a n n o t t a k e a n y c h a n c e s o n a n y t h i n g g e t t i n g o u t o f t h e
f i l e s
I n c i d e n t a l l y , I t h i n k a l l e m p l o y e e s o v e r t h e r e s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l l y
i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e Se c r e t Se r v i c e
.I p a r t i c u l a r l y w a n t a n i n q u i r y
m a d e a s t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e a b o u t t h e w a r
.I d o n ' t w a n t a n y b o d y w o r k i n g
a n y w h e r e a b o u t u s w h o b y a n y c h a n c e w a n t s G e r m a n y t o l i c k B r i t a i n
B e s u r e a n d s p r e a d t h e w o r d a r o u n d t h a t n o o n e i n o u r c r o w d
s h o u l d g i v e a n y i n t e r v i e w s t o n e w s p a p e r m e n , p r i v a t e l y o r p u b l i c l y .
I f a n y b o d y a s k s w h a t y o u a r e d o i n g s i m p l y s a y t h a t a n y a n n o u n c e m e n t
a b o u t i t m u s t c o m e f r o m t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e a n d r e f e r t h e m t o Mr .
Ea r l y .I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t w e d o n ' t g e t c a u g h t o f f b a s e i n r e g a r d
t o t h i s m a t t e r .
Mo s t o f Ho p k i n s ' s c a n t y , p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a t t h i s t i m e
r e v e a l e d h i s e x t r e m e i m p a t i e n c e
.Ha v i n g r e c e i v e d s e v e r a l l e t t e r s f r o m
a De s e r v i n g De m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c i a n w h o w a n t e d h i m t o d o a f a v o r f o r
a n o t h e r D.D., Ho p k i n s w r o t e
I d o n o t k n o w w h y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i n g s I a m d o i n g t o d a y I s h o u l d
b e b u r d e n e d b y h a n d l i n g a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l m a t t e r f o r . I h a v e
r e p e a t e d l y s e n t w o r d t o
t h a t I a m n o t h a n d l i n g a n y p o l i t i c a l
m a t t e r s o f a n y k i n d o r d e s c r i p t i o n a n d I s i m p l y t h i n k I s h o u l d n o t
b e a s k e d t o d o i t .I a m r e f u s i n g t o s e e o t h e r p e o p l e o n s i m i l a r m i s -
s i o n s a n d t h e r e i s n o m o r e r e a s o n f o r m y s e e i n g t h a n t h e r e i s
f o r s e e i n g a d o z e n o t h e r s
On e f o r m e r W.P .A
.a s s o c i a t e o f w h o m Ho p k i n s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d
s e n t h i m a l e t t e r w h i c h h e w i s h e d t o h a v e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e P r e s i d e n t
Ho p k i n s r e t u r n e d t h e l e t t e r t o h i m w i t h t h i s c u r t n o t e

I t h i n k y o u o u g h t t o k e e p y o u r s h i r t o n a b o u t t h e W.P .A.Th e r e
i s n o t h i n g y o u c a n d o b u t l e t t h e P r e s i d e n t h a n d l e t h i s a n d t h e r e
i s j u s t n o s e n s e i n p r e c i p i t a t i n g a n y m o v e s
.I w o u l d n o t s e n d t h e
a t t a c h e d l e t t e r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t
.He w o u l d n e v e r r e a d i t a n y w a y
b e c a u s e i t i s f a r t o o l o n g .Y o u r p o k e r -p l a y i n g h a b i t s a r e m u c h b e t t e r
t h a n y o u r l e t t e r -w r i t i n g h a b i t s !
I n a m o m e n t o f e x t r e m e i r r i t a b i l i t y a t t h i s t i m e Ho p k i n s s a i d t o m e ,
" I ' m g e t t i n g s i c k a n d t i r e d o f h a v i n g t o l i s t e n t o c o m p l a i n t s f r o m t h o s e
g o d d a m Ne w De a l e r s ! " I c o u l d h a r d l y b e l i e v e m y e a r s .
Ho p k i n s h a d p l e n t y o f e x c u s e f o r i m p a t i e n c e , f o r h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
w e r e f a r h e a v i e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e a n d h i s h e a l t h w a s m i s e r a b l y b a d .He
w a s f o r c e d t o r e s u m e t h e r i g o r o u s t r e a t m e n t s i n v o l v i n g r e p e a t e d t r a n s -
f u s i o n s a n d i n j e c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s t o k e e p h i m a l i v e .He r a r e l y
l e f t t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e b u t m a n a g e d t o d o a n e n o r m o u s a m o u n t o f b u s i n e s s
i n h i s b e d r o o m , a i d e d p r i m a r i l y b y I s a d o r L u b i n w h o p r o v i d e d e x c e p -
t i o n a l l y a c u t e a n d a c c u r a t e p a i r s o f e y e s a n d e a r s .
Ac t u a l l y , L e n d L e a s e i n i t s e l f p r o v i d e d n o o v e r w h e l m i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
i n t h e b e g i n n i n g .I t w a s , i n f a c t , m e r e l y a n o f f s h o o t o f t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m s
o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .Th e r e w e r e s e v e n b i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o
s p e n d b u t t h e w e a p o n s t o b u y w e r e n o t c o m i n g o f f t h e a s s e m b l y l i n e s
f a s t e n o u g h n o r w e r e t h e r e e n o u g h s h i p s t o c a r r y t h e m o v e r s e a s e v e n
w h e n t h e y d i d .Th i s w a s a t i m e w h e n o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t w o r d s
i n t h e Am e r i c a n l a n g u a g e w a s " b o t t l e n e c k , " a n d t h e m o s t f o r m i d a b l e
b o t t l e n e c k o f a l l w a s c r e a t e d b y t h e a n c i e n t p r i n c i p l e t h a t y o u c a n n o t
e a t y o u r c a k e a n d h a v e i t : t h e n a t i o n c o u l d n o t m e e t t h e r e a l i t y o f w a r -
t i m e d e m a n d s f o r p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t i t w a s
s t i l l " a t p e a c e ." Th e r e e x i s t e d a n I n d u s t r i a l Mo b i l i z a t i o n P l a n w h i c h ,
i n t h e w o r d s o f B e r n a r d M.B a r u c h , i t s p r i n c i p a l a u t h o r , w a s d e s i g n e d t o
e n a b l e t h e c o u n t r y " t o p a s s f r o m a p e a c e t o a w a r s t a t u s w i t h a m i n i m u m
o f c o n f u s i o n , w a s t e a n d l o s s ." B u t -t h e t h i n k i n g b e h i n d t h i s a n d a l l
o t h e r p l a n s b e f o r e 1940w a s b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a n a t i o n
p a s s e d f r o m a p e a c e s t a t u s t o a w a r s t a t u s a s q u i c k l y a n d a s d e c i s i v e l y
a s o n e p a s s e s f r o m o n e r o o m t o a n o t h e r .No p r o v i s i o n w h a t s o e v e r h a d
b e e n m a d e f o r t h e m a z e o f c o r r i d o r s , b l i n d a l l e y s a n d s e r i e s o f a n t e -
c h a m b e r s -l a b e l e d " P h o n y Wa r , " " c a s h a n d c a r r y , " " m o r e t h a n m e r e
w o r d s , " " L e n d L e a s e , " e t c .-w h i c h t h e U n i t e d St a t e s w a s c o m p e l l e d
f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n i t s o w n o r a n y o t h e r n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y t o t r a v e r s e
b e t w e e n Se p t e m b e r
I ,
1939, a n d De c e m b e r 7, 1941 .Th i s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y
c o n f u s i n g f o r t h e Ar m y o f f i c e r s c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
s u p p l y p r o b l e m .Al t h o u g h St i m s o n , P a t t e r s o n a n d Ma r s h a l l w e r e w e l l
a w a r e o f t h e u r g e n c y , t h e g e n e r a l s a n d c o l o n e l s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y w e r e m e n t r a i n e d t o a d h e r e r i g i d l y t o t h e
e s t a b l i s h e d Ta b l e o f Or g a n i z a t i o n a n d t o b a s e a l l c a l c u l a t i o n s u p o n t h a t
I t w a s t h e i r j o b t o t a k e t h e n u m b e r o f Am e r i c a n s o l d i e r s c u r r e n t l y

a u t h o r i z e d b y C o n g r e s s a n d m u l t i p l y t h a t b y t h e v a r i o u s i t e m s o f e q u i p -
m e n t -r i f l e s , b l a n k e t s , C -r a t i o n s , h o w i t z e r s , t o o t h b r u s h e s , e t c
.Th e y
h a d b e e n t r a i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t i f t h e y a s k e d f o r m o r e t h a n t h e i r r e d u c i b l e
m i n i m u m t h e y w o u l d f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d e t a i l e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a t s o m e
b o y s ' m i l i t a r y a c a d e m y i n So u t h Da k o t a , w h e r e p r o m o t i o n i s a p t t o
b e s l o w .
Th e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s p o n s o r a p r o g r a m w h i c h w i t h i n a g i v e n
s p a n o f y e a r s w o u l d e n a b l e t h e U n i t e d St a t e s t o e x c e e d t h e c o m b i n e d
p r o d u c t i o n o f G e r m a n y , I t a l y , J a p a n a n d a l l t h e i r s l a v e .s t a t e s w a s t o o
o u t r a g e o u s l y r i d i c u l o u s t o b e w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g
.Th i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
h e s i t a n c y r e p r e s e n t e d m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f e a r s , p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ,
w h i c h h a d l i m i t e d Ai r F o r c e o f f i c e r s t o a n e s t i m a t e o f o n l y n i n e t h o u s a n d
p a r a c h u t e s a s t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a r g e t f o r I 94I
.Th e f e a r w a s a m a r k o f
r e s p e c t f o r i s o l a t i o n i s t s u s p i c i o n t h a t w e w e r e a r m i n g n o t f o r " d e f e n s e , "
b u t f o r w a r -a s t h o u g h t h e y w e r e t w o e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e a n d d i s t i n c t
a c t i v i t i e s
.Th u s , a l t h o u g h e v e r y c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e s t a f f p l a n n e r s f o r e s a w
t h e v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e o f a m p h i b i o u s w a r f a r e , n o m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y w o u l d
d a r e t o a s k f o r h e a v y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r l a n d i n g c r a f t , f o r t h i s w o u l d
s u r e l y s u g g e s t a n e f a r i o u s i n t e n t i o n t o g e t i n t o s o m e " f o r e i g n " w a r
Th e r e w a s e v e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e r u c k u s a m o n g i s o l a t i o n i s t s i n C o n g r e s s
w h e n , i n I 94I , a l i s t o f Ar m y r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m t h e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y
i n c l u d e d t h e i t e m , " o v e r s e a s c a p s ." Al t h o u g h i t w o u l d b e h a r d t o i m a g i n e
a m o r e i n n o c u o u s i m p l e m e n t o f o f f e n s i v e w a r f a r e , t o t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s t h a t
w o r d " o v e r s e a s " s p e l l e d a n o t h e r A.E.F .
Af r i e n d o f G e n e r a l Ma r s h a l l ' s t o l d m e a t t h i s t i m e t h a t h e h a d b e e n
w i t h t h e C h i e f o f St a f f a f t e r a g r i l l i n g o f s e v e r a l h o u r s b y s o m e C o n -
g r e s s i o n a l C o m m i t t e e w h i c h s o u g h t t o t r a p h i m i n t o a d m i s s i o n s w h i c h
w o u l d p r o v e Ro o s e v e l t a w a r m o n g e r
.Dr i v i n g a w a y f r o m C a p i t o l Hi l l ,
Ma r s h a l l c l o s e d h i s e y e s a n d s a i d , " I f I c a n o n l y k e e p a l l p e r s o n a l f e e l -
i n g s o u t o f m y s y s t e m , I m a y b e a b l e t o g e t t h r o u g h w i t h t h i s j o b
Th e r e l u c t a n c e o f Am e r i c a n i n d u s t r y t o c o n v e r t i t s e l f t o w a r p r o d u c -
t i o n o n a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e , n e c e s s a r y s c a l e w a s a l s o u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
c o u r s e s o m e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l e a d e r s , n o t a b l y He n r y F o r d , w e r e t h e m -
s e l v e s v i o l e n t i s o l a t i o n i s t s a n d r e f u s e d ( a s F o r d d i d ) t o f i l l o r d e r s
i n v o l v i n g w e a p o n s f o r t h e B r i t i s h
.B u t a m o n g o t h e r s t h e r e w a s i n e v i t a b l e
d o u b t t h a t t h e w a r w i t h i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e m a n d s w o u l d l a s t m u c h
l o n g e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i e w o f t h e s w e e p i n g G e r m a n v i c t o r i e s a t t h a t
t i m e .B u s i n e s s w a s b o o m i n g i n c o n s u m e r g o o d s -i n d e e d , i n I 94I , t h e
a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y r e a c h e d a n a l l -t i m e h i g h i n s a l e s o f c a r s f o r c i v i l i a n
p u r p o s e s
.Th e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d p l e a d a n d c a j o l e b u t i t c o u l d n o t c o m p e l
m a n u f a c t u r e r s t o c o n v e r t t h e i r p l a n t s n o r c o u l d i t f o r t i f y c o n t r a c t s w i t h
s a t i s f a c t o r y l o n g -t e r m g u a r a n t e e s
.No o n e c o u l d t e l l h o w l o n g t h e p r e s e n t
e m e r g e n c y w o u l d l a s t , n o r w h a t f o r m t h e n e x t e m e r g e n c y m i g h t t a k e
Th e w i s e m a n u f a c t u r e r k n o w s t h a t i f h e e x p a n d s h i s p r o d u c t i o n t o o f a i

b e y o n d t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s -e s t i m a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f m a r k e t a n a l y s i s a n d
c o n s u m e r r e s e a r c h a s w e l l a s h i s o w n e x p e r i e n c e -h e w i l l e n d u p i n
b a n k r u p t c y
.No w h e w a s b e i n g a s k e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e n e e d s o f X
m i l l i o n m e n o f Xn a t i o n s i n a p o t e n t i a l w a r t o b e f o u g h t u n d e r e v e r y
p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t t h e g r e a t g l o b e i t s e l f c o u l d
p r e s e n t .Sm a l l w o n d e r t h a t h e q u a i l e d a t t h e p r o s p e c t .Hi s p r o b l e m s w e r e
f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d b y s e r i o u s s t o p p a g e s t h r o u g h s t r i k e s , l a r g e l y t h e
r e s u l t o f p e r s i s t e n t C o m m u n i s t a t t e m p t s t o s a b o t a g e w a r p r o d u c t i o n i n
e v e r y w a y p o s s i b l e ; o n e o f t h e m , i n t h e No r t h Am e r i c a n Av i a t i o n P l a n t
a t I n g l e w o o d , C a l i f o r n i a , c o m p e l l e d Ro o s e v e l t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h i s
c a r e e r t o o r d e r a r m e d i n t e r v e n t i o n b y t h e U
.S.Ar m y , a d e c i s i o n t h a t w a s
d e e p l y r e p u g n a n t t o h i m .
Ho p k i n s m o v e d i n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n a s t h e r e c o g n i z e d a n d d e s i g n a t e d
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i n a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s -
p o r t a t i o n , r a w m a t e r i a l s , p r i o r i t i e s , a l l o c a t i o n , e t c .He h a d n o e x p e r i -
e n c e w h a t s o e v e r i n h a n d l i n g s u c h p r o b l e m s .He h a d n o n e o f t h e " k n o w -
h o w " o f a K n u d s e n o r a B a t t .B u t t h e n , h e h a d k n o w n n o t h i n g o f t h e
d i s e a s e s i l i c o s i s w h e n h e u n d e r t o o k t o c o m b a t i t .He h a d t h e a m a z i n g
a b i l i t y t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h i n g s q u i c k l y -t o t a l k t o p e o p l e w h o d i d k n o w
e n d t o d e t e r m i n e w h o w a s m a k i n g s e n s e a n d w h o w a s n ' t .
Ad m i r a l Em o r y S.L a n d , h e a d o f t h e Ma r i t i m e C o m m i s s i o n , w i t h
w h o m Ho p k i n s h a d m a n y t o u g h b u t f r i e n d l y t u s s l e s , g a v e h i m t h e
? L d m i r i n g t i t l e , " G e n e r a l i s s i m o o f t h e Ne e d l e B r i g a d e
." Th a t w a s a
p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n .Ne e d l i n g w a s o n e f o r m o f a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h Ho p k i n s
d i d n o t l a c k e x p e r i e n c e .Wh e n s o m e f a i l u r e w a s b r o u g h t t o h i s a t t e n t i o n ,
h e w o u l d p i c k u p t h e t e l e p h o n e a n d s a y " G e t m e G e n e r a l So -a n d -s o
Wh e n t h e Wa r De p a r t m e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t So -a n d -s o w a s a t t h e m o m e n t
e n r o u t e t o L o s An g e l e s , Ho p k i n s w o u l d b a r k , " G e t h i m w h e r e v e r h e i s ! "
An d t h e s u p e r e f f i c i e n t Wh i t e Ho u s e s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s w o u l d h a v e
t h e G e n e r a l h a u l e d o f f t h e t r a i n o r p l a n e a t Do d g e C i t y , K a n s a s , a n d
b r o u g h t t o t h e t e l e p h o n e a n d c o m p e l l e d t o e x p l a i n , " Wh y a r e t h e r e
P -39' s w a i t i n g a t t h e B e l l P l a n t f o r t h o s e P o s c o p u m p s ? Wh a t t h e h e l l
i s g o i n g o n h e r e , a n y w a y ? " Ho p k i n s w a s m a k i n g t h e s e t e l e p h o n e c a l l s
e v e n w h e n u n d e r g o i n g t h e p a i n f u l t r e a t m e n t s w i t h o u t w h i c h h e w o u l d
h a v e s t a r v e d t o d e a t h .B e c a u s e o f h i s a d d i c t i o n t o w o r d -o f -m o u t h c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e a r e n o t m a n y c o p i e s o f o u t g o i n g d o c u m e n t s a m o n g h i s
p a p e r s , b u t t h e n u m b e r a n d v a r i e t y o f t h o s e t h a t c a m e t o h i s c a r d -t a b l e
d e s k a n d t h a t l i t t e r e d h i s f o u r -p o s t e r b e d o n t h e p r o b l e m s o f s u p p l y a n d
s h i p p i n g a r e s t a g g e r i n g t o c o n t e m p l a t e .
He r e a r e a f e w s c r a p s o f e x c e r p t s p i c k e d f r o m a b a l e o f d o c u m e n t s o f
t h i s s p r i n g o f 1941
( F r o m
t h e G r e e k Mi n i s t e r t o Ho p k i n s : ) As y o u k n o w , t h e n e e d s
o f G r e e c e i n a i r c r a f t a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c o n s o l i d a t e d l i s t h a n d e d

t o y o u b y m e l a s t w e e k , a n d I s h o u l d b e m u c h o b l i g e d t o y o u i f y o u
w o u l d . . . .
( F r o m J o h n D.B i g g e r s t o Ho p k i n s
: ) Y o u a s k e d m e a b o u t a l l o y e d
s t e e l s , s u c h a s n i c k e l s t e e l , c h r o m e s t e e l , e t c
.Th e r e a r e n o e x a c t f i g u r e s
a v a i l a b l e , b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p e r -
c e n t a g e s .

( F r o m Su m n e r We l l e s t o Ho p k i n s : ) I
a m e n c l o s i n g h e r e w i t h a c o p y
o f a m e m o r a n d u m o f m y c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e Mi n i s t e r o f Y u g o s l a v i a
l a s t n i g h t
.I a m a t t a c h i n g t o i t a l i s t o f t h e Y u g o s l a v s h i p s w h i c h h e
h a n d e d m e . . . .
( F r o m B e r n a r d M
.B a r u c h t o Ho p k i n s : )
Th e q u e s t i o n s y o u a s k e d
a n d w h i c h I t o l d y o u I w a s i n n o p o s i t i o n t o a n s w e r , a n d w h i c h y o u
a s k e d m e t o r e v o l v e i n m y m i n d , h a v e g i v e n m e t h e g r a v e s t c o n c e r n
. We a r e i m p r o p e r l y o r g a n i z e d
.I t h a s c o s t u s 20% m o r e i n m o n e y
( w h i c h i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t ) b u t a l s o
33Y X0
i n t i m e w h i c h
c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d . . . .
I a m s o r r y I c a n n o t b e m o r e e n c o u r a g i n g
b u t i f m y o p i n i o n i s w a n t e d , n o o n e k n o w s b e t t e r t h a n y o u t h a t w e m u s t
l o o k g r i m r e a l i t i e s i n t h e f a c e . .
( F r o m Ho p k i n s t o Ma y o r L a G u a r d i a : ) I
a m e n c l o s i n g p h o t o s t a t s
o f a c o u p l e o f c o m m u n i s t d o c u m e n t s w h i c h s h o w t h e w a y t h e y a r e
o p e r a t i n g o n t h i s .I t j u s t s e e m s t o m e t h a t w e h a v e g o t t o f i n d a w a y
t o b e a t t h e s e p e o p l e .F r o m m y p o i n t o f v i e w t h e y a r e j u s t a s m u c h
a p o t e n t i a l e n e m y a s t h e G e r m a n s
.I r e a l i z e t h a t y o u a r e n o t r e s p o n -
s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i n g l a w b r e a k e r s b u t
. . . .
( F r o m Ma j o r G
.K .He i s s o f t h e Ar m y a n d Na v y Mu n i t i o n s B o a r d
t o Ho p k i n s : )
Wi t h r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r t e l e p h o n i c i n q u i r y r e l a t i v e t o
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g q u a r t z c r y s t a l s . .
( F r o m C o l .Wi l l i a m J .Do n o v a n t o Ho p k i n s : ) Y o u w i l l
r e m e m b e r
t h a t w h e n w e t a l k e d l a s t w e d i s c u s s e d t h e d a n g e r o f G e r m a n y s t r i k i n g
i n t h r o u g h F r e n c h No r t h Af r i c a a n d a l s o o f c o m i n g i n t h r o u g h Sp a i n
a n d P o r t u g a l .I f t h i s s h o u l d h a p p e n . . .
( F r o m Ar t h u r B
.P u r v i s t o Ho p k i n s : ) Re g a r d i n g y o u r n o t e
o n t h e n e w t h e r m a l p r o c e s s f o r p r o d u c i n g a l u m i n u m .

( F r o m Ro b e r t A.L o v e t t t o Ho p k i n s : ) I w a n t t o c o n f i r m t h e s t a t e -
m e n t m a d e t o y o u o n Su n d a y a f t e r n o o n r e g a r d i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e a t
t h i s t i m e o f c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e o f a l l o y s t e e l s
.I h a v e c h e c k e d i n t o t h e
m a t t e r a n d f i n d . . . .
( F r o m J a m e s F o r r e s t a l t o Ho p k i n s : )
Sh o r t a g e o f s t e e l f o r p r o p e l l e r
b l a d e s d u e t o s t r i k e s a t U n i v e r s a l C y c l o p s St e e l C o r p o r a t i o n h a s
p r a c t i c a l l y h a l t e d d e l i v e r y o f p r o p e l l e r s f o r Na v y F i g h t e r s
. . . .
( F r o m Ad m i r a l H.L .Vi c k e r y t o Ho p k i n s
: ) I j u s t w a n t t o i n f o r m
y o u t h a t I h a v e o n e s h i p b u i l d i n g w a y v a c a n t a t t h i s t i m e b e c a u s e I c a n ' t
g e t s t e e l d e l i v e r y . . . .
( F r o m Os c a r C o x t o Ho p k i n s : ) Y o u
a s k e d m e a b o u t l o c a t i n g a m a n
w h o m i g h t a d v i s e y o u f r o m t i m e t o t i m e o n s t e e l .I a s k e d o n e o f m y
c l a s s m a t e s a t M.I .T.w h o i s o n t h e s t a f f u p t h e r e
. . . .
( F r o m G e n e r a l B u r n s t o Ho p k i n s : ) I n r e g a r d t o y o u r i n q u i r y c o n -

c e r n i n g t h e a m o u n t o f s m a l l a r m s a m m u n i t i o n b e i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d , f o r
p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s . . . .
( F r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t -p e n c i l e d n o t e : ) H.H.t o p u t L a u c h C u r r i e i n
a s h i s a s s t .i n C h i n a a i d &a n n o u n c e ? F DR
( F r o m L a u c h l i n C u r r i e t o Ho p k i n s : ) As y o u m a y h a v e n o t i c e d , t h e
P r e s i d e n t m a d e n o s p e c i f i c c o m m i t m e n t r e a i d t o C h i n a a t h i s P r e s s
c o n f e r e n c e t o d a y .Y o u l e f t m e i n a b i t o f a q u a n d a r y t o d a y a s t o p r o -
c e d u r e a n d s t a t u s . . . .
( F r o m Ru s s e l l W.Da v e n p o r t t o Ho p k i n s : ) Th i s l e t t e r w i l l p r o b a b l y
t u r n o u t t o b e l o n g
.My h e a d h a s b e e n c r o w d e d w i t h i d e a s e v e r s i n c e
I s a w y o u , a n d I f i n d w e n e v e r g o t a r o u n d t o d i s c u s s i n g a l o t o f t h i n g s
I w a n t e d t o d i s c u s s
.Ho w e v e r , I ' l l s t i c k t o o n e p o i n t i n t h i s l e t t e r ,
n a m e l y , P o l i t i c a l Wa r f a r e
. .
( Ag a i n L o v e t t t o Ho p k i n s : ) Th e P r e s i d e n t a s k e d m e w h e t h e r o r
n o t o u r f o u r -e n g i n e e q u i p m e n t ( s u c h a s t h e B -24' s ) c o u l d c a r r y a
s p a r e e n g i n e i n t h e No r t h At l a n t i c h o p .I i n d i c a t e d t h a t f r o m t h e p o i n t
o f v i e w o f w e i g h t . . . .
( F r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t t o Ho p k i n s : ) Ta k e t h i s u p w i t h [ So l ] B l o o m
a n d Wa l t e r G e o r g e a n d s e e i f y o u c a n g e t t h e l a w a m e n d e d .Th e
a l t e r n a t i v e t o C o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i s t o s e n d t h e o i l i n G o v e r n m e n t
o w n e d , u n d o c u m e n t e d s h i p s .
( F r o n t Si r Ar t h u r Sa l t e r t o Ho p k i n s : ) I e n c l o s e d t h e b e s t n o t e I
c a n d o i n a n s w e r t o y o u r q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e r a t e o f b u i l d i n g n e e d e d i n
t h e U .S .i n o r d e r ( w i t h B r i t i s h b u i l d i n g ) t o o f f -s e t l o s s e s , o n t h e
h y p o t h e s i s t h a t . . .
( F r o m Ad m i r a l L a n d t o t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d Ho p k i n s : ) Vi c k e r y a n d
I d i n e d w i t h Si r Ar t h u r Sa l t e r l a s t e v e n i n g .My p r i m a r y r e a c t i o n i s a s
f o l l o w s : -I f w e d o n o t w a t c h o u r s t e p , w e s h a l l f i n d t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e
e n r o u t e t o En g l a n d w i t h t h e Wa s h i n g t o n Mo n u m e n t a s a s t e e r i n g o a r .
( F r o m Se c r e t a r y F r a n k K n o x t o t h e P r e s i d e n t : ) I a m b e c o m i n g
m o r e a n d m o r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h f a c e i m m i n e n t d e f e a t u n l e s s
t h e y a r e g i v e n i m m e d i a t e a i d b y t h e U n i t e d St a t e s i n t h e m a t t e r o f
g e t t i n g a n a d e q u a t e a m o u n t . o f s h i p p i n g i n t o U n i t e d K i n g d o m
p o r t s . . . .
( F r o m J a m e s No r m a n Ha l l t o Ho p k i n s : ) I n t h e n a m e o f o l d t i m e
G r i n n e l l f r i e n d s h i p , I a m g o i n g t o a s k a f a v o r o f y o u , a n d p l e a s e d o n ' t
c u r s e m e o u t u n t i l y o u l e a r n w h a t t h e f a v o r i s .Th e l i t t l e i s l a n d o f
Ta h i t i , i n F r e n c h Oc e a n i a . . . h a s , f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s , b e e n
d e p r i v e d o f t h e r i g h t t o p u r c h a s e a n y g a s o l i n e o r k e r o s e n e f r o m t h e
U .S.A. .
( F r o m L t .C o l .Re x B e n s o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Em b a s s y t o Ho p k i n s
: )
Th e Am b a s s a d o r h a s a s k e d m e t o l e t y o u k n o w t h a t o n t h e b a s i s o f
c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w a s c o n v e y e d t o Mr .C a s e y r e g a r d i n g
a l l e g e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x i s t i n g a m o n g s t Au s t r a l i a n a n d Ne w Z e a l a n d
t r o o p s i n t h e Mi d d l e Ea s t . . . .
( F r o m Re p r e s e n t a t i v e Al b e r t J .En g e l o f Mi c h i g a n t o Ho p k i n s : )
He r e w i t h i s s e n t y o u a s e l f -e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r . . .w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o
s h i p m e n t o f q u a n t i t i e s o f t i n p l a t e t o En g l a n d . . . .

( F r o m I s a d o r L u b i n t o Ho p k i n s
: ) I h a v e h a d a c h e c k m a d e o f t h e
s i t u a t i o n a t t h e F r a n k f o r t Ar s e n a l a n d t h e r e p o r t t h a t I g e t i s t h a t
t h e e q u i p m e n t i s a d e q u a t e f o r g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n o n t h e s e c o n d a n d
t h i r d s h i f t s . . . .
( F r o m Ed w a r d St e t t i n i u s t o Ho p k i n s : ) Th e Ru s s i a n Am b a s s a d o r
c a b l e d t o Mo s c o w t w o d a y s a g o a g a i n s a y i n g h e h a d t o h a v e a n e s t i m a t e
i m m e d i a t e l y o f t h e r a w c o p p e r Ru s s i a w o u l d n e e d
. . .
( F r o m Wa r d C a n a d a y , C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d o f Wi l l y s -Ov e r l a n d
Mo t o r s , I n c ., t o Ho p k i n s a n d B i g g e r s : ) Th e f o l l o w i n g i s i n s u m m a r y
o f o u r t a l k l a s t w e e k a b o u t B a u x i t e t r a n s f e r s i n t h e Vi r g i n I s l a n d s . . . .
( F r o m Am b a s s a d o r An t h o n y B i d d l e t o Ho p k i n s : ) I t w o u l d h a v e
d o n e y o u r h e a r t g o o d t o s e e G e n e r a l Si k o r s k i ' s f a c e w h e n I c o n v e y e d
y o u r m e s s a g e r e g a r d i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e P o l a n d o n t h e " L e a s e -
L e n d " l i s t . . . . He i s p r o f o u n d l y g r a t e f u l a n d a s k e d m e t o t e l l y o u
s o i m m e d i a t e l y -a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t o s e n d y o u h i s w a r m e s t
r e s p e c t s . . . .
( F r o m Os c a r R.Ew i n g t o Ho p k i n s : ) Th e d e e p e r I g e t i n t o t h i s
a l u m i n u m s i t u a t i o n , t h e m o r e o b v i o u s i t i s t h a t t h e b o t t l e n e c k i s p o w e r
So m e t h i n g m u s t b e d o n e . . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m St e t t i n i u s t o Ho p k i n s : ) Y o u a s k e d m e o n t h e p h o n e
Su n d a y h o w m u c h m a g n e s i u m w a s g o i n g i n t o c i v i l i a n u s e .Y o u w i l l
f i n d h e r e w i t h a s t a t e m e n t s h o w i n g . .
( F r o m P h i l i p Y o u n g t o Ho p k i n s : ) At t a c h e d i s t h e s u m m a r y o f t h e
Ne t h e r l a n d s Ea s t I n d i e s p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h I p r o m i s e d y o u
s o m e t i m e a g o . . . .
( F r o m Ha r r i m a n t o Ho p k i n s : ) Re f e r e n c e i s m a d e t o y o u r 2121 .
Th e v i e w t h a t a i r c r a f t s h o u l d h a v e t h e f i r s t c a l l o n p r o d u c t i o n o f
t h i s m a t e r i a l i s s h a r e d b y t h e B r i t i s h . . .
( F r o m Ri c h a r d G .C a s e y , Au s t r a l i a n Mi n i s t e r , t o Ho p k i n s : ) Y o u r
Am e r i c a n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f Au s t r a l i a n w o o l , z i n c , l e a d , c h r o m e a n d
p r o b a b l y z i r c o n -b e a r i n g s a n d s , a n d o t h e r n o t u n i m p o r t a n t c o m m o d i t i e s
-o n t h e o n e h a n d -a n d o u r u r g e n t Au s t r a l i a n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w a r
m a t e r i a l s a n d m a c h i n e t o o l s f r o m t h e U n i t e d St a t e s -t h e s e m a t t e r s
a r e u n d o u b t e d l y i n t h e m i n d s o f y o u r a d v i s e r s a n d w e h o p e v e r y
m u c h . . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m B a r u c h t o Ho p k i n s : ) An y t r o u b l e i n t h e P a c i f i c w i l l
c h a n g e o u r w h o l e d e f e n s e p r o d u c t i o n .Al u m i n u m i s t h e m o s t o u t -
s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e o f i n c o m p e t e n c y a n d p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , b u t t h e r e a r e
o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s a l m o s t a s b a d .
( F r o m Se c r e t a r y Hu l l t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , w h o r e f e r r e d i t t o Ho p k i n s
: )
I n t h e a t t a c h e d p a p e r s Mr
.Mo f f e t t s t a t e s t h a t u n l e s s K i n g I b n Sa u d
r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a t o n c e t h e r e i s g r a v e d a n g e r t h a t t h i s
i n d e p e n d e n t Ar a b K i n g d o m c a n n o t s u r v i v e t h e p r e s e n t e m e r g e n c y . . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m L o v e t t t o Ho p k i n s
: ) Y o u w i l l o b s e r v e t h a t i n s p i t e o f
t h e a g r e e m e n t o f t h e a u t o m o t i v e i n d u s t r y t o c u t d o w n b y
f o
i t i s
p r a c t i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s i n v i e w o f t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n a u t o -
m o b i l e p r o d u c t i o n . .
. .
( F r o m Ad m i r a l L a n d t o Se n a t o r Va n d e n b e r g : ) B e t w e e n J a n u a r y 1
a n d Ap r i l 30, 1941, 158v e s s e l s , o f 781, 914g r o s s t o n s , w e r e r e p o r t e d
s u n k i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m Ha r r i m a n t o Ho p k i n s : ) I t w o u l d b e o f r e a l h e l p i f y o u
c o u l d c a b l e m e t o d a y a n y b a c k g r o u n d o f w h y L a n d d i v u l g e d B r i t i s h
i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o h i m i n c o n f i d e n c e
. .
( F r o m I s a d o r L u b i n t o Ho p k i n s : ) I t h o u g h t y o u m i g h t b e i n t e r e s t e d
i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h a r e t h e s u m m a r y o f t h e r e p o r t
o f o n e o f m y m e n w h o a t t e n d e d t h e r e c e n t m e e t i n g o f t h e Am e r i c a n
Ma n a g e m e n t As s o c i a t i o n . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m L o v e t t t o Ho p k i n s : ) B r i t i s h F e r r y Se r v i c e n o w u s e d
f o r t h e B l e n h e i m B o m b e r s , Hu r r i c a n e s , P -4o ' s , a n d DB -7' s , n o r m a l l y
u s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a i r p o r t s f o r t h e r u n f r o m Ta k o r a d i t o C a i r o
. . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m C o x t o Ho p k i n s : )
G e n e r a l Ar n o l d d e l e g a t e d t o L t .
C o l .Me y e r s t h e j o b o f g e t t i n g t h e p l a n e s d e l i v e r e d a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e
Me y e r s r a n i n t o s o m e Ne u t r a l i t y Ac t a n d o t h e r l e g a l s n a r l s y e s t e r d a y
a n d c a l l e d ' f o r h e l p
.To a v o i d b o t h e r i n g y o u , I h a v e a r r a n g e d w i t h . . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m C u r r i e t o Ho p k i n s : ) I d r o p p e d i n o n Mr .Ho w e ,
Mi n i s t e r o f Mu n i t i o n s a n d Su p p l y i n Ot t a w a o n Tu e s d a y o n t h e o f f
c h a n c e t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n s m i g h t b e a b l e t o h e l p o u t o n s o m e i t e m s f o r
C h i n a o n w h i c h w e a r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y .I m e t w i t h s u c h e n c o u r a g i n g
r e s p o n s e t h a t . . . .
( F r o m Mr s .Em i l Hu r j a t o Ho p k i n s
: ) Wi t h w r a t h a n d m o r a l
i n d i g n a t i o n a n d p r o u d l y a s a n Am e r i c a n o f Sc a n d i n a v i a n s t o c k I
d e n o u n c e Wi l l i a m B u l l i t t ' s i n s u l t i n g a t t a c k o n C o l
.C h a r l e s L i n d b e r g h
l a s t n i g h t a l s o t h a t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t
.I f u r t h e r a m p r o u d t o b e l i s t e d
a m o n g t h o u s a n d s o f [ p e o p l e ] w h o b e l i e v e i n " Am e r i c a F i r s t
." I w o u l d
b e g r a t e f u l i f y o u d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s t o t h e P r e s i d e n t
( F r o m B r e c k e n r i d g e L o n g t o Ho p k i n s
: ) I a m r e s p o n d i n g t o y o u r
n o t e o f y e s t e r d a y a b o u t J a y Al l e n
.We h a v e d o n e e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h '
c o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e a n d a r e s t i l l a t t e n t i v e ' t o h i s c a s e .He a c t e d
d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t h e f a c e o f w a r n i n g a n d w a s c a u g h t b y t h e m i l i t a r y
a u t h o r i t i e s .I n s p i t e o f o u r m a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h e i s s t i l l h e l d
a l s o h a d a h i s t o r y o f a c t i v i t y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s m u g g l i n g r e f u g e e s
a c r o s s t h e m i l i t a r y l i n e ( o c c u p i e d F r a n c e )
.Hi s c a s e i s n o t a n e a s y o n e .
At t a c h e d i s a m e m o r a n d u m o f s o m e l e n g t h w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e a c t i o n
w e h a v e t a k e n . . . .
( F r o m Ho p k i n s t o Mi s s L e Ha n d : )
Th e y t e l l m e t h a t a p i c t u r e c a l l e d
" C i t i z e n K a n e , " p r o d u c e d b y RK O, i s e x c e l l e n t
.I t a p p a r e n t l y t a k e s
He a r s t o v e r t h e h o o p s .I f y o u c a n g e t i t , I t h i n k t h e P r e s i d e n t w o u l d
l i k e v e r y m u c h t o s e e i t .
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: ) G r e a t l y e x p a n d e d p r o g r a m f o r
u s e o f i n c e n d i a r y b o m b i s c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e o v e r f i g u r e s i n p a r a g r a p h
t h r e e o f m y 1786 .I n f a c t

s c h e d u l e d n u m b e r o f u n i t s . . .
( Ag a i n f r o m Vi c k e r y t o Ho p k i n s : ) I
a m s t i l l h a v i n g a g r e a t d e a l
o f t r o u b l e w i t h s t e e l . . . .
( F r o m t h e F o r m e r Na v a l P e r s o n t o t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d Ho p k i n s
: )
Th e r e s u l t w h i c h m a y f o l l o w f r o m Am e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h t a n k d e s i g n
p r o c e e d i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e o n i n d e p e n d e n t l i n e s i s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t

w h i c h I a m g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d
.Th r e e t y p e s o f t h e
Am e r i c a n
m e d i u m t a n k a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g p r o d u c e d .

( F r o m L o r d B e a v e r b r o o k t o Ho p k i n s : )
Ma y I p e r s u a d e y o u t o l i f t
u p t h e M3Me d i u m Ta n k t o t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e p r i o r i t y
.I f y o u w o u l d
t a k e s u c h a d e c i s i o n , y o u w o u l d h e l p u s w i t h o u r p r e s s i n g n e e d
. . .
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We h a v e h a d a
t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f o u r w h o l e t a n k s i t u a t i o n h e r e d u r i n g t h e l a s t f e w
d a y s a n d I c a n n o w g i v e y o u t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s .We p l a n t o i n c r e a s e
o u r p e a k p r o d u c t i o n o f o u r m e d i u m t a n k f r o m b o o t o i o o o a m o n t h
r e a c h i n g t h a t g o a l

( Ag a i n f r o m L a n d t o t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d Ho p k i n s : )
Ou r s h i p b u i l d i n g
e x p a n s i o n p r o g r a m i s n o w f a r e n o u g h a l o n g s o t h a t w e c a n a n d s h o u l d
m o v e s w i f t l y t o . . . .
( F r o m Ho p k i n s t o J a m e s Ro w e ,
J r
. : )
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a b o u t a r o w b e t w e e n P a n Am e r i c a n a n d Am e r i c a n Ex p o r t L i n e s
h a v e n o i n t e r e s t w h a t e v e r h o w t h e d e c i s i o n i s r e a c h e d
.I s i m p l y c a n -
n o t b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w h a t Wa y n e J o h n s o n t e l l s s o m e o n e e l s e t h a t
J u a n Tr i p p e h a s s a i d
.I f I s p e n t m y t i m e r u n n i n g d o w n t h i n g s l i k e
t h i s I w o u l d d o n o t h i n g e l s e , s o w i l l y o u t e l l a n y b o d y w h o a s k s y o u
t h a t I h a v e n o o p i n i o n a b o u t t h i s o n e i t h e r s i d e ; t h a t h e i s a d a m n l i a r
a n d l e t i t g o a t t h a t .I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s m i g h t g o f o r a n y t h i n g e l s e y o u
m i g h t h e a r a n y b o d y s a y a b o u t m e o n a n y s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e s e
.I t r u s t
y o u w i l l d o i t e f f e c t i v e l y .
Ho p k i n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e b e s t w a y t o b r e a k b o t t l e n e c k s w a s t o
e x p o s e t h e m .Al t h o u g h i t w a s t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s
t o a t t e m p t t o c o v e r u p s o r e s p o t s a n d h i d e t h e m f r o m p u b l i c v i e w , Ho p -
k i n s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t h i s c a s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t e x e r t e d a h e a l t h y e f f e c t
Wh e n , a s i n d i c a t e d i n a
m e s s a g e f r o m F o r r e s t a l , m a s s e s o f n e w a i r p l a n e s
w e r e g r o u n d e d b e c a u s e o f a b o t t l e n e c k i n p r o p e l l e r p r o d u c t i o n , Ho p k i n s
a s k e d t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e s e i m p o t e n t p l a n e s b e d i s p l a y e d i n t h e p r e s s
a n d i n p l a n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o p e l l e r s h o r t a g e
.He b e l i e v e d t h a t
m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d w o r k e r s c o u l d b e s t i m u l a t e d b y b l o w s t o t h e i r p r i d e
De s p i t e Ho p k i n s ' a n n o y a n c e a t o l d f r i e n d s o f h i s w h o i n s i s t e d t h a t
t h e s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Ne w De a l w e r e o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t h a n
t h e f u t u r e o f t h e B r i t i s h Em p i r e -a n d t h a t Ho p k i n s ' c o n c e r n f o r t h e
l a t t e r w a s m a k i n g h i m i n e f f e c t a " t r a i t o r t o h i s c l a s s " -h e d e p e n d e d t o
a v e r y l a r g e e x t e n t o n m e n w i t h t h e Ne w De a l p o i n t o f v i e w i n t h e p e r -
f o r m a n c e o f h i s j o b a s G e n e r a l i s s i m o o f t h e Ne e d l e B r i g a d e
.As i d e f r o m
h i s o w n a i d e s , C o x , Y o u n g a n d L u b i n , t h e r e w e r e , c o n s p i c u o u s l y , L e o n
He n d e r s o n , Di r e c t o r o f P r i c e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d C i v i l i a n Su p p l y , a n d
Si d n e y Hi l l m a n , Ro b e r t Na t h a n a n d St a c y Ma y , o f O
.P .M.Th e y w e r e
a l l a g g r e s s i v e b a t t l e r s f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u n l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n , i m p a t i e n t
w i t h t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e m o r e c a u t i o u s i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a n d Ar m y a n d Na v y
o f f i c e r s w h o p r o t e s t e d , " B u t y o u c a n ' t d o
t h a t ! " Wh i c h p r o v i d e s a c o m -
m e n t a r y o n t h e o f t -r e p e a t e d a c c u s a t i o n t h a t t h e t y p i c a l Ne w De a l e r w a .

o n e w h o b e l i e v e d i n a " s a t i a t e d e c o n o m y , " w h o l a c k e d f a i t h i n t h e p r o -
d u c t i v e p o w e r o f Am e r i c a , w h o w a s f o r e v e r a d v o c a t i n g t h e p l o w i n g u n d e r
o f l i t t l e p i g s a n d b i g b u s i n e s s m e n
.I n t h e i g 4o c a m p a i g n , We n d e l l
Wi l l k i e h a d s a i d , " Th e o n l y j o b s t h e Ne w De a l h a s m a d e a r e G o v e r n -
m e n t j o b s . . .
.F o r e i g h t y e a r s t h e y h a v e b e e n t e l l i n g u s t h a t Am e r i c a
i s a l a n d w i t h o u t a f u t u r e
." B u t t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s w h o c a m e i n t o c o n s t a n t
c o n t a c t w i t h Ho p k i n s a n d t h e z e a l o t s o f h i s e n t o u r a g e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t
t h e s e m e n , f a r f r o m d e s p a i r i n g o f Am e r i c a n i n d u s t r y , h a d s u b l i m e c o n -
f i d e n c e i n i t s c a p a c i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e u t t e r l y i m p o s s i b l e
; o f c o u r s e t h i s
c o n f i d e n c e m a y h a v e b e e n d u e l a r g e l y t o d e f i c i e n c y i n p r a c t i c a l , b u s i n e s s -
l i k e , h a r d c o m m o n s e n s e , b u t e v e n s o i t w a s c e r t a i n l y n o t m i s p l a c e d
On e a d v i s e r w h o r e m a i n e d i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , b u t w h o e x e r t e d c o n -
s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e , w a s t h e F r e n c h m a n , J e a n Mo n n e t
.He w a s n o Ne w
De a l e r
.He w a s , i n f a c t , a c o l d l y c a l c u l a t i n g b u s i n e s s m a n w h o h a d s e e n
h i s o w n c o u n t r y s u f f e r t e r r i b l e d e f e a t a n d B r i t a i n c o m e c l o s e t o i t b e c a u s e
o f t h e r e f u s a l o r t h e i n a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a n d s o l d i e r s t o f a c e t h e f a c t s
o f t o t a l w a r
.Mo n n e t w a s t h e g r e a t , s i n g l e -m i n d e d a p o s t l e o f a l l -o u t
p r o d u c t i o n , p r e a c h i n g t h e d o c t r i n e t h a t t e n t h o u s a n d t a n k s t o o m a n y a r e
f a r p r e f e r a b l e t o o n e t a n k t o o f e w .
B e i t s a i d t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s m e n i n g o v e r n m e n t i n Wa s h i n g t o n w e r e
n o t s l o w t o r e s p o n d w h e n t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s w a s a g a m e p l a y e d
a c c o r d i n g t o n o p r e v i o u s r u l e s a n d f o r s t a k e s n o s m a l l e r t h a n t h e l i f e o r
d e a t h o f t h e Re p u b l i c
.P r o d u c t i o n w a s t h e i r g a m e a n d h e r e w a s t h e
g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e e v e r o f f e r e d
.Ma n y o f t h e m w e r e r u t h l e s s i n p u t t i n g
t h e f e a r o f G o d ( a n d o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n ) i n t o t h e h e a r t s o f t h e i r o l d
b u d d i e s o f t h e De t r o i t At h l e t i c C l u b .I t w a s
.n o t t o o e a s y f o r p r i v a t e
m a n u f a c t u r e r s t o g e t a w a y w i t h s l a c k i n g o r p r o f i t e e r i n g u n d e r t h e e y e s
o f m e n w h o k n e w a l l t h e t r i c k s o f t h e i r t r a d e
Ho p k i n s , w h o h a d o n c e a p p e a r e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t e r m s " b i g
b u s i n e s s " a n d " e n t r e n c h e d g r e e d " w e r e v i r t u a l l y s y n o n y m o u s , n o w f o u n d
h i m s e l f w o r k i n g o n n e w b u t c o m m o n g r o u n d w i t h m e n w h o h a d o n c e
a p p e a r e d t o f e a r h i m a s t h e a v o w e d d e s t r o y e r o f " t h e Am e r i c a n w a y o f
l i f e
." On e o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l i s t s w h o c a m e i n t o g o v e r n m e n t
s e r v i c e i n I 94I w a s J a m e s S .K n o w l s o n , a C h i c a g o a n a n d Re p u b l i c a n ,
P r e s i d e n t a n d C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d o f t h e St e w a r t -Wa r n e r C o r p o r a -
t i o n
.I t w a s a p r o u d d a y f o r Ho p k i n s w h e n y e a r s l a t e r h e r e a d a n a r t i c l e
i n t h e At l a n t i c Mo n t h l y
i n w h i c h K n o w l s o n d e s c r i b e d h i s Wa s h i n g t o n
e x p e r i e n c e
I l o s t t e n p o u n d s a n d a l o t o f p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e s
.I f i n d t o m y r a t h e r
s h o c k e d s u r p r i s e t h a t I o n c e m a d e a m e m o r a n d u m l i k e t h i s : " I h a v e
b e e n t a l k i n g w i t h Ho p k i n s a n d I c a n ' t e s c a p e t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h e
h a s t h e c l e a r e s t , c o o l e s t m i n d o f a n y o n e I h a v e e v e r s e e n h e r e .He

f a c t o r s c o m p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m s i n t o s i m p l e t e r m s , a n d h e h a s g i v e n d i r e c -
t i o n t o m y t h o u g h t ." I d o n ' t k n o w a n y t h i n g a b o u t Mr .Ho p k i n s ' s o c i a l
p l a n n i n g o r h i s o t h e r i d e a s , b u t m y o n e r e g r e t i s t h a t I d i d n o t s e e
m o r e o f h i m i n Wa s h i n g t o n .
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i t w a s a s t o r y o f e n d l e s s t u g g i n g a n d h a u l i n g b e t w e e n t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f
t h e t o t a l w a r e f f o r t a n d t h e p r o t e c t o r s o f t h e c i v i l i a n e c o n o m y .I t * a s
s o m e t i m e s k n o w n a s " Th e B a t t l e o f 7-U p " b e c a u s e o f Ro b e r t P a t t e r s o n ' s
v e h e m e n t c o m p l a i n t t h a t v a l u a b l e t r u c k s w e r e b e i n g u s e d t o d e l i v e r t h e
s o f t d r i n k o f t h a t n a m e t o b o b b y s o x e r s w h e n t h e y o u g h t t o b e d e l i v e r i n g
a m m u n i t i o n t o t r o o p s .I n t h i s c o n f l i c t , Ho p k i n s w a s j u s t a b o u t i o o p e r
c e n t a n t i -c i v i l i a n .He w a s e n r a g e d c h i e f l y b y t h e g r o s s w a s t a g e , a s h e c o n -
s i d e r e d i t , o f i n v a l u a b l e t r a n s p o r t p l a n e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s c h e d u l e s
o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l a i r l i n e s , a n d h e p u t i n a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e f i g u r i n g
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a n d Af r i c a o r o v e r t h e Hu m p t o ' C h i n a
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a t t e m p t t o c l e a r u p t h e f e a r f u l c o n g e s t i o n o n t h e o n e l a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n
r o u t e , t h e B u r m a Ro a d
.I n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h h i s f r i e n d , J o h n M.He r t z ,
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o n Da n i e l Ar n s t e i n , a t r u c k i n g a n d t a x i c a b e x p e r t w h o h a d b e e n w i t h
Ho p k i n s t h a t d a y a t t h e r a c e s w h e n Ma x G o r d o n e n g a g e d i n t h e c o n -
v e r s a t i o n w h i c h w a s p a r l a y e d i n t o " t a x a n d t a x , a n d s p e n d a n d s p e n d ,
a n d e l e c t a n d e l e c t ."
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h i g h -p r e s s u r e d i p l o m a c y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y
I n t h e Sp r i n g o f I 94i I w a s s u n n i n g m y s e l f i n F l o r i d a w h e n Ha r r y
c a l l e d m e u p a n d s a i d , " Da n , I g o t a t o u g h j o b t o b e d o n e a n d I n e e d
y o u r a d v i c e .C a n y o u c o m e b a c k t o Wa s h i n g t o n ? "
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h e t o l d m e t h a t n o t a g o d -d a m n t h i n g w a s m o v i n g o v e r t h e B u r m a
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Y o r k t h e y e a r b e f o r e a n d m y b u s i n e s s n e e d e d a l o t o f a t t e n t i o n .I d i d
n o t w a n t t o l e a v e i t , b u t t h e w a y Ha r r y p u t i t t o m e , I a g r e e d t o g o t o
C h i n a a n d p r o m i s e d h i m t h a t h e w o u l d g e t s o m e r e s u l t s .So I w e n t
t o C h i n a .
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w a s m o v i n g .Th e r e a s o n f o r t h i s w a s t h a t t h e B u r m e s e h a d p u t a
t a x o n a l l g o o d s t h a t w e n t o v e r t h e Ro a d l e a d i n g i n t o C h i n a .I w a s
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Re g i n a l d Do r m a n Sm i t h , a n d t o l d h i m , " Th e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e w o u l d
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t h e m b y a f a s t t r i c k a n d I ' m s o r e a s h e l l n o w ."

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i n
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a f t e r t h e B i l l p a s s e d , a n d t h e n i t w a s p a t h e t i c a l l y i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e o f
t h e v a s t d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d , t h e d e m a n d s e l s e w h e r e a n d t h e p o l i c y p r e -
v a i l i n g a t t h e t i m e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a p p e a s e J a p a n
.So o n a f t e r P e a r l
Ha r b o r , t h e J a p a n e s e c u t t h e B u r m a Ro a d .
I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1941,
s t r a t e g i c a t t e n t i o n w a s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e
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Da k a r
.Of t h e s e , I c e l a n d w a s o f f i r s t i m p o r t a n c e b e c a u s e o f i t s p o s i t i o n
o n t h e f l a n k o f t h e d i r e c t l i f e l i n e f r o m No r t h Am e r i c a t o t h e U n i t e d
K i n g d o m
.Al t h o u g h a f i e r c e l y i n d e p e n d e n t r e p u b l i c , I c e l a n d h a d b o n d s
o f u n i o n w i t h De n m a r k w h i c h g a v e De n m a r k ' s p r e s e n t m a s t e r , Ad o l f
Hi t l e r , s o m e c l a i m t o c o n t r o l o f t h e i s l a n d .B r i t i s h f o r c e s h a d t h e r e f o r e
m o v e d i n t h e r e t o d e f e n d i t a g a i n s t s u d d e n G e r m a n o c c u p a t i o n
.I n De c e m -
b e r , 1940, t h e Am e r i c a n C o n s u l i n Re y k j a v i k , B e r b e l E
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c u s s e d w i t h t h e I c e l a n d i c P r i m e Mi n i s t e r a p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e I c e l a n d
i n t h e Mo n r o e Do c t r i n e a r e a w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e i t s d e f e n s e t o b e
u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e U n i t e d St a t e s
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d a m p e r o n f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s , b u t o n Ap r i l
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i n g t o n , a n d o p e n e d t h e e x t r e m e l y s e c r e t n e g o t i a t i o n s w h i c h e n d e d w i t h
t h e s e n d i n g o f a n i n v i t a t i o n b y I c e l a n d ' s P r i m e Mi n i s t e r a n d t h e s e n d i n g
o f t h e F i r s t Ma r i n e B r i g a d e " t o s u p p l e m e n t a n d e v e n t u a l l y t o r e p l a c e
t h e B r i t i s h f o r c e s . . .
w h i c h w e r e n e e d e d e l s e w h e r e
." Th e r e w e r e t o
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.Th e r e -
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t h a t t h e n o r m a l t h i n g t o d o w o u l d b e t o h a v e u n i t y o f c o m m a n d a n d t h a t
t h i s c o m m a n d l o g i c a l l y s h o u l d b e B r i t i s h , a t l e a s t u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s
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m u c h p o t e n t i a l d y n a m i t e i n t h i s o r d e r , t h a t I f e e l i t s h o u l d h a v e h i s
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m i l i t a r y -d i p l o m a t i c m a t t e r , t h e C h i e f o f Na v a l Op e r a t i o n s w a s u s i n g
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He f e l t i t w o u l d b e g o i n g t o o f a r t o p u t t h e Am e r i c a n t r o o p s u n d e r
B r i t i s h c o m m a n d , f o r , i n t h e e v e n t o f a t t a c k o n I c e l a n d b y t h e G e r m a n s ,
t h e B r i t i s h o f f i c e r w o u l d h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e n d i n g Am e r i c a n s

i n t o a c t i o n . St a r k ,
t h e r e f o r e , s p e c i f i e d i n h i s o r d e r s t o t h e Ma r i n e
G e n e r a l " y o u w i l l c o o r d i n a t e y o u r o p e r a t i o n s f o r t h e d e f e n s e o f I c e l a n d
w i t h t h e d e f e n s e o p e r a t i o n s o f B r i t i s h f o r c e s b y t h e m e t h o d o f m u t u a l
c o o p e r a t i o n ." Th e r e w a s n o d o u b t i n a n y o n e ' s m i n d t h a t t h e Ma r i n e s
w o u l d f i g h t i n t h e e v e n t o f G e r m a n a t t a c k , a n d w h i l e t h e p u b l i c a n n o u n c e -
m e n t o f t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n I c e l a n d p r o v o k e d n e w s t o r m s o f p r o t e s t f r o m
t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e i n t h e m a i n t o o k i t c a l m l y , c o n -
s i d e r i n g i t a s a p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e p r e c a u t i o n .Hi t l e r a n d t h e Na z i
G o v e r n m e n t w e r e s e n s i b l e e n o u g h n o t t o i n t e r p r e t i t a s a n a c t o f w a r .
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i f t h e Ma r i n e s o n I c e l a n d w e r e a t b a t t l e s t a -
t i o n s r e a d y t o r e p e l a n y G e r m a n a t t a c k , s h o u l d n o t t h e U n i t e d St a t e s
Na v y b e s i m i l a r l y o r d e r e d t o t a k e a c t i o n a g a i n s t G e r m a n r a i d e r s ( i n -
c l u d i n g U -b o a t s ) a l o n g t h e s e a l a n e s b e t w e e n t h e No r t h Am e r i c a n c o n -
t i n e n t a n d I c e l a n d ? Th i s w a s t h e m o s t d a n g e r o u s p r o b l e m o f t h e t i m e
f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t t o d e c i d e .Th e c h a n c e s w e r e r e m o t e o f a G e r m a n
a t t e m p t t o s e i z e I c e l a n d .B u t t h e r i s k o f n a v a l a c t i o n w a s s o g r e a t t h a t
i t c o u l d b e c a l l e d a v i r t u a l c e r t a i n t y .Th o s e s e a l a n e s w e r e f u l l o f r a i d e r s ,
n o t o n l y U -b o a t s b u t a l s o t h e b a t t l e s h i p s B i s m a r c k a n d Ti r p i t z a n d
t h e c r u i s e r s Sc h a r n h o r s t , G n e i s e n a u a n d P r i n z Eu g e n .
On Ap r i l 2, Ro o s e v e l t h a d t a l k e d a b o u t a p l a n f o r p r o v i d i n g U .S.
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d r a w u p w h a t w a s c a l l e d He m i s p h e r e De f e n s e P l a n No . 1 ; t h i s m a d e
d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n f o r a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n b y Am e r i c a n w a r s h i p s a g a i n s t
G e r m a n s u b m a r i n e s a n d s u r f a c e r a i d e r s i n t h e We s t e r n At l a n t i c .On Ap r i l
13, h o w e v e r , t h e n e w s o f t h e n e u t r a l i t y p a c t b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d t h e
So v i e t U n i o n r a i s e d s u c h a l a r m s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e P a c i f i c
t h a t He m i s p h e r e De f e n s e P l a n No . 2 w a s d r a w n u p a n d w a s m a d e e f -
f e c t i v e b y P r e s i d e n t i a l d i r e c t i v e o n Ap r i l 24
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t h a t Am e r i c a n s h i p s w e r e m e r e l y t o r e p o r t m o v e m e n t s o f G e r m a n v e s s e l s
w e s t o f I c e l a n d a s t h e y o b s e r v e d o r d e t e c t e d t h e m .Th e r e w a s t o b e n o
s h o o t i n g u n l e s s s h o t a t .
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a f t e d i n l o n g h a n d , t h e P r e s i d e n t w r o t e ,
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l o n g i t u d e 25° .Th i s l i n e i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t a k i n g a p o i n t h a l f w a y b e t w e e n
t h e l a n d m a s s o f t h e Am e r i c a n h e m i s p h e r e a n d t h e l a n d m a s s o f Eu r o p e ,
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b u t t h e l i n e w a s l a t e r b e n t t o i n c l u d e t h a t i s l a n d .Ro o s e v e l t a n d Ho p k i n s
d r a f t e d a c a b l e t o C h u r c h i l l o n t h i s
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p r o p o s e t o t a k e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e
a n d f a v o r a b l y t o a f f e c t y o u r s h i p p i n g
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v e s s e l s a n d a i r c r a f t w o r k i n g f r o m Ne w f o u n d l a n d , G r e e n l a n d , No v a
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l a t e r e x t e n s i o n t o B r a z i l i f t h i s c a n b e a r r a n g e d .We w i l l w a n t t o b e
n o t i f i e d b y y o u i n g r e a t s e c r e c y o f m o v e m e n t s o f c o n v o y s s o t h a t o u r
p a t r o l u n i t s c a n s e e k o u t t h e s h i p o f a n a g g r e s s o r n a t i o n o p e r a t i n g w e s t
o f t h e n e w l i n e o f t h e s e c u r i t y z o n e .We p r o p o s e t o h a v e o u r s h i p s r e -
f u e l e d a t s e a w h e n a d v i s a b l e .We s u g g e s t t h a t y o u r l o n g s h i p p i n g
h a u l s m o v e t o t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t w e s t o f t h e n e w l i n e u p t c
t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n a p p r o a c h e s .As s o o n a s y o u c l e a r o u t
t h e Re d Se a w e p r o p o s e t o d e c l a r e i t n o l o n g e r a z o n e o f c o m b a t .We
p r o p o s e t o s e n d a l l t y p e s o f g o o d s i n u n a r m e d Am e r i c a n f l a g s h i p s v i a
t h e Re d Se a o r t h e P e r s i a n G u l f t o Eg y p t o r a n y o t h e r n o n -b e l l i g e r e n t
p o r t .We t h i n k w e c a n w o r k o u t a p l a n f o r s e n d i n g w h e a t a n d o t h e r
t r a n s f e r a b l e g o o d s t o G r e e n l a n d a n d I c e l a n d i n Am e r i c a n s h i p s t h r o u g h
t h e n e x t s i x m o n t h s
.We • e x p e c t v e r y s o o n t o m a k e u s e o f Da n i s h s h i p s
a n d i n a b o u t t w o m o n t h s I t a l i a n s h i p s .We h o p e t o m a k e a v a i l a b l e f o r
t h e d i r e c t h a u l t o En g l a n d a l a r g e a m o u n t o f o u r s h i p p i n g w h i c h i s
n o w b e i n g u t i l i z e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
I n a l l t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , Ho p k i n s w a s c o n t i n u a l l y u r g i n g b o l d a c t i o n
a n d Ro o s e v e l t w a s t a k i n g t h e m o r e m o d e r a t e , t e m p e r a t e , c a u t i o u s c o u r s e ,
On e h a s o n l y t o r e a d He n r y St i m s o n ' s r e c o r d o f h i s o w n p r o f o u n d d i s -
s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h i s s p r i n g o f 1941t o k n o w h o w s o r e l y Ro o s e v e l t t r i e d
t h e t e m p e r s o f t h o s e t r u s t e d a d v i s e r s w h o w e r e u r g i n g h i m t h a t t h e
t i m e h a d p a s s e d w h e n " a l l a i d s h o r t o f w a r " w a s e n o u g h .
ARo o s e v e l t s p e e c h w a s s c h e d u l e d f o r Ma y
4, w h i c h w a s P a n -Am e r -
i c a n Da y , o n e o f t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t ' s f a v o r i t e o c c a s i o n s , a n d t h e De -
p a r t m e n t h a d p r e p a r e d a d r a f t , e m p h a s i z i n g h e m i s p h e r i c s o l i d a r i t y .Th e
m e r e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h i s s p e e c h p r o v o k e d w i d e s p r e a d s p e c u l a t i o n a t
h o m e a n d a b r o a d , f o r i t w a s t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s f i r s t i m p o r t a n t a d d r e s s s i n c e
t h e e n a c t m e n t o f L e n d L e a s e .Wo u l d t h i s b e t h e l o n g -e x p e c t e d r e q u e s t
f o r a De c l a r a t i o n o f Wa r ? Th e Na z i a n d C o m m u n i s t a n t i -Ro o s e v e l t
p r o p a g a n d a w a s g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d a n d L i n d b e r g h c a m e a l a r m i n g l y c l o s e
t o a n o u t r i g h t d e m a n d f o r o p e n r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n .At
t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e e x t r e m e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s , n o w l e d b y t h e F i g h t f o r
F r e e d o m C o m m i t t e e , w e r e m a t c h i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s i n t h e s t r i d e n c y o f
t h e i r d e m a n d s .I t w a s a p e r i o d o f l o u d n o i s e i n t h e n a t i o n .
Ro o s e v e l t w a s v e r y d i s t u r b e d b y a l l t h e s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t h i s s p e e c h ,
l a r g e l y b e c a u s e h e w a s s o f a r f r o m c l e a r i n h i s o w n m i n d a s t o j u s t w h a t
h e c o u l d s a y .I t w a s o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o r e f e r t o h i s p l a n s
f o r I c e l a n d a n d p a t r o l s -o r t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n Am e r i c a n o c c u p a -
t i o n o f t h e Az o r e s -o r t o t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t o f t h e P a c i f i c F l e e t w a s a t
t h a t m o m e n t m o v i n g i n t o t h e At l a n t i c
.Sp e a k i n g o n b e h a l f o f t h e P r e s i -
d e n t , St e v e Ea r l y h a d c a u t i o n e d t h e n e w s p a p e r m e n n o t t o a t t a c h a n y
s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s p e e c h -a n i n t e n d e d t i p -o f f t h a t i t w o u l d b e

2 93
m e r e l y a r o u t i n e p e r f o r m a n c e
.Th i s s u g g e s t i o n f r o m Ea r l y , w h o a l w a y s
c h o s e h i s w o r d s c a r e f u l l y , i n i t s e l f c r e a t e d r e v e r b e r a t i o n s i n t h e a n t i -i s o -
l a t i o n i s t p r e s s , i n En g l a n d a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s
.Th e t e n s i o n w a s h e i g h t -
e n e d b y a n u m b e r o f p u b l i c u t t e r a n c e s b y h i g h o f f i c e r s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ,
n o t a b l y St i m s o n a n d K n o x , w h i c h s e e m e d t o p l a c e t h e U n i t e d St a t e s
o n t h e v e r y b r i n k o f w a r
.Ro o s e v e l t h a d r e a d t h e s e s p e e c h e s b e f o r e t h e y
w e r e d e l i v e r e d
.I t w a s g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t h a t h e a p p r o v e d t h e p o s i t i o n
t a k e n -a s i n d e e d h e d i d
.B u t t h a t d i d n o t m e a n t h a t h e w a s w i l l i n g o r
r e a d y t o g o s o f a r h i m s e l f
Th e n , s u d d e n l y , Ro o s e v e l t p o s t p o n e d h i s s p e e c h o n t h e g r o u n d s o f i l l
h e a l t h .Wh e n i t w a s l a t e r a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e s p e e c h w a s t o b e g i v e n o n
Ma y 27, n e w s p a p e r m e n a s k e d Ea r l y i f h e c a r e d t o r e p e a t h i s a d m o n i t i o n
n o t t o a t t a c h s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o i t , a n d h e d e c l i n e d t o d o s o
.So t h e
a n t i c i p a t i o n w a s i n t e n s i f i e d .
Du r i n g t h o s e d a y s i n m i d -Ma y Ro o s e v e l t s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e
i n b e d a n d r a r e l y w e n t t o h i s o f f i c e .He s a i d t h a t t h i s w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t
p e r s i s t e n t c o l d s h e h a d e v e r h a d
.On e d a y , a f t e r a l o n g t a l k w i t h h i m i n
h i s b e d r o o m , I c a m e o u t a n d s a i d t o Mi s s y L e Ha n d , " Th e P r e s i d e n t
s e e m s i n f i n e s h a p e t o m e
.He d i d n ' t c o u g h o r s n e e z e o r e v e n b l o w h i s
n o s e t h e w h o l e t i m e I w a s i n t h e r e a n d h e l o o k e d w o n d e r f u l l y w e l l
Wh a t i s r e a l l y t h e m a t t e r w i t h h i m ? " Mi s s y s m i l e d a n d s a i d , " Wh a t h e ' s
s u f f e r i n g f r o m m o s t o f a l l i s a c a s e o f s h e e r e x a s p e r a t i o n
." I n d e e d , h e
s e e m e d a t t h e t i m e t o b e e x a s p e r a t e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y ' e v e r y o n e -t h e i s o -
l a t i o n i s t s , o n o n e s i d e , w h o w e r e d e m a n d i n g i n e f f e c t t h a t h e r e s i g n
; a n d ,
o n t h e o t h e r s i d e , t h e e x t r e m e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s w h o w e r e d e m a n d i n g
t h a t h e i m m e d i a t e l y s e n d e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e s t o En g l a n d , t h e Az o r e s ,
Da k a r , t h e Ne t h e r l a n d s Ea s t I n d i e s , Si n g a p o r e , t h e Al e u t i a n I s l a n d s
a n d o t h e r p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t .
Ve r y f e w p e o p l e w e r e a l l o w e d t o s e e t h e P r e s i d e n t d u r i n g t h o s e d a y s .
Th e r e w e r e a l o t o f v e r y n e r v o u s m e n i n h i g h p l a c e s i n Wa s h i n g t o n
w o n d e r i n g w h a t w a s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d , w h e n t h e
P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d f i n a l l y e m e r g e f r o m i t , w h i c h w a y h e w o u l d j u m p
Th o s e o f u s w h o w e r e i n t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e a t t h e t i m e w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o
a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e a m o u n t o f f l a t t e r i n g a t t e n t i o n b y o f f i c i a l s w h o
h o p e d t h a t w e c o u l d g e t s o m e m e s s a g e t h r o u g h t o h i m o r c a l l h i s a t t e n -
t i o n t o s o m e m e m o r a n d u m t h a t w a s p r e s u m a b l y r e p o s i n g i n h i s b a s k e t s .
I r e p o r t e d t o Ho p k i n s w h a t s e e m e d t o m e t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f
t h e r e q u e s t s t h a t c a m e e v e n t o m e a n d i n e v e r y c a s e h e t o l d m e t o
" f o r g e t i t ."
On Ma y i o c a m e t h e a m a z i n g n e w s o f Ru d o l p h He s s ' s s u d d e n l a n d -
i n g b y p a r a c h u t e o n t h e Du k e o f Ha m i l t o n ' s e s t a t e i n Sc o t l a n d .Th i s
h a p p e n e d o n a Sa t u r d a y e v e n i n g , a n d C h u r c h i l l w a s a t Dy t c h l e y .He w a s ,
i n f a c t , w a t c h i n g a Ma r x B r o t h e r s m o v i e -a t l e a s t , t h a t w a s t h e s t o r y
a s Ho p k i n s w a s t o l d i t .Th e Du k e o f Ha m i l t o n t e l e p h o n e d f r o m Sc o t -

l a n d .C h u r c h i l l w o u l d n ' t l e a v e t h e m o v i e
; h e t o l d a s e c r e t a r y t o i n f o r m
Hi s G r a c e t h a t t h e P r i m e Mi n i s t e r w a s o t h e r w i s e e n g a g e d .B u t t h e Du k e
i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s w a s a n u r g e n t m a t t e r o f C a b i n e t i m p o r t a n c e .So
C h u r c h i l l s e n t B r a c k e n t o t a k e t h e m e s s a g e w h i l e h e c o n c e n t r a t e d o n
G r o u c h o , Ha r p o a n d C h i c o .B r a c k e n r e t u r n e d t o a n n o u n c e t h a t Ru d o l p h
He s s h a d a r r i v e d i n B r i t a i n .
C h u r c h i l l s n o r t e d ." Wi l l y o u k i n d l y i n s t r u c t t h e Du k e o f Ha m i l t o n , "
h e g r o w l e d , " t o t e l l t h a t t o t h e Ma r x B r o t h e r s ? "
Su b s e q u e n t l y I v o n e K i r k p a t r i c k w a s d i s p a t c h e d t o t h e Ha m i l t o n p l a c e
t o i d e n t i f y He s s
.K i r k p a t r i c k h a d b e e n i n t h e B r i t i s h Em b a s s y i n B e r l i n
f o r y e a r s b e f o r e t h e w a r a n d t h e r e f o r e k n e w He s s w e l l a n d d i s l i k e d h i m
c o r d i a l l y
.Wh e n h e v e r i f i e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c u r t a n n o u n c e m e n t w a s
m a d e a n d t h e n t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t c o v e r e d t h e w h o l e a f f a i r w i t h a
t h i c k p a l l o f s e c r e c y .P r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y b o d y i n t h e w o r l d w h o c o u l d r e a d
a n e w s p a p e r o r l i s t e n t o a r a d i o w a s i n a f e v e r o f a n x i e t y t o k n o w w h a t
w a s r e a l l y b e h i n d t h i s s t r a n g e s t o r y .Th e r e w a s n o l i m i t t o t h e r u m o r s
a n d s p e c u l a t i o n s
.L i k e e v e r y o n e e l s e , I w a s c o n s u m e d w i t h c u r i o s i t y ,
b u t I k n e w I w a s n o t s u p p o s e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s a r o u n d t h e Wh i t e
Ho u s e t h a t w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m y o w n
d u t i e s .
On e e v e n i n g a b o u t t e n d a y s a f t e r He s s l a n d e d I w a s a t d i n n e r w i t h
t h e P r e s i d e n t , Ho p k i n s a n d Su m n e r We l l e s
.Su d d e n l y , i n t h e m i d s t o f a
c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t ' s o m e t h i n g e l s e , Ro o s e v e l t t u r n e d t o We l l e s a n d s a i d ,
" Su m n e r , y o u m u s t h a v e m e t He s s w h e n y o u w e r e i n Eu r o p e l a s t y e a r ."
We l l e s s a i d t h a t h e h a d .I w a s e x c i t e d f o r I t h o u g h t t h a t n o w I w a s
g o i n g t o h e a r t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e e x p l a i n e d .
" Wh a t ' s h e l i k e ? " Ro o s e v e l t a s k e d .
We l l e s g a v e a t h o u g h t f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s i m p r e s s i o n s o f He s s -
f a n a t i c a l , m y s t i c a l d e v o t i o n t o h i s F u e h r e r , a p p a r e n t l y b r u t i s h s t u p i d i t y ,
e t c .Ro o s e v e l t w a s s i l e n t f o r a m o m e n t , t h e n
: " I w o n d e r w h a t i s r e a l l y
b e h i n d t h i s s t o r y ? " We l l e s s a i d h e d i d n o t k n o w
So a l l I l e a r n e d w a s t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t w a s a s k i n g p r e c i s e l y t h e s a m e
q u e s t i o n t h a t w a s b e i n g a s k e d a t t h o u s a n d s i f n o t m i l l i o n s o f o t h e r Am e r -
i c a n s u p p e r t a b l e s .Mo n t h s l a t e r , w h e n L o r d B e a v e r b r o o k w a s i n Mo s -
c o w , St a l i n a s k e d h i m w h a t w a s t h e r e a l t r u t h a b o u t He s s , a s w i l l a p p e a r
i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . Ev e r y b o d y w a s m y s t i f i e d
On Ma y 24, t h e m o n s t e r G e r m a n b a t t l e s h i p B i s m a r c k ,
w h i c h h a d
e m e r g e d f r o m i t s h i d e -o u t a t B e r g e n , No r w a y , a t t e n d e d b y t h e c r u i s e r
P r i n z Eu g e n ,
w a s i n t e r c e p t e d b e t w e e n I c e l a n d a n d G r e e n l a n d b y t h e
b a t t l e s h i p
P r i n c e o f Wa l e s a n d t h e b a t t l e c r u i s e r Ho o d . I n a n e n g a g e -
m e n t t h a t l a s t e d o n l y a f e w m i n u t e s t h e
P r i n c e o f Wa l e s w a s s l i g h t l y
d a m a g e d a n d t h e Ho o d
w a s s u n k .Th e G e r m a n s h i p s g o t a w a y .Wh e n
l a s t s e e n , t h e B i s m a r c k
w a s o n a s o u t h w e s t e r l y c o u r s e , h e a d i n g r i g h t
i n t o t h e c o n v o y r o u t e s t o w a r d Ne w f o u n d l a n d a n d t h e U
.S.Ea s t C o a s t .

F o r n e a r l y t w o d a y s a f t e r t h a t t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o f t h e B i s m a r c k w a s u n -
k n o w n .Th e r e w a s a l l s o r t s o f s p e c u l a t i o n a s t o h e r i n t e n d e d d e s t i n a -
t i o n .Am o n g t h e g u e s s e s w e r e
Sh e w o u l d s h e l l Ha l i f a x , Ne w Y o r k , No r f o l k , a n d v a r i o u s o t h e r
t a r g e t s .
Sh e w o u l d g o t o Ri o d e J a n e i r o t o m a k e a b i g p r o p a g a n d a d i s p l a y f o r '
So u t h Am e r i c a n s .
Sh e w o u l d g o a r o u n d C a p e Ho r n a n d a l l t h e w a y a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c
t o J a p a n .( Th e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s a s t o h o w s h e w o u l d r e f u e l .)
C e r t a i n l y , a f t e r t h e He s s e p i s o d e , i t s e e m e d t h a t n o p o s s i b i l i t y w a s t o o
a b s u r d t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i m p r o b a b l e .
Ro o s e v e l t t h o u g h t i t n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e B i s m a r c k w o u l d g o i n t o t h e
C a r i b b e a n t o Ma r t i n i q u e a n d p e r h a p s t a k e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h a t s t r a t e g i c
o u t p o s t .He s a i d , " Su p p o s e s h e d o e s s h o w u p i n t h e C a r i b b e a n ? We h a v e
s o m e s u b m a r i n e s d o w n t h e r e .Su p p o s e w e o r d e r t h e m t o a t t a c k h e r
a n d a t t e m p t t o s i n k h e r ? Do y o u t h i n k t h e p e o p l e w o u l d d e m a n d t o h a v e
m e i m p e a c h e d ? "
Ro o s e v e l t w a s s p e a k i n g i n s u c h a d e t a c h e d , e v e n c a s u a l m a n n e r t h a t
o n e m i g h t h a v e t h o u g h t h e w a s p l a y i n g w i t h s o m e t i m e -m a c h i n e f a n t a s y ,
s u c h a s , " Su p p o s e y o u s u d d e n l y f o u n d y o u r s e l f l i v i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f
t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . . . ." Y e t h e r e w a s t h e r e a l i t y o f o n e m u r d e r o u s
s h i p , o f f o n s o m e w i l d , u n p r e d i c t a b l e c a r e e r , g u i d e d b y t h e w i l l o f o n e
m a n w h o m i g h t b e a m a n i a c o r a g e n i u s o r b o t h , c a p a b l e o f c o n v e r t i n g
o n e i n e x p l i c a b l e i m p u l s e i n t o a t u r n i n g p o i n t o f h i s t o r y .An d h e r e w a s
t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d St a t e s , s i t t i n g i n t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e i n a n
a t m o s p h e r e o f o p p r e s s i v e c a l m , w o n d e r i n g w h a t t h e n e x t n a v a l d i s p a t c h
w o u l d t e l l h i m , w o n d e r i n g w h a t h e w o u l d b e a b l e t o d o a b o u t i t .He w a s
b e h i n d h i s d e s k i n t h e Ov a l St u d y , a n d h e h a d h i s c o a t o f f .I t w a s a v e r y
h o t d a y .He h a d a i r -c o n d i t i o n i n g a p p a r a t u s i n t h e St u d y a n d h i s b e d -
r o o m a n d o f f i c e , b u t h e h a t e d i t a n d n e v e r , t o m y k n o w l e d g e , t u r n e d i t
o n .Th e w i n d o w s w e r e o p e n .Ou t s i d e t h e o n e t o t h e s o u t h w e s t w a s a
b i g m a g n o l i a t r e e w h i c h , t h e y s a i d , h a d b e e n p l a n t e d b y An d r e w J a c k -
s o n .I t w a s n o w c o v e r e d w i t h b i g w h i t e b l o o m s a n d t h e i r l e m o n y s c e n t
d r i f t e d i n t o t h e St u d y .Y o u c o u l d l o o k f r o m t h e s e w i n d o w s a c r o s s t o
Vi r g i n i a w h i c h , w h e n L i n c o l n l i v e d i n t h i s h o u s e , w a s e n e m y t e r r i t o r y .
B u t Ro o s e v e l t w a s w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r h e ' d b e i m p e a c h e d .
I t w a s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h o s e o f u s w h o w e r e t h e r e , s i t t i n g a b o u t t h e
d e s k , t h a t i f t h e U .S.Na v y d i d a t h o r o u g h j o b o n t h e B i s m a r c k o f f
Ma r t i n i q u e , o r a n y w h e r e e l s e i n w e s t e r n w a t e r s , t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e
w o u l d a p p l a u d t h e a c t i o n v i g o r o u s l y .Th e d e m a n d f o r i m p e a c h m e n t
w o u l d c o m e o n l y i f i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e Na v y h a d f i r e d a n d m i s s e d .
Ho w e v e r , t h e b i g G e r m a n s h i p t u r n e d e a s t w a r d , h e a d i n g a p p a r e n t l y
f o r a F r e n c h p o r t
.Tw o d a y s l a t e r , o n Ma y 26, t h e f l a s h c a m e t h a t s h e
h a d b e e n s p o t t e d b y a C a t a l i n a P B Y , o n e o f t h e n a v a l p a t r o l b o m b e r s

w h i c h Ho p k i n s h a d h e l p e d t o t u r n o v e r t o t h e B r i t i s h R.A
.F .C o a s t a l
C o m m a n d
.Th e n e x t d a y t h e Ro y a l Na v y c l o s e d i n o n t h e
B i s m a r c k a n d
s a n k h e r .Th i s w a s t h e d a y o f Ro o s e v e l t ' s s p e e c h , a n d Hi t l e r h a d h e l p e d
g r e a t l y t o g i v e i t a m e l o d r a m a t i c b a c k g r o u n d .I d o n o t k n o w j u s t w h a t
Hi t l e r h a d i n m i n d i n s e n d i n g t h e B i s m a r c k t o w a r d t h e We s t e r n He m i -
s p h e r e a t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e b y r i s k i n g t h e g r e a t e s t s h i p i n h i s Na v y a n d
p e r h a p s i n t h e w o r l d .Th e o n l y l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n a t t h e t i m e w a s t h a t
h e h o p e d t o s i n k o n e o r m o r e e n t i r e c o n v o y s a n d t h e r e b y i n t i m i d a t e t h e
U n i t e d St a t e s a n d d i s c r e d i t a n y t h i n g t h a t Ro o s e v e l t m i g h t s a y i n h i s
w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d s p e e c h
.Th i s s e e m s l i k e l y f o r , t h i s s a m e w e e k -a l -
t h o u g h i t w a s n o t k n o w n u n t i l l a t e r -t h e G e r m a n s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n
t h e w a r s a n k a n Am e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s h i p , t h e Ro b i n Mo o r .
Th e r e w e r e f u r t h e r a l a r m i n g i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e n e x t p r o b a b l e t r e n d s o f
G e r m a n a g g r e s s i o n .F o l l o w i n g t h e i r f i e r c e , q u i c k c o n q u e s t s o f Y u g o -
s l a v i a a n d G r e e c e , i t s e e m e d l o g i c a l f o r t h e G e r m a n s t o a t t e m p t t o c o m -
p l e t e t h e p r o c e s s o f d r i v i n g t h e B r i t i s h f r o m t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n .Ro o s e -
v e l t h a d b e e n a d v i s e d b y Ad m i r a l L e a h y i n Vi c h y t h a t Ma r s h a l P e t a i n
" e x p e c t s a n e a r l y a d v a n c e o f G e r m a n t r o o p s t h r o u g h Sp a i n w i t h t h e
p u r p o s e o f e i t h e r t a k i n g G i b r a l t a r o r o c c u p y i n g s o m e p l a c e o n t h e c o a s t
f r o m w h i c h t h e St r a i t s c a n b e c o n t r o l l e d b y g u n f i r e a n d f r o m w h i c h
t r o o p s c a n b e s e n t t o Sp a n i s h Mo r o c c o " -a n d t h e r e w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y
a l w a y s b e p l e n t y o f r o o m f o r s p e c u l a t i o n ( a n d f o r g r a t i t u d e ) a s t o w h y
Hi t l e r f a i l e d t o d o j u s t t h a t .
Da r l a n w e n t t o B e r c h t e s g a d e n f o r a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h Hi t l e r , a n d
C h u r c h i l l s e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e f r o m L o n d o n c o n f i r m i n g L e a h y ' s r e p o r t s o f
t h e d a n g e r s t o No r t h Af r i c a b y w a y o f Sp a i n .I n d e e d , C h u r c h i l l ' s m e s -
s a g e s a t t h i s t i m e w e r e g r i m l y p e s s i m i s t i c a n d w i t h l a m e n t a b l y a m p l e
r e a s o n .Ro o s e v e l t , w h o w a s a l w a y s i n t e r e s t e d i n No r t h Af r i c a a s a t h e a -
t e r o f o p e r a t i o n s , w a s d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e
d e v e l o p m e n t s o n t h e P o r t u g u e s e a n d Sp a n i s h i s l a n d s i n t h e At l a n t i c a n d
o r d e r e d t h a t p l a n s b e d r a w n f o r Am e r i c a n o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e Az o r e s .
On t h e d a y w h e n t h e f i r s t n e w s o f t h e
B i s m a r c k r e a c h e d t h e Wh i t e
Ho u s e , Ho p k i n s s a i d t o Ro s e n m a n a n d m e t h a t h e b e l i e v e d t h e P r e s i d e n t
h a d d e c i d e d t o e n d t h e s p e e c h w i t h a p r o c l a m a t i o n o f U n l i m i t e d Na t i o n a l
Em e r g e n c y ( u p t o t h e n , s i n c e Se p t e m b e r ,
t h e e m e r g e n c y h a d b e e n
" l i m i t e d " ) a n d t o l d u s t o t r y d r a f t i n g s u c h a p r o c l a m a t i o n .So m e w h a t
a w e -s t r u c k , w e w e n t d o w n t o t h e C a b i n e t Ro o m a n d w r o t e a p r o c l a m a -
t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f o n e s e n t e n c e .L a t e r , w h e n t h e n e w d r a f t o f t h e s p e e c h
h a d b e e n t y p e d b y G r a c e Tu l l y ( n o o n e e l s e w a s p e r m i t t e d t o d o i t f o r
r e a s o n s o f s e c r e c y ) , Su m n e r We l l e s a n d Ad o l f B e r l e c a m e o v e r f r o m
t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t t o g o t h r o u g h i t .Wh e n t h e y c a m e t o t h e p r o c l a m a -
t i o n , We l l e s a s k e d , " Wh o d r a f t e d t h i s ? " We c o n f e s s e d t h a t w e h a d
We l l e s a s k e d i f t h e P r e s i d e n t h a d s e e n i t .We h a d t o c o n f e s s , " No t y e t ."
We l l e s a n d B e r l e c o u l d h a r d l y b e b l a m e d f o r f e e l i n g t h a t t h e s e w e r e

p r e t t y s t r a n g e g o i n g s o n
.Th e f o u r o f u s t h e n w e n t u p s t a i r s t o d i n n e r
w i t h -Ro o s e v e l t a n d Ho p k i n s a n d a f t e r w a r d t h e P r e s i d e n t s a t d o w n a t
h i s d e s k t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e l a t e s t d r a f t .He r e a d i t a l o u d , a s h e o f t e n
d i d , t o s e e h o w i t s o u n d e d a n d t o d e t e c t a n y t o n g u e -t w i s t i n g p h r a s e s
t h a t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t o n t h e r a d i o
.J u s t b e f o r e h e c a m e t o t h e f i n a l c r u -
c i a l p a r a g r a p h , Ho p k i n s h a d t o l e a v e t h e r o o m t o t a k e s o m e m e d i c i n e
Ro s e n m a n a n d I w e r e a p p a l l e d a t b e i n g l e f t t o f a c e i t o u t a l o n e
.Ro o s e -
v e l t r e a d , " I h e r e b y p r o c l a i m t h a t a n u n l i m i t e d n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y
e x i s t s . . . w h a t ' s t h i s ? "
He l o o k e d u p f r o m t h e t y p e s c r i p t w i t h t h e e x -
p r e s s i o n o f a r t l e s s i n n o c e n c e t h a t h e f r e q u e n t l y p u t o n , a n d a s k e d v e r y
p o l i t e l y , " Ha s n ' t s o m e b o d y b e e n t a k i n g s o m e l i b e r t i e s ? "
I m a n a g e d t o e x p l a i n , i n a s t r a n g l e d t o n e , t h a t Ha r r y h a d t o l d u s t h a t
t h e P r e s i d e n t w a n t e d s o m e t h i n g a l o n g t h e s e g e n e r a l l i n e s
.I a m s u r e
t h a t We l l e s a n d B e r l e e x p e c t e d t h a t Ro s e n m a n ' s a n d m y h e a d s w e r e
a b o u t t o c o m e .o f f
.B u t t h e r e w a s n o t a n o t h e r w o r d a b o u t t h e p r o c l a m a -
t i o n : i t r e m a i n e d i n t h e s p e e c h
Th e r e w e r e t w o i m p o r t a n t p r o h i b i t i o n s i n t h i s s p e e c h
.Th e P r e s i d e n t
w o u l d n o t m e n t i o n J a p a n a n d h e w o u l d n o t m e n t i o n t h e So v i e t U n i o n
He w o u l d n o t e v e n u s e t h e w o r d " d i c t a t o r s h i p s " w h i c h h e h a d u s e d o f t e n
t o d e s c r i b e a l l t h e , Na z i -F a s c i s t -C o m m u n i s t s t a t e s
.I t w a s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y
t h e n t o a v o i d p r o v o k i n g J a p a n s o a s t o k e e p h e r o u t o f t h e w a r a n d t o
a v o i d p r o v o k i n g Ru s s i a i n c a s e G e r m a n y f o r c e d h e r i n t o i t .Th u s , t h e
o n l y b l a n k e t t e r m t h a t c o u l d b e u s e d i n a s e n s e o f o p p r o b r i u m w a s
" Ax i s ." As a n e x a m p l e o f h o w t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n w o r k e d :
i n t h e s p e e c h
t h e r e w a s a r e v i e w o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e w a r s i n c e Se p t e m b e r ,
w i t h
t h e l i n e , " I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t m o n t h s t h e s h a d o w s d e e p e n e d a n d l e n g t h -
e n e d
.An d t h e n i g h t s p r e a d o v e r P o l a n d , F i n l a n d , De n m a r k , No r w a y ,
Ho l l a n d , B e l g i u m , L u x e m b o u r g a n d F r a n c e ." B u t , b e f o r e t h e s p e e c h
w a s d e l i v e r e d a n d a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e w o r d " F i n l a n d "
w a s o m i t t e d .
Th e o c c a s i o n f o r t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h i s s p e e c h w a s a c u r i o u s l y i n a p p r o -
p r i a t e o n e .I t w a s s t i l l i n o b s e r v a n c e o f P a n -Am e r i c a n Da y , a n d t h e
g u e s t s w e r e t h e Am b a s s a d o r s a n d Mi n i s t e r s f r o m t h e t w e n t y L a t i n -
Am e r i c a n r e p u b l i c s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s .Ro o s e v e l t i n s i s t e d o n i n c l u d i n g
t h e C a n a d i a n Mi n i s t e r , h i s o l d f r i e n d , L e i g h t o n Mc C a r t h y , a l t h o u g h
C a n a d a w a s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t P a n -Am e r i c a n i s m .I t
w a s a b l a c k -t i e a f f a i r , t h e g u e s t s s e a t e d d u r i n g t h e s p e e c h o n t h e l i t t l e
g i l d e d c h a i r s i n t h e Ea s t Ro o m a n d t h e n m o v i n g o u t o n t o t h e s o u t h
l a w n f o r a s o r t o f g a r d e n p a r t y w i t h r e f r e s h m e n t s a n d J a p a n e s e l a n t e r n s .
( Sa m Ro s e n m a n s a i d t o m e , " We ' ' v e g o t t o b e c a r e f u l a n d c a l l t h e m
Ax i s l a n t e r n s ." )
I t w a s o p p r e s s i v e l y h o t i n t h e Ea s t Ro o m w h i l e t h e P r e s i d e n t w a s s p e a k -
i n g
.Al l a r o u n d t h e e d g e s o f t h e r o o m w e r e t h e n e w s r e e l a n d s t i l l c a m e r a -
m e n , b u t t h e y d i d n ' t p u t t h e i r l i g h t s o n d u r i n g t h e s p e e c h .Th e m o v i e s

w e r e t a k e n a f t e r t h e g u e s t s h a d g o n e o u t , Ro o s e v e l t r e p e a t i n g s e l e c t e d
p o r t i o n s .
Th e s p e e c h e v o k e d v e r y f e w s i g n s o f e n t h u s i a s m f r o m i t s a u d i e n c e
a n d w a s f o l l o w e d b y m e r e l y p o l i t e a p p l a u s e
.Ma n y o f t h o s e w h o c o u l d
u n d e r s t a n d En g l i s h s e e m e d d i s t u r b e d a n d e v e n a l a r m e d b y w h a t h e s a i d .
I t w a s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e s t a n d a r d P a n -Am e r i c a n , h e m i s p h e r e -s o l i d a r i t y
o r a t i o n .I n d e e d , a f t e r t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f c o u r t e o u s r e f e r e n c e t o
t h o s e p r e s e n t , Ro o s e v e l t s e e m e d t o f o r g e t t h a t t h e r e w a s a n y o n e p r e s e n t .
He w a s t a l k i n g t o t h e r a d i o a u d i e n c e a l l o v e r t h e U n i t e d St a t e s a n d t h e
w o r l d .Th i s w a s h i s s t r o n g e s t u t t e r a n c e
F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s t r i c t n a v a l a n d m i l i t a r y n e c e s s i t y , w e
s h a l l g i v e e v e r y p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o B r i t a i n a n d t o a l l w h o , w i t h
B r i t a i n , a r e r e s i s t i n g Hi t l e r i s m o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t w i t h f o r c e o f a r m s
Ou r p a t r o l s a r e h e l p i n g n o w t o i n s u r e d e l i v e r y o f t h e n e e d e d s u p p l i e s
t o B r i t a i n . Al l a d d i t i o n a l m e a s u r e s n e c e s s a r y t o d e l i v e r t h e g o o d s w i l l
b e t a k e n .An y a n d a l l f u r t h e r m e t h o d s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f m e t h o d s ,
w h i c h c a n o r s h o u l d b e u t i l i z e d , a r e b e i n g d e v i s e d . . . .
Th o s e i t a l i c i z e d w o r d s c o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e t a k e n a s a g u a r a n t e e o f
Am e r i c a n a c t i o n i n t h e No r t h At l a n t i c a g a i n s t G e r m a n a t t e m p t s t o
b r e a k t h e s u p p l y l i n e , b u t m o n t h s p a s s e d b e f o r e t h e o r d e r s f o r a c t i o n
w e r e g i v e n
I r v i n g B e r l i n w a s w i t h m e a t t h e s p e e c h , a n d a f t e r w a r d w e w e n t u p -
s t a i r s t o Ha r r y Ho p k i n s ' r o o m
.He w a s l y i n g t h e r e i n h i s o l d b a t h r o b e .
He a l w a y s p r e f e r r e d t o l i s t e n t o s p e e c h e s o v e r t h e r a d i o
.Af t e r t h e d i p -
l o m a t i c g u e s t s h a d d e p a r t e d , Mr s .Ro o s e v e l t c a m e i n t o i n v i t e u s i n t o
t h e Mo n r o e Ro o m w h e r e t h e P r e s i d e n t -w a s s i t t i n g w i t h a f e w f r i e n d s
a n d r e l a t i v e s
.He w a s d e l i g h t e d t o s e e B e r l i n a n d b e g g e d h i m t o g o t o
t h e p i a n o a n d p l a y a n d s i n g " Al e x a n d e r ' s Ra g t i m e B a n d " a n d m a n y
o t h e r s o n g s .
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.He w a s
i n b e d s u r r o u n d e d w i t h t e l e g r a m s
.Th e r e m u s t h a v e b e e n a t h o u s a n d
o r m o r e o f t h e m
.He h a d l o o k e d a t t h e m a l l .
" Th e y ' r e n i n e t y -f i v e p e r c e n t f a v o r a b l e ! " h e -s a i d
." An d I f i g u r e d I ' d
b e l u c k y t o g e t a n e v e n b r e a k o n t h i s s p e e c h
Th e r e s p o n s e o f t h e p r e s s a n d , i n s o f a r a s o n e c o u l d j u d g e , o f t h e
p e o p l e , w a s i n d e e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f a v o r a b l e .Ro o s e v e l t ' s w o r d s w e r e
t a k e n a s a s o l e m n c o m m i t m e n t
; t h e e n t r y o f t h e U n i t e d St a t e s i n t o t h e
w a r a g a i n s t G e r m a n y w a s n o w c o n s i d e r e d i n e v i t a b l e a n d e v e n i m m i n e n t
Y e t , t h e v e r y d a y a f t e r t h e s p e e c h , Ro o s e v e l t a t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e v i t i -
a t e d m o s t o f h i s o w n e f f e c t
.He d i s m i s s e d a i r i l y a n y s u g g e s t i o n t h a t h e
c o n t e m p l a t e d u s i n g t h e U
.Na v y f o r c o n v o y d u t y o r a s k i n g C o n g r e s s
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.Ho p k i n s , w h o t h o u g h t h e k n e w
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f r o m a p o s i t i o n o f s t r e n g t h t o o n e o f a p p a r e n t l y i n s o u c i a n t w e a k n e s s
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.No w ,
e x a c t l y a y e a r l a t e r , w i t h B r i t a i n ' s f o r t u n e s a g a i n a t t e r r i b l y l o w e b b , h e
w a s a g a i n a l m o s t a l o n e -b u t n o w a l o n e i n r e l u c t a n c e t o t a k e d e c i s i o n a n d
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a g a i n s t t h e P r e s i d e n t -e m p h a s i z i n g s u c h p h r a s e s a s " p l o w i n g u n d e r
e v e r y f o u r t h Am e r i c a n b o y " -h a d f a i l e d t o b l i n d Am e r i c a n p u b l i c o p i n -
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g o i n g t o l e a d t h e c o u n t r y i n t o w a r -h e w a s g o i n g t o w a i t t o b e p u s h e d i n
Wh e n n e w s o f t h e t o r p e d o i n g o f t h e Ro b i n Mo o r
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Ho u s e , Ho p k i n s w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g m e m o r a n d u m f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t
Th e s i n k i n g o f t h e Ro b i n Mo o r
v i o l a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w a t s e a ; i t
v i o l a t e s y o u r p o l i c y o f f r e e d o m o f t h e s e a s
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p o r t i n g t h e m o v e m e n t o f s h i p s t h a t a r e p o t e n t i a l a g g r e s s o r s c o u l d b e
c h a n g e d t o a s e c u r i t y p a t r o l c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d u t y o f p r o v i d i n g s e -
c u r i t y f o r a l l Am e r i c a n f l a g s h i p s t r a v e l i n g o n t h e s e a s o u t s i d e o f t h e
d a n g e r z o n e
I t o c c u r r e d t o m e t h a t y o u r i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e Na v y De p a r t m e n t
c o u l d b e t h a t t h e U n i t e d St a t e s At l a n t i c p a t r o l f o r c e s , t o b e s p e c i f i c
a r e t o , i n e f f e c t , e s t a b l i s h t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e s e a s , l e a v i n g i t t o t h e
j u d g m e n t o f t h e Na v y a s t o w h a t m e a s u r e s o f s e c u r i t y a r e r e q u i r e d t o
a c h i e v e t h a t o b j e c t i v e .
B u t Ro o s e v e l t r e f u s e d t o i s s u e a n y s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n s
On J u n e
Hi t l e r a n d Mu s s o l i n i s t a g e d o n e o f t h e i r p o r t e n t o u s c o n -
f e r e n c e s a t t h e B r e n n e r P a s s a n d t h e w o r l d w o n d e r e d w h a t n e w t e r r o r s
w e r e b e i n g h a t c h e d .B u t t h e r e w e r e n o i n v a s i o n s i g n s o n t h e No r t h e r n
F r e n c h o r B e l g i a n c o a s t s , w h e r e a s t h e r e w e r e i n d i s g u i s a b l e e v i d e n c e s o f
G e r m a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o n t h e Ea s t e r n f r o n t i n c o n q u e r e d P o l a n d .An d
L a u r e n c e St e i n h a r d t , t h e Am e r i c a n Am b a s s a d o r i n Mo s c o w , w a s c a b l i n g
t h a t n e a r l y a l l o f t h e w i v e s o f t h e h i g h G e r m a n a n d I t a l i a n d i p l o m a t s
t h e r e w e r e l e a v i n g f o r t h e i r h o m e s , g i v i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h i s e x o d u s w h i c h
s o u n d e d h i g h l y u n c o n v i n c i n g , a n d t h e C o u n s e l o r o f t h e G e r m a n Em -
b a s s y h a d e v e n s e n t h i s p e t d o g , f r o m w h i c h h e w a s i n s e p a r a b l e , b y
s p e c i a l p l a n e t o B e r l i n .
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h a d b e e n a c c u m u l a t i n g f o r m o n t h s i n t h e St a t e De p a r t m e n t a n d a l l o f
w h i c h h a d b e e n p a s s e d o n t o t h e B r i t i s h , w h o a d d e d t o i t o t h e r e v i d e n c e
o f t h e i r o w n , a n d a l s o t o t h e So v i e t G o v e r n m e n t .I d o n o t k n o w j u s t
h o w m u c h r e a l c r e d e n c e t h e Ru s s i a n s a t t a c h e d t o i t ; t h e i r e x p r e s s e d a t -

t i t u d e w a s t h a t i t w a s m e r e l y An g l o -Am e r i c a n p r o p a g a n d a f a b r i c a t e d
t o d r i v e a w e d g e b e t w e e n Ru s s i a a n d G e r m a n y , t o b r e a k u p t h e Ri b b e n -
t r o p -Mo l o t o v m u t u a l n o n a g g r e s s i o n p a c t .
C e r t a i n l y , Ro o s e v e l t a t t a c h e d s o m u c h i m p o r t a n c e t o i t t h a t h e w a s
d e t e r m i n e d t o w a i t t o s e e w h a t t h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s f o r e b o d e .He s o o n f o u n d
o u t .
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ARL Y i n J u n e , 1941, Am b a s s a d o r Wi n a n t r e t u r n e d t o Wa s h i n g t o n
t o r e p o r t a n d Av e r e l l Ha r r i m a n s t a r t e d o f f f r o m L o n d o n o n a f l i g h t
t o t h e Mi d d l e Ea s t t o s t u d y s u p p l y p r o b l e m s a t f i r s t h a n d .I t w a s a
b r i e f p e r i o d o f s u s p e n s i o n b e t w e e n c r i s e s w h e n t h e s e h a r a s s e d m e n
c o u l d l e a v e t h e i r p o s t s .Ho p k i n s w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f
t h e s i t u a t i o n , b r o u g h t t o h i m b y Wi n a n t , w r i t t e n b y a n Am e r i c a n Ar m y
o b s e r v e r - i n L o n d o n
Th e I m p e r i a l s i t u a t i o n , a s a w h o l e , s e e m s t o b e d e t e r i o r a t i n g
.Th e
f o r c e s w h i c h G e r m a n y c a n e x e r t a r e t o o e n o r m o u s t o b e h a l t e d a t
o n c e .At t h e s a m e t i m e , l i k e l a v a , I a m c o n f i d e n t t h a t a s t h e y s p r e a d
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.I t
w o u l d b e u n f o r t u n a t e i f t h e Mi d d l e Ea s t f e l l , b u t i f i t a b s o r b s t h e
G e r m a n e f f o r t a l l s u m m e r i t w i l l b e w o r t h w h i l e .
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.I t w i l l b e a h a r d ,
b l o o d y b u s i n e s s , b u t w h a t h a s o c c u r r e d s o f a r i n C r e t e d o e s n o t a l t e r
m y o p i n i o n .B y s o m e e r r o r o f j u d g m e n t o r l a c k o f i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e
R.A.F .w i t h d r e w a l l i t s p l a n e s .Ev e n a f e w f i g h t e r s w o u l d h a v e
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w o u l d h a v e b e e n w e l l e x p e n d e d
.Th e r e i s l i k e l y t o b e s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m
o f t h i s d e c i s i o n a n d t e c h n i c a l r e a s o n s w i l l n o t s e r v e t o q u e l l i t .
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.G o d h a s u n d o u b t e d l y b e e n o n t h e
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a t p r e s e n t i s t o o u n b a l a n c e d :
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l a b o r o f n s l a v e s + 8y e a r s o f i n t e n s e r e a r m i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n +
f r e n z i e d f a n a t i c i s m v e r s u s 70, 000, 000 B r i t i s h i n 4c o n t i n e n t s + z e r o
s l a v e s + o n l y 3y e a r s o f r e a l r e a r m a m e n t a n d n o i n d u s t r i a l m o b i l i z a -
t i o n + d o g g e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n .
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w i l l b e a t a g o o d l i t t l e m a n e v e r y t i m e ."

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a t t h i s r a n g e
.F r o m h e r e o u r s t e p s i n a i d o f B r i t a i n a p p e a r t o f o l l o w
a l o n g w e l l b e h i n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e v e n t s
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a n d d i s c o u r a g e d c r u m b l i n g o f F r a n c e .Th e r e w a s s o m e c h a n c e t h a t
t h i s m i g h t h a v e b e e n m u c h s l o w e r o t h e r w i s e
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w e t d i s h r a g .
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b e a p i e c e m e a l a f f a i r
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a b l e a t o n c e , m i l i t a r y , n a v a l , a i r , e c o n o m i c , m o r a l -i n c l u d i n g t h e
k i t c h e n s t o v e , a n d f o l l o w i n g t h i s u p w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a s s o o n a s
i t c a n b e g o t t o w o r k i n g .
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a n d d e f e n d t h e w h o l e Em p i r e w a s a p r a c t i c a l o n e
.Ne v e r t h e l e s s , a n y
o t h e r d e c i s i o n a t t h a t t i m e ( a f t e r t h e F r e n c h c o l l a p s e ) w o u l d h a v e
b e e n u n t h i n k a b l e m i l i t a r i l y , a s w e l l a s d i r e c t l y o p p o s e d t o t h e B r i t i s h
c h a r a c t e r a n d t r a d i t i o n
Ho p k i n s a p p r o v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e " l a v a " a n a l o g y , t h a t b e i n g t h e o n e
o p t i m i s t i c n o t e i n a n o t h e r w i s e d i s m a l p i c t u r e .Ho p k i n s o f t e n a p p e a r e d
o n t h e s u r f a c e a s o u r s k e p t i c w h o m a d e a p r o f e s s i o n o f l o o k i n g o n t h e
d a r k s i d e o f e v e r y t h i n g ; b u t , i n h i s h e a r t , h e w a s a n i n c o r r i g i b l e o p t i m i s t ,
a s h i s f a t h e r h a d b e e n b e f o r e h i m a n d a s h e h i m s e l f p r o v e d b y i n n u m e r -
a b l e $ 2 .0o b e t s o n h o p e l e s s l o n g s h o t s
.He w a s c o n f i r m e d i n t h i s b y
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Ol y m p i a n o p t i m i s t s o f a l l t i m e
.On e c o u l d n o t b e w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e m f o r
l o n g w i t h o u t s e e i n g t h e g l o w a n d f e e l i n g t h e w a r m t h o f t h e f i r e s o f
c o n f i d e n c e t h a t b u r n e d s o s t r o n g l y a n d s o s t e a d i l y i n b o t h o f t h e m .( A
p o i n t f o r h i s t o r i a n s t o c o n s i d e r i s t h a t h a d t h e s e Al l i e d l e a d e r s n o t b e e n
o p t i m i s t s i n t h e b l a c k e s t h o u r s t h e G e r m a n s a n d t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d
u n d o u b t e d l y h a v e w o n t h e w a r
; i t w a s t h e p e s s i m i s t s , l i k e P e t a i n , Da r l a n
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Du r i n g t h e w e e k o f J u n e
16 Ho p k i n s h a d m a n y c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h
J a m e s F o r r e s t a l , Ad m i r a l St a r k , Ad m i r a l Tu r n e r a n d o t h e r s i n c o n n e c -
t i o n w i t h t h e I c e l a n d e x p e d i t i o n
.He s a w Ar t h u r P u r v i s , J e a n Mo n n e t ,
Si r C l i v e B a i l l i e u ( Au s t r a l i a n ) , Ai r Ma r s h a l Ha r r i s a n d Ma j o r Vi c t o r
C a z a l e t , M.P ., o f t h e B r i t i s h De l e g a t i o n .He s a w P r i n c e s s J u l i a n a , o f
t h e Ne t h e r l a n d s , a n d h e r h u s b a n d , P r i n c e B e r n h a r d t .( I n f a c t , a t 8 : 30
o n e m o r n i n g , h e h a d a s b r e a k f a s t g u e s t s i n h i s r o o m i n t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e
P r i n c e B e r n h a r d t a n d Ma y o r L a G u a r d i a , w h i c h m u s t h a v e p r o v i d e d
a n e n t e r t a i n i n g m i x t u r e w i t h t h e o r a n g e j u i c e .) He s a w t h e Se c r e t a r y
o f Wa r , t h e Se c r e t a r y o f t h e Na v y , P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l F r a n k C .
Wa l k e r , Se c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e J e s s e J o n e s , Ma r r i u e r S .Ec c l e s , Wi l -
l i a m S.P a l e y , G e n e r a l S
.D.Em b i c k a n d a g r e a t m a n y o t h e r p e o p l e .
On Sa t u r d a y Ho p k i n s t o o k a h a p p y d a y o f f a n d w e n t t o t h e r a c e s .

Th a t n i g h t , J u n e 21,
a s h o r t -w a v e l i s t e n i n g p o s t p i c k e d u p a r e p o r t
t h a t Hi t l e r h a d i n v a d e d t h e So v i e t U n i o n
.Ho p k i n s ' f i r s t t h o u g h t w h e n
h e h e a r d t h i s n e w s w a s , " Th e P r e s i d e n t ' s p o l i c y o f s u p p o r t f o r B r i t a i n
h a s r e a l l y p a i d o f f ! Hi t l e r h a s t u r n e d t o t h e l e f t ." B u t i f Ho p k i n s h a d
a m o m e n t o f r e l i e f i t w a s n o m o r e t h a n a m o m e n t ;
f o r h e w a s c o m p e l l e d
i n s t a n t l y t o f a c e t h e n e w a n d g i g a n t i c p r o b l e m s o f a i d f o r Ru s s i a
Th e i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e o f t h e i s o l a t i o n i s t s t o t h i s n e w s w a s o n e o f
e x u l t a t i o n
.Th e y h a d b e e n p r o f o u n d l y e m b a r r a s s e d b y t h e C o m m u n i s t
a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e Na z i s -a n d Ro o s e v e l t h a d b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d b y
i t
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b e r s e r k w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l Na z i p a r t y l i n e t h a t Hi t l e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e
o n l y b u l w a r k a g a i n s t B o l s h e v i s m
Th e r e w a s a c u r i o u s a n d r e v e l a t o r y e p i s o d e i n w h i c h I h a p p e n e d t o
b e i n v o l v e d o n t h e Su n d a y w h e n Hi t l e r i n v a d e d t h e So v i e t U n i o n .I
w a s s c h e d u l e d t o a t t e n d a F i g h t f o r F r e e d o m r a l l y i n t h e G o l d e n G a t e
B a l l r o o m i n Ha r l e m
.I t w a s a n i n s u f f e r a b l y h o t d a y a n d t h e r e w a s n o
p r e t e n s e a t a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g i n t h e b a l l r o o m .Wh e n w e w e n t i n t h e r e
w a s a p i c k e t l i n e o u t s i d e ( o b v i o u s l y a C o m m u n i s t o n e ) w i t h p l a c a r d s
c o n d e m n i n g t h e F i g h t f o r F r e e d o m w a r m o n g e r s a s t o o l s o f B r i t i s h a n d
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.P a m p h l e t s w e r e b e i n g h a n d e d o u t u r g i n g a
Ne g r o Ma r c h o n Wa s h i n g t o n t o d e m a n d Eq u a l i t y a n d P e a c e ! Th e
C o m m u n i s t s w e r e v e r y a c t i v e a m o n g t h e Ne g r o p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s e d a y s
a n d s i n c e .We w e n t t h r o u g h t h e p i c k e t l i n e a n d c o n d u c t e d t h e m e e t i n g ,
t h e p r i n c i p a l s p e a k e r s b e i n g He r b e r t Ag a r a n d Do r o t h y P a r k e r , a n d
w h e n w e l e f t t h e G o l d e n G a t e B a l l r o o m , a n h o u r a n d
a h a l f l a t e r , w e
f o u n d t h a t t h e p i c k e t l i n e h a d d i s a p p e a r e d a n d t h e Ma r c h o n Wa s h i n g -
t o n h a d b e e n c a n c e l e d .Wi t h i n t h a t s h o r t s p a c e o f t i m e , t h e C o m m u n i s t
p a r t y l i n e h a d r e a c h e d a l l t h e w a y f r o m Mo s c o w t o Ha r l e m a n d h a d
c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d i t s e l f ( o r r a t h e r , h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d b y
Hi t l e r )
.Th e n e x t d a y , t h e Da i l y Wo r k e r w a s p r o -B r i t i s h , p r o -L e n d
L e a s e , p r o -i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t a n d , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t w o y e a r s , p r o -
Ro o s e v e l t
Am o n g t h e f i r s t h i g h o f f i c e r s o f t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p u t h i m s e l f o n
r e c o r d a b o u t t h i s s t a r t l i n g n e w d e v e l o p m e n t w a s t h e Se c r e t a r y o f Wa r ,
w h o w r o t e t o t h e P r e s i d e n t
F o r t h e p a s t t h i r t y h o u r s I h a v e d o n e l i t t l e b u t r e f l e c t u p o n t h e
G e r m a n -Ru s s i a n w a r a n d i t s e f f e c t u p o n o u r i m m e d i a t e p o l i c y .To
c l a r i f y m y o w n v i e w s I h a v e s p e n t t o d a y i n c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e
C h i e f o f St a f f a n d t h e ' m e n i n t h e Wa r P l a n s Di v i s i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l
St a f f .I a m g l a d t o s a y t h a t I f i n d s u b s t a n t i a l u n a n i m i t y u p o n t h e
f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i c y w h i c h t h e y t h i n k s h o u l d b e f o l l o w e d b y u s
.I a m
e v e n m o r e r e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r v i e w s c o i n c i d e s o e n t i r e l y w i t h m y o w n .
F i r s t : He r e i s t h e i r e s t i m a t e o f c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t s
i .G e r m a n y w i l l b e t h o r o u g h l y o c c u p i e d i n b e a t i n g Ru s s i a f o r a
30 4
m i n i m u m o f o n e m o n t h a n d a p o s s i b l e m a x i m u m o f t h r e e m o n t h s
2 . Du r i n g t h i s p e r i o d G e r m a n y m u s t g i v e u p o r s l a c k u p o n
a .An y i n v a s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s .
b .An y a t t e m p t t o a t t a c k h e r s e l f o r p r e v e n t u s f r o m o c c u p y i n g
I c e l a n d
.He r p r e s s u r e o n We s t Af r i c a , Da k a r a n d So u t h Am e r i c a .
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w a y o f I r a q , Sy r i a o r P e r s i a .
e .P r o b a b l y h e r p r e s s u r e i n L i b y a a n d t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n .
Se c o n d : Th e y w e r e u n a n i m o u s l y o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h i s p r e c i o u s
a n d u n f o r e s e e n p e r i o d o f r e s p i t e s h o u l d b e u s e d t o p u s h w i t h t h e
u t m o s t v i g o r o u r m o v e m e n t s i n t h e At l a n t i c t h e a t e r o f o p e r a t i o n s .
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w a s t h e r i g h t w a y t o h e l p B r i t a i n , t o d i s c o u r a g e G e r m a n y , a n d t o
s t r e n g t h e n o u r o w n p o s i t i o n o f d e f e n s e a g a i n s t o u r m o s t i m m i n e n t
d a n g e r .
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w e b e p r e m a t u r e l y d r a g g e d i n t o t w o m a j o r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e At l a n t i c ,
o n e i n t h e n o r t h e a s t a n d t h e o t h e r i n B r a z i l , w i t h a n i n s u f f i c i e n c y
o f At l a n t i c Na v a l a n d s h i p p i n g s t r e n g t h a n d a n i n s u f f i c i e n t d e m o n -
s t r a t e d s u p e r i o r i t y o f Am e r i c a n s e a p o w e r t o h o l d p o l i t i c s s t e a d y i n
So u t h Am e r i c a .B y g e t t i n g i n t o t h i s w a r w i t h Ru s s i a G e r m a n y h a s
m u c h r e l i e v e d o u r a n x i e t y , p r o v i d e d w e a c t p r o m p t l y a n d g e t t h e
i n i t i a l d a n g e r s o v e r b e f o r e G e r m a n y g e t s h e r l e g s d i s e n t a n g l e d f r o m
t h e Ru s s i a n m i r e . . . .
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t h i s f i n a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f Na z i a m b i t i o n a n d p e r f i d y , t h e d o o r i s
o p e n e d w i d e f o r y o u t o l e a d d i r e c t l y t o w a r d s t h e w i n n i n g o f t h e b a t t l e
o f t h e No r t h At l a n t i c a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f o u r h e m i s p h e r e i n t h e
So u t h At l a n t i c , w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e y o u r l e a d e r s h i p i s a s s u r e d o f
s u c c e s s a s f u l l y a s a n y f u t u r e p r o g r a m c a n w e l l b e m a d e .
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o f t h r e e m o n t h s " f o r t h e Ru s s i a n c a m p a i g n t h e Wa r De p a r t m e n t t h i n k -
i n g w a s n o t f a r r e m o v e d f r o m t h a t o f t h e B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s ,
a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r w e r e c a r e f u l t o c o v e r t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e e v e n t o f
m i r a c l e s .Th e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n r e a c h e d Ho p k i n s a w e e k
a f t e r t h e i n v a s i o n s t a r t e d .Th e y s a i d , " I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f i r s t p h a s e ,
i n v o l v i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f U k r a i n e a n d Mo s c o w , m i g h t t a k e a s l i t t l e
a s t h r e e , o r a s l o n g a s s i x w e e k s , o r m o r e ." ( Th e i t a l i c s a r e m i n e .) Th e
B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o s t a t e d
An a t t e m p t e d i n v a s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m m a y n o w b e c o n -
s i d e r e d t o b e t e m p o r a r i l y p o s t p o n e d , s i n c e s o m u c h o f t h e G e r m a n
Ai r F o r c e a n d s o m a n y e s s e n t i a l G e r m a n Ar m y f o r m a t i o n s a r e
e n g a g e d i n t h e Ea s t
.I t c a n n o t b e o v e r -e m p h a s i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t
t h i s i s o n l y t e m p o r a r y .I f t h e G e r m a n c a m p a i g n i n Ru s s i a i s a l i g h t n i n g
o n e , s a y f r o m t h r e e t o f o u r w e e k s d u r a t i o n , t h e r e -g r o u p i n g o f t h e

G e r m a n f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e We s t m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o t a k e f r o m f o u r
t o s i x w e e k s a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e c a m p a i g n i n Ru s s i a
.I f t h e
c a m p a i g n w e r e o f l o n g e r d u r a t i o n , i t m i g h t t a k e f r o m s i x t o e i g h t
w e e k s
( Ri b b e n t r o p ' s e s t i m a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o C i a n o , w a s t h a t " t h e Ru s s i a o f
St a l i n w i l l b e e r a s e d f r o m t h e m a p w i t h i n e i g h t w e e k s
." )
Re g a r d l e s s o f p r e d i c t i o n s , C h u r c h i l l m a d e i n s t a n t r e s p o n s e t o Hi t l e r ' s
m o v e i n t o Ru s s i a .He r e c e i v e d t h e n e w s e a r l y Su n d a y m o r n i n g a n d h e
w a s , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e c o u n t r y
.He c o n f e r r e d t h a t d a y p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h
B e a v e r b r o o k a n d w i t h Si r St a f f o r d C r i p p s , t h e n B r i t i s h Am b a s s a d o r
t o Mo s c o w , w h o h a d c o m e h o m e t o r e p o r t t h e d i s m a l f a i l u r e o f a l l h i s
e f f o r t s t o e x e r t a n y i n f l u e n c e o n Ru s s i a n p o l i c y
.Al t h o u g h o n e w o u l d
h a r d l y h a v e e x p e c t e d i t o f h i m , B e a v e r b r o o k w a s a v e h e m e n t s u p p o r t e r
o f i m m e d i a t e a n d u n s t i n t e d a i d f o r t h e So v i e t U n i o n a n d w a s s u b s e -
q u e n t l y a n a r d e n t , p e r s i s t e n t a n d s o m e t i m e s ( t o C h u r c h i l l ) e m b a r r a s s i n g
p r o p o n e n t o f t h e Se c o n d F r o n t
.At t h e u r g i n g o f t h e s e t w o m e n a s w e l l
a s o f h i s o w n i n c l i n a t i o n s , a n d a f t e r h a s t y c o n s u l t a t i o n b y t e l e p h o n e
w i t h o t h e r Wa r C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , C h u r c h i l l w e n t o n t h e a i r t h a t s a m e
Su n d a y w i t h o n e o f h i s m o s t p o w e r f u l s p e e c h e s
He s a i d , " No o n e h a s b e e n a m o r e c o n s i s t e n t o p p o n e n t o f C o m m u n i s m
t h a n I h a v e f o r t h e l a s t t w e n t y -f i v e y e a r s .I w i l l u n s a y n o w o r d t h a t I
h a v e s p o k e n a b o u t i t
.B u t a l l t h i s f a d e s a w a y b e f o r e t h e s p e c t a c l e w h i c h
i s n o w u n f o l d i n g ." Re f e r r i n g i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e r m s t o Hi t l e r , h e s a i d
Th i s b l o o d t h i r s t y g u t t e r s n i p e m u s t l a u n c h h i s m e c h a n i z e d a r m i e s
u p o n n e w f i e l d s o f s l a u g h t e r , p i l l a g e a n d d e v a s t a t i o n
.P o o r a s a r e
t h e Ru s s i a n p e a s a n t s , w o r k m e n a n d s o l d i e r s , h e m u s t s t e a l f r o m t h e m
t h e i r d a i l y b r e a d
; h e m u s t d e v o u r t h e i r h a r v e s t s ; h e m u s t r o b t h e m
o f t h e o i l w h i c h d r i v e s t h e i r p l o u g h s
; a n d t h u s p r o d u c e a f a m i n e
w i t h o u t e x a m p l e i n h u m a n h i s t o r y
.An d e v e n t h e c a r n a g e a n d r u i n
w h i c h h i s v i c t o r y , s h o u l d h e g a i n i t -h e h a s n o t g a i n e d i t y e t -w i l l
b r i n g u p o n t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e , w i l l i t s e l f b e o n l y a s t e p p i n g -s t o n e t o
t h e a t t e m p t t o p l u n g e t h e f o u r o r f i v e h u n d r e d m i l l i o n s w h o l i v e i n
C h i n a , a n d t h e t h r e e h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y m i l l i o n s w h o l i v e i n I n d i a ,
i n t o t h a t b o t t o m l e s s p i t o f h u m a n d e g r a d a t i o n o v e r w h i c h t h e d i a b o l i c
e m b l e m o f t h e Sw a s t i k a f l a u n t s i t s e l f .I t i s n o t t o o m u c h t o s a y h e r e
t h i s s u m m e r e v e n i n g t h a t t h e l i v e s a n d h a p p i n e s s o f a t h o u s a n d m i l l i o n
a d d i t i o n a l p e o p l e a r e n o w m e n a c e d w i t h b r u t a l Na z i v i o l e n c e
C h u r c h i l l d e c l a r e d t h e d e c i s i o n o f Hi s Ma j e s t y ' s G o v e r n m e n t t o g i v e
a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p t o Ru s s i a a n d t h e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e
.I d o n o t k n o w f o r
s u r e w h e t h e r h e c o m m u n i c a t e d w i t h Ro o s e v e l t b y t e l e p h o n e o r c a b l e
d u r i n g t h e d a y b e f o r e h e m a d e t h i s s p e e c h , b u t i t i s m y i m p r e s s i o n t h a t
h e d i d
.F o l l o w i n g t h e s p e e c h , Ro o s e v e l t w a s u r g e d t o s t e p u p a n d d o
l i k e w i s e
.Al l m a n n e r o f s u g g e s t i o n s c a m e i n t o t h e Wh i t e Ho u s e a s t o
w h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d s a y t o t h e Am e r i c a n p e o p l e
.Th e m o s t i n t e l -
l i g e n t o f t h e s e w e r e s u m m a r i z e d i n a m e m o r a n d u m t o Ho p k i n s f r o m
He r b e r t B a y a r d Sw o p e
We a r e o p p o s e d t o t h e C o m m u n i s t s ' f o r m u l a a n d w e a r e o p p o s e d
t o t h e Na z i f o r m u l a .
I n t h e t w e n t y -s e v e n y e a r s s i n c e Ru s s i a b e c a m e C o m m u n i s t i c , o u r
n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d o u r w a y o f l i f e n e v e r h a v e b e e n s e r i o u s l y
t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e So v i e t s .B u t i n t h e t w o y e a r s o f Hi t l e r ' s m a d d r i v e
f o r w o r l d e n s l a v e m e n t , o u r v e r y e x i s t e n c e , a s a f r e e p e o p l e , h a s b e e n
g r a v e l y e n d a n g e r e d .
At t e m p t s t o d i v i d e u s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y w o u l d -b e Qu i s l i n g s ,
a c t i n g w i t h i n o u r b o r d e r s .Th e y h a v e t r i e d t o c r e a t e r a c i a l a n d
r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s ; t h e y h a v e p r o m i s e d p e a c e a n d q u i e t t h r o u g h
Na z i a p p e a s e m e n t .
No w w e s e e w h a t a g r i m t r a g e d y a Na z i p e a c e t r e a t y i s .No w w e
s e e a g a i n t h e f a t e t h a t h a s o v e r t a k e n f i f t e e n n a t i o n s w h i c h , r e l y i n g
u p o n Na z i p r o m i s e s , w e r e d e s t r o y e d , o n e b y o n e .
We a r e n o t f o r C o m m u n i s m , b u t w e a r e a g a i n s t a l l t h a t Hi t l e r
s t a n d s f o r .He a n d h i s g o d l e s s Na z i s a r e t h e p r e s s i n g t h r e a t s t o a
w o r l d o f p e a c e a n d j u s t i c e a n d s e c u r i t y .I n h i s d e f e a t l i e s o u r s a f e t y .
At t h i s t i m e , a s e v e r , w e m u s t k e e p i n m i n d t h a t o u r g r e a t e s t
s t r e n g t h i s i n u n i t y ; o u r g r e a t e s t d a n g e r i n d i s c o r d .
J o s e p h E.Da v i e s w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g m e m o r a n d u m t o Ho p k i n s w h e n
t h e w a r i n Ru s s i a h a d b e e n g o i n g f o r t w o w e e k s
Th e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e Ru s s i a n Ar m v h a s b e e n m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n
w a s g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t e d .I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h e r e s u l t w i l l d e p e n d u p o n
a i r p o w e r .I f Hi t l e r d o m i n a t e s t h e a i r , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s a m e t h i n g
w i l l o c c u r i n Wh i t e Ru s s i a a n d i n t h e U k r a i n e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n F l a n -
d e r s a n d i n F r a n c e , n a m e l y , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r c e s , w i t h o u t a i r
p r o t e c t i o n , t o r e s i s t t h e c o m b i n e d a t t a c k b y a i r , m e c h a n i z e d f o r c e s a n d
i n f a n t r y .
I n s u c h a n e v e n t , Hi t l e r w i l l t a k e Wh i t e Ru s s i a , Mo s c o w a n d t h e
U k r a i n e w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e h i m w i t h 6o o %o o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s
a n d 6o % o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f Ru s s i a . . . .
I f Hi t l e r o c c u p i e s Wh i t e Ru s s i a a n d t h e U k r a i n e , a s h e m a y , a n d
St a l i n f a l l s b a c k i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r , Hi t l e r w i l l b e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h r e e
m a j o r p r o b l e m s
i .G u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e a n d a t t a c k ;
2 . Sa b o t a g e b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h o r e s e n t t h a t " Ho l y Mo t h e r
Ru s s i a " h a s b e e n a t t a c k e d ; a n d
3 .Th e n e c e s s i t y o f p o l i c i n g c o n q u e r e d t e r r i t o r y a n d m a k i n g i t
p r o d u c e .
I n 1918u n d e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e U k r a i n e , t h e G e r m a n s
f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t g e t b u t 8o
%0 o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d o t h e r
p r o d u c t s w h i c h t h e y h a d r e a s o n a b l y b e l i e v e d t h e y c o u l d g e t .
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t o p u t o n a p e a c e d r i v e t o i n d u c e St a l i n t o c o n s e n t t o a n a r r a n g e m e n t

b a s e d o n t h e t h e n s t a t u s q u o l e a v i n g St a l i n t o f i n d h i s o u t l e t t o t h e
So u t h a n d Ea s t t o C h i n a , p o s s i b l y I n d i a .
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p r o b a b i l i t y St a l i n c a n m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f b a c k o f t h e U r a l s f o r a c o n -
s i d e r a b l e t i m e .
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Th e y a r e
.An i n t e r n a l r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d o v e r t h r o w St a l i n a n d b y a
c o u p d ' e t a t p u t a Tr o t z k y i t e P r o -G e r m a n i n p o w e r , w h o w o u l d m a k e a
Hi t l e r p e a c e .
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p e o p l e t o r a l l y a r o u n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n p o w e r i n t h e f a c e o f a n
a t t a c k o n t h e i r h o m e s a n d " Ho l y Mo t h e r Ru s s i a
2 .
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.I t i s
n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t h e m i g h t a g a i n e v e n " f a l l " f o r Hi t l e r ' s p e a c e a s
t h e l e s s e r o f t w o e v i l s
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c a p i t a l i s t i c e i i e m i e s .I n ' 38a n d ' 39h e h a d n o c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e g o o d
f a i t h o f e i t h e r B r i t a i n o r F r a n c e o r t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e d e m o c r a c i e s
t o b e e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t Hi t l e r
.He h a t e d a n d f e a r e d Hi t l e r t h e n j u s t
a s h e d o e s n o w .He w a s i n d u c e d t o m a k e a p a c t o f n o n -a g g r e s s i o n
w i t h Hi t l e r a s t h e b e s t h o p e h e h a d f o r p r e s e r v i n g p e a c e f o r Ru s s i a ,
n o t s o m u c h o n i d e o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s a s o n p r a c t i c a l g r o u n d s t o s a v e
h i s o w n g o v e r n m e n t
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t h e f a c t t h a t h e i s n o t " p u l l i n g t h e c h e s t n u t s o u t o f t h e f i r e " f o r a l l i e s
w h o h a v e n o u s e f o r h i m o r w h o w i l l b e h o s t i l e t o h i m a f t e r t h e w a r
a n d w h o w i l l b e n o l e s s e n e m i e s , i n t h e e v e n t o f a n a l l i e d p e a c e , t h a n
t h e G e r m a n s i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e i r v i c t o r y
.C h u r c h i l l a n d Ed e n , p r o f i t -
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p r o m i s e d " a l l o u t " s u p p o r t t o Ru s s i a
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o f p e o p l e w h o a b h o r t h e So v i e t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y h o p e f o r a
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.Hi t l e r p l a y e d o n t h a t s t r i n g i n Eu r o p e f o r
t h e p a s t s i x y e a r s t o h i s e n o r m o u s a d v a n t a g e a n d t o t h e d i s r u p t i o n
o f " c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y ." He w i l l p l a y u p o n i t a g a i n h e r e i f h e c a n
a n d w i l l u s e i t o n c e a g a i n a n d t o t h e u t m o s t i n a n y o v e r t u r e s f o r a
n e w p e a c e w i t h St a l i n .Th a t s h o u l d b e o f f s e t , i f p o s s i b l e
.I t c o u l d
m e a s u r a b l y b e t h w a r t e d i f St a l i n c o u l d f i n d s o m e a s s u r a n c e t h a t
r e g a r d l e s s o f i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d i s i n t e r -
e s t e d l y a n d w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e d e s i r o u s o f a i d i n g t h e m t o d e f e a t
Hi t l e r .

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.I t i s m y o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s n o t t h e i r
i n t e n t t o s e e k t o p r o j e c t c o m m u n i s m i n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s , n o r w o u l d
i t b e w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f p o s s i b i l i t y a f t e r t h i s w a r o r f o r m a n y y e a r s
t h e r e a f t e r f o r t h e So v i e t s t o p r o j e c t c o m m u n i s m i f t h e y w i s h e d i n
t h e U n i t e d St a t e s o r e v e n i n Eu r o p e .

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t h a t t h e U n i t e d St a t e s i s e q u a l l y a c a p i t a l i s t i c e n e m y , i t w o u l d b e
p l a y i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e h a n d s o f Hi t l e r a n d h e c a n b e c o u n t e d u p o n
t o u s e t h i s i n h i s e f f o r t s t o p r o j e c t e i t h e r a n a r m i s t i c e o r p e a c e o n
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b e a t Hi t l e r a n d t h a t o u r h i s t o r i c p o l i c y o f f r i e n d l i n e s s t o Ru s s i a s t i l l
e x i s t s .
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C h u r c h i l l h a d s p o k e n a n d t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t Ro o s e v e l t b a c k e d
h i m u p
.B u t b e f o r e h e t o o k p u b l i c a c t i o n o n a i d f o r Ru s s i a , h e w a n t e d
t o k n o w , f i r s t , w h a t w e r e t h e i r n e e d s a n d , s e c o n d , h o w c o u l d t h e g o o d s
b e d e l i v e r e d ? ( I t w i l l b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t , a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t ,
Am e r i c a n f o r c e s w e r e e n r o u t e t o I c e l a n d .)
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Ru s s i a i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o n v o y r o u t e s -a n d t h e
r o u t e f r o m B r i t a i n t o Mu r m a n s k w a s b y a l l o d d s t h e m o s t t e r r i b l e o f
t h e w h o l e w a r , s u b j e c t a s i t w a s t o a t t a c k n o t o n l y b y U -b o a t s b u t b y
s u r f a c e r a i d e r s d a r t i n g f r o m No r w e g i a n f i o r d s a n d b o m b i n g p l a n e s
f r o m No r w e g i a n a i r b a s e s .Th e B r i t i s h Na v y , s t r e t c h e d t e n u o u s l y o v e r
a l l t h e l i f e l i n e s o f t h e No r t h a n d So u t h At l a n t i c a n d t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n
a n d I n d i a n Oc e a n , c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y t a k e o n t h i s n e w a n d e x p e n s i v e
a s s i g n m e n t u n l e s s t h e y w e r e r e l i e v e d o f s o m e o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
° l s e w h e r e .
On F r i d a y e v e n i n g , J u l y i i , Ho p k i n s h a d a l o n g t a l k w i t h Ro o s e v e l t
i n t h e St u d y a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t d r e w a l i n e o n a s m a l l m a p o f t h e At l a n t i c
Oc e a n , w h i c h h e h a d t o r n f r o m t h e Na t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c m a g a z i n e .
Ro o s e v e l t s c r i b b l e d a c a b l e i n s t r u c t i n g Wi n a n t t o i n f o r m t h e F o r m e r
Na v a l P e r s o n t h a t Ho p k i n s w o u l d b e w i t h h i m a g a i n s o o n
.Th e
n e x t m o r n i n g , Ho p k i n s h a d a n e n g a g e m e n t f o r b r e a k f a s t
w i t h
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: 30h e w a s d u e
t o g o f o r a w e e k e n d w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t o n t h e P o t o m a c , b u t t h a t w a s
c a n c e l e d .He h a d l u n c h w i t h Su m n e r We l l e s a n d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n
c o n f e r r e d w i t h Ad m i r a l Vi c k e r y o n s h i p p i n g a n d w i t h G e n e r a l B u r n s o n
s u p p l i e s .He h a d d i n n e r w i t h L o r d Ha l i f a x .Ea r l y Su n d a y m o r n i n g h e
f l e w t o Mo n t r e a l , t o G a n d e r , Ne w f o u n d l a n d , a n d f r o m t h e r e i n o n e o f t h e
L e n d -L e a s e B -24b o m b e r s t o P r e s t w i c k , Sc o t l a n d
.He w a s v e r y i l l w h e n
h e a r r i v e d b u t h e w e n t i m m e d i a t e l y t o C h u r c h i l l t o d i s c u s s t h e e n t i r e l y
n e w s i t u a t i o n w h i c h h a d d e v e l o p e d s i n c e t h e i r l a s t m e e t i n g .
Ho p k i n s n o t e d m a n y c h a n g e s i n B r i t a i n :
i t w a s s u m m e r , a n d h e , d i d
n o t h a v e t o w e a r h i s o v e r c o a t i n d o o r s i n C h e q u e r s ; t h e r e h a d b e e n n o
s u b s t a n t i a l a i r r a i d s f o r t w o m o n t h s a n d B r i t a i n w a s n o l o n g e r f i g h t i n g

a l o n e , w h i c h m a r k e d t h e f a c e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s t r e e t s w i t h a n
e x p r e s s i o n o f a l m o s t i n c r e d u l o u s r e l i e f .Y e t m i x e d w i t h t h e r e l i e f w a s
a n e w k i n d o f u n d e f i n e d a n x i e t y .I t w a s a s t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e
h a d b e c o m e s o a d j u s t e d t o t h e b o m b i n g t h a t t h e y h a d c o m e t o d e p e n d
o n i t a s a r e l i a b l e m o r a l e b u i l d e r .No w , w i t h o u t i t , t h e y s e e m e d t o b e
p u z z l e d a s t o j u s t w h a t w a s e x p e c t e d o f t h e m i n t h e w a g i n g o f t h e
w a r .Th e y w e r e t h r i l l e d b y e v e r y s c r a p o f n e w s c o n c e r n i n g Ru s s i a n
r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e G e r m a n s , b u t t h e y c o u l d n o t a v o i d t h e f e a r t h a t t h i s
d e v e l o p m e n t w a s n o m o r e t h a n a t e m p o r a r y r e s p i t e f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d
t h a t o n c e Hi t l e r h a d m o p p e d u p i n t h e Ea s t , t h e i r c a s e w o u l d b e w o r s e
t h a n e v e r .Th e y w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o s u s p e c t t h a t t h e l o n g -s u s t a i n e d h o p e
o f a r m e d a i d f r o m Am e r i c a w a s a d e l u s i o n .
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t o w h i c h t h e Am e r i c a n i n v a s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m h a d r e a l l y
s t a r t e d , b u t i t w a s t h i s p h e n o m e n o n w h i c h i n t e r e s t e d Ho p k i n s m o s t .
f o r h i s p r e v i o u s v i s i t h a d b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s o m u c h o f i t .So
m a n y m i l i t a r y , n a v a l a n d a i r a t t a c h e s a n d a i d e s w e r e b e i n g a t t a c h e d
t o t h e U .S.Em b a s s y t h a t i t w a s b e c o m i n g a s i z a b l e f o r c e i n i t s e l f .Th e s e
w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s " o b s e r v e r s , " w h i c h w a s n o m i s n o m e r , f o r t h e y w e r e
c e r t a i n l y o b s e r v i n g , a n d p r o f i t i n g t h e r e b y .F o r i n s t a n c e : t h e B -17F l y -
i n g F o r t r e s s e s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n u s e d b y t h e R
.F .i n b o m b i n g r a i d s
a n d h a d b e l i e d t h e i r n a m e , p r o v i n g e x t r e m e l y v u l n e r a b l e .St u d y o f t h i s
c o m b a t e x p e r i e n c e w a s e n a b l i n g U .S .Ai r F o r c e o f f i c e r s t o r e c o m m e n d
t h e c h a n g e s i n a r m a m e n t w h i c h m a d e t h e B -i 7t h e t o u g h , m u r d e r o u s
a i r c r a f t t h a t i t b e c a m e w h e n l a t e r i t w a s f l o w n i n a c t i o n b y Am e r i c a n
c r e w s .
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L o n d o n a l l m a n n e r o f m i s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h L e n d L e a s e , s c i e n t i f i c
r e s e a r c h , f o o d , s h i p p i n g , a i r c r a f t a n d o r d n a n c e p r o d u c t i o n a n d e v e r y
o t h e r s u b j e c t o f w a r t i m e i m p o r t a n c e .Th e Am e r i c a n Em b a s s y w a s
b u r s t i n g a t t h e s e a m s w i t h p e r s o n n e l a n d o v e r f l o w i n g i n t o o t h e r b u i l d -
i n g s i n G r o s v e n o r Sq u a r e a n d e n v i r o n s .
Wh e n Ho p k i n s s a w C h u r c h i l l , t h e w a r i n Ru s s i a w a s i n i t s f o u r t h
w e e k .Th u s i t h a d a l r e a d y .p a s s e d t h e m i n i m u m s e t b y t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r -
i t i e s a n d i t w a s e v i d e n t t h a t i t w o u l d p a s s t h e m i n i m u m s e t i n Wa s h -
i n g t o n
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p e r h a p s t h e Ru s s i a n s m i g h t h o l d o u t u n t i l w i n t e r s e t i n , a n d C h u r c h i l l
w a s n e v e r o n e t o o v e r l o o k a g l i m m e r .Hi s p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n w a s t h a t
s o m a n y G e r m a n i n f a n t r y d i v i s i o n s w e r e n o w g e t t i n g c o m b a t e x p e r i e n c e
-o r l e a r n i n g t o b e " b a t t l e w o r t h y , " i n t h e t e r m h e l o v e d t o u s e -w h i c h
w o u l d m a k e t h e m a l l t h e h a r d e r t o h a n d l e l a t e r o n .Ho p k i n s g a t h e r e d
t h a t St a l i n h a d n o t b e e n t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p r e s s e d b y B r i t a i n ' s o f f e r o f
a i d b u t h a d b e e n c o n c e r n e d , f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l
a s p e c t s o f t h e e n f o r c e d a l l i a n c e .Ev e n w i t h i t s v e r y l i f e i n p e r i l t h e
, , -11, H I d .

t i t r a t o g l c P I .-i n i t e t t a l c f 1

h e 11

1, , f El i . %11-n i
Ma p s h o w i n g Ro o s e v e l t ' s i d e a o f a r e a i n We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e t o b e p o l i c e d b y U n i t e d St a t e s Na v y
Ro o s e v e l t ' s l i n e c u r v e s t o i n c l u d e I c e l a n d i n t h e We s t e r n He m i s p h e r e .

So v i e t G o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r e d t o b e m o r e a n x i o u s t o d i s c u s s f u t u r e
f r o n t i e r s a n d s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e t h a n t o n e g o t i a t e f o r m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s
Th e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t w a s r e l u c t a n t t o n e g o t i a t e a n y p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l
t r e a t y a t t h a t t i m e .B u t , a f e w d a y s b e f o r e Ho p k i n s a r r i v e d i n L o n d o n ,
t h e t w o p o w e r s h a d s i g n e d a n " a g r e e m e n t f o r j o i n t a c t i o n " w h i c h c o n -
t a i n e d t w o p r o v i s i o n s
( i ) An u n d e r t a k i n g o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t w o G o v e r n m e n t s t o r e n d e r
e a c h o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e a n d s u p p o r t o f a l l k i n d s i n t h e w a r a g a i n s t
Hi t l e r i t e G e r m a n y a n d
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