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HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

.INTRODUCTION ‡Digestion: The process of breaking down large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be readily absorbed by the body. -React effectively at a temperature of 37 C. ‡Enzymes: -Biological catalysts which speed up the process of digestion.

‡PHYSICAL DIGESTION: Involves mechanical process of breaking down large pieces of food into smaller particles using the teeth ‡CHEMICAL DIGESTION: The action of various enzymes in breaking down complex food molecules. .

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM .

1)MOUTH Teeth chew and grind food into smaller particles The salivary gland secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase Amylase digests starch and converts it to maltose. a type of sugar .

2) OESOPHAGUS Digested food is shaped into a bolus by tongue and shallowed Bolus-shaped food is moved from the mouth to stomach along the oesophagus by wavelike muscular contractions called peristalsis Occurs when the oesophageal wall contracts and relaxes alternately .

3)STOMACH Food is mixed with GASTRIC JUICES (contains HYDROCHLORIC ACID and PROTEASES ENZYMES PEPSIN and RENNIN) Functions of Hydrochloric acid 1) Stops the action of amylase enzyme in saliva 2)Kills bacteria in food 3)Preparation of an acidic medium for enzymic action 1)Pepsin digests PROTEIN into PEPTONES 2) Rennin coagulates milk in the stomach to help in the enzymic action of pepsin .

lipase) Functions of BILE: 1)Breaking up large fatty globules into small droplets for enzymic actions 2)Preparation of an alkaline medium for enzymic action 1)Pancreatic amylase digest starch into maltose 2)Protease digest protein into peptones/polypeptides 3)Lipase digest fat into fatty acid and glycerol .4) DUODENUM Received BILE (produced by liver and stored in gall bladder) and PANCREATIC JUICES (from pancreas. protease. contains enzymes pancreatic amylase.

SMALL INTESTINE Food is mixed with intestinal juice (contain maltase.protease and lipase enzyme) 1)maltose-----------------glucose 2) Polypeptides--------------amino acid 3) Fat----------------Fatty acids/glycerol The digested food is then ready to be absorbed into the bloodstream .

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Write the name of each colored organ: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Green: Red: Pink: Brown: Purple: Green: Yellow: .

Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine 12 .