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A Presentation by: JOMAR P.

RONQUILLO, RN, MANc

(1)Gas exchange (2)Regulation of blood pH (3)Voice production (4)Olfaction (5)Innate immunity

FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

‡ 2 Divisions:

‡ Upper Respiratory tract ‡ Lower respiratory tract

‡ Upper respiratory tract: ‡ Nose ‡ Nasal cavity ‡ Pharynx and. ‡ Associated structures ‡ Larynx ‡ Trachea ‡ Bronchi ‡ Lungs ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ‡ Lower respiratory tract: .

Upper Respiratory System .

ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM NOSE External nose Nasal cavity .

The External Nose .

The Nasal Cavity .

Nasal Cavity and Associated structures: ‡ Nares ‡ Nasal Septum ‡ Hard palate ‡ Conchae ‡ Paranasal sinuses .

The Paranasal Sinuses .

to swell and produce excess mucus.SINUSITIS The inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses Viral infections can cause mucous membranes to become inflammed. .

SINUSITIS .

Nasal Cavity and Associated structures cont d: ‡ Nasolacrimal ducts ‡ Oropharynx ‡ Tonsils ‡ Laryngopharynx .

Nasolacrimal Duct .

The Pathway of Air .

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium .

PREDICT: What happens to your throat when you sleep with your mouth open? .

Upper Respiratory System: .

PHARYNX ‡ The common passageway of ‡ ‡ both the respiratory and digestive systems. Is divided into three portions: Leads to the larynx and to the esophagus .

Pharynx .

Soft Palate .

Uvula .

Pharynx (1) Nasopharynx Located superior to the choanae and superior to the soft palate Is where the auditory tubes opens into from the middle ear Contains the pharyngeal tonsil ‡ ‡ ‡ .

Pharyngeal Tonsil .

PHARYNX (1) Nasopharynx cont d: ‡ The soft palate is elevated during swallowing .

AS A MATTER OF FACT: The sneeze reflex functions to dislofge foreign substances from the nasal cavity. .

Pharynx (2) OROPHARYNX: ‡ Extends from the uvula to the epiglottis ‡ Opens into the oral cavity ‡ Lined with stratified squamous epithelium ‡ Two sets of tonsils are located near the opening between the mouth and the oropharynx: .

Palatine and Lingual Tonsils .

Pharynx (3) LARYNGOPHARYNX: ‡ Passes posterior to the larynx ‡ and extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the esophagus Lined with stratified squamous epithelium and ciliated columnar epithelium .

Laryngopharynx .

Lower Respiratory Tract .

Larynx ‡ Is located in the anterior throat ‡ It is continuous superiorly with the pharynx and inferiorly with the trachea .

Larynx ‡ Consists of 9 cartilages .

Larynx .

Swallowing .

Larynx Two pairs of ligaments extend from the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage to the paired cartilages: .

Vocal Cords .

Vocal Cords .

Vocal Cords .

Vocal Cords .

As a Matter of Fact: The Cough Reflex: The function of the cough reflex is to dislodge foreign substances from the trachea. .

Upper Respiratory Tract .

Trachea ‡ Is a membranous tube that ‡ ‡ consists of connective tissue and smooth muscle.\ Divides into the right and left primary bronchi The cartilages (function): . reinforced with 16-20 Cshaped pieces of cartilage.

Trachea .

The Trachea and the Esophagus .

Trachea Cont d: Is lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is important for its clearing mechanisms Chronic irritation of the trachea by cigarrette smoke can cause a change in its epithelium ‡ ‡ .

Relevant Concepts: (1) Heimlich maneuver: An emergency action that expels foreign object out of the airway by applying pressure to the abdomen .

Relevant Concepts: (2) Intubation .

Relevant Concepts: (3) Cricothyrotomy (4) Tracheostomy (5) Tracheotomy .

The Lower Respiratory Tract .

BRONCHI ‡ The branches of the trachea ‡ Foreign objects usually ‡ ‡ Left main bronchus ‡ Right main bronchus lodge in the right main bronchus Lined with ciliated columnar epithelium .

LUNGS The principal organs of respiration POSITION: LOBES AND SEGMENTS: .

The Lungs .

The Lungs .

the structure of their walls changes. .Lungs ‡ As the air passagways of the lungs become smaller.

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their walls become thinner. their walls also changes.Lungs ‡ As the air passageways of ‡ the lungs become smaller. As the air passages beyond the terminal bronchioles become smaller. .

Alveolus .

.Lungs ‡ The RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE of the lungs is where gas exchange between the air and blood takes place.

Lungs .

The Resiratory Membrane .

Specialized secretory cells within the walls of the alveoli secrete a chemical called surfactant. .Lungs ‡ The elastic fibers ‡ surrounding the alveoli allow them to expand during expiration and recoil during expiration.

Lower Respiratory Tract .

each lung is surrounded by a separate PLEURAL CAVITY.Pleural Cavities ‡ The lungs are contained ‡ within the thoracic cavity. Parietal and visceral pleura . In addition.

Pleural Cavity and the Pleural Membranes .

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Ventilation ‡ Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs. ‡ Changes in thoracic volume are responsible for ventilation ‡ Inspiration ‡ Expiration .

Changing Thoracic Volumes ‡ Muscles associated with the ribs are responsible for ventilation. ‡ Muscles of inspiration ‡ Muscles of expiration ‡ Internal intercostals ‡ Diaphragm ‡ External Intercostals .

Diaphragm .

External Intercostal Muscles .

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Thoracic Expansion .

normal ‡ expiration. the respiratory muscles are relaxed. . Contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostals increases the thoracic volume.Changing Thoracic Volumes ‡ At the end of quiet.

The elastic properties of the thorax and the lungs cause a passive decrease in the thoracic volume .Changing Thoracic Volumes ‡ Expiration during quiet ‡ breathing occurs when the diaphragm and external intercostals relax and.

Ventilation .

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quiet breathing and labored breathing. .Changing Thoracic Volumes There are several differences between normal.

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) Changes in volume result in changes in pressure.) Air flows from areas of higher to lower pressure .Two Principles governing airflow into and out of the Lungs ‡ 1. ‡ 2.

End of expiration: Alveolar pressure = Atmospheric pressure SUMMARY: 2. During inspiration: Alveolar pressure < Atmospheric pressure (AIR FLOW? From the external environment into the lungs) (AIR FLOW? NONE) .1.

End of expiration: Alveolar pressure = Atmospheric pressure (AIR FLOW? NONE) 4.SUMMARY 3. During expiration: Alveolar pressure > Atmospheric pressure (AIR FLOW? From the lungs to the external environment) .

The elasticity of the lungs 2. Surface tension in the alveoli . ‡ Results from: 1.LUNG RECOIL ‡ Lung recoil is the tendency for an expanded lungs to decrease in size.

Function: TO REDUCE SURFACE TENSION .SURFACTANT ‡ Is a mixture of lipoprotein ‡ molecules produced by secretory cells of the alveolar epithelium.

Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
A respiratory condition in premature infants caused by too little surfactant.

‡Lung collapse ‡Inadequate ventilation ‡Respiratory muscle fatigue ‡Early death

‡ Spirometry is the process of ‡ ‡

PULMONARY VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

measuring volumes of air that move into and out of the respiratory system. Spirometer: Device The measurement can provide information about the health of the lungs.

Spirometry .

Inspiratory reserve volume 3. Residual volume is the volume of air inspired or expired with each breath.Tidal volume PULMONARY VOLUMES 2.1. is the amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the resting tidal volume Is the amount of air that can be expired forcefully after expiration of the resting tidal volume is the amount of air still remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration . Expiratory reserve volume 4.

1. the Tidal Volume. Functional Residual Capacity: 2. Total Lung Capacity Is the sum of the Inspiratory and Expiratory Reserves and the tidal and residual volumes . Vital Capacity PULMONARY CAPACITIES Is the Expiratory Reserve Volume plus the Residual Volume Is the Tidal Volume plus the Inspiratory Reserve Volume Is the sum of the Inspiratory Reserve Volume. Inspiratory capacity 3. and the Expiratory Reserve Volume 4.

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GAS EXCHANGE ‡ Gas exchange is the process of respiration which involves the diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. .

.GAS EXCHANGE ‡ Gas exchange occurs in the respiratory membrane. ‡ Several factors influence the exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane.

1. Respiratory Membrane Thickness Factors Influencing the Exchange of Gases .

Surface Area Factors Influencing the Exchange of Gases .2.

Partial Pressure Factors Influencing the Exchange of Gases .3.

Diffusion of Gases in the Lungs .

Diffusion of Gases in the Tissues .

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The ability of hemoglobin to bind to oxygen depend on the P0 . The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin is influenced by several factors.5% of the oxygen ‡ ‡ transported into the blood from the lungs combines reversibly with hemoglobin.Oxygen Transport ‡ About 98. .

‡ Carbon dioxide enters the blood ‡ Carbon Dioxide Transport and Blood pH from the tissues and is transported in three ways: Carbon dioxide has an important effect on the pH of blood. .

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. The generation of the basic rhythm of ventilation is controlled by the neurons within the medulla oblongata that stimulate the muscles of respiration.Rhythmic Ventilation ‡ The normal respiration in adults is ‡ between 12 and 20 respirations per minute.

Two ventral respiratory groups .Respiratory Areas of the Brain ‡ The Medullary center consists of: ‡ The Pontine Respiratory Group ‡ 1. Two dorsal respiratory groups ‡ 2.

Respiratory Areas of the Brain .

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Starting Inspiration 2. Increasing Inspiration 3. Stopping Inspiration Generation of Rhythmic Ventilation generates the basic pattern of spontaneous . .‡ The medullary respiratory center 1. rhythmic ventilation.

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Nervous Control of Ventilation ‡ Higher brain centers can modify the activity of the respiratory center. ‡ The Hering-Breuer reflex functions to support respiratory movements by limiting the extent of ventilation. .

.Chemical Control of Ventilation ‡ For the respiratory system to ‡ ‡ maintain O and CO at homeostatic levels. Chemoreceptors Carbon dioxide levels in the blood are the major driving force for regulating respiration. there must be someway to monitor the levels of these gases.

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Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System ‡ Changes in mucocilliary escillator ‡ Decreased vital capacity ‡ Increased residual volume .‡ Almost all aspects of the respiratory systems are affected by aging.

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