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Kristen M. Swanson
1953-Present Theory of Caring

Caring is a nurturing way of relating to a valued other toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility

Kristen Sheldon
Kaplan University

as a nurse. Swanson identified the similarities of caring for mothers after miscarriage and parents of children in the NICU   . identifying the human experience and response of this event During her career she emphasized caring as an interested and was mentored by a few nursing theorists for models of caring In the NICU.+ Theory of Caring Background of the Development  Swanson began her career studying the effects of miscarriage on mothers.

+ Theory of Caring Description of Theory  Good nursing is caring for the client·s biopsychosocial and spiritual well-being by  Knowing the client·s reality  Being emotionally and physically present  By doing for and enabling the client .

and avoiding bad outcomes Maintaining Belief Knowing Being With Doing For Enabling Well Being . managing responsibilities. attaching.+ Theory of Caring Description of Theory All-inclusive care in a complex environment embraces balance among caring.

person and personhood.D. interpersonal relationships. stress. coping. and caring Caring and miscarriage were the focus of her doctoral dissertation and program of research   Found joy in being entrusted to give care to patients during hard times . in nursing at University of Colorado   Psychosocial nursing Emphasis on exploring the concepts of loss. Swanson  Ph. environments.+ Theory of Caring Kristen M.

she found that caring for women who miscarried was very similar to caring for parents and health care providers taking care of infants in the NICU  . Barnard encouraged her to make the transition from the interpretive to contemporary empiricist paradigm While a postdoctoral fellow. Swanson  Swanson began her Ph. Kathryn E.+ Theory of Caring Kristen M.D. career focusing on caring by working with women who had experienced loss by miscarriage Chose Dr. Jean Watson as a mentor    Watson·s Theory of Human Caring Both assert that compatibility of findings on caring adds credibility to their theoretical assertions  D.

doing for.+ Theory of Caring Concepts of the Theory  The five basic processes (knowing. and maintaining belief) give meaning to acts labeled as caring Knowledge about caring is categorized into 4 hierarchical domains       Person·s capacity to deliver caring Individuals· concerns and commitments that lead to caring actions The conditions that enhance or diminish the likelihood of delivering caring Actions of caring Consequences or the intentional and unintentional outcomes of caring for both the client and provider . being with. enabling.

focusing on the person cared for. seeking cues. avoiding assumptions. and engaging both the one caring and the one cared for in the process of knowing Doing for: to do for others what one would do for self if at all possible   . assessing meticulously.+ Theory of Caring Concepts of the Theory  Caring: a nurturing way of relating to a valued other toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility Knowing: attempting to understand the meaning of an event in the life of the other.

helping to find meaning. and understanding by the one cared for no matter what the situation  .+ Theory of Caring Concepts of the Theory  Enabling: facilitating the other·s passage through life transitions and unfamiliar events Maintaining belief: sustaining faith in the other·s capacity to get through an event or transition and face a future with meaning. maintaining a hope-filled attitude. believing in other·s capacity and holding him or her high in esteem. offering realistic optimism.

economical. feelings. relatedness. social. and emerging into a sense of renewed wholenessµ . ect. yearning to be connected with others. and spiritual beings Defines environment as ´any context that influences or is influenced by the designed clientµ    Many different types: cultural. Environment and person-client are used interchangeably  Health and well-being is to experience wholeness where all facets of being are free to be expressed  Spirituality. thoughts. femininity.+ Theory of Caring Concepts of the Theory & Metaparadigm  Identifies person as dynamic. establishing new meanings. masculinity. growing. political. intelligence. self-reflecting. and sexuality to name a few  Well-being is a complex process of curing and healing by including ´releasing inner pain. biophysical. restoring integration. creativity.

+ Theory of Caring Concepts of the Theory & Metaparadigm  Nursing is informed caring for the well-being of others   Using empirical knowledge from nursing and other disciplines Ethical personal and aesthetic knowledge derived from the humanities. equal access to health care. and other humanitarian causes The goal of nursing is to promote the well-being of others  . and personal and societal values and expectations  Nurses must be leaders in fighting for human rights. clinical experience.

and medicine The concept is clearly defined and arranged in a logical sequence Simple .+ Theory of Caring Strengths and Weaknesses  Strengths       Provides a sense of understanding and applicability in practice Caring may be manifested in a variety of ways and in many practice contexts Offers teachers of modern day nursing a simple way of initating students into the profession by immersing them in the language of what it means to be caring and cared for to promote. restore. social work. or maintain optimal wellness Can be used in many disciplines such as teaching.

needs to be tested on several populations within nursing It does not differentiate caring as solely within the domain of nursing  .+ Theory of Caring Strengths and Weaknesses  Weaknesses  Tested and applied mainly with women.

conveyed by being emotionally and physically present. supported by knowing the client·s reality.+ Theory of Caring Central Values and Beliefs   The goal of nursing is to promote the well-being of others Caring is grounded in maintenance of a basic belief in human beings. and enacted by doing for and enabling the client Caring is delivered as a set of sequential processes that are created by the nurse·s       Own philosophical attitude Understanding Verbal and nonverbal messages conveyed to the client Therapeutic actions Consequences of caring .

   .+ Theory of Caring Use in Clinical Practice  Scenario  A 30 week baby is delivered and admitted to the NICU for respiratory distress. as this infant is probably with an umbilical line to provide nutrition and cardio respiratory monitors Ask mom and dad if they would like to change the infants diaper. This is mom and dad·s first baby. compliment how cute the infant is and what a wonderful job they are doing as parents. as parents tend to feel powerless. IV fluids. What do you do?  Introduce yourself as the nurse when they come in and physically go to the infants bedside. Allow mom to touch infant·s hands and feet during the diaper change. and prophylaxis for infection. If mom is unable to or dad does not want to participate. and they are coming to visit for the first time. assisting and teaching as necessary. offer to show them how to do it the first time. ensuring that you do not appear ´too busyµ or unavailable to care for the infant or answer questions Take a few minutes to explain the monitoring equipment. Also take this time to explain cluster-care and the importance to not over stimulate the infant. Keep a smile on your face as you are performing care. This time can be especially difficult.

A.+ References Alligood. & Tomey.washington. Faculty Directory. (2010).edu/faculty/faculty_bio.). MO: Mosby Elsevier University of Washington (2010).son. M. R.asp?id= 103   . School of Nursing: University of Washington. M. Retrieved from http://www. Maryland Heights. Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed.