1, Vectors in R2
Page 445
CHAPTER 9
Vectors in the Plane and in Space
9.1
1
Vectors in the R2, Pages 58~582
2
'r"
.
.
• ,
z
,
,
y
9.
,
•
1
J
2
1
.
. ,
5
z
•
e
,
~
z
1
Z
J
. •
5
10.
+ l)i + (  2 + 2)j = 2i IlpQII= + 1)2 + (2 + 2)2 = 2' PQ = (6  5)i + (8  7)j = i + j II PQ II = 5)2 + (8  7)2 = Vi
PQ = (1
J(1
J(6 3)i
l
... ~
3.
, y
a
...
4.
5
s
11.
PQ = (0 + 4)i + (  1 + 3)j = 4i + 2j IlpQ11 = J(O + 4)2 + (1 + 3)2 = 20
PQ = (2 
12.
Y
\
z
1 i 1 2
IIpQl1 =
13. Let v
. ,
v = i + j; "v" = ,.11
1 J2 (. J +
1
J(2
+ (8 + 5)j =  i + 13j _3)2 + (8 + 5)2 = v'17o
2
+ 12 =
Vi
= ~0
~
~
~
~
1
I
Z
3
"
5
u=iiVii=
14. Let v _
U
.)
z
z
,
6. (0, 10)
=!i +~; IIvII =
v_
Jm2 J3
2
+
I
(~)2
iiVii 
4 1') 2· 1· 0(1. + 4J _ 7s + 7s J 21 4j; IIvII

5.
(4 3)
• •
•
y
•
,n.z)
•
'IS.II
15.
Let v
U
= 3i
=
+
(_4)2
=5
,
..
z
_, ~
z
2,,(.."U
/.'.
••
...
_,
..
7.
...
.
...
•
Pl5.Z}
•
.
v 1(3' = iiVii = 5 I
4') J
3· 4· = 51  5J
16.
Let v
= 4i + 7j; IIvII =
J(
_4)2+72
=
v'65
v 1 4· 7 U = iiVii = y'65 (  4' 7·) =  y'651 + y'65J . 1+ J 17. su
+
tv
= ( 3s
+ t,
45 
t) so that
 3s
+
t = 6 and 4s 
t = 0; solving
t
5, 0)
IIZ.U
•• •
B.
• "J.fJ '11/2."
simultaneously, lB. Os 
we have s
= 6 and t = 24.
1; solving
3t = 1 and  3s
.. ...
Z
e z
z
•••
.
simultaneously,
Z " flo _
we have s 3 and 
19.
s
2t
=
= !and t = !. s + t = 4; solving
11 = 
+ 4t = 
..
IIPQII= 5
...
simultaneously, 20.  3s
we have s =  5 and t =  1. 4s
+ 8 = t and
w
+
t; solving
19 and t
IIPQII =
J( ~r+
simultaneously, (_8)2
we have s
21.
2u
+ 3v 
= (6 + 12l)i
= 17i 
=
= 65.
+ (
8  9  l)j
18j
= Y¥=!V305
Page 446
Chapter 9, Vectors in the Plane and in Space
22.
!(U + v)
= !(3i = ~3i IIVII=

lw 3j)  lei + j)
34.
u
2v + 2w =  4i + 3jj
4j) + !(4i 
The desired vector is 35.
Iii +
~.
23.
J4
.¥j
2+( _3)2 = 5; lIuli =
J3
(x2 + 2)i + (Y2  3)j = 5i + 7j, so x2 + 2 = 5 or x2 = 3
and Y2  3 = 7 or Y2= 10. The terminal point is (3, 10).
2+( _4)2 = 5 3j)
IIVllu + lIuliv = 5(3i 4j) = 35i 24. 35j
+ 5(4i 
lIullllvll w = 5(5)(i + j) = 25i + 25j
25.
x  Y
1 = 0 and 2x + 3y 
12 = 0;
36.
(1 1and 2

xl)i + (  2 
Yl)j =  i + 2j
solving simultaneously, 26.
we have x = 3, y = 2. = 10 7X; solving
xl =  1 or xl = 0
x = 5  3y and 4~
simultaneously,
we obtain 25 = 0 Y 1 , _
25 4
Yl = 2 or Yl
=  4.
4~ + 2Iy 
The initial point is (0,  4). 37. a. The midpoint of PQ is S22)=(3,
The solutions are (2, 1) and (9:, 27.
 245)
x2
M=(3 +9, 2
5)
+ y2 = 20 and y = x + 2; solving we have (2,4) and (  4,  2). h.
simultaneously, 28. y
If the initial point of this vector is at P, then its terminal point is at: (3,  5), so the vector is 6i + 3j. PQ = (9 + 3)i + (  2 + S)j = 12i + 6j Then ~(12, 6) (10, 5) lOi + 5j. This vector has initial point at P, and terminal point at (7,  3).
1 = log x and y = log 2 + log(x + 4); log x + 1 = log 2 + loge x+ 4)
By substitution, log 2(x:
=
=
Solving for x, we find 4) = 1 38.
Since  3 ~ r ~ 1, multiply  9:S 3r~ 3
through by 3:
2(x: 4) = 10
x=I If x = 1, then y = 1, so the solution is (1, 1). 29. 30. u = (cos 30 )i + (sin 30 )j =
0 0
 9 ~ 111 v II~ 3
since IIv II= 3
f
39. 40.
IIvII = ";cos 0 + sin20 = 1
2
i + !j
Since IIrv II= 111 II,we see v IIrvll
Let v = 2i  3j so IIvII = u=
.Ji3; then
3·  J
= lIuli
say
41. 42.
.Ji3
1 (2·  3·) =1 2· 1 :l
+ j so IIVII=
Not necessarily equal. Equal magnitudes nothing about their direction. IIv 
.Ji3
31.
Let v = 4i u=
y'i7;
Vi3
then hj VI7 Sj
=
J(x 
ulI=ll(x 2)2

2)i+(y+3)jll 3)2 ~ 2
+ (y +
h(  4i + j) = hi V17 V17

This is the set of points on or interior to the circle with center (2,  3) and radius 2. 43. a.
32.
Let v = (7 + I)i + (  3 u
5)j = 8i 
lIu  11011=
This is the center (xo, "u  110" interior to and radius
= 
Sy2
1 (S·  S·) 1 :l
=
J(xx
O)2
+
(y_YO)2
=
1
I1·
v'2
1· J
y2
set of points on the circle with
33.
u + v = 5i + j;
Ilu + vii =
)26;
h.
The desired unit vector is
v26
k i + v26 j lot,
~ r is the set of points on or the circle with center (xo' Yo) r.
 6b)i + (  a + 2b)j
Yo) and radius 1.
44.
au + bv
= (3a
Section 9.1, Vectors in R2
Page 447
Thus, 3a  6b = 2 and  a + 2b = 5; solving simultaneously gives no solution. 45. au
(J
= tan 
1 ::~
~
36.4° 36.4° = 53.6°; that is
+
b(u 
v)
+
c(u
+ v)
=0
(b c)v 50.
so the direction is 90 N53.6W. Fl = (10 cos~, 10 sin ~) F2 = (0, 8);
(a
+ b + c)u =
= (5J3,
= (~,
5)
Since u and v are not parallel, we must have a+b+c=O bSolving, we find
a= c
F3 = (5 cos 4;, 10 sin 4:>
 5J3)
=0
F4
=
(Fl
+
5J3)i
F2
+

F3)
=  [(5J3 = (~ 51.
+ 0  ~)i
+ (5 + 8  5J3)j]
5J3)j
 2t, b = t, and c = t
(13 
for any number t.
46.
a.
Let P, Q, R, and S, be consecutive vertices in counterclockwise order of a parallelogram with diagonals PR and QS. The point Tis where the diagonals intersect. Then, for positive constants a and b,
PT =
3 l 1
aPR
r
Since th ese vector, have the same direction.
QT = bQS
Since these vectors have the same direction.
,
b.
PT+TQ=PQ
Definition of vector addition.
P( z, y) will be on the line segment between (  3,4) and (2, 1); namely, 3x + 5y = 11 on [  3, 2].
We see that, aPR Note thatRT bQS = PQ =
47.
Let F3 = ai + bj. We want
RP 
TP
Fl
+ F2 + F3 = 0
and
Thus, 3i + 4j + 3i  7j + ai + bj = Oi + OJ so that a =  6 and b = 3; F3 =  6i + 3j
=RP+PT = RP + aPR
= (1
TS =QS
 a)RP
QT bQS
48.
Let F4 =
ai + bj. We want
=0
Fl
Thus,
+ F2 + F3 + F4
= QS
= (1
RS = RT+TS
 b)QS (1  b)QS a)PR  (1
(i  2j) + (3i 7j)
+ (i+ j) + (ai+ bj) = Oi+ OJ
so that a =  5 and b = 8; F 4 =  5i 49.
+ 8j
= (1  a)RP
Since PQ
+
The boat travels east to west, a distance of 2.1 mi in 0.5 hr, so its velocity relative to still water is B 4.2(  i). The velocity of the river is R =  3.1j, so the actual velocity of the boat is
= SR, then
b)QS
=
aPR  bQS = (1 it follows that a b = (1 b) or b =
= (1  a) or a =
!, which
! and
means that the
v= B
+R
=  4.2i 
3.1j
point T bisects the diagonals of the parallelogram. 5.22 mi/h 52. Draw a triangle and label the vertices A, B, and C. Let u be the vector from A to N, the midpoint of BC; v from B to P, the midpoint of AC, and w from C to M, the midpoint of
The actual speed is IIvII
= V'( 4.2)2+(3.1)2~
Let (J be the angle between the direction of the boat and still water. Then
CN = CA + AN = AC + iAB = !AB . The midpoint of AB is . We have u = AN = AC + iCB c. From part b.1 Solving simultaneously. AC and BD.AB=BC+CD so MQ = !(AD . a. + SVI. c. Let P(x. u + Y2 + Y3) + v = ("1' "2) + (VI' V2) = ("1 + VI' "2 + V2) = (VI + "1' V2 + "2) y = ~(Yl =v+u AD .CM and NB = . 0) = (Ul + 0. SU2 + SV2) SV2) V2) = (SUI' S(UI. We have MQ = AQ .~ s . CP = rCN = {!AB .AC] BP = sBM = {!AC .~AC + sAB = (~ + s)AB + ( . NP = NC + CP = !BC + !CD 54.~ . "2 + O) = (UI. = 4MN + 0 = l(AB + AD + CB + CD) . Vectors in the Plane and in Space AB. we find r . we obtain AB+AD+CB+CD = 4MN + 2(AM + NB + ND + CM) Since M and N are the midpoints of Thus. 5U2) "2) b.Page 448 Chapter 9. O) =0 + v) = ~(UI' "2) + (VI' V2)] =0 53. we have CP = ~CN so X + (SVI' + S(VI' =su+sv AB = AM + MN + NB AD=AM+MN+ND CB=CM+MN+NB CD=CM+MN+ND Adding.rAC .  U2) "2) = (0. We use the fact that AC + CB b.AB + VI' "2 + V2) = (s( "1 + VI)' s( U2 + V2)) = s("1 (SUI = = 55. 2 ' 2 .BP = ~AB .!AB x3 = i[( 3 ' It suffices to show that MQ = NP.u) = = v = BP = BA + i AC w = CM = CB + iBA Adding we obtain u+v+w = ~AC + ~CB + ~BA 222 = ~(AC + CB + BA) d.ND.AM =!AD and AD = AB + BC + CD Thus. u + BA = 0 + 0 = (Ul. "2) + (0.~)AC Since CB = CA + AB we see ~ + s = 1 and ./ xl + x2 Yl + Y2) lV\. then AM = .AB) = !(BC + CD) = NP . a.3' . "2) =u (since you return to the starting point). (UI "2)  + (UI' "2 UI. u + ( .X3] X=¥Xl+~+~) and similarly.r . y) be the centroid.r .~= .AC BM= BA+AM = ~AB + iAC = iAC . AB + AD + CB + CD MN 56. xl .AB] CB = CP + PB = CP .3· The same procedure applies to any other pair of medians. X2) . s(u (UI.
1) 125. .2 . Coordinates and Vectors in a.2.1 . 3. 4.. . 8. ~u = ~(1. . .3) v = (1 .4. =(1.~ 1 . . 1 + 3) u h. = (2.11.2 .3 + 5.2) 5. = (6.3). 3 . 3 . I . d.. \ I '..3)2 2. 3 + ( . 1. 1. 2u + 3v = 2(0. 4) = (19. 1) + 3(4.5? + (z . "1\ 1\ / . .3).0)2 + ( . 11. ~) c. 5) = (~.3)2 = 7 9. u + v = (2 + 5. 3. 5 + 3} J•• .7)2 = 4 (x . 1.0)2 = (. '. ~u = ~(4. 4) v = (4 .( 1). ) ~ + 3( 2. d..4)2 + (z + 5)2 = 9 .3 .4) ~r~ h.3. .8. 0) = (5.5)2 u + v = (4 + ( . u 0) = (4. . I) v = (0 . . .4) + (5 . Page 587588 6.0)2 + (7 . 1) = (10. d = V( . ~u =V99 7. h. .8) 5 .( . 3} u + v = (0 + 4.1) = (2.2. 19) % '.v = (2 .1) = (0.J ~ 2u + 3v = 2(1. a. ar. . Coordinates and Vectors in ar d Page 449 9. 12) u + v = (1 + 0. a. . ~u = ~(O.1 . 0.1.5. ~.3. d.0)2 + (y .2).5. d. 7.5. 0) = (12. $ 3. h. 225) = (2.5. 2u + 3v = 2(4.2.5)2 + (0 .Section 9. . . 5} + 3(0.2). 2. 4) c.1. a.3. .2. 1 . ~ d = V(2 .2) c.( .3.4)2 + (z + 5)2 = 9 ~ + (y . :_. (x  0)2 + (y  0)2 + (z  0)2 = 1 . . .1 + ( . 0) 2u + 3v = 2(2.2). .5.3) = = V(1v'i49 3)2 + (5 + 4)2 + ( . 0 . . 0) + 3(5. 11) 125. u = (1.2). .3) . = ~(2. .1  4. 9.1 + O} = (4. 0 + 4) = (7.( . u .2 + ( 1). (x + 3)2 + (y . ~+~+?=1 10. 3.2.0.2 1.2) c.
2.:__ 16) 22.1. . 3u . 2u . llvll= (3. ?+ y2+? = y'i3 26.4) 28.2z . PQ = J( 2)2 + (2)2 + (1)2 =3 = 2i + j . 2. PQ = .1.4) . 15.2. ..4i . 1).2x .1)2 = 1 C(3. (1.7) = h(I. ?+ (y2 i + ? .. . 32) This is 18i .)4+ 1+ 9 = v'l4 30. 14.(1.5.2 = 0 1)2 + (z + 1)2 = 4 ?+ 2y + 12) + (?+ 2z + 12) = 2+1+1 ? + (y  = 3(2. C(O. llvll= 29.7i . 3) + (1. 1.l)i + [1 = 2i + 2j + k + (4  IIPQII 18.3. 3)k = ( 1 .5w 13..20i . = (7. Vectors in the Plane and in Space 12. 1.4j .1).2y + 2z . 1 4.1. = 5y 2 . 1. 3) . .Page 450 Chapter 9. (x + 2)2 + (y . 3} + (5.5(5.8 = 0 22) + i + (? . ..2) = !( 1.3j + 32k. . 0. v v 6x+ 2y2z+ VI + 1 + 2 (.17 (x  + (?+8z+42) +1+4+ r 16 1)2 + (y .)1 + 1 + 1 =4J3 PQ = . 0.3? + (z + 1)2 = 5 = (13. ?+ (? + 4x + r =2 i + ? + 4x .. 1. 1.2. 0. 19.3.o( _ 5. ? + y2 + ? . PQ =2 (I)]j .1.5) . 0.3i .1) C( . 3) . This is .4kj 20. 4).4j 25.3)2 + (y + 1)2 + (z . v 52 7) =1 16.4j + 7kj IIPQII = .. .v .(1. II II = (1. . 0.v + 3w + 3(5. .0.2)2 + (z + 4)2 = 4 C(I. 19) This is 13i . +v  2w = (2. 7) z = 2(2.)9 + 16 + 49 =V74 u II 21.1) v + 4+ 1 v"9 = v 14 h(3.4j + 19k. 23. 4u + w = 4(2.6x+ 32)+(i+2y+12)+(?2z+12) =10+9+1+1 (x .3kj II PQ II = .2z + 12) = 8+4+ (x + 2)2 + y2 + (z 1)2 = 13 10 = 0 r This is . . 17.16k. r II II = v v v V25 + 9 + 16 VI + 2 + 49 l.4y + 8z + 17 = 0 (?_2x+12)+(y2_4y+22) = . 1). 21) 21k. 24.3.5) . 7) . . 2.5) = (18. 27.1. 7) 31..2.2(5.1.4. . 7) = (20. IIPQII = 4.2) (? .
4i  IF + 5x = 15 5j + 5k IF = 16 + 25 + 25 = 66 2 .3. 2) and AC = (1. 5) = 2u.5.~(2. so v is parallel v = . 1. II = 112i.~u.1. IIABIP=16+4+I6=36 IIACIP=4+16+I6=36 IIBC IP = 36 + 4 + 0 = 40 f::. 37. B( 1. I IIBC IF = 0 + 36 + 9 = 45 = II AB IP + II ACIF 48. 3. but not isosceles IIAB IP = 16 + 0 + 1 = 17 II AC 33. 5 ) = .(0. II BCIP f::. Let A. b.2.5)2 + 4.4. .5' z 3 = s. z) = 3(5. . 34. 36. 5) to u. 53. namely 49.0). 1. ABC is right. Since AC is a multiple of AB.5).j + k) = II .4). . Coordinates and Vectors in W II ACIF = 4 + 16 + 16 = 36 Page 451 32. and C be the points A(3. 2.4j + 4k . 2 { _ 17 3k IF = 4 + 1 + 9 = 14 3(2i + j  we obtain 112(i . 2I1vll3I1wlI=2J1+4+43J4+16+I + 3 + 5z = _ 0 =63J2! 39. su so v is not parallel to u. . 44. Then 7 Let A. + 2j + k) to u. .150k. then 2u v V3 1 = V3 k) + 5q = 3w 2( . B. it follows that A. so we have F = Fl + F2 + F3 .6. IF = 0 + 36 + 0 = 36 IIBC IF = 16 + 36 + 1 = 53 f::. (x + ~)2 + (y  ~?+ JI . v = . 50.3. 3w so x .3.j + k II= 112i+ j + 1+ 1= + 1+ Let q = (x.3) + 5(x.2. ABC is neither (2x + 1)2 + (2y .2(1.5' Y 51.1.3. 2. . . where for constants a. 112v = JI6 41. y. 43. B. . 2) . = 223or = 46 f::. 3). and C( .3.2).12j + 3k II AB = ( . 45.3.2 + 5y = 3 4 38.1. + 256 + 49 = J321 +3klJ(3i+2j+k) IIvwll(v+w) = IIi6j = V46(3i 42. 0.2). 1. we have F1 :f.6) by the seated official is F 47. . c. . it follows that A. 1. . .3. IIv IIw= JI + 4 + 4(2i + 4j 3k k) = 6i + 12j 40. z).6) b(  V3.4. Let F l' F 2' and F 3 be the forces in the three legs. and C be the points A(2. IIAB 2 r: _  ~. 46. 2). ABC is isosceles. 52. ABC is neither right nor isosceles M( ~. . y. Since AC is a multiple of AB. Then v = 2(2.2) and AC = ( . 4) AB = ( . IIAB IP = 4 +4 + 1= 9 The total force exerted = . 3. but not right = = aP A F2 F3 = bPB = cPB = a(O. 0). 0) Comparing components. so v is parallel to u. .6i . 3. 35. and C(4. . B. . B(2.Section 9. and C lie on the same line. The center is the midpoint of AB.6) = c(V3. "4 = 2' th e equa ti Jon f t h e sp h ere IS . the diameter is II = J( II AB IP = II BCIP 25 + 4 + 49 = 78 _3)2 + 12 + 62 = 0 y'46 IIACIF = 64 + 16 + 169 = 249 = 9 + 36 + 36 = 81 right nor isosceles 46 23. B. 1). su so v is not parallel :f. and C lie on the same line. IIi + j + k II= JI IIi . v = ~(2.
z) so that AP= (x+ l)i+ Be is M(I. + ( + (0)(2) = 11 w)w = (3 . 6) = 3(2) + (.w=4(8)+(5)(10)+(I)(2)= not orthogonal 11. so z= 3(y 3(z  3) = . [VI + 1+ 1(3i .j .6e = . 133) .2j+k)] OR be the hypotenuse.6) + b{ .y'a.w V· = OJ orthogonal w = 3(6) + ( .12 = 0 10.y'ab . . 1.2. 5' __l!L_.6e + 11 = (c + 2)2 + c2 = 2e2 + 4e + 4 = 2(0) + (.w=3(2)+(I)(5)=1 V· There are three possibilities: (i) Let PO be the hypotenuse. "2. + 2. 3y'76' 3_.2)(. (y .6) the scalar projection of v onto w is a number: V·W compwv = li'WlI. = 1. + 3w _ 9i 113v+ 2wllll11i 2v =_9_i = v'l4y'a(3 . . w = IIvllllwll cos v .3)j (z . = (c2  6c + 11) + (2c2 + 4c + 4) 4c . . . then. Let 16..3) = (v. 18. expressed as a dot product of force and displacement vectors.. v.1) = 0 jk 4j + kll y'i3s 0 __ 1_. AM = 2i .2)(9) = OJ orthogonal 20. .6} F3 54. we obtain a = b = e= 2.w 1 .1) IIPQ IF = 25 + IIPRIF IIQRIF 1 + (e + I? = e2 + 2e + 27 (e .7k cos 0 v·w 2 lIvllllwlly'5y'5 AP = iAM so 3AP = 2AM or 3( x + 1) = 4 or x = 1j = 14. 9. then = u1vI + "2V2 + "3v3.w=2(3)+3(5)+(I)(4)=5 v.6b .Page 452 Chapter 9. 8. 4. 5. 1. so 3. Page 595597 If u u.150{0. y.2 . . 13.150 If v and w are nonzero vectors. 12.6) 9. by the Pythagorean theorem c2 + 2c + 27 2e2 (ii) Let e2  w = OJ orthogonal v . !)w + 4(6) = 16 F1 = ¥<O.1+ 1 1 = IIv 1111 w II= 3 = 3"j J5VIO 3 5v'2' _z.y'3.2 or y = ~ B3 + 5 JiSv'3s  9) 1.6) Equating coefficients we find that .2a { = (u}l + y'ae =0 2.17 4 14. projwv = (! . The scalar projection: The vector projection: ~~TI ~= 1 = The desired point is p(i.2 .6a . = ~(y'a.3) + 0(7) = 18 = v. 6e + 11) 15 . 7.3 1. then the vector projection of v onto w is a vector: Solving. "3) and v = {vI' V2' v3}. The Dot Product. ~. 6. 1) = a{O. 6e + 11 = (c2 + 2c + 27) + (2e2 + 4c + 4) c2 + 6c + 10 = 0 This has no real solution since the discriminant is negative.6)(.  2e + 4e + 4 = (e2 + 2e + 27) + (e2 Be = 34 e . 1. V·W V·W F 2 = ¥< . 19.3)2 + 1 + 1 e2 .1)(i +j _ k) = 0 (livil w)· (lIwllv) = [(V9+4+ 1)(i+j . (v c=I±y7 PR be the hypotenuse.2.9)k 17.k)] . y'i3sJ  Ji3s 1k 55. o :::::71° cos 0 = v·w = IIvllllwll o :::::115° o :::::114° cos 0 = v . Work can be + b+ e=0 . Vectors in the Plane and in Space . The midpoint M of P( x.v + e{y'3.0. (v  w) 1)( . (iii) Let 2 + w) 4(2) . 2). .
find x 1. . and x + 2y + z = 1.w = .. 0. v_ .1. solving simultaneously. Q v3 = 5 0.. y .4)2 + (3)2 = 5v'2 have v = 2ul + u2 + 2u3 u .57 or 90°.4 = 0. = = = . 2) and w U· = (+ 2u2 1. =. The two vectors. v = ul + u2 u·w= u3 = 0 R fJ "V I y'3s' = )32 v2 f3 ~ 'V I ul+u2+u3=0 5 . must have a dot product of O. Q = 4.2k) cos.  3k) = .Ji3 = 2 0. Q v3 :::::: and u2 = 24. :::::: 1.79 or 45°. For u = (uI' u2' u3) to be orthogonal cos cos cos 32. x .94 or 169° 6 i+2jk ) )12 + 22 + ( _ 1)2 35.1 2 = 6" 1 = 27. and z 2. 1). a. a) for an arbitrary U1= IIvll = VI + (2)2 = .~)w = 163(2j 21 . Th e sca Iar proJec tiIOn: v • w = 0 IIwll The vector projection: (~: ~)w = 0 30.57 or 90°. we must llvll = VI )52 v2 + (. 0.2a = 0 or a = ~ v .. Q 0 cos = ffi' ~. 26. we obtain u arbitrary Ul = (a. we must  y38 3 h.0.24 or 71°. Two unit vectors of this form are 2.). and .17 or 124°. 6 so x + y + z = 2. =Iv y17 h(2i + 3j .TI = 0 v.(2i + 3j 2k) u .1. 2) o0 and u2 = ( .3.1 ~w = ~(2i +j ..2a . = v = (1. 23. we find x 3. ~)w = 8. w = 0.13 or 65° VI = 0. 31.k) + y(j + k) + z(i . Th e sea Iar projection: The vector projection: =k v·w Ilwll = . 5 v3 =3 Q :::::: cos cos cos = Solving. U· v = 6 . 1.k) + y(ij + 2k)+z(i + k) The vector projection u of v onto w is = (~ . u2' u3) to be orthogonal v cos I = 2.J3'8' R:: Solving. 2.59 or 34°. cos f3 = 0. 0.52 or 144° = 2. 1) have and w = (. cos = IIVllllw. .. y 2. call them u and v.0 ( w·w)" to x . x = 2 llvll VI = Q )22 v2 + (_3)2 = 3. Q cos cos = v2 = 1. y2 0.<. The scalar projection: The vector projection: II. 2. 1. + (_5)2 = y'3s = 5 1.u1  =0 u3 = 0 = 5.) = 3. f3 :::::: 1. y 1. .0. 2. we obtain u = (a. =4 . = = we (~. y13 I R:: For u = (ul. Two unit vectors of this form are =::: 1. u = 3" iiVii = \ J/ 5 y'26" u LI ~ 2..k so z + z = 5. 0 = (2. 0 (2.. _0) 2· to 33. and z = 4.= V·W 2 . R fJ _1_ y'26' f3 =::: 1. ( 2' 0.37 or 79°·.16 or 124° = (2."(i + 2j .y = 0.2' 0. solving simultaneously.gj x(i .k) x(i+j+k) = 2i + k 36.j) = 5i .3.a) for an 1n 5y2 = ~. . 1. o a.Section 9. + ~~k 29.~)w = ~w = t(2)k 20. 3y6 \.w\.IIvll .)22+ 32 + (_2)2 o a.08 or 119°·. f3 'V I 5~' _3_ 5v'2' f3 ~ "V I 2.1).x + y = .. The Dot Product Page 453 (~.z = 0. so 3x  22.Ji3 28. v3 :::::: Q u . 2. __ 25.
202}. Work is W = 50[{cos ~)i + {sin ~)j]. = JiSv'l4 = 21 2V7 42. h. = 8 + 18 = 26 v·w 26 26 = Ilvllllwll = (7)(5) = 35 ='2 v·{v. the resultant force on the log is ~~II)+ 20(1I~: II) . 16 + 1 + 1 9 .000 lb weight along the road is 5.w=v.{. c. 2l kn  =0 The position vector along Sam's rope is Ls = x"i + j + kj IIL"IF = x. b 5t)1 1r ~b =0 J b sin kx sin nx dx = ~ (7) + ( ~)(14) + ~(7) =8 6 1r = ~ [cos(k1r = lrsin(k 41.~ [cos(k 1r n)x _ sin(k + n)x]l1r k+n1r J + n)x] dx II LflF = xl + 1 + 4 = 64. Consider a Cartesian coordinate system with the end of the log at the origin and units in feet.:=1 sin(kx) =2 L: 1.w=S 4 Chapter 9. J h ~(x3 .v s=y..025.4)k = 7i + 14j + 7k W = F·PQ h.Page 454 v·w cos B = Ilvllllwll v. c. ~ 48.1 ='2 7 The component of the 5.000 sin 10· ~ 868.3 . 0. ~O( = ~si~kx by part" u = ( _1)1. . 39.: = *J o 1r x sin kx dx x co: Thus. x" = y'62 46.3)]i + [9 .sw) = 0 II v 112 _ 49 s = v·w . bl.49i  The force has magnitude II F II ~ 49. (v+iw).sw) = 0 d.in I. _F.j + 2k) + 1.0. Then 1. a.53 lbs and points in the direction of the unit vector {0. a. 868 lb of force is required to keep the truck from roIling downhill. The position vector along Fred's rope is Lf = xfi . The force of wind is F = 1. (_ kxJI: dv = .{5)]j + (11 .v_4+2+6_R_2 F vUvUPQ = {3  v·w 26 44.:+1i 1)1.26 d.:+1 sin( k1r ) 2 . The force vector is F = 50[(cos f)i + {sin f)j] and the "drag" vector is D = 20i. Thus.2 + r.:+1 k Thus. PQ = [4 .:+1 3 0{09i 8 y'62i+j + k) i[i] L: k 00 = s.1)1. v· (v . a. Work is W = 50 [(cos f)i + (sin f)j]· 20i = 500)2 ft Ib (sv+w)·w=O w·w S= v·w v·w cos B 43. xf = 09j J n)x] dx .j + 2k. the = 2i + j + 3k.sin 60i + cos 60j) J6 J6 ~6 yu (1)]k l)i + (1  O)j + [2  and the displacement work done is is D = 50j.25j + 10k h.:=1 (_1)1. = 30(11 = 1 + 1 = 64.000 ft ·lb W = F· PQ = 4+3+3= 45. 37.::c d:c = ( . The force vector is F = 50[{cos ~)i + (sin ~)j] and the "drag" vector is D = 20i. Vectors in the Plane and in Space h. Thus.5x) dx=(~6 40. a.000@(50) 10 = 25.w+tllwlr=O t= w:w=~ 38. W = F· D = 1. 20i = 500 ft Ib b. f(x) = 1!: 2 X =2 00 Let x =~.979.OOO{ .
then = IIvlI(U'U) cos a + lIulI(U'v) IIvlIlIUli + IIUII(U'V) IIU 1111II B = iiVii' cos P = iiVii' cos I = iiVii z V3 = IIvII IIu liz + lIuli (u·v) z = IIU 1111 II= B u. either when e = 0 or when (} = 11". 50. it follows that a = p and the vector B bisects the angle between u and v. and let f3 be the angle between Band v. w vxw = = 2i = V· v+v· w+w· v+w· 1 4 7 + 25j + 14k = IIvlr + 2v·w + IIwlr . vxw and AB· BC = (u + v) .B IIvllllulI+ (u.Section 9. b. (v + w) = IIv liZ+ IIw liZ+ 211 v 1111 w IIcos :5 IIv liZ+ IIw Ir + 211 v 1111 w II 47. Let L. which means L.4. Let AO = u and OB = v. c) and radius r.ABC be an angle inscribed in a semicircle with center 0 and radius r. 2. Let OP = i + j + k be the vector along a diagonal of the unit cube and OQ = i + j be the vector along the diagonal of one of its faces. If v = cos a VI i VI + IIw Ir + 211 v II IIw II = (IIVII+ IIW 11)2 :5 IIvll + IIwll. 3. 48. vxw kxk i ee Il k 2 j vxw= 3 2 i 1 o 1 o = . a. V B = U· (IIv IIu + IIu IIv) + vzj + v3k. If a is the angle between OP and OQ. We have AB=u+v BC= U = ixj = k e. This occurs only when v and ware parallel. that is. = (IIv II+ IIw Il)z Thus. (v+w)' (v+w) 5. IIv + wll The region inside a sphere with center (a.4 1. (u = IIUll2  IIV 112 = j k 30 = 15i  5j + 3k 105 i 3 j k 24 =~~=O Thus. let (}'be the angle between Band u. a. Then U· :5 IIv Ir Thus. B _ IIv II(v . IIv + w If = (v + w) .IIvilli B IIIIv 1111 II B (v·u) +lIullllvll IIBII =1 9. h. cos (}' = II OPIIII OQII = 49. Page 604606 vxw Since cos (}' = cos p. To prove this. wi = IIv 1111 w IIIcos I :5 IIv 1111 w II The equality occurs when Icos (J I 1. AB is orthogonal to BC. cos v·B = IIU 1111 + IIvll(u. that is.2i + 4j + 3k v v) 4.v) vir = IIvlr IIVlr p_ v .v) IIBII Similarly. when v = two IIv = OP'OQ J3J2 or (}'= 2 0 35 c. (J 1111oUlr= (xa?+(yb)z+(zc)z<~ 52. The Cross Product Page 455 h. IIv + wll 53. 51.ABC is a right angle. + wlf = IIvlr + IIwlr + 2(v·w) The vector B bisects the angle between u and v. :5 IIvll + IIwll (J Iv . The Cross Product. u) + IIU 1111Ir v .
3j .+_9_k . + _6_k y'65J y'65 i j k j k vxw = 9.16)2 + 72 + 92 1 1 .. vxw = _ 16i+_7_.3k 2 11 3( ..4i=+.i j . sm 13..4j ./ k PQ x PR 1 1 1 1 1 2 = i + 3j + 2k = J261 + J26J + J26 1 3 4· 3· 1k A= 16i 17. 1 124 IS J k 1 !II  i + 3j + 2k II = ~Jl j + 9+ 4= !fo = + 7j + 9k 25.6 10 1 5 6 i J (J 3 1 40 1 1 = 4i + 3j . 2 j 0 k 1 The unit norma 1 11 I' 3· = i + 3j vxw = 2 . Vectors in the Plane and in Space 6.2)2 + 3j + 2k) A = 211 3i + 3j + 2k II = 2J9 + 9 + 4 = 2V22 23.j3s6J j k 2 1 . IS 4i + 3j + k 2 2 2 y4 + 3 + 1 ..1 =i.  i + 3j + 7kll = 2Jl vxw = . = 2i + 6j + 14k 2 3 1 = 2( . J . j k 1 3 1 1 1 = 4i + 3j + k H.2k o j 0 k 3 2 3 = 6i + 6j + 4k = 2( .i = j ._2_i y'65 + _5_.j 1 1 0 k 1· =l+J vxw 04 = . sin 15. vxw = 2 4 j k 12 3 0 = 6i + 8j = 2(3i  2k .i + 3j + 7k) + 9 + 49 = 2J5"9 A = 2 II 22.k) + 4j A =211 + 4j .Page 456 j k 5 . PQ x PR = k The unit normal .j3s6 ..16i + 7j + 9k ( . vxw = = = k IS.1 1. vxw 0 14 + 20j + 5k 19. vxw 1 ..k II = 2J9 + 16 + 1 = 2y26 3i j k 21.. ij k 1 0 .1 2 = i + 19j + 7k 2 1 3 i 3 j Chapter 9.sin sin(J cos (J =k 20. sin 12.k" = ~Jl + 1 + 1 = J ~J3 The unit norma .. = 4i + 10j + 12k The unit norma I' IS e um k J4 + 2 . · · (J (J sm (J (J · 14.k A = 114i + 3j .10~j~+~12. vxw = · cos(J 11.kll = J16 + 9 + 1 = y26 0 0 10.. vra vra J2 J2 = 2Ilv x wll J2 vra = Ilvllllwll = J2 vra = 3 Ilv x wll vra vra = llvll llwll = J2 J2 = 2Ilvxwll vra vra = Ilvllllwll = J2 J2 = 2Ilv x wll = Ilvllllwll = . vxw= .../ V 12 + 32 + ( . PQ x PR = A= 24.2 = 3i .2k .k= (10)2 + (12)2 S. vx w= 4 ...3i IS i + 3j ..k) = .j3s6 7.. 04 0 I'  fo 2k 16.k . vxw = 2 12 2 i 506 i 3 4 J = 2i + 16j + 11k = 6i = 14i k 4 2 3 7".. ..
k II = j hl1 + 1+ 1= h/3 37.3 t = 0 or t = o. not a vector scalar 1 0 0 0 2 u = i. i j bV2 k bV3 40. vectors are required for cross product. vector 1 1 0 0 30. 42. does not exist.i v j uxn2 = o 1 k 0 3 1 3 = 3i . = = . The cross product of two vectors is a vector normal to the plane formed by the given vectors. we can have v x w = w only if w . V = 8 Also. w = i = v' w j + kj :f v. PQxPR= a.1 . b.3j + 3k Cross product is not an associative operation. so D • W = 0. a. D} =i j . v . The dot product of two vectors is 0 if and only if the vectors are orthogonal. a. counterexample is u = . V· w is a scalar. so 1 . w = i + 2j + skj n is normal to the plane of u and v if i j k b. w = O. Thus. b. = uxv = ij 11 2 1 ijk 1 13 300 i 2 n=uxv= b. 28. + k. u = i + j. including finding direction cosines.4. v= v= 2 3 1 2 0 =3 31.w = W·W. 1 0 0 = j+k 111 D must be orthogonal to every vector in the plane. n2 = v x w = j k 11 =3j + 3k 300 The dot product of two vectors is a scalar. Since v x w is orthogonal to both v and w. 29. 34.Section 9. 38. 1 1 0 =5 k 0 5 39. 111 1 11 203 2 3 0 = 6j V = 6 n}xw = + 3k 33. a. w = k. It can also be used to find work and the projection of a vector onto another. Then the direction of your thumb is the direction of the unit vector. w = 0 if and only if v and ware orthogonal. = .3k 2 1 1 n must be orthogonal to every vector in the plane. but u :f v. but u 27. not a vector scalar vector does not exist. u . 2 0 0 2 k 0 = 4kj A =! 114k = 2 II 0 = 5i + j.j + k. v = 2i . au x bv = aUt aU2 aU3 bVt 35. NOjcounterexample is u = 2i + j + 3k.w = 4. u x w = v x w = j. No.2 + s = 0 or s = 2. v x w 0 if and only if v and w are parallel. w = i + j + tkj n is normal to the plane of u and v if ijk D = UXv = 1 1 0 = i . v 26. i =ab Ut J u2 v2 k u3 v3 =ab(uxv) vt 41. Place your little finger of your right hand along u. V· w is a scalar. 0 1 1 1 11 8. The Cross Product Page 457 A =Hi j .j . turn your fingers toward v. vectors are required for dot product. so 0 . v = i + j + k. so D' W = 0.3k 1 9j 32. w 0 because 0= (vxw). The right hand rule allows finding the proper direction of the unit vector used in the cross product u x v.i + 2k. 36. Its magnitude can be used to find the area of the parallelogram formed by these vectors.
12j . which means the height is 0 and the endpoints of all three vectors lie in the same plane (assuming they all start at the same point).ADI Yes. 131 1 :~ :.j + kj u = PQ = .Page 458 Chapter 9.48 + 12 .50° = 40°. Thus.8 IInllllvll = y'784y6 "I VI . cos () = n· v . a. The force is F = . then the volume of the parallelepiped formed by u.(u x w) uxv = X2 . so the angle between the vector and the plane is 90° . v. Then PC = (Vs)i + 2j.40j and the torque is i j = !IDI where D = "I VI WI k 0 0 48. then u x w + v x w + w x w = 0 or v x w = . Let F = u PQ T = 40k and ~)j + (sin ~)k] = y'3j + k i j k A = (X2Y3  x2YI  XIY3 + xIYI  X:3Y2 = *cos + X:3YI xIY2 + xIYI)k = ~luxVII (xIY3  = PQ x F = o 0 y'3 1 0 40 . 2 11 073 =1(4)3(6)+1(14)=0 V = ¥!)IIABx = ~(ABxAC) Y3) be the Acil IIAD IIIcos (}I . v = PR = (X3 U Also. In the above.wehaveuxv= = PQ = (X2 Similarly.w = W· (u x v) = "I VI "2 V2 "3 V3 Let v = 2i . and w is 0. then (u + v + w) x v = 0 vertices of the triangle. i j "2 V2 24 0 o 4 6 = 24i . 1 I :~ :. since (wxv)=vxw. u and v were interchanged and then v and w. if we cross with w.11 so that B ~ 130°. I + 1 :~ :~ "I "2 "3 VI WI V2 v3 w2 w3 The area of the base is !IIAB x AC IIand the altitude is h = IIAD IIIcos B ~ Thus. (wli + wz. u·(vxw) = "2 V2 W2 "3 V3 W3 and T=PCxF= Vs 2 40 WI W2 W3 o 45. Let P the point at the fulcrum and C be the place on the seesaw where the child is sitting. 50. Y2)' and R(x3' 51. b. (u X v) . YI' 0) k 0 0 uxv +vxv + wxv = o. Let P(xI' YI)' Q(x2. The acute angle is 50°. the vectors are coplanar.i+w3k) = 7y6 . =(1 = "2 ~ "3I 1 ~ i WI "I ~ "3I +1 ~ j W2 "I ~ "2Ik) ~ I W 3 . 47.40y'3 i = ~1(~Y3 .Xl Y2X3XI Y3 YI YI = w x u since w x w = 0 .~Y2) ~YI) YI Y2 Y3 + (xIY2 X2Yl)1 xl 1 1 1 x2 x3 44.i + W3k) Ifu·(vxw) = 0 or (uxv)·w = 0.6kj n is normal to the plane of u and w if n = uXw = i j k because the value of a determinant changes algebraic sign when two rows (or columns) are interchanged. let YI' 0). 46.2i + 4jj w = PR = 4j .(wli+wz. (uxv)·w= k "3 v3 Now. If u + v + w = 0. Vectors in the Plane and in Space 43.8k 49. xl' Y3 Xl' Y2 J vxv=O.
5 Parametric Representation of Curves. Parametric Representations of Curves. u x v 52.b2c. Other triple scalar products include: Iw. which . Recall that cos 0 = "vl. the three vectors are mutually orthogonal.[OR· (OP x OQ)]OS But the result of Problem 46 tells us that since the vectors are all coplanar. (ux v) I= Iv. Since u.(vxi)]i + [u·(vxk)]k = (bl. and IIvxwll v. C2' c3)' Then i x (bx c) = (b2cI  + [(u x v) .'.v)w(v·w)u + (w·v)u + (u·w)v(w·u)v =0 "1 "2 V2 v = s(wxu) and u = t(vxw) 53.u)v + (b3cI  bI c3)k = cIb . = (v·u)u(u·u)v u x [u x (u x v)] = u X (v. Lines in ~ Page 459 Thus. iF =j.bIc Similarly. b3). ux(vxw) + vx(wxu) u x v = w which means that wand u are orthogonal and wand v are also orthogonal. = (u·n)v(v·n)u = [u·(wxz)]v[v·(wxz)]u A parameter is an arbitrary constant or a variable in a mathematical expression. jx(bxc) Thus.(a. ux[ux(uxv)]·w= . ax(bxc) = [ali lIul~[(uxv).j]j + + [u·(vxj)]j and = 59. = vxw = wxu. (wx v)1 55.b3c] .iw. (ux w) 1= lu. bI c2)j b2. Consequently.Section 9.w ..u)u = 0 . u·(vxj) Therefore u x v = [(u x v) . a3). 58. Lines in R3.5.(al bl + a2b2 + a3b3)c Let D = W X Zj then = (UXV)XD (uxv)x(wxz) = (O)OR .v 0. Let a = (aI' a2. (vxu) I = Iv' (wxu) 1= lu.(O)OS =0 = nx(uxv) = [(v·n)u .b2c] + a3[c3b. (OP x OQ) x (OR x OS) = 0 and OR· (OPxOQ) =0 + a~ = aI[i x (b x c)] + a2 x (b x c)] + a3[k x (bx c)] = al[cIb= (a·c)b 56.' sin 54. Page 614615 1. b c = (cl.(u·u)(uxv) = lIul~(uxv) Therefore. Using the result of Problem 55: (OP x OQ) x (OR x OS) = [OS· (OP x OQ)]OR . ux(uxv) [u.(u·n)v] 9.w] = lIul~[u. "J v3 e IIvxw" = "vII "wI! so tan "1 "2 "3 VI e= Note that U· (v x i) = VI 1 1 0 0 U· (v x w) = V2 W2 v3 W3 and o o wI VI V· (u X w) = V2 V3 "1 "2 W2 "3 w3 WI Similarly.(vxw)] = c2b . for scalars sand t. kx(bxc) = c3b  b3c 60.b)c = (al cI + a2c2 + a3c3)b . Thus. v and u are orthogonal. (vx w) I = Iw.(uxv) and u·(vxk) = k·(uxv) [(u x v) . we have = (u·w)v(u·v)w + wx(uxv) + (v·u)w(v·w)u = + (w·v)u(w·u)v = (v·u)w(u. we have OS. u + a3k]x(bxc) bIc] + a2[c2b.u x (u. 57. k]k The two determinants have the same absolute value since interchanging two rows merely reverses the algebraic sign.(OPxOQ) Thus.
• . .... y = Yo + tB. t = xI. v'Y '!l • ·s 3.30 . • " .. . s 'l 1 . lSI 11. 'l 1 = 2x . . Vectors in the Plane and in Space distinguishes various specific cases. 2 1 'r" 0~x~4 • • .Page 460 Chapter 9. . • :?+~=9 3~x~3 10. 2. . t= x= Even though the two forms are equivalent.1~:? 30 '0 . liZ 3 1 1 5 . the parametric form is often the more useful form. y= (x =xl~x~3 so 1) 2. 5. The symmetric form of a line passing through (xo. Yo. t= x1/3 xl/3 = yl/2 Y = x2/3. t = 60 Y _ 80x_16:? 2 0 . 2 . . 6. 4. t = 30 9:? 900 75 51 . Zo) with direction numbers A. t " 3 · • 2 s x~ 60 75 . 0 .2( . B. x > 0 and the parametric form equations are: x = Xo + tA..• .: 3 'l I . " 3 . . :?+~=4 2~x~2 a . z = Zo + tC 8.:• · • /" 9.60  602 !x 3 2~5:? o s x s 180 . t=x Y ! = cos OJ 3"=sm Y . 2 1 y (x_l)2+(y+2)2 0~x~2 =1 Y _ 60x . ~ = sin ~=cosO . = 3 . .Xo_yYo_zZo A B C 7. I~ 1 • • • · • . . and Cis: x.. . ZSII sin t = xI cost=y+2 .x) = 2x+ 3 1~x~O I.
. 1=3x xI t.6. . 4. 1. 4=5=1x y4 xI y+l z+3 z2 x = 1 + 4t.1 + t. 16. for point (0.. 0. x . z = 2 + t 23. = 2+ t 20.= 1. x = 3. = In x x>O . 0) Z x = .1) + (y + 2)2 = 1 x = .. x"3 1 = ~.3  3t.Section 9.t. 28.(y + 2)2 + 2 (y 1~x~2 'T'" = =2 y+l = z z+2 5 • z 18.. y = t.1 + 2t.=1. Y = . . Z = 3t .2 + 5t 30.~= 4 1 24.. Z = 2t = 0.2t.. . Lines in R3 3xI Page 461 12. z = OJ = . . for point ( . 9)j t y = OJ = 1. t = 0. y = .3)k ? ~ 9 1 x2_y2_z3 1. Z z= 6 . 0) = 1 + 3t. ~ = sec 2t ~ = tan 2t y2+ _? "4 1 16 16 x 22 .==2 x = . for point (8.1 . x = OJ = 3. for point (0.3 t. x=6 x + 3t.. t =  2. .. x 1 = sin2t + 2)2 = cos2t (x. = 1 + 3t.4 + 2t x+ 1 yl z6 25.2+ 27. v = (2  y = 4t.2)i + (3 . t = x1/3 Y = 3 In x1/ 3 3t. x = OJ t Y = 6 + 3t t = In x Y =e = . . 9)j t elnx = x1 .6 5 3+ 4t oo<x<oo .. z = 6 ..2t t • • e 26. for point (8. l)i + (1 + l)j + (3 ..5t 14. Y = 4 .2)k =i+2j+k 1=2=1x xI y+l z2 z = 1 + t. . for point (6.6. Parametric Representations of Curves.1.. y = 2 . 0. y = 2 .. z = x 1 and .. Y = 1 + t.1 + t. z = _ Y+ 3 _ z . • • x y = OJ = . 9)j • • = OJ = 1. 4.. z = . y = . z = .. . 0.3 + 3t.3. .1+ 15. 0.2.2)j =i+j4k + ( 1 .2t. 11. z = . 3.= 1= 2j x= x = 11 t. y = . = 1 19. y = . v = (1 ... ~ = tan 2t ~ = sec 2t 16+ 1 ~ ) • . y = . = 1 + t. ~ 4t. x =6 . .. 1)j t . for point (0. .t. y = 1 + t. 3. z • • z . z = OJt = 2. y = . for point = (12. 13. x = 4+ =0 z= ..4x = 2+ ~= 21 . 4). • • .2 + 2t. for point (0.3 + 5 t xI y z+4 2: 4 or x ~ 4 y 1 + 3t.1 + 5 t. for point (0. 3)j t z = 0..3)j t = OJ = 1. 0) t 29.(lnz) 1 y 1. II = =3 = 5 ? . 3..5.
. since P(3. 0.4j . .. Now we try to find a point of intersection.2) is a point on the first line.Page 462 Chapter 9.j + k. Since these lines do not have proportional direction numbers.3j + 5k. A vector parallel to the first line is = 2i . The equation of the circle is This system has no solution. = The equation (~y+(~y=l Use the identity Let cos t = sin cos2t + sin2t =1 34. be skew.icos t Solving this system simultaneously tl = = 1. ± b(4i y21 + 2j + k) ± b(2i y21 + 4j + k) of the circle is 33.3j + 2k. . A vector parallel to the second line is v2 = 3i . for point y (12. so the lines must 37. A vector parallel to the second line is v2 = 2i + 3j . 4). since these vectors have the same direction numbers the lines are either coincident or parallel.2. 1. Since v2 = VI' the lines are either coincident or parallel. t2 + t2 or The orientation is counterclockwise because t is measured in a positive direction. A vector parallel to the first line is is VI = 3i .3 5t1 + 2t2 = ~.4j . since these vectors have the same direction numbers the lines are either coincident or parallel. since P( 4. 38. they must be skew. 7) is a point on the first line. Vectors in the Plane and in Space = 0. 0) 36.312 5. If they intersect. Since these lines do not have proportional direction numbers.7k.3j + 5k). x'2+y2 40. If they intersect. for x: 1 for y: 3 for z: 2 + tl 2tl = 1 + 2t2 or tl tl = t2 32.4i + j + 5k. we must have: for x: 2 . 0. t. VI' is parallel to v2 and the first line is parallel to the second. 4 + tl 1. for point z = 0. A vector parallel to the first line is VI = 2i . 35. we must have: for x: 3 + 2tl 2 + 3t2 or 2tl . (6. the lines are not parallel or coincident.2 + 5t1 = 4   t2 or tl 2t2 or + t2 = .j + k. so the lines do not intersect.2. the lines are not parallel or coincident.. A vector parallel to the second line is v2 3i . A vector parallel to the second line is v2 = i . Since these lines do not have proportional direction numbers. 1) = 3. Thus.4) is a point on the first line.7k. = . y = . x = 3 2= we find 1.isin for 0 ~ t ~ 271'.6j + 10k 2(2i . =1 + 3 t2 or 4 t2 or tl + 3 t2 =4 = + tl = 3 + 4~ =1 This system has no solution. The point of intersection 31.4tl = 3t2 or 4tl + 3t2 = 2 for y: 1 for z: ~ )3 or x = V3cost V3 sin t because t for t = ~ or y = The orientation is counterclockwise is measured in a positive direction + tl = . 1 = 0.. they are parallel. since P( 4. 1 for Zj =2 (Jiy+(~)2=1 t = Ji Let cos sin t or x = . VI = A vector parallel to the first line is VI = 2i . y =1  ( 1) = 2. Thus. A vector parallel to the second line is v2 = 3i . Since we wish to travel clockwise we reverse the parametric equations to: x = . . for y.3j + 2k). o s t s 271'.4k 2(i . 6. A vector parallel to the second line is v2 = 4i .icos t =~ or y = .4k. 3). 39. A vector parallel to the first line is VI = . but not on the second line. 2. the lines are not parallel or coincident. A vector parallel to the first line is is VI = . 2. 1 = 2.j . but not the second. but not on the second line.2k.j + k.i sin t =tl = 3 =2  t2 or tl tl  t2 =t2 = . the lines are parallel.2i + 6j . and z = 4 + ( is (1.
1.2. 2)· ( . y = 1 . c) when it is first sighted. Since cos2t + sin2t = 1.2 = 0. 46. 8) is orthogonal to both the given line and the line we seek. Let t = y. 1.152. 5). . In this case.Section 9.1. . 21 sin t = y.15 = 0.1. To show that lines Ll and L2 intersect. c1).2? where o ::.23. 4. If = a1 a2 + 61b2 + c1 c2 = 0.6.1. and the cross product QP x v = (. Since cos 2u = 1 .3. Then QP = (. note VI x=i(t2 y = (2. V· PQ = 6 . b = 5.1. Yo. VI • v2 5 to t = 3. x::. 2 (IY = x cos 0 or sec t .tan 2 2 = II vtllilv2II }4 ·v2 Use the identity t = sec t 2 t =1 + 1 + 4}1 + 4 + 4 8 8 Let sec t Ior y = 3tan t for 0 ::. so that t2 = 4x + 9 or to obtain t = 0 and 5 = . . Lines in W Page 463 41. e ::::. 7.5kj V· PQ = 35 . ./ 45. 1.2sin2u.152. b1.19t Vectors parallel to the given lines are VI 49. . 3.2k.1. . 1). This means the cross product v x (QP x v) = ( . The given line is parallel to the vector V = (1.1 ::. the point of intersection is ( . 3. this is a parabolic arc. 2. the lines are perpendicular and intersect at P(xo. = = t so are vectors parallel to Ll and L2.2) = 8 The equation of the hyperbola is (£Y 1 + tan tan t = 44. 2. and v2 z = 1 .2)  9) for t 43.4) is the vector from Q to the given point P( 1.23t. solve I { (~)2+ (~y = 1 Let cos t + 2t 2 = 2 5 = ~ or x = 3cos t 3 . 48.1::::. c2). y::. Suppose the helicopter is at point PI (a. The equation of the ellipse is 50. To find the the angle 0 between the lines. Then we have API = (a7)i BPI . or y = = 4 or x = _i_t cos 9 Let cos t = x . t < 211".4 . t::. Parametric Representations of Curves.1 . (Other choices of a and b will also work. Thus. the corresponding acute angle is 180· . Solving 52. 2. = . respectively. and they will coincide if they also intersect. = (aI' VI • v2 = (a2. 1).25 We see that the lines intersect when a = 0. so v and PQ are orthogonal. 2.5j . VI .20 . zo)· 53.t=5 + 25 sin t = ~ or Y = 2sin t The orientation is counterclockwisebecause t is measured in a positive direction for + 2t = 25 0::. b2. which thus has parametric equations x 47. 42.) + (b4)j bj + ck = (4i = ai + + ck = (3i2j + 2j + 5k)Sl + 5k)s2 .1. 2) and v2 = ( . 2).3 51.19) is parallel to the required line.1 Thus.)3 2 or x = J3 cos t + 2 y5 sin t . 211".5. PQ = 2i + j .2 + t = 1 2t 45 85 vectors are orthogonal. and 1 = (2. so v and PQ are orthogonal The lines are parallel to each other since they are both parallel to v = (2. . 1) and contains the point Q(2. then the { +a=2 1 + 4t = 6 . b. PQ = 5i . Y = 3 + 2t.
and Consider a fixed circle of radius a with center at the origin O. Blohardt's helicopter travels "PIP211 = ~ . Let E be the point with coordinates (a.34k Solving simultaneously. b = 251. Vectors in the Plane and in Space for constants equation 51 and 52' so that from the first t ~ 67.0055 + 105)2 + (2 + 5s)2 + (4 + 0.3)2 + {7 11.34). 5 .R cos (a (a + _f} R)O R R)O /(3 + 105)2 + (2 + 5s)2 + (4 + 0.2t = 13. fJ. we find the second point of sighting to be P2(13.j(13 .005t = ¢R or ¢ = ~ =3+ lOt. e.180t 11. (API)' a~ 7 a = 451. b 2. Let a be the acute angle at D. 7. y) . b = = . using the distance from Q to P. The vertical distance YI from D to the xaxis is Y2 = (a + R) sin O.252.10) Solving (using a calculator) The distance x2 from 0 to the projection of D on the zaxis is x2 = (a + R) cos 9. we must have d = 3 + 105. e =2+ 5t. 5) and P2(13. 0.135.0055 for some 5.5)2 ft/min Suppose the Spy intercepts Blohardt at point P{ d.= 13.005). and label the legs Xl and !/I' respectively.180t t Yl = . j= 5 + 0. 337. 0). since P lies on the line through P1(3. f =5+ Since Blohardt travels on the line through PI and P2. we have = 1.9 = 7r  ~  9 = 7r  (a 1l R)9 = J 1. Then. we have x = x2 Y 55. e = 2 + 5s. Putting all this together. 5.4 = . c 5.005 . Then.005)2 ~ = Since the Spy travels t .180 thousand 2)2 + (5. Thus. 5).005).2 = {7  2)t. The angle between DB and DP is ¢.l!!! hr rm 60 min Suppose Blohardt reaches the intercept point P at t minutes after noon. 5. The point P was originally at A. (a + R R)9 . and c = 551 (BPI) and from the second equation = 352. Similarly.2 thousand ft/mm. so = Y2 . we find 51 = 52 = 1 and a = 3.005s)2 = 13.68j + 4. (a + R)O R /(d0)2+(e0)2+U1)2 and since d /(3 ~ 13.2(s .135 and the intercept point is approximately at (674. 2.35.sm 7r cos = R sin J. 5.5 = (5. 2. 7.5)t so that a9 5. e = 2+55. A ray makes an angle 9 with the positive xaxis and contains the center D of a moving circle of radius R which makes contact with the fixed circle at B. Arcs AB and BP are the same length. (a + R)9] R . + SID 7r sin . We have f . Let A( a.p with respect to DO.YI = ( a + R)' sin 0  R' sm Consider a fixed circle of radius a with center at the origin O. 1) in the direction of the vector v 54. Then.2(t10) = 3 + lOs.. (a + R)9] R V<d3? /(10s? + {e2)2 + U5)2 s ~ 11. ft ~. We have seen that Blohardt travels at about 11. e .2(s .68.005s)2 = 13.10) for s.3 d = (13  3)t. f = 4 + 0. A ray makes an angle 0 . a = 7r  ¢. and c = 552 = 674. 0).280.005 . the Spy should travel from Q(O.10 minutes to reach the same point.180 thousand ft/min and the Spy travels at 1h 150 .Page 464 Chapter 9.R cos (a +RR)O = R sin a = R Si17r (a +RR)9] COS7rsm + {5s)2 + {0. so the first point of sighting is PI (3. _.cos 7r cos (a + R)9 R . we obtain s ~ 67. + Xl = (a + R) cos 0 .35i + 337. A ray from D to a point P( z. we have d.drawn to the right and below D for convenience on this moving circle also makes an angle . the distance from PI to P2 is Consider a right triangle with DP as hypotenuse and third vertex above P and to the right of D (for convenience). before the second circle started moving.
Section 9.y + 3z .10 . Page 465 with the positive zaxis and contains the center A of a moving circle of radius R which makes contact with the fixed circle at D._ Consider a right triangle with AP as hypotenuse and third vertex above P and to the right of A (for convenience).1 2 .2y + 2z .2 + 6z .4 . Putting all this together.6 1.y38 . I .8z .5 = 0 5(x . . A ray from A to a point P(x. and the solution is found in Vol. 0: 4(x + 1) .2 + 11 __ 1 __ v'32 + 42 + 12  V26  .drawn to the right and below A for convenience . page 158.3(y + 2) + 4(z + 3) = 0 5x . before the second circle started moving.2) = 0 4x + 4 .12 2(x+ 1) + 4(y . 15 (1981) issue.2z ./22+32+52 _ 10 _ 10y38 _ 5y38 .xo) + B(y . Planes in 1R3. R = 1) = 0 =0 Xl (a  R)B R)B =0 =0 0 0 YI .2V + 6z .Page 621622 The plane containing Po(xo.0) 3z 2y  56.~ W 18. d='l d _16 ./ 12 + 12 + 22 V6 V6 V26 26 2. we have e. Then. We have DI The distance from point P to the line L is given by the formula d= aD. 14 (1980) issue of The MA TYC Journal.k. Conversely. 0:.1) 2(y  + 2y + 3(z 3z .2x ./ A2 + B2 + (j2 3.2(y + 1) + 6(z .2x + 4y x2(x 2x  5.6. = R sin = R sm (a 0: R 7.3k) =0 14.yo) + C(z .2 3x . 9. x ./12 + 12 + 12 .10 = 0 2x . Planes in W d_1AXo + Byo + CZo+ .2) . Label the acute angle at A.(2i v29 15.(x  0) + O(y + 7) + (z  xz+1=0 10.14 2y + 4z + 7  8.10 I . 3) .6 = 0 +6= + 1) = =0 0 0 z =0 + 4j 13.Bj + Gk.8z = .3(z  + 4y 3z +5=0 1) = 0 =0 5) = 0 x = x2 Y +  Xl = (a .2(z+ . 4. Arcs DP and DE are the same length.zo) = 0 17. The distance from the point (xo' Yo' zo) to the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 is given by 19. 16.3x + 12 + 2y + 2 .R) cos B + (a. if Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 is the equation of a plane. Note that the coefficients of the variables are the direction numbers of the normal.3j + 2k) A(x . O(x .3y .2y .R) cos The vertical distance YI from A to the xaxis is Y2 = (a . . Ilv x IIvll QPII Q is any where v is a vector parallel to Land point on L.R)B R cos R R sin (a R R)B . V) . aB = l/JR or l/J = a.3) .e = (a It R)e =Rcoso:= Rcos 6. = l/J . This is Problem 148 from Vol. The distance x2 from 0 to the projection of A on the xaxis is x2 = (a . (x 12.8z= 12 .  .3y + 4z . + 1) + 4(y .0) 11.3 d_ ± h(5i .4 0 3(x4) + 2(y+ 1) . 9. and label the legs Xl and VI' respectively..4'=_§_= .on this moving circle also makes an angle l/J with respect to This point P was originally at E.38 d_11+O+111_V3 .6 + 4z + 12 = 0 5x . = Y2 YI = (a  R) sin B  2(V + x 3) 1) +  3(z .12 = 0 4x . v.. Yo' zo) with normal vector Ai + Bj + Gk has the equation ± . a vector normal to the plane is given by N = Ai + .R) sin B.2 + 4y .
3)2 + (_~)2 =.3j .6j + k.3k  15 . d= i3a4a+3a+ii . N d _127 + 12 + 81_ 47 .265 .1..5)2 ..'49+16+169 33..k.. VI + ~+ 1  18 .====~~ = 10i + 29j .3j . so d_I2 .11_ 29 2 + 292 + 182 . Then PI P2 = 2i and N = VI x v2 = J k 123 1 2 1 d= IIPQxvl1 II VII V( _4)2 + 42 + 42 = ..!.18z .3y + z = 0.18k The equation of the plane containing the given points is lOx + 29y . 0). 1.J234 22  .. Thus. PQ = .. while the second is parallel to v2 = .'38 The equation of the plane containing the given points is 2x .'4a2 + 1 + a2 y5a2 + 1 Chapter 9. The given line is parallel to the vector v = 3i + j + 2k and contains the point Q(2._...2.i .i + 2j + 3k and contains PI (2.5k 321  N = AB x AC = 1 2 4 = 6i .2 = .y'i4 . 22. so d_I2 _IP1P2·NI_I21+12 .1. 21.14 . 1)..y'i4 The given line is parallel to v and contains Q(O.Page 466 d_12a2+ 2 a+2a . The given line is parallel to v = 3i + 2j + k and contains Q(O.9j+3k 31.2). so d_I3+2+5 The first line is parallel to VI = 3i .0. PQ = i . d _ IPIP  N I _ 1.'10 24.y + 2z .i + 2j ..9 + 5 + 5) = 0.j + 2k and j k PQ x v = 1 12 312 = . .21= 31 .1)...4i + 4j + 4k 4y'3 The first line is parallel to VI = i + 2j + 3k and contains PI ( . 27.... 5. The equation of the plane normal to the given vector is 2x . 0). Thus.2j + k and contains the point P2(1.10 + 58  v'65 332. Vectors in the Plane and in Space 20.( . 1.. 3..1 = 0. 28. 0).1..i . so d _ I .'122+ 52 13 34.41_Q_ 2 y'4 + 1 + 4 .20 + 81 = 0 y'32 + 42 The first line is parallel to VI = . A normal to the plane is N PQxv= k d= 1 1 = AB x AC = j ! 2 .1 1 .2j + k and contains the point PI( 1.jf.2+2 .1 = 3i ..4al=14a2 ./9 +4 +1 ~ .5 d _148  = VI X V2 = 2· i j k 12 1 3 2 2 = 7i + 8j .48 . d = 112 .3 26.'4 + 9 + 1 ..4j + 13k 25.j + 2k and contains PiO.y'35  = VI X v2 = i j k 3 2 1 513 = 7i .3al .'9 = 8i .'9 + 1+ 11__ 3_ 25 . The equation of the plane normal to the given vector is 3x + y + 5z. . .'32 + 42 .2k and i j k 1 = i +!j k 23.. Then P1P2 = . 3. .k and PQ x v A normal to the plane is j k ijk = .131_ dIINII . while the second is parallel to v2 = 2i .'49 + 64 + 9  Vi22 65 29... N  . 1).2)2+( .2i .6+11 __ 7_ . Thus PQ = .'9 + 4 + 1 i i2a+ii = y'i4 2a2 + = laly'i4 1 30.4 = 0...31 _ IINil .i + j .2j .2).~k 5 4 26 21 IIpQxvl1 IIVII V( _1)2 + (. 0). 2 1 1 d II PQ x vii IIv II V32+( . while the second is parallel to v2 = 5i + j + 3k and contains P2(2...4j + 1 + 4 = y'i4 . Then PIP 2 = 3i .
3(xI)4z.z. 1) is on the line../82+ 42 = J5 II PoPIF = (x+ Thus.I)i + (y + I)j + zk and j k vxQP 4 1 3 xI y+I z = = 36.4z . Thus.. while the second is parallel to v2 = i .2 0 = . its equation is x yI z+I 2x .8k QRxQS 42. 230 3 1 1 = 3i .15k The area of the parallelogram II QR x QS II = 39. 3).j + 3k and contains the point Q(I.5y + 3z = 7 is d _12x . 1./512 + 472 + 252 = J5. QP (x ./42+12+32 = (3y+ z+ 3)2 + (3x . Then P}P2 i . y. so the vectors are orthogonal which means that the line is parallel to the given plane.4)2  7)2 j k N= vI X v2 = 1 . 0).1.4)2 The fi~st line is parallel to vI = i . 1.4z .Section 9.v 3 . .. a. r= r is the distance from C to the = ( 3(y+ 1). Since the line passes through P(O..2j .3)2 + (z .2k are riormal to the given k 2 1 2 3 62 i = j k 7 6 3 3 1 8 planes. 16 4 = . The point Q(l. QS = 3i + j .2k. A vector parallel to the given line is v = 3i . 1). the area in all cases is the same.r..2j + k and the normal to the given plane is N i + 2j + k.2i .6j . N2 = 3i  6j .5y + 3z ..6. and the distance from the line to the plane is the same as the distance from Q to the plane. 0. 3k.:.k and II PoPII = d when (x 40.11k . . namely d 38.j 1 1 I = 12+111 .4=+==::':25:=+==::'9~  71 N} = 2i + 3j.4+1 0. 1)2 + (y  2)2 + (z .. a. thus.j .435 43. The distance from P( x. V(3y+z+3)2+(3x 5.2)2 = is(2x .j + k and contains P2(0. N = ai = 650 + bj h. The radius plane. so = 5li is + 47j + 25k N} X N2 = = 14i .3)2+ (x + 4y + 3)2 41.3)2+(x+4y+3)2 = = . _11+O and v = Ai + ck is normal to the plane. N2 = 3i i j k 14=2=1"5 ._. 4(y+ 1)+ (xI)} 12(.2) + 3(3) +( .. IINII . QR = 7i .2j . z) to the plane This vector is parallel to the required line. . 2).. The cosine of the acute angle between the vectors is  y'6 1 11 y'6 __ 1_ In spite of the fact that the fourth vertex of the parallelogram may be located in several positions..2j and contains PI ( ./4+ I +k IPtP2·N! d= II Nil +I = y'6 2 The line parallel to v = 4i . N . The vectors NI = 2i + j j .5y = + (z + 3z . Planes in ~ Page 467 IPtP2·NI d= 35.1.6)(7) 22 + 32 + (_ 6)2 V 51 =6 The distance from P to the line is d _ IlvxQPII  IIvII (x + 2)2 + (y .7)2 = 36 37.j+k N} X N2 = Also. 0. + 1)2 + (y . + Bj + C\: is parallel to the line.
The line of intersection is: e = = + 5y + 2z  9 =0 51.4i .j2i y3 =""""1 = 47. N2 = i + j .37 or 79° Parametric equations for the given line are 1 + 2t. A vector normal to the first plane is N} = i + j + k and a vector normal to the second plane is N2 = i . we find the point 33. 1.2j + k is a normal to the given plane.47 or 142°. Then ijk N} X N2 = 1 1 1 = 2i . 1 2 + 2j k The unit vectors are N = ± !(2i . Thus. . N} = 2i + j .6+4=0 b so j3 y26 cos r = Joe so r y26 46. xl_y+5_z3 2=31A vector normal to the first plane is N} = i + j and a vector normal to the second plane is N2 = i . so the crossproduct i j k k 0 = . Z 3t. The line is parallel to the plane since = = v·N=2 53. N2 = i . N} = i + j + k.2j + k are normal to the given planes. 2]. 2.4k 1 2 1 is parallel to the required line. 0. V7 o 55. Let 0 be the angle between the normals. N} = 2i . Vectors in the Plane and in Space 44. 12). 1. (x . so the desired equation is 2x .4k.4i + 3j + k o. ::::::! 4 fo"soa::::::! A vector parallel to the given line is v 2i + 3j + 4k.1). a. so 223 45. Solving simultaneously.t.t) 6t 31 = 5 3t A vector parallel to the line through P(I. . N2 = 2i + 3j . Since the line passes through P(2.1 .5. Then j +3  2t .4j . Two parallel planes have the same normal vectors. N} X N2 = 2 11 1 1 1 = 3j + 3k A plane orthogonal to the given line will have attitude numbers [3. x . N2 = i.1). .y r = I y~ andx= a 13 + 3z + D=0 The plane passes through P(l. .2k 1 1 1 1 2 . 1. 3. 2) and Q(2.j + k. and this vector is parallel to the desired line. .41 cos 0 = IIN}IIIIN211 . the given point is P(9. and this vector is normal to the desired plane.2  =5 1=4 Thus.1) + 2(y + 1) + (z . Then Axo + Eyo + Czo = D} and the distance from Po to the second plane IS The unit vectors are N = ± ~(i .k N} X N2 = IINtxN21F cosa= cos j3 = 1 j 1 k 1 + D = 0 or D = 3 Thus. N} X N2 = Let Po( xo' Yo' zo) be a point on the first plane.1 = 0 A vector normal to the given plane is N = 2i . 5. 48. It will have equation: 3(x .2j + k). 52.2k. This line intersects the plane when = = = ::::::! 3(1 + 2t) + 2( . 2x . 0).y 8 and x + y= 5. N21 12. y 1 .k i j k 50.3k.y + 3z + 3 = 2 3 1 = .j + k. 54. It must also pass through (2.2) + 5(y . 3) is v = i + 2j + k. then 2x . IN}. its equation is x2 y3 z1 1= 1= 156. ::::::! 1. 1).3j + k.2) = 0 x + 2y + z .1. N i . 2.3 = .k).1 .2i o 49.94 or 54°.18 or 68°. The vectors Nt = i + 2j .1) + 2(z + 1) = 0 3x Now to find a point. = 16 + 9 + 1 = 26.Page 468 Chapter 9.j + k. j. Thus. if z 0.
0)... 4.. a. If the plane has xintercept P( a. A normal to the two parallel planes containing the skew lines is given by N = VI x v2• Then the distance d between the planes and hence between the lines may be computed as the projection of PI P2 on N.=.===. ~+ ~+ ~ = 1. If R(O. Thus..!. then Ii + b + C . 6. N2 = 0.1. hyperbola z e IPIP2·NI liN II = IIPIP2111IPIP211I1NII IPIP2·NI . 0).F'~~= + Byo + CZo VA2 + ~ + d D21 D21 9.!! abe or + ~ + s  0 !I .jA2 + B2 + d 1421 _ _L_V6" + By2 + C? + Dxy + Exz + Fyz + Gx 3 2.!+~+£1 abe 59. NI = VI X WI is normal to PI and N2 = v2 X w2 is normal to P2. Quadric Surfaces Page 469 d IAxo  ~"':"'_. d57. B elliptic cone. 60.B. ellipse yzplane. D hyperboloid of two sheets. I. The trace of a surface is the intersection the surface with a plane. Then. 0. c) 5. E hyperboloid of one sheet. ellipse yzplane. 11. L Ellipsoid xyplane. ellipse xzplane. 0. ellipse yzplane. F. c) and the plane has normal j PQ x PR k 8. 0. Hyperboloid of two sheets xyplane. that is. G. 12. E. ellipse xzplane. we obtain . hyperbola parallel to yzplane.8 1. + Hy + Iz+ J =0 Since NI = Ali + BIj + Clk is normal to the first plane and N2 = A2i + B~ + C2k is normal to the second. 13.a. D. or aligned with their line of intersection. = . v = NI x N2 is parallel to both planes. Al A2 + BI B2 + CI C2 = O. d = II PIP 211 cos 15. b. B. hyperbola xzplane.abO a0 c = bci + acj + abk and its equation is bc(x a) + ac(y  0) + ab(z  0) =0 z Dividing by abc. then where A. 9. hyperbola 16. Hyperboloid of one sheet xyplane. ellipse xzplane. ellipse 14.. I hyperboloid of two sheets. the angle between the planes is 7r /2 if and only if NI . 3. G hyperbolic paraboloid. I x I > 3. F sphere. If the plane has yintercept o b 0_ Q(O. 10. 7. \!1+1+4V6" . 0) and PR = ( . then Then PQ = ( g + ~+ ~ = 1. J hyperboloid of one sheet. H. Quadric Surfaces. circular cone. ellipse of 58. is the zintercept. A paraboloid. H paraboloid. Ellipsoid xyplane. Page 626627 A quadric surface is the graph of an equation of the form A~ IDI  = h. b.Section 9.==. C. and J are constants.
~.1. parallel to xyplane. Hyperboloid of two sheets parallel to xyplane.Y] . . Hyperbolic paraboloid parallel to xyplane.31.5 + 1+ 1 !)2 + (z + !)2 with vertex ~ = (x  This is an elliptic paraboloid (!. y elliptic paraboloid. xyplane.1. 0. z =j:. ~) 1.2.46. 3) with semiaxes 2. Ellipsoid centered at (1. ellipse I zl > Ij ellipse parallel to yzplane. 0) with the xaxis as the axis of symmetry. and 28.194? + (y + 2)2 + 3(z + ~)2 = 54~3 3 Note: 54°2 = 1 + 7(194 + (2~ + 1 a(~1 This is an ellipsoid centered at with semiaxes approximately 2. parabola xzplane. yzplanej hyperbola x =j:.z + 5 = 0 [x2 + 2x] . hyperbola z > 0.!. the yaxis as the axis of Hyperboloid of two sheets. The axis of symmetry is the xaxis. 19. . Elliptic paraboloid with vertex at ( !.¥x ] + [1/ + 4y] + ~? + iz] = 1 7(x . +~+~= 1 and the elliptic .[? + z] = (x + 1)2 _ (y _ !)2 _ (z + !>2 = Note:  _¥ 5 ¥= 5+1 1 . xyplane. centered at (1. x=1/ . :r? + } = 1 hyperboloid of one sheet xyplane. z? .00. 27. Vectors in the Plane and in Space 17.Page 470 Chapter 9. hyperbola Elliptic cone 26. 3) 7:r? + 1/ + 3} . and 3. ellipse 1/  25. hyperbola parallel zzplane.[1/ . ellipse yzplane. ellipse = :r? + 9} 22. hyperbola z =j:. elliptic cone xyplanej hyperbola yzplanej hyperbola 1/ = :r? + 3} 24. 30.~ hypertolic paraboloid. parabola yzplane. :r?  x y+}+z+5=0 (x . hyperbola yzplane. 0. parabola xzplane.} . 20. xzplane. 1. xyplane. Elliptic paraboloid 18. parabola yzplanej parabola zzplane. The ellipsoid ~ 31. 0.r + 2x + y . hyperbola zzplane: parabola 29. 9 (1 4'  2. parabola 23.9x+ 4y+ 7z= 1 7(:r? . parabola yzplane.!)2 .1 21.!). This is a hyperboloid of two sheets centered at ( . 1. 3.Y + (z + !)2 y = . . !) and symmetry.
1o)2 + (. If the point P(x.10 + [. between z x = 7 + 2. z) is on the required surface... y = 2. h..8.356.356. ~).. (0.~= The intersection of the surfaces is found by solving the equations simultaneously: y=x'2+1l :?+y2 .378.2 and the polar radius is b = 6.. substitute x = 1 .t 4 (2 + t)2 4 1 1  The area of this cross section is ~O'(3 = {aR][bR] ~a{ 1~) x L + 3t =0 t = 6 ± 2V1O are Thus.2)2(6. then V= o J ~~ 5 dz = J ~(9z) 0 5 dz .~) To find the points of intersection.. of an ellipse. y = and the distance d = {[7 + 3) these two points is = 34. The volume is V= = x'2+1l_1_:? 2 2 a b  = ~~(6.. The intersection of the surfaces is found by solving the equations simultaneously: This is an ellipse in the xyplane.10 + [.10 .10.~) (3t)2 (1 _)2 9.10 .378. 32..lS)]2}1/2 = J(4.t.. + 2.10 .. 33.. ~c~bc z .10 ..4.f]l~= t~abc [ 2 c The trace of the paraboloid in the yzplane is the parabola z = ~ and the entire paraboloid can be generated by revolving this parabola about the aaxis for 0 ~ z ~ 5.. y. of one sheet ~ + ~. 0.Section 9.4)]2 IS .2.10: 2.~ and This is the equation 1 36.(6. a where 0'2 ~+ = a{ (3 ~= 1 and (32 = b2( 1 .. By applying the disk method..4V1O)2 + (12V1O? =4VUo 39.(2. Quadric Surfaces Page 471 35.5) km3 ~ 1.4.y+!=! :? + (y _ !)2 = ! This is the equation of a circle. the two points of intersection t = 6 = + 2V1O: Integrating with respect to z.. (~Z)+~~=1 This is a hyperbola ~!? z + ~y= ~ l( in the yzplane centered at 37.. we find that the volume of the ellipsoid is =7 . The hyperbolic the hyperboloid intersect where paraboloid z = ~ .2.. a.10  (7 . Y 2 + t. Each crosssection perpendicular to the zaxis (for 1 zl < c) is an ellipse with equation The equatorial radius is a 6. we find that the paraboloid has volume 1l.08319 x 1012 km3 ~~a2b = + 2 c2 38.3) .5..2..10)]2 4 . and z 3t into the equation for the hyperboloid: = 1 ... z t = 6 = 6(.10 ..2V1O.6....10 =6(.
If v = (aI' a2. a3). = al bl + a2 b2 + a3 b3 has the form of a quadric Alternately. 40. z) from the origin is J? + :. If (}is the angle between the nonzero vectors v and w. 3. Thus. CHAPTER 9 REVIEW Proficiency 1. vectors are arranged so that their points coincide. Examination. u + (u) = 0 IIvll = (v. . of p( x. (cw) u' (v An object moving with displacement R with a constant force F does work W = F· R + w) =u . v+u . k. k (x a)2 + (y . 15.w + lOx + 10y + 10z This equation surface. + ?] = 81 + 72x + + 36y.(w = X v) (x . It is the scalar compwv v'w = """jj'W'jj"" f. d.w)2 y2 + lOy .b)2 + (z  c)2 = ~ 10. w = v . then cos () =IIVII"wll V· W A vector is a directed line segment and a scalar is a real number. + . The formula for the vector projection of v in the direction of w is the vector projwv = (~ '. 6. c. h. Geometrically. then sv = (sal' sa2. The distance IP1P21 between P1(xl. Y2' z2) is 1 = Jr( X:2~XI )2+(y2 yI)2+(~ZI)2 J? + :.2xz . The vector projection of AB onto AC is the vector from A to a point D on AC so BD is perpendicular to the line formed by AC. h. 9. Ifu = sv.v)I/2 v·w=w·v u+v=v+u (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u+O=u 18.)w 4.. points on the required surface satisfy I PI P2 12 • 13. Algebraically.10z + 25] 2~ + 2Y. Define a direction (generatrix). then the sum of the is the diagonal of the parallelogram by the two vectors. u and v are orthogonal vectors if the lines determined by those vectors are perpendicular. The scalar projection of An onto AC is the component of v in the direction of w. If two initial vectors formed a.2yz 25 = 0 The dot product of vectors v = at i + a~ + a3k and w = bl i + b~ + b3k is the scalar denoted by v • wand given by v. 14. + . j. Move a line (directrix) along the curve parallel to the generatrix. J. The distance lIu + vII ~ IIuli + IIvII 16~ 8. U· v = IIu 1111 v IIcos () where () is the angle between the vectors u and v. + 2? 2xy .Page 472 Chapter 9. 7. + :? = M~ + + 2yz  IIvxwlr = IIvll11wlr  (v. U Draw a planar curve. + 36? = 45 This is an ellipsoid. sa3). = 7a'x lOx  + y+ z:? + 51 2xy + 2xz v . The resulting surface is a cylinder. and its distance form the plane x + y + z = 5 is )31 x+ y+ z  51· 11. e.. sv is a sll v IIunits long and points along v if s > 0 or in the opposite direction if s < O. u· v = 0 17. Pages 628629 16. YI' zl) and P2(x2. c(v· w) = (cv). Vectors in the Plane and in Space i. vxO=Oxv=O v u x (v + w) (u X v) + (u X w) or (u + v) x w = (u x w) + (v x w) = O. g. y. then uxv IIu II= II ai + bj + ck II = J a2 + b2 + c2 36[(x + 20~ Y. 2. X w = .1)2 + Y. + ? = 9 + 4x 1)2 + Y. w . i.iiVii ~+ Y. 19. + ? =9 6J(x + 1)2 + + 1)2 + y'2 + + + (x 6J(x + 1)2 + y'2 :? :? 5.
xo) + B(y  yo) + C(z  zo) = 0 k 25i . cos I = = jjVjj a3 h.3) + 3(= h. then "v x w" = II v 1111 II sin 8 w If u = al i + a~ + a3k. Ax2 + By2 + C:? + Dxy + Exz + Fyz + Gx + Hy 33. Then your thumb points in the direction of the positive zaxis. C.3 1 = 5i + 5j + 5k 1 12 (5i+5j+5k)·(3i+5k) =40 then the direction cosines of v are al a2 cos 0: jjVjj . 26. h.Chapter 9 Review If v al i + a~ + a311: and w bi i + b~ + b311:. 1 (u x v) .zo) to the plane Ax + By + Cz + D 0 is given by = (a2b3 .13 = 1 v.2) + 1(0) = 12 2i + 3j + 5k 24. 2v +3w = [2(2) + 3(3)]i + [2(. zo) and is parallel to v = Ai + Bj + Ck. z) that satisfy the equation 22. a. y yYo = Yo + f. 32. the cross product. 28. + Iz + J = 0 where A. 27. F. w I. 3 2 0 g(3i . The distance from the point (xo.3)2 + 12] [32+(_ 2)2] = 14 .2j) 25. 13i 2))j + [2(1) + 3(0)]k 12j 23. v = bi i + b~ + b3k. _I  Axo + Byo + CZo + D A2 + J32 + (jl vi 1 The (shortest) distance from the point P to the line L is given by the formula d= IIv x QPII IIvII where v is a vector aligned with Land any point on L. i j 11: 231 1 12 x (3i + 5k) = (5i + 5j + 5k) x (3i + 5k) i J 555 305 A(x 29. If v and ware nonzero vectors in R3 with B the angle between v and w (0 ::. a. 71').15k The standard form of a plane with normal . B. Suppose the line passes through the point (xo.w= al d 31. G. If v xxo = Xo + A = tA. uxv = (uxv). compv w = B =C tB. D. a. If v and ware nonzero vectors in R3. (u xv) . The plane Ax + By + Cz + D 0 has normal vector N = Ai + Bj + Ck The plane containing the point Po(xo. and w is the absolute value of the triple scalar product. x d. h. y. z = zo + tC zzo 34. c. then the triple scalar product can be found by evaluating the determinant a.w= 12 6 v'l4 w·v n.rr = v'l4=7 = al i + a~ + a3k is a nonzero vector.10j . Place the little finger of your right hand along the positive xaxis and wrap your fingers around the positive yaxis. The volume of a parallelepiped formed by u. j k 2 . Yo. and w = ci i + c~ + c3k.al b3)j + (al b2  bI)1I: These terms can be obtained by using a determinant j k vxw= al a2 aa bi b2 b3 21. = = vector N = Ai + Bj + a is = Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 30. H. cos (3 = jjVjj . E. + 2k hI ci a2 b2 c2 b3 c3 a3 IIv 112lIwlr = [22 + (. I. = Not possible to take the cross product of a scalar and a vector. v. written v x w. B ::. that are not multiples of one another. yo' zo) with normal vector N = Ai + Bj + Ck has pointnormal form c.a3b2)i + (a3bI ~ . is the vector vxw Page 473 20. Q is A quadric surface is the set of all (x. and J are constants.yo. then v x w is orthogonal to both v and w.w = 2(3) ij 11: 231 + (= 3)( .
I. d= x = .i . 1) and is parallel to v = 3i + 5j .10. 4): I = =6 .1) 1st line: x = 7 + 5t1. then x = 0 (from the first equation) and x = 7 (from the second equation). 2. Not possible to take the dot product of a scalar and a vector. 2. so d_IN. The normals to the given planes are 3k Nl = 2i + 3j + k and N2 = j A vector parallel N1 N2 = 2 (This is the absolute determinant ). 2.4Using point P and the direction numbers x y+2_z1 [2. the distance from the point to the line .Page 474 Chapter 9. Using Q and the vector PQ (I. A normal to both lines is N = VI xV2 The plane is: 17x 19(y .13 or 122 11 0. lOt. 3 . V= 1 0 =6 value of the is ~ I(u x v)· + O(y  + 3(z 2x + 3z 1) 3) = 0 11 = 0 1 11 301 37.wl i j k 2 1 0 . In this case.30 or 74 Then the distance between the lines is the scalar projection of P1P2 on N: PIP 2 = i + 2j + k. they are skew. 0.2.1 4 2J3<) = J3<)=15 The first line contains P1(O. 0) found by setting z = O.64 or 3T 0 k 3 1 = .4. 3}. 5.(1. to the required line is j h.6.2) + 13(z + = 1) = 0 2 17x+ 19y+ 13z . I). we find tl = 1:2= . a. II Nil  /(_1)2+(_4)2+32J26 The line contains the point Q(2. Volume of a tetrahedron 2 wi X o 3 k 1 = ~A21(uxv). To determine if they intersect we need to solve a system of equations. so they are not parallel. which means that if the lines intersect t = ~ (from the first equation). 3 2 j k 51 51 = lOi . Thus.PIP21_ 1(1. We have QP = 2i + 5j + k and i v x QP = h. 3]: 2(x .5j + 5k Thus. = 35.1. 2) 13 12 = A2 12 + k) A point on the line of intersection is Po( _123. a. .25 = 0 39. 13) 43. . so they are not parallel. 0.~j hj so j3 ~ cos I = so I ~ 1.1. 0) and is parallel to v2 = ( . 0. z = 2t Use P as the point. Both equations contain the point (2. 2 41. The direction numbers are not scalar multiples. y = 6 + 41:2. we see that z = 3.k. 3). the line has parametric form = A2(6) = y'2 + 5(1) + (1)(4) . 19. (3i 1 . The direction numbers are not scalar multiples. and find the direction numbers by finding PQ x PRo PQxPR 2(1) = + ij k 156 = (17. 36. 44. Thus.4j + 3k cos /3 = y14 . 1) and is parallel to VI = (1. y = 6 + 4t1.123 38. From the second equation. 3).3 /22 + 52 + (_ 1)2 A2 = 2 A 42.I. z = 9 + 6t2 Solving these equations simultaneously. and the second contains P2(1. Y = 5 + 6t. 6. cos 0' ~ 0' = 2 2+12 /(2)2+3 0 j 04 so = 1 j 2 2. 2.1 = (.1}1_ 6 40. z = 8 + 5t1 2nd line: x = 8 + 6~. Vectors in the Plane and in Space d.
a.(50. The work performed on the sled is the horizontal component of the force times the displacement. 2 + 21 C'" '" 30 • 1 z AD = pi + (p .4 mph Supplementary 1. f. = ~). BD = (p .1)i + pj + 4k is ~ I(AD x BD).3k CD = (p . z = 3 1. A vector parallel to the line is v = (3.l)j . b.200. hyperbolic paraboloid Co hyperboloid of two sheets d. The magnitude of this vector is the ground speed: a.7k W= F·PQ = (3 47. so x = 4t. so Y = 9 6 9t 1 P p1 p1 p2 p.200)2~ 168. x = 1 + 3t. '" • B '" 26 C = IICAli CA .. a.200.1 p 1 3 4 = ~ 18p . 0). cos b.. hyperboloid of two sheets j. a.3 ~ 130 ft Ib b. BC 1111 BC II = 1 JiB + 28 y50. (250. z =t .= =1. we have 3p  165 p = 100 6 = 205 . (0. 25\L_2. + 25 + 1  J35 The path of the airplane is represented by the sum of the vector of the airplane. + (250 . x 2. 49.1). line g. y = .. CDI Volume of a tetrahedron b.0). 250 .4). hyperboloid of one sheet e. . 3. ! = t. ~ = t.Chapter 9 Review Page 475 is d_ 45. A = + IIACII + IIBCII JiB + v'l4 + y50 j 1 1 Ie 4 = 8. CB IICBII = y'i4 y50. Page 629631 3k.2 + t. "AB" = 75. Problems. 1. In vector terms: AB = i .Pl(2. plane f.l)i + (p . elliptic cone b. sphere h.j + 4k. = IIBA BA .k" = hl121 + 49 + 1 = !v'l71 c.2 + v'l4 = !IIABxACli =! 2 1 23 = !" lli + 7j . O~ and the vector of the wind. . Path: (25V2. 48. AC = i .9 50.2j BC j . Y =  9t..and  t = 4t. 0) a. hyperboloid of two sheets )(250)2 46.2)j + k.12 A"'" 125· JiB y'i4.151 Since the volume is 100 cubic units. '" Y X 2t+l = 7 = 2 or y = 2x. elliptic (circular) paraboloid i. "v x QP 11_ "hoo + 25 + 25 _ 516 IIv II ". • y A B = "AB" IIACII = AB· AC 1 + 2 . x:2: 1 cos cos d. so xI 3Ht= y+2 z3 = 1.
2(y + 3) + 3(z + (wou)v  2) = 0 Thus. A normal vector is N = (5. 14. Using the cabbac formula. 4(x + 1) + 4(y 4x 3(z  5) = 0 3 and (uxv)xw= [wx(uxv)] = [(vow)u = (wov)u (u·w)v] + 4y .7k 17.8i + j . 1) 3. and if t = 1. The only other possibility is for the planes to intersect in a single point. VI =i + 2j + 2kj v2 = 2i +j (u x v)] (uou)v] [(vou)u A vector parallel to the line of intersection j k V= 1 2 2 = Si + 7j . z = t 13.j + 2kj v2 = i + 2j + 3kj (2u k 7 + v) x (u  = 5 4 o 2 2 .2. 3)0 Thus. Thus.(x . 1) is on both Iines. y = 3 + 4(y + 3) + 4y 4)   (z .3i . 3kj is f and y= 4 7(y + 1) + 7(z x+yzl=O If t = 1. w =F 0 guarantees that the normal vectors u. v.[(o)u . 0.4 _ z + 1 S 7 3 o 5. z=o 3(x .2. 1). no two of the planes can be parallel. o = 2v i . .32 = 0 10. . y = 4.3i 0) 2j 12 + 11k 3 .[u X 4. ux(vxw) = (w. 4.2) = 0 11z u(u  w = .2y + 3z . 7.3(x 1)  1 2(y 1  2u + v = 5i  + +  l1(z . 1) Using the cabbac formula.3z + =0 9.3j + 4k + 3w u = 2(3i  2j + k) + 3( 4i + j  11.Uo The required line has the equation L: x . VI = 4i + 2kj J v2 = 3i +j  2kj k 2 = 2( .2kj PR = . N= 7(x4) 3 1 1 = 7i 7j + 7k 2) = 0 x"2 x 1= 1 = + u.2+1+4 w) =3 j = 3i . IIvll = ". PQ = . (u x v) xu = :. u x (v x w) = (u x v) x w if and only if (wou)v (uov)w (vou)w= (wov)u (wov)u+(wou)v =0 =0 1= 5x .(l)v] =v Similarly. . P2(7. Vectors in the Plane and in Space i j 2 k 2 3 if t = 2. VI + 2y + 19 =0 = + 2kj thus.j . (u x v) x V 2 1 3 = .u)v (vou)w + 13 8.4) .2j v) w 0 3x 12. and ware not all in the same plane.i + 7j vx(wxu) N= 4 0 3 1 2 + 2k) 16.3k .3) + 7(y + 2) + 2(z x7y 2z  1) = 0 15 =0 k. The condition u x v . PI(3.1) 3x 6.Page 476 Chapter 9. P2( 1.2i + j 4j 4kj 7kj k = .9 v +4+ v'i4 (4i + j 3k) 3k) w = (3i  2j + k)  . 5(x . The point (3. v = . nor can two of them intersect in a line that is parallel to the third. 4.4) z =0 =0 15.3 _ Y .j i N= S j = 18i .
w . The area is IIvxwll = y'16 + 9 + 49 = 23. v= 2 1 = y'21 j k 10 1 3 = 3i + 6j + k ~. 0).15k) = 14i + 7j + 20k b. 0). v = ±( V'i9 3· 1 + 09 + 1· J 09 3 k) 67X20 28.7k The point P( . the xzplane intercept is Q(21. a. these lines are parallel to the given lines.j + 2k. 14. 25. i j k N= VI X v2 = 3 26 1 32 = 14i . 2. 26.~) and the radius is ~. 21. 0.3. Then = d.21Z= 20. t=O so x = 6. t = 5 so x = 21 and z = 25. + 99Z = 121 Vectors parallel to the given lines are vI = 3i . 7) is on the first line and hence on the plane (since the lines intersect).4y + 12z 6 and 4x + 3z = 7. .COS/= ~ 5 3X . the planes are 37X cosa=~. the xyplane intercept is R(6. Draw the line y + z = 5 on the yzplane. The center is (0.5(2· + . the yzplane intercept is P(O.10j . = 3i .4 + 1 + 25 I J 2x  ° + 13 = ° 7) = Let (X. If y = 0. 0. Let v = 3i . Z) be a point that is equidistant from 3x .61 = 14X + 3Z . In .(6i + 3j . and (6.3w = (20i + 10j + 5k) . Thus. Iv·wl TvT 19. ~. 0) 16 v'i4 y'9 .4z + 1 = 0 4?+4(y2+3y+~) y74 +4(.2k Thus. Y. 10). the angle between the lines is cos e = II VI 1111 V211 = 1 vI . then that plane is parallel to the axis corresponding to the missing variable. t = . 1).2.10k 18.? + 12y . y = 10.?(y z+~) = 1+9+1 ?+ 24. 10. If z=O.41 0 22. .2 so y = 14 and z = 10. When two variables are missing.i i j k vxw = 3 4 0 1 1 1 = . + ~)2 + (z _ ~)2 = ~ When one of the variables is missing from an equation of a plane. e = 74 j+k + 1 .4i .2j + 6k. 3).j . 4? + 41 + 4. then the plane is parallel to the coordinate plane determined by the missing numbers.4 Y + 12Z .COSf3= + 20Y Y .3j .2i .j94 27. y + z = 5 is parallel to the xaxis. v2 = i .3j + 2k. v21 Plane.2v . _ 5k) w .7k b. (0. an equation for the plane is 14(x + 7k II = y'36 + 9 + 49 = . 0.w" = "8i + 4j + 2k . and then complete the plane. 5v . 0.. Simultaneously solve the system of equations representing the planes to find P(3. a. 25).71 Jf6+9 1 y'9 + 16 + 144 5(3X 4Y + 12Z  6) = ± 13(4X + 61 and 3Z  7) Two possible answers. intercepts are (0. If x = 0. + 3)  7(z z (v· w)w _ 8 + 2 . thus.4j and w = . so a VI c.Chapter 9 Review Page 477 normal to the plane is = 6i .j + 5k" = 116i 3j + c. v2 = 2i .
50)· (25. Q(O. we have is D = (25. x = 4 is parallel to the yzplane. the total surface area is the sum of the triangular areas: = = N = i a J a k a0 The equation o a = a2(i + j + k) of the plane is ~I u x v" + "u x w" + "v x w" + II(u  v) x (w . v. +2 (3 ~ The altitude from vertex A to side distance d from A to the given line: dIlvxAPoII IIvll  Be is the J71 VI CA·CB cos I = II CA 1111 CB II = 3. and the fourth face is determined by u . vxw = •• = (cos B sin ¢ . Thus. Y = 2 sin t is a circle. Thus. 35.3). The given line contains the point Po( .wlIvllllwil W·V Thus.JVal al  a = 2i + 3k. Three of the faces are the triangles determined by u.t 2+ 2+ a2 c1 + 6 2+ 1 2a1 + C1 1 2 261 c 1 2 The force is F = 100('f.v.96 13 cos = IIvII II WI II = V· v·wl J5J Vi.2i + 4j . 30. then AB = .2. AC = i + 3j . 0) and is parallel to v Then APo = (3.v lI llllw211 w2  .3 v'46J1o. and w taken in pairs.IIAC II = AC . B( .2. 0). = F· PQ = 10 + 3 = f3 . a1  261 = 2a1 + c1 = F· D = (50y3. Vectors in the Plane and in Space this case. The same area is 3 3 • A = IIvllllwll Thus.0) + (z . 2. 0) = 1. 4).2. 3). 0. 7} y'l4y'46.0) =0 . x = 2 cos t. (IIvllw + IIwllv)· (IIv IIw  IIWIIV) = IIvlrw.Page 478 Chapter 9. .>============2 a. 2) and j vxAPo cos B sin ¢  = sine ¢  B) = (2. and C{2. 0).6k. PQ = W i~(5) cos a ~ 7. 1. a). 36. R(O.3). 8. I = 900 JI00 + 64 + 49 _ J4+1+16  Thus. 34. = (1)(1) sin(¢ sin B cos ¢  B) . Let A(I. . 1. then PQ ai + aj. displacement W i) and the Since the angles are the same. Let P( a. 0). are orthogonal.1 + 6 + 18 k 4 = {10. and BC = 3i .6k. 32. BC y'l4y'iO. .250y3 a1 + 261 + c1 = 0 38.v) I~ (x  a) + (y . we have Area = !dIlBCIi 31.1. 1.j cos a AB = II AB II. PR ai + ak 33. a. v w + IIwllllvllv·wIIwlrv·v =0 IIv IIW+ IIwllv and IIvllwIIwllV = (cos B)i + (sin B)j and = (cos ¢)i + (sin ¢)j i cos B cos ¢ j sin B sin ¢ k 0 0 29.v and w .sin B cos ¢)k The absolute value is the area of the parallelogram formed by v and w. 0. 3 a "" '" 250 65° = 2 3 1 2 2 cos (3 = II BA 1111 BC II = BA .
r = 3k and w = . to u and to u.3A + 3 = 0 or A = 3 3 Thus. N2 = i + 3j  + 2(u·v) Thus. z) to the xyplane is its distance to the point 46. a vector parallel to the line of intersection is J It N3 = NI x N2 = 2 11 = 211ulr + 211 v 112 51. PI: 2Ax + 3y = O.2i  2j h/81 + 81= 2 1 1 2 40. = Izl. v = vt x v2 = i 1 j k 10 . 9). +k 1 +j = . k 3 . v = i . Let P have coordinates (a.j _ 6)2 Thus. Ir vir 2(u·v) + 2(v·v) of the plane is x  The diagonals are u + v and u . and AC = 3i. and d2 = Thus. the area is A = ~IIABxBCII= o o 9y2 45. P2: x  Ay + 3z NI = 2Ai + 3j + kj N2 = i  Aj + 3k. we obtain Izi = + ~ + (z 6)2 J ~~+~+ J~ 2 +j + k (z . b.3y .i + 2k) + b(2i . 2k so At P(3. 6) is u = i . e].i + j + 2k. A by u and v is k 50. h/1 + 16 + 9 = 2 y26 49. j. so 2A . NI = u N2 = u v is orthogonal w is orthogonal 2 so the area is A = ~lIvxwll 42. the equation of L is x+l y2 1= Iand z= 0 Q(O. PI: 2x i 1 j k 23 If u and v are vectors along consecutive sides of the parallelogram.b( X X 6i + j) are unit normals.12z + 36 = 0 and w = 2i j It 1 = i + 4j 47. au + bv +'cw = 0 a( . then = v + tw is the set of position vectors in the line x = a + At. then the sum of squares of the sides is 211 112 211 u + v = i+j 1 1 2 y + z= 0 z= k 2.7 z 3k.2k) = 0 ( . = 5. T so N 1 N = i + 6j is the tangent vector. it is a circular paraboloid. P2: x+ 3y  NI = 2i .b + 3c)j + (2a + 3b .9j 9k ABxBC = 1 3 The angle between the plane is 7r /2 when Nl . and k are linearly independent.NI __ 3 __ 304 h . 0.kj w = 2i N Solving dl = d2.IIN II 14 Vi4  .v. = x + ~ + (z ~+i 41.6)2 = uxv = j k 111 1 2 1 = .6i + j is a normal vector and = V37 =7.2c)k = 0 Since i. and z C + Ct. Y = b + Bt.i + 2j + 3k of .2j = 1 2 NI x N2 is parallel to u. and the sum of the squares of their lengths are lIu+vlf+llu = 2(u·u) y+ z= 4.a + 2b + c)i + ( . v = i + 2j . thus. The distance dl from P(x. = 2i + 3j + 7k 1 3 1 .j + k. y.j + 3k) + c(i + 3j .Chapter 9 Review Page 479 x+y+z=a 39. normal to the plane determined N=vxw= The equation 43.j + k. + 3j j +z= 1. v= i . vxw = 1 + 3k 48. Since AB = i have The equation of the plane is 2x . the altitude h is the scalar projection w onto N: _lw. Yes. we 44. N2 = 0.
i = a 1 simultaneously. let vL and vR denote . but he's nothing if not resourceful. ABC is at M. His mind clears. u2. Thus. and OM intersect at P. vI uI' v2 54. we Solving these equations find a = 3/4. y. a clever young spy named Aaron Archer. The midpoint V2)VI] . and C be the vertices of the tetrahedron. so From this equation we find x = ~. OP = ON OP h. 2) and 52. we find a = b = c = 0.v2 The Spy has no clue how to proceed. Aaron's actions remind the Spy of his own youth and a problems course he once took at the University of Toronto. Uz = (UIXUz).a)CD of vectors. OAB is at N.!CD = ~D + (1 + (1 + 13 aOD:. DP=BM+MP bDD = ~BA + aMC CD = . VI)V2 . B. If u. it follows that ~b~a bOM = ~D bOM = ~D b[OD = OJ a b =0 then Solving. and ware a = b = ~. Uz Solving. linearly independent.~i . for the x(a1i + a:J + a3k) + y(b1i + b:J + b3k) By the property of equality coefficients of OD: b£+L=. AD) = a(AD + ~AB) with a parallelogram. the vectors are dependent if and only if D= O. This is the case only when al bl cl D = a2 b2 c2 = 0 a3 b3 c3 Thus.ta)AB= (a . Vectors in the Plane and in Space a + 2b b 2a +c=0 + 3c = 0 2c = 0 + 3b  = [CuI . v.(vZXVI) = (UI XUz)· (VI xV2) 55.(UI' = [UI x (vz x vI)] .) = Let 0. z) we have.4j + 3k.(1. Suppose cs. of AB is D( ~. we obtain 53. and a solution begins to form. the centroid for 6. 4. Aaron picks up a shovel. what are you waiting for?" he snaps at his apprentice. 136. Then. paces off the same distance and begins to dig. the centroid is M(~. we obtain uI . CM = (2/3)CD = 2( ~i4j so +3k) b(BA + AD) = ~BA + a(MB + BC) b(BA + AD) = ~BA + aMB b(AD + BA) = ~BA ~BA + b(AD + BA) = ~AB + b(AD  a(~AB+ + a(~AB) + AD) + 3[(x2)i + (y8)j + (z+l)k] aBC aAD 56. a.vI u2. The vectors are linearly independent if and only if this linear system has only x = y = Z = 0 as a solution. turns right.Page 480 Chapter 9. paces off half the distance from the woodpile to the flagpole. the centroid for 6. terms in a. Let S denote the position where the snowman had been. "Well.. we obtain (We are dealing BC AD. so the given vectors are linearly independent. Also. A.J! + z(cli + This implies c:J + c3k) = 0 and for CD: 3 3 { + a2x + a3x + al x bl y b2y b3y + cl Z = 0 + c2z = 0 + c3z = 0 57. y = 136. + ~DC] = ~D bOD .CD] and since AB and AD are not parallel. b = 3/4. for any vector v. The midpoint of AB is D.CD] . By expanding the determinant.b)AD = ~D + (1 + (1 a)NC a)(ND + DC) a)~D a)~D . 1). For the centroid M(x. and let Wand F denote the positions of the woodpile and flagpole.. Combining + NP (~ b . and z = 1.
Area of 6 ABC = Area of 6 PQR = f( . then + b(a·u) + c(fJ·u) .AC] =~AB = W'u if follows that a·fJ=a·w (1.s.w _ (w·u)u a'u=v. RP = sCM and PM tCM.. note that + SFR AN point P satisfies + SB) = AB + ~AC  AB) = ~AB + lAC By the law of cosines.AC = ~AB . Thus.Chapter 9 Review It _ 1 Page 481 the vectors obtained by rotating v through 90° counterclockwise and clockwise. b.uII u 112 AP+PM 'A~P~ Since AN CM ~ = AM fJ·u _ (w·a)a lIalr lIulr =0 (w·a)a·u lIalr 0=0 (w·a)a. by symmetry) has side = MSW = sw + + SF] + ![SFR ![SF  SWm SWm SW) + ![SF  =SW+WM+WMR where M is the midpoint of WF. PQ ~AN.. where 3s+3 2 3  = ls+!t1 3 3 3 SA and SB and digging SP = SW+SWL since AB and AC are linearly independent (are not parallel).a)lIalr lIalr (v uluu (w·u)u. 59."':"'_i. turning right. = a·w"Y'U = a(u·u) @(1 . then the inner triangle 6 PQR (which is also equilateral.fi Y =~fL2) L v:L2 = JrL 58. A = !Vllvlrllwlr(v.w)2 identity c.a _ (w.s . If the given triangle 6 ABC has side with length L.t]AC = 0 so that Let a.~AB + [~(1 . and pacing off an equal distance.AB) = AM . respectively.s .t) . a. just as Aaron had done.ABC] = IIv Irllw Ir . The result (from part b) is still true.2(~1 AB IDalAB IDcos60° = ~IIABlf + IIAB IP 2[lIiABIP(!)] = !(SA = MSW + SWL + SF + SFR] = MSW + SF] + MSWL + SFm = ~IIABIP b. lIulr = fJ .tHAB + ~(ACCollecting "air _0 terms we find b. IIAN If = (~I AB ID2+ IIAB If . a. (Note that vR vL') Then. (v· u)u a = v . The area of an equilateral triangle of side s is A = (V3/4)s2. "Took you long enough!" growls the Spy. 2A2 = IIvxwll 2 = ~Area Lagrange '$ of /:). By symmetry. the two stakes are driven at points A and B. Thus.t)AN + tCM = AM = W·U  = AB + ~BC = AB + ~(AC . Let sand t be chosen so that PQ = sAN and QN = tAN. Thus. c satisfy "Y = au + ba + cfJ. = = SF Next.t) + ~t . making a mental note to recommend Aaron for reassignment to Siberia. We have 60. IIPQII = II¥ANII = ~v1"IIABIl = JrIlABIi Thus. you can get to P from W by pacing off half the distance from W to F.. we have s = 3/7 and t = 1/7.s .(v· w)2 Thus.AC AB)] + t[~AB ..u lIulr (w 'u)lIulr lIulr (w·u)a·u llulr (w·u)(O) IIUll2 (1 . but the proof is more complicated.
b.. B. and D as vectors. Suppose the required line L meets the given lines at points A. which divides AB into fifths.1) (1. c. The process '6' . see . B(b. so 6a(a + 1) = 24ad = 4(a + d) + 1 This quadratic equation has roots =~.A = (.. a). lIalr IIPIF Let sand t be scalars such that AP = sAM and CP = tCRk• Then. AM AP AC _1 __ ~ lba = AC + = AC+ = AC + CM CP = AC + !AB Substituting into the vector equation. we find 4d = a + 1.. ACRk and!:::" PRJ. C in the two cases are (3. The condition that they be collinear is that the vectors B .. ! t + so s = 1 . II~ if ('Y'u)u lIulr  ('Y'P)P + ('Y·a)a + . D(6d. CRk = ARk .A.!s)AB Since AC and AB are not parallel.+III= (~!~)l1ARJ.3' 3" 1Iandt0 6' 2' 8 In non parametric form.Page 482 Chapter 9.:. 62. c. 111 so ARk+I b. 0.1. To divide AB into thirds. For a general treatment of this problem. t( . 6. respectively.3' 8 proportionalities in the similar triangles !:::.. 0).:RA. I !) + s(3.:II ! = O!! 1I1ABII) ~)(2k ~ The direction vectors of the (proportional to B .1)AC=(2k~ 1 . respectively. C.16d lb. as claimed. .. Then A(l. and D.:. This is Putnam Problem 4 of the morning session of 1939. C . The two lines parameterically by L1: s L2: t O  lines .2' 3' c2 3' " d..0.2.A = (b . 6ad = a + d = 5a a (s+ t ._. 3). 'Y·a = b(a·a) so that b = :2 lIalr 'Y' P = c(P' P) so that c = Thus. we have 8+t1=0 2k Adding these equations. Let MI be the midpoint of AB. we obtain 8(AC + !AB) \2k ~ 1AB  while the first and third give . C(O. Treat A. C.~ d AC) Clearing fractions 6ad a + 6d  1 = a + d. .3 2.AC = 2k ~ 1AB and since CM = ! CD = ! AB.. 6d. DA = (6d1. 6. Then drop the perpendicular from the intersection of AM and CRI to obtain R2.__.+III_ IIcpli _ 2k + 1 IIARk II IICRkll2k + 3 IIARA. 2) + . = 2k ~ These lines cross the given lines (in order) for S 3 AB. The point R} at the foot of the perpendicular satisfies A~ = ~AB.I I .d) for some a. 6d.:. 1. 1 ..+I' we find IIARA..d.6d _ a + d a Rewrite the middle member here using the first string of equations 6d = (1 _ 6d)( a~ 1) = a. Vectors in the Plane and in Space a = u:u = IIUlr = a(u·u) + 0 + 0 so that 'Y·u 'Y·u 'Y·a may be continued as far as desired. B.A) 2) and ( . drop the perpendicular from the intersection of AM and CMI to AB..2"82 2k 2k + 3' t 2k 10 = +1 + 3' Finally using and the corresponding values of the other unknowns are b . a. 6.. 1).2.a) The proportionality of the first two tells us that C Similarly. and D . 1. c.3z and L2 is given by y = 3(1  x) = 2z + 1. and d. L1 is given by y = 2(x  1) = 1 . 'Y61.a). are given (1. 6.A. .1. 0..a). 3). .
2. this component is maximal when LOAB has closed to form a triangle. Since PQ is perpendicular to both lines. .7. respectively. d2x/ di = 0 at the extremes for dx/ dt..791)2 + (502z . perpendicular to both lines with P on I.12 cos cosO cosO  25 _ 24 cos () + O"Y + ~p (v x w) and it follows that and its radius is ~Ipjl v x w" I. a t (915 791 8.24 cos () + TW  and = p(Y x w) O"Y + TW Since dx/ dt is an odd function of ().3). 1). Then the center of the required sphere is at a =x 2 ~. A na/ytic Geometry of Three Dimensions. ...8525)2 This is Putnam Problem 2 of the morning session of 1983. Y and w. Suppose I. when the distance AB is v' 42 . v (1.b in terms of the independent vectors Y X W. b (12.12 = 9p d l' +T + 30" + r we find p Solving simultaneously. 5).7 = 13p .8. For such (). and v x W = (. Let P and Q be the points a + O"Y and b + TW. The rate of change of the distance between A and B is the component . 1934. and T by expression a . Cambridge. Then PQ = b . dx/ dt is a minimum when dx/ d() is a maximum or a minimum. Y and ware linearly independent.N 0 7 . where a. Sommerville. By the law of cosines. The square of the radius is Ip11YXwir 4 = (147\2(251) 502j = 1472 1. Y. 13. W (4. We can think of OA as fixed and OB as rotating at constant speed. where p is a scalar. The required sphere has PQ as its diameter. Then p.. and m are given in terms of a parameter t by a + tv and b + tw.an sp h ere IS.782 0" = ~.525) 502' 502' 502 . This is Putnam Problem 5 of the afternoon session of 1959. o= ? = 32 + 42 Now.32 = Alternately.24 cos 0 2x ~~ = 24 sin v'25 dx _ dO  12 sin () . . T = .2u . M. . that is. 0". 4.  2(3)(4) cos 0 = 25 0 .1. . it has the direction of Y x w. p. Then there is a unique segment pC.17). and ware vectors.251' Th e center 657 f t he . Y. are found from the equations = = = 12 cos20  25 cos 0 + 12 = 0 The only allowable solution for cos () is cos () = x ~ and hence v'25 24 cos () 13 = p 4 0" + 4r = = v'25  18 = .Chapter 9 Review Page 483 D. If the lines are not parallel. 1. and Q on m. a = (1. b. let x be the distance AB and LAOB.~ + (~8Y = (~8Y = 2 ()  144:Jn 2 () 12 sin 0 _ 12 .004 The equation of the sphere is (502x+ 915)2 = 251(147)2 64. Let Y be the vector of point B under this assumption. and r. 184. For the example in question.a ab O"Y of v in the direction of AB. Let OA be the long hand and OB be the short hand. th eretore. say PQ = pv x w. 12 cos 0 x2  I I Hence we can calculate p. respectively. Since Y is orthogonal to OB and the magnitude of Y is constant.9). 63. Let the given lines be I. Since dx/ dt is a periodic differentiable function of (). and m. + (502y . a.