Introduction

Topics of Analysis Body-in-white Designs Materials Architectures Technologies Part Fabrication Assembly Analysis Tools Manufacturing Cost Models Assembly Cost Model

Body-in-White Assembly Model
Assembly Sequence Realism Specification of Subassembly Composition, Lengths, Methods Joining Methods Modification of Joining Methods Addition of New Methods Methods Specific to Material, Mode of Application

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   . Massachusetts Floor "Group" New Assembly Model Part A Part B Part H Part I Part F Part G Subassembly Three FINAL ASSEMBLY Subassembly One Part C Part D Part E Subassembly Two Subassembly Four © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.Previous Assembly Model Quarter-Pan Parts Quarter-Pan "Group" Door Parts Door "Group" Final Assembly Roof Parts Roof "Group" Floor Parts Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.

Massachusetts .000 Annual Production Volume 31 SA 5 SA 1 SA 240000 260.000 160000 180.000 Joining Technologies Model Methods RS W (robot)(S) RS W (robot)(A) RS W (manual)(S ) RS W (manual)(A) Tack-RS W (robot)(S ) Tack-RS W (robot)(A) W eldbond (robot)(S) W eldbond (robot)(A) W eldbond (manual)(S ) W eldbond (manual)(A) Riveting (robot)(S) Riveting (robot)(A) Riveting (manual)(S) Riveting (manual)(A) Riv-bond(manual)(S) Riv-bond(manual)(A) Riv-bond(robot)(S) Riv-bond(robot)(A) 6kW 6kW 6kW 6kW 3kW 3kW 3kW 3kW 3kW 3kW AB(1comp-robot)(S) AB(1comp-robot)(A) AB(2comp-robot)(S) AB(2comp-robot)(A) AB (1comp-manual)(S) AB (1comp-manual)(A) AB (2comp-manual)(S) AB (2comp-manual)(A) MIG Weld (robot)(S) MIG Weld (robot)(A) MIG Weld (manual)(S) MIG Weld (manual)(A) CO2 LBW (r)(S) CO2 LBW (r)(A) CO2 LBW (g)(S ) CO2 LBW (g)(A ) CO2 LBW (r)(S) CO2 LBW (r)(A) CO2 LBW (g)(S ) CO2 LBW (g)(A ) Nd:YAG LBW (r)(S) Nd:YAG LBW (r)(A) © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.000 120000 140.Modeling of Subassemblies Total BIW Assembly Cost 400 350 31 Groups 300 5 Groups 250 1 Group 200 150 100 100.000 200000 220. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.000 280000 300.

Massachusetts .000 300. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.000 150.000 Vehicles/Year Ultralight Aluminum Number of Parts Weight 82 120 kg Aluminum Unibody 167 151 kg ULSAB Steel Unibody 167 280 kg 82 208 kg Material Parts Fabrication Assembly Total $570 $460 $350 $1380 $770 $700 $380 $1850 $250 $430 $330 $1010 $370 $650 $360 $1380 Unibody Production Volume Sensitivity $400 Steel Unibody Aluminum Unibody $350 Tota l BIW Assembly Cost $300 $250 $200 $150 50.000 350.000 250.Overall Costs @ 100.000 100.000 200.000 Annual Production Volume © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.

000 Fixed Costs Variable Costs ~69% ~31% Line-Related Equipment ~50% (59.5% ) Joining Methods ~50% Joining Equipment ~18% (total) Labor ~30% (total) Material ~1-2%(total) RSW(robot)(S) MIG Weld(robot)(S) RSW(manual)(S) Tack-RSW(robot)(S) Unibody Joining Costs $200 RSW (robotic) Total Joining Cost (US$) $150 Steel Unibody Aluminum Unibody $100 $50 RSW (manual) $0 MIG Welding (robotic) Tack RSW (robotic) Joining Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.8% ) (5.6% ) (3. Massachusetts . Massachusetts   © © ¤ ¤   ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¤     ¡ ¡   § §   £ £ ¢ ¢ § § © © ¨ ¨ § § ¦ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ £ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.2% ) Assembly @100.Unibody Assembly Cost Breakdown Amount of Joining (31.

000 Annual Production Volum e ULSAB & Al Alternative Assembly Cost Breakdown Amount of Joining (21.000 300.000 150.9% ) Assembly @100.1% ) (7.ULSAB & Aluminum Alternative Production Volume Sensitivity $400 ULSAB Aluminum Alternative $350 Total BIW Assem bly Cost $300 $250 $200 50.9% ) ~69% ~31% ~50% ~50% Line-Related Equipment Joining Methods (7.000 100. Massachusetts .000 Fixed Costs Variable Costs (45.2% ) (12. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.000 200.000 250.7% ) (5.2% ) Joining Equipment ~18% (total) Labor ~30% (total) Material ~1-2%(total) R (ro SW bot)(S) W eldBo nding(S) R (m SW anual)(S) 3kWCO LB 2 W(g)(S) R ivet-B onding(S) Tack-R (robot)(S) SW © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.

000 150.000 100.ULSAB and Al Alternative Joining Costs $100 RSW (robotic) ULSAB ULAAB $80 3kW CO2 (g) Laser Welding Total Joining Cost $60 $40 RSW (manual) $20 Rivbonding Weldbonding Tack RSW (robotic) $0 Joining Technology © © ¤ ¤   ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¤     ¡ ¡   § §   £ £ ¢ ¢ § § © © ¨ ¨ § § ¦ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ £ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡     Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.000 250. Massachusetts .000 Annual Production Volum e Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge. Massachusetts Production Volume Sensitivity $400 ULSAB ULAAB Steel Unibody $350 Alum inum Unibody Total BIW Asse mbly Cost $300 $250 $200 50.000 300.000 200.

r obotic 6 k W CO 2 la se r .r obotic Riv-bonding . .m a nua l AB 2 c om p.0 0 Join ing M e th od (S te e l Te ch nolo gie s) SP Rive ting .ga nt ry 3 k W CO 2 la se r . .0 0 $ 2 .m a nual $ 1 .m a nua l 6 k W CO 2 la se r .r obotic 3 k W CO 2 la se r .m a nua l M IG w e lding .r obotic W e ldbonding .Steel Technologies C ost pe r m e te r o f join ing (U S $) $ 0 .0 0 RS W .r obotic SP Rive ting .r obotic AB 2 c om p. straight joint Approximately 100m of joining 50mm welding segments Cost per Meter .Analysis of Joining Technologies Cost Comparison of Various Technologies Discontinuous processes Continuous processes Hybrid processes Scenario: Cost per Meter for Fully Utilized Equipment One part . Massachusetts .0 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 3 .ga nt ry 3 k W Nd:YAG la se r © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.m a nua l Riv-bonding .r obot ic RS W .r obotic M IG w e lding .m a nua l W e ldbonding .one large subassembly Long. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.

00 $3.17) ($0.87% 8. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ .65% 6.robotic AB 2comp.70% $0.06 MIG welding .robotic $3.74 AB 1comp. .60 3kW Nd:YAG laser 3kW CO2 laser .00% 3kW Nd:YAG laser 3kW CO2 laser .03 $8.34 AB 2comp.27 11.20 $8.00 $4.robotic $3.54 MIG welding .02 0. .20 $2.77 $3.37 $1.robotic $1.robotic $3.41 ~$0 ~$0 ($0.54 MIG welding .64 RSW .manual $1.37% Steel & Aluminum Cost per Meter Comparison Steel Methods RSW .03 2.10% ($0.78 $3.71 $1.78% $0.robotic $1.01 0.03 $2.manual $1.86 $1.manual 6kW CO2 laser .22 AB 1comp.51 3kW CO2 laser .32% 3.57 $0.robotic $2.37% 0.77 Riveting . .32% $0.67 Riv-bonding .manual $1.54 Aluminum Methods RSW .78% 0.manual 6kW CO2 laser .53 $8.robotic MIG welding .00 Aluminum Methods Cost/meter $1.Steel & Aluminum Cost per Meter Comparison Steel Methods Cost/meter $1.13 10.84 AB 2comp.21 $8.gantry 3kW CO2 laser .51 $8.12 $1.robotic Riveting .robotic Riv-bonding .68% ($0.robotic $2.robotic Riveting .45% $0.03 ~$0 9.robotic Cost/meter $1.13 10.17) -5.21 3kW Nd:YAG laser Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.10 6.04 MIG welding .robotic $1.18 AB 1comp.gantry 3kW CO2 laser .38% $0.gantry 6kW CO2 laser .15 $0.52 Riv-bonding .robotic $1.37 RSW .86 Weldbonding . . .manual $1.53% $0.gantry $2.robotic $2.robotic Cost/meter $1.67 $0.robotic AB 2comp.robotic $2.71 AB 1comp.manual $0.01 0.43% $0.robotic $2.17) -6.54 Difference % Greater $0.11 6.01 0.53% $0.37 RSW . Massachusetts   ost per meter of joining (US$) $2.38% $0.64 Riv-bonding .60 $8.98 Weldbonding .89 Riveting .84 $1.24 RSW . .87% $0.03 4.87 AB 2comp.38% -6.manual $1.45% $0.41 18.10 $0.gantry $2.43 $0.21% $0. .57 Riv-bonding .43 $8.robotic 3kW CO2 laser .46% $0. .78 6kW CO2 laser .11 $0.53 3kW CO2 laser .24 $1.robotic MIG welding .robotic 3kW CO2 laser .23 Riveting .robotic $3.manual $0.71 Weldbonding .robotic $2.manual $1.gantry 6kW CO2 laser .robotic Weldbonding .22 7.12 4.23 $1.robotic $2.gantry 6kW CO2 laser .robotic $1.12 Riveting .61 $8.robotic Weldbonding .robotic $2.31 AB 2comp.11 9. .20 Weldbonding .87 $1.robotic $2.53% © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.03 2.15 8.robotic Riv-bonding .robotic $3.83% $0. .robotic $1.83% $0.61 3kW Nd:YAG laser Difference % Greater $0.manual $1.manual $1.16% $0.00% -5.65% $0.gantry 6kW CO2 laser .00% 0.77 6kW CO2 laser .manual $0.manual $0.17) 18.03 3.

92 $1.000 $2.33 STEEL ALU MIN U M MIG Welding P roce ss 6kW CO2 (r) 6kW CO2 (r) 6kW CO2 (r) 3kW N d:Y AG 3kW N d:Y AG 3kW N d:Y AG W e lding S te e l W e lding Aluminum S pe e d Cost/me te r S pe e d Cost/me te r 100mm/ s $3.03 $540.54 $1.33 welds/se c 0.42 40mm/s 36mm/s 30mm/s $2.54 $1.000 $2.000 $360.24 $1.20 150mm/ s $3.20 $3.61 $2.07 36mm $1.50 welds/se c Steel Aluminum Cost/meter Cost/meter $1.88 $450.67 $480.82 $2.21 Spot Welding Rate (robotic) 0.36 113mm/ s $3.24 31.03 90mm/s $3.14 70mm/s 63mm/s 53mm/s $2.61 $2.27 $2.05 $2.34 $1. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ .000 $3.21 $2.37 40mm $1. Massachusetts   Steel Aluminum Cost/meter Cost/meter $1.07 75mm/s $3.21 $2.50 $2.03 MIG Welding Welding Spe ed 13mm/s 9mm/s 17mm/s Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.95 © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.92 $1.73 $2.11 $1.97 $2.37 $0.000 $3.34 Process Parameter Sensitivity Laser Beam Welding ALU MIN U M P roce ss 6kW CO2 (r) 6kW CO2 (r) 6kW CO2 (r) 3kW N d:Y AG 3kW N d:Y AG 3kW N d:Y AG E quipme nt S te e l Aluminum Cost Cost/me te r Cost/me te r $600.90 $1.Process Parameter Sensitivity Resistance Spot Welding STEEL ALUMINUM Spot Weld Steel Spot Weld Aluminum Spa cing Cost/meter Spa cing Cost/meter 35mm $1.25 135mm/ s $3.5mm $1.000 $432.

Massachusetts .33 we ld s/ se c 0. Massachusetts © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.Process Parameter Sensitivity Resistance Spot Welding S p o t W e ld S p a cing 35m m 40m m U LS AB Co st $332 $321 S p o t W e ld S p a cing 31.5mm 36m m U LS AB Co st $332 $303 U LAAB Co st $347 $328 U LAAB Co st $347 $320 S p o t W e ld ing R a te (ro b otic) 0.50 we ld s/ se c MIG Welding W e lding S pe e d 13m m/ s 9mm/ s 17m m/ s S te e l U ni Co st $364 $372 $364 Alum U ni Co st $380 $386 $379 Process Parameter Sensitivity Laser Beam Welding 3kW CO2 (gantry) Welding Speed 60mm/s 45mm/s 75mm/s ULAAB Cost Laser Process 3kW CO2 (gantry) 3kW CO2 (robotic) 6kW CO2 (robotic) 3kW Nd:YAG (robotic) ULSAB Cost $332 $287 $294 $290 ULAAB Cost $347 $302 $308 $308 ULSAB Cost $332 $332 $332 ULAAB Cost $347 $347 $347 © ¤  ¢ ¡ ¤   ¡  §  £ ¢ § © ¨ § ¦ ¡ ¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge.

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