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when I commenced work at my ﬁrst full-time job.” For more than 20 years. “Think. A long time ago. Teaching graduate school has enabled me to both convey information as well as learn from the inquisitive minds of students. many desks were most notable by the placement of a sign that simply stated the word. this book is dedicated to the students of Georgia College and State University. my graduate school students have made me remember the information that sign at IBM conveyed. In recognition of their inquisitive nature.
Over the past two decades I have had the privilege to teach a series of graduate courses focused on various aspects of communications technology for Georgia College and State University. at the IBM Corporation in upstate New York.
......................................................................1 VDSL .............2 2.... xiii
Introduction to IPTV .........44
Television Concepts ...................................16
Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure .................................................................................................... Data..............1 Analog Television ...........4 Telephone Company Landline Erosion.....85 4....................................................................................3 2............................................................... and Video .....................49
3...............................................................................................................................41 Evolution of Video Compression ...........................3 The Potential Impact of IPTV.........................1 The Concept of IPTV .....................57 3........................................................................... 105
Last Mile Solutions .....................22 The Pay-TV Market..............1 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite.........................................Contents
5...1 2............................ xi About the Author..............3 Lossy Compression ...................35 Convergence of Voice.............................................................2 Digital Television ............................1 1............2 Delivering IPTV ..............64
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV .............................................................. ix Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................................................................21
2...........11 1......... 116 5.............................................................2 Applications......................................2 Distribution into the Home ..................................................................1
...................................................... 177 8...............................................1 Internet Television vs...... 184
Index . 143 6....................135
6............................2 Internet Television ..................................................185
............. IPTV ...................3 Servers ..........................2 Media Center and Center Extenders ....... 165 Other Media Players ........................................viii
Hardware Components............. 178 8.............1 7....................2 7............ 145
Software Solutions............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 173 Summary........177
7.....................4 Microsoft’s Windows Media Player .............................................................. 135 6..........................................................................................................................3 Summary...................................3 7......................... 154 Apple Computer’s QuickTime ............................................................................................................. 174
Internet Television ............1 Set-Top Boxes ..........................................................................
and the hardware and software that will make it a reality. and satellite television. that term merely references the protocol used to transport television and does not mean that content has to be delivered over the Internet. IPTV refers to the use of the Internet Protocol that is required to be used to deliver television content. music videos. IPTV. In this book the reader will obtain a solid understanding of IP television in the form of IPTV. Instead. obtain training. which is the subject of this book. the use of which is integral to enabling the large number
. but it can also represent a series of technologies that provide television services to screens ranging in size from cell phone displays and personal computer monitors to large plasma and LCD televisions mounted on walls in homes or hung from the ceilings in airports.Preface
Just when we thought we had mastered modern communications-related acronyms. Although the acronym IPTV represents the “Internet” as its ﬁrst character pair. I review both television concepts and the TCP/IP protocol suite in separate chapters in this book. I will also review several popular compression standards. how it will compete with traditional cable. That content can include conventional television shows. movies. represents an emerging technology that could change the manner by which we receive home entertainment. That acronym. Because readers can reasonably be expected to have diverse backgrounds. how it may reach the home or ofﬁce. The text focuses on how IPTV operates. In my review of television concepts. operate our personal computers. and other types of combined audio and video offerings. The acronym is an abbreviation for television transmitted over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. and even use our cell phones. overthe-air broadcast stations. a new one has appeared.
the development of IPTV resulted in a number of industry alliances as well as individual companies focusing their efforts on this technology. or any other comments you may wish to share with me. Gilbert Held
Macon. Although this is an area that can be expected to undergo considerable change over the next few years. however. I may not be able to immediately answer your letter or e-mail. whose address is on the jacket of this book.com. or via e-mail to gil_held@yahoo. Please feel free to write me either in care of my publisher. the concluding chapter of this book provides examples of the use of IPTV that will illustrate the potential of this evolving technology. Thus. This examination will include so-called “last mile” solutions that in actuality can represent the manner by which communications organizations connect homes and ofﬁces to their infrastructure either directly via ﬁber or via short spans of a few hundred to a few thousand feet of copper cable. Let me know if I dwelt too long on a particular topic or if I should add material on a particular topic.x
of channels we can select for viewing when we subscribe to certain types of television services. Because I frequently travel. GA
. I will attempt to answer all persons within a week or two. this discussion will provide the reader with a ﬁrm understanding of companies that are working with the technology and how their efforts can alter the manner by which television content is delivered. including the Internet. As an emerging technology. Last. but not least. As a professional author. Because IPTV represents a series of technologies that can be used over any type of IP network. I truly value reader comments. we will examine the operation and utilization of hardware and software components required to view television content delivered over different types of IP networks. any examination of the technology would not be complete without also discussing industry players and alliances.
as long as I have paper and pen I do not have to worry about whether or not I can use my computer on an airline or if my outlet converter will mate to the receptacle used in a hotel. Regardless of where one travels. long ago he gave up modern technology for pen and paper. The preparation of a manuscript is a long and lengthy pr ocess. I am indebted to Rich O’Hanley at CRC Press for supporting my writing efforts. Of course.
. but also to type the index for each book. every book idea will come to naught unless an author works with an editor who has the foresight and vision to back an effort focused on an emerging technology. my penmanship leaves a lot to be desired and makes me truly grateful for the efforts of my wife.Acknowledgments
A long time ago. Once again. Beverly now uses Microsoft Word under Windows XP on both desktop and notebook computers to not only type this author’s manuscripts. after I completed my ﬁrst manuscript. First and foremost. the differences in electrical outlets and airline policies do not have an effect on pen and paper. I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge their efforts. Although this method of manuscript generation may appear awkward in today’s era of electronic gadgets. soul mate. there is a literal army of men and women whose efforts are crucial in producing the book you are now reading. through the cover design process and binding effort. From the typing of an initial manuscript to the editing process and the production of galley pages. Commencing her effort on a 128kB Macintosh to type my ﬁrst book almost 30 years ago. Beverly. and excellent typist. I became aware of the many persons involved in the book production process. Although this author has many laptop and notebook computers.
I am indebted to Claire Miller for guiding the manuscript through the book production process. for their efforts in reviewing and editing my manuscript as well as for guiding the reviewed galley pages into the book you are reading. Florida. Concerning that process.xii
Once a manuscript reaches the publisher a number of behind-thescenes efforts occur. I would also like to thank the Taylor & Francis/Auerbach team in Boca Raton. Once again.
Gil earned an MSEE degree from New York University and the MSTM and MBA degrees from The American University. third. In recognition of Gil’s writing talents. and even fourth editions of several books that were researched and written over a long period of time. he twice received the Karp Award for technical excellence in writing. Although the number of books Gil has authored may appear to be quite high. a Macon.About the Author
Gilbert Held is an award-winning author and lecturer who specializes in the application of communications technology.
. Over the past 30 years. that number includes second. Gil has authored approximately 100 books and 300 articles focused on communications technology and personal computing. Presently Gil is the director of 4-Degree Consulting. Georgia-based organization that specializes in the application of communications technology. Gil has also received awards from the American Publishers Institute and Federal Week. After earning a BS in Electrical Engineering from Widener University.
This information will enable us to obtain an appreciation for how IPTV can be used as well as allow us to note the advantages and disadvantages associated with its use.Chapter 1
Introduction to IPTV
The purpose of this introductory chapter is to acquaint the reader with the technology the book will focus on. In concluding this chapter we will examine the potential impact of IPTV. including standard over-the-air. movies. So. we will compare that deﬁnition to other television delivery methods.1 The Concept of IPTV
We can deﬁne IPTV as representing “digital video content. digital satellite. including television. Once that is accomplished.
1. that is delivered via the use of the Internet Protocol (IP). Using the preceding information as a base. we will primarily focus on the delivery of television shows. let’s grab a soda and perhaps a few munchies and begin our exploration of IPTV. beginning with a deﬁnition of the technology.” This deﬁnition of IPTV not only is very simple but also stresses that the Internet does not need to play a role in the delivery of television or any other
. However. we will conclude this chapter by examining the existing and potential utilization of IPTV. and cable television. Because IPTV represents a series of technologies. prior to doing so. we will examine the network elements common to different types of IPTV services to obtain an appreciation for the general manner by which video content can be delivered to consumers over both public and private IP-based networks. and similar content via private IP-based networks.
Some examples. Other examples of the use of IPTV on the Internet range from the downloading of music videos. Thus.
. Instead. This means that our brief deﬁnition of IPTV covers a wide range of both existing and potential activities.” That mnemonic should not be confused with IP/TV. IPTV represents a broad term used to reference the delivery of a wide variety of video content using the IP as a mechanism for transporting content. trademark owned by Cisco.
Public IP-Based Network Utilization
In this section we will turn our attention to the delivery of video content via the Internet. including the Internet. such as boxing matches. There are literally hundreds of examples of the use of this technology on the Internet. As we will note both later in this chapter as well as in other chapters throughout this book. which is an active. or IPTV can be used to deliver video content over a private IP-based network. such as the now famous Victoria’s Secret annual fashion show. IPTV refers to the use of the IP as a delivery mechanism that can use the Internet. such as the launch of the Space Shuttle to the movement of the Mars lander when it made its ﬁrst steps on the Red Planet. the term IPTV does not restrict content to that provided by broadcast television nor does it imply that delivery of content has to occur over the Internet. rock concerts. and full feature movies to various types of special events. full feature movies. Some of those activities could include downloading a movie or music video via the Internet for viewing now or at a later date or subscribing to a television service that will be delivered to a homeowner via the installation of a private network that will provide the delivery of television content through the use of the IP. IPTV can operate over any IP-based network. the company best known for its routers. As previously mentioned. or even Broadway musicals.2
type of video content. Because IPTV requires the use of the IP only as a delivery mechanism. Prior to discussing in more detail a few examples of the delivery of video content via IP-based networks.S. IP can be used to deliver various types of content over both the Internet and private IP-based networks. let’s turn our attention to two major Internet-based video services. Cisco uses IP/TV to reference a series of products developed to transport television content over the Internet or via private IP-based networks. a few words are in order concerning the mnemonic “IPTV. football games. To obtain a better appreciation for the operation of IPTV over the Internet. registered U. and a variety of special events. television shows. Examples of IPTV content can range in scope from music videos to television shows. which represents a public IP-based network. represent the free broadcast of a video stream.
movielink. as of the time this book was prepared they were not providing the typical content associated with a television viewing audience. including Lions Gate Entertainment. represents one of two key players in the delivery of IPTV content to consumers over the Internet. Blockbuster. Concerning the latter. CinemaNow announced in September 2005 that it would make its download service available on new portable video players from the French consumer electronics manufacturer Archos as well as bundle new players with two free downloads from the company.
A second major player in the IPTV market where delivery occurs over the Internet is MovieLink. users could download and select from approximately 550 feature-length titles and 200 music videos that are available for compatible portable video players or connect their video players to a television set for viewing. including television. Because CinemaNow and MovieLink are representative of public IP-based content delivery. CinemaNow offers legal content from a library of more than 6500 movies. two major Internet-based video services provide on-demand digital content to people operating personal computers via a broadband connection. and Microsoft. we will now look at each organization in more detail.cinemanow. whose Web address is www. live events. Thus.com) or as streaming content. Although the term “IP video” is probably better suited for the delivery of all types of video via an IP network.. we will follow industry practice and use the term IPTV to refer to the delivery of all types of video content. and music videos from more than 200 licensors via downloading from its Web site (www. Currently. including television. Those Internet-based video services are operated by CinemaNow and MovieLink. MovieLink represents an online video-rental service that was founded by
. this explains why our deﬁnition of IPTV included the phrase “digital video content. music concerts. Under the agreement.com.Introduction to IPTV
Currently. Although both CinemaNow and MovieLink offer thousands of movies on an on-demand basis. CinemaNow was founded in 1999 and is ﬁnancially backed by several key companies. Cisco Systems.
CinemaNow. television programs. In the latter part of 2005 CinemaNow announced the availability of high-deﬁnition content and support for portable media devices. and in general a wide range of videos that have in common the fact that delivery occurs via an IP network. TV shows. Inc.” because IPTV can be used to deliver movies.
MovieLink allows users to purchase an additional 24 hours of movie viewing and supports both RealPlayer and Windows Media formats. such as action.
Private IP-Based Network Utilization
We have discussed a few IPTV-related applications that are occurring over the Internet. director. with 2 GB of free disk space. the new iPod. Although iPod downloading was in its infancy at the time this book was written. a public-based IP network. In fact. Once they begin viewing the ﬁlm. a few words are in order concerning Apple Computer’s newest iPod that became available to the consumer during October 2005. such as Windows 2000.99 per show. or XP. Currently the MovieLink Web site is accessible only to U. Sony Pictures. In addition. they have 24 hours to ﬁnish viewing it. in 2005. is capable of storing up to 150 hours of video.S.99 per title to download a ﬁlm and store it on their computer for up to 30 days. Although the iPod does not transmit video. for $1. drama. a program that controls the movie downloading process as well as its playback. the computer must run a version of Windows at or above Windows 98. In this section we will examine
. Paramount. or Oscar ﬁlms. or title. the availability of thousands of video music and television shows should signiﬁcantly increase the use of the Internet for various types of IPTV operations. The MoveLink Web site allows customers to search for movies by category. Universal. at which point the ﬁlm is automatically deleted. residents who have a broadband connection with a minimum data rate of 128 kbps. Users can also search for movies by actor. Apple Computer’s iTunes Web site (www. In September 2005 MovieLink had a library of approximately 900 ﬁlms. which can be purchased with either a 30-GB or a 60-GB disk. ME. including Lost and Desperate Housewives. Renting a movie requires that you ﬁrst download and install the MovieLink Manager. Featuring a 2. it takes approximately 80 minutes to download a movie.com/itunes) began offering the latest episodes of ABC and Disney television shows. Viewers pay from 99 cents to $4. According to the company. its consumer-friendly ability to store and replay video makes it a market driver for the use of the Internet to download video onto PCs and then transfer the downloaded video content onto the new iPod.4
ﬁve major movie studios: MGM.apple. and Warner Brothers.5-inch color display. The Web site also allows customers to select from a list of more than 2000 music videos.
Apple Computer’s iPod
In concluding our brief examination of IPTV occurring over the public IP-based network.
which operate large private IP-based networks.
Conventional telephone companies are under a gun that is causing them to lose their customer base. cable television providers have introduced Voice-over-IP (VoIP) on their cable networks. and data communications services to their customers. so too has the number of homeowners and apartment renters who have disconnected their landlines. A second reason for providing an IPTV service resembles the response of the famous criminal Willie Sutton.Introduction to IPTV
some examples of the use of private IP-based networks for the delivery of video content. local telephone service typically costs the consumer between $30 and $40 per month. which now have approximately two million subscribers. were in the process of installing several billion dollars’ worth of ﬁber communications in their service areas as a mechanism to provide voice. a few words are in order concerning the rationale for ﬁrms we think of as telephone companies entering the IPTV marketplace. However. conventional telephone companies are experiencing a signiﬁcant loss in both customers and revenue that could be replaced by providing an IPTV service in competition with cable television and satellite television. the bill approaches or exceeds $100 per month. Over the past ﬁve years. Thus. Through the installation of ﬁber. As wireless phone usage has grown. Projections indicate that by 2010 more than 10 million Americans will have either disconnected a second telephone line or dropped their primary landline altogether in favor of VoIP or wireless cell phone service or due to the use of both technologies. In this section we will brieﬂy discuss the plans of SBC Communications and Verizon concerning the delivery of video services over the ﬁber networks they are in the process of constructing. and the addition of unlimited long distance typically increases the phone bill by another $20 per month. either to the neighborhood or directly to the customer’s premises. prior to doing so. when asked why he robbed banks. said he did so because “that’s where the money is. video. telephone companies that can develop
. sufﬁcient bandwidth becomes available to provide television services in competition with cable television and satellite operators.” Similarly. When subscribers add high-speed Internet access and VoIP telephone service to their cable TV bill. who. with digital video adding approximately $20 per month to one’s cable TV bill. For example. In comparison. Thus. telephone companies are entering the IPTV market because that’s where the money resides. basic cable TV video service costs more than $40 per month. At the time this book was prepared both SBC Communications and Verizon.
Because SBC Communications’ IPTV offering will occur via two-way broadband communications. using both ﬁber-to-the-neighborhood (FTTN) and ﬁber-to-the-premises (FTTP). and other features. digital video recording.
At the time this book was written. customers will be able to access all services over a single network connection as well as have the ability to share access to those services from any number of IP-enabled household devices. SBC Communications had not renamed itself by the time this book was developed. it is able to transmit alerts and notiﬁcations to customers watching television beyond the simple setting of program notiﬁcations available from cable television and digital satellite. event notiﬁcations. and ultra-fast Internet access. Under Project Lightspeed. and both companies began ﬁeld trials of IPTV during mid-2005. For example. this author will refer to the company by both its pre-merger name and its anticipated post-merger name. SBC Communications announced its Project Lightspeed in early 2005 to take advantage of its collaboration with Microsoft. such as PCs. such as IP television. According to SBC. customizable channel lineups. and telephones. 2005. multimedia interactive programming guides. For both services
a competitive IPTV service can look forward to a potential revenue stream in addition to retaining a portion of their customer base that is migrating to cable television. SBC Communications began testing an IP-based television service built on Microsoft’s TV IPTV Edition platform in June 2004. Now that we have an appreciation for the reasons why telephone companies are expanding into providing IPTV. video on demand. The IP-based TV service is expected to include instant channel changing. set-top boxes. VoIP. The FTTN service will provide 20 to 25 Mbps of capacity to each customer whereas the FTTP service will enable up to 39 Mbps of capacity to the customer. Although the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved SBC Communications’ takeover of AT&T and Verizon Communications’ purchase of MCI on October 31. SBC Communications had announced that it would adopt the AT&T name once its planned acquisition of that company was approved. SBC Communications could conﬁgure its system to allow customers to enable the display of caller ID and instant messaging on their TV screens. PDAs. the company expects to connect 18 million homes to its network by the end of 2007. Thus. SBC’s Project Lightspeed represents the company’s initiative to deploy ﬁber closer to customer locations to enable provision of a variety of IP-based services. TVs. let’s turn our attention to the services being rolled out by SBC Communications and Verizon.
and California. Later in this book. Verizon offers three set-top boxes. cable television. whereas an HDTV set-top box is rented for $9. Although video compression can signiﬁcantly reduce bandwidth requirements. a 5-Mbps connection may enable the viewing of only a single channel while using the Internet. The third type of set-top box combines high deﬁnition with a digital video recorder and can be rented for $12.95 per month. Texas. and satellite television. we will discuss SBC Communications’ Lightspeed offering in additional detail. In addition to IPTV. We will discuss Verizon’s offerings in more detail later in this book.
. A standard-deﬁnition set-top box can be rented for $3.95 per month. including highdeﬁnition TV (HDTV). Verizon’s FiOS service was ﬁrst launched in Keller. Verizon was expanding its service to several other cities in Texas as well as expanded its offerings to cities in Florida. During September 2005 Verizon began selling its IPTV service after commencing the construction of ﬁber connections to homes in half of the 29 states where it offers telephone service. However. Along with its FiOS service.Introduction to IPTV
IPTV will allow up to four high-quality TV str eams. and a 5-Mbps connection costs $35 per month. including more than 20 in high deﬁnition. like SBC Communications.95 per month. for $39. whereas the 15-Mbps connection should provide the ability to simultaneously view three or four different programs on different television sets while another person in the home is surﬁng the Web. we can compare its general capability to a trio of competitive television delivery services — over-the-air broadcast television. The speed of the connection governs the number of multiple TV services (different programs) that can be viewed at the same time. Virginia.95 per month. the single SBC Communications customer connection will support VoIP and data services that will provide a 6-Mbps downstream and 1-Mbps upstream capability. Marketed under the name “Fios TV.
Verizon. In addition. Verizon expanded its offerings to 1800 video-on-demand titles by the end of 2005. when we turn our attention to industry players and alliances. FiOS for the home provides a 15-Mbps connection for $45 per month. For customers with deep pockets. a city 30 miles west of Dallas. a 30-Mbps connection is available at a preliminary cost of $200 per month.” the service offered customers more than 180 digital video and music channels. represents a large former Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) that has signiﬁcantly grown in both service area and offerings since its divesture by AT&T during the l980s. now that we have a general appreciation for IPTV.
Comparison to Other TV Delivery Methods
We can subdivide our comparison into two areas: ﬁnancial and technical. Thus, we will compare and contrast IPTV delivered over a private IP-based network to over-the-air broadcast television, cable television, and satellite television by brieﬂy examining the ﬁnancial and technical aspects of each. Of course, later in this book we will probe much deeper into the technical aspects of television in general and, speciﬁcally, the manner by which IPTV is delivered to customers.
From a broad ﬁnancial perspective, IPTV delivered over a private IP-based network represents a subscription service that requires customers to pay a monthly fee for service plus the monthly cost for one or more set-top boxes. Although over-the-air broadcast television is a free service to consumers, it is paid for by advertising revenue. In addition, unless a consumer is located in a large metropolitan area, the number of over-the-air broadcast stations that may be viewable through the use of built-in television or rooftop antennas is usually very limited. This explains why a high percentage of homeowners subscribe to cable television and satellite television services. That is, such services provide access to hundreds of television channels. IPTV is best compared and ﬁnancially equivalent to cable television and satellite television. Concerning cable television services, although most cable operators offer a basic package of analog stations without requiring the homeowner to rent a set-top box, such boxes are necessary to subscribe to digital and premium services. If a homeowner subscribes to satellite television, because all offerings are in digital format, a set-top box or decoder is required for each television. Table 1.1 provides a general ﬁnancial comparison between IPTV delivered via a private IP-based network and the troika of existing television delivery methods.
Table 1.1 Financial Comparison of IPTV to Existing TV Delivery Methods
Financial Feature IPTV Over-the-Air Broadcast TV Cable TV Satellite TV
Monthly subscription fee Set-top box fee Digital channel fee
Yes Yes No
No N/A No*
Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes No
* Existing over-the-air analog broadcasting is scheduled to terminate within two years, to be replaced by digital broadcasting. Analog television sets will then require a converter box to receive over-the-air digital broadcast signals.
Introduction to IPTV
From a technical perspective, over-the-air broadcast television stations, cable television operators, and satellite television providers operate similarly, broadcasting television channels at predeﬁned frequencies, which enables subscribers to tune their television sets or set-top boxes to the channel they wish to view. Figure 1.1 illustrates an example of the manner by which a subscriber would view a channel when subscribing to a cable television or satellite service. In this example, note that both cable television and satellite operators simultaneously broadcast all of their channel offerings over a range of frequencies. Customers control a tuner built into their television or set-top box directly by pressing up and down buttons on the TV or set-top box or they use a remote control unit that turns the tuner on the TV or set-top box to a different frequency range when they change the channel. Because analog television channels require approximately 6 MHz of bandwidth, when you use the remote control to switch from channel 2 to channel 3, in effect your timer is switched to display a different 6 MHz of bandwidth on the coaxial cable that provides cable television service to your home. If you subscribe to a satellite television service, switching from channel 2 to channel 3 also switches the bandwidth. However, satellite operators provide an all-digital service in which data compression reduces the bandwidth of each channel, which reduces the frequency that is switched. Although both cable television and satellite operate very similarly with respect to the use of a tuner to select the fr equency for a particular channel, IPTV is a completely different technology with respect to the delivery of video content. IPTV can be considered to represent a softwarebased “pull–push” technology. Here the term “pull” represents the subscriber transmitting via an IP a request for a particular TV channel, movie, video musical, or similar product. The request is received by the IPTV provider, which pushes the video stream from a server to the requestor using the IP address of the requestor as the destination address. Note that because a single video stream ﬂows in response to a request, this
Figure 1.1 Viewing a cable television or satellite television channel.
minimizes the bandwidth required for the delivery of a television channel. Whereas cable television and satellite operators broadcast a large selection of channels at the same time, which requires the use of a tuner to select a desired channel, IPTV can be considered to represent an on-demand service, although as we will note later in this book, some types of video may be transmitted as broadcast streams to selected locations within an IPTV network. Thus, in most cases the 600+-MHz bandwidth required by cable television and satellite operators can be signiﬁcantly reduced by an IPTV provider. In fact, according to SBC Communications and Verizon, a typical home with a 15- to 20-Mbps data channel connection to the network can receive between three and four simultaneous television channels via IPTV as well as obtain a VoIP capability and a high-speed Internet connection. Although the amount of bandwidth required to provide an IPTV capability is signiﬁcantly less than the bandwidth provided by cable television and satellite operators, it is still more than that available from many types of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) facilities provided by RBOCs. This explains why SBC Communications and Verizon are currently installing extensive ﬁber-optic-based networks as a mechanism to provide IPTV-based subscription services. The higher bandwidth of ﬁber-optic cable routed either to the neighborhood or to the customer premises enables each subscriber to obtain sufﬁcient bandwidth to view three or four different television channels while receiving a VoIP capability and a high-speed Internet connection.
Potential IPTV Features
Because IPTV represents an all-digital service that can have its video presentation scaled to different types of monitors, it has the ability to provide features beyond the capability of other television distribution mechanisms. For example, IPTV set-top boxes via software could enable the simultaneous placement of four pictures on the screen that represent four customer channel requests. In addition, incoming telephone Short Message Service (SMS) messages, e-mail, and caller ID could be displayed on a customer’s television at a predeﬁned location. Combine this with the ability to enable customers to select the viewing of video rentals and a virtually unlimited number of high-deﬁnition content and IPTV could represent a quantum leap over existing television delivered via over-the-air broadcast stations and cable and satellite operators. This probably explains why many forecasting organizations predict that by 2008 as many as 20 million homes will subscribe to an IPTV service. If we use a fee of $50 per month for the IPTV service, to include one set-top box, the revenue stream from this emerging service could be approximately $12 billion per year in a few years. Thus, any way one examines the potential of IPTV, it is hard
Introduction to IPTV
not to note that it provides the potential to enable the RBOCs to negate the revenue loss associated with what until recently represented their core revenue market, the home telephone. Otherwise, without IPTV, it is possible that the telephone companies we grew up with could go the way of the companies that delivered ice blocks to homes prior to the development of the refrigerator. Now that we have an appreciation for the lower bandwidth requirements of IPTV in comparison to the conventional manner by which we view television, let’s turn our attention to some of the applications that can be supported by this relatively new technology.
Although there are many “ﬂavors” of IPTV, we can view the technology as a mechanism for delivering high-quality digital video content over public and private IP-based networks. Because IP-based networks have a bidirectional communications capability, developers can create IPTV technology that enables customers to select what they want to watch as well as when they want to watch it. With the preceding in mind, let’s turn our attention to a few of the potential applications that IPTV can support.
First and foremost, IPTV represents a technology that will enable telephone companies to compete with standard over-the-air television, cable television, and satellite operators for the entertainment budget of homeowners. Although homeowner entertainment is expected to represent the largest application of IPTV in terms of both subscribers and revenue, it is just one of a series of applications that can be supported by the technology. Table 1.2 lists eight IPTV applications, including the general category of
Table 1.2 Potential IPTV Applications
Homeowner entertainment Digital television On-demand video Business TV to the desktop Distance learning Corporate communications Mobile phone television Video chat
homeowner entertainment, that can be expected to achieve signiﬁcant growth over the next few years. In the remainder of this section we will brieﬂy describe and discuss each of the other seven applications.
As previously discussed in this chapter, IPTV can be considered to represent a pull–push technology whereby a subscriber makes a request to a service provider for a particular video stream. Because digitized television is both a very popular entertainment provider as well as very suitable for being compressed and carried via IPTV, it represents the primary application for the technology. In addition, because a service provider may have to transmit only what is requested, unlike cable and satellite, IPTV could theoretically provide an unlimited number of viewing channels, which would enable the service provider to offer a more diverse content than conventional competitors that simultaneously broadcast every channel regardless of whether anyone is watching them. Thus, the architectural difference between IPTV and broadcast television enables the former to offer a more diverse content, assuming the service provider can acquire signiﬁcant content to match subscriber requirements.
Although subscribers to cable and satellite television have been able for many years to obtain pay-per-view movies and sporting events, that capability pales in comparison to on-demand video that can be provided through IPTV technology. The key reason why IPTV on-demand video can be considered far superior to pay-per-view resides in the fact that the former can provide virtually unlimited program content whereas the latter is restricted to a handful of broadcast channels. One recent example of IPTV on-demand video is the Apple Computer iTunes Music Store, which in October 2005 began selling episodes of the hit television series Lost for $1.99 the day after the show aired on broadcast television. In a deal with Walt Disney Co., the parent of ABC Television, Apple also offers past and current episodes of Desperate Housewives, Night Stalker, and That’s So Raven to its customers. By the end of October 2005, Apple Computer Company was offering more than two million songs, 20,000 podcasts, 2000 music videos, and a variety of ABC and Disney television series that customers could download to their Mac or PC and then synchronize the content onto their iPod. Apple’s newest iPod, released in October 2005, could be obtained with either a 30-GB
Introduction to IPTV
or 60-GB disk and a 2.5-inch 320 × 240 pixel Thin Film Transistor (TFT) display, enabling customers to store up to 25,000 photos, 15,000 songs, and up to 150 hours of video.
Business TV to Desktop
Although the primary market for IPTV is the individual consumer and household, the technology is also well suited for business applications. One such application is streaming business television to the desktop. In a business environment, each LAN workstation can be assigned a distinct IP address. Doing so makes it possible for different video streams to be directed to different employees. For example, some employees might require instant access to CNBC whereas other employees could require access to Bloomberg, Reuters, or another ﬁnance-oriented program. Because IPTV can be scaled on a screen, it also becomes possible for employees to view the requested business channel or channels while performing other computer operations using a different portion of their PC screen.
In an academic environment it is possible to be in two places at the same time through the power of distance learning facilities. In fact, this author has used distant learning to teach a data communications course in Macon, Georgia, that was simultaneously broadcast onto video monitors located in Millegeville, Georgia, the home of Georgia College & State University, and the learning center at Robbins Air Force Base. Although distance learning can be accomplished through the use of conventional teleconferencing equipment, when performed through the use of IPTV the efﬁciency associated with reaching students at distant locations can signiﬁcantly increase. This is because conventional distance learning that is based on the use of teleconferencing equipment results in a central monitor at distant locations. Not only do all students have to focus their attention on a single monitor, but in addition, a microphone has to be passed around by a proctor at each distant location to the students who wish to talk to the instructor giving the lecture. In comparison, the use of IPTV can signiﬁcantly improve distance learning because the image of the distant instructor can be directed onto the PC monitor of each student workstation while a microphone connected to each computer enables students to converse with the instructor without having to wait for a microphone to be passed through the classroom.
Another signiﬁcant advantage of IPTV within a distance learning environment is the fact that, similar to the previous discussion about business TV to the desktop, it can be scaled on a PC screen. This would allow distance learning courses on programming and other topics to have students both view and hear the instructor while they perform different exercises. Because software can be developed to enable an instructor to view student activities, it’s possible for a student’s work to be viewed by the instructor. Similarly, with appropriate programming, the instructor could display the efforts of one student on a designated portion of each student’s PC screen, which would signiﬁcantly enhance instructor–student interaction.
In most organizations, the president or a corporate ofﬁcer often needs to address employees. In a conventional environment this requirement is commonly satisﬁed by scheduling the use of one or several auditorium sessions during which the corporate ofﬁcer explains the reason why earnings went up or down, the effect of a new product line, changes to the employee beneﬁt plan, or another subject that needs to be disseminated to a broad range of employees. The conventional use of an auditorium to announce a new policy or shed light on a recent event can require a signiﬁcant amount of time and effort. If the auditorium was previously scheduled for another event, then the logistics of moving that event to a different time and venue could be considerable. In addition, there can be a considerable loss of employee productivity because the use of an auditorium requires time for employees to arrive and depart from the site as well as time for employees to move through the facility to a seat. In comparison, the use of IPTV can result in corporate communications being only a mouse-click away from any employee. That is, a corporate ofﬁcer can tape a message that becomes available for downloading via IPTV. Employees could then be alerted to the availability of the newly created video via an e-mail containing a URL to click. Then, employees could view the video at their leisure, with no need to stop what they are working on to visit the auditorium or a conference room. Thus, the use of IPTV for corporate communications can signiﬁcantly enhance employee productivity.
Mobile Phone Television
Currently, mobile phone television is being developed to allow reception of broadcast television. This means that the ﬁrst generation of mobile
Then. especially when the chat facility requires individuals to provide identiﬁcation prior to being able to access the facility. Although chat rooms are a popular mechanism for exchanging ideas and political views. ranging in scope from American Idol and current events to science and education. Thus. similar to the manner by which users of the relatively new Apple Computer video iPod can view video. commonly hosted by different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Web portals.
One of the more popular features associated with the use of the Internet is chat rooms. the need to type responses signiﬁcantly delays the interaction between people. Using a messenger program. each person could mount a camera with a built-in microphone on their monitor that would transmit audio and video to the video chat room operator. perhaps miniature disk drives. allowing each user to scroll through the screen to view other members of the chat room as well as to click on the image of a person to display that person’s image on the full screen. which allows certain other people to communicate with that person via text messages. and other locations where mobile phone operators can connect to the Internet. messenger
. A variation of video chat can be expected to result in a change in the commonly used “messenger” programs offered by Yahoo and other Web portals. In addition. we can reasonably expect the addition of higher capacity secure digital cards. Once a person joins a chat room they can observe the identiﬁers of the other members currently in the room as well as what they are saying in the form of typed text. this is not always true. a person creates a “buddy” or “friends” list. it becomes possible for users to download video content into their phone. they could view the content at their leisure. Starbucks. Through the use of IPTV it becomes possible to develop a video chat facility.Introduction to IPTV
phones with a television viewing capability will be limited to viewing over-the-air broadcast television offerings. motels. users with that type of phone will be limited with respect to the content they can watch. mobile phones can be expected to be used in hot zones at airports. through the inclusion of either a secure digital card slot or a miniature disk drive. Chat rooms are used primarily to discuss a variety of topics. hotels. Similar to current chat programs. WiFi. Through applicable software. and other communications capabilities to the product. a user’s screen could be subdivided to display a number of chat room participants. Although people usually enter a chat room anonymously. This capability will enable mobile phone users to obtain access to signiﬁcantly increased content. As this action occurs. As mobile phones with television viewing capability evolve.
3 The Potential Impact of IPTV
In this introductory chapter we brieﬂy examined the concept behind IPTV and a few of its existing and potential applications.16
programs depend on the skill of the people typing queries and responses and could be signiﬁcantly enhanced through the use of a video capability.
In this section we brieﬂy looked at eight existing and emerging applications that could occur via IPTV. For example.
. the video headend could represent one company and the service
1. it is important to note that the network elements can be provided by more than a single vendor. a service provider’s access network. and the home or residence network. Thus. Figure 1.2 illustrates the relationship of the IPTV network elements and the data ﬂow from the content provider to the consumer. In concluding this chapter we will focus attention on the network elements required to provide an IPTV system that can compete with cable and satellite providers and the impact the technology can be expected to have on both the consumer and the industry. Those elements include a video headend.2 Key IPTV network elements. a service provider’s IP network. Each of the applications mentioned has significant advantages when performed through the use of IPTV instead of conventional video services. the use of IPTV technology can be expected to be driven by the advantages it provides in convenience and worker productivity. In examining the relationship of the four key IPTV network elements shown in Figure 1. if a consumer is using IPTV simply to download a movie or music video via the public Internet.2.
An IPTV system can be considered to represent four major elements that are both generic and common to any system provider’s infrastructure.
MPEG is a mnemonic for Motion Picture Experts Group. an organization that develops standards for compressing still and moving images and audio. In fact. Other programming could be received via a terrestrial ﬁber-based connection or occur via the use of DVD or hard disk servers to provide a content-on-demand service. After encoding. a series of TV channels in the form of data streams is simultaneously broadcast over each link of a network. The video headend for an IP network is similar to the headends used by cable television and digital satellite systems. The headend takes each data stream and encodes it into a digital video format. including any required home networking equipment. such as MPEG-2 or MPEG-4.Introduction to IPTV
provider’s IP network could consist of a series of IP networks interconnected at a peering point to form the Internet backbone. let’s focus our attention on each of the elements and their function. it is quite possible that that company would provide an end-to-end service.
The Video Headend
The video headend represents the point within a network where content is captured and formatted for distribution over the IP network. and service provider access network would be provided by a single company. which are broadcast via satellite. the service provider’s access network could represent an ISP. the IP network video headend could be connected to satellite receivers to receive broadcast television and premium television. which minimizes the amount of data that ﬂows over the network. That is. such as HBO and Showtime. with a single copy of each data stream ﬂowing over the network. the video headend. In comparison. With multicast transmission. As an alternative to the transmission of TV channels to individual destinations. so it can ﬂow onto the branch. which can be thought of as representing a conventional TV channel. Each data stream is copied only when there is a network branch. which enables multiple customers to view a single data stream that ﬂows
. Now that we have an appreciation for how different organizations can provide different elements of an IPTV system. popular IPTV channels are more than likely transmitted as IP multicast data streams. Later in this book we will examine several MPEG standards in some detail. is encapsulated into an IP data stream and transmitted to a speciﬁc IP destination address in response to a customer request for a particular channel. service provider IP network. Customers on each network branch then join a multicast group. if the consumer were accessing a movie or TV show via a private IP network. and the home network could consist of a router and wireless LAN products obtained from one or more manufacturers. Then. each data stream. which is technically referred to as unicast transmission.
The TV guide that ﬂows to each subscriber could be a broadcast transmission. With unicast addressing data is sent to a speciﬁc destination.3 compares three popular methods of IP addressing: unicast. In comparison.18
Figure 1. a service provider can transmit one IP data stream per broadcast channel from the video headend through the IP network onto the service provider’s access network. requiring stations to become a member of a multicast group in order to view an IPTV multicast transmission.3 Comparing addressing methods. and multicast. For example. Using multicast transmission. Those ﬂows can consist of data transmitted as unicast. Instead of having separate data streams of the match sent to each individual subscriber.
The Service Provider Network
The service provider network can be considered as a delivery system that enables data to ﬂow from the core of the network that is connected to the video headend to the network edge. which minimizes transmission on the backbone as well as represents a TV channel under an IPTV service. the IPTV operator could transmit the match as a multicast broadcast.
over a majority of the IP network. a specially requested movie could be transmitted directly to a single subscriber via unicast transmission. whereas with broadcast addressing data is read by every station. Then. multicast. Figure 1. Thus. Over the service provider network. tens of thousands of subscribers could tune into the match by joining the multicast group that carries the match. and broadcast transmission. consider a heavyweight boxing match that tens of thousands of people may wish to view.
. broadcast. multicast addressing can be viewed as falling between the two. Multicast transmission can signiﬁcantly reduce the ﬂow of data over the network. the channel lineup ﬂows in the form of encoded video streams.
That connection will enable multiple television channels. and interactivity.
The Home Network
The last major network element in an IPTV environment is the home network. very-high-bitrate Digital Subscriber Lines (VDSL).Introduction to IPTV
whereas the popular channel lineup could ﬂow to all subscribers via multicast transmission.
. Those areas are content. Because telephone companies. such as SBC Communications (AT&T) and Verizon. VoIP. the home computer or computers. In telephone terminology. The endpoints in the home network are telephones. the service provider will use the access network to the subscriber’s premises to provide a single high-bandwidth connection. convergence. the home network is in an evolutionary stage of development. are the primary developers of IPTV networks used to transport television content along with movies and other types of video content.
The Access Network
The access network provides connectivity from the customer’s premises to the backbone network operated by the service provider. In an IPTV environment. such as passive optical networking (PON). with a transition occurring from wired Ethernet to wireless Ethernet and HomePlug audio-visual (AV) equipment. Now that we have an appreciation for the major network elements associated with an IPTV service. Currently. the access network is commonly referred to as the “last mile” connection. Wireless Ethernet can provide data rates up to approximately 100 Mbps. let’s focus our attention on the potential impact of this evolving television service. the method used for the transport facility on the access network corresponds to the offering of RBOCs. and different types of ﬁber-optic technology.
Impact of IPTV
The impact of IPTV on the delivery of video can be expected to be most pronounced in three areas. and the set-top boxes that are required for each television. and high-speed Internet access to be provided over a common connection to the service provider’s network. Those offerings include several versions of Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Lines (ADSL). The home network is responsible for distributing IPTV services throughout the home. and the HomePlug AV speciﬁcation enables data rates up to 200 Mbps to be transmitted over the electrical wiring in a home or ofﬁce.
such as cable television and satellite television operators. videos.
Interactivity represents the third major impact that IPTV can be expected to have on the existing industry method of delivering television. game console. may eventually occur over the common access line. the bidirectional capability of IP networks can be expected to result in the development of applications that would otherwise be difﬁcult or impossible to perform with conventional television delivery systems. In addition. it becomes possible to provide customers with the ability to receive video content access the Internet and use VoIP via a common connection to the service provider’s network. An IP network provides a bidirectional transmission facility. in effect promoting the convergence of applications onto a common transport facility. that provide only a handful of on-demand programming. such as meter reading. Thus. This means that the ability to promote the advantage of IPTV will require the service provider to negotiate agreements with broadcast television and movie studios to offer an expanded content above and beyond that available from conventional television delivery entities. initiate a video chat session. Assuming IPTV service providers are successful.
. other applications. and other types of content that will be delivered on demand. or other device to select viewing content.20
As previously explained in this chapter. Thus. answer a telephone call through the speakers of a television. This makes it possible to use a television remote control. IPTV enables the consumer not only to select television channels but also to choose from a virtually unlimited number of movies. we can reasonably expect available content to be several orders of magnitude beyond what conventional television now provides. computer keyboard. or perform other functions that currently represent items on a drawing board rather than reality. the use of an IP network can be expected to facilitate many applications to occur over a single service delivery network.
Through the installation of a high-speed access line.
Commencing our effort by revisiting problems that are eroding telephone company core wireline voice communications services. we brieﬂy examined the rationale for telephone companies beginning to offer television-type services to their customers. As we describe and discuss different market drivers. which will have two standarddeﬁnition televisions (SDTVs) and two high-deﬁnition televisions (HDTVs) as well as a high-data-rate Internet connection. the convergence of voice. where voice
. data.Chapter 2
Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
In Chapter 1. we will also examine several additional drivers. Concerning the latter. In addition. and competition. In doing so we will examine the requirements of what this author considers to represent the home of the future. we will also examine the IPTV infrastructure being developed or used to provide different types of IPTV services. In this chapter we will probe that reasoning a bit further as well as expand on our examination of market drivers for different types of IPTV applications. the home of the future will make use of a Voice-over-IP (VoIP) service. and video services. which introduced the different applications associated with IPTV technology. we will describe and discuss several new technologies and marketing techniques of competitive companies that serve as market drivers for different types of IPTV services. Those drivers include the pay-TV market. the evolution of broadband and video compression technologies.
began offering telephone service to its customers at rates as low as $14. call forwarding.
Revenue Retention Measures
Although the traditional telephone company landline business is under attack by wireless cell phone and cable television companies.70 per month for basic telephone service. or more accurately the Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC). Some RBOCs. beginning in January 2006.
The telephone company. their primary landline because wireless cell phones and Internet access via cable television operators can be used to satisfy their data and voice communications requirements. faces a series of competitive technologies that are eroding their “bread and butter” in the form of revenues they receive from landlines or wired telephone service. Cox Communications has signiﬁcantly eroded the customer base of RBOCs where it provides cable service. In fact. such as Bell South and AT&T (formerly known as SBC Communications until SBC acquired AT&T).22
conversations are digitized at a data rate signiﬁcantly below the 64-kbps data rate used by conventional telephone services. In this section we will review those reasons as well as focus our attention on revenue retention measures telephone companies are conducting in the form of using technology to both minimize their revenue loss as well as enter the IPTV market. With more than a million telephone customers. This in turn has resulted in consumers abandoning their second telephone line and. the ability to obtain telephone service via VoIP offerings from their cable television operator allows them to obtain their required communications services from a vendor other than their local telephone provider. in some cases. Competition from wireless cell phones and cable television Internet offerings has signiﬁcantly reduced the use of dial-up Internet access.1 Telephone Company Landline Erosion
In Chapter 1 we discussed several reasons why the telephone landline business is contracting.
2. Cox Communications. the RBOCs are not standing still nor are they letting the attack on their revenue stream occur without countermeasures. Georgia. and unlimited long distance within the United States increased the monthly cost to approximately $45. For other consumers. but the addition of call waiting. which is the local cable television operator in Macon.
are installing ﬁber-to-the-neighborhood (FTTN) or ﬁber-to-the-premises (FTTP) as the backbone infrastructure necessary to offer IPTV to their customers as well as provide a mechanism to take subscribers from cable television and satellite television operators.000 feet. conventional ADSL service does not provide a sufﬁcient data transmission rate at long distances to transport IPTV. ADSL enables a maximum data rate of approximately 8 Mbps over twisted copper wire less than 14. In actuality. which exceeds the capacity of ADSL at distances commonly encountered between a ﬁber hub and a subscriber’s premises. such as Verizon and AT&T. This is because one HDTV show or movie when compressed requires between 8 and 10 Mbps.dmt by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and designated as the G. cell phone.
Use of Fiber
When FTTN is employed to route ﬁber into a neighborhood.000 feet. telephone companies using FTTN in their rollout of IPTV are using ADSL2+ to provide an enhanced capability into customer premises. Unfortunately. and television delivered via satellite. To sweeten the pot. Other RBOCs. As the distance between the serving telephone company ofﬁce and the customer’s premises increases. Under that standard. Thus. operations at data rates up to 8 Mbps downstream to the subscriber and up to 768 kbps upstream to the telephone company are supported at distances up to 18.5 Mbps at distances of approximately 18.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
entered into agreements with satellite television operators and their cell phone afﬁliates to offer bundled discounts for telephone. the maximum achievable data rate signiﬁcantly decreases. the RBOC uses copper-based Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (ADSL) or veryhigh-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Lines (VDSL) to cover the “last mile” from the termination of the neighborhood ﬁber into the subscriber’s premises. although it enables high-speed Internet access.1 illustrates the subdivision of the twisted wire telephone line by frequency to accommodate the transmission and reception of data
.000 feet in length. reaching approximately 1. Bell South was also offering potential customers up to $150 cash back if they signed up for two or more services. customers who need to simultaneously view two or more HDTV channels or a single HDTV channel and an SDTV channel cannot obtain the necessary bandwidth through the use of ADSL.992. Figure 2.1 standard.
The original ADSL standard was referred to as G. Because most homes have multiple televisions.
lite standard. however. it does not require in-phase and quadrature components of the carrier to ﬁrst be generated. Under QAM. Under DMT the upstream and downstream bands are subdivided into a sequence of smaller frequency ranges of approximately 4 kHz that are referred to as subchannels. Also note that because the data rate is proportional to bandwidth.
There are three modulation methods used by ADSL for encoding data onto the local loop: carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP). and a simpliﬁed DMT technology used by equipment adhering to the G. with up to 15 bits per subchannel being encoded when transmission occurs over a good quantity line. CAP results in the same form of signal as QAM.1 ADSL frequency utilization. Data bits are modulated using QAM on each subchannel. discr ete multitone (DMT). a double-sideband suppressed carrier signal is constructed from two multilevel pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) signals applied in phase quadrature to one another.
under ADSL concurrent with voice communications.24
Figure 2. CAP was the de facto standard for ADSL use until the mid-1990s. Note that the voice channel of approximately 4 kHz is not affected by the data channels because the latter uses blocks of frequencies well beyond the 0 to 4 kHz of frequency used for voice. the downstream frequency band is signiﬁcantly larger than the upstream frequency band. when DMT usage increased. and now represents the preferred modulation method. CAP modulation can be considered to represent a nonstandard version of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Because DMT enables the transmission bandwidth to be divided into a sequence of subchannels that may or may not be used depending on the quality of the line. this
respectively. In comparison. most modern ADSL modems support CAP and several versions of DMT.lite provides a maximum transmission rate of approximately 4 Mbps downstream and 512 kbps upstream.lite.bis do not have the capacity to transport multiple video channels.4. Because G. Both ADSL2 standards were approved by the ITU in 2002 and supersede previously developed ADSL standards.992. ADSL2 was developed to improve the data transmission rate and transmission range of ADSL. Both the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the ITU have speciﬁed DMT as the standard modulation method for full-rate ADSL and a modiﬁed version of DMT for G.lite. the original versions of ADSL
The two versions of the ADSL2 standard.3 and G.4 represents the splitterless version of the more modern standard.lite.
Framing Overhead Reduction
A second feature of ADSL2 that facilitates a data rate and transmission distance improvement is a reduction of framing overhead.3 represents ADSL2 for full-rate ADSL.lite and G.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
modulation technique allows the distinct characteristics of each line to have a maximum transmission rate. G.992. and the use of enhanced signal processing algorithms. higher coding gain. a reduction in framing overhead. 16-state trellis-coded and 1-bit QAM constellation is employed.
Under ADSL2 a four-dimensional.992. Concerning the latter.4 standard.2 standard and a revision to the standard referred to as G. This modulation method enables the achievement of higher data rates for extended distances when the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is low. which may facilitate the upgrading of customers. This framing reduction is accomplished by providing a frame with a programmable number of overhead bits. referred to as G.bis.lite was approved by the ITU as the G. This improvement is accomplished by an enhanced modulation efﬁciency. G.bis was approved as the G. RBOCs will have to upgrade customers using that technology as well as many ADSL lines if they want their subscribers to participate in the rollout of IPTV services. whereas G.dmt.bis and G.992. were standardized by the ITU as G.992.lite. G.
Thus. At the receiver. Figure 2.26
used a ﬁxed number of overhead bits per frame that consumed 32 kbps of transmission. Because ADSL2 enables overhead bits to be programmed from 4 to 32 kbps. One popular example of a Reed–Solomon code is RS(255.k) with s-symbol bits. up to 28 kbps of additional bandwidth can be used for payload data. Here each codeword contains 255 bytes.223) with 8-bit symbols. A Reed–Solomon decoder can correct up to t symbols that contain the errors in a codeword. Under Reed–Solomon coding.
Figure 2. This means that a Reed–Solomon encoder takes k data symbols of s bits each and adds parity symbols to make an n-symbol codeword. a higher coding gain occurs from the use of Reed–Solomon coding due to improvements in the framing. In this example the codeword is referred to as a systematic code because the data is left unchanged while parity symbols are added. there are n – k parity symbols of s bits each. which represents a block-based method of error correction. which in turn improves the ﬂexibility and programmability in the construction of Reed–Solomon codewords. where 2t = n – k. of which 223 represent data and 32 bytes represent redundant parity bits.2 A Reed–Solomon codeword.
A Reed–Solomon codeword is speciﬁed as RS(n.2 illustrates a typical Reed–Solomon codeword. Under ADSL2.
ADSL2 speciﬁes the use of Reed–Solomon coding for forward error correction. extra or “redundant” bits are added to each block of digital data. a Reed–Solomon decoder processes each block and attempts to correct errors and recover the original data in the block.
C = Wlog2 (1 + S/N) An increase in the S/N ratio will boost the capacity of the channel in bits per second. in effect. a (255. errors anywhere in the codeword that do not exceed 16 bytes in length. From Shannon’s Law. the maximum length of a code with 8-bit symbols (s = 8) becomes: n = 28 – 1 or 255 bytes Key properties. The maximum codeword length (n) for a Reed–Solomon code is n = 2s − 1 where s represents a given symbol size. add 55 zero bytes to create a (255. k = 223. Enhancing channel capacity.223) codeword. the 55 zero bytes would be added to the received data. skipping their transmission. Her e the Reed–Solomon encoder would operate on blocks of 168 data bytes. the bit error rate of a communications system. expressed in terms of 1-bit error in 10x bits transmitted. In a Reed–Solomon coding environment. s = 8 2t = 32. Thus. but transmit only the 168 data bytes and 32 parity bytes.223) Reed–Solomon code can be shortened to (200.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
For this code: n = 255. and then reinserting them at the decoder . One of the key properties of Reed–Solomon codes is that they can be conceptually shortened by setting a number of data symbols to 0 at the encoder. First. which increases the S/N ratio. At the decoder. can be enhanced in two ways. the signal strength of the transmitter can be increased. Thus. where the capacity of a channel (C) in bits per second (bps) is proportional to the bandwidth (W) in hertz and S/N ratio. The second method that can be used to enhance the bit error
. t = 16 In this example the Reed–Solomon decoder can correct any 16 symbol errors in the codeword.168). the ratio of the probability of an error occurring if Reed–Solomon coding is not used to the probability of an error not detected when Reed–Solomon coding is used is referred to as the coding gain. For example.
its coding gain. with the downstream frequency band extended from 1.3 illustrates ADSL2+ frequency utilization. This increased gain occurs due to improvements in the ADSL2 frames that enhance the construction of Reed–Solomon codewords. As a result of the additional improvements and features added to ADSL2.
In addition to the previously mentioned improvements of enhanced modulation efﬁciency. Figure 2. reduced framing overhead. which avoids channel nulls from bridged taps as well as narrow-band interference from AM radio and improvements in the determination of training signals. ADSL2 provides many additional improvements over ADSL that result in an increased data rate being obtained by ADSL2 systems.
Whereas ADSL2 represents a small improvement over ADSL. and higher Reed–Solomon coding gain.1 MHz under ADSL and ADSL2 to 2. Doubling the available bandwidth while
. Returning to our discussion of ADSL2. such systems can provide a 50-kbps increase in data rate and approximate 600-foot transmission extension in comparison to ADSL. more speciﬁcally.28
rate is through the addition of Reed–Solomon coding or. ADSL2+ approximately doubles the bandwidth used to transport data.2 MHz under ADSL2+. ADSL2 obtains higher coding gain fr om the use of Reed–Solomon coding. which reduces both near-end echo and cross-talk levels and the determination by the receiver of the DMT carriers used to transmit initialization messages.
To obtain a higher data transmission rate.
Comparison to ADSL2
Previously we noted that under Shannon’s Law the data rate obtainable on a channel is proportional to available bandwidth and the signal-tonoise ratio on the channel. Some of those additional improvements include power reduction capabilities at each end of the telephone line. on long lines where data rates are lower. ADSL2+ represents a signiﬁcant improvement with respect to the transmission rate obtainable at distances of 5000 feet or less.
5 24.2 MHz.5 12. because Web surﬁng and the use of IPTV results in relatively small upstream queries followed by larger delivery of downstream data.5 12.000
12.5 6.5 11.000 5.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
holding the S/N ratio constant results in the obtainable data rate on the downstream channel of approximately double on the local loop at distances up to 3000 feet. In addition to increasing the downstream frequency band to 2. this option may not be important for most ADSL2+ subscribers.5 9.0
26.0 15.000 4.0 26. with the increase in the downstream data rate of ADSL2+ decreasing as the length of the local loop incr eases. Table 2.0
.5 20.5 12.000 2.0 10.5 7.0 9.000 6.0 25.5 12.1 Comparing ADSL2 and ADSL2+ Maximum Data Rates (Mbps) Downstream
Local Loop Distance (ft) ADSL2 ADSL2+
1.000 8.5 7.000 3.5 12.3 ADSL2+ frequency utilization. However.000 9.
Table 2.5 6. ADSL2+ includes an optional operational mode that can be used to double upstream bandwidth.000 7.000 10.1 provides an approximate comparison of the maximum obtainable data rate of ADSL2 and ADSL2+ with respect to the length of the local loop.
the use of two SDTVs would require between 2 and 4 Mbps. and digitized voice requires signiﬁcantly less bandwidth than the 64 kbps required by a conventional landline telephone system. Similarly.30
FTTN and ADSL
In concluding our discussion of the different versions of ADSL. we will examine why telephone companies will need to support ADSL2+ if they intend to provide IPTV services via FTTN. and digitized voice into a typical home. it is important to note that the price of both plasma and LCD TVs are rapidly dropping.
Figure 2.4 IPTV bandwidth requirements. Because compressed HDTV can currently be transported at a data rate between 8 and 10 Mbps. Within a few years the price of a 32-inch high-deﬁnition LCD TV may be under $400. In comparison. high-speed data (HSD) between 2 and 4 Mbps should be more than sufﬁcient for Webbased activities. the total bandwidth required to support the home of the future can be expected to be between 20 and 28 Mbps. would require between 18 and 24 Mbps of bandwidth.4. SDTV.
. Figure 2. the future home with four televisions. which would result in a mass market for this type of ﬂat-panel television. Thus. Although readers may question the number of HDTVs in a typical home of the future due to their current cost. the simultaneous transmission of two HDTV signals would require between 16 and 20 Mbps of bandwidth. note that the typical home of the future will probably have four televisions.4 illustrates the approximate bandwidth capacity required to deliver HDTV. of which two are HD and two are SD. assuming all four televisions were in use simultaneously. Thus. In examining Figure 2. of which two will be high deﬁnition.
it wasn’t until 1987 that early ﬁeld trials in the use of the technology occurred. Such components operate by consuming power and normally consist of memory. such as routers.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
From Table 2. Thus. Based on the success of numerous ﬁeld trials around the globe. for FTTN to be successful.
Passive Optical Network
Although the passive optical network (PON) was invented at British Telecom laboratories in 1982. all active components between a telephone company central ofﬁce and the customer premises are eliminated when a PON is employed. and other devices that are active and process information. and in 1999 Bell South completed its beta testing of PON architecture to 400 homes in the Atlanta area. Such devices have neither power nor processing requirements. As a result. multiplexers. In 1993 Deutsche Telekom began the installation of PON architecture on a massive scale in Eastern Germany.1. Employment of a PON results in the installation of passive optical components that guide communications trafﬁc based on splitting the power of optical wavelengths to endpoints along the route. the mean time between failures (MTBF) of a PON is
. their use is practical only if the subscriber does not require the ability to view HDTV in real-time. processors. the ﬁber terminal point within a neighborhood needs to be positioned such that the maximum local loop into a potential subscriber’s premises is less than or equal to 5000 feet. In comparison. In this section we turn our attention to PON to obtain an understanding of how the technology operates. note that ADSL2+ can support a data rate at or above 20 Mbps at distances up to 5000 feet. Through the replacement of active components by passive devices. Because ADSL and ADSL2 support lower data rates.
Today most telecommunications networks are constructed using active components. the service provider eliminates the need to power and service active components in the transmission loop.
The backbone of a PON is couplers and splitters that passively restrict or pass light. and line drivers. PON technology has rapidly increased in use and provides a reasonable-cost method for RBOCs to create the backbone infrastructure necessary to deploy FTTN or ﬁber-to-the-curb (FTTC). This in turn reduces the service provider’s cost of operations.
such as an OC-12.5 Using a passive optical network as a backbone linking ADSL2 connections. note that the ONTs are shown when ﬁber is routed into a building (FTTB) whereas ONUs are employed when ﬁber is routed to a neighborhood (FTTN). The OLT either generates light signals on its own or receives SONET (synchronous optical network) signals. and couplers. enabling ﬁber’s large data transmission capacity to be routed directly to
Figure 2.5 illustrates the potential use of a PON to interconnect a telephone company central ofﬁce and subscriber premises by providing a backbone to neighborhoods where ADSL2. whereas ONUs are used when ﬁber terminates outside the customer facility. which consists of ﬁber. from a colocated SONET crossconnect. Between the two ﬁber endpoints is the optical distribution network (ODN). where the light signal ﬂows until it reaches an applicable ONU or ONT. ADSL2+. which further lowers the operating cost of this type of network. or VDSL can be used to provide short-distance but high-speed transmission over existing copper into subscriber homes and ofﬁces. ONTs are used when the ﬁber extends into the customer premises. passive splitters.
. The OLT then broadcasts trafﬁc through one or more outbound ports. Figure 2. which then converts the optical signal into an electrical signal. Thus. a single ﬁber can be split several times. turning our attention to Figure 2. and a set of associated optical network terminations (ONTs) and optical network units (ONUs) are installed at locations where optical ﬁber terminates at the neighborhood (FTTN) or at a building (FTTB). As illustrated in Figure 2.5.32
virtually unlimited.5. At the central ofﬁce an optical line terminator (OLT) is installed.
25 Gbps. Because the time slots are synchronized. PONs normally represent an asymmetrical transmission method. Table 2. it is broadcast from the OLT to each ONT. In the downstream direction. when data is transmitted toward the customer premises. this ensures that transmissions from different ONTs do not collide. This is because transmission of each ONT to the OL T needs to be coordinated to avoid the occurrence of collisions. Although in general the technology remains the same. In a PON upstream direction. Thus. 1. the use of different upper layer protocols results in the use of different physical layers.
Types of PONs
Today communications carriers employ several types of PONs. lowering the overall cost of deploying the optical network. a version of ADSL or VDSL is used to enable high-speed communications over existing metallic wiring into the subscriber’s premises.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
buildings where multiple ofﬁces and apartments are located as well as into neighborhoods. For example. 622 Mbps. The end result is that the transmission rates obtainable on different types of PONs can vary considerably. At each terminal’s location by or in a building or neighborhood. In comparison. upstream transmission is a bit more complicated due to the shared media functionality of the ODN. In addition. with each ONT processing the data destined to it by matching the address located in the protocol header. PON represents a strong complement to ADSL and VDSL that can be used within buildings or within a neighborhood.
. Due to the need to synchronize upstream transmissions. The main ﬁber run on a PON can occur at 155 Mbps.2 lists four common types of PONs. the PON backbone is shared among many customers. where dedicated transmission slots are assigned to each ONT. the ability to use existing metallic wiring instead of providing individual ﬁber connections to subscribers further reduces the cost associated with establishing a PON. or 2. with the key difference among types being the upper layer pr otocols used.5 Gbps.
The transmission of data between the central ofﬁce and customer premises differs from the manner by which data ﬂows from the customer premises to the central ofﬁce. data is transmitted using a time division multiple access (TDMA) protocol. Because movies and Web surﬁng involve relatively small user upstream requests that are followed by large downstream transmissions. a PON that delivers 622 Mbps downstream to users might provide a 155-Mbps upstream capacity.
Because that term could be misleading (that only ATM services could be provided to end users). the Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group decided to broaden the name to Broadband PON (BPON). Data rates up to 620 Mbps symmetrical and 1240/622 asymmetrical have been standardized by the ITU in the G983.3 Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC sublayers with a family of physical (PHY) layers.x series of standards.2 Common Types of Passive Optical Networks
ATM PON (APON) Broadband PON (BPON) Ethernet PON (EPON) Gigabit PON (GPON)
An ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)-based PON operates similarly to an ATM network. For both APON and ATM used by BPON a 53-byte ATM cell is used to transport data. These extensions were developed to enable the use of Ethernet for subscriber access networks. EPON is based on the use of the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP). This name can reference the use of ATM. and Gigabit Ethernet. That is. such as an Internet service provider’s premises. which is referred to by the phrase “Ethernet in the ﬁrst mile (EFM).34
Table 2.” The extensions to Ethernet’s physical layers included optical ﬁ ber and unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) copper cable used for point-to-point connections. resulting in EFM providing support for EPONs in which a pointto-multipoint network topology is implemented through the use of passive optical splitters and couplers.
The initial PON speciﬁcation used ATM as its signaling protocol.
Ethernet-based PONs (EPONs) evolved from the set of extensions developed by the IEEE for its 802. Ethernet. which represents a new function deﬁned within the MAC sublayer. A number of VCs are bundled into a virtual path (VP) for faster switching through the carrier’s network. resulting in the term APON being used to reference this type of network. subscribers establish virtual circuits (VCs) across the APON to a speciﬁc destination.
Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
Under MPCP.984. and SONET connectivity.25 Gbps upstream.1 through G.
The pay-TV market has evolved from cable television and satellite TV providers to a variety of businesses that offer television shows and movies over the Internet.
2. Although GPON is not backward compatible with BPON because its goals to operate at higher data rates required a modiﬁed physical layer. GPON provides support for Ethernet 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps. whereas the rentals and sales of movies and television shows over the Internet are currently less than $50 million.5 Gbps downstream and 1. EPON was standardized by the IEEE as the 802. Although revenues from cable television and satellite TV providers were greater than $50 billion in 2005. which was ratiﬁed during 2003 and 2004.4 uses the work of BPON to develop this new standard. a profound market shift is based on the following four factors: The substitution of broadband access for dial-up service The introduction of the video iPod and similar products The availability of TV shows for sale by major television networks The growth in the number of Internet sites offering the sale and rental of movies. In this section we will discuss both the conventional pay-TV market as well as evolving competition for consumer funds and the effect of this driver on the emerging IPTV infrastructure.
The fourth type of PON is based on the use of high-speed Ethernet. GPON provides support for data rates of 622 Mbps and 1. ATM. the GPON system standardized as G. resulting in the term GPON being used to reference this network access method. TDM.984.3 standard. music videos. messages and timers are used to control access to the point-to-multipoint networks. referred to as Gigabit Ethernet.2 The Pay-TV Market
A second market driver for IPTV is the pay-TV market. and television shows
.25 Gbps symmetrically as well as 2.
. with. this activity would require: 1. Most cable modem high-speed offerings begin at data rates where DSL offerings stop.857 seconds The above computed download time is equivalent to 2797 minutes.
In comparison to dial-up.6 hours! This relatively long time to download a onehour video via dial-up explains why dial-up Internet access makes it almost impossible to download anything but relatively short video clips. Downloading a one-hour television show or relatively short movie could require 1.36
The substitution of broadband for dial-up Internet access resulted in millions of subscribers being able to download large data ﬁles within a reasonable period of time. to faster services that can provide data rates as high as 20 Mbps at distances up to approximately 5000 feet from a central ofﬁce or ﬁber termination point. such as directly onto a video iPod or by creating a DVD that can be viewed on their television using a DVD player or while traveling by using a portable DVD player.175 Gbytes × 8 bits/byte = 167. DSL subscribers can select from a variety of offerings ranging from a slow service at 256 kbps. for example. either for direct viewing on their computer or for transfer to another device. consumers were restricted to using dial-up.
Cable Modem Offerings
Cable modem subscribers more often than not are offered a low-speed data rate similar to those provided to DSL subscribers for competitive purposes. a key difference between DSL and cable modem rates is in their high-speed offerings. or approximately 46. and videos of special events. television shows. However. which can be used for Web surﬁng but is still impractical for downloading full-length videos in a timely manner. where the maximum data rate was 56 kbps.
Until broadband transmission became commonly available at a relatively low monthly cost. This in turn has created a growing market of consumers who download movies. music videos. At a download data rate of 56 kbps.175 GB of data to be received.
which was already higher than most DSL offerings. This action has resulted in some locations now being offered DSL download speeds from 5 to 30 Mbps. especially when compared to almost 46 hours when downloading occurs via dial-up.3.384 kbps 32.08
. whereas at a data rate of 8192 kbps only approximately a third of an hour is required. Download times are shown in terms of the approximate number of hours required to download the one-hour video at each data rate.32 0. For many consumers.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
Cablevision announcing during November 2005 that it was increasing the maximum download speed to 15 Mbps from 10 Mbps.3 Download Time for One-Hour Video
Data Rate Hours Required
56 kbps 256 kbps 1024 kbps 2048 kbps 4096 kbps 8192 kbps 16. it is obvious that the higher data rates provided by broadband communications signiﬁcantly lower the time required to download a video. Table 2.16 2.27 0.768 kbps
46. Verizon. In examining the entries in Table 2. the download time is reduced to slightly more than a half hour. and other regional phone companies resulted in an increase in DSL data rates as the copper “last mile” is either shortened by FTTN or replaced by the routing of ﬁber to the premises. Thus.64 0.16 0.
Download Time Comparison
The rollout of IPTV services by AT&T (formerly known as SBC Communications).3 compares the time required to download a onehour video at a 56-kbps dial-up rate to seven popular DSL and cable modem rates. both are reasonable time periods.
Table 2.54 1.64 10. Note that at a data rate of 4096 kbps which is representative of high-speed DSL and medium-speed cable modem services. the growth in the number of people subscribing to broadband Internet access increases the potential of those subscribers to download different types of video for viewing on their PC or on another device.
viewers would be able to fast-forward through them.
Availability of TV Shows
A third factor that is facilitating a market shift away from conventional pay TV is the signiﬁcant increase in the availability of TV shows. cable and satellite providers would be able to watch popular shows anytime after those shows were aired. Under the deals struck with CBS and NBC. the majority of portable video players are DVD devices with 5-. 7-. The announced deals allow viewers to order episodes of such primetime shows as Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and Survivor for 99 cents apiece. then NBC and CBS announced deals with cable and satellite providers in November 2005 that would commence operation at the beginning of 2006.
Under the deal between Comcast and CBS. the ability to download many types of video via the Internet as well as to use a digital video recorder (DVR) to create DVDs for later viewing can be expected to alter the use of players. customers of the cable television ﬁrm with digital service would be able to purchase episodes of four primetime shows beginning in January 2006 starting a few hours after the shows aired on the network. or 11-inch displays.38
Introduction of Video Products
Although the introduction of the Apple Computer video iPod in October 2005 received considerable press attention. for the foreseeable future they will more than likely represent the preferred method for viewing videos in a mobile environment. If you travel by train or airplane. Although the shows would include commercials. 10-. whereas viewing video at a different location is referred to as video-shifting or view-shifting. First there was Apple Computer’s agreement with ABC in October 2005 to make several television programs available for downloading via the Internet. Currently. it is just one of many types of portable video products to reach the market. Because portable DVD players have a larger screen than the Apple Computer video iPod and a virtually unlimited storage capacity because multiple DVDs are easily packed and do not take up much storage space. This technique of viewing previously recorded video at a different time is referred to as time-shifting. chances are high that you will see several people in the railway car or the airplane cabin watching a video using a portable video player. Although the majority of people currently using portable DVD players view purchased or rented DVDs.
I would be remiss if I did not mention an agreement between AOL and Warner Brothers that was announced in mid-November 2005. Comcast is providing a more ﬂexible strategy by adding TV shows to its library of 3800 on-demand offerings. The recorder will have 160 hours of recording capacity.. will be offered free online by AOL. The DirecTV VOD service will be available to subscribers who obtain a new set-top box and have a TiVo set-top DVR.
. Although it will be free to view the programs. such as real estate listings. Customers can then purchase and view the stored programs. the fact that the Warner Brothers offerings cannot be time-shifted or place-shifted leaves questions about its viability. including some that air on its cable channels. such as Sci-Fi. with each show being billed at 99 cents. which will prevent viewers from recording shows. The other disk space in the recorder will be used to store approximately ﬁve hours per week of NBC primetime television shows as well as other programming transmitted by DirecTV. NBC is making available commercial-free shows. Unlike CBS.” this service was scheduled to commence in January 2006 with six channels providing shows ranging from comedy to drama. NBC agreed with Direct TV to make a series of programs available. In addition.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
In a separate agreement that was announced at the same time.
AOL and Warner Brothers
In concluding our discussion of the availability of TV shows. That is. Wonder Woman. most of which represent free content. Kotter. Bravo. such as Welcome Back. Although it is difﬁcult to compete with a free product. and USA. vintage television shows made by Warner Brothers. Under the announced agreement by these two divisions of Time Warner Inc. Whereas DirecTV’s offering is not a conventional on-demand offering. Because Comcast’s infrastructure includes many on-demand channels. and Kung Fu. and will decades-old fare be a draw? Although such questions may take awhile to be answered. but only 100 hours will be available for consumers to use. the AOL–Warner Brothers agreement at a minimum will increase the availability of TV shows on the Internet. the AOL–Warner Brothers service will include 15-second commercials that viewers cannot bypass. although their offerings pale in comparison to the potential of virtually unlimited offerings that can be expected to be provided by IPTV systems. video delivery will occur via video feeds. Referred to as “In2TV. how many people will want to watch an entire TV show on their PC screen. its subscribers have more ﬂexibility than the subscribers to DirecTV.
many movies that made
Growth in Internet Video Content
Just a few years ago. and customers would be able to watch shows stored on their home DVRs as well as program their home recorders via their cell phones. which for simplicity is referred to as IP datacast. This reduction in the required data rate permits approximately 30 smallscreen TV channels to be broadcast over the bandwidth now used to broadcast a single analog channel. the availability of videos on the Internet was more than likely from “hacker” Web sites that provided free copies of movies prior to the release of the movie on DVD. In fact. Cox Communications. and Time Warner. and high-speed Internet access.”
Initially. Under this deal. the majority of television viewed on cell phones will be broadcast TV. In addition. In November 2005 Sprint Nextel Corporation announced a deal with several of the largest cable television companies.40
Cell Phone Television
Another area of pay television that is emerging as a market driver for IPTV is cell phone television. it becomes possible for cell phone users to select a particular program that they could view on an “on-demand” channel. in the future we can expect a combination of digital broadcast and the IP to provide a new broadcast technology referred to as IP datacast over DVB-H (digital video broadcast — handheld). it’s quite possible that hundreds of small-screen TV channels could become available. subscribers can expect to pay between $99 and $250 for an applicable cell phone and approximately $15 per month for the ability to view television on the “small screen. resulting in the development of another screen version of wireless IPTV. the quantity of data transmitted to represent a TV channel is reduced to between 128 and 384 kbps because the screen on which the video will be observed is smaller than a regular television. that lets the cable companies sell Sprint wireless services along with their own TV. With IP datacast. However. Although it is still premature to discuss the fees that will be associated with cell phone television. Because analog transmission will be phased out over the next few years. including Comcast. a single voice mailbox would be available for both the cellular and the wired phone. phone. because each IP datacast-ready cell phone would have a unique IP address. the amount of content available for watching on certain types of cell phones would signiﬁcantly increase.
Today the number of pay-video sites offering legitimate ﬁrst-rate movies has signiﬁcantly expanded. one can expect the various types of pay TV mentioned in this section to represent benchmarks for IPTV delivery.3 Convergence of Voice. and Video
Another key market driver for IPTV is the convergence of voice. Data. a television set-top box. and video over a common network infrastructure. Because AT&T (previously known as SBC Communications) and Verizon also operate cell phone service. and other content providers. it is reasonable to expect their IPTV delivery to eventually provide a mechanism by which subscribers can download video into their homes as well as onto their cell phones.
2. which resulted in some rather interesting movements when the person making the bootleg copy had an itch to scratch. At their destination. data. voice.
Until a few years ago the primary buzz when discussing convergence was VoIP. Thus. Although the technology used for each submarket differs. and video. providing tens of thousands of music videos. TV networks. data.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
their way to the Web were the result of a person visiting a movie theater with a hand-held digital camcorder. also referred to as IP telephony. or another addressable device. including video on demand and TV shows delivered to cell phones. such as a home computer. and television shows. such as an Apple video iPod. Because traditional telephone companies are investing billions of dollars in IPTV. The growth in Internet video content enables diverse subscriber viewing habits to be accommodated and provides the developers of IPTV with a potential revenue stream once the infrastructure is developed to enable rapid downloads of content as well as negotiate the availability of content from movie studios. Because each can be represented in digital format.
The pay-TV market consists of a series of submarkets. data. or they can be delivered to a destination deﬁned by an IP address. movies. it is both possible and easy to transmit voice. and video can be stored on a common device. with the latter term adding fax to
. In this section we will note how each individual data stream can be transported within a common IP data stream. to be successful they must be competitive. most have a similar capability in that they allow a subscriber to time-shift a video to a more convenient time.
.723. The coder converts voice at a speciﬁc data rate based on the type of coder employed. its delay increases.
digitized voice as being capable of being transmitted over a public or private IP data network.5
* Mean opinion score. and the quality of the conversation in terms of its MOS degrades.98 4.729 G.3 16 8 5. 6. their digital data rate.3. Associated with the use of each coder is a delay time. The codec delay time is extremely important because it is one of several delays that cumulatively need to be less than 150 ms to obtain a high MOS. Other delays include the egress and ingress data links and the delay time packets experience ﬂowing through a network. In examining the entries in Table 2.4. as the data rate required to transport a digitized voice conversation decreases.726 G.711 G.12 5 0. note that PCM and ADPCM are used primarily by RBOCs when calls ﬂow through their legacy switches. When digitized voice is transmitted over an IP network an analog conversation is digitized through the use of a voice coder into a digital data stream.0
4. expressed in milliseconds (ms). As you might surmise from examining the entries in Table 2. The other voice digitization standards are used primarily in a VoIP environment because they signiﬁcantly reduce the data transport needed to convey a voice conversation. ** LD-CELP variation.4.728 G.723.1
Pulse code modulation (PCM) Adaptive differential PCM (ADPCM) Algebraic codebook excited linear predictor (ACELP) Low-delay codebook excited linear predictors (LD-CELP) Conjugate-structured algebraic CELP (CS-ACELP) Multipulse maximum likelihood quantizer (MP-MLQ)**
64 16.8 4.2 4.3
0.12 5 37.4 Popular Voice Coding Standards
Standard Description Data Rate (kbps) Delay (ms) MOS*
G. and MOS. and a mean opinion score (MOS). 32 5.5 10. delay.2 3.42
Table 2.2 3. Table 2. 24.4 lists six voice coding standards.0 30.5 2. representing a subjective scale from 1 (bad) to 5 (excellent) of the perceived clarity of a conversation.1 G.
and video ﬂow over a common coaxial cable. delay between frames is not an issue because once the video is downloaded it will then be viewed from disk. In comparison. when viewing a real-time video stream. video must be delivered with minimum delay so that frames are not distorted in time. we can say that technically data is physically converged on the same “pipe” into homes. and video will share a common bandwidth. with the latter requiring such trafﬁc to be tagged to indicate its need for prioritization.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
The delay listed in Table 2. This is broadly referred to as quality of service (QoS). That is. To ensure high-quality voice communications requires both sufﬁcient bandwidth to minimize transmission delays as well as routers within the network that can prioritize voice trafﬁc. Today cable television operators are providing a VoIP service to entice subscribers to obtain a troika of services (voice. which enables routers to reduce delay by giving voice trafﬁc a higher priority than data. although voice. ranging in monthly price and data rate from a minimal monthly cost at a data rate ﬁve times dial-up to more costly and higher data rate offerings. when a video is downloaded. However. Internet access [data]. video. However. In comparison. being distinguished from one another by the header in each packet that will indicate the type of data carried. Whereas the driving force behind real estate pricing is location. true convergence will occur in an IPTV environment.”
Both RBOCs and cable television operators offer subscribers various Internet access offerings. and video) from one vendor.4 is only a portion of the end-to-end delay that can adversely affect VoIP. AT&T and Verizon are rapidly constructing a large ﬁber-based backbone to provide the capability to deliver voice. where data. voice. the troika of services does not ﬂow over a common IP network. Because RBOCs provide this service over their existing last mile line and cable television operators provide a similar capability within their coaxial cable routed into homes.
The convergence of video onto the same pipe with voice and data is similar to the delivery of voice under certain situations and data under other conditions. the ability to provide convergence can be summed up as “bandwidth.
. and data to their customers over a common IP network. This means that real-time video packets must be tagged to enable routers to prioritize the content of such packets. data.
and local level.6 illustrates the video distribution network hierarchy described.
. In addition to facilitating delivery of VOD content.44
A second constraint concerning the convergence of video is not technical but concerns content availability. Figure 2. In addition. regional.
Video Distribution Network
The ability to deliver requested content will require the development of a video distribution network.
The lowest level in the video distribution network would be the local hub. As their digital library expands. This facility would receive national and local content from a regional hub.
Regional hubs would receive national content from the national hub as well as connect to and receive local content and insert local advertisements. the regional hub would temporarily store popular movies and other content. so will the probability of a customer ordering a pay-per-view video or subscribing to the service due to the content matching the subscriber’s preference.
At the national level a central bank of servers connected to terrestrial and satellite feeds would provide national video content. The national hub would encode and compress video as well as serve as a central repository for VOD content. the local hub would insert more localized advertisements as well as transmit content directly to the subscriber. That technology is video compression.4 Evolution of Video Compression
In concluding this chapter we will brieﬂy discuss the key technology that enables IPTV to be a reality. providers must license applicable material. That network will consist of a three-tier series of hubs at the national.
2. With the ability of IPTV to provide a virtually unlimited number of shows. such as new pay-per-view movies.
The problem with these techniques is the fact that their typical compression ratio is between 2:1 and 3:1. two professors who worked at the Technion. One common text-based data compression technique is run-length encoding.
Prior to the development of digital video. compressed data can be decompressed into its original data stream. most data compression techniques were developed to operate on text data. A second popular text-based data compression technique is actually a series of string-based techniques based on the work of Lempel and Ziv. lossy compression was
. in which repeating strings of the same character are replaced by a trio of characters that indicate compression has occurred. In comparison.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
ONU FTTN ONT FTTB Telephone central oﬃce ADSL2+
ONT FTTB Legend: OLT: Optical line termination ONU: Optical network unit ONT: Optical network terminal FTTN: Fiber to the neighborhood FTTB: Fiber to the building
Figure 2. which is insufﬁcient for video. the character that was compressed. and the number of characters that were compressed. That is. Lossy
The two previously mentioned text-based compression techniques are referred to as lossless compression.
Lossless vs. Israel’s equivalent of MIT.6 Video distribution network hierarchy.
lossy compression is not fully reversible.97) and European television’s frame rate is 25. A high-quality image would use 3 bytes (or 24 bits) per pixel to represent color. a technique referred to as true color.46
initially developed to reduce the storage and transmission requirements of pictures under which blocks of pixels are compared and assumed to be equivalent even if they differ by a few pixels. lossy compression has a signiﬁcantly higher compression ratio than lossless compression. Each pixel has a luminance and chrominance value.456. Because blocks of pixels are compared to one another and assumed to be equal even when they differ by a few pixels. the noncompressed data rate for SDTV becomes 30 × 640 × 480 × 16 or 147.
We can think of digital video as representing a sequence of images. and different frame rates are used for different types of digital video applications. each of which is a two-dimensional frame made up of picture elements (pels) or pixels. whereas 2 bytes (or 16 bits) can be used for SDTV color depth. whereas one of several HDTV standards requires 1920 × 1080 pixels. We can think of digital video as a sequence of images displayed to convey the illusion of motion.492. The width and height of each digital video image comparable to analog television is 640 × 480 for SDTV. Thus. Here the images are referred to as frames. Whereas movies use a frame rate of 24. In addition.000 bps For HDTV. This makes lossy compression more suitable for compressing digital video. 3 bytes (or 24 bits) are required for HDTV.992. Examples of lossy compression techniques include Joint Photography Experts Group (JPEG) for still photos and the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) series of compression techniques used for digital video. This is because the use of copper-based ADSL2+ is limited to allowing a data
. North American television has a frame rate of approximately 30 (29. the noncompressed data rate becomes 30 × 1920 × 1080 × 24 or 1. at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (fps). Thus. where luminance represents a pixel’s intensity and chrominance represents the color of the pixel.000 bps The preceding computations for SDTV and HDTV makes it obvious that the ability of an RBOC or another service provider to enable subscribers to access multiple television channels over a common access line is severely limited without the use of a lossy compression method.
. whereas the use of PON enables a bandwidth of approximately 30 Mbps into the subscriber’s premises. For now. In the next chapter we will examine compression in much more detail. The purpose of this section was to brieﬂy examine the evolution of compression and the rationale for the use of lossy compression for delivering digital video. we can note that advances in the development of different data compression techniques made it possible for the transmission of video to the desktop and into subscribers’ homes in the form of IPTV.Market Drivers and Developing IPTV Infrastructure
rate of approximately 25 Mbps at distances up to 5000 feet.
3. Thus. the components shown in Figure 3. Television shows were created using an analog video camera to create a video signal that was then formatted and transmitted via a broadcasting station. First we will reacquaint ourselves with analog television concepts and the evolution from analog to digital television. In the home analog television. In actuality. receivers would translate the received formatted signal and present the results on the television’s display. in concluding this chapter we will examine several data compression techniques whose use enables IPTV to become a reality. In this chapter we turn our attention to obtaining an understanding of television concepts.Chapter 3
An understanding of IPTV depends on knowledge of basic television concepts and the Internet Protocol (IP) used to transport television as a sequence of packetized frames. and interlacing and how they affect bandwidth. when we replace an analog video camera with a digital camera and use digital formatting. frames.1 illustrates the major components of an analog video television system.and high-deﬁnition television. As we examine basic television concepts we will become familiar with a variety of terms associated with the technology.1 are also applicable to a digital television system. By obtaining an appreciation for the bandwidth requirements of standard.
. including pixels. we will note the need for lossy compression.1 Analog Television
The original development of television was based on analog technology. Figure 3. the next chapter will focus on the IP.
1 compares the bandwidth requirements of the three previously mentioned analog color television systems in megahertz. and green (RBG) primary colors and a luminance signal such that they are transmitted at certain frequencies. Under SECAM.5 6.
The signal formatting shown in Figure 3. Table 3.2 5.0
.1 represents a standardized method of taking analog camera signals represented by red. Two additional analog color systems are used in many countries: PAL and SECAM. Canada. The Séquentiel Couleur à Mémoire (SECAM) standard was developed in France and is used primarily in that country. instead of using a high-frequency subcarrier according to the NTSC standards. Canada. Note that the
Table 3.1 Major components of an analog television system. two FM subcarriers are used to transmit a color-difference component. Russia
4. Mexico Great Britain Austria.0 5. Russia. and Mexico analog television is formatted based on standards developed by the National Television Systems Committee (NTSC). blue. PAL is used in most of Europe but not in France and Russia. Germany. and ex-French colonies. The Phase Alternating Line (PAL) standard is similar to NTSC but uses a subcarrier alteration technique that results in certain types of transmission errors appearing as if they have canceled each other out.1 Analog Color TV System Bandwidth
System Country Bandwidth (MHz)
NTSC PAL PAL SECAM
United States. In the United States. Italy France. Japan. Japan.50
The color broadcasting scheme standard developed by the NTSC was proposed to the U. Five months later this analog broadcasting system was approved for use. The later signal components.Television Concepts
table contains two entries for PAL. Figure 3. These primary signals are the electrical analog values of the red. then a vertical synchronization pulse returns the electron
. scanning occurs in a television camera via the movement of an electronic sensing spot across the image from left to right horizontally to form a scanning line. This means that the picture is created by scanning across the screen horizontally from left to right with 480 lines. In addition to the three primary signals. and blue visual components of the scene being viewed. Under the NTSC system. this is referred to as retracing. using it as a basis for comparison. The term “interlaced” refers to the fact that the screen is ﬁrst scanned on all evennumbered lines. the amplitudes of each signal are proportional to the spectral energy in the scene being viewed. and EB. referred to as I and Q signals. a luminance signal based on the relative sensitivity of the human eye to the primary colors is generated as well as two chrominance signal components. Under this system a video camera generates three primary signals referred to as ER. At this point the sensing image performs both horizontal and vertical retrace operations. which results in the sensing spot returning to its original position in the upper left portion of the screen. At the end of the image the sensing spot snaps back to begin a new line.S.
Scanning represents the process of converting optical images into electrical signals and is used by all types of video systems. The sensing spot converts each image point it sees into an electrical voltage. because different systems require slight differences in bandwidth. Under the NTSC television system. green. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in July 1953. are derived from the primary color components. As we probe further into analog television we will primarily reference the NTSC system. it does so slightly below the previous line until it reaches the end of the last scanned line.2 illustrates the scanning process. 480 interlaced lines are used to create a picture. Because camera signals at that time were analog. A complete scan of the image area is referred to as a frame. As the sensing spot begins a new line.
Figure 3.2 The scanning process.
beam to the top of the picture tube, after which all odd-numbered lines are scanned. The vertical synchronization pulse can be viewed as an inter-frame timing gap equal to about the time required to scan 45 lines. During this timing gap the television that will display the transmitted image has time to receive the next frame; however, no picture information occurs. Instead, this time gap is used to transmit control information, such as closedcaption data. Thus, the total number of lines in each video frame can be thought of as being 525, but only 480 contain active video information that is displayed. Sometimes this standard analog TV format is referred to as 525i, which means 525 interlaced lines. However, because only 480 lines are displayed, another common term used is 480i. Each scan of even and odd lines occurs in one-sixtieth of a second, resulting in one full picture being displayed every one-thirtieth of a second. Thus, the frame rate is 30 frames per second (fps), whereas in a movie theater a slightly different rate of 24 fps is used. As previously noted, the 525 lines speciﬁed by the NTSC television format actually result in 480 lines of resolution. This is because during the timing gap interval equivalent to 45 lines, 22 lines ar e used for transmitting test signals, vertical synchronization of the picture, closed captioning, and program guides, and a few additional lines are used for the mask of the picture. The term 480i, which is used to reference 480 lines of interlaced scanning, represents what is referred to as analog standarddeﬁnition television (SDTV). Standard analog television has been in use for approximately 55 years, during which time it has provided a reasonably good-quality picture.
However, to obtain a good-quality picture, a television set must be relatively small. As television sets reached the market with 30-, 32-, 40-, 42-, and even 50-inch diagonally measur ed screens, the scan lines used in analog television have become mor e visible. Although one solution to the image quality problem is to move to a digital television format that provides additional lines of resolution, which will be discussed later in this chapter, many manufacturers of large-screen televisions use double painting to enhance the analog image. With double painting, each of the 480 lines ar e displayed twice, with each line slightly offset from the prior line, improving image clarity. With double painting it becomes possible to obtain a decent analog image on a large-screen TV.
Overcoming Bandwidth Problems
The amplitude of the three primary colors — R (red), G (green), and B (blue) — represents a bandwidth hog. To conserve bandwidth, RGB is converted into a more compact format referred to as component video. Component video consists of three signals. The ﬁrst component video signal is luminance, which indicates the brightness of the original RGB signal. Luminance is referred to as the “Y” component. The second and third signals are color difference signals, which indicate how much blue and red there are relative to luminance. The blue component (B-Y) and red component (R-Y) are mathematical derivatives of the RGB signal. Because green can be determined from the Y, B-Y, and R-Y signals, it does not have to be transmitted as a separate signal. Thus, once video information is converted into a component video for mat, bandwidth requirements are reduced by a factor of 3 to 2. All of the component information is then broadcast as a single signal that combines amplitude and phase modulation, reducing required bandwidth to 4.2 MHz under the NTSC system. This single signal, known as composite video, is broadcast to the TV’s antenna or onto the coaxial cable routed into the home. The yellow “video out” jacks on the back of the VCR or DVD player represent composite video signal sources.
Video Image Information
Seven types of electronic information are used to deﬁne a video image when the NTSC format is used. Together, these seven types of electronic information that form a television composite waveform are commonly referred to as composite video (Table 3.2).
Table 3.2 Electronic Information That Forms Composite Video
Horizontal line sync pulse Color reference burst Reference black level Picture luminance Color saturation Color hue Vertical sync pulse
Horizontal Line Sync Pulse
The purpose of the horizontal line sync pulse is to set the electronic beam to a locked position. Doing so ensures that each line of picture information commences at the same position during scanning. Thus, the horizontal line sync pulse is generated before each line is scanned. In addition, it controls a horizontal blanking interval. Within that interval are both the horizontal sync pulse and the color reference burst.
Color Reference Burst
The purpose of the color reference burst is to ensure standard hue and color saturation. To accomplish this task, a 3.58-MHz color reference burst in the form of a sine wave is added before the picture information on each scan line.
Reference Black Level
The reference black level represents the level corresponding to the speciﬁed maximum excursion of the luminance signal in the black direction. Black level is also referred to as “setup” or “pedestal” and is deﬁned as 7.5 IEEE units.
Picture luminance describes the brightness level and ranges from 7.5 IEEE units for black to 100 IEEE units for peak white.
Color has three distinct properties, referred to as hue, value, and saturation. Hue represents the spectral color name whereas value represents lightness or darkness. Saturation represents brightness or dullness. Under the NTSC format, color information is interleaved with picture luminance information through the use of a 3.58-MHz subcarrier. The saturation of the colors is determined by the amplitude of the subcarrier.
As previously noted, hue represents the spectral color name. Color hue is also present in the 3.58-MHz subcarrier signal used to transport color information and luminance.
Vertical Sync Pulse
The purpose of the vertical sync pulse is to control the length of time the television screen is blanked between the end of one ﬁeld and the beginning of the next ﬁeld. This delay is necessary because the electron beam, which is controlled by a magnetic ﬁeld, cannot instantly reposition itself to the ﬁrst line of the television screen. This delay period is referred to as the vertical blanking interval and is sometimes used for the insertion of time code, automatic color tuning, and captioning information into the video signal.
Comparison to PAL and SECAM
The major difference between NTSC and PAL and SECAM color television resides in their use of subcarrier frequencies, phases, and formats, which affect the required bandwidth in megahertz per broadcast channel. Table 3.3 provides a comparison of the three analog color television standards.
Table 3.3 Comparing Analog Color Television Standards
System Aspect Ratio Interlace Frames per Second Total of Active Lines Bandwidth (MHz)
NTSC PAL England Japan SECAM
4:3 4.3 4:3 4:3
2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1
30 25 29.97 25
525/480 625/580 525/480 625/580
4.2 5.5 4.2 6.0
255. many times it is beneﬁcial to consider the required capacity of analog television in terms of a data rate necessary to convey the signal. sufﬁcient to provide a display of approximately 16 million colors.0. For example.0) (0. a color monitor that has a VGA (Video Graphics Array) capability will have a resolution of 640 × 480 pixels and its color depth would be 24 bits. which is referred to as true color.
Data Rate Requirement
Although an analog video system does not use pixels. the resolution and color capability of a digital system depend on both its pixel count and the number of bits used to deﬁne the color representation capability of each pixel. In this section we will ﬁrst review the concept of pixels.255.56
Comparison to Digital
Although an analog television system uses a continuous carrier for modulation instead of discrete values.0. We can do this by deﬁning the width of a pixel as one-half the cycle of the highest video
Table 3.2-MHz NTSC color television signal.0) (0. and blue intensities that range between 0 and 255. Table 3.255) (255. Next we will compute the data rate required to convey a 4.255.0) (0.0. it is convenient to consider the concept of pixels when referring to such systems. The 3 bytes used for true color represent red. Each picture element or pixel has a third dimension referred to as color depth.0.4 provides eight examples of RGB values encoded as 24-bit true color.255) (255.
In a digital system an image consists of a series of digital values that represent individual points or picture elements along the path taken to scan the image.255) (255. Thus.255) Black Red Green Blue Yellow Cyan Magenta White
.4 24-Bit True Color Coding Examples
(0.0) (255.255. green.
let’s turn our attention to digital television. which uses one UHF or VHF channel to broadcast each television channel.200.
3. which was r ecently extended to February 17. Unlike analog television. In December 1996 the FCC mandated the conversion of analog television into a digital broadcast TV standard.2 MHz.Television Concepts
frequency.000/15.2 Digital Television
On a simpliﬁed basis. This results in a combined transmission stream carrying multiple television channels and greatly increases the transmission of digital TV over analog television.84 = 448 Thus. a number of compressed digital television program streams are multiplexed into one transmission stream. and the height of a pixel can be considered to represent the height of one scanning line. the number of pixels per line (PPL) becomes PPL = 2B/FH *CH where B = bandwidth in Hz FH = horizontal scanning frequency CH = fraction of the horizontal scanning interval used to signal transmission For the analog color NTSC television system with a bandwidth of 4.
. Because NTSC operates at 30 fps.451.734 × 0. the data rate required to transport an analog color television signal as digital data is 215. Thus.040 × 30 or 6.299 bps Now that we have an appreciation for the fundamentals of analog television. Broadcasters were initially given a ten-year transition period. digital television can be considered to represent a method of transmitting video and audio by turning them into a sequence of 1s and 0s associated with computerized data. 2009. the pixels per frame (PPF) becomes PPF = 448 × 480 or 215.040 because 480 represents the number of visible scanning lines. the PPL becomes PPL = 2 × 4.
Those differences include the resolution. picture scanning. digital television has 18 formats that we will examine later in this chapter.
. the ability to compress digital television permits a number of compressed program streams to be transmitted while minimizing bandwidth requirements. Some of the listed features may require a bit of explanation. let’s brieﬂy discuss each one. for now we can note that 480. In comparison. Thus. allowing them to directly view digital content. In an analog TV system. color. Today most cable television and satellite operators transmit digital TV to subscribers by ﬂowing content into a settop box that unbundles and decodes programs for viewing. several key differences exist between conventional analog color television (SDTV) and digital television. Thus. however. resulting in the latter providing both a superior picture and superior sound. we noted several advantages associated with the ability to digitize television. Thus. digital television signals result from the direct transmission of digital camera output or from the transformation of analog video camera output through the process of sampling and quantization of the analog signal. 480 active lines are used to paint a picture on the television receiver.
The conversion of an analog signal to digital enables data to be easily manipulated. Some newer digital televisions have an equivalent set-top box built in. Sampling refers to how often an analog-to-digital converter samples the signal and quantization references the number of discrete levels to which an analog signal can be converted.
Resolution plays an important part in the clarity of a picture.58
Digital television refers to the transmission of a television signal and its reception on a digital TV or a set-top box that will convert the picture and sound so it can be displayed and heard on an analog set. Table 3.5 provides a general comparison between analog and digital television. In addition. and sound transported.
Comparison to Analog
Previously. This in turn allows the development of compression techniques that minimize both the transmission bandwidth and the storage of information.
3.3. This results in 60 frames produced every second. In interlaced scanning a frame is subdivided into two ﬁelds: odd lines (1.1 surround sound
720.33:1). This aspect ratio was initially selected to match the ratio used in cinema ﬁlms that were popular when television was initially developed. For analog NTSC. vertical blanking interval Color added as a separate carrier Two-channel FM sound on separate carrier
Picture scanning Aspect ratio Synchronization
720 and 1080 lines for HDTV.…) and even lines (2. more vivid picture with considerably less ﬂicker than analog television. the odd and even lines of a picture are scanned sequentially (1. with the latter two representing highdeﬁnition television (HDTV) resolutions. various digital television for mats include support for both interlaced and progressive scanning. 480 for digital standard TV Interlaced or progressive 16:9 (or 4:3) Frame sync signal
Color included in data Six-channel Dolby 5.…).6. the aspect ratio is 4:3 (1.5 Comparing Analog and Digital Television
Feature Analog Digital
525 lines with 480 active Interlaced 4:3 Horizontal and vertical sync pulses. Odd-numbered lines are scanned in the ﬁrst one-sixtieth of a second and even-numbered lines are scanned during the second onesixtieth of a second.
Analog television is limited to interlaced scanning. which creates a smoother.…) every one-sixtieth of a second for several popular digital formats.4.5. Combining the two ﬁelds results in the creation of a frame every one-thirtieth of a second.2. During the latter part of
. and 1080 lines are supported.Television Concepts
Table 3. Under progressive scanning.4.
The ratio between the width and the height of a picture is the aspect ratio. In comparison. This results in an NTSC analog frame rate of 30 fps.
digital television transports color information in each pixel.
In an NTSC analog system. NTSC analog television uses horizontal and vertical sync pulses as well as a vertical blanking interval to keep the output of a camera in step with the television r eceiver’s display.85:1).1 surround sound.
The last major difference between analog and digital television is sound. aspect ratio. and the type of television system the previously mentioned parameters represent. and HDTV.
Digital Television Formats
In examining the entries in Table 3. Although not matching the 16:9 ratio of digital television. Recognizing the advantages of being able to provide a panoramic view. which was well received for use in many westerns and biblical-themed movies. Table 3.5. digital television uses six-channel Dolby 5. digital TV uses frame sync signals to pr ovide a similar capability. In comparison. In comparison. Widescreen television and cinema has now spread to computing. As indicated in Table 3. including television and data. including their vertical and horizontal resolution. refresh rate in Hz. enhanced-deﬁnition television (EDTV). of which six are considered to represent HDTV.6 summarizes the 18 ﬂavors of digital television. digital television manufacturers began using an aspect ratio of 16:9 (1. This technique enables color broadcasts to be received on a legacy black-and-white television. Analog television uses two-channel FM sound modulated on a separate carrier.
In the area of synchronization. we need to note that there are a total of 18 digital television formats. its availability indicates a growing preference for the ability of consumers to view information. In comparison.6.
. movie studios gravitated toward widescreen aspect ratios to distance their products from television as well as to provide a more panoramic vision. color information is added as a separate carrier that is multiplexed with monochrome. digital television can be classiﬁed as SDTV. in a widescreen format.60
the 1950s. many modern laptops provide a 16:10 aspect ratio.
Because it uses 480 lines of vertical resolution that are interlaced. with horizontal resolution varying from 640 to 704 lines.Television Concepts
Table 3. including both progressive and interlaced screen painting. Because SDTV uses a data rate between 4 and 7 Mbps.6 Digital Television Formats
Format Index Vertical Resolution Horizontal Resolution Aspect Ratio Scan Type Refresh Rate System Type
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 720 720 750 1080 1080 1080
640 640 640 640 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 1280 1280 1280 1280 1920 1920
4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 4:3 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9 16:9
Interlaced Progressive Progressive Progressive Interlaced Progressive Progressive Progressive Interlaced Progressive Progressive Progressive Progressive Progressive Progressive Interlaced Progressive Progressive
30 24 30 60 30 24 30 60 30 24 30 60 24 30 60 30 24 30
SDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV EDTV HDTV HDTV HDTV HDTV HDTV HDTV
The ﬁrst digital TV format shown in Table 3. This SDTV digital format is equivalent to the interlaced output of DVDvideo in a 4:3 aspect ratio. between three and six SDTV channels can be multiplexed into the same bandwidth required to support one HDTV channel. this digital format is also often referred to as 480i/30.
Enhanced Deﬁnition Television
Enhanced-deﬁnition television (EDTV) consists of 11 formats. In addition. because its refresh rate is 30 fps. Both 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios are supported as well as refresh
. The vertical resolution is limited to 480 lines.6 represents SDTV. It is used when bandwidth is a larger concern than picture quality. it is referred to as 480i.
and a sports channel in high deﬁnition. Although the box is billed as an HDTV set-top box. the HDTV set-top box will allow you to view one or more high-deﬁnition premium channels. they cost less than sets with an HDTV receiver. 30. such as HBO in high deﬁnition. When a 720-line vertical resolution is employed.62
rates of 24. 30. If you visit an electronics store you may notice many low-cost plasma televisions available for purchase. In addition. your television provider will carry the three major networks.6 indicates that both interlaced and progressive scanning are supported in a vertical resolution of 1080 lines. At its highest resolution of 1080 × 1920. Later in this chapter we will discuss the use of
.6 uses MPEG-2 for video compression. In addition to an enhanced resolution. which represents almost a seven-fold improvement in picture detail over SDTV. All six HDTV formats are in a 16:9 aspect ratio. resulting in a display consisting of 307. scanning occurs progressively and refresh rates of 24. Although Table 3. that resolution is used primarily for interlaced scanning due to current limitations of broadcasting equipment and consumer television products.
HDTV has six distinct formats. Each of the digital television formats listed in Table 3.200 pixels. Such plasma TVs typically are limited to supporting EDTV and although they produce a brilliant color picture with very good clarity they are not as good as a true HDTV. color resolution is also improved over SDTV by a factor of two. you will receive an HDTV set-top box that has a monthly rental approximately twice to three times that of the provider’s regular digital box. which has a resolution of 480 × 640. and 60 fps. The 1080p format can be viewed as providing a path for future growth as imaging and display technologies evolve.073. assuming you subscribe to one or more premium channels. each providing a picture superior to SDTV and EDTV. If you subscribe to cable or satellite television service and enroll in their HDTV service. Typically. two independent HDTV channels that show movies and special events. EDTV is used when a better picture quality than SDTV is desired but bandwidth constraints preclude the use of true HDTV. HDTV offers an image consisting of 2. Because an EDTV set lacks the electronics to generate 720 or 1080 lines of resolution. providing a widescreen view. and 60 fps are supported. in reality only a handful of channels are broadcast in HDTV mode.600 pixels.
compression to minimize the bandwidth required to transport a digital television signal. digital television supports Dolby Digital audio encoding for all 18 digital TV formats.1-channel (four speakers and woofer) surround-sound format. it is actually more ﬂexible than just a 5. 2009. To do this you normally will need to connect your antenna to an HDTV terrestrial receiver that tunes and decodes all 18 digital television for mats. A second type of HDTV receiver is emerging in popularity due to the FCC mandate that will require all broadcast analog television stations to convert to digital on or before February 17. which makes it possible to connect the receiver to any of the three types of digital televisions available for purchase. Although Dolby Digital is familiar to readers who have a home theater or visit the movies.0 channel (mono) and 2. Dolby Digital can scale upward to 6. In addition. we will conclude this chapter by examining the technique that enables digital television to be transported using considerably less bandwidth than its unaltered series of frames requires. 2009 arrives.
. That technique is lossy compression. Under what many people refer to as NTSC legacy analog television. 720p. more than 30 million analog television sets in use do not have cable or satellite service. When February 17.0 channels (stereo) when the original programming being transmitted has only a mono or stereo soundtrack. Now that we have an appreciation for analog and digital television. those television sets will not be able to receive any TV signal unless they use a conversion box that receives digital TV signals and converts those to analog. Although this mandate will not affect analog television sets connected to cable or satellite television. which is the focus of the third section of this chapter. because the set-top box performs any required conversion. it is also possible to receive HDTV via over-the-air broadcasts. Dolby Digital represents a scalable digital encoding algorithm that supports 1.
Although you can receive HDTV through the use of an appropriate settop box when you subscribe to a cable or satellite television service.
One aspect of digital television commonly overlooked is its sound quality. such as 480p. sound is provided through two-channel FM that is transported on a separate carrier from the TV signal. In comparison.1 extended surround sound. or 1080i. Most HDTV receivers allow you to specify the output format.
Associated with each pixel are two values — luminance and chrominance. which returns data to its exact original form. The luminance is a value proportional to the pixel’s intensity and the chrominance is a value that represents the color of the pixel. This standard was used for the development of such products as the video CD and MP3 players. a working group of the International Standards Organization (ISO) that has. Another method is to specify the luminance (Y) and chrominance (U and V). green. As we will note later in this chapter.64
3. can be much greater than the ratio obtained when a lossless compression method.
Characteristics of Digital Video
Digital video can be viewed as a sequence of images. The majority of digital video broadcasting (DVB) uses MPEG-2 compression. One method is by specifying an appropriate mixture of the three primary colors (red. is used. where the term MPEG refers to the Motion Picture Experts Group. to paraphrase a popular tune from The Sound of Music.3 Lossy Compression
As brieﬂy indicated in Chapter 2. developed a series of standards for the compressed representation of audio and video. “we will begin at the beginning” our examination of MPEG by ﬁrst turning our attention to MPEG-1. and blue). each of which represents a two-dimensional frame of picture elements that are commonly referred to as pixels or pels. lossy compression provides a mechanism to considerably increase the ratio of noncompressed original data to its compressed equivalent. since its founding in 1988. Several methods can be used to represent the color of a pixel. in this section. Thus.
MPEG-1 represents the ﬁrst of a series of MPEG standards developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group. the YUV system allows color to be approximated using only two variables and represents one of several mechanisms by which lossy compression obtains a high compression ratio when operating on a digital video stream. technically referred to as the compression ratio. This ratio.
Parts of MPEG-1
MPEG-1 was primarily developed for the coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to approximately a data
The MPEG-1 standard covers three types of coded frames: I. and other data are Huffman coded using ﬁxed tables. Each frame represents a still image. Although images are in color.7. a search is performed for a close match to that block in a previous or future block. P. we will focus our attention on Parts 2 and 3 of the standard. they are converted into YUV space (luminance and two chrominance values).Television Concepts
Table 3. which deﬁne techniques used to compress video and audio. note that Part 1 of the standard represents an important function because it enables audio and video to be stored or transmitted as a single entity. resulting in many coefﬁcients being 0. In this section we will ﬁrst examine each of the encoding processes speciﬁed under
. Motion is predicted from frame to frame in the temporal direction in the luminance (Y) channel on 16 × 16 blocks. which are summarized in Table 3. The standard is deﬁ ned in ﬁve parts. B frames. or bidirectional frames.7.5 Mbps. I frames are intra-frames whereas P (predicted) frames are produced from the most recently reconstructed I or P frame.7 The Parts of the MPEG-1 Standard
2 3 4 5
Addresses the problem of combining one or more data streams from the video and audio parts of the standard with timing information to form a single data stream Deﬁnes a coded representation that can be used for compressing both 525 and 625 lines to bit rates of approximately 1. the DCT coefﬁcients. motion vectors.5 Mbps Deﬁnes a coded representation that can be used for compressing both mono and stereo audio sequences Deﬁnes how tests can be used to verify if bitstreams and decoders meet the requirements of the prior parts of the standard A technical report that provides a full software implementation of the ﬁrst three parts of the standard
rate of 1. and the discrete cosine transformation (DCT) operates on 8 × 8 pixel blocks to organize redundancy in the spatial direction. respectively. quantization parameters. are predicted from the closest I or P frames. In examining the entries in Table 3. Then. The DCT coefﬁcients are quantized. Thus. and B. for each 16 × 16 pixel block in the current frame. Although this is important for transmission and storage. which results in strings of 0s suitable for compression.
. Subsampling represents the most basic of all image compression techniques.
Color Space Conversion
Under the MPEG-1 standard. that component is encoded with full resolution. Next. video is represented as a sequence of pictures. is converted to Y. green (G). where neighboring images in a video sequence are similar. where neighboring samples on a scanning line are similar. Cb (ﬁrst chrominance component).66
the MPEG-1 standard. It reduces the amount of data by simply discarding some of it. The ﬁrst method involves copying the original image but only using a portion of the original pixels. we will tur n our attention to how intra-frame and inter-frame coding are performed under the standard. subsampling by 2 in both the x and y directions results in every second line and second column being ignor ed. with each picture treated as a two-dimensional array of pixels (picture elements or pels). To obtain a high compression ratio. Cr.G.B.
After the previously mentioned conversion. This is done because human vision is much less sensitive to chrominance than it is to luminance. Cb. The color of each pel is deﬁned by three components: Y (luminance). each pel is represented as Y. the luminance component remains intact. Under MPEG-1. MPEG-1 uses coding techniques to reduce both spatial redundancy. A second method requires ﬁrst computing the average pixel value for each group of several pixels. and Cr (second chrominance component). This results in a reduction of data without affecting the visual quality of the image. the average pixel value is substituted in the appropriate location in the approximated image. Y’s resolution is four times the resolution of the CbCr subsample.3. and temporal redundancy.
In the MPEG-1 standard. whereas the CbCr components are subsampled. which consists of red (R). Because human sight is more sensitive to Y. Cb. which means that the former can be coded more efﬁciently. and blue (B) components. each pel in a picture. In Figure 3. This is less correlated than R. There are two primary methods of subsampling. Figure 3. Cr. This second technique is more complex but normally results in better quality images. Once this is accomplished. While the color component of the image is subsampled by 2 in both directions.3 illustrates the subsample process.
.j]).j]) = Round (X[i. Subsampling is obviously nonreversible and thus lossy.j]/Q[i.j]) occurs. Thus. To do this. we obtain (Xq[i.
Once color space conversion and subsampling of chrominance information are completed. the next step is to reduce the resulting data through the process of quantization. As a refresher.j]) is used to deﬁne quantization steps. the receiver or decoder can attempt to restore pixels that were removed due to subsampling. In the MPEG-1 standard. Then. Because we can round a real to an integer.Television Concepts
Figure 3. the use of quantization enables a lesser number of bits to represent a continuous set of values. quantization refers to the process of approximating the continuous set of values in an image so that they have a ﬁnite set of values. a quantiﬁer matrix (Q[i. the values of the missing in-between pixels can be approximated through interpolation.
Thus. subsampling color images in this manner reduces the number of bits required to specify the chrominance component by three fourths. Although the subsampling process relies on the ability of human visual perception to ﬁll in the gaps. Each time a pel’s matrix (X[i. adjacent pixels of the subsampled image are compared.j]) with the same size as (Q[i.3 An example of the subsample process. the pel matrix is divided by the quantized value matrix (Xq[i.
The difference between the actual and reconstructed values is referred to as the quantization error and explains why MPEG-1 is referred to as a lossy compression method.4 illustrates an example of the quantization process on an 8 × 8 block based on Q[i. For an m × n matrix S.j] = Xq[i. Figure 3. the reconstructed or dequantized value will not be the same as the original value.j] Because the quantization equation uses the round function to obtain the nearest integer value.4 An example of the quantization process when Q[i.j] * Q[i. The DCT represents a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components.j] equal to 2. such as speech waveforms. A onedimensional DCT is used in processing one-dimensional signals.j].j] equals 2. and two-dimensional DCT is required for the analysis of two-dimensional signals.
Discrete Cosine Transform
Under the MPEG-1 standard. which is expressed mathematically as follows: X1[i. such as images. the
. 8 × 8 pel blocks are converted to another 8 × 8 using the discrete cosine transform.68
Non-Quantized 487 1 3 2 1 2 3-3 -5 1 2 1 4 1 0 0 21311125 -2 -1 0 1 1 2 2 2 -1 -2 0 0-1 0 1 2 2 -1 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 -1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -1 -1 -2 -1 0 0 1 0
Quantization Result 293 0 1 1 0 1 1-1 -1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 10100012 -1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0-1 0 0 0 0 0 1 10000010 10000000 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
Figure 3. the visual quality of the quantized image will appear to the human eye reasonably similar to the original image.
The inverse of quantization is referred to as inverse quantization. Through the careful design of Q[i.
After the application of the DCT process and quantization. data in the time domain is converted to data in the frequency domain. The coefﬁcient location (0. then frequency domain data results in low-frequency data being larger and high-frequency data being smaller. tend to be good candidates for compression.…n v = 0. a majority of the AC values will be 0. differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is used. y = 0. Thus.v ) = 1/ 4 2C(u )C( v )
∑ ∑ S(x.Television Concepts
two-dimensional DCT is applied to each row of the matrix S and then to each column of the result. For the DC component. when scanned in an applicable zig-zag order. the resulting coefﬁcients. DPCM can be viewed as an extension of pulse code modulation in which the difference between the previous output and a new source are encoded
. We can view the DCT as changing the representation of data as an array of 64 values (8 × 8) into a varying signal that can be approximated by a set of 64 cosine functions with a series of amplitudes that can be represented as a matrix of coefﬁcients. value) pairs. we obtain
S(u. run-length encoding (RLE) is used to compress the results of the DCT and quantization process.y )Cos(2Π + 1) 16 Cos(2y + 1) 16
y =0 x=0
(3.0) in DCT is referred to as the DC coefﬁcient. where “skip” represents the number of 0s and “value” is the next nonzer o value encountered. =1 otherwise For the two-dimensional 8 × 8 pel DCT transform. the other coefﬁcient values are called AC coefﬁcients. For sequences of 0s.2)
where: u. resulting in large quantization steps being used to quantize AC coefﬁcients whereas small quantization steps are used to quantize the DC coefﬁcient. This action retains a high level of precision. otherwise C(u) = 1 Through the use of DCT.v ) = 2C(u )
∑ ∑ S(x. Although the DCT process by itself does not result in compression. To do so. the bitstream is encoded as (skip. If there is little variation of data in the time domain.1)
where: u = 0. RLE is used only on the AC component. the transform of S is
y =0 x =0
m −1 n −1
(2 x + 1)uΠ Cos(2 y + 1)uΠ 2n 2m
(3. v.…m C(u) = 2–1/2 for u = 0. 1…7 C(u) = 2–1/2 for u = 0. x. In comparison.
–1.. 1. 1. value) pairs. Figure 3. 0.
Under the MPEG-1 standard. Note that by encoding the difference instead of the new source values a lesser number of bits is required. 1. DPCM is used to predict the DC coefﬁcient. 0.
293 0 1 –1 0 1 1 0 1 –1 0 0 0 –1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 –1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 –1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Zigzag data: 293. most AC values will be set to 0. After the application of DCT and quantization.. the resulting bitstream is encoded as (skip. 0. Once the zig-zag process is applied to the block. Instead. 0. This process of video compression using motion estimation is also referred to as inter-frame coding.5 Differential pulse code modulation.
Figure 3. 1. Figure 3. 0. 0. The value 293 is the DC coefﬁcient and is not coded.6 illustrates a portion of the zig-zag scanning process applied to an 8 × 8 block and the resulting data. . data is further reduced through motion estimation.70
New Source Previous Output Differential Values
132574103 012483012 1 2 0 1 -1 1 0 -1 1
Figure 3. Motion estimation is used to predict the values of a block of pixels in the current picture.6 A portion of a zig-zag scan. A frame is selected as a reference and subsequent frames are predicted from the reference. 0. 1.
. –1. At this point a zig-zag scan process is used to gather more consecutive 0s.5 illustrates the creation of differences between a previous output sequence and a new source sequence.
instead of the actual values of the new source..
When a previous frame is used as a reference. This vector is referred to as the motion vector and the difference between the two blocks is known as the prediction error. During the decoding process the decoder uses this information to reconstruct frames. Under the MPEG-1 standard. Each macroblock is then compared to a macroblock in the reference frame and the best matching macroblock is selected. As you might surmise. a process referred to as motion compensation. When both forward and backward predictions are used together.7 can also be considered to represent a forward prediction process.7 Motion estimation example.
Inter-frame coding or motion estimation occurs by dividing the current frame into macroblocks.
During the reconstruction process.7 shows an example of the motion estimation process on a 4 × 5 pixel block for ease of illustration. In this example. the encoder computes motion vectors and their associated prediction errors.
As a mechanism to further reduce data redundancy. a vector that denotes the displacement of the macroblock in the reference frame with respect to the macroblock in the current frame is computed. the prediction is referred to as forward prediction. In comparison. Figure 3. typically 8 × 8 or 16 × 16 pixels in size. Figure 3. Next. Variable-length coding can be considered to represent a statistical coding technique in which short codewords are used to represent
. Thus. the reference frame is used to predict the current frame based on the use of the motion vectors. Frame N serves as a reference for motion estimation on Frame N + 1. the prediction is referred to as backward prediction. when the reference frame represents a future frame. MPEG-1 speciﬁes the use of variable-length coding (VLC) as the last step of the encoding process.Television Concepts
Frame N 76 81 79 80 81 78 82 79 80 81 79 82 83 79 80 80 81 81 80 80
Frame N+1 79 80 79 81 81 79 81 79 80 81 80 81 82 80 80 80 81 82 81 80
Motion vector 3 –1 0 1 0 –1 1 –1 –1 0 –1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Figure 3. motion compensation is the inverse of motion estimation. this technique is referred to as bidirectional prediction.
Thus. let’s assume the following binary data occurs at the receiver: 01101110010… This binary string is instantly decoded as s1. and one of Cr chrominance. encoding and decoding employ the use of a code table with two entries. To illustrate its instantaneously decoding capability. and the second entry stores the corresponding codewords for each data symbol. For example. s2 When we assign codes to symbols based on the probability of symbols occurring in data we create the well-known Huffman code. That block is an 8 × 8 matrix. When I frames are coded only the spatial redundancy is reduced because the frame serves as a reference for P and B frames. so that we obtain an instantaneous code in which no symbol is a pr eﬁx of any other symbol and a decoding tree is easily constructed: s1 = 0 s2 = 10 s3 = 110 s4 = 1110 s5 = 1111 The preceding code is an instantaneous code because no symbol is a preﬁx of any other symbol. we can view an I frame as a beginning or reference for predicted (P) frames and bidirectional (B) frames. with the latter predicted from the closest I or P frames. one of Cb chrominance. s1. The basic coding unit of the I frame is a block. s4. The actual encoding of an
. Under the MPEG-1 standard.
An I (or intra-) frame is a frame coded as a still image without any past history. in the source code 5.72
frequently occurring values and longer codewords are used to represent less frequently occurring values. s1 through s5. If the code alphabet is binary we can assign the following values to s1 through s5. whereas a macroblock consists of six blocks: four of luminance. One entry represents the possible symbols or original data. s3. consider a VLC with ﬁve symbols.
The resulting coefﬁcients are quantized and then encoded using a run-length data compression technique. Table 3. use VLC to encode it
I frame follows an eight-step process. resulting in the creation of an array of 8 × 8 transform coefﬁcients. Once the frame coding method is determined. When this occurs. it has to decide how to divide the picture into macroblocks.8 summarizes the steps involved in encoding an I frame.9 lists the steps required to perform inter-frame encoding. similar to the manner by which JPEG operates. Instead.
. Once this is accomplished the encoder must decide whether to code each macroblock as an intra. although intra-frame coding can obtain a signiﬁcant degree of compression. First. Table 3. Thus. use VLC to encode it Use RLE to encode AC value.8 Intra-Frame Encoding Steps
Decompose image into RGB components Convert RGB to YCbCr Divide image into macroblocks Perform DCT on each block Quantize each coefﬁcient in block Gather AC value Use DPCM to encode DC value. Next. the encoder must then determine how to set the quantizer scale so that a balance is obtained between the level of compression obtained and the quality of the decompr essed frame.or predicted frame.Television Concepts
Table 3. it is not as effective as inter-frame coding. which can take advantage of the fact that motion estimation can signiﬁcantly reduce the amount of data required to represent P and B frames. the coding of P and B frames is mor e complex than for I frames because motion-compensated macroblocks may be created. As you might expect.
Inter-frame coding represents the process by which P and B frames are created. it needs to determine the best motion vectors to use. it focuses on reducing the data required to represent a single frame. the dif ference between the motioncompensated macroblock and the current macroblock is transformed through the use of two-dimensional DCT. Intra-frame coding does not examine the differences between frames. Note that the encoder has to make a series of decisions when it performs motion compensation.
That is. subtracting the average from the block being coded. Figure 3. the encoder computes a forward vector and a backward vector and averages the two blocks from the future and past frames. 1 for Cr) Perform DCT on each block Quantize each coefﬁcient Gather AC value Reconstruct frame and store it in frame buffer Apply DPCM to encode DC value and use VLC to encode it Use RLE to encode AC value and then use VLC to encode it
The B (or bidirectional) frames are predicted from the closest two I or P frames — one in the past and one in the future. Note that P frames use motion to deﬁne the dependence between continuous
Figure 3.8 illustrates the relationships among I. and P frames. B.74
Table 3. 1 for Cb. The encoder searches for matching blocks in those frames.9 Inter-Frame Encoding Steps
Decompose image into three RGB components Convert RGB to YCbCr Perform motion estimation between encoding frame and reference frame Divide image into macroblock consisting of 6 blocks (4 for Y. trying three different approaches to determine which approach works best. B. and P frames.
.8 Relationships among I.
Intraframe coding can be considered to represent a starting point for further reduction of data because this results in compressed I frames. after which DPCM is applied to encode the DC value. a DCT operation occurs on each block.Television Concepts
frames whereas the B frame functions as a mechanism for increasing the frame rate without having to signiﬁcantly increase the bit rate. and buffer requirements are negative aspects associated with the use of B frames. delay. MPEG-1 uses intra-frame and inter-frame coding to reduce the quantity of data that needs to be transmitted. Coding decisions. the computational complexity. Thus. First. we focused on MPEG-1 video. Next. One advantage associated with B frames is that they reduce noise at low bit rates. Once a motion compensation mode is selected and required computations are performed.
As indicated in this section. In comparison. which are used as a reference for the creation of B and P frames. inter-frame coding reduces the encoded bit rate by coding frames with respect to the previous encoded frame (P) and sometimes the subsequent (B) frame. which provide additional types over P frames due to the introduction of a backward motion vector.
Previously. After this. Concerning delay. In addition. This requires an averaging process to form an interpolated motion-compensated macroblock. This method of coding results in a higher compression ratio than intra-frame coding but requires a large computational effort. the MPEG-1 standard deﬁnes 12 types of macroblocks for B frames. the encoding process requires more types of macroblocks to be considered. each coefﬁcient is quantized and AC values are gathered via a zig-zag scan process. However. when both forward and backward motion vectors are present. bandwidth. the motioncompensated macroblocks need to be constructed from both future and previous frames. In this section we turn our attention to the manner by which sound is digitized under the MPEG-1 standard. The coding of the B frame involves a series of decisions. VLC is used to encode the DC value and RLE is used to encode the AC value. additional delay is introduced in the encoding process because the frame used for backward prediction has to be transmitted to the decoder before the intermediate B frame can be decoded and displayed.
. after which VLC is used to encode the compressed AC value.
Those modes are mono. In Layer I. Four different audio modes are supported by the standard. Each block is encoded within an MPEG-1 audio frame. A low sampling frequency extension included in MPEG-2 extends the data rate downward to 8 kbps.
MPEG-1 audio layers increase in complexity and coding efﬁciency as they progress from Layer I to Layer II and then to Layer III. Although Layer III supports a variable bit rate.
Stereo Mode Support
MPEG-1 audio supports one. Similar to video frames. Those coding schemes are referred to as Layers I. and III. most MPEG-1 audio decoders support variable bit rates for all layers. Perceptual audio coding occurs instead of lossy coding. which is divided into data blocks. perceptual coding eliminates those parts of a sound signal that are not applicable to the human ear. with an MPEG-1 audio stream consisting of a series of consecutive audio frames. blocks consist of 384 audio samples. The header is then followed by the encoded sound data. the remaining audio is quantized into a bitstream. After removal of the portions of audio signals that cannot be heard. Under the MPEG-1 audio standard.
Bit Rate Support
MPEG-1 audio supports a wide range of bit rates from 32 kbps to 320 kbps. lower layer support is optional. an MPEG-1 audio encoder transforms sound signals into the frequency domain and eliminates those frequency components that cannot be heard due to their masking by stronger frequency components. II. The well-known . whereas in Layers II and III there are 1152 samples in a block.and two-channel audio signals. the sampling frequency. the type of information an encoder has to produce and not the encoder is standardized.76
There are three different coding schemes for digitized sound under the MPEG-1 standard. and whether the frame is Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) protected. However. an audio frame consists of a header that contains such information as the MPEG layer.mp3 ﬁle extension was created with the development of MPEG-1 Layer III encoder and decoder software for the Windows operating system. the number of channels. In effect.
when the Motion Picture Experts Group realized it was necessary to develop a requirement for coding video broadcasts at higher data rates than MPEG-1’s support of bit rates up to 1. joint stereo. which has ﬁve parts. The primary purpose of Part 1 is to deﬁne a syntax for transporting packets of audio and video bitstreams and a syntax for their synchronization. This extension to the MPEG-1 standard dates to 1990. MPEG-2 is a standard with many parts.
Parts of MPEG-2
Part 1 of MPEG-2 addresses how one or more elementary video and audio streams as well as other data can be combined into one or more data streams suitable for storage or transmission. Fast Forward. MPEG-2 extends the stereo audio capabilities of MPEG-1 to multichannel surroundsound coding.Television Concepts
stereo. and Part 5 contains an example C language software encoder and compliant decoder for video and audio. Part 3 of MPEG-2 represents a backward-compatible multichannel extension of the MPEG-1 audio standard. Goto.5 Mbps. Part 6 of MPEG-2. ranging from coding high-bit-rate data to pictures with different color resolutions. represents a set of protocols that controls MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 bitstreams. However. unlike MPEG-1. including such commands as Still Frame. video. MPEG-2 has nine parts.
MPEG-2 is the most commonly used method to compress audio and video signals.
Similar to MPEG-1. Under Part 2 the header and bitstreams are deﬁned. and audio. Parts 4 and 5 of MPEG-2 correspond to Parts 4 and 5 of MPEG-1. The r esulting MPEG-2 standard is capable of encoding SDTV at bit rates from approximately 3 to 15 Mbps and HDTV at bit rates from 15 to 30 Mbps. Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC). A syntax for controlling VCR-style and random-access disks is deﬁned. In addition. Part 2 of MPEG-2 builds on the video compression capabilities deﬁned by the prior MPEG-1 standard. Part 2 also deﬁnes a series of proﬁles that offer different functionalities. and so on.
. and dual channel. as are the algorithms used to process video. Part 4 deﬁnes the meaning of conformance for system. with the latter providing two independent channels that can be used to support two languages.
there are no backward or interpreted predictions.
Comparison to MPEG-1
As previously mentioned. simple and main. MPEG-2 video represents an extension to MPEG-1 video. MPEG-2 provides extra algorithms beyond those supported by MPEG-1 that can be used to efﬁciently code interlaced video at a wide range of data rates. which reduces both processing requirements and the delay associated with the computations. Part 7 removes the constraint of having audio that is backward compatible with MPEG-1. Thus. Part 9 of MPEG-2 deﬁnes the speciﬁcation of the Real-Time Interface (RTI) for transporting video-on-demand control signals between set-top boxes and headend servers. The main proﬁle adds support for B frames and is the more widely used proﬁle. however. Under MPEG-2 two nonscalable proﬁles. Referred to as proﬁles and levels. Using B frames increases video quality. Thus. where the overall endto-end delay is approximately 100 ms.
With MPEG-2 a small number of subsets of the complete toolkit ar e deﬁned. a proﬁle represents a subset of algorithmic tools and a level identiﬁes a set of constraints on parameter values. it adds
Table 3. Work on Part 8 was discontinued due to a lack of industry interest.78
Part 7 of MPEG-2 represents a speciﬁcation for a multichannel audio coding algorithm that is not backward compatible with the MPEG-1 audio speciﬁcation. This proﬁle is suitable for low-delay applications. such as the picture size or bit rate. are deﬁned. such as videoconferencing.10 MPEG-2 Additions
Deﬁnes nonscalable and scalable proﬁles Deﬁnes four levels of coding parameters Supports interlaced or progressive video sequences Changes meaning of aspect ratio information variable
.10 provides a summary of the key differences between MPEG-2 and MPEG-1. The simple proﬁle uses no B frames. Part 8 introduces a 10-bit video extension whose primary application is for studio video that requires 10 bits of sample precision. Table 3.
In comparison. both interlaced and pr ogressive video sequencing are supported. whereas HDTV requires a high-1440 level. A third proﬁle. where the terms represent the sampling structure of the digital picture such that chrominance is horizontally subsampled by a factor of 2 relative to the luminance. Table 3.
. referred to as the SNR proﬁle and the spatial proﬁle.2 Mbps. The SNR proﬁle can be used for digital terrestrial television as a method of providing for graceful degradation. the simple proﬁle is not.
Under the MPEG-2 standard. Note that SDTV requires main level. which required a data rate of 1. adds support for coding a 4:2:2 video signal.11 MPEG-2 Upper Limit Coding Parameter Constraints
Level Frame Width (Pixels) Frame Height (Pixels) Frame Rate (Hz) Bit Rate (Mbps) Buffer Size (Bits)
Low Main High-1440 High
352 720 1440 1920
288 576 1152 1152
30 30 60 60
4 15 60 80
475136 1835008 7340032 9781248
approximately 120 ms to the coding delay to support frame reordering. referred to as the high proﬁle. MPEG-2 also supports two scalable proﬁles. the spatial proﬁle provides a way to broadcast HDTV with a main proﬁle-compatible SDTV service. and buffer size required for each level. frame rate. The main proﬁle is backward compatible with MPEG-1 video. MPEG-1 is limited to the support of progressive sequences because the target application was the compact video disk. The spatial proﬁle adds support for enhancement layers that transport coded images at different resolutions. maximum bit rate.
MPEG-2 deﬁnes four levels of coding parameter constraints. including frame resolution.Television Concepts
Table 3. The SNR proﬁle adds support for the enhancement layers of DCT coefﬁcient reﬁnement by using a signal-tonoise (S/N) ratio scalability tool.11 lists the upper limits of the constraints for each level.
where W and H are not equal. or 2. Another difference concerns the support for scanning quantized coefﬁcients. In fact. vertical and horizontal range speciﬁers. Those differences include the concept of the slice.21:1. where a square pixel used in computer graphics has a pixel aspect ratio. With MPEG-2.
In addition to the previously mentioned differences between MPEG-2 and MPEG-1. Under MPEG-2 the variable references the intended display rate. under the MPEG-1 standard the aspect ratio refers to the particular pixel. In addition to the zig-zag scanning process that is supported by both MPEG-2 and MPEG-1. we will
. 16:9. there are a signiﬁcant number of minute differences between the two standards. and the ability to perform nonlinear macroblock quantization. under MPEG-2 two new variables were deﬁned that can be used with the frame rate variable to specify a much wider variety of display frame rates. The display aspect ratio can be 4:3. the MPEG-2 speciﬁcation uses the video stream header to specify the intended display aspect ratio instead of the pixel aspect ratio. of 1:1. In comparison. In addition.80
The MPEG-2 standard changed the meaning behind the variable used to deﬁne aspect ratio information as well as signiﬁcantly reduced the number of deﬁned aspect ratios. the latter describes the shape of the physically displayed image as measured with a ruler. also known as the sample aspect ratio (SAR). the former added support for an additional scan pattern that is used to scan quantized coefﬁcients resulting from interlaced source frames. In comparison. which are rectangular. which were added under the MPEG-2 standard. The relationship of the width and height in pixels to the SAR and DAR is as follows: Width/height = DAR/SAR
Another difference between MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 is the meaning of the variable used to deﬁne the frame rate. Because the purpose of this chapter is to become acquainted with the manner by which the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 standards reduce the data transmission requirements of digital video signals. such as 4:3 or 16:9. The pixel aspect ratio should not be confused with the display aspect ratio (DAR). video pixels. aspect ratio information refers to the overall display aspect ratio. have an aspect ratio of width:height (W:H). under MPEG-1 the variable references the coded frame rate.
264 standard has two distinct layers: the network abstraction layer (NAL) and the video coding layer (VCL). Many books and Internet-accessible white papers specialize in this information. which increases its computational complexity in order to obtain a greater compression capability. Where it differs from its predecessors is in additional algorithms. we will brieﬂy discuss a video coding standard developed by both the ISO/IEC (International Engineering Consortium) and ITU-T (the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union).264 standard
. The H.264 standard supports both IP and non-IP-based operations. Thus.264 standard is to obtain a high compression ratio while preserving video quality. this standard is also known as MPEG-4 AVC (advanced video coding). including both ﬁxed and wireless operations. The NAL is r esponsible for packing coded data based on the characteristics of the network that will be used as the transport facility.
The H. the NAL manages transport over the network and the VCL represents a networkindependent interface.264
In concluding our discussion of lossy compression.
The primary goal of the H.Television Concepts
not probe deeper into the differences.
H. including providing DVD-quality video at a data rate under 1 Mbps. In effect.264 standard. such as quarter-pixel motion accuracy.264 standard is a video compression standard that provides a signiﬁcantly greater compression capability than its predecessors. the VCL is responsible for generating an efﬁcient representation of the data. In comparison. the H. Referred to as the H.264 multimedia compression standard is similar to its predecessors in that its design is based on a sequence of actions referred to as building blocks. The result is the achievement of an approximate 50 percent reduction in the bit rate required to transport multimedia in comparison to previously developed standards. The H.
Nine different intra-prediction modes for macroblocks are supported by the H. satellite.264 standard. which enables a better quality result to be obtained during decoding.264 standard differs in the techniques it uses.
Use of an Integer DCT-Like Transform
The H. eliminating the transform mismatch between the encoder and decode that occurs when a conventional ﬁxed-point DCT is used.
To exploit the spatial redundancies between adjacent blocks of a picture.12 lists some of the more prominent features associated with H. However. This transform is an approximate of the conventional DCT designed to enable its core functions to be computed via adders and shifters. and content delivery servers streaming data to set-top boxes.
Variable Block Motion Compensation
Under the H.264 video coding.264 standard. Table 3.82
Table 3. coding the difference between the actual value and the predicted value. the H. Up to seven modes of variable block sizes and 16 motion
. In addition. the block size of the transform is reduced to 4 × 4.264 standard predicts the pixel value of a block from adjacent blocks.264 Video Coding
Grouping of macroblocks for intra-prediction Use of an integer DCT-like transform Variable-block motion compensation Quantization parameters
can be considered a Swiss Army knife of multimedia compression capability because it can be used with PDAs.
The H. the H.12 Key Features of H.264 standard is similar to other multimedia compression techniques because it uses the spatial and temporal redundancies within and between frames to reduce the quantity of data.264 standard deﬁnes the use of an integer DCT-like transform. DVDs. motion compensation occurs using variable block sizes.
Although the H. we can reasonably expect the H. In addition.
vectors are supported for each macroblock. it also increases the complexity of its codec computations. As the processing power of chips increases. Under the H. Although the use of variable block sizes improves prediction capability. its higher complexity than MPEG-2 resulted in the vast majority of current set-top boxes supporting the earlier standard. which enhances the coding gain obtainable in the quantization process.
Perhaps the most important factor in a multimedia compression speciﬁcation is the coding gain obtained due to quantization. with an approximate 12 percent increase in the magnitude of the step size from one quantization parameter to another. a total of 52 quantization parameters are supported by the standard.264 standard.264 standard to have an increased level of implementation.264 standard supports a wide range of network operations from ADSL to cable television. a nonlinear quantization process is supported.
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. we will review the major characteristics of the TCP/IP protocol suite. The ﬁrst type of video.
. we will use our knowledge of the protocol suite to obtain an understanding of the manner by which video can be transported in a TCP/IP environment. video that will be stored and later viewed on a PC. we will then examine the network and common transport layer headers included in the protocol suite. video iPod. requires the use of a jitter buffer to smooth out delay variations experienced by packets as they ﬂow through an IP network. In comparison. This section will focus on the TCP/IP protocol suite. or other device does not require the use of a jitter buffer. Once this is accomplished.
4. real-time.1 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
When we discuss the TCP/IP protocol suite and IPTV it is important to note that there are two types of video that can be delivered through the use of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Commencing with a review of the architecture of the TCP/IP protocol suite and its comparison to the well-known seven-layer reference model. First. Those types of video can be categorized as realtime and stored for replay.
1 TCP/IP encapsulated in a LAN header. the destination port number indicates the application because a receiving device will “listen” on predeﬁned port numbers to support one or more predeﬁned applications associated with certain port numbers. note that the TCP/IP protocol suite does not deﬁne a physical layer (layer 1). Figure 4. the TCP/IP protocol suite deﬁnes a series of address resolution protocols (ARPs) that enable the network layer’s addressing to be adapted to operate on the Media Access Control layer (MAC layer) supported by a particular LAN. which represent the session.1 illustrates the ﬁve layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite during the formation of a LAN frame as well as the relationship between the layers in the ISO reference model and the TCP/IP protocol suite. presentation. are a single application layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite. which indicates the type of application data being transported. a transport layer header. but it predates that model and consists of ﬁve layers. layers 5 through 7. In actuality. In examining Figure 4.
. typically either a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) or UDP (User Datagram Protocol) header.1. Both TCP and UDP headers include a source and destination numeric port number identiﬁer. is preﬁxed to application data. In comparison. and application layers in the ISO reference model.
Figure 4. the source port is normally set to either a value of 0 or a randomly selected value. Instead. As a LAN frame is formed in the TCP/IP protocol suite. In addition.86
The TCP/IP protocol suite represents a layered protocol similar to the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer reference model.
The physical layer can be twisted-pair. the IP header denotes the sending and receiving interfaces through the use of source and destination address ﬁelds. which causes latency that adversely affects realtime applications.1. That delivery can be reliable. Both the formation of TCP segments and UDP datagrams occur at the transport layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite. the preﬁx of a UDP header to an application data unit results in the formation of a UDP datagram. which identify the application being transported through the use of destination port numbers. the
. it is not suitable for digitized voice and data. which is responsible for the delivery of packets. In comparison to TCP and UDP headers. As indicated in Figure 4. as more subscribers select this service. whereas the data link layer can be a form of Ethernet or another type of network. the result is an IP datagram.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Segments and Datagrams
Several terms are used to reference headers preﬁxed onto application data units. IPTV primarily uses UDP at the transport layer. First. we come to the transport layer. Although many traditional Internet applications use TCP for the transport layer protocol. Because data ﬂows through routers. in sequence. both an IP header as well as a TCP or UDP header are required to identify both the type of data transported by an IP datagram and the originator and receiver of the datagram. the preﬁx of a TCP header to an application data unit is referred to as a TCP segment. Because early trials of IPTV had more than enough bandwidth devoted to the video streams.1. when TCP is used. Moving up the protocol stack. Thus. Returning our attention to Figure 4. or a wireless link. or unreliable and possibly out of sequence when UDP is used. we will note some of the well-known ﬁeld assignments. However. and other actions that developers may elect to add to the application. ﬁber. This is because TCP corrects for lost packets and transmission errors by retransmission. When an IP header is preﬁxed to a TCP segment or UDP datagram. the physical and data link layers are responsible for transporting raw data in the form of binary 1s and 0s. But UDP can be considered an unreliable protocol that depends on the upper-layer application for error detection and correction. which represents layer 4 in the ISO reference model. In comparison. Thus. this layer is sometimes referred to as the routing layer. the probability of packets becoming lost was virtually zero. As we probe deeper into the relevant ﬁelds of the protocol headers that must be considered when transporting video through ﬁrewalls and routes. The network layer is responsible for delivering data to its destination over one or more router “hops” based on the destination IP address in the IP header. sequencing of packets. this action occurs at layer 3 in the ISO reference model.
Thus. the transport of an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) message warrants mention. in the future UDP will more than likely be used in conjunction with the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP). Thus. This means that an ICMP message is preﬁxed with an IP header. ICMP is used to generate the well-known and frequently used echo request and echo reply messages that are collectively better known as ping messages.2 An ICMP message is transported by the preﬁx of an IP header to the message. we will note how encapsulation of data through a sequence of headers is used to control the ﬂow of video. as shown in Figure 4. Both raw UDP and RTP will be discussed later in this chapter.2. resulting in the encapsulation of an ICMP message within an IP datagram.88
probability of packets being dropped by routers can be expected to increase. Both routers and hosts use ICMP to transmit reports concerning received datagrams back to the originator. an IP datagram is formed.1. which provides time stamping and sequencing. we will commence our investigation of the operation of the TCP/IP protocol suite at the network layer. although what is referred to as “raw UDP” is sufﬁcient for delivering video today.
Although not shown in Figure 4. it is similar to the physical layer in that both are not deﬁned in the TCP/IP protocol suite. In addition. Through the preﬁx of an IP header. The IP
Figure 4. As we probe deeper into the use of the TCP/IP protocol suite to convey video.
The Network Layer
Because the data link layer represents a transport facility on a LAN or serial communications on a WAN.
. ICMP messages convey error and control information such that they represent an integral part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. ICMP messages are transported as an IP datagram.
Those ﬁelds include three that provide fragmentation control (identiﬁcation. we will limit our discussion of the header ﬁelds to the delivery of video.
The IPv4 Header
The IPv4 header is illustrated in Figure 4. recipient. The ﬁrst ﬁeld in the header is a 4-bit version ﬁeld. Thus. This ﬁeld not only speciﬁes the version of the IP in use.
Fragment Control Fields
Previously we noted that three ﬁelds in the IP header control fragmentation. and fragment offset ﬁelds. Although all of the ﬁelds in the IPv4 header are important.3 The IPv4 header. and routers between the source and destination to agree on the format of the datagram. We will also focus on IP addressing and the subnet mask because several methods based on addressing can be used to deliver video over an IP network. Because IPv4 is currently used by more than 95 percent of all TCP/IP users. the value of the version ﬁeld is binary 0100 or decimal 4. ﬂags. the time-to-live ﬁeld.3. ﬂags. in a video operating environment.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Figure 4. and fragment offset). but also enables the originator. and the source and destination address ﬁelds. we will focus our attention on the IPv4 header even though the more modern IPv6 header is considered to represent a replacement for the prior network layer protocol. For IPv4.
header includes a series of ﬁelds that controls the delivery of data. we need to concentrate on several IP header ﬁelds. Those are the identiﬁcation. the protocol ﬁeld.
. Note that this header consists of 12 ﬁelds plus optional options and padding ﬁelds.
When a datagram is fragmented. That is.” The third ﬁeld associated with fragmentation is the 13-bit fragment offset ﬁeld. Thus. let’s move on and discuss the TTL ﬁeld. the protocol ﬁeld will have a value of 6 when it transports TCP. The two low-ordered bits in this 3-bit ﬁeld are used to control fragmentation. whereas a value of 17 would indicate it is transporting UDP.90
The 16-bit identiﬁcation ﬁeld contains a unique number that serves to identify the datagram. For example. in seconds.” The low-ordered bit in the ﬂags ﬁeld indicates whether the fragment is the last one or if more fragments follow. The ﬁrst bit setting is used to denote if a datagram can be fragmented. Because it is extremely difﬁcult to time synchronize all routers. the TTL ﬁeld provides a mechanism to prevent a datagram from continuously ﬂowing over the Internet due to a variety of erroneous conditions. The next ﬁeld in the IP header that is associated with fragmentation is the ﬂags ﬁeld. a datagram could remain on the Internet. Because setting this bit to binary 1 indicates that the datagram should not be fragmented. When the value of the TTL ﬁeld reaches 0. this bit is referred to as the “more fragments bit. the TTL ﬁeld is used to denote the number of router hops a datagram can traverse. with the initial value being 0. The purpose of this ﬁeld is to denote the offset of the fragment from the original datagram. to indicate the ﬁrst fragment of a datagram.
. the datagram is sent to the great bit bucket in the sky. the protocol ﬁeld will have a value of 1 when IP transports an ICMP message as an IP datagram. each fragment is preﬁxed with an IP header that has the same number in the identiﬁcation ﬁeld.
The purpose of the 8-bit protocol ﬁeld is to identify the higher-layer protocol that is transported by the IP header as a datagram. the receiving device will reassemble the fragments based on the identiﬁcation and source IP address ﬁeld values because the contents of both ﬁelds uniquely identify a sequence of fragments generated by a common source.
The original intention of the time-to-live (TTL) ﬁeld was to specify how long. this bit is referred to as the “do not fragment bit. The value of this ﬁeld is speciﬁed in units of 8 bytes. Now that we understand the use of the three ﬁelds of the IP header associated with fragmentation. Similarly. Thus. the value of the TTL ﬁeld is decremented by 1 as the datagram reaches a router. At the destination.
Those IP addresses are further broken down into ﬁve classes. a Class A address has the smallest number of deﬁnable networks but the largest number of deﬁnable hosts. Because the protocol ﬁeld in the IP header is an 8-bit byte. and a Class C address is identiﬁed by the bit sequence 110 in its ﬁrst three bit positions.
.255. The ﬁfth type of IPv4 address is a Class E address.4 illustrates the three classful IPv4 address formats. the network portion of the address increases while the host portion of the address decreases. and C addresses are subdivided into network and host address portions and are collectively referred to as classful IPv4 addresses. Because the ﬁrst bit in a Class A network is set to a binary 0. referred to as Class A through Class E.255.4.
Source and Destination IP Address Fields
Both the source and destination IP address ﬁelds are 32 bits in length under IPv4.255. In examining Figure 4. a Class B address is identiﬁed by a binary 1 followed by a binary 0 in its second bit position.1 lists seven examples of the assignment of IP numbers. Figure 4.0 through 239. Class D addresses used for multicast fall into the address block 224. Thus.0. whereas a Class C address has the largest number of deﬁnable networks but the smallest number of deﬁnable hosts.1 Examples of IPv4 Protocol Field Assigned Values
Decimal Value Keyword Protocol Deﬁned
1 6 8 17 41 46 58
ICMP TCP EGP UDP IPv6 RSVP IPv6 = ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Exterior Gateway Protocol User Datagram Protocol IPv6 Resource Reservation Protocol ICMP for IPv6
Table 4. this enables 256 (0 through 255) protocols to be assigned. note that a Class A address is identiﬁed by a binary 0 in its ﬁrst bit position. this reduces the number of Class A networks to a maximum of 127. However. which is used for experimental purposes. the ﬁrst three bits in a Class D address are set to indicate that the address represents a multicast address. Class D addresses represent multicast addresses. where source trafﬁc is transmitted to multiple receivers as a bandwidth conservation method. Class A. As we move from a Class A network address to a Class B and then a Class C address. B. Similarly.0.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Table 4. Thus.
Figure 4.0. the general structure of a Class C address becomes (N) (N) (N) (H) Due to a signiﬁcant increase in the number of devices being connected to the Internet. further reducing available Class A network addresses to a maximum of 126. Although such techniques as network address translation (NAT)
General Classful Address Structure
Using N to represent a network byte and H to represent a host byte.0 address represents the well-known loopback address. we can note the general structure of a Class A address as follows: (N) (H) (H) (H) As previously noted. classful addresses have become a rare and valuable resource.4 Classful IPv4 address formats. the general structure of a Class B address becomes (N) (N) (H) (H) Similarly.
the 127. each successive classful address byte increases the number of hosts that can be deﬁned on a network while decreasing the number of unique networks that can be deﬁned.
the process of subnetting has allowed organizations to considerably conserve on the use of IP addresses. However. each permitting 256 unique hosts (0 through 255) to be identiﬁed. further extending the useful life of IPv4.
Subnetting represents the process of subdividing a classful IPv4 address into two or more separate entities. Figure 4. Thus. let’s turn our attention to these topics.5 The subnetting process converts a two-level address into a three-level address.
. The subnetting process results in the subdivision of the host portion of a classful IPv4 address into a subnet portion and a host portion. For example. the maximum number of distinct hosts that can be supported on a Class C network address is reduced by 2 to 254. This in turn would save one Class C address. the use of a single Class C address would accommodate the 35 workstations of the two LANs. Thus. Without subnetting. the organization would use two Class C addresses. because a host address of 0 could be confused with the basic network address and a host address of 255 is reserved as a broadcast address (hexFF or all 1s is 255). subnetting has no effect on routing on the Internet because the network portion of the address is not modiﬁed. which could be used to support up to 254 additional workstations. Thus. with the network portion of the address remaining as is. The key to the ability to assign a common IP address to multiple networks is the process of subnetting and the use of the subnet mask.5 illustrates the
Figure 4. consider an organization that has two LANs — one with 15 workstations used by accountants and one with 20 workstations used by engineers.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
and the use of private IP addresses behind a NAT device have extended the useful life of IPv4. for the previously mentioned organization with two LANs.
01001110 .64.01000000.01001110. and host portions of the Class C address would appear as illustrated in Figure 4.
64.78. then the relationships among the network address. and the host portion of each subnet. reducing the number of bits used to represent a host on each subnet to 6 (8 – 2).
Subnet 0 11000000.5 it is obvious that as the number of subnets increases the number of hosts that can reside on each subnet decreases.6.01000000.64.
subnetting process. distinct hosts on each subnet.6 An example of the relationships among the Class C network address of 198. Because there are four LANs. Assuming the Class C IP address provided to the organization is 198.01000000. which converts a two-level classful address into a threelevel address.6. which is more than sufﬁcient for each LAN.94
198. with a maximum of 25 hosts on any network.01001110. subnet.01001110. The answer to this question is the use of the subnet mask.01xxxxxx Subnet 2 11000000. In examining Figure 4. we can have up to 2 6 – 2. Thus. note that the host portion of each subnet is represented by six bit positions indicated by Xs.10xxxxxx Subnet 3 11000000.01000000. Because a subnet is similar to a classful network address in that it cannot have a host address of all 0s or all 1s. we need two bits for the subnet. From Figure 4. Thus.
78. or 62. As an example of the use of subnetting. let’s focus our attention on how that one Class C address can be subnetted. resulting in 64 distinct values that range from 000000 to 111111.0. Let’s further assume that your organization can obtain only a single Class C address.00xxxxxx Subnet 1 11000000. let’s assume an organization has four LANs located in a building.11xxxxxx
Figure 4. an unanswered question concerns how one determines the subnet within an address.
The Subnet Mask
Although the process of subnetting a classful IPv4 address is relatively straightforward. which would eliminate the need for three additional Class C addresses. this reduces the number of hosts on each subnet to 26 – 2. four subnets.78. which is formed by a sequence of binary 1s to extend
.0. or 62.
Understanding ICMP Messages
Although it is true that some ICMP messages can be used to exploit network defenses. Thus. we need to turn our attention to a special type of IP datagram that we brieﬂy discussed previously in this chapter.255. the subnet mask required to have a two-position subnet becomes: 11111111. This enables the router to examine the ﬁrst two bits in the host portion of the address to determine the subnet onto which the datagram should be routed. Examining the subnet mask. The receipt of a datagram with the network address 198. a logical follow-up is to move up the TCP/IP protocol stack to the transport layer. This indicates that the address is a Class C address and tells the router that the network portion of the address is contained in the ﬁrst 24 bits or 3 bytes.11111111.11111111.78. the router examines the ﬁrst byte of the network address. the subtraction of the number of bits in the network portion of the address from the number of 1s in the subnet mask indicates the number of bit positions in the subnet. the router determines that the subnet is 2 bits in length.255. Thus. consider the previous example in which the network address was 198.11000000 In dotted decimal notation the subnet mask would be entered as 255. In this
.0 by a router to which the previously mentioned LANs are connected initiates a series of steps to ensure trafﬁc ﬂows to the correct subnet.64. Then.64. Then. let’s turn our attention to this topic. this also indicates the initial subdivision of the addr ess between its network portion and its host portion. the router notes that it has 26 set 1 bits. Because the ﬁrst few bits in a classful IPv4 address identify the address type. However. Because ICMP messages are used to perform a variety of functions ranging from providing the foundation for the well-known ping test to determining the subnet mask. Now that we understand the use of the IP header.78. prior to doing so. By subtracting the number of bits in the network address (24) from the length of the set bits in the subnet mask (26). noting that the ﬁrst two bits in the byte are set.192. it is also true that preventing all ICMP messages from ﬂowing through routers and ﬁrewalls can result in lost productivity. by examining the destination address in the IP datagram in conjunction with the subnet mask. For example. That IP datagram consists of an IP header used to transport an ICMP message. the router obtains the ability to transfer the datagram onto the correct subnet. it is important to obtain an appreciation of the capability of ICMP messages.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
the network portion of a classful address through the subnet series of bits.
with the remaining ﬁelds in a particular message structured based on the speciﬁc message. and a 16-bit checksum ﬁeld. which may provide additional information about a particular message type. In the following paragraphs we will discuss the use of ICMP messages. will respond with an echo reply.96
Table 4. each ICMP message commences with the use of three common ﬁelds. The reason the destination was unreachable is
. which deﬁnes the ICMP message. This review will make us aware of the beneﬁts associated with ICMP messages as well as provide us with a better understanding as to why we may wish to allow certain messages to ﬂow through routers and ﬁrewalls.2 lists 13 actively used ICMP messages and their type ﬁeld values. which is used to provide integrity for the message. if both reachable and active. Concerning the latter.
Echo Request and Echo Reply
The ICMP echo request (type 8) and echo reply (type 0) messages are used to test if a destination is active and reachable. A host or router will transmit an echo request to a distant device. The three ﬁelds common to each ICMP message include an 8-bit type ﬁeld. That device.2 ICMP Type Field Values
Type Field Value Deﬁned ICMP Message Type
0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Echo reply Destination unreachable Source quench Redirect Echo request Time exceeded Parameter problem Time-stamp request Time-stamp reply Information request Information reply Address mask request Address mask reply
section we review the operation of 13 actively used ICMP messages. an 8-bit code ﬁeld. Table 4.
An ICMP message with a type ﬁeld value of 3 represents a destination unreachable message. Both echo request and echo reply messages are used by the well-known ping application.
If this situation occurs it will adversely affect your ability to determine certain conditions by which ICMP messages could explain why datagrams could not reach their destination cannot be determined. The type ﬁeld in the resulting ICMP message identiﬁes the message as a destination unreachable message and the code ﬁeld value deﬁnes why the datagram could not be delivered. To understand the use of source quench. When this situation occurs.3 Destination Unreachable Code Field Values
Code Field Value Meaning
0 1 2 3 4 5
Network unreachable Host unreachable Protocol unreachable Port unreachable Fragmentation needed Source route failed
further deﬁned by a numeric entry in the message’s code ﬁeld. By default. the packet arrival rate from two domains destined to the third may exceed the packet processing rate of the router. note that when datagrams arrive at a device at a rate higher than its processing rate. The router then is forced to discard or drop packets. Table 4.
An ICMP message type of 4 represents a source quench message. which will enable you to obtain the results you seek from the use of such messages. routers and hosts will transmit one source quench message for every datagram they discard. the device discards them. which informs the source to slow down its datagram transmission rate. assume a router connects two large domains on the Internet to a third. Typically.3 lists the code ﬁeld deﬁned values and their meanings for a destination unreachable message. Sometimes a bit of coordination with security personnel can result in the unblocking of one or more ICMP messages. the device that discards the datagrams transmits an ICMP source quench message. That is. This message is used by routers and hosts to control the ﬂow of data. At various times throughout the day.
. This explains how packets can be lost.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Table 4. many organizations conﬁgure their routers and ﬁrewalls to block all or most ICMP messages. Routers can be conﬁgured to transmit a network or host unreachable message when they cannot route or deliver an IP datagram.
it is commonly blocked by routers and ﬁrewalls. Thus. this ICMP message serves as an alternative to the use of
. the ﬁelds within these messages can be used to estimate the transit time of datagrams between two devices. respectively.
Time-Stamp Request and Reply
From Table 4.2. information request and information reply. A router or host that encounters a problem in interpreting the ﬁelds within an IP header will return an ICMP parameter problem message to the source.
Information Request and Reply
From Table 4. In addition. another pair of ICMP messages are types 15 and 16. whereas a value of 1 denotes that the fragment reassembly time was exceeded.2 you will note that ICMP message types 13 and 14 represent time-stamp request and time-stamp response messages. Both messages are used to synchronize the clocks of two devices.
An ICMP type ﬁeld value of 12 is used to deﬁne a parameter problem. A second reason for the transmission of a time exceeded message is when fragment r eassembly time is exceeded. a router will both discard the datagram and transmit an ICMP time exceeded message back to the source when this situation occurs. it will transmit an ICMP redirect message to the host. Because many hackers use this message to play havoc with an organization’s network. Because the time-to-live (TTL) ﬁeld in the IP header is decremented by 1 when a datagram ﬂows through a router and is discarded when the value reaches 0. This message will include a pointer that identiﬁes the byte in the IPv4 header that caused the problem. A code ﬁeld value of 0 indicates a time-to-live count value was exceeded.98
A type ﬁeld value of 5 in an ICMP message denotes a redirect. The information request message is used to obtain an IP address for a network to which a device is attached.
The ICMP time exceeded message is generated by a router when it has to discard a datagram. When a router detects that it is using a non-optimum route.
the transport layer resides above the network layer but below the application layer. For either situation the router will respond with the address mask in an ICMP address mask reply message. TCP is a reliable.
The Transport Layer
In our prior examination of the ﬁelds within the IP header.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
a reverse ARP. UDP is an unreliable. Once encapsulated. we can consider Voice-over-IP (VoIP). For this
. A device ﬁrst transmits an ICMP address mask request to a router. we noted that the 8-bit protocol ﬁeld deﬁnes the transport layer protocol header that follows the IP header. UDP
Although the protocol ﬁeld within the IPv4 header is capable of deﬁning 256 transport layer protocols. let us move up the protocol stack and turn our attention to the transport layer.
TCP vs. To accomplish this task. either from the same source IP address or from different source addresses. As an example of the use of TCP and UDP. the transport layer protocol includes a destination port ﬁeld in which a numeric entry deﬁnes the application data being transported. two protocols account for the vast majority of transport layer activity: TCP and UDP. connection-oriented protocol that includes a ﬂow control mechanism. That transmission can be either as a broadcast if the device was not previously conﬁgured with the router’s IP address or as a unicast message if it was conﬁgured with the address. the TCP segment or UDP datagram is passed to the network layer. Now that we have an appreciation for ICMP messages as well as the ﬁelds within the IP header. which is then encapsulated with a transport header that identiﬁes the application. where the IP header is added to form an IP datagram.2 represent an address mask request (17) and an address mask reply (18) message. The information reply message functions as a response to the information request.
Address Mask Request and Reply
The last two type ﬁeld values listed in Table 4. This pair of ICMP messages enables a device to learn its subnet mask. The transport layer permits multiple applications to ﬂow to a common destination. In comparison. best-effort protocol that depends on the application layer to add such functions as error detection and correction and ﬂow control. Thus. receiving application data.
we will limit our discussion of TCP and UDP headers primarily to their source and destination port ﬁelds.7 illustrates the ﬁelds within the TCP header. Included in the header are source and destination port ﬁelds. connectionless protocol. and other ﬁelds in the header perform ﬂow control (window and acknowledgement) and data integrity (checksum). a response from the destination is required and the dialed digits arrive error free. The sequence number ﬁeld enables datagrams received out of order to be correctly sequenced. which is focused on IPTV. with the destination ﬁeld used to deﬁne the application being transported. let’s examine the headers of each.100
application. For the purpose of this book. say.
The TCP Header
Figure 4. allows digital voice to ﬂow to its destination and small snippets of. TCP would be used to transport the dialed number and UDP would be used to transport digitized voice as a sequence of small periods of digitized data. UDP. 20 ms of voice can be lost without adversely af fecting the reconstructed conversation at the destination.
. Because TCP is a connection-oriented.7 The TCP header. reliable protocol.
The UDP Header
Previously we noted that the UDP protocol represents a best-effort transport protocol that depends on the application layer for such functions as
Figure 4. In comparison. Now that we have an appreciation for the difference between these two popular transport layer protocols. which is an unreliable.
the destination port ﬁeld contains a value that identiﬁes a user process or application for the receiving station whose IP address is denoted by the destination IP address ﬁeld value in the IP header. the source and destination ﬁelds are each 16 bits in length.7 and 4. most source port ﬁeld values are either set to 0 if the source port is not used or represent a random number generated by the originator. the UDP header is streamlined in comparison to the TCP header. For example.8 The UDP header. However. Figure 4.
Both TCP and UDP headers.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
ﬂow control and error detection and correction. it would place port number 80 in the destination port ﬁeld. when a station initiates an HTTP session. The source port ﬁeld number is supposed to denote the application associated with the data generated by the originating station. as you might expect. Because a pair of origination and destination address data ﬂows can occur on multiple destination port numbers. Similar to the TCP header. which are common in both headers. the HTTP session could be followed by a Telnet session. Because there are three types of port numbers that can be used in the TCP and UDP port ﬁelds. enabling port numbers to range
. the UDP header includes 16-bit source and destination ports that identify the process or application being transported.8 illustrates the ﬁelds in the TCP header.8. Thus. as illustrated in Figures 4. Later. contain 16-bit source and destination port ﬁelds. with the originating station placing port number 23 in the destination port ﬁeld. In comparison. the use of the port ﬁeld enables multiple applications to ﬂow to a common destination.
Source and Destination Port Fields
For both TCP and UDP. let’s examine port numbers in more detail. Thus. let’s turn our attention to those two ﬁelds.
To alleviate this potential problem.102
in value from 0 to 65535. which are subdivided into three ranges referred to as well-known ports. resulting in their use of ports 49152 through 65535. and dynamic or private ports. A second common use of dynamic port numbers is for NAT. This results in a “universe” of 65536 port numbers.
Dynamic ports begin where registered ports end. Well-known or assigned ports are in the range of 0 to 1023. the IANA allows vendors to register their use of port numbers. when a new application uses a registered port number. Although a vendor can register an application or process with the IANA and obtain a port number for the use of the process or application.
Port numbers beyond 1023 can be used by any process or application. Table 4.4 provides a few examples of well-known and registered port numbers. providing 1024 possible assignments. Although some services and applications may be familiar to
. such as ﬁle transfers (FTP) and remote access (Telnet). registered ports primarily allow other vendors to develop compatible products and end users can conﬁgure equipment to use such products. resulting in port number values from 1024 to 49151 allocated for registered ports.
Well-known ports are also referred to as assigned ports because their assignment is controlled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). However. registered ports. which we will discuss in the next section because it can adversely affect certain IPTV operations. the registration does not carry the weight of law. Port numbers in this range are commonly used by vendors implementing proprietary network applications. Ports used by TCP typically provide connections that transport relatively long-term connections requiring error detection and correction. it becomes a relatively easy task to both adjust a router access list or ﬁrewall conﬁguration to enable the ﬂow of datagrams used by the new application as well as purchase and use other vendor products that perform a similar function through the use of the same registered port. doing so in a haphazard manner could result in incompatibilities between vendor products. Such ports are used to indicate the transportation of standardized process and for the most part have the same assignments for both TCP and UDP. For example. That is.
a few deserve a bit of explanation. In addition. are broken into smaller pieces.323 host call MSN Messenger Yahoo Messenger: voice chat Yahoo Messenger Yahoo Messenger: Web cams AOL Instant Messenger Bit Torrent RTP-QT4 (Apple QuickTime) RTP
TCP TCP and UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP and UDP UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP and UDP TCP and UDP
5 7 17 20 21 23 25 53 69 79 80 443 548 1214
TCP TCP and UDP TCP and UDP TCP TCP and UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP and UDP UDP UDP
1352 1677 1720 1863 5100–5001 5050 5100 5190 6881–6889.
. Bit Torrent represents an application and peer-to-peer File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that sends portions of ﬁles from one client to another. instead of an “all or nothing” approach to downloading.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Table 4. because large ﬁles. such as videos.4 Examples of Well-Known and Registered TCP and UDP Services and Port Utilization
Service Port Type Port Number
Well-Known Ports Remote job entry Echo Quote of the day File transfer (data) File transfer (control) Telnet Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Domain Name Server Trivial File Transfer Protocol Finger Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure HTTP AppleTalk Filing Protocol Kazaa Registered Ports Lotus Notes Novell Group Wise H. A central server. the use of Bit Torrent enhances the availability of popular ﬁles. Because Bit Torrent enables uploads and downloads to occur simultaneously. it makes more efﬁcient use of bandwidth. coordinates the actions of peers. referred to as a tracker. 6969 6970–6999 16384–32767
31. Thus. As the use of the Internet expanded. Then. which provides end-toend network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting realtime data. are also deﬁned in RFC 19184.108.40.206 172.255 192. you could use ﬁve private IP Class C network addresses from Table 4.16. For example. over multicast and unicast network services. the ability of organizations to obtain IPv4 addresses became more difﬁcult.5.104
a ﬁle may be split into hundreds of pieces that can be obtained from many sites. Obviously. the address translator notes the port number returned in the header and uses that number to perform a table lookup. the use of a classful IP address could result in wasting many host addresses on a network. the address translator uses or assigns a high port number to the source port in the TCP or UDP header and enters the RFC 1918 IP address and the port number into a table.0.255. suppose your organization has ﬁve LANs. By combining an address translator to map or translate unregistered.0. Recognition of the fact that some organizations would not directly connect their workstations to the Internet resulted in three address blocks being reserved for private Internet use. Instead of assigning each workstation a scarce IPv4 public address. Then. A second protocol worth noting is the RTP.
Network Address Translation
Network address translation (NAT) was originally developed as a tool to extend the life of scarce IPv4 addresses. to ensure each translation is unique. which are listed in Table 4. Those address blocks. private IPv4 addresses into a registered address. such as audio and video.0.255.0–10.5 RFC 1918 Reserved IPv4 Addresses
10.168. the address translator converts the Class C public address in the IP header’s destination IP address ﬁeld to the
Table 4. Because only a portion of an organization’s workstations might require access to the Internet at a particular period of time.0.255. havoc would result. each with 200 workstations.168. using an address translator.0–172. when a response occurs. your organization would translate RFC 1918 addresses to a single public IP address.0–192. it became possible to conserve IP addresses. Next. noting the RFC 1918 address associated with the port number.255
. without a technique to differentiate one translation from another.
although representing a transfer of data over an IP network. Because the ﬁle transfer of video. Although NAT can considerably economize on the use of scarce IPv4 addresses. each feed is provided a unique channel number to enable a set-top box to select the feed the person controlling the box
. Those methods include delivery as a ﬁle transfer. because doing so would result in routing problems on each network.
There are three basic methods by which video can be delivered via an IP network. In addition. broadcast. Because the MPEG-2 standard is the most common method used for the delivery of video over an IP network.
When video is broadcast. we will focus our attention primarily on this topic. which precludes real-time viewing. Thus. we will turn our attention to the delivery of video via that protocol suite. Instead. because the RTP is essential for the delivery of video. with the outer IP header operated on by NAT. concert. I will simply state that the transfer can occur via FTP or through the use of the previously described Bit Torrent application. and video on demand (VOD). The latter two methods are used for the real-time viewing of a movie. this section will also explore its use. television show.
4. it can create problems when some type of tunneling is employed and the inner IP datagram remains as is. is used for playback and not immediate viewing.2 Delivering IPTV
Now that we have an appreciation for the TCP/IP protocol suite. This type of translation is referred to as port-address translation and is performed by many routers and ﬁrewalls. in the remainder of this section we will focus our attention on the use of broadcast and video-on-demand technologies to provide an IPTV capability. This will be followed by a discussion of the different standards used to encode and deliver video.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
recently obtained RFC 1918 address and forwards the datagram to the private IP network. or other type of visual performance. you would need to change the network address on one of the interconnected networks. In this section we will ﬁrst discuss the two major delivery methods used by IPTV. This means that you could not interconnect two networks that use the same RFC 1918 private network addresses.
In addition to billing subscribers.9 illustrates the delivery of video via the broadcasting of channels. such as providing selected content to subscribers as a VOD product.106
Figure 4. The media servers support the delivery of both multicast and unicast. The top portion of Figure 4. The broadcast system can be thought of as a series of media servers that host a number of broadcast streams. the subscriber management system will normally provide such additional functions as broadcasting an electronic programming guide and supporting interactive set-top box features. (STB. eliminating the need for all digitized channels to ﬂow into the subscriber’s home. a subscriber management system is used to perform that function. The broadcast source can be movies previously stored on a server as well as a live feed from an on-air television station showing the Summer Olympic basketball ﬁnals. which packetizes the video stream. In actuality. Because billing for services represents an important aspect of any IPTV operation. a soap opera. including setting a channel number and multicast address group to which set-top boxes will join whenever a viewer selects a channel using the box.9 IPTV can be delivered via broadcast and unicast video-on-demand (VOD) transmission. with the latter used for VOD operations.
. Each source is input into a broadcast encoder. set-top box)
wishes to view. or another show. when a person uses the set-top box to select a channel the box will establish a multicast connection to the broadcasted channel. as they now do when cable TV is used.
Typically. The international version of MPEG-4 is better known as the H. The two most popular standards are MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. their viewing cost. with the latter representing a modiﬁcation to the earlier standard that is commonly used in cable TV set-top boxes due to its enhanced data compression capability. and 20 other companies to form the Internet Streaming Media Alliance (ISMA) to ensure that an MPEG-4 media stream created with one vendor’s product will run on another vendor’s player. In 2002 Apple Computer added support for MPEG-4 to its QuickTime technology and worked with such leading vendors as Cisco. Sun Microsystems. MPEG-4 scales to transport media at any data rate. In fact. IBM.
Video Delivery Standards
Several standards can be used for providing an IPTV video delivery system. However.264compatible devices can be a difﬁcult task. it’s also possible for an IPTV operator to insert a card with the subscriber’s monthly bill. MPEG-4 is designed to deliver DVD-quality video similar to MPEG-2 but at lower data rates. they are much more computing intensive. enabling more channels to be delivered within the frequency spectrum they are authorized to use. which can list hundreds of events. This means that for existing cable providers that have a large installed base of MPEG-2 set-top boxes. and an access code to retrieve selected events. For either method. from slow-speed dialup to high-bandwidth ﬁber-to-the-home connections.264 standard and is equivalent to the MPEG-4 part 16 standard. whose customers are just receiving new set-top boxes or will use Pentium 4 or dual-core-based PCs to view video. Because VOD responds to a query generated by a subscriber through the set-top box or PC. have adopted MPEG-4 for the delivery of digital television due to its picture quality at lower data rates. In comparison. which was ﬁnalized in 1998 and became an international standard in 2000.9 illustrates the integration of VOD into an IPTV communications system. such as Direct TV. can be more readily served with this newer technology. Although both MPEG-4 and H. A newer MPEG standard is MPEG-4. In fact. the subscriber management station will display a list of VOD events from which a subscriber can select a program.264 provide a considerable enhancement over MPEG-2. Now that we have an appreciation for commonly used
.or H. the upgrade to MPEG-4. Philips.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Video on Demand
The lower portion of Figure 4. the ﬂow of IP datagrams will represent a unicast transmission to the subscriber’s set-top box or personal computer. some satellite television systems. newly emerging IPTV providers. the response ﬂows as a sequence of unicast datagrams to the IP address of the set-top box or personal computer.
10 illustrates the use of RTP for transporting MPEG-2based IPTV. UDP can optionally use the RTP to provide applicationlevel framing that identiﬁes the payload being transported and provides a sequence number for each RTP data packet.10 Delivering MPEG-2 via IP.
One of the most popular methods used to deliver IPTV is through the encapsulation of MPEG-2 using UDP at the transport layer. When UDP/RAW is used.
. including Sender changed Missing synchronization bytes Incorrect packet size Time-outs Excessive jitter Improper UDP bit rate
Figure 4. When this encapsulation occurs. let’s turn our attention to the manner by which video is delivered when MPEG-2 is used as the compression scheme. several error and informational conditions can be detected.108
video delivery standards. it is important to note that video can also be transported directly in UDP packets without the use of RTP. When this situation occurs.
UDP/RAW and UDP/RTP
Although Figure 4. the transport stream is referred to as UDP/RAW. which allows packet loss to be detected.
3 percent. This allows detection of several additional error conditions beyond those detectable when UDP/RAW is used. packets can be time stamped and identiﬁed through the use of a sequence number.10. In addition. A time stamp enables a receiver to perform synchronization as well as to resolve jitter due to delays a packet experiences as it ﬂow through a network. as shown in Figure 4. it may do nothing. let’s turn our attention to this protocol. or duplicate packets. during which time the screen will appear blank or repeat the previously received frame. as shown in Figure 4. packets of incorrect size. the resulting overhead
. These newly detectable error conditions using UDP/RTP include Determining packets received out of order Detecting duplicate packets Determining if a packet is lost Determining packets that have an incorrect size Although both UDP/RAW and UDP/RTP can be used to transport video. The IP. the RTP header is eliminated. Depending on the software used by a receiver. If the IP datagram ﬂows on an Ethernet network that has a 26-byte header and 4-byte trailer. or approximately 2. Thus. because UDP/RTP enables a receiver to determine if a packet is lost. Because RTP is an integral part of the delivery process that enables lost packets transporting video to be reconstructed.10. First we will examine the overhead associated with the use of this protocol. because the next received frame may or may not be considerably different from the repeated frame.1 percent. the overhead at the network layer becomes 28/1316.
In examining the encapsulation of an MPEG-2 data stream. it also allows a receiver to compensate for the occurrence of lost packets.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
When RTP is used with UDP. With the 12 bytes of the RTP header eliminated. the result could be either a smooth or jerky transition. When UDP/RAW is used. Concerning the latter. When UDP/RAW within an IP datagram ﬂows on an Ethernet network. or approximately 5. UDP. or approximately 3 percent. Then we will investigate the protocol in detail. note the overhead of the protocol at the network layer. Figure 4. and RTP headers result in 40 bytes of overhead while 1316 bytes of video are transported via MPEG-2. the overhead at the network layer is 40/1316. the resulting overhead becomes 70/1316.10 illustrates the encapsulation process that enables MPEG-2 video to be delivered via IP datagrams. the latter provides the ability to compensate for such error conditions as packets being received out of order.
The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
RTP is identiﬁed in the UDP header with a value of 5004 in the port ﬁeld.1
5. and simulation data via multicast or unicast network services.
The RTP Header
Figure 4. For RTP version 2. this ﬁeld is always set to binary 10 or decimal 2.4
.4 percent. Note that for both the network and data link layers the difference in overhead between UDP/RTP and UDP/RAW is less than 1 percent.0 2. and all modern applications are written for version 2. let’s focus our attention on the protocol itself.11 illustrates the RPT version 2 header. it does not address the reservation of resources nor does it guarantee quality of service (QoS) for real-time data. RTP version 1 is currently limited to legacy operations. As noted in Table 4. video.6 Comparing Overhead of UDP/RAW and UDP/RTP
Protocol Network Layer Data Link Layer
3. each of which we will brieﬂy discuss. Although RTP provides sequencing and time stamping of data. it is incumbent on network operators to conﬁgure routing queues to prioritize predeﬁned trafﬁc to enable real-time video to reach its destination with minimal delay. As previously mentioned. the addition of RTP to the protocol stack does not result in an excessive amount of overhead. Thus. Now that we have an appreciation for the overhead resulting from the use of RTP.6 compares the overhead associated with the use of UDP/RAW and UDP/RTP. or approximately 4.110
Table 4. The RTP version 2 header consists of ten ﬁelds.6. Table 4. RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions that facilitate the delivery of such real-time data as audio.3 4. which is not backward compatible with version 1.
Version (Ver) Field
The ﬁrst two bits in the header represent the version ﬁeld.
Padding (P) Field
The padding ﬁeld is 1 bit in length. Thus.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
Figure 4. the receiver uses this value to determine the number of padding bytes to ignore. is interpreted by a proﬁle.11 The RTP version 2 header. the value of this ﬁeld is set to 0. The last byte of padding contains a count of the number of padding bytes. This ﬁeld is set to a binary 1 when one or more additional padding bytes that are not part of the payload are added to the packet. Up to 15 contributing sources can be deﬁned.
Extension (X) Field
This 1-bit ﬁeld is set if the ﬁxed header is followed by exactly one header extension.
Marker (M) Field
This 1-bit ﬁeld. For example. setting this bit enables frame boundaries to be marked in a stream of packets. when set.
CSRC (CC) Count Field
This 4-bit ﬁeld indicates the number of contributing source (CSRC) identiﬁers that follow the ﬁxed header. Otherwise.
a frame may be split across several RTP packets. For video.
Sequence Number Field
The 16-bit sequence number ﬁeld has an initial randomly selected value. The primary purpose of the sequence number ﬁeld is to detect packet loss.112
Payload Type (PT) Field
The purpose of this 7-bit ﬁeld is to identify the format of the RTP payload so that it can be correctly interpreted by the application.
Contributing Source (CSRC) Field
This 32-bit ﬁeld represents an array of 0 to 15 CSRC elements. CSRC identiﬁers are inserted by mixers.
The 32-bit time-stamp ﬁeld is used to place audio and video packets in their correct timing order. H. Thus. Thereafter. using the SSRC identiﬁers of contributing sources. the sequence number increments by one for each transmitted RTP data packet. A mixer is an RTP-level relay device that enables a variety of bandwidths to be used for listening to and/or viewing a common channel. For example. so those packets may have the same time stamp. The value of the time-stamp ﬁeld reﬂects the sampling of the ﬁrst byte in the RTP data packet. The value for this ﬁeld is randomly selected so that two synchronization sources within the same RTP session will have a very low probability of having the same value. which explains why a frame that needs to be transported by a series of RTP packets will have the same time-stamp value in each RTP packet header.261 video is identiﬁed by a PT ﬁeld value of 31 whereas H. such as the identiﬁers of all sources mixed together to create an audio packet. the sequence number can be used to ensure that multi-part video frames are correctly reassembled at the receiver.
Synchronization Source (SSRC) Field
This 32-bit ﬁeld identiﬁes the synchronization source. Up to 16 CSRC elements can be included and identify the contributing sources for the payload contained in the packet.263 video is identiﬁed by a PT ﬁeld value of 34. A mixer is placed
. all RTP implementations must be capable of detecting and resolving collisions. If they do.
RTCP operates via the periodic transmission of control packets to all members of a session. a mixer could be designed to scale the images of individuals in separate video streams into a single composite stream to simulate a group scene. if the application transmits every frame at a ﬁxed frame rate. the time-stamp value in each header will be the same. the time stamp is governed by the frame rate.
The Real-Time Transport Control Protocol provides information about the participants in an ongoing session as well as a mechanism to monitor the quality of service. Because the primary function of RTCP is to provide feedback on the quality of the
. the time stamp would increase by 3000 for each frame.
For video applications. That is. the time stamp depends on the ability of the application to determine the frame number. whereas Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) packets are to be transported on the next-higher odd port number. for example. Other examples of video mixers include devices that translate video streams from IP/UDP into a different protocol or translate video streams from individual sources without performing resynchronization or mixing.
Port Number Utilization
Under the RTP speciﬁcation. For situations where the frame number cannot be determined. and it translates. whereas at a frame rate of 25 fps. audio coding used on a high-bandwidth connection to an encoding method more suitable for the lower bandwidth connection. at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (fps). Information about the participants in a session can vary from situations where there is no explicit membership control to sessions that require detailed membership control. In a video environment. As previously noted. when a frame is transmitted as a series of R TP packets. the time stamp would increase by 3600 per frame. Although applications can use any UDP port pair. RTP data is to be transported on an even UDP port number. the system clock value will be used to compute the time stamp. port numbers 5004 and 5005 represent registered ports for applications that elect to use them as the default pair. For example.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IPTV
near a low-bandwidth area and resynchronizes packets to maintain the spacing generated by the originator. following the same distribution method as that used for data packets.
with a jitter buffer. assume a frame rate of 30 fps.002 seconds. However. In fact. This means that each packet requires onethirtieth (or . Assume the packets transporting frames arrive at a receiver one after the other. however. where such buffers enable jitter to be removed from packets transporting digitized voice conversations. Packets ﬁrst enter the receiver’s jitter buffer.0333) of a second for its display. it functions as an integral part of RTP’s role as a transport protocol. A jitter buffer can be thought of as an area of memory used to compensate for delays in the ﬂow of packets through a network. Those delays can be caused by distance or propagation delay as well as router processing delays. from which they are extracted at applicable times such that their display eliminates movements that would otherwise appear due to the displacement of packets from one another as they ﬂow through a network. which facilitates the problem resolution process. the delay between packets appears random.
. the frames would ﬁrst ﬂow into the buffer and then be extracted in a time sequence that minimizes the displacement of frames fr om one another. This random delay represents jitter and. This displacement of packets is referred to as jitter and is normally compensated for through the use of a jitter buffer at the receiver. if not compensated for. will result in the display of frames appearing awkward. For example. Perhaps the most popular use of jitter buffers is in VoIP applications. the displacement of packets from their ideal position by time in a sequence of packets would result in some periods of reconstructed voice sounding awkward. information provided by RTCP can be used to determine where bottlenecks reside when multicasting occurs. Without the use of jitter buffers.
One of the major problems associated with the real-time delivery of video over an IP network is the displacement of packets transporting frames from their original position. ranging from 0 to 0. Jitter buffers have been used for many years.114
we will discuss a version of digital subscriber lines referred to as VDSL (very-high-bit-rate DSL) that can provide very high bandwidth for relatively short distances and may offer an alternative or supplement to the use of various versions of ASDL. in an IPTV environment. we need to expand the last mile to include the home network used to distribute IPTV within a residence. Although we covered the use of different versions of ADSL in detail earlier in this book. However.Chapter 5
Last Mile Solutions
Previously in this book we discussed several variations of ADSL (Assymetrical Digital Subscriber Line). we will commence our examination by focusing on that topic. When we discuss last mile solutions. the second portion of this chapter will examine home networking methods that can be used to distribute IPTV within a residence. Thus. we normally reference the connection between a central ofﬁce and a subscriber. Because understanding VDSL will provide a foundation for discussing alternative last mile solutions. In addition. We noted their use in the literal “last mile” to provide communications connectivity from a home or ofﬁce to ﬁber located in the neighborhood or on a direct run to a telephone company central of ﬁce that was in close proximity to the customer.
. in this chapter we will examine the use of the technology in conjunction with several methods of installing ﬁber cable to central locations where groups of homes and ofﬁces are clustered. including ADSL2 and ADSL2+.
VDSL represents the most powerful member of the xDSL family of products. There are several versions of VDSL. usually between 1000 and 4500 feet. telephone companies also use 22. as the distance increases the obtainable data rate decreases. providing support for data rates up to approximately 50 Mbps on a single telephone twisted-pair wire for relatively short distances. including asymmetric and symmetric. as the gauge number decreases the diameter of the cable increases. According to the American Wire Gauge (AWG) speciﬁcations.1 VDSL Transmission Rates and Range
Data Rate (Mbps) Downstream/Upstream Transmission Distance Over 26-AWG Copper (ft)
52/30 54/13 26/26 22/13 13/13 10/10 6/6 16/1
1000 1000 3000 3000 4500 4500 6000 6000
. As you will note from examining the entries in the table. Although the table provides an indication of transmission support over 26-gauge copper wiring.
Data Rate Support
Table 5. This results in a lower gauge wire diameter increasing. which reduces its resistance and enables a greater transmission distance.116
5. it is possible for some locations that were installed using a lower gauge twisted-pair wire to achieve slightly longer transmission distances.1 indicates the data rates supported by VDSL technology running over 26-gauge copper wire.and 24-gauge wiring. with the latter more suitable for businesses where the connection of servers or transfer of general data between locations requires bidirectional data rates to be balanced. Thus. although the transmission distances shown in the referenced table are accurate for 26-AWG twisted-pair wire.
there are three types of frequency band allocation standards deﬁned for VSDL: 10 Base-S. Companies ranging from Bell South and US West to Bell Canada. an international consortium referred to as the Full Service Access Network (FSAN) consortium has been actively pursuing the standardization and deployment of both narrowband and broadband full-service access networks. to the curb. and country-based standards committees to promote the development of standards. into a building. Currently.
VDSL is based on the use of frequency division multiplexing (FDM). so upstream and downstream data channels are separated from the 0 to 4 kHz frequency used for telephone service. it is a technology well suited to transport video into residences from several types of backhaul ﬁber that can be routed into a neighborhood.
VDSL Access Technology
Currently.Last Mile Solutions
Since June 1995. transmission can occur simultaneously in both directions. The consensus of FSAN members resulted in the organization specifying ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) as the primary transport technology. VDSL uses the frequencies beyond those used for telephone service on the same twisted wire pair. it works with many international. VDSL represents the highest rate of all xDSL types of technology. regional. ETSI Plan 997. Although FSAN is not a standards body. with ﬁ ber in the core network and the use of copper for the last-mile access network. which is essential for delivering such real-time services as voice and video. The FSAN consensus is based on the fact that ATM can provide a guaranteed bandwidth. Korea Telecom. enabling the telephone company to utilize the existing copper wire infrastructure for the delivery of broadband services. and ETSI/ANSI Plan 998. Similar to other DSL technologies. enabling a guaranteed quality of service (QoS). and France Telecom are members of FSAN. or into a home or ofﬁce. Through the use of separate upstream and downstream channels. Because it supports both symmetric and asymmetric operations and is approximately ten times faster than ADSL.
0 to 5.
ETSI/ANSI Plan 998
The ETSI and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Plan 998 is similar to the ETSI Plan 997 with respect to the use of two upstream
.75-MHz frequency spectrum is used for downstream transmission and the 3.0-MHz frequency spectrum is used for upstream transmission. Under 10 Base-S. as a mechanism to extend 10-Mbps full-duplex Ethernet over an existing copper-based infrastructure up to approximately 4000 feet.75.2 illustrates the ETSI Plan 997 frequency allocation. Currently. You can view 10 Base-S as a combination of Ethernet’s simplicity and VDSL technology that results in a symmetric transmission capability.05 MHz are allocated for downstream transmission and 3.to 8. Figure 5.1 10 Base-S frequency allocation.to 3. As indicated in the ﬁgure.1 to 7. Upstream (US1 and US2) and downstream (DS1 and DS2) bands differ in their frequency width and can support both asymmetric and symmetric transmission.118
Figure 5.138 to 3.1 MHz and 7. frequencies from 0. 10 Base-S is the most popular of the three VDSL standards. the 0.
10 Base-S was developed by Inﬁneon.05 to 12 MHz are allocated for upstream use.0 MHz and 5.9.1 illustrates the 10 Base-S frequency allocation. Figure 5.
ETSI Plan 997
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Plan 997 speciﬁes the use of four bands for VDSL. a leading VDSL chip vendor.
To prevent such interference.
and two downstream channels.
. Thus. However. the use of VDSL could cause interference with amateur radio operators. ETSI/ANSI Plan 998 is currently a draft standard.
Figure 5. Similar to the prior plan.
Ham Band Notching
The VDSL frequency spectrum covers a number of ham radio bands.3 illustrates the ETSI/ANSI Plan 998 frequency allocation.2 lists ham radio bands deﬁned for VDSL notching.2 ETSI Plan 997 frequency allocation. Table 5. it differs from the prior draft standard in the use of frequencies that are optimized for asymmetrical transmission.3 ETSI/ANSI Plan 998 frequency allocation.Last Mile Solutions
Figure 5. Figure 5. notching capability is included in VDSL frequency spectrums in 10-Hz steps that can be enabled or disabled.
. high-speed Internet access.150 kHz
Through the use of VDSL it becomes possible to support digital broadcast television data streams.500 kHz 7. Similarly. I believe several items warrant discussion. and several standard-television-type channels.96). and other applications via a common wire pair that is already routed into most homes and ofﬁces.000 kHz (ANSI) 7.96). then the number of bits transported based on a baud rate of 12. and other applications that require high-speed bidirectional transmission.84 Mbps. 4.16 Mbps. the bit rate of 29. Although the data rate of VDSL decreases with distance.4 Committee deﬁned a series of upstream and downstream data rates for VDSL derived from submultiples of the synchronous optical network (SONET) and its European equivalent.000 kHz 10.100 kHz (ETSI). Although symmetric VDSL can be expected to ﬁnd a viable market for telemedicine. because asymmetric VDSL is better suited and more economical for supporting IPTV. the ANSI T1/E1.2 HAM Radio Bands Deﬁned for VDSL Notching
Start Frequency Stop Frequency
1.52 Mbps.84 Mbps represent fractions of the Optical Carrier 3 (OC-3) data rate of 155.4 downstream rates for asymmetric VDSL and Table 5. 25.When the bit rate is 38.120
Table 5. Table 5.100 kHz
2. the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH). which is supported by both SONET and SDH.92.4.84/12. if you turn your attention to Table 5. 7.3 you will note that at the highest downstream bit rate of 51. distance learning. the modulation method packs 4 bits per baud (51.96 becomes 3 (38. and 51.3 lists the ANSI T1/E1.3 and 5.96. teleconferencing. Web hosting. the technology can support one or more high-deﬁnition (HD) TV shows as well as high-speed Internet access.88 Mbps. when used up to a range of approximately 4500 feet. we will concentrate our attention on the asymmetric version of the xDSL technology. video on demand (VoD).000 kHz 3.800 kHz (ETSI).
Recently. In examining the entries in Tables 5.4 lists the upstream data rates for asymmetric VDSL services.810 kHz 3. First. Those submultiples of 12.300 kHz (ANSI) 10. which is the focus of this book.
405 0.96 12.96 6.405 0.68 19.24 3. for long ranges the 3.67 6.48 3. Similarly.96 9.405 0.44 19.92 25.48 4.4 Upstream Line Rates for Asymmetric VDSL
Service Range Bit Rate (Mbps) Symbol Rate (MBd)
Short range (1000 ft)
Medium range (3000 ft)
Long range (4500 ft)
6.72 6.405 0.20 14.96 12.48 Mbps.48 5. we will note that at a data rate of 6.405-MBd rate results in 8 bits being packed into every baud change.86 6.405 0.72-MBd signaling rate.43 1.4 you will realize that the mixture of data rates and baud rates results in the number of bits per baud.16 25.86 3. also results in 3 bits being conveyed by each signaling change.4.48
12.48 4.81 0.96 9.92 22.72 12.81 0.3 Downstream Line Rates for Asymmetric VDSL
Service Range Bit Rates (Mbps) Baud Rate (MBd)
Short range (1000 ft)
Medium range (3000 ft)
51. ranging from a low
Table 5.81-MBd rate results in 8 bits being packed into each symbol.405
.58 12.24 2.24 3. If we turn our attention to Table 5.44 16.86 4.Last Mile Solutions
Table 5.43 1.05 4.24
Long range (4500 ft)
requires a 9.84 38.88 29.68 3.24 2.24 3. the 0.24-Mbps operating rate at a 0.62
0.3 and 5.81 0. If you carefully examine Tables 5.
the constellation size (QAM2 to QAM256. DMT uses digital signal processing techniques. signals occur on 247 subchannels. on the other side were developers of discrete multi-tone (DMT) technology. During the initialization process and periodically thereafter. whereas a higher S/N ratio results in more bits being modulated on a subcarrier. they provide a higher throughput than CAP/QAM. We have just determined the number of bits per baud that need to be modulated. An unanswered question concerns the modulation scheme used by VDSL. For VDSL. Because VDSL DMT modems maximize data throughput by dynamically adapting the power level and number of bits modulated on each subcarrier to match impairments on the line. such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT). CAP and QAM are both single-carrier modulation methods. and the symbol rate. three variables deﬁne the use of QAM: the center frequency. Texas Instruments. a lesser number of bits are modulated.122
of 2 to a high of 8. each 4 kHz in width. which deﬁnes the number of different phase and amplitude combinations). a battle occurred during the early turn of the century concerning VDSL modulation. One factor that can be expected to inﬂuence the standards debate is the action of the VDSL Alliance. and other vendors — has announced support for DMT. The VDSL Alliance — a partnership between Alcatel. VDSL DMT modems determine the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio on each subcarrier. In one camp were proponents of carrierless amplitude and phase modulation combined with quadrature amplitude modulation (CAP/QAM). Under the VDSL Alliance DMT method. That is.
Similar to the debate over ADSL modulation that occurred during 1993. DMT appears to represent a better choice. DMT uses multiple carrier frequencies referred to as subcarriers to modulate data. with the latter deﬁning the bandwidth requirements. Although they are similar to one another. In a VDSL environment. Although the standards bodies are looking at both QAM and DMT. carrier frequency. CAP directly generates a modulated signal whereas QAM requires the generation of a quadrature carrier signal. modulating the carrier with a varying number of bits based on the S/N ratio. let’s turn our attention to this topic. similar to the ADSL battles a decade ago. In comparison. under adverse conditions they are not as ﬂexible as VDSL DMT modems that can alter the number of bits and power level on each subcarrier. and symbol rate. Although VDSL single-carrier modulation modems can be manipulated by changing their constellation size. to modulate data on as many as 4096 subcarriers. as the S/N ratio becomes low. as illustrated in the top portion
. especially in the presence of noisy conditions. Thus.
Periodically. The 25.4 illustrates the use of CAP and QAM.to 160-kHz band is used for the upstream data channel. In addition. a mathematician who deﬁned the highest data rate a communications channel can support.Last Mile Solutions
Figure 5. Under DMT. with the key difference being the manner in which QAM is applied.5 MHz.to 4-kHz band. training signals enable the VDSL modems on each end of the copper media to perform synchronization and equalization.4 Comparing DMT and CAP.
of Figure 5. it is important to remember Shannon’s Law. Comparing QAM on DMT versus CAP. the bandwidth of the copper wire is subdivided into three distinct entities. QAM can occur simultaneously on up to 247 subchannels. Shannon’s Law was formulated by Claude Shannon. The lower portion of Figure 5. Under Shannon’s Law. QAM occurs once on one upstream channel and once on one downstream channel. the signal is shifted to another channel. under CAP. Voice conversations occur over the 0. In 1948. Both DMT and CAP use QAM.4. c = B* log2 (1 + S/N) where c = maximum data rate (in bits per second) obtainable on a communications channel B = bandwidth of a channel (in Hertz) S/N = signal-to-noise ratio on the channel
. and the downstream data channel begins at 240 kHz and extends to a maximum value that varies with such conditions as line noise and line length but that can be no greater than approximately 1. When CAP is used. each subchannel is monitored and. In comparison. if the quality of the channel becomes impaired beyond a threshold.
compared to ADSL. From the central ofﬁce. such that the base-2 logarithm of a number x is the number y and 2y = x. VDSL’s maximum range when used to transport standard television is approximately 4500 feet. the tradeoff between DMT and CAP becomes one of having up to 247 4-kHz subchannels used for both upstream and downstream operations versus the use of 135 kHz (160 – 25) for upstream and 1.26 kHz (1. In actuality. Those alternatives include: Fiber-to-the-exchange (FTTEx) Fiber-to-the-cabinet (FTTCb) Fiber-to-the-neighborhood (FTTN) Fiber-to-the-curb (FTTC) Fiber-to-the-building (FTTB)
Fiber-to-the-exchange (FTTEx) references the use of ﬁber to the central ofﬁce. where the expense of running ﬁber cable from the neighborhood or the curb into the home would require lawns to be dug up. VDSL can be deployed over existing copper wiring at distances up to approximately 4500 feet. driveways to be tunneled under.
. and its use to transport HDTV and a few SDTV channels is limited to approximately 3000 feet. which would enable a home viewer to see many HDTV programs at the same time. If HDTV support is required. the transmission distance would be signiﬁcantly lowered to approximately 1000 feet.5 – .
When we discussed ADSL earlier in this book we noted that its maximum range was approximately 18. which would be costly. Instead. Thus. the deployment of VDSL is more dependent on ﬁber being routed closer to the customer. VDSL can be used to provide a “last mile” solution for several SDTV channels and high-speed Internet access at distances up to 3500 feet.24) for downstream operations. it is too costly in most situations.124
The function log2 represents the base-2 logarithm. Those situations primarily refer to existing developments. or ﬁber wires to be installed on overhead lines. Bandwidth plays a vital role in the capacity of a communications channel.000 feet. In comparison. Although the best network architecture to support nonconstrained IPTV. This means that. is through the use of ﬁber-to-the-home (FTTH). several telephone companies are using ﬁve ﬁber deployment alternatives. from an economic perspective. if no HDTV services are required.
the lower portion of Figure 5. This action can result in congestion at the DSLAM input when a popular program is requested. the switch or router located at a central ofﬁce will need to replicate each multicasted TV channel to subscribers requesting to view the channel. In comparison. In comparison.5 FTTEx vs.5 compares FTTEx and FTTCb. if the DSLAM supports multicast transmission.5 illustrates how FTTCb can be used to extend the distance from the central ofﬁce to subscribers and still allow service over existing copper wiring. In this situation ﬁber is run from the central ofﬁce to an optical network unit (ONU). If it does not. the DSLAM should support multicast transmission. for which a central ofﬁce must be located within 4500 feet of a subscriber. The function of the DSLAM is to connect subscribers communicating via twisted pair to the backbone network. then replicate the data stream for all subscribers who used their set-top box or PC to select the channel. from which data ﬂows to the subscriber over the existing copper wiring. Figure 5. it will have to receive only one data stream for each channel as input.
Figure 5. The upper portion of the ﬁgure illustrates the use of FTTEx.5 are the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs) that reside at central ofﬁces that directly serve many xDSL subscribers. In an IPTV environment. Not shown in Figure 5. FTTCb.Last Mile Solutions
Fiber-to-the-cabinet (FTTCb) is a method to serve subscribers more distant from a central ofﬁce.
then FTTN may represent a better deployment method. this method of ﬁber deployment represents a practical solution for multi-dwelling units. FTTH. which minimizes the distances of copper wiring routed into a group of homes and ofﬁces. has similarities to FTTCb but is also different. which can result in the need to burrow ﬁber cable through roads and driveways. the density of multi-dwelling units within the area to be served will be a signiﬁcant factor in determining if economics justiﬁes this type of deployment. Although this minimizes the distance for the use of twisted-pair wiring. it increases the use of ﬁber. ﬁber is routed from a central ofﬁce to locations within neighborhoods. If a neighborhood is already established. In an FTTN environment. Of course. results in the use of ﬁber directly into the home or ofﬁce.or 10-acre track. Referred to as FTTB. FTTC represents a good solution for home developments where roads and curbs are in the process of being prepared.
Another option that can be considered to facilitate the use of VDSL is to route ﬁber directly into a building.126
Fiber-to-the-neighborhood (FTTN). ﬁber cable is extended to the curbs of homes and ofﬁces.
The last deployment option that warrants attention is ﬁber-to-the-home (FTTH). Although this is similar to FTTCb. Typically.
In a ﬁber-to-the-curb (FTTC) deployment. which is also known as ﬁ ber-tothe-node. as well as for businesses. FTTB would be a more suitable solution than if the buildings were in a rural area and each property was located on a 5. For example. if half a dozen medium-rise apartment buildings each consisting of 20 units are located on a 1-acre track. such as apartment buildings. FTTN would have the capability to be upgraded in the future to enable optical ﬁber to be supported directly into homes and ofﬁces. it also can provide the highest level of
. Although FTTH represents the most expensive method used for last mile connectivity. This will allow subscribers to be migrated to more capable ﬁber technology as demand for HDTV and other technologies increases. as its name implies.
with the average data rate to the endpoint limited to between 10 and 40 Mbps.2 Distribution into the Home
In concluding our discussion of last mile solutions we will note how IPTV can be distributed within a subscriber’s home. By deploying FTTN or FTTC. the gateway performs optical-to-electrical and electrical-to-optical conversion.
5. This is because VDSL is similar to other DSL technologies in that it is based on the use of modems that perform analog modulation. In several ﬁeld trials. We will examine how video and audio can enter a customer’s home on a single ﬁber or twisted-pair metallic conductor and be routed to television and stereo devices and personal computers located throughout the residence.
Because VDSL can provide a relatively high transmission rate over existing copper-based twisted pair. Instead. a VDSL modem can be placed in the home or ofﬁce and connected to existing telephone wiring. a VDSL gateway is typically located where the ﬁber terminates and provides analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion for a series of twisted-pair wires routed from subscriber homes and ofﬁces to the gateway. Those factors include the manner by which the data stream was transported and the distance from the subscriber to the nearest communications carrier ofﬁce or ONU servicing the subscriber.Last Mile Solutions
bandwidth to subscribers. the manner by which the data ﬂow can be distributed will be based on several factors. telephone companies can avoid the cost of digging up lawns and gardens as well as burrowing through driveways. FTTH has resulted in a data rate of 155 Mbps to the consumer. telephone companies can replace many of their main feeds with ﬁber-optic cable without having to route the cable directly into homes and businesses. although in many instances that rate represents a maximum physical capacity.
. In actuality. If FTTN is used.
The basic distribution of IPTV can be expected to be bundled with music channels and high-speed Internet access. As a single ﬂow of data transporting this mixture of recreational activities and potential business connectivity reaches the subscriber’s premises.
does not result in a similar limitation. audio. Thus. In addition. In comparison. the data rate decreases. Those factors include the type of set-top box installed by the telephone company. Now that we have a general overview of how IPTV can be distributed to a subscriber’s home or ofﬁce. ADSL2. Those versions of DSL include ADSL. including VDSL. each version of xDSL. they will more than likely use a version of passive optical network (PON) technology to split the capacity of a ﬁber routed to the neighborhood. FTTH. which in turn is cabled to the television via its USB port. several factors inside the subscriber’s premises will govern the delivery of IPTV.
. which facilitates the distribution of IPTV either to home networking equipment connected directly to the TV or to a set-top box. which represents an extension of ﬁber from the central ofﬁce to the subscriber’s premises. it is sufﬁcient to transport several channels of SDTV and HDTV as well as enable a member of the household to surf the Web. Although this rate is considerably less than the theoretical capacity of the ﬁber. let’s turn our attention to speciﬁcs. and VDSL. As discussed earlier in this chapter as well as in Chapter 3 when we reviewed the three version of ADSL. has a transmission rate inversely proportional to the transmission distance over the copper media that connects a DSLAM in a central ofﬁce to a subscriber’s xDSL modem. such as the distance to telephone company equipment and transmission method used. ADSL2+. and the type of home networking technology used or to be installed by the subscriber. some subscribers currently without HDTV or willing to forgo that service may be able to be supported at a greater distance than subscribers who expect HDTV to be part of the package offered to them. the capability of a “routing gateway” typically installed by the homeowner.128
Versions of xDSL
Currently there are several versions of xDSL that can be used to transport a high-speed data streams containing video. However. Thus. which will result in ﬁbers routed into subscriber premises having an overall data delivery rate less than 50 Mbps. and Internet access into a subscriber’s premises. some modern ﬂat-panel television sets are being manufactured with a USB interface. This means that as the distance increases. because communications carriers are in business to make a proﬁt.
Inside the Home
In addition to outside factors. the use of ﬁber directly into homes and ofﬁces will more than likely remain as a small fraction of all last mile solutions because an equivalent bandwidth can be provided by VDSL for most subscribers at a lower implementation cost for the communications carrier.
we can easily note the manner by which any type of DSL service is terminated in the home or small ofﬁce. with the subscriber providing an optional routing gateway to distribute IPTV to other locations in the home. The key difference between the two illustrations shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.6 is the fact that the integrated set-top box with the xDSL modem provides users with the ability to connect a standard or HD television without requiring a home network or a routing gateway.6 Distribution of an IPTV data stream. this method of termination using an xDSL modem with a built-in set-top box might be appropriate for apartments and other small residences. The top portion of Figure 5.Last Mile Solutions
IPTV and the Home Network
Because all versions of ADSL and VDSL terminate at the subscriber in a similar manner. In the lower portion of Figure 5. In comparison. This conﬁguration enables subscribers to locate their computers closer to the point of xDSL service entry while using a home network to distribute SDTV and HDTV
Figure 5.6 enables a routing gateway to be built into the xDSL modem or directly attached to the device at the point of entry of the service into the home.6 an optional routing gateway is shown built into the xDSL modem. Thus.6 indicates the integration of a set-top box into an xDSL modem. the lower portion of Figure 5.6 illustrates the manner by which a serial data stream ﬂowing over an xDSL connection can be terminated.
Thus.11a and 802. The ﬁrst two extensions to the initial 802. which can be expensive to install after a building is constructed. or ofﬁce.11a standard deﬁned data
. The ﬁrst wireless LAN standard. this network solution requires set-top boxes or televisions with client software and an Ethernet connector to receive the broadcast stream and select the appropriate portion of the data stream for viewing. apartments. Thus.
Over the past decade the IEEE has standardized a number of wireless transmission methods for operation in the 2. 100-Mbps Ethernet needs to operate on category 5 (CAT5) or better wiring. any discussion of the delivery of the technology would be incomplete without a discussion of home networking.
Because the home network represents the key to the delivery of IPTV within homes. will be connected to the Ethernet hub that forms the home network. When a wired Ethernet is used as the home network.11 standard are referred to as the 802. operated at only 1 or 2 Mbps and is not suitable for distributing IPTV within the home. and small ofﬁces.4-GHz frequency band as well as one method for operation in the 5-GHz frequency band. the router gateway. The 802. the majority of home networks using wired Ethernet will more than likely be new homes that are sold as “pre-wired” for highspeed communications. home. which normally includes between three and four switch ports. A variety of home networking solutions are currently available for selection by the consumer.130
to both set-top boxes and televisions located throughout an apartment.11. From the hub.11b standards. Also known as 100 Base-T. In this section we will brieﬂy examine the advantages and disadvantages associated with each type of home network. referred to as 802. data will be broadcast onto each Ethernet endpoint.
Wired Ethernet needs to provide a 100-Mbps transmission capability because 10-Mbps Ethernet is too slow and Gigabit Ethernet has a very short range when transmitted over copper wiring. Those networks range from wired and wireless Ethernet networks to networks that operate over existing electrical wires and are referred to as broadband over power lines (BPL).
its transmission distance is limited compared to equipment compatible with the 802. most vendors advertise a throughput of 110 Mbps for their 802. In comparison. Thus.11n products. A second emerging HomePlug Powerline Alliance standard is the HomePlug AV speciﬁcation. Because 802. Designed for the home of the future. The newest member of the IEEE 802. This speciﬁcation deﬁnes the transmission of data over existing electrical wiring at data rates up to 12 Mbps. Recognition of the need to improve both the data rate and transmission distance resulted in the development of the 802. wireless LANs can communicate at data rates up to 54 Mbps in the 2. this standard is well suited for a home network that requires support for a mixture of audio. Under this standard.11a technology can transport a mixture of SDTV and HDTV.11b equipment. This is because higher frequencies attenuate more rapidly than lower frequencies. and Internet access
.11n standard.4-GHz frequency band as well as implement spatial diversity through the use of multiple antennas.11n standard is extremely well suited for providing a home networking capability in an IPTV environment. it does not have the capacity to transport multiple SDTV broadcasts and provide high-speed Internet access or a single HDTV broadcast throughout the home. although the maximum data rate of 54 Mbps for 802.
The HomePlug Powerline Alliance completed the HomePlug 1. equipment that supports the IEEE 802. its transmission range is normally sufﬁcient to cover most areas of a typical-sized home or apartment. Although a theoretical data rate of 540 Mbps appears possible. The HomePlug AV speciﬁcation deﬁnes a 200-Mbps channel rate at the physical layer that is capable of delivering 150 Mbps at the data link layer. Although an 11-Mbps transmission rate is capable of carrying a single standard television broadcast.11g-compatible equipment operates in the lower frequency band. multiple-output (MIMO) capability in which transmitters and multiple antennas allow for increased data throughput.11a standard operates at almost twice the frequency of 802.11b standard. because it operates in the 5-GHz band.11g standard.Last Mile Solutions
rates up to 54 Mbps in the 5-GHz frequency band.11n products operate in the 2.4-GHz frequency band.11b standard deﬁned a maximum data rate of 11 Mbps in the 2. video. Because 802. This standard builds on previous standards by adding a multiple-input.0 speciﬁcation many years ago.11 series of standards is the 802. and equipment manufactured to be compatible with the 802.4-GHz frequency band. whereas the 802. their transmission range can be expected to cover the area of an average home or apartment. which will have multiple HDTVs.
12 Mbps 1 Mbps 12. which plugs into an electrical outlet and has either a USB or Fast Ether net connector.11 — 802.11g 802.6 Home Networking Technologies That Can Support Different xDSL Access Technologies
Type of DSL Downstream Data Rate Home Networking Technologies ADSL 8 Mbps Wired Ethernet ADSL2 12 Mbps Wired Ethernet ADSL2+ 24 Mbps Wired Ethernet VDSL 52 Mbps Wired Ethernet
802.5 xDSL Capacities and Constraints
Version of DSL Feature ADSL ADSL2 ADSL2+ VDSL
Downstream data rate Upstream data rate Maximum distance
8 Mbps 640 kbps 18.11g 802.11n
Access Technologies vs.11n
— 802. a router could be connected to the electrical power line in the home and data distributed to four locations at a cost of $375 for ﬁve power line adapters.132
Table 5.000 ft
24 Mbps 2 Mbps 9.11a — 802.11g 802. apartment. we turn our attention to comparing the service rates and distance support of the various ﬂavors of xDSL to the operating rates of different home networking technologies.11g 802.000 ft
being delivered to different locations within the home. it appears that the evolving HomePlug AV standard may provide the most practical method to deliver the high-speed data stream consisting of a mixture of standard.000 ft
52 Mbps 6 Mbps 1.
Table 5.and high-deﬁnition television channels as well as high-speed Internet access to locations throughout a home.11a — 802.11n
— 802.11b 802. or small ofﬁce.11a — 802.11n
— 802. With an expected retail price of under $75 per adapter. Home Networking
In concluding this chapter. Because most rooms have multiple electrical outlets.
they need to consider the programming mix they will sell against the distance of subscribers from the nearest central ofﬁce and the operating rate of the service.6 provides a comparison of home networking data rates and access technologies. Thus. including high-speed Internet access. service providers will more than likely have to tailor their product mix to the access technology used to provide subscribers with a connection to their central ofﬁce. Thus. Table 5. In comparison. the delivery of just one channel of standard-deﬁnition television requires between 2 and 6 Mbps under MPEG-2. indicating the potential home networking technologies that can be used to support different xDSL access technologies.5. a single channel of HDTV can require up to approximately 20 Mbps under MPEG-2. only VDSL provides the bandwidth necessary to support several SDTV channels plus HDTV channels and high-speed Internet access. As previously noted in this book. Comparing those data rates against the various ﬂavors of xDSL shown in Table 5. In addition. the bandwidth provided by the home networking equipment should be at least equal to the download speed provided by the xDSL technology used to provide the access line.Last Mile Solutions
As telephone companies deploy IPTV services.
The type of home networking method can be consider ed to be as important as the access technology because the former provides a mechanism for delivering received data streams throughout a home or apartment. one can see that only ADSL2+ and VDSL have the capacity to support both several SDTV channels and high-speed Internet access.
examining their functionality in an IPTV environment. This set-top box converts a digital compressed signal into the television format suitable for being displayed on your screen on either channel 3 or channel 4. and may also convert digital channels if you subscribe to that offering. which will be connected to your television. we will examine the differences between a cable TV set-top box and an IPTV set-top box as well as the functions performed by a media center and media center extender. This is because the basic functions of hardware devices such as servers and set-top boxes are well known. Similarly. That set-top box converts analog. broadcast servers. In this chapter we will probe deeper into IPTV hardware components. if you subscribe to a satellite service you must install a set-top box. For example.Chapter 6
Up to this point in the book. and archive servers.1 Set-Top Boxes
If you subscribe to a cable service to obtain the ability to view channels beyond a basic low-cost analog bundle. we have only brieﬂy mentioned a number of hardware components. depending on the set-top box.
. you are using a set-top box.
6. from predeﬁned frequencies that channels are broadcast on the cable to either channel 3 or channel 4. content managers. without any signiﬁcant explanation of their functionality.
telling the purchaser that they should inform their cable company of its use. It turned out to be quite easy for some hobbyists to develop “descramblers. remains a great unknown with respect to the relationship between installation of cable TV and IPTV services. with many incorporating such functions as personal digital recorders that store up to hundreds of hours of television and provide a high-deﬁnition viewing capability. channel scrambler technology was incorporated into the ﬁrst generation of set-top boxes. but this is expected to change as new manufacturers ramp up production of IPTV set-top boxes based on contracts initialed with vendors providing IPTV service. This technology at ﬁrst simply distorted the premium channel picture by broadcasting the channel with modiﬁed vertical and horizontal synchronization. Because premium channels could be viewed by subscribers who did not want nor did not wish to pay for the service. China. the world’s potentially largest cable market. Later versions of these early set-top boxes performed a rudimentary scrambling of both video and audio by shifting portions of audio and video frequencies.
In an IPTV environment a good portion of the functionality of set-top boxes is similar to the set-top boxes of cable and satellite operators. Today the vast majority of set-top boxes are digital. analog technology has rapidly been replaced by digital technology. Thus. Since the early rollout of set-top boxes.” and an active market for such products developed. Together. global shipments of set-top boxes were approaching 15 million per year.
Currently two companies dominate the digital set-top box market — Motorola and Scientiﬁc Atlanta. This relationship probably favors cable due to the fact that the majority of the Chinese mainland telephone system would require a considerable infrastructure upgrade to support IPTV.136
Both analog and digital set-top boxes trace their origins to the later 1960s and early 1970s when cable companies began to offer premium channels. By 2006. Although technically illegal. the latter acquired by Cisco Systems during 2006. In addition. they account for more than 80 percent of worldwide shipments. many stores continue to advertise the sale of descramblers. early set-top boxes simply added the missing synchronization signal to premium channels to enable an applicable undistorted series of TV frames to appear on the subscriber’s television.
subscribers can elect to watch TV on their computer screen or burn a DVD and view the show on a television that does not have a built-in hard drive.
IPTV Set-Top Box Added Functionality
Although IPTV set-top boxes have similar basic functionality to boxes developed for cable and satellite providers. conventional set-top boxes will shift the frequency of a selected channel residing on a coaxial cable or received via a satellite dish to channel 3 or 4. which enable support of WiFi communications or attachment to a home network. Then. Through a signiﬁcant amount of software or ﬁrmware coding. Another feature built into the software of the set-top box is the ability to transmit unicast requests to the network when the subscriber selects a premium video-on-demand event. However. or other selected methods as well as provide information about a selected show. for all types of services the set-top box represents a dedicated computer that provides an interface between the television set and the service provider. provide a guide listing of shows by time.Hardware Components
For example. and more recently developed set-top boxes including one or more USB ports. In addition to decoding signals. IPTV set-top boxes can support Web browsing both for the Internet and as a mechanism to quickly cycle through guide data. The request will ﬁrst ﬂow to a billing and management server. This is because the input to the IPTV set-top box is a digital data stream that the set-top box will output on either channel 3 or channel 4. channel. the set-top box transmits a request to join a multicast group when the subscriber simply changes the channel from one standard channel to another. Perhaps the major difference between IPTV and conventional set-top boxes resides in the added functionality the former provides and which we will shortly discuss in some detail. on demand. the set-top box will. another difference between the two that deserves mention is the elimination of the need for an IPTV set-top box to perform frequency shifting. interface
. With this added capability it becomes possible for subscribers to transmit recorder programs within their home or ofﬁce to a PC similarly equipped with a network-compatible device. which will verify that the subscriber is not in arrears on his or her bill and then add the selected event’s cost to the current bill prior to transmitting the event as a series of IP datagrams. they recognize and act on UDPs (User Datagram Protocols). IPTV set-top boxes also support additional features that are neither available nor possible to add to conventional cable and satellite set-top boxes. The browser can also be used to view e-mail and e-mail attachments. enabling the subscriber to record programs for later viewing. For example. In comparison. Some set-top boxes will include a hard drive. transmitted within IP datagrams. In addition.
IPTV Set-Top Box Developers
Worldwide a large number of hardware and software developers are working on IPTV set-top boxes. we will ﬁrst discuss that company’s efforts in developing set-top boxes. What was particularly interesting about Microsoft’s announcement was the fact that the company made its software platform scalable to support current and future-generation set-top boxes. Now that we have an appreciation for the general features and functionality of the IPTV set-top box. Other manufacturers may decide to incorporate only certain features and functions into a standard product. Some manufacturers may produce a series of products that incorporates additional features as subscribers move up their product line. sports. readers should recognize that not all of these functions and features will be incorporated into each box. the company introduced Microsoft TV Foundation Edition. This TV platform enabled network operators to offer video on demand. and games to set-top boxes and TV devices. videoconferencing. Although the IP set-top box functions are considerable. Although space constraints preclude a full listing of all companies in this ﬁeld. commencing with Microsoft’s early efforts at enhancing conventional set-top boxes for cable companies and then discussing Microsoft’s efforts and those of other software and hardware developers in the IPTV set-top box area.138
with various types of home networks via gateways. when the company began to explore the display of video with its Windows Media player. In June 2000. and evolving telephones that combine telephone audio with a camera that enables parties to a conversation to see one another. which represented a new digital television platform. we will obtain an appreciation of the overall effort by focusing our attention on several vendors. Because Microsoft has been very active in this development area. weather. news. including conventional cable and satellite operators. as well as provide support for real-time Voice-over-IP (VoIP).
Microsoft’s IPTV efforts date to before the turn of the century.
Initial Market Focus
The initial target markets of the Microsoft TV Foundation Edition were cable operators with tens of millions of installed low-end or legacy set-top
. let’s turn our attention to a series of set-top boxes developed over the past six years.
such as a 15. video on demand. at the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Telecom World exhibit in Geneva.Hardware Components
boxes. normally contained minimal hardware. multimedia programming guides with integrated video. a TV graphical user interface (GUI). has approximately three times the efﬁciency of MPEG-2 and twice that of MPEG-4. an enhanced digital rights management capability that would secure video assets and television shows.” which was targeted toward what were then high-end set-top boxes. Although Microsoft’s efforts in the area of IPTV took a back stage position relative to its Windows and Ofﬁce suite developments. Microsoft demonstrated its IPTV set-top box solution targeted at high-end boxes. and.or 20-MHz processor and as little as 1 to 4 MB of memory. the company announced a series of updates to its IPTV
. This would enable the company’s cost per box to be initially around $150. according to Microsoft. single-chip IPTV set-top box processor as well as a hardware decoder for Windows Media 9. This solution would include set-top boxes based on Windows CE. to placate video providers. Microsoft’s Advanced Solution was based on an embedded operating system (Windows CE). with the ability for economies of scale to reduce its costs to below $50 by 2007. and an embedded version of the XP operating system. Switzerland. . Microsoft unveiled plans during October 2003 to develop an end-to-end IP television delivery solution. at SuperComm 2005. Microsoft’s prototype IPTV set-top box assumed the availability of a low-cost. Microsoft announced its “Advanced Solution. Microsoft’s announcement of its end-to-end IPTV delivery solution was accompanied by a brochure touting the next-generation features subscribers could expect to receive through its use.NET. Such set-top boxes typically included a 100-MHz processor and between 8 and 32 MB of memory. Among those features were instant channel changing. Also included was Windows Media 9 audiovisual technology.
Microsoft’s Prototype Set-Top Box
In late 2003.
A few months after introducing its Foundation Edition and Advanced Solution. and multiple picture-within-picture capability on standard television sets that lack that capability. In addition to targeting the low-end set-top box market. and middleware developed for delivering content and services to a higher performance set-top box. which were manufactured during the prior decade. which. Other features would include digital video recording. Such boxes.
joining T-Online of Germany.140
Edition software platform. DVD playback. we will look at several additional vendors and their products.
Royal Philips Electronics
Royal Philips Electronics dates to 1891. semiconductors. whose businesses include consumer electronics. to borrow a well-known phrase. which includes a MIPS32 central processing unit (CPU) core along with dual Tri Media media processing cores. it supports such advanced features as video telephony. lighting. Because SBC Communications (now known as AT&T) previously agreed to use Microsoft’s IPTV Edition platform in its Project Lightspeed. it can also be obtained with an embedded Linux operating system. improved picture algorithms. and personal video recording. including both network operators and set-top box manufacturers. In addition. and medical products. Microsoft announced several partners that planned to use its IPTV software. when Ger ard Philips established a company in the Netherlands. appliances.
During 2005 Royal Philips Electronics introduced a new IP set-top box that targets both IP and broadcast set-top boxes. Royal Philips Electronics is one of the world’s largest electronics companies. However. the French subsidiary of T-Online International. announced that it had selected Microsoft’s IPTV Edition software platform to run trials of next-generation television. T-Online France. the only certainty about certainty is uncertainty. Today. The Philips STB810 IP set-top box uses a multi-core system-on-chip (SOC) processor. which had previously announced its selection of a Windows CE–based set-top box for its IPTV service. Although the STB810 can be obtained with Windows CE. Another key announcement at SuperComm 2005 was by Microsoft concerning the names of set-top box manufacturers that agreed to imbed Microsoft’s IPTV Edition client-side software into their set-top boxes. Referred to as the STB810 IP set-top box. The updates were developed to facilitate the creation and delivery of video services. timeshift recording. The ﬁrms mentioned included Motorola and Scientiﬁc Atlanta.
. which will provide support to approximately 18 million homes by the end of 2007. In France. data storage. which control more than 80 percent of the set-top box market. it appears that Microsoft will be the major player behind the deployment of IPTV. in concluding our discussion of set-top boxes. which could result in an attractive price because this would alleviate the necessity to pay royalties to Microsoft. as well as Harmonic and Tandberg. Thus.
HDMI (High-Deﬁnition Multimedia Interface). and IPTV settop boxes. whereas the higher end SMP8634 will support up to 512 MB of 64-bit RAM and 256 MB of 8/16-bit ﬂash memory.Hardware Components
Sigma Designs is a company that specializes in the development of siliconbased MPEG decoding ﬁrmware for consumer products. Sigma Designs announced that both Windows CE and Linux will be ported to the SMP chips’ MIPS cores. The company currently offers decoding for high-deﬁnition MPEG-4. The higher end SMP8634 adds 2.
In June 2005 Sigma Designs announced that TIS Net. Sigma Designs markets complete reference designs for various markets. and other compressed video standards. The SMP8630 provides a 7. including MPEG-2 and H. In comparison. MPEG-1. and a second digital signal processor as well as a graphics input port. The chips also support picture-in-picture window operations as well as a range of audio decoding compatibility from Dolby Digital through the three audio layers of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. allowing the set-top box to use either operating system. The SMP8630 tar gets single-stream highdeﬁnition or multi-stream standard-deﬁnition applications. its SMP8630
.264. portable media players. a second video input. According to Sigma Designs. In addition.0 stereo output in addition to a 7.10 as well as MPEG-4.1 home theater audio output and a single video input along with a shared smartcard bus. The new family of chipsets initially announced included the SMP8630 and SMP8634. and H.264. would launch an IP set-top box based on Sigma’s media pr ocessors that would use Windows CE as its operating system. The basic SMP8630 supports up to 256 MB of 32-bit RAM. Opera Software announced that it will port its Opera browser as well as its Opera browser software development kit to the new Sigma Designs chips. Sigma noted that its new pr oduct is the ﬁrst to integrate decoders for all major digital video formats. including networked DVD players. a Tatung subsidiary. the higher end SMP8634 targets multi-stream high-deﬁnition applications. and a dedicated smartcard bus. MPEG-4. MPEG-2. a second highdeﬁnition decoder.1 home theater capability. Both Sigma Designs chips provide support for video decoding up to 1920 × 1080 pixels at 30 progressive frames per second for MPEG-2. By January 2006 Sigma Designs introduced a line of set-top boxes based on its SMP8630 family of chipsets that includes a 300-MHz MIPS core and a 200-MHz memory interface. Similar to the Royal Philips Electronics set-top box. an Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) controller. In addition.
0 ports. video out support for PAL or NTSC. Talegent has indicated that it plans to extend the capabilities of its settop boxes. composite video. 250-GB hard drives.1 provides a summary of the features of each of the three initial announced set-top boxes. Those plans include the addition of WiFi (802.
Table 6. and RCA stereo jacks for audio out.
In concluding our examination of set-top boxes. and a DVD player/recorder. and 16 to 64 MB of ﬂash memory. Not resting on its laurels.142
would be available in samples in March 2006 and the SMP8634 would follow in April 2006. and S/PDIF. S-video. Both chips were scheduled to reach production availability by mid-2006. a Mini PCI slot for expansion. 280-. In addition to offering the Evolution 1 series of set-top box platforms directly. each of which can be attached via a USB port. Talegent announced during late 2005 three models in its Evolution 1 series of set-top boxes. we will discuss Talegent’s Evolution 1 series of set-top box platforms. Telegent plans to manufacture them for private labeling for sale or lease by third parties. an asynchronous serial port. four USB 2.
Recognizing the need to satisfy different markets. from 32 to 128 MB of RAM. Basic hardware. includes a 10/100-Mbps RJ45 Ethernet port. In addition.11) and Bluetooth wireless communications using the Mini PCI card slot. the basic hardwar e platform supports 250-.1 Talegent Evolution 1 Series Comparison
Feature TG200 TG400 TG600
DVB front end Hard drive connection DVD connection
One No No
Two Yes Yes
Two Integrated 160-GB drive Integrated
. If you compare the previously mentioned set-top box features and functionality to set-top boxes manufactured during the 1980s and 1990s. a photo printer. it is obvious that a quantum leap in the technology and capability of set-top boxes has occurred. which is shared by all three Talegent set-top boxes. and 310-MHz CPUs. The Talegent Evolution 1 series is based on the Philips STB810 platform. Tables 6. HDMI.
The media center represents a PC with a television tuner that allows users to view real-time television while performing such traditional computer operations as sending and receiving e-mail. Optional hardware allows users to connect the media center to one or mor e televisions in the home to display a comprehensive guide of program listings. it can be used to control the presentation of information. a media center will provide users with the ability to manage audio and photographs. In fact. download a movie acquired from the Internet.
Microsoft’s Media Center Software
Currently. Some examples of plug-ins include software for displaying and distributing caller ID on other devices connected to the home network. and a program that turns the hard drive in the media center computer into a sophisticated video recorder that allows the
. and performing other computer-related activities. an online TV listing guide that can be customized. or even forward a previously viewed show to a friend at another location or to other television receivers in the home. which is based on a special version of Windows XP.2 Media Center and Center Extenders
One of the more interesting types of computers to reach the market over the past few years is a device sold as a “media center. or even show a PowerPoint business presentation. Microsoft’s Media Center. creating documents. basically controls the market for media center-based PCs. one could use the media center to present a slide show of photographs from a family vacation. a program that facilitates the creation and playback of movies. Once the media center is capable of displaying infor mation on one or more televisions via a home network. burn a DVD. users may be able to record video to disk. Depending on the permission associated with the digital content and operating system software. Microsoft’s software supports a large number of third-party plug-ins that can add a considerable amount of functionality to its media center.
In addition to managing video.” This is the ﬁrst PC developed to operate via a remote control and reside on a shelf in the den or living room along with other audio-visual equipment.Hardware Components
and display audio and video content throughout a home. you could have the caller ID of an inbound telephone call displayed on your PC monitor.11g communications. announced its ﬁrst product in late 2004. Based on Windows CE embedded software.11a or IEEE 802. a subsidiary of Cisco Systems. Marketed as a media center extender.11g standard results in communications occurring in the 2. it is the Media Center Extender that makes the distribution of information a reality.11a standard results in communications occurring in the 5-GHz band.
One of the ﬁrst products to use Microsoft’s CE embedded software is the Linksys Wireless Media Center Extender.
Media Center Extender
Although the Media Center PC was developed as a mechanism to record. Use of the IEEE 802. Although the 5-GHz frequency band has less interference. the transmission range is roughly
. Once the call is completed you might then press a few keys on the remote to deactivate the microphone.144
user to record speciﬁc shows or even a series of shows on any PC with Web access. when watching a video or television show.
Media Center Extender technology was announced by Microsoft at the International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas during 2004. the Linksys product connects to home entertainment devices using such standard cable connectors as RCA plugs that ar e inserted into a device’s jack. and resume watching the show from the point where you initiated its recording. the Media Center Extender’s objective is to extend the reach of the core systems to television displays located in various areas and ﬂoors in a home. Through the use of Microsoft and third-party software.4-GHz band. the capability of the Media Center PC can considerably expand. Linksys. If you decide to take the call you could then use a remote control to record the show while activating a microphone and routing the caller output through the television or computer speakers. control. supporting either IEEE 802. For example. because high frequencies attenuate more rapidly than lower frequencies. The Media Center Extender connects to a home network via wired Ethernet 10/100 BASE-T or wireless Ethernet. hang up the call. whereas use of the 802.
if you use a microwave oven and have one or more 2. In addition.3 Servers
The set-top box. or music previously stored on their Windows Media Center PC. we will discuss the role of the broadcast server. extends the range of the media center. also alleviating
. a timeshift broadcast server enables a service provider to broadcast prerecorded video at different times. Although not all IPTV operations include every server listed in this section. The differences result from the fact that we are now taking a more in-depth examination of the role of servers in an IPTV environment. and pause live television shows. The Linksys Media Center Extender includes S-video.
6. Because the media center extender. In this section we will focus our attention on the operational characteristics of a series of servers that form an integral portion of an IPTV infrastructure. If you compare the servers just mentioned to the servers discussed in Chapter 4 and previously illustrated in Figure 4. you need to become aware of their functionality. and even select and listen to hundreds of Internet radio stations via a stereo system connected to the extender. its use allows the device to be located most anywhere in the home. you will notice many similarities and a few differences. Commencing with the headend server. TV shows. format the content for distribution.Hardware Components
half of the 2. Once the extender is connected to a television. record. and media center extender represent devices located in the home or ofﬁce. media center.4-GHz range. pictures. users can operate a remote control to make their way through a series of menus to obtain access to digital movies. If the service provider does not offer this feature it would not need this type of equipment. At the opposite end of the IPTV network are a series of servers that acquire content. component video. timeshift broadcast server. you will probably want to use the Media Center Extender’s wireless capability as an 802.11a device to minimize interference. However. For example. digital video server. Users can also watch. Thus.4-GHz cordless telephones used by teenagers. download and view digital movies. if the telephone line comes into the home in the kitchen and bedroom you could locate the Media Center PC on a desk in the kitchen or bedroom. and transmit the content onto an IP network for delivery to subscribers. and subscriber management system.9. as its name implies. whereas the extender could be located in the den along with your audio-visual equipment. this function could be accomplished via software on a “media” server. and composite video output along with a digital audio port and left and right audio ports that can be connected to speakers.
Then. This request will ﬂow from the set-top box to the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) in a DSL environment. with the DSLAM transmitting the requested channel in the form of a received multicast transmission being transmitted as a unicast transmission over the copper connection to the subscriber.
One of the more important types of servers used in an IPTV environment is the headend server. The headend software must obviously support the set-top box installed at the subscriber’s premises. the two terms can be synonyms or antonyms. Returning our attention to Figure 4. such as MPEG-2 or MPEG-4. However. and cable (DVB-C). which is the focus of this section. For either action the set-top box will transmit a request to join the multicast group associated with the selected channel. The headend server resides at the central facility of the service provider. the subscriber could either directly change channels or use the guide facility to select a channel. terrestrial (DVB-T). Because we previously discussed the main functions of the headend server.146
the need for a separate server. Assuming it does.9 are equivalent to a headend server.” Both the media server and the broadcast encoder shown in Figure 4.9. the service provider will more than likely employ a “division of labor” by moving certain functions to separate servers.
Another name for a headend server is a broadcast server. the digital br oadcast frames are streamed via multicast addressing using selected protocols. The captured broadcasts are then converted into multicast data streams using preselected television channel associations for transmission over an IP network. however. The conversion process includes receiving streaming video broadcasts as a series of frames and converting the frames from each broadcast into a digital broadcast format. as the number of IPTV subscribers increases. and different types of presentation data. such as RTP under UDP or UDP RAW. A corporate broadcast server is designed to enable organizations ranging in scope from single to multiple locations to broadcast live video. audio. such as a series of
. note that the generic “media server” is shown accepting a variety of broadcast sources and then transferring data to a “broadcast encoder. this section will focus on the additional functions that may be included in a broadcast server used in a corporate environment. This server captures direct video broadcast streams transmitted via satellite (DVB-S).
or area ofﬁces or even customers and subcontractors. whose broadcasts will appear the same on all screens. However. through the use of hardware and software it becomes possible to take the video feed generated on a PC and move it via a wired or wireless network onto a large-screen display for viewing by a group of employees. Designed for use by schools.
The video-on-demand (VOD) server functions as a repository for shows. and cost. This server supports the capture. it was not shown in Figure 4. contractors. Those addresses can represent employees in the central ofﬁce. the DVS might transmit information about modern art to a museum room housing Jackson Pollock works and the work of similar modern artists. Thus. museums. Thus. such as a school or museum. Although this server can be located at the headend of a transmission system. it can also be located at any point on a network. nor does this server work in conjunction with one or more types of set-top boxes.
Digital Video Server
A third type of server that warrants a degree of explanation is a digital video server (DVS). a DVS that is IP capable can transmit different frames to different IP addresses. Of course. where each transmission is assigned to a television channel. storage. Instead. transmission method. Unlike a conventional digital video server.
. while a different sequence of frames could be directed to a room where several Rembrandts and Van Goghs are on display. such as on displays within a museum or airport. Unlike a headend server. and other types of video events that subscribers may wish to view at any time and for which a fee is usually associated.Hardware Components
PowerPoint slides.9. movies. Because a DVS is commonly used in a closed IPTV system. the video broadcast server is commonly designed to generate a single feed at a time. most if not all of its functionality can be included in the generic media servers shown in Figure 4.9. libraries. to selected IP addresses. and transmission of digital video. editing. the video broadcast server does not convert broadcast streams into multiple multicast transmissions. the three main differences between the broadcast or headend server and the VOD server can be categorized by their accessibility. or customers. regional ofﬁces. the DVS is typically a smaller and less powerful server than a headend device and allows organizations to create content that is displayed within a predeﬁned area. and corporations. which is viewed through the use of a browser operating on a desktop or laptop computer. hotels.
. information stored on the VOD server is transmitted in response to speciﬁc subscriber requests. Concerning the transmission method. archive servers are manufactured in a variety of conﬁgurations. television reruns. and other information in response to a speciﬁc subscriber request. but also transmit a message that ﬂows through the subscriber’s set-top box and is displayed on the computer or television screen informing the subscriber of the reason for the rejection of the VOD request. Similar to conventional servers.
One of the key differences between data and video is the fact that the latter requires considerably more storage. the archive server will normally store video using a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID). where. Thus. after updating its records that server would then forward the request to the VOD server. typically in the tetrabyte range. In addition. That billing server is shown in Figure 4. consider a description of a movie or television show versus its actual stored content. the VOD server transmits such information directly to the requesting subscriber as a sequence of unicast datagrams. the headend or broadcast server transmits each video stream as a multicast message that ﬂows as a single sequence of datagrams to a DSLAM or equivalent device that serves many subscribers. the billing server might not only refuse the request. This may require the IPTV operator to ﬁrst have VOD requests transmitted to a billing server that could also check the status of the subscriber’s account. A third difference between a headend or broadcast server and the VOD server resides in the fact that a subscriber will normally have to pay a fee to view a VOD performance. Thereafter. and at least one subscriber has requested a speciﬁc content. sports. the multicast-capable DSLAM will transmit one sequence of datagrams to each subscriber who previously joined the multicast group by turning the channel in their set-top box. if the account has been in arrears for more than a predeﬁned threshold or time duration.148
Whereas programs from the headend or broadcast server are transmitted at predeﬁned times.9 as a subscriber management system and will be discussed in more detail later in this section. In comparison. Then. A recognition of the fact that both headend and VOD servers can easily lack the capacity to store thousands of hours of programming resulted in the development of video archive servers. What sets them apart from headend or broadcast and VOD servers is the fact that the archive server is designed speciﬁcally to support an extremely large amount of online storage. a VOD server will transmit selected movies. Assuming the billing server approves the request.
This improves performance while maintaining fault tolerance. performance is degraded by the need to write to the parity disk when data is striped. Mirroring and duplexing provide a duplicate copy of data and twice the read transaction of single disks while the write transaction rate is unchanged. Note that RAID represents a category of disk drives
. A combination of RAID Levels 0 and 1. data and the error correcting code are read.’’ Bit-interleaved parity results in a byte-level striping using a dedicated parity disk. Although this improves performance. it does not provide any fault tolerance capability.2 provides a brief description of both standardized and proprietary RAID levels. Table 6. cached striping with dedicated parity to enhance Levels 3 and 4. A disadvantage of Level 4 is similar to that of Level 3 in that the parity disk can create write bottlenecks. Error-correcting coding stripes data at the bit level. Both performance and fault tolerance are high.2 RAID Levels
Striped disk array without fault tolerance provides data striping or the spreading of blocks across multiple disk drives. which is written along with data. Under Level 10 the array is initially set up as a group of mirrored pairs (Level 1) and then striped (Level 0). uses asynchronous.
on the RAID level employed. If a data disk fails. RAID Level 5 is perhaps the most popular version of RAID. Block-level striping with distributed parity stripes both data and parity across three or more drives. Upon retrieval. Level 10 was not one of the original levels. allowing for the failure of a single disk. which is also a trademark of Storage Computer Corporation. either performance or fault tolerance or a combination of both are improved. the parity disk is used to create a replacement disk. enhancing performance while providing a good level of fault tolerance. Level 5 removes the need for a dedicated parity drive. but Level 10 requires a minimum of four drives and has a high overhead and limited scalability.Hardware Components
Table 6. This proprietary method. Block-level striping with dedicated parity improves performance by striping data across many disks. and fault tolerance occurs due to a dedicated parity disk. However. Redundant bits are computed using a Hamming code. allowing a single bit error to be corrected on the ‘‘ﬂy. Cache is arranged into multiple levels and a processor manages the array asynchronously. Although similar to RAID Level 4.
Timeshifting is most often considered to represent the operation of a subscriber using a DVD or VCR recorder. or video server.9. satellite providers. we just brieﬂy mentioned that access to video on demand might require the status of a subscriber’s account to be veriﬁed. Because high-deﬁnition video requires considerably more bandwidth than standard-deﬁnition television. Because an archive server can function as a back end to other types of servers it can be used as auxiliary storage for any of the generic media servers shown in Figure 4. Although smaller IPTV providers as well as some telephone companies. When this occurs. or both. In addition. certain popular premium channel programming is commonly rebroadcast several times after its initial showing.
Timeshift Broadcast Server
Timeshifting represents the transmission of a video at a time other than when it was originally scheduled. but it is particularly useful when used with a video archive server in an IPTV environment. the archive server can be connected to a LAN. fault tolerance. the server is commonly referred to as a timeshift broadcast server. this capability is usually implemented on a dual-processor system connected to a RAID that provides a high degree of fault tolerance. This conﬁguration ensures that the failure of a processor or disk can be compensated for. Although time-shifting can be performed through software on a headend. A RAID can be attached to most types of servers. broadcast. where it can provide a backup storage capability to other servers connected to the local area network. Because a billing and management capability is critical to the operation of the IPTV service. sometimes the IPTV service provider will acquire and store video on a separate server for broadcasting at a speciﬁc time. That veriﬁcation as well as billing and other management functions can be performed on a separate server.150
that use two or more drives together to enable a degree of increased performance.
Billing and Management Server
In previous discussions. the timeshift broadcast server can also store premium channel rebroadcast standard-deﬁnition and high-deﬁnition programming. Similarly. Thus. some IPTV providers may ﬁnd it convenient to acquire programming via satellite or terrestrial communications and store such programming on a separate server for broadcasting at predeﬁned times. but it can also represent the operation of an IPTV provider. and cable operators may use dual-processor systems on a single
most operators will more than likely elect to maintain their billing and management system on dual servers that are interconnected and operate in tandem. This system can also include the ability to accept payments via electronic bank transfer or selected credit cards.Hardware Components
server. The functions of a billing and management server can include veriﬁcation of the account status of subscribers to preclude those in arrears from ordering new pay-per-view shows as well as generating applicable messages to remind subscribers when payment is due or overdue. Thus. the subscriber management system shown in Figure 4. In addition. the data captured by the billing and management system is used to create a monthly subscriber bill that may be either transmitted via e-mail or sent as a postal delivery to each subscriber.
.9. The billing and management server is shown as a “Subscriber management system” in Figure 4.9 may include telecommunications connections to several major credit card organizations as well as a connection to perform transfer of funds via electronic banking.
and Macromedia’s Flash Player. In this chapter we will turn our attention to software in the form of media players that enable both corporate and individual users to view a variety of video data streams retrieved from the Internet.Chapter 7
In the previous chapter. there are also some differences. Because Microsoft’s Windows Media Player and Apple Computer’s QuickTime account for the vast majority of media players currently used. all four products handle both video and audio and are capable of displaying certain types of stored images. Apple Computer’s QuickTime. we will brieﬂy touch on the other two media players to ensure readers are aware of all four media players. including movies and other types of video media. because they basically perform the same types of operations differently. As this is accomplished. Real Networks’ RealPlayer. directly from the Internet or previously stored as a ﬁle on the computer. four media players accounted for the vast majority of PC usage: Microsoft’s Windows Media Player.
. we will illustrate the use of IPTV. In doing so. we focused on the key hardware components that cumulatively provide an IPTV solution. At the time this book was written. However. we will primarily discuss these two products in this chapter. The differences between each of the four products have to do more with their functionality. Concerning similarities. Although the four products possess many similarities. examining how a media player can enable users to view and hear a range of media events. we will describe and discuss several of the more popular media players.
7.1 Microsoft’s Windows Media Player
Microsoft’s Windows Media Player has been continuously updated since its initial release over a decade ago. Now in its tenth edition, this software enables users to organize and play multimedia. Users can listen to a variety of audio, including Internet radio; copy music to portable devices; view different types of media, including pictures and movies; and copy and play DVDs, CDs, and eventually high-deﬁnition (HD)-DVDs. As Microsoft likes to remind its software users, Windows Media Player can be considered to represent a combination of a radio, television, and photograph viewer combined into a single application. In this section we will ﬁrst turn our attention to Windows Media Player 9. Once we are familiar with its functionality, we will then focus on the latest version of Windows Media Player, version 10. Both versions 9 and 10 are signiﬁcant upgrades from prior versions of Windows Media Player and support the transfer of video to portable devices as well as the viewing of video streams.
Windows Media Player 9
Figure 7.1 illustrates Microsoft’s Player 9 with its Media Guide button selected. Clicking on the Media Guide button results in the periodic display of options for movie trailers, new DVD releases, and music videos. As can be seen in Figure 7.1, the menus associated with the Media Guide button allow users to select Music, Movies, Entertainment, Radio, Current Events, Site Index, and WindowsMedia.com. Although most of the menus are self-explanatory, a couple deserve mention. Selecting Site Index results in the display of the site index for the WindowsMedia.com Web site. In comparison, selecting WindowsMedia.com results in the display of that Web site’s home page, which, when performed by this author, was the same as selecting Home or Movies.
On the left side of the viewing window shown in Figure 7.1 are a series of buttons, with the Media Guide button selected. The top button, labeled Now Playing, allows users to use accelerator keys (Tab + Enter) for visualization, a term Microsoft uses to reference splashes of color and geometric shapes that change in tandem with the beat of the audio being played. Thus, users would ﬁrst select the Radio Tuner button to hear a selected radio station, and then they would select the Now Playing button to display changing shapes and colors as they listened to the selected radio station.
Figure 7.1 Windows Media Player 9, with its Media Guide button selected, displays a periodically changing collection of movie clips and radio listening options.
The third button on the left side of Windows Media Player 9, labeled CD Audio, provides users with the ability to listen to an audio CD. Users can also copy music as well as display artist and album information.
The fourth button, which is labeled Media Library, allows users to create and manipulate the contents of playlists, a term used to represent a collection of audio and video titles that collectively form a library. The items on or added to the playlist can include the audio or video ﬁ le currently being played as well as other ﬁles either on the local computer or residing on another computer, with the latter referenced through the use of a URL. Users can add and delete items from a playlist and even delete a playlist from the library, including all items previously added to the playlist. Users can use the CD Audio button to create a CD from any playlist they have created. However, the playlist cannot be more than 74 minutes long, and only .mp3, .wav, .asf, .wma, and .wmv ﬁles are supported.
Table 7.1 Windows Media Player 9 Audio and Video File Support
File Format Description
.wav .wma .wmv
Also referred to as .aifc and .aiff, this audio speciﬁcation came from Apple Computer and is used on Silicon Graphics computers. The MPEG Layer 3 audio format is the most popular format for downloading music. By eliminating portions of the audio ﬁle that are not essential, mp3 ﬁles are compressed to approximately one-tenth the size of an equivalent pulse code modulation (PCM) ﬁle. This is the standard audio ﬁle format used by Windows PCs. Stores uncompressed (PCM) CD-quality sound ﬁles. The Windows Media audio format provides the ability to apply copy protection to ﬁles. The Windows Media video ﬁles represent advanced system format (.asf) ﬁles, which include audio, video, or audio and video compressed with Windows Media Audio (WMA) and Windows Media Video (WMV) codecs.
File Format Support
Table 7.1 provides a brief description of the audio and video ﬁle formats associated with the ﬁle extensions supported by Microsoft’s Windows Media Player.
The ﬁfth button on the left portion of the Windows Media Player is labeled Radio Tuner. This button can be used in a manner similar to the preselected station, search, and seek buttons on a radio. Figure 7.2 illustrates the initial Windows Media Player 9 main window when the Radio Tuner button is selected. The left portion of the window lists featured stations and the right portion of the window lists groups of stations that will result in a list of stations that belong to each group. When users select a featured station they can add it to a station list, be directed to its Web site if given the option to do so, or hear its broadcast by selecting Play. Selecting the Find More Stations entry on the upper right portion of the window allows users to search by keyword or zip code to locate a list of stations.
Figure 7.2 The Radio Tuner button allows users to listen to and record audio from stations around the world.
Portable Device Support
The sixth button, which is labeled Portable Device, provides users with the ability to copy audio and video ﬁles to a variety of devices, including products that use ﬂash memory, as well as onto a disk, CD, or DVD.
Windows Media Player 10
Prior to examining the operation of Windows Media Player 10, a few words are in order concerning its privacy options (ﬁrst shown during the installation process) and its new interface.
Figure 7.3 illustrates the default privacy option settings display that appears during the installation of Windows Media Player 10. Note that users can obtain detailed information about the privacy options by clicking on the More Information link. By default, media information from the Internet is enabled, music ﬁles are updated, licenses for protected content are automatically
each of the ﬁle types listed in a table during installation will be opened by Windows Media Player 10. Figure 7.2. to protect user privacy. However. Unless unchecked.158
. and ﬁle and URL history is saved.4 illustrates the initial Windows Media Player 10 screen display. Note that the left panel buttons used in Windows Media Player 9 have been replaced by a series of tabs across the top of the screen as well as the use of the ﬁle menu entries across the top portion of the new Player. Another option that deserves mention concerns the selection of Windows Media Player 10 as the default player for 13 types of audio and video ﬁles. Windows Media Player 10 includes a new visual interface.3 The Windows Media Player 10 default privacy options preclude it from transmitting the player ID to content providers and usage information to Microsoft.
acquired. The audio and video ﬁle types directly supported by this player that are enabled by default are listed in Table 7. consumers’ transmissions from the player to content providers in the form of unique Player ID and usage information to Microsoft are disabled.
As previously mentioned.
4 Windows Media Player 10 replaced the buttons of Player 9 with tabs across the top of the screen.Software Solutions
Table 7.2 Windows Media Player 10 Default File Types
Windows Media Audio ﬁle (wma) Windows Media Video ﬁle (wmv) Windows Media ﬁle (asf) Microsoft Recorded TV Show (dvr-ms) DVD video Music CD Playback MP3 audio ﬁle (mp3) Windows Video ﬁle (avi) Windows Audio ﬁle (wav) Movie ﬁle (mpeg) MIDI ﬁle (midi) AIFF ﬁle (aiff) AU audio ﬁle (au)
The Library tab can be used to easily access music. because at the time the screen was captured no entries in the video playlist located on the right portion of the screen were selected. In examining the top portion of Figure 7. note that the tab labeled Now Playing was selected.160
Now Playing Tab
As its name implies.5. however.
Figure 7. and playlists.5 The Windows Media Player Library tab provides the ability to select music and videos from a tree-type menu. videos. An example of the use of the Library tab is shown in Figure 7.
. television shows. clicking on the Now Playing tab results in the display of a selected video (or of a visualization effect if an audio ﬁle is selected). this resulted in a blank screen.4. In this example I used the Library tab to view titles stored in my playlists.
However. By default. which was Windows Media Player 10 at the time this book was prepared. you will more than likely install a DVD decoder that is designed to work with the hardware.microsoft. . and the Power DVD SE for Windows XP from CyberLink Corp.wmv. and JPEG images.Software Solutions
Rip. Those ﬁles typically include . its functionality should be checked to avoid potential problems.. . To provide readers with an indication of the capabilities of Windows Media Player 10 bundled with a DVD decoder plug-in.com/windows/windowsmedia/mp10). as well as access a utility program to check the compatibility of DVD decoders on your computer.
DVD Decoder Plug-Ins
At the time this book was written the Microsoft Windows Media Player 10 Web site offered three DVD decoder plug-ins.mp3.
. they can use the Burn tab to create a CD or the Sync tab to synchronize and download previously stored ﬁles onto a portable device. including a DVD decoder plug-in. Now that we have an appreciation for the Windows Media Player 10 defaults and new interface. Once they copy one or more songs onto the computer. Inc. Concerning burning and synchronization operations. and Sync Tabs
The Rip tab can be considered to represent the opposite of the Burn tab.wma. To do this. we will brieﬂy discuss the features of two of these products. this author was able to both listen to CDs and play DVDs on his computer. Although the DVD decoder will work with Windows Media Player 10. Windows Media Player (including the most recent version) does not include a DVD decoder. only certain types of ﬁles can be transferred to a CD or portable media player. where you can add a variety of plug-ins. . let’s examine its use for viewing videos. Other types of ﬁles may have a protection feature that requires users to purchase a license that “unlocks” the ﬁle and allows it to be copied and played. the NVIDIA DVD decoder from NVIDIA.
Using the latest version of Windows Media Player. That is.asf. the Rip tab gives users the ability to copy songs from CDs onto the computer. when you obtain a PC with a DVD drive or install an internal or external DVD drive. including the CinePlayer DVD decoder from Sonic Solutions. Burn. To play DVDs using Windows Media Player requires that both a DVD-ROM and a software or hardware DVD decoder be previously installed on the computer. point your browser to the Microsoft Windows Media Player 10 Web page (www.
note that two DVD decoders were located on my computer. The ﬁlename for the utility program provided by Microsoft is dvdchecksetup. this program determines if an MPEG-2 decoder is installed on your Windows XP computer and whether or not the decoder is compatible with Windows Media Player 10 and Windows XP Media Center Edition. to synchronize MPEG-2-encoded content to a portable device the display warns the user to obtain an updated version of the MPEG-2 decoder. Thus..com. it appears that software development is lagging behind hardware.162
The CinePlayer DVD decoder from Sonic Solutions. In addition to playing DVDs. is priced at $14. the CinePlayer DVD decoder includes an MPEG-2 decoder that enables the playing of video ﬁles. this utility could be used to determine whether the computer has a compatible MPEG-2 decoder. Also note that although the CyberLink Video/SP Decoder was shown as compatible with Windows XP Media Center Edition. because some IP set-top boxes now provide support for high-deﬁnition video. Thus.95. This warning is most useful because it could eliminate many hours of attempting to determine why
.exe. Offered for a price of $14. Referred to as the Windows XP Video Decoder Checkup Utility. it was not compatible with the synchronization features of Windows Media Player 10. This ﬁle can be downloaded from several Web sites in addition to Microsoft. including the numerous movie trailers available for viewing on the Web.99. Thus.
Video Decoder Checkup Utility
In addition to the previously mentioned plug-ins. In addition. such as synchronizing (copying) recorded TV shows to a portable media center or another device. Although each DVD decoder plug-in included a slight variance in features from other products.1 soundtracks to two channels for video playing on a computer limited to two speakers. if a computer user encounters a problem. and as such was indicated as the preferred decoder. this software provides support for the playback of DVD movies and MPEG-2 video ﬁles. A second plug-in that deserves a few words is the Power DVD SE for Windows XP from CyberLink Corp.6 illustrates the result I obtained when I executed the utility program on one of my desktop computers. Figure 7. This product claims to offer the industry’s “best DVD navigation” as well as provide the highest quality DVD playback on PCs. the Power DVD SE provides support for Dolby Digital audio decoding and provides a downmix of 5.exe. Inc. In examining the display resulting from the execution of dvdchecksetup. all of the decoders were limited to supporting MPEG-2 video streams. Microsoft now provides a free DVD and MPEG-2 utility designed for computers operating Windows XP with Media Player 10.
this is from an episode of The Tonight Show in which Johnny Carson performed a skit with Jack Webb of Dragnet fame. you would select the item from a playlist if the target is on your computer or referenced to a location via a URL. clicked on its entry. I once received via e-mail the famous “copper clappers” short video from a friend. it would normally play automatically. Carson were able to perform the entire skit without bursting into laughter. and selected the Now Playing tab. the kleptomaniac from Cleveland.Software Solutions
Figure 7. The skit concerned the theft of copper clappers by Claude Cooper.7 shows a still picture from that video of Jack Webb beginning the famous skit. In Windows Media Player 10 you can
. however. If you are using a DVD player. clicking on a button.6 The Microsoft DVD utility program checks your computer for MPEG2 decoders and their compatibility with Windows XP Media Center Edition as well as support for ﬁle synchronization. Figure 7. the video began playing.
the transmission of video from desktop or laptop to a portable device is failing using the preferred decoder. or selecting a menu entry. After I added it to my playlist. Webb and Mr. or audio visualization. Check it out and you’ll see. Watching this video. DVD. if it does not begin to play you could click on the Library button and select and click on the drive that contains the disk. (If you have never seen it. I was amazed that both Mr.)
Manipulating the Video Display
Users can manipulate the viewing area using a key pair.
To view a video.
A word of caution is in order concerning full-screen viewing. A skin can be considered to represent a new surrounding added to Windows Media Player that changes its appearance. The full-screen button (icon) is shown in Figure 7.
In concluding our tour of Windows Media Player. Although most DVDs look ﬁne when viewed in full-screen mode. most video shorts and movie trailers do not have sufﬁcient resolution to be viewed in that manner.7 A still shot from the “copper clappers” video short viewed using Windows Media Player 10.7 at the top right but to the left of the playlist.8 illustrates the default Windows Media Player 10
. or select Full Mode from the View menu to expand the video onto the full screen.164
Figure 7. press the ALT + Enter keys. I would be remiss if I did not brieﬂy discuss skin mode. Figure 7.
click on a View Full Screen button. Pressing the ESC key restores the player to its original size.
This version of QuickTime converts users from video watchers to video makers.
skin. Although the basic bundle is free. Although most skins incorporate basic player functions such as Play. Its current QuickTime player. Apple also offers an upgrade to QuickTime 7 Pro for $29.8 The default Windows Media Player 10 skin looks like a spaceship connected to a viewer.99 from their Web site.Software Solutions
Figure 7. Next. is bundled with iTunes 6 for Windows 2000 and Windows XP based computers. which in effect is MPEG-4. Previous. version 7.
. because it includes support for creating videos using the H. In addition.2 Apple Computer’s QuickTime
Apple Computer has long been the leading producer of hardware and software innovations. create movies that can be viewed on an Apple iPod. QuickTime 7 Pro allows users to record audio for podcasts (a term used to reference radio shows downloaded over the Internet). and convert media into more than a dozen formats.
7. which is similar to a labeled spaceship that contains a video display area. Note that the default skin has a series of buttons over which the user can move the cursor to obtain a display of their meaning. and Volume Control. some skins provide added functionality. Stop.264 codec. Most skins by default use only a small portion of a display and represent a convenient method for viewing a video or listening to an audio while working at your PC.
The H. including system requirements and new features incorporated into each program. A second interesting portion of the installation process is the appearance of a dialog box that provides a summary of information about iTunes and QuickTime. which is common to a sequence of dialog boxes.264 compression standard was selected for use in HDDVDs and enables users to watch video that is crisp. The next dialog box generated by the iTunes Setup Assistant concerns organizing the iTunes music folder. The download process and program installation were straightforward.
iTunes Setup Assistant
iTunes can play both mp3 and aac music ﬁles as well as automatically convert unprotected Microsoft wma ﬁles to aac ﬁles. First. Users can choose
Although Apple provides users with the ability to download QuickTime as a standalone entity.264. This conversion is performed by the iTunes Setup Assistant. clear. users can select from 14 languages. as more Internet HD programming becomes available for user access. informing the user that the installation was completed without error. followed by an “Installation Successful” message displayed in a new dialog box. and a Setup Type dialog box gives the option of enabling or disabling the installation of desktop shortcuts and the use of iTunes as the default player for the audio ﬁles stored on the computer. a series of iTunes setup boxes will be displayed. Once the user clicks on the button labeled Finish at the bottom of the dialog box. with the default being English.166
Both QuickTime 7 and QuickTime 7 Pro include built-in support for H. whose ﬁrst dialog box by default selects adding mp3 and aac ﬁles to the iTunes music library and converting wma ﬁles to aac ﬁles. The user selects the button labeled Next. with some options that were very interesting. I selected the bundled version of QuickTime and iTunes. Although QuickTime Pro’s support of MPEG-4 represented a method of media player differentiation. and colorful in a window that is up to four times the size of windows typically used to view video when an MPEG-2 codec is used. after which the installation process commences. The ﬁrst box can be used to search the My Music folder to ﬁnd songs already stored and add them to the iTunes music library. The user either accepts the default location for installing iTunes and QuickTime or selects another location. one can expect that other media players will likely obtain a similar capability. which provides a signiﬁcant advance in compression technology over MPEG-2.
which has the heading Source. creating lists of songs.
Figure 7.Software Solutions
to keep the iTunes music folder organized. By selecting that entry and using the ﬁle menu to input a previously stored video. which will cause the program to rearrange and rename their music ﬁles and folders or they can choose to be in charge of changing ﬁle and folder names.
.9 iTunes can support listening to CDs and radio stations. note the entry labeled Videos.9 illustrates the iTunes display after I allowed the default iTunes Setup Assistant settings to convert existing wma ﬁles to aac ﬁles and add those ﬁles to the iTunes Music Library along with mp3 and aac ﬁles already in the My Music folder on my desktop PC. viewing videos.
Figure 7. In the left column of Figure 7. and burning CDs and DVDs.9. A third iTunes Setup Assistant dialog box allows users to select whether to allow the program to take them to the iTunes Music Store or the iTunes Library.
users can import video and audio ﬁles. note that this author previously stored four videos in the wmv format. we can note one ﬁle type incompatibility by selecting that ﬁle. which operated under Windows Media Player. Because a friend previously e-mailed me the copper clappers video.10 will result in an error message: “The ﬁle ‘copper clappers. one ﬁle incompatibility is the inability of QuickTime to open Microsoft wmv video ﬁles. as we will note. the support of certain ﬁle types represents a problem. by default iTunes looks in the My Music folder.10. as indicated by the icons to the left of each video name.
Previously we described ﬁle types supported by Windows Media Player 7.168
Figure 7. Clicking on the Open button shown in Figure 7.
you can use iTunes to view videos. which illustrates the use of the Import command in the File menu.” Thus.wmv’ cannot be imported because it does not appear to be a valid exported ﬁle.
When the user selects Import from the iTunes File menu.10 Through the iTunes File menu. In Figure 7. Apple Computer developed ﬁle formats referred to as mov and qt for
0 for the Macintosh was released in April 2001.0 or earlier can be played in the Microsoft Windows Media Player. The next release of QuickTime. This release added skins to the QuickTime player and support for multiprocessor image compression. edit. Since then. QuickTime 2. In June 1999 Apple released QuickTime 4. In July 2002. in the opposite direction.0 for the Macintosh was released in February 1994 and represents the only version of this media player that did not have a free version. live-action video). Apple Computer released QuickTime 6. occurred in April 2005. a version for Windows became available. and a version for Windows was released in November 1994. This version of QuickTime added a second video codec and support for large movie ﬁles. which included additional features. occurred in March 1998. MPEG-4. an animation codec.0 for Windows. provided the basic architecture to include multiple movie tracks. Apple has used a series of minor releases to ﬁx bugs and improve H. referred to as QuickTime 1. QuickTime 5.0. Now that we understand the reason why a short video that was viewable in Windows Media Player 7 could not be viewed in QuickTime (or. QuickTime 2.5 for the Macintosh in 1992 and contracted with an outside company to develop QuickTime 1. Similarly. and a graphics codec. opened in iTunes’ movie source). Apple Computer’s QuickTime cannot be used to view Windows Media ﬁles. Later versions of QuickTime require the proprietary Apple QuickTime player.0 for the Macintosh. Apple released QuickTime 1. a full-screen video mode was added to the Pro version of the player.0 added support for music soundtracks.
. more accurately.
The ﬁrst version of QuickTime. publish. which included support for viewing full-screen QuickTime video through iTunes. let’s turn our attention back to QuickTime. version 7.0.0 for the Macintosh. The original video codecs included what is referred to as “road pizza” (used for normal. In May 2005 Apple released iTunes 4. Between July 2002 and October 2004 Apple Computer added nine minor releases to include support for iTunes 4. Only QuickTime ﬁles version 2. The latest release of QuickTime. and a range of editing features.8. This dual-release policy of a free and Pro version of QuickTime has continued through version 7. This release included both a free version and a Pro version.264 performance. extensible media type support. In addition. version 3. and view multimedia ﬁles.Software Solutions
QuickTime to create. which included support for MPEG-2. with a Windows version released in July 2005. Shortly after its Macintosh release. and aac ﬁle types.x.
Currently. However. as illustrated in Figure 7. Notice the default size of QuickTime in relation to the size of a PC screen.” Through the View menu.
Figure 7. users can operate QuickTime as a separate program.264 standard as well as MPEG-4 ﬁles.11 QuickTime’s normal size display. This size is what Apple refers to as “normal. the Pro version of QuickTime is needed to obtain a full-screen viewing capability. In addition. QuickTime 7 supports most of the H. users can also select Half and Double Size. such as audio. which includes built-in support for full-screen display of video. In addition.
As previously noted. Apple Computer has integrated some elements of QuickTime and iTunes that enable movies to be viewed in iTunes. or text used for subtitles. video. which function as multimedia container ﬁles that contain one or more tracks.11. QuickTime supports mov ﬁles.
. Each track contains track media as data reference to a ﬁle or as a digitally encoded media stream created using a speciﬁc codec. effects. unlike Windows Media Player 7. each of which stores a particular type of data.
you can browse and watch videos in iTunes. Clicking on the Trailer option in Figure 7.12.Software Solutions
Examine the top right column shown in Figure 7.11 and you will notice a list of movie trailers that were transmitted from the Apple Computer Web site when the QuickTime program was initiated. Note that the iTunes display screen is initiated as a response to the QuickTime selection. which illustrates the result obtained by clicking on the Basic Instinct 2 trailer shown in the upper right column of the QuickTime player shown in Figure 7. When this occurs the source is shown as the Movie Store.
.12 Selecting a trailer in QuickTime results in iTunes being initiated to allow the trailer to be played from the Music Store. As indicated earlier in this book.13 results in the selected preview being displayed in iTunes.8 or later.11. a term used to represent the iTunes Web site. the Apple Computer Movie Store offers consumers the ability to purchase a wide
Figure 7. Figure 7.13 illustrates the beginning of the movie preview for Basic Instinct 2. If you click on a movie trailer or select a video with a compatible ﬁle format and have iTunes 4. An example of this is shown in Figure 7. with the selected trailer appearing as being from the Music Store.
. viewers will receive each show free from ABC with commercials. or another type of video whose ﬁle format is supported by QuickTime you can open that URL for viewing in a QuickTime player. Although users can open ﬁles and URLs. Although such shows will include many hit series now sold on the Movie Store. including Lost. TV show. it can also operate as a standalone video player.
variety of television shows. only QuickTime Pro allows them to save or export ﬁles.13 Watching a trailer in iTunes whose source is the Movie Store. Thus.
Returning to QuickTime
As previously noted. which encourages users to spend a nominal $29.95 to purchase a license to use QuickTime Pro. Apple Computer has limited the basic capability of QuickTime. if you know the URL of a movie. however. it will be interesting to observe the effect of a recent ABC announcement (April 2006) that that network intends to make available many shows for downloading for free. QuickTime is highly integrated with iTunes. Because those shows include several ABC hits.172
The four icons on the bottom edge of the settings box determine which settings can be viewed and changed. Many Web sites. and the camera icon allows camera controls if the user’s computer is connected to that type of device.
Similar to Apple Computer. with the settings box displayed in the middle of the player. include a full-screen. with a slight charge associated with the Plus version of the player. Those players are the Real Networks RealPlayer and the Macromedia Flash Player.
7. The microphone icon controls the record volume. Apple Computer’s Web site lists a series of components that can be acquired from third-party vendors to enhance QuickTime. it currently has a small portion of the market for media players. Although Real Networks includes support for many popular video ﬁle formats. including abc.14 illustrates the playing of ABC’s Commander-in-Chief program within a Macromedia Flash Player. TV-quality codec from On2 as well as 360′ × 360′ images useful for real estate.
. two other players deserve mention. Real Networks offers a free and a Plus version of RealPlayer. full-motion. The ﬁle folder icon allows a user to control how much information can be stored on the user’s computer.Software Solutions
Similar to Microsoft. with the leftmost icon displaying privacy settings. which are referred to as plug-ins by Microsoft. E-commerce. and hospitality organizations from IPIX.
A second media viewer that warrants attention is the Macromedia Flash Player. which are not compatible with Windows Media Player and QuickTime. Figure 7.com and Yahoo News. RealPlayer and RealPlayer Plus support RAM ﬁle types. travel. The basic RealPlayer supports all major media formats and supports the transfer of music to more than 100 portable devices. support the use of the Macromedia Flash Player.3 Other Media Players
In addition to Microsoft’s Windows Media Player and Apple Computer’s QuickTime and iTunes. Examples of components.
When IPTV enters the home on a DSL or ﬁber connection. For example. permitting remote gaming. Although a media player is not required to view video on a television. and supporting to be developed applications that are limited only by one’s imagination. the media player is required to view video only on a PC. allow many other features. it becomes possible for IPTV data
In this chapter we looked at two media players in detail and brieﬂ y discussed two additional players. it will primarily ﬂow to a set-top box. in addition. enabling video conference calls. combining the capabilities of media players with the display and audio capability of modern television. including displaying caller ID information. which will then distribute the selected channel via a home network to an applicable television located anywhere in the home that has a connection to the home network or to a TV directly connected to the box. In an IPTV environment.174
Figure 7. as PCs and TVs converge there exists the possibility that the media player will evolve to not only display video on televisions but.14 Viewing the ABC network hit Commander in Chief using Macromedia’s Flash Player.
Thus. convergence of PC and TV technology along with a broadband Internet connection offers the potential to alter the manner by which we view video as well as when and where we view video.
streams to be manipulated for the convenience of the consumer to include recording shows with less commercial breaks on a network drive available for viewing on any television in a home connected to the home network.
let’s focus on the true meaning of each technology to obtain an appreciation for how they actually differ from one another. we will examine what we can consider to represent an evolving industry — television delivered via the Internet. most
. Although television delivered via the Internet represents IPTV. there are some signiﬁcant differences between the two that we will discuss in the ﬁrst section of this chapter. Although the two terms can be treated as synonyms. in reality they should be used to describe two different technologies. The Internet interface either takes selected station videotapes and converts them into a sequence of IP datagrams transporting. IPTV
When we talk about Internet television and IPTV we tend to treat them as synonymous terms because Internet television represents a stream of IP datagrams that delivers MPEG frames generated by a television station. examining how we can view television broadcasts on our PC from stations located around the world.Chapter 8
In concluding this book. In the second section we will turn our attention to Internet television. Thus.
Internet television refers to the broadcast of news. weather.1 Internet Television vs. and TV shows from television stations that add an Internet interface to their over-the-air broadcasts.
and high-speed Internet access to millions of homes. Now that we have an appreciation for the similarities and differences of Internet television and IPTV.178
commonly. or provides a “dawn-to-dusk” broadcast via the Internet of the station’s over-the-air transmission. Probably one of the most mentioned IPTV projects is Project Lightspeed initiated by SBC Communications (which acquired AT&T and assumed its name during 2006). at a high speed that enables subscribers with an applicable set-top box to view events on a television without buffering. including movies. video on demand (VOD). this industry has exhibited explosive growth to the point where hundreds of stations were available for viewing during 2006. Because media players support buffering of IP datagrams. such as Microsoft’s Windows Media Player. television. Video will be decoded by a set-top box and delivered either directly to a connected television or via a home network to a remote television. limits its support to one type of media player.
. a broadband connection to the Internet. Typically. we will conclude this chapter by examining the evolving industry represented by Internet television. an Internet television station.2 Internet Television
From a handful of television stations viewable via the Internet a few years ago. Thus. the term’s intended usage is to describe the transmission of video. or Real Networks’ RealPlayer. Project Lightspeed. Apple’s QuickTime Media Player.
8. and concerts. is not mandatory for viewing video. MPEG-2 frames. The media player supported provides the interface required to view the stream of IP datagrams on a desktop or laptop computer. which was described earlier in this book. although desirable. In this section we will look at a few individual Internet television sites as well as a Web site for connecting to and viewing tens of television stations located around the globe. represents a private IP network that will deliver television. let’s turn our attention to IPTV. which in effect represents a conventional television station that also broadcasts video via an Internet connection. the set-top box is an integral hardware component associated with IPTV whereas the media player represents an integral software component associated with Internet television viewing. Now that we have a general appreciation for Internet television.
Although IPTV can be viewed as Internet television. Viewing of station broadcasts on the Internet is accomplished via a media player.
This expansion caught the attention of such media companies as the Hearst Corporation.Internet Television
Internet television dates to the mid-1990s. consider NBC10.
. its Web sites use a mixture of video. and the McGraw-Hill Companies. the Washington Post.1 illustrates the home page of NBC10 from the morning of
Figure 8. Its ﬁrst television station Web site. www. text. The success of Channel 4000 became a model for expansion into additional markets.com enables visitors to view a video or read the top stories. Although Internet Broadcasting has achieved signiﬁcant success. which became partners of Internet Broadcasting. went online during 1996. Pennsylvania. founded the ﬁrm Internet Broadcasting.Channel4000. including becoming number one in TV news in 18 of the top 25 markets in the United States.com. Figure 8. when Reid Johnson.1 The home page of NBC10. a 20-year veteran of the television news business. By 2000. For example. and images to present the news.com. Internet Broadcasting produced more than 70 television Web sites that cumulatively received more than 12 million unique visitors monthly. which is the Web site operated by Internet Broadcasting in Philadelphia.
movies. Currently. Thus. and comedy shows.
At approximately the same time Internet Broadcasting was placing television stations on the Web.180
April 18. over the Internet. including different types of video. NBC10 limits its support of video to Windows Media Player. the term was expanded to reference the electronic transmission of audio and video data over the Inter net in realtime in the form of streaming audio and video. read the story. because distant cable companies could negotiate deals that enabled television stations located in one area of the country to be carriers in a cable territory located in another portion of the country. Thus. and other forms of audio-visual entertainment. such as soap operas.
A conventional television station is limited by the FCC as to its broadcast power.
. Among the ﬁrst television stations to break the geographic barrier was WTBS in Atlanta. other organizations began to realize the potential of broadcasting movies and television shows. Later. 2006. the term “Webcasting” evolved. which is the manner by which television stations obtain the majority of funds for their operation. under the “News” column on the left portion of the Web page visitors can select the “Video” entry. the conventional television station can be considered to be limited to a speciﬁc geographic market. or view images. In an Internet environment it becomes possible for television stations to become “global super stations” because any user connected to the Internet via an applicable high-speed connection becomes capable of viewing the features of the site. This limitation affects advertising. which will result in the display of a series of videos by pr edeﬁned category. Thus. this newly expanded deﬁnition included music videos. The development of satellites allowed television stations to br eak their former geographic barrier. A user can elect to watch a video of the top story. it also becomes possible for television stations to expand their advertising base to national and international companies. As other companies developed Web sites to broadcast video. news. This term was initially used to reference the broadcasting of television programs. which became known as a “super station” due to the large number of cable companies that carry its programming. In addition.
is the foreign television Webcaster accountable for copyright infringement under U. Now that we have an appreciation for the evolution of Internet television and some of its legal issues.Internet Television
Although the transmission of television Webcasting may appear to be simple. rulings indicate that copyright infringement occurs when U. you will need to run an ActiveX control. Currently. you will note a number to the left of each television station entry. including England’s BBC News. some legal issues must be considered. Those legal issues are associated with copyrighted material. Looking at Figure 8.2.S. Here. “Q time” identiﬁes Apple Computer’s QuickTime Media Player.
Internet Television Portals
One of the more recent developments in the wonderful world of Internet television is the establishment of portals that provide users with access to hundreds of Internet television stations located around the globe. To the right of the station entry you will see the word “Real. law? Although some initial U. will result in Windows Media
. citizens located in the United States view copyrighted television programming originated in a foreign jurisdiction.com Web site will prompt you with an applicable message that. and “Media” identiﬁes Microsoft’s Windows Media Player. Canada’s CBC. Through the BeelineTV. whose home page is shown in Figure 8. “Real” identiﬁes Real Networks’ RealPlayer. you encounter more than 35 stations listed under the “English TV” category.” or “Media. Another question that warrants consideration occurs when a foreign television station obtains foreign rights to programming produced in the United States and allows Internet users in the United States to view such programming. When a television station offers such programming to Internet users. One such portal is BeelineTV. the appeals process may require several years until this issue is fully resolved. The BeelineTV. AFTV Movie Classics and NASA TV.com Web site you can view television stations located in more than 20 countries.2.” “Q time. a key question is whether the station is now violating its licensing and distribution agreement. and from the United States. To view certain stations using Windows Media Player.” which identiﬁes the type of media player required for viewing the station’s streaming media. let’s turn our attention to television portals.com. when accepted.S. That number identiﬁes the Internet connection (in kilobits per second) required to view streaming video from the station. When this occurs.S. most programming has licensing and distribution agreements that may be applicable to a geographic area or a country. If you scroll down the site’s home page.
Depending on the media player’s codec. As more users begin to view video over the Internet.2 From the BeelineTV. it will look awkward when switching to a larger screen size. However.
Although BeelineTV. Figure 8. there is an H. if your media player supports MPEG-4. broadband video content from major news
.3 illustrates the window that opened after this author selected the AFTV sci-ﬁ/horror station. Note that from the new window in which the programming is displayed you have the option of viewing the channel schedule and doubling the screen size.182
Figure 8. it may or may not be a good idea to increase the screen size or change the view to full-screen mode.com and other portals provide access to a large amount of free content. If your codec supports MPEG-2 and the station transmits streaming video in a lowresolution format.264 movie station you can access to view movies on a full-screen basis with very good clarity. we can reasonably expect more stations to offer MPEG-4 streaming video and media players to eventually support the technology by default.
Player opening in a separate window.com Web site you can access more than 100 Internet television stations.
some portals now charge a monthly or annual fee to view hundreds of stations.4 illustrates the home page of this
Individual Internet Stations
In addition to the use of a portal.
stations and other stations can be viewed only via a subscription service. which enables users to view press brieﬁngs and various scientiﬁc-related clips without cost.com). the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Web site provides a link to NASA TV. A second example of Internet television viewing is Israel National TV (URL: www.3 Viewing an AFTV sci-ﬁ/horror station broadcast on the Internet. you can dir ectly access various Internet television sites that may or may not be available for access via a portal. Thus. For example. Figure 8. As the industry matures it will be interesting to observe the difference in the growth of advertiser-supported Internet television versus subscription-based Internet television.israelnationaltv.Internet Television
Figure 8. including subscription-only stations.
As more capable codecs are added to media players.3 Summary
Today we are at the start of a revolution concerning the manner by which we access and view television stations connected to the Internet.264-compatible streaming media. Internet television will join the ranks of other types of entertainment that on a daily basis compete for our attention. This site envelopes Windows Media Player with a series of selections and text-based news.com. As this occurs. Note that you can choose to view news. which illustrates how stations can tailor a media player to satisfy their operational requirements.
. evolving technology will change this situation for the better. and Internet television stations convert to H. higher speed Internet access becomes more economical and available. Although current Internet connection speeds and media player capabilities make most Internet television viewing feel similar to viewing a modern television show on a TV set produced during the 1960s. interviews. and other types of video as well as purchase programming.
Web site.4 The home page of IsraelNationalTV.
8. we can reasonably expect its use to signiﬁcantly increase.184
11g 131–132.11 130 802. 51. 36–37. 120–122 AOL 39 Apple Computer 4. 30–32.11b 130–132 802. 178 AWG 116
Beeline TV 181–182 Bell South 22–23. 80 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (see ADSL. 136 Codec delay 42 Coding gain 27 Color hue 55
. 22–23. 165–173 APON 34 Archive server 148–149 Archos 3 ARP 86 Aspect ratio 59–60. 12–13. 15. 30–32. 31 B-frame coding 74–74.144 802. 122–124 Carrierless amplitude phase (see CAP) CBS 38 Cell phone transmission 40 Channel 4000 179–180 Chrominance 46. 64. 37. 23. 66 Cinema Now 3 Cisco Systems 2–3. 19. 38. ADSL2) ATM PON (see APON)
Cable TV operation 9–10. 46–47. 132 ADSL2 25–28.11a 130–132. 132 ADSL2+ 28–32. 10. 105–106 Business TV to desktop 13
Access network 19 Active components 31 Address mask request message 99 Address mask reply message 99 Address resolution protocol (see ARP) ADSL 19.144–145 802.11n 131–132 AT&T 6–7. 78 Billing and management server 150–151 Blockbuster 3 BPON 34–35 British Telcom Laboratories 31 Broadband access 36 Broadband PON (see BPON) Broadcast server 146–147 Broadcast transmission 18. 43 CAP 24. 140. 132 American National Standards Institute (see ANSI) American Wire Gauge (see AWG) Analog television 49–56 ANSI 25.Index
10 Base-5 118 802.
992. 168–170 Financial comparison 8–9 FiOS TV 7 Flash player 173–174 Fragmentation 89–90 Frame rate 80 FSAG 34 FSAN 117 FTTB 32. 126 FTTC 31.3 standard 25 G. 23. 23 Full Service Access Group (see FSAG) Full Service Access Network (see FSAN)
Gigabit Ethernet PON (see GPON) GPON 35 G. 95–99 Information request message 98–99
. 36 DSLAM 146 DVD decoder plug-ins 161–162 Dynamic ports 101–102
Fiber-to-the-curb (see FTTC) Fiber-to-the-exchange (see FTTEx) Fiber-to-the-home (see FTTH) Fiber-to-the-neighborhood (see FTTN) Fiber-to-the-premise (see FTTP) File format 155–156. 40 Component video 53 Composite video 53–55 Constellation size 122 Convergence 42–44 Corporate communications 14 Cox communications 40
Data link layer 86–87 Destination unreachable message 96–97 Deutsche Telecom 31 Dial-up delays 36 Digital Subscriber Line (see DSL) Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (see DSLAM) Digital television 57–63 Digital television formats 60–61 Digital video server 147 Discrete cosine transform 65. 164
Fiber-to-the-building (see FTTB) Fiber-to-the-cabinet (see FTTCb)
ICMP 88. 159. 30–31. 126 FTTCb 125 FTTEx 124–125 FTTH 126–127 FTTN 6. 126 FTTP 6.264 81–83.186
Color saturation 55 Color reference burst 54 Colorspace conversion 66 Comcast 38. 30–35. Plan 998)
Ham band notching 119–120 HDTV 221. 23.1 standard 23–24 G.2 standard 25 G.992.4 standard 25
Echo request 96 Echo reply 96 EDTV 60–62 Enhanced deﬁnition television (see EDTV) EPON 34–35 Ethernet-based PON (see EPON) ETSI Plan 997 118–119 ETSI Plan 998 118–119 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (see ETSI Plan 997.992. 63 DSL 10.dmt 23–24 G. 72 H. 122–124 Dolby 60.992. 60–63 Headend server 146 High deﬁnition television (see HDTV) Home network 19. 45. 128–134 Horizontal line sync pulse 54 Hotzone 15 Huffman coding 65.bis 25 G.lite 25 G. 45. 68–70 Discrete multitone (see DMT) Distance learning 13–14 DMT 24–25.lite. 46–47.
45 On–Demand video 12 ONU 32–33.146.59–60
OLT 32–33.6. 50–51. 64–83 Luminance 46. 73–74 Internet 1–2 Internet Control Message Protocol (see ICMP) Internet television 177–184 Internet television portals 181–182 Intra-frame coding 72–73 iPOD 4.77–81. 53.143–145. 38.146 MPEG4 17.138–140. 12. 114
PAL 50. 166 IP address ﬁelds 91–92 IP datacast 40 IP datagram 87–88 IPTV Applications 11–16 Deﬁnition 1 Delivery 105–110 Features 10–11 Home network 129–133 Impact 19–20 Market drivers 21–28 Network elements 16–20 Potential impact 16–20 TC/IP protocol suite 85–115 Television 177–184 IP/TV 2 IP video 3 IPv4 Reader 87–92 Israel National TV 183–184 iTunes 4. 12–13. 66
Mean time between failure (see MTBF) Media center 143–144 Media center extender 144–145 Messenger program 15 MGM 4 Microsoft 3.55 Parameter problem message 98 Paramount 4 Passive components 31 Passive optical network (see PON) Pay-TV 35–41 Phase Alternating Line (see PAL) Physical layer 86–87 Picture luminance 54 Picture scanning 59 Pixels 56–57 Playlist 155–156.107.Index
Information reply message 98–99 Interlaced 51.140 Movie link 3–4 MPEG1 64–77.107–109.160 PON 31–35 Port numbers 101–103 Powerline Alliance 131–132 Private IP–based network utilization 4–5
Last mile 19. MPEG4) Motorola 136. 115–135 Lossless compression 45–46 Lossy compression 45–46. 166–172
Mobile phone television 14–15 Motion compensation 71 Motion estimation 70–71 Motion picture expert group (see MEG1.45 Optical line terminator (see OLT) Optical Network unit (see ONU)
Jitter buffer 85.107 MPEG1 audio 76–77 MPEG2 17.166 MTBF 31–32 Multicast transmission 17–18
NAT 104–105 National Television Systems Committee (see NTSC) NBC 38 Network address translation (see NAT) Network layer 88 NTSC 50–55. MPEG2. 15. 64.154–165
. 59 Inter-frame coding 71.
55 Sequential Couleur a Memoire (see SECAM) Servers 145–151 Service provider network 18–19
. 99–104 UDP/raw 108–109 UDT/RTP 108–109 Unicast transmission 18 Universal 4 User datagram protocol (see UDP)
SBC Communications (see AT&T) Scanning 51–52 Scientiﬁc Atlanta 136.46. 181–182
RAID 148–150 Raw UDP 88 RBOC 22–23. 32–33. 132 VDSL alliance 122–123 Verizon 7.43 Real Player 220.127.116.11.63 Source quench message 97 Sprint Nextel Corporation 40 Standard deﬁnition television (see SDTV) Stored replay video 85 Subsampling 66–67 Subnet mask 94–95 Subnetting 93–95 Symbol rate 122 Synchronization 60 Synchronous digital hierarchy (see SDH) Synchronous optical network (see SONET)
Talegent 142 TCP 86.30–31. 116–124.99–104 Telephone company landline erosion 22–28 Time exceeded message 98 Timeshift broadcast server 150 Time stamp request message 98 Time stamp reply message 98 Time-to-live 90 Time Warner 40 Transmission control protocol (see TCP) Transport layer 86–87.23. 140 SDH 120 SDTV 21.99–105
Progressive scanning 59 Project Lightspeed 6–7.123 QoS 43 Quadrature amplitude modulation (see QAM) Quantization 67–68 Quantization error 68 Quality of service (see QoS) Quicktime 165–173.123–124 Sigma Designs 141–142 Signal to noise ratio (see S/N ratio) S/N ratio 122 SONET 120 Sony Pictures 4 Sound 60.178 Public IP-based network utilization 2–3
QAM 24.173 Real time protocol (see RTP) Real time video 85 Real time transport control protocol (see RTCP) Reed–Solomon coding 26–28 Reference black level 54 Regional Bell Operating Company (see RBOC) Registered ports 102–103 Reserved IPv4 network address 104–105 Resolution 57–58 Royal Philips Electronics 140 RTCP 113–114 RTP 108–113
Set-top boxes 135–142 Shannon’s Law 27–28.60–61 SECAM 50.
181–182 Windows Media Player 9 154–157 Windows Media Player 10 157–165 Wired Ethernet 130 Wireless Ethernet 19.55 Very-high-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (see VDSL) Video chat 15–16 Video compression 45–48 Video content 2–3 Video decoder checkup utility 162–163 Video distribution network 44–48 Video headend 16–18 Video-on-demand 107.138–139.21–22
Warner Brothers 4.147–148 Video-on-demand server 147–148 Video sequencing 79 Voice coding standards 42 Voice over Internet Protocol (see VoIP) VoIP 5.39 Webcasting 180–182 Well known ports 102 Windows Media Player 4.Index
Vertical sync pulse 55 Vertical synchronization 51.130–131