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CA

# CA

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Published by: Ritvik Dobriyal on Feb 27, 2012

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# Continuous Assignment

Buckling is a structural instability. When the load is increased on a structure a stage is reach when it can be taken in two possible ways, one undeformed state and another laterally deformed state. Buckling takes place when a structural element is subjected to a high compressive load. Usual example of bucking is when long slender columns get bent into a bow shape due to axial compressive loads. In buckling there is a sudden increase in lateral displacement as the applied load reaches a critical load. There is also a decrease in load carrying capacity. In some cases buckling may occur gradually but as the load approaches critical load lateral displacement increases rapidly. General equation of bending is given as EI d2v/dz2 = -PCRv. Where
2

= PCR/EI

Solution to this equation is given by the relation v=Acos z + Bsin z . Proper boundary conditions are applied and values of PCR are found out for non trivial solution of this equation.

Effect of initial imperfections
In practice it is impossible to get perfectly homogeneous structures and perfectly axially applied load with no eccentricity. Actual column may be bent with slight eccentricity in the applied load. Due to these imperfections, structures begin to bend immediately as the load is applied. The imperfections can be modelled in the following way. Let there be an initial bend in the column which can be written in the following way. V 0= z=L.  this is the Fourier series way of representing a function which is zero at z=0 and

Governing equation for this case becomes EI d2v/dz2 = -PCR (v+v0) General solution to this equation is given by the function v=Acos z + Bsin z + n z/L Where = 2L2/
2

n2An/(n2- )sin

or =PL2/ 2EI

Inserting proper boundary conditions depending upon the end conditions value of v can be found. Unlike the condition for perfect columns in this case solution for v can be found out by applying boundary conditions. In case of simply supported ends with v=0 at z=0 and z=L both A and B in the solution are zero and the solution becomes v= n2An/(n2- )sin n z/L.

Global and Local buckling
Global buckling is the condition in which the length of the buckle is of the same order of magnitude as the length of the structure. There is no change in cross section area during buckling. Generally solid and thick walled columns experience this type of buckling. In local buckling change in cross section area occurs. Length of the buckle is small and sometimes even comparable to the cross section dimensions of the structure. Usually thin walled columns and stiffened plated fail in this manner.

Effect of end conditions The differential equation describing the buckling of beam is formed and solved according to the end conditions. Here also the value of K is determined by the end conditions. The critical point. These end conditions determine the values of the constants in the solution. clamped or free. If the load exceeds the critical value. if it is slightly disturbed in the lateral direction then it will return back to the same straight condition. to the collapse of the column by buckling. The results are kept in a chart. The end condition can be simply supported.e. . Similarly for buckling of plates the general solution is of the form NCR=K 2/b2D. On increasing the load a critical load is reached when there exists one more equilibrium condition in which the structure is in a slightly deflected condition as compared to the initial. The exact solution for buckling of beams is in the form PCR = K 2/L2 EI in which the value of K is determined by the initial conditions. after which the deflections of the member become very large.Bifurcation Point For small loads structure is in the pre buckling state. It is in stable condition. the straight position is unstable and a slight disturbance leads to large displacements of the member and. is called the "bifurcation point" of the system. i. finally.

Continuous Assignment Plates and Shells Ritvik Dobriyal Msc Aerospace engineering .

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