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REVIEW ON COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM

LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR CRIMINOLOGISTS 2011


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By Rommel K. Manwong, Ph.D

INTRODUCTION
Policing is the most obvious and apparent aspect of the criminal justice system Police Systems around the world varied in terms of approach and practices in achieving police goals due to diversity of culture however similarities are placed on the purpose of their existence law enforcement, peace and order, crime prevention

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POLICE MODELS
Country - Canada Name: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Role - Federal, National & Paramilitary Police Force Size 15 divisions Nickname The Mounties Motto Maintiens le droit (Defend the law) Highest Rank Commissioner Lowest Rank Gendarme (Constable)

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Country JAPAN Name NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY (NPA) Oversight Agency NATIONAL PUBLIC SAFETY COMMISSION (NPSC) Local Police KOBAN SYSTEM Police box (Koban) Police Rank 9 divisions Highest Rank Superintendent General Lowest Rank Police Officer Military Police - Kempeitai

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Country United Kingdom (England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland) Historic Police Mandate Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 - England Robert Peel Father of Modern Policing Lowest Rank- Constable Highest Rank Commissioner Four Types of Law Enforcement 1. Territorial Police Forces - regulars 2. Special Police Forces selected duties 3. Non-Police Law Enforcement Agencies auxiliaries 4. Miscellaneous Police Forces for local activities

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WORLDWIDE POLICE RANKS


Australia Commissioned Ranks y Deputy Commissioner (two crossed batons below a pip) y Assistant Commissioner (two crossed batons) y Commander (three pips in a triangular pattern below a crown) y Superintendent (one pip below a crown) y Inspector (three pips) Senior Non-Commissioned Ranks y Senior Sergeant (three chevrons and laurel wreath) y Sergeant (three chevrons) Non-Commissioned Ranks y Senior Constable (two chevrons) y Constable (one chevron) y Probationary Constable (blank epaulette) Recruit

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Belgium Highest commissioned rank y Hoofdcommissaris / commisaire divisionnaire (Chief Commissioner) Commissioned rank y Commissaris / Commisaire (Commissioner) Senior non commissioned rank y Hoofdinspecteur / Inspecteur principal (Chief Inspector/Superintendent) Non commissioned rank y Inspecteur / Inspecteur (Inspector, equivalent to Constable or Officer) Auxiliary rank y Agent van Politie / Agent de Police (Auxiliary Officer)ba

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CANADA Ranks of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Commissioner Deputy Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Chief Superintendent Superintendent Inspector Corps Sergeant Major Sergeant Major Staff Sergeant Major Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Police Constable 1st Class (Gendarme) Police Constable 2nd Class (Gendarme) Police Constable 3rd Class (Gendarme) Police Constable 4th Class (Gendarme) Cadet

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China Commissioner General Deputy Commissioner General Commissioner 1st Class Commissioner 2nd Class Commissioner 3rd Class Supervisor 1st Class Supervisor 2nd Class Supervisor 3rd Class Superintendent 1st Class Superintendent 2nd Class Superintendent 3rd Class Constable 1st Class Constable 2nd Class

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Hong Kong Commissioner of Police (CP) Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP) Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (SACP) Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP) Chief Superintendent of Police (CSP) Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) Superintendent of Police (SP) Chief Inspector of Police (CIP) (insignia of a Captain) Senior Inspector of Police (SIP) Inspector of Police (IP) Probationary Inspector of Police (PI) Station Sergeant (SSGT) Sergeant (SGT) Senior Constable (SPC) Police Constable (PC)

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Iceland National Commissioner Vice National Commissioner, Police chief, Headmaster of the National Police School Vice Police Chief of Reykjavk, Deputy Police Chief Chief Constable Vice Chief Constable Chief Sergeant, Assistance Chief Constable Sergeant, Inquisitor Policeman Police Intern, Temporary Replacement Officer, District Police Officer

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India Ranks of Gazetted Officers Director Intelligence Bureau (post held by senior most Indian Police Service officer; not a rank) Commissioner of Police (State) or Director General of Police Special Commissioner of Police or Additional Director General of Police Joint Commissioner of Police or Inspector General of Police Additional Commissioner of Police or Deputy Inspector General of Police Deputy Commissioner of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police Deputy Commissioner of Police or Superintendent of Police Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police or Additional Superintendent of Police Assistant Commissioner of Police or Deputy Superintendent of Police Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 2 years of service) Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 1 year of service) Ranks of Non-Gazetted Officers Inspector of Police Sub-Inspector of Police Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police Police Head Constable Senior Police Constable Police Constable

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Indonesia High rank officers y Police General / Jenderal Polisi (Jend. Pol.) - equivalent General in the army y Police Commissioner General / Komisaris Jenderal Polisi (Komjen Pol.) - equivalent Lieutenant General y Police Inspector General / Inspektur Jenderal Polisi (Irjen Pol.) - equivalent Major General y Police Brigadier General / Brigadir Jenderal Polisi (Brigjen Pol.) - equivalent Brigadier General Mid rank officers y Police Great Commissioner / Komisaris Besar Polisi (Kombespol) - equivalent Colonel y Police Great Commissioner Adjutant / Ajun Komisaris Besar Polisi (AKBP) - equivalent Lieutenant Colonel y Police Commissioner / Komisaris Polisi (Kompol) - equivalent Major Low rank officers y Police Commissioner Adjutant / Ajun Komisaris Polisi (AKP) - equivalent Captain y First Police Inspector / Inspektur Polisi Satu (Iptu) - equivalent First Lieutenant y Second Police Inspector / Inspektur Polisi Dua (Ipda) - equivalent Second Lieutenant Warrant officers y First Police Inspector Adjutant / Ajun Inspektur Polisi Satu (Aiptu) - equivalent Chief Warrant Officer y Second Police Inspector Adjutant / Ajun Inspektur Polisi Dua (Aipda) - equivalent Warrant Officer Non-commissioned officers y Chief Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Kepala (Bripka) - equivalent Sergeant Major y Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi (Brigadir) - equivalent Chief Sergeant y First Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Satu (Briptu) - equivalent First Sergeant y Second Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Dua (Bripda) - equivalent Second Sergeant Enlisted y Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi (Abrip) - equivalent Chief Corporal y First Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Satu (Abriptu) - equivalent First Corporal y Second Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Dua (Abripda) - equivalent Second Corporal y Chief Bhayangkara / Bhayangkara Kepala (Bharaka) - equivalent Chief Private y First Bhayangkara / Bhayangkara Satu (Bharatu) - equivalent Private First Class y Second Bhayangkara / Bhayangkara Dua (Bharada) - equivalent Private

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Iraq Chief of Police (single bar, Crossed wreath & Star) Chief Superintendent (Crossed wreath & Star) Superintendent (Three stars) Chief Inspector (Bar, and two stars) Inspector (Bar, and one star) Captain (Two stars) Lieutenant (One star) Sergeant (Four bars) Patrolman (One bar)

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Ireland Commissioner Deputy Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Chief Superintendent Superintendent Inspector Sergeant Garda (equivalent to constable or police officer) Student Garda (a trainee who is not yet sworn) Reserve Garda (a sworn volunteer reservist with limited powers)

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Japan Commissioner General (Japanese: Keisatsu-ch Ch kan?): The Chief of National Police Agency. The rank outside. 1 capacity. Superintendent General (Keishi-s kan?): The Chief of Metropolitan Police Department. 1 capacity. Superintendent Supervisor (Keishi-kan?): Deputy Commissioner General, Deputy Superintendent General, The Chief of Regional Police Bureau, The Chief of Prefectural Police Headquarters, others. 38 capacity. Chief Superintendent (Keishi-ch ?): The Chief of Prefectural Police Headquarters. Senior Superintendent (Keishi-sei?): The Chief of Police Station. Superintendent (Keishi?): The Chief of Police Station. Police Inspector or Captain (Keibu?) Assistant Police Inspector or Lieutenant (Keibu-ho?) Police Sergeant (Junsa-buch ?) Senior Police Officer or Corporal (Junsa-ch ?): Honorary rank. Police officer, old Patrolman (Junsa?)

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South Korea Commissioner General : 1 capacity Chief Superintendent General : 5 capacity Senior Superintendent General Superintendent General Senior Superintendent Superintendent Senior Inspector Inspector Assistant Inspector Senior Police Officer Police Officer y Newly commissioned officer is appointed as Policeman Assistant for two years in probationship. The uniform and insignia of an assistant is identical to those of Policeman.

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Macau Supterintendent General Supterintendent Intendent Sub-Intendent Commissioner Sub-Commissioner Chief Sub-Chief 1st Class Guard 2nd Class Guard Guard

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Malaysia (Royal Malaysian Police) Inspector General Grade y Inspector General of Police [IGP]: National Chief Police. y Deputy Inspector General of Police [DIG]: Deputy National Chief Police. y Commissioner of Police [CP] Department Chief Police y Deputy Commissioner of Police [DCP] : State Chief Police Officer [CPO] y Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police I [SAC I] y Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police II [SAC II]: State Division Chief y Assistant Commissioner of Police [ACP]: District Chief Police. Superintendent Grade y Superintendent of Police [SUPT] y Deputy Superintendent of Police [DSP]: District Division Chief y Assistant Superintendent of Police [ASP]: Station Chief Police. Inspector Grade y Chief Inspector [C/INSP] y Inspector [INSP] y Probationary Inspector [P/INSP] Enlisted Grade y Sub-Inspector [S/INSP] y Sergeant Major [SM] y Sergeant [SGT] y Corporal [CPL] y Lance Corporal [L/CPL] y Constable Bukit Aman - HQ

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Netherlands Chief Constable (Hoofdcommissaris) Commissioner (Commissaris) Superintendent (Hoofdinspecteur) Inspector (Inspecteur) Sergeant (Brigadier) Constable First Class (Hoofdagent) Constable (Agent) Police Patrol Officer (Surveillant) Police Trainee (Aspirant)

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Philippines Commissioned officers Director General (DGen.) - General Deputy Director General (DDG) - Lieutenant General

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Director (Dir.) - Major General Chief Superintendent (C/Supt.) - Brigadier General Senior Superintendent (S/Supt.) - Colonel Superintendent (Supt.) - Lieutenant Colonel Chief Inspector (C/Insp.) - Major Senior Inspector (S/Insp.) - Captain Inspector (Insp.) - Lieutenant Note: Rank in Italics is the Army equivalent. There is no Second Lieutenant rank-equivalent in the PNP. Non-commissioned officers Senior Police Officer IV (SPO4) - Senior Master Sergeant / Chief Master Sergeant Senior Police Officer III (SPO3) - Master Sergeant Senior Police Officer II (SPO2) - Technical Sergeant Senior Police Officer I (SPO1) - Staff Sergeant Police Officer III (PO3) - Sergeant Police Officer II (PO2) - Corporal Police Officer I (PO1) - Private First Class Note: Rank in Italics is the Army equivalent. There is no Private rank-equivalent in the PNP.

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Romania Commissioned ranks (Corpul ofi erilor de poli ie, Police Officers Corps) y General-Commissioner (Chestor-general, Quaestor-General) y Chief-Commissioner (Chestor- ef, Chief-Quaestor) y Principal Commissioner (Chestor principal, Principal Quaestor) y Commissioner (Chestor, Quaestor) y Chief Superintendent (Comisar- ef, Chief Commissioner) y Superintendent (Comisar, Commissioner) y Assistant Superintendent (Subcomisar, Sub-Commissioner) y Chief Inspector (Inspector principal, Principal Inspector) y Inspector (Inspector) y Sub-Inspector (Subinspector) Non-commissioned ranks (Corpul agen ilor de poli ie, Police Agents Corps) y Senior Sergeant (Agent- ef principal, Principal Chief Agent) y Senior Sergeant (Agent- ef, Chief Agent) y Sergeant (Agent- ef adjunct, Deputy Chief Agent) y Senior Constable (Agent principal, Principal Agent) y Constable (Agent)

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Singapore Senior police officers y Commissioner of Police [CP] y Deputy Commissioner of Police [DCP] y Senior Assistant Commissioner [SAC] y Assistant Commissioner [AC] y Deputy Assistant Commissioner [DAC] y Superintendent of Police [SUPT] y Deputy Superintendent of Police [DSP] y Assistant Superintendent of Police [ASP] y Inspector of Police [INSP] Police officers y Senior Station Inspector (2) of Police [SSI2] y Senior Station Inspector of Police [SSI] y Station Inspector of Police [SI] y Senior Staff Sergeant [SSSGT] y Staff Sergeant [SSGT] y Sergeant [SGT] y Corporal [CPL] y Lance Corporal [LC]: Gurkha rank y Special constable [SC]: non regulars y Police Constable [PC]: obsolete regular rank

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Sri Lanka Gazetted Officers Inspector General of Police (IGP) Senior Deputy Inspector General of police (SDIG) Deputy Inspector General of police (DIG) Senior Superintendent of police (SSP) Superintendent of police (SP) Assistant Superintendent of police (ASP) Chief Inspector of police (CIP) Inspector of police (IP) Sub Inspector of police (SI) Non-Gazetted Officers Police Sergeant Major (PSM) Police Sergeant Class 1 (PS) Police Sergeant Class 2 (PS) Police Constable Class 1 (PC) Police Constable Class 2 (PC) Police Constable Class 3 (PC)

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South Africa (South African Police Service - SAPS) National Commissioner Deputy National Commissioner Divisional Commissioner or Provincial Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Director Senior Superintendent Superintendent Captain Inspector Sergeant Constable Student

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Spain Cuerpo Nacional de Polica Chief Superintendent (Spanish: Comisario Principal) Superintendent (Comisario) Chief Inspector (Inspector Jefe) Inspector Sergeant (Subinspector) Corporal (Official) Constable (Agente) Guardia Civil - Civil Guard Lieutenant General (Teniente General) Division General (General de Divisin) Brigade General (General de Brigada) Colonel (Coronel) Lieutenant Colonel (Teniente Coronel) Major (Comandante) Captain (Capitn) Lieutenant (Teniente) Second Lieutenant (Alfrez) Senior Warrant Officer (Suboficial Mayor) Junior Warrant Officer (Subteniente) Sergeant first class (Brigada) Staff Sergeant (Sargento Primero) Sergeant (Sargento) Master Corporal (Cabo Mayor) Corporal (Cabo Primero) Lance Corporal (Cabo) Constable first class (Agente de 1) Constable (Agente)

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Taiwan (The Republic of China) Police Supervisor General Police Supervisor Rank One Police Supervisor Rank Two Police Supervisor Rank Three Police Supervisor Rank Four Police Officer Rank One Police Officer Rank Two Police Officer Rank Three Police Officer Rank Four Police Rank One Police Rank Two Police Rank Three Police Rank Four

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Thailand (Royal Thai Police) Commissioned officers Police General (phon tamruat ek) Police Lieutenant General (phon tamruat tho) Police Major General (phon tamruat tri) Police Brigadier General (not in use now) (phon tamruat jattawa) Police Senior Colonel (equivalent to Police Brigadier General) (phan tamruat ek phiset) Police Colonel (phan tamruat ek) Police Lieutenant Colonel (phan tamruat tho) Police Major (phan tamruat tri) Police Captain (roi tamruat ek) Police Lieutenant (roi tamruat tho) Police Sub-Lieutenant (roi tamruat tri) Non-commissioned officers Police Senior Sergeant Major (dap tamruat) Police Sergeant Major (ja sip tamruat) Police Sergeant (sip tamruat ek) Police Corporal (sip tamruat tho) Police Lance Corporal (sip tamruat tri) Policeman/Constable (phon tamruat)

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Turkey (Emniyet Genel Mdrl - Turkish Police) Director General (Emniyet Genel Muduru) 1st Degree Police Chief (1. Sinif Emniyet Muduru) 2nd Degree Police Chief (2. Sinif Emniyet Muduru) 3rd Degree Police Chief (3. Sinif Emniyet Muduru) 4th Degree Police Chief (4. Sinif Emniyet Muduru) Superintendent (Emniyet Amiri) Chief Inspector (Baskomiser) Inspector (Komiser) Sub-Inspector (Komiser Yardimcisi) Police Officer (Turkish: Polis Memuru)

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United Kingdom United Kingdom police ranks (up to Chief Superintendent) Rank Police Constable Sergeant

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Inspector Chief Inspector Superintendent Chief Superintendent

United Kingdom police ranks (chief officers) County police force rank Assistant Chief Constable Deputy Chief Constable Chief Constable City of London Police rank Commander Assistant Commissioner Commissioner Metropolitan Police rank Commander Deputy Assistant Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Deputy Commissioner Commissioner

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United States Chief of police/police commissioner/superintendent/sheriff Deputy Chief of police/Deputy Commissioner/Deputy Superintendent/undersheriff Inspector/commander/colonel Major/deputy inspector Captain Lieutenant Sergeant Detective/Inspector/Investigator Officer/Deputy Sheriff/corporal

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Columbia Chief of Police (4 Star General) Executive Assistant Chief 3 star Assistant Chief Commander Inspector Captain Lieutenant Sergeant Master Patrol Officer Patrol Officer First Class Patrol Officer / Detective

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Cambodia HQ Phnom Phen


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Brazil Meaning of Provost Military Police


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