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48432860-MicrowaveMeasurements

48432860-MicrowaveMeasurements

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Published by Pankaj Kumar

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Published by: Pankaj Kumar on Feb 27, 2012
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01/13/2013

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Precision air-dielectric coaxial transmission lines (or, air lines, for short) can be
used as reference devices, or standards, for impedance measurements at RF and
microwavefrequencies. (Thetermimpedanceisusedheretoimply awiderangeof

Connectors, air lines and RF impedance 189

electrical quantities, such as S-parameters, impedance and admittance parameters,
VSWR,andreturnloss.) Thisincludestheuseof airlinesascalibrationandverifica-
tion standardsfor measuring instrumentssuch asvector network analysers(VNAs)
[40].For example,VNA calibrationschemes,suchasThru-Reflect-Line(TRL) [41]
and Line-Reflect-Line (LRL) [42], use air lines as standards to achieve very high
accuracy impedancemeasurement capabilities. Thisisthemethodcurrently usedto
realise the UK primary national standard for impedance quantities [43] at RF and
microwavefrequencies(typically, from 45 MHz and above). Similarly, verification
schemesdeterminingtheresidual systematicerrorsinacalibratedVNA [44] useair
linesasthereferencedevices,andthesemethodsarecurrentlyendorsedbyorganisa-
tionsinvolvedintheaccreditationofmeasurement,suchastheEuropeanco-operation
for Accreditation(EA) [45].
Thissectiondescribesthedifferenttypesof airlinethatareavailableandreviews
theiruseasstandardsof characteristicimpedanceand/orphasechange.Consideration
isalsogivenfor theeffectscausedby imperfectionsintheconductorsusedtorealise
theseair lines.

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