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02 18 03 B2B RF Spectrum Analysis Thomas Holmes Hightower 839

02 18 03 B2B RF Spectrum Analysis Thomas Holmes Hightower 839

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Published by: Shadab Ahmed on Feb 27, 2012
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05/06/2014

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Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower

Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Agenda
• Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements • Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware • Frequency Specifications • Questions and Answers break • Amplitude Specifications • Summary • Questions and Answers break
Page 2

Learning Objectives
• Name the major measurement strengths of a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer • Explain the importance of frequency resolution, sensitivity, and dynamic range in making analyzer measurements • Outline the procedure making accurate distortion measurements

Page 3

Overview: What is Spectrum Analysis?

8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER

9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

Page 4

Types of Tests Made
.

Modulation Modulation Noise Noise Distortion Distortion

Page 5

Frequency Versus Time Domain Amplitude (power) f y enc requ ti m e Time domain Measurements Page 6 Frequency Domain Measurements .

Fourier Spectrum Analyzer Fourier analyzer transforms a signal over time into a frequency spectrum Display Amplitude f1 Page 7 f2 Frequency .

Swept-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer Filter “sweeps” over a frequency range Display Amplitude f1 Page 8 f2 Frequency f .

Agenda • Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements • Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware • Frequency Specifications • Questions and Answers break • Amplitude Specifications • Summary • Questions and Answers break Page 9 .

Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram RF Input Attenuator Input Filter Local Oscillator Frequency Reference Page 10 Mixer IF IF Gain Filter Log Amp Sweep Generator Detector Video Filter Display .

The Mixer: Key to a Wide Frequency MIXER Range Input RF IF LO fLO-fin 0 fLO fLO+fin 0 fin RF = Radio frequency LO = local oscillator IF = intermediate frequency Page 11 0 fLO .

Intermediate Frequency (IF) Filter IF FILTER Input • IF Bandwidth: also known as resolution bandwidth and RBW • Provides shape of frequency domain signal Page 12 Actual Displayed f f .

Detector Input DETECTOR Amplitude Values Displayed Positive detection: largest Negative detection: smallest Sample detection: last Page 13 .

Video Filter Input VIDEO FILTER Without video filtering Page 14 With video filtering .

Local Oscillator and Sweep Generator LO SWEEP GEN frequency LCD DISPLAY • Provides swept display Page 15 .

Input Attenuator and IF Gain Circuits RF INPUT ATTENUATOR IF GAIN • Protects input circuits • Calibrates signal amplitude • Keeps signal display position constant Page 16 .

Agenda • Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements • Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware • Frequency Specifications • Questions and Answers break • Amplitude Specifications • Summary • Questions and Answers break Page 17 .

What Spectrum Analyzer Specifications are Important? • • • • • • Frequency Range Frequency and Amplitude Accuracy Frequency Resolution Sensitivity Distortion Dynamic Range Page 18 .

Frequency Range Low frequencies for baseband and IF High frequencies for harmonics and beyond Page 19 .

fin = fIF Page 20 fLO+fin 0 frequency .Getting the Frequency Range You Need 1 IF signal. fif 1 fin LO Mixer 2 3 fLO-fin 3 2 0 LO Range fif 0 fin Range fLO The input signal is displayed when fLO .

Getting the Frequency Range You Need LO Feedthrough 3 fLO fLO-fin fLO+fin fif 1 0 fin Range 2 0 Page 21 fin IF filter LO Sweep generator LO Range 4 0 Display .

Getting the Frequency Range You Need Input signal displayed fLO .fin = fIF 1 0 fin Range 2 0 Page 22 3 fLO-fin fLO fLO+fin fif fin fin LO 4 0 LO Range .

Getting the Frequency Range You Need • Lower frequency limited by LO feedthrough • Upper frequency limited by LO range and IF frequency • Microwave frequency measurement uses harmonic mixing Page 23 .

Frequency and Amplitude Accuracy Absolute Amplitude in dBm Relative Amplitude in dB Frequency Relative Frequency Page 24 .

Frequency and Amplitude Accuracy •Frequency accuracy: −Internal/external frequency reference −Use of internal counter •Amplitude accuracy: −Not as good as a power meter −Dependent upon measurement procedure −Excellent relative measurements Page 25 .

Signal Resolution What Determines Resolution? Resolution Bandwidth Residual FM RBW Type and Selectivity Page 26 Noise Sidebands .

IF Filter Bandwidth Mixer Input Spectrum LO 3 dB BW 3 dB Detector IF Filter/ Resolution Bandwidth Filter (RBW) Sweep RBW Display Page 27 .

Resolving Two Equal-level Signals 10 kHz RBW 3 dB 10 kHz Page 28 .

Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals •3 dB bandwidth •Selectivity (filter shape) 3 dB 3 dB BW 60 dB 60 dB BW Selectivity = Page 29 3 dB BW 60 dB BW .

5 kHz Page 30 . • …so the filter skirt is 7.5 kHz away from the filter’s center frequency 10 kHz 60 dB Distortion 7.. the 60 dB bandwidth is 15 x 1 kHz = 15 kHz..Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals • For a RBW of 1 kHz and a selectivity of 15:1.

Residual FM Residual FM "Smears" the Signal Page 31 .

Noise Sidebands (Phase Noise) Phase Noise Noise Sidebands can prevent resolution of unequal signals Page 32 .

Sweep Rate Swept too fast Penalty For Sweeping Too Fast Is An Uncalibrated Display Page 33 .

Analog versus Digital Resolution Bandwidths Typical Selectivity Analog 15:1 Digital 5:1 Analog Filter Digital Filter RES BW 100 Hz SPAN 3 kHz Page 34 .

video bandwidth.Rules to Analyze By: Use the Analyzer’s Automatic Settings Whenever Possible • When using the analyzer in its preset mode. check for “uncal” messages Page 35 . and accurate • Automatic selection of resolution bandwidth. most measurements will be easy. fast. sweep time and input attenuation • When manually changing the analyzer parameters.

Are There Any Questions? .

Agenda • Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements • Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware • Frequency Specifications • Questions and Answers break • Amplitude Specifications • Summary • Questions and Answers break Page 37 .

Page 38 .Sensitivity and Displayed Average Noise Level RF Input Mixer RES BW Filter LO Detector Sweep A spectrum analyzer generates and amplifies noise just like any active circuit.

RF Input Attenuator Effects Displayed noise is a function of RF input attenuation signal level 10 dB Attenuation = 20 dB Attenuation = 10 dB Signal-to-noise ratio decreases as RF input attenuation is increased Page 39 .

IF Filter (Resolution Bandwidth) Effects Decreased BW = Decreased Noise Displayed noise is a function of IF filter bandwidth 10 dB 10 dB 100 kHz RBW 10 kHz RBW 1 kHz RBW Best sensitivity = narrowest RBW Page 40 .

Video Bandwidth Effects Video BW smoothes noise for easier identification and measurement of lowlevel signals Page 41 .

Sensitivity .2 dB .the smallest signal that can be measured Signal equals noise Page 42 ~2.

Rules to Analyze By: Getting the Best Sensitivity Requires Three Settings • • • Narrowest resolution bandwidth Minimum RF attenuation Sufficient video filter to smooth noise (VBW < 0.01 Resolution BW) Page 43 .

Where is Distortion Generated? Mixers Generate Distortion Resulting signal Signal to be measured Frequency translated signals Mixer-generated distortion Page 44 .

Most Influential Distortion is the Second and Third Order < -50 dBc < -40 dBc < -50 dBc Two-Toned Intermod Harmonic Distortion Page 45 .

the 2nd changes 2 dB and the 3rd changes 3 dB. Page 46 .Distortion Increases as a Function of the Fundamental’s Power 2nd 3rd Fundamental Harmonic Harmonic ∆ =1 dB Power in dB ∆=2 dB ∆=3 dB 3f f 2f For every dB fundamental level change.

a graphical solution is practical.How Distortion Amplitudes Change ∆ =1 dB 1 dB/dBfund ∆=2 dB 2 dB/dBfund ∆=3 dB f 2f 3f Since distortion changes relative to the fundamental. Page 47 .

dBm Page 48 .Plotting Distortion as a Function of Third Order Mixer Level 0 Intercept . dBc -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -60 Second Order Third Order -30 0 +5 +30 Power at the mixer = Input level minus the attenuator setting.TOI . Distortion.

at least some of the distortion is being generated inside the analyzer (internal) .Rules to Analyze by: A Simple Distortion Test Is the distortion from the signal or from the analyzer? 1 Change Input Attenuation by 10 dB RF INPUT ATTENUATOR 2 IF GAIN Watch Signal on Screen: No change in amplitude distortion is part of input signal (external) Page 49 Change in amplitude .

Dynamic Range Optimum Amplitude Difference Between Large and Small Signals Dynamic Range Page 50 .

Displayed Noise Limits Dynamic Range 0 Distortion. . dBm Page 51 -60 . dBc -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 1 kHz RBW Displayed average noise level can be plotted like distortion. Noise at 10 kHz RBW -30 0 +30 Power at the mixer = Input level minus the attenuator setting.

Page 52 .Dynamic Range as a Function of Distortion and Noise Level Distortion and Signalto-Noise. dBc 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -30 0 +30 Power at the mixer = Input level minus the attenuator setting. . dBm -60 Maximum 2nd Order Dynamic Range Maximum 3rd Order Dynamic Range .

dBc/Hz Sideb and N oise Dynamic Range Limited By Distortion and Displayed Noise Displayed Noise Level 100 kHz to 1 MHz Page 53 .Close-in Dynamic Range Limited by Noise Sidebands Dynamic Range Limited By Noise Sidebands.

Rules to Analyze by: Determining Dynamic Range Your spectrum analyzer’s dynamic range is dependent upon: • Internal second and/or third order distortion • Displayed noise level • Noise sidebands when close to large signals Page 54 .

Dynamic Range is Defined by Your Application +30 dBm Maximum Power Level +10 dBm Mixer Compression Measurement Range 145 dB -35 dBm Third-order Distortion -45 dBm Second-order Distortion Signal/Noise Range 105 dB Third Order 0 dBc Noise Sidebands Distortion ~80 dB Second Order Noise Distortion Sidebands ~70 dB 60 dBc/1 kHz -115 dBm Displayed Noise (1 kHz RBW. 0 dB attenuation) Page 55 .

Summary • The RF spectrum analyzer is a heterodyne receiver • Offers a narrow resolution capability over a wide frequency range • Measures small signals in presence of large signals • Remember to: —Adjust the measurement procedure for specific application —Test for internal distortion —Take sideband noise into account Page 56 .

5 / 325 GHz Rugged/Portable Fast & Accurate Unparalled range of performance and application options.Swept Tuned PSA Series Highest performance SA! 3 Hz to 50 GHz Pre-selection to 50 GHz Worlds best accuracy (0. Remote WEB interface ESA-L Series 856X.Agilent Spectrum Analyzer Product Families .5 GHz General Purpose Rugged/Portable Fully synthesized Page 57 .EC Series Super Mid-Performance 30 Hz to 50 / 325 GHz Rugged/Portable Pre-selection to 50 GHz Color LCD Display Low Phase Noise Digital 1 Hz RBW Low cost 9 kHz up to 26. ESA-E Series Mid-Performance 30 Hz to 26.24dB) 160 RBW settings Phase noise optimization FFT or swept at any RBW Complete set of detectors Fastest spur search Vector signal analysis.

4 GHz Fast & Accurate Simple User Interface Base-band IQ inputs 89400 Series Flexible Signal Analysis DC to 2. Spectrum & Time (FFT) Analysis OFDM Analysis (802.Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer Product Families E4406A Multi-Format wireless capabilities 7 MHz . E4406A signal analyzers.11a) Links to design software (ADS) PC Based for the Ultimate in Connectivity Analysis software links to PSA. 40 MHz Baseband RF and modulation quality of digital communications signals including WLAN. ESA.0 GHz Bandwidth: 36 MHz RF. 89600 Ultra-wide bandwidth 500+ MHz Signal Bandwidth! 89600 Analysis Capability Low Cost Oscilloscope Front-end for “RF Scope” measurements Page 58 .65 GHz 10 MHz Signal Bandwidth Block Digital demodulation Integral Signal Source Spectrum & Time waveform Analysis Complex time varying signals Color LCD Display 89600 Series Multi-Format & Flexible vector signal analysis DC – 6.

Seminars and Tradeshows .Education and training courses .New product announcement .eSeminars Go To: www.FREE Agilent Email Updates Subscribe Today! Choose the information YOU want.Calibration .Manuals .Additional services Events and Announcement .agilent.Application and product notes .com/find/eseminar-email Page 59 .Technology information . Keep up to date on: Services and Support Information . Change your preferences or unsubscribe anytime.Firmware updates .

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