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MOLETRONICS- an invisible technology

Semiconductor integration beyond Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), through conventional electronic technology facing some problems with fundamental physical limitations. Beyond ULSI, a new technology may become competitive to semiconductor technology.This new technology is known as Molecular Electronics .Molecular based electronics can overcome the fundamental physical and economic issues limiting Si technology. Here, molecules will be used in place of semiconductor, creating electronic circuit small that their size will be measured in atoms. By using molecular scale technology, we can realize molecular AND gates, OR gates, XOR gates etc. The dramatic reduction in size, and the sheer enormity of numbers in manufacture, are the principle benefits promised by the field of molecular electronics.

INTRODUCTION Molecular electronics, one of the major fields of current efforts in nanoscience, involves the exploration of the electronic level structure, response and transport, together with the development of electronic devices and applications that depend on the properties of matter at the molecular scale. This includes single molecules, molecular arrays and molecular networks connected to other electronic components. Its major application areas include sensors, displays, smart materials,molecular motors, logic and memory devices, molecular scale transistors and energy transduction devices. Often molecular electronics is envisioned as the next step in device miniaturization. The importance of molecules in device applications stems not only from their electronic properties, but also from their ability to bind to one another, recognize each other, assemble into larger structures, and exhibit dynamical stereochemistry.

Molecular Electronics overview

Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e.g. resistive wires) or active (e.g. transistors)electronic components. The concept of molecular electronics has aroused much excitement both in science fiction and among scientists due to the prospect of size reduction in electronics offered by such minute components. It is an enticing alternative to extend Moore's Law beyond the foreseen limits of small-scale conventional silicon integrated circuits. As a result, molecular electronics is currently a very active research field. Among the important issues is the determination of the resistance of a single molecule (both theoretical and experimental). Another problem faced by this field is the difficulty to perform direct characterization since imaging at the molecular scale is often impossible History Study of charge transfer in molecules was advanced in the 1940s by Robert Mulliken and Albert Szent-Gyorgi in discussion of so-called "donor-acceptor" systems and developed the study of chargetransfer and energy transfer in molecules. Likewise, a 1974 paper from Mark Ratner and Avi Aviram 1 illustrated a theoretical molecular rectifier. Later, Aviram detailed a single-molecule field-effect transistor in 1988. Further concepts were proposed by Forrest Carter of the Naval Research Laboratory, including Apart from the single-molecule Aviram and Ratner proposal, logic gates. molecular electronics received in many experimental devices.

an initial boost from the experimental discovery of conducting polymers in the midseventies. Before this date, organic molecules (which form crystals or polymers) were considered insulating or at best weakly conducting semi-conductors. In 1974, McGinness, Corry, and Proctor reported the first molecular electronic device in the journal Science. As its active element, this voltage-controlled switch used melanin, an oxidized mixed polymer of polyacetylene, polypyrrole, and polyaniline. The "ON" state of this switch exhibited extremely high conductivity. This device is now in the Smithsonian's collection of historic electronic devices. As Hush notes, their material also showed negative differential resistance, "a hallmark of modern advances in molecular electronics". Melanin is also the first example of a "self-doped" organic semiconductor, though McGinness et al also looked at dopants such as diethyamine. A few years later, in 1977, Shirakawa, Heeger and MacDiarmid rediscovered the potential high conductivity of oxidized ("doped") polyacetylene, producing a passive

Soc. including time-resolved laser spectroscopy. Subsequentely. 1400- . a carotenoid-porphyrinfullerene triad. NMR spectroscopy. triads and other super molecular species using the techniques of organic chemistry. ways must be developed for interfacing these with electronic circuits. carotenoid-fullerene dyads. Possibilities are being investigated in a collaborative project with Professor Michael Kozicki. In this project. Buckminsterfullerene (C60) and its relatives have generated considerable excitement in recent years due to their status as new and unusual forms of carbon which are completely unrelated to the many carbon compounds synthesized by living organisms. Once functional molecular photovoltaics. These include porphyrin-fullerene dyads. In spite of their non-biological origin. The triad shown above is an example of a molecule that may be useful in molecular electronic applications. For example. The newly-prepared molecules are then studied by a variety of physical methods. The information gained can then be used to design new generations of these molecules. About Molecular Electronics The guiding principle of this research is that biological systems can provide useful paradigms for developing electronic and computational devices at the molecular level. it turns out that fullerenes are nearly ideal as components of molecules that mimic natural photosynthetic energy and electron transfer. in the Department of Electrical Engineering. For this discovery and its subsequent development. carotene-porphyrin-imide triads. logic gates. 1997. 119. or other elements have been prepared. The approach involves the design and synthesis of dyads. and cyclic voltammetry in order to determine how and how well they functioned as molecular electronic elements. and molecular dyads and triads containing two porphyrin moieties. they received the 2000 Nobel prize in physics. chemists greatly improved the conductance of conjugated polymers. This molecular "triad" consists of a synthetic porphyrin (P) covalently linked to both a fullerene (C60) and a carotenoid polyene © (J. natural photosynthetic reaction centers are photovoltaic devices of molecular dimensions. Am.highly-conductive form of polyacetylene. These findings opened the door to plastic electronics and optoelectronics. which are beginning to find extensive commercial application. and the principles dictating the operation of reaction centers may be useful in the design of synthetic optoelectronic switches. several classes of molecular photovoltaic species are being synthesized and studied. Chem.

120. This conversion of light energy to electrochemical potential is analogous to the way plants carry out solar energy harvesting during photosynthesis. and ultimately decays by charge recombination to yield the carotenoid triplet excited state. yielding C-P¢ -C60¢ . ("Magnetic Switching of Charge Separation Lifetimes in Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.A. and sensor applications." D. In fact. and the formation of a triplet state by charge recombination are phenomena heretofore observed mostly in photosynthetic reaction centers. Moreover.Am. T. the triad shown above functions as a molecular-scale AND logic gate. which may be detected optically or electrically.Gust. Their nanometer size and their ability to generate an electrical response to light may help point the way to the development of molecular-scale optoelectronic devices for communications. Individual molecules are hundreds of times smaller than the smallest features conceivably attainable by semiconductor technology. the low-temperature electron transfer behavior. and stores a considerable fraction of the light energy as electrochemical potential energy. The carotenoid then transfers an electron to the porphyrin to give a final C¢ -P-C60¢ charge-separated state.Chem. rather than the original ground-state molecule.Liddell.Moore. individual molecules are easily made exactly the same by the billions and trillions. Because semiconductor switches can be manufactured at very small scales and in combination .Moore and D. P. a. and the sheer enormity of numbers in manufacture. data processing. electronic devices constructed from molecules will be hundreds of times smaller than their semiconductor-based counterparts. J. Technology The field of molecular electronics seeks to use individual molecules to perform functions in electronic circuitry now performed by semiconductor devices.L.Kuciaukas.. Electronics 10880-10886 (1998). At the heart of the semiconductor industry is the semiconductor switch. it donates an electron to the fullerene. The generation in the triad of a long-lived charge separated state by photo induced electron transfer. The triads are molecular-scale photovoltaic cells. The charge-separated state is formed even at 8 degrees Kelvin in a frozen environment. This state has a relatively long lifetime. When the porphyrin absorbs light. Two inputs (light and a weak magnetic field) are required to switch on the output of the gate. Molecular Soc. The dramatic reduction in size. Because it is the area taken up by each electronic element that matters. is the principle benefits offered by the field of molecular electronics.1405). A.

optical. occur in molecular structures. The tools of molecular Transcending synthesis MooreâÄ¢s Law are with highly Molecular developed. the retinal molecule switches between two stable structures. One can exploit specific intermolecular interactions to form structures by nanoscale self-assembly.can be made to perform all desired computational functions. in which a rectangular slider has two stable binding sites along a linear track). and the patents that protect Why the Chiropticene molecular Switch technology. molecular structures have four major advantages: ¢ Size. and structural properties. the semiconductor switch has become the fundamental device in all of modern electronics. ¢ Synthetic tailor ability. For electronics applications. the topics include an introduction to CALMEC's Chiropticene Molecular Switch Design. For example. from photosynthesis to signal transduction. By choice of composition and geometry. its molecular engineering. binding. the principles behind the Chiropticene Switch technology. Electronics . one can extensively vary a moleculeâÄ¢s transport. The material listed herein provides insight into important technology areas of molecular electronics. California Molecular Electronics Corporation's ChiropticeneÃà Switch is a switchable device that goes ® beyond the semiconductor switch in size reduction. providing both switching and sensing capabilities on the single-molecule scale. The documents are a "collection of works" on various topics in the field of molecular electronics assembled by California Molecular Electronics Corporation (CALMECÃà ®) for the purposes of informing the non-scientific community on the exciting technology of molecular electronics. Molecular recognition can be used to modify electronic behavior. This switch is a single molecule that exhibits classical switching properties. Such geometric isomers can have distinct optical and electronic properties. a process that transduces light into a chemo electrical pulse and allows vision. The size scale of molecules is between 1 and100 nm. electronics Essentially all electronic processes in nature. a scale that permits functional nanostructures with accompanying advantages in cost. and power dissipation ¢ Assembly and recognition. At present. efficiency. ¢ Dynamical stereochemistry. Many molecules have multiple distinct stable geometric structures or isomers (an examples the relaxant molecule in figure 3d.

There are several reasons why molecular electronics is the next paradigm for MooreâÄ¢s Law: ¢ Size: Molecular electronics has the potential to dramatically extend the miniaturization that has driven the density and speed advantages of the integrated circuit (IC) phase of MooreâÄ¢s Law. water molecules are small. consider a single drop of water. medical imaging and diagnostics. and interconnected in a 3D volume. While this will be a massive disruption to the semiconductor industry. Sure. Stan Williams. the director of HPâÄ¢s quantum science research labs. Think of the transistors in every memory chip and every processor ever built. ¢ Power: One of the reasons that transistors are not stacked into 3D volumes today is that the silicon would melt. and then the speed of iterative simulations accelerates the pace of progress. The complexity is not in the deposition or the manufacturing process or the systems engineering. they will be as obsolete as the vacuum tube. Over time. concludes: it should be physically possible to do the work of all the computers on Earth today using a single watt of power. It tends to be room temperature or body temperature. In a manufacturing domain. MooreâÄ¢s Law drives electronics. a larger set of industries depends on continued exponential cost declines in computational power and storage density. Biology does not tend to assemble complexity at 1000 degrees in a high vacuum. but an important part of the comparison depends on the 3D volume of a drop. the lab sciences become information sciences. The inefficiency of the modern transistor is staggering. Within 25 years. Power per calculation will dominate clock speed as the metric of merit for the future of computation. Sure the brain is slow (under a kHz) but it is massively parallel (with 100 trillion synapses between 60 billion neurons).The future of MooreâÄ¢s Law is not CMOS transistors on silicon. in contrast. For a memorable sense of the massive difference in scale. is a thin veneer of computation on a thick and inert substrate. The process complexity is embodied in the inexpensive synthesized molecular structures. ¢ Manufacturing Cost: Many of the molecular electronics designs use simple spin coating or molecular self-assembly of organic compounds. There are more molecules in a single drop of water than all transistors ever built. The human brain is ~100 million times more power efficient than our modern microprocessors. Every IC. communications and computers and has become a primary driver in drug discovery and bioinformatics. and so they can literally be splashed on to a prepared silicon wafer. worldwide. this .

longer wires have proportionately higher resistance. charge transport isohmic: For a given wire diameter. A picture of electron transport through molecular devices is emerging. Many of the molecular electronic approaches are inherently digital The and immune to soft advantages render of errors. for the moment. one electrode functions as an electron donor and the other as an electron acceptor. the details of the electrical contact. and it couldnâÄ¢t be more different from what is observed for more traditional conductors. Decades of research have given chemistâÄ¢s intuitive models that serve as a guide for using synthetic control to design physical properties into a molecule. ¢ Elegance: In addition to these advantages. DBA complexes serve as models for understanding how charge transport . with examples of molecular structures. some of the molecular electronics approaches offer elegant solutions to non-volatile and inherently digital storage. The electrodes are bridged by a linear chain (an alkane). In figure3a. this approximation works well: Current through a junction decreases exponentially with increasing chain length. In a semiconductor or metal wire. In 1961. in which four types of molecular-electronic junctions are represented. A key challenge in molecular electronics is to translate that solution-phase intuition into solidstate device setting. Certain molecular structures have emerged as models for relating intermolecular electron transfer rates in solution to solid-state molecular junction conductance. and some are inherently non-volatile. Disregard. Harden McConnell wrote down the rate constant for electron transfer across molecular bridge: kET. where l is the bridge length and b is an energy-dependent parameter characterizing the molecule. We go through unnatural acts with CMOS silicon to get an inherently analog and leaky medium to approximate a digital and non-volatile abstraction that we depend on for our design methodology. Consider the energy diagrams of figure 3. The possible mechanisms for electron transport are much richer for the electron donor-bridge-electron acceptor (DBA) molecular junction of figure 3b. Such a picture is usually wrong for molecules because of the localized nature of most molecular electronic states. Aeâ¼ bl. For alkenes up to a certain length and for small applied voltages. and the alkanet effectively serves as a simple energy barrier separating the two electrodes. molecules ideal for electronics charge applications transport molecular Mechanisms The synthesis and characterization of molecules are endeavors typically conducted in solution.opens the possibility of cheap plastic substrates instead of expensive silicon ingots.

Or electrical excitation.mechanisms in solution translate into the conductivity of solid-state molecular junctions. so that even with no applied bias voltage. and the lowest unoccupied sites on the donor and acceptor components are separated from one another by a bridging component that has molecular orbital of differing energy. and it is their relative rates that determine the nature of coherent conductance through aDBA junction. The observed conduction in DBA molecular junctions usually differs radically from that in traditional ohmic wires and can more closely resemble coherent transport in mesoscopic structures. This dependence can be exploited: The donor and acceptor components could be designed to differ energetically from one another (as in figure 3b). Those incoherent. perspective. the energy landscape is asymmetric. electrons that tunnel from the right electrode into the acceptor state when a bias is applied may coherently transfer to the donor state before tunneling to the left electrode. Ina process called electron-type super exchange. The diversity of conduction mechanisms represents an opportunity to manipulate the electrical properties of junctions through synthetic modification. Under some conditions. both processes will occur. For . the hopping mechanism wills almost always dominate.8The competition between charge transport mechanisms through a DBA molecule can also be affected by the bridge. followed by refilling of the molecular level from the right. For a short bridge (5â¼ 10 à ⼦). the donor and acceptor sites are part of the molecule. the tunneling from the molecule into the left electrode might occur first. In DBA complexes. In fact. in holetype super exchange. the super exchange mechanism will almost always dominate. diffusive processes quite closely related to DBA junctions illustrate some of the beauty and richness of molecular electronics. For sufficiently long bridges. Shorter bridges produce larger amounts of wave function overlap between the donor and acceptor molecular orbitals. Key factors include a dependence on the rates of intermolecular electron transfer between the donor and acceptor sites.7 A third possibility is that an electron from the donor ohmic From a can jump to the acceptor charge chemistâÄ¢s due to either thermal flow. such junctions represent a molecular approach toward controlling current rectification. The molecular structure of the bridge can be synthetically varied to control the relative importance of the two mechanisms. Alternatively. the conductance of a DBA junction can vary with the sign of the applied voltage.

Two recent papers reported on a unique quantum effect known as a Kondo resonance (see figure 4) in organic molecules containing paramagnetic metal atoms. Driven molecular isomerization therefore presents opportunities for designing switches and other active device elements. Certain molecules will isomerismâ¼ that is. such transformations can be tightly controlled. More recent experiments have employed an electrical break junction together with a gate electrode. and in many cases. Representative molecules contain a principal functional group that bridges two electrodes. The gate can be used to tune the molecular energy levels with respect to the Fermi levels of the electrodes and thus somewhat normalize the device-to-device fluctuations that often characterize two electrode measurements. measurements of the signatures of electron-vibration coupling. which translate into large conductance changes. both in chains and in rings. when carried out at low temperatures. represents a spectacular success for molecular electronics.example. and have become the model systems for investigating basic phenomena such as moleculeâ¼ electrode interactions and quantum effects in charge transport through molecular junctions. small structural variations from device to device. Different molecular isomers are characterized by different energies and possibly by different relative rates for the hopping and super exchange transport mechanisms. can resolve the molecular energy levels to a few meV. make quantitative interpretation of the data very difficult.1Molecular quantum dots (figure 3c) represent a simpler energy level system than DBA junctions. change shapeâ¼ upon receiving a charge or being placed in a strong field. Early versions of these devices utilized mechanical break junctionsâ¼ essentially fractured gold wire that forms a pair of electrodesâ¼ in at wo-terminal device configuration. Electrode effects The moleculeâ¼ electrode interface is a critically important component of a molecular . low-lying unoccupied electronic states within the bridge will decrease in energy with increasing bridge length (DEB of figure 3b is lowered) and will thereby decrease the activation barrier to hopping. Such resolution allows. An equally important advantageous that the gated measurements. for example.3 That this resonance was designed by chemical synthesis into two different molecules. they are very common in molecular electronics. and was observed in single-molecule transport measurements.9 Although those experiments were a tour de force in terms of device preparation. facilitate charge delocalization. in a bridge containing conjugated double bonds. Because double bonds.

However. Most experimental platforms for constructing molecularelectronic devices are based on practical considerations. in many ways. The clear implication (and formal result) is that the molecular and interface functions are inseparable and thus muster considered as a single system. which can partially or fully mask the moleculeâÄ¢s electronic signature. in turn.junction: It may limit current flow or completely modify the measured electrical response of the junction. including stability. Ideally. but rather on first principles considerations of moleculeâ¼ electrode interactions. That flow can cause partial charging of the molecule. However. the sulfurâ¼ gold bond is a terrific chemical handle for forming self-assembled. the boon and the bane of the field. and generalityâ¼ chemical bonds such as carbonâ¼ carbon or carbonâ¼ silicon will likely be preferred over goldâ¼ sulfur linkage sat the interfaces. A related consideration involves how the chemical nature of the moleculeâ¼ electrode interface affects the rest of the Molecule. The zero-bias coherent conductance of a molecular junction may be described as a product of functions that describe the moleculeâÄ¢s electronic structure and the moleculeâ¼ electrode interfaces (see box 1 on page 46). such as using a scanning probe tiptop contact the molecule. Poor covalent bonding usually exists between the molecule and electrode. and local charge buildup gives Scotty-like barriers to charge flow across the interface. . in part because they avoid processing steps that can damage or unpredictably modify the molecular component. Other methods. the current state of the art for the theory of moleculeâ¼ electrode interfaces is primitive. modify the molecular energy levels or the barriers within the junction. robust organic monolayer on metal surfaces. For example. the chemical interaction between the molecule and the electrode will likely modify the moleculeâÄ¢s electron density in the vicinity of the contacting atoms and. Small changes in the energy levels can dramatically affect junction conductance. reproducibility. increase for larger electro negativity differences. Very little theory exists that can adequately predict how the molecular orbitalâÄ¢ energy levels will align with the Fermi energy of the electrode. For this reasonâ¼ and others. are frequently employed. Such barriers. at zero applied bias some charge must flow between molecule and electrodes to equilibrate the chemical potential across the junction. the choice of electrode materials would be based not on the ease of fabrication or measurement. so understanding how the interface energy levels correlate is critical and demands both theoretical and experimental study. Consequently. This pragmatic approach is.

Conductance through DNA Figure 3d represents the case of two electrodes bridged by a large molecule containing several functional groups. the DNA molecule is of interests a charge transfer species. Connections to electrodes are also of great importance. For transfer over more than six or seven base pairs. figure 5). The rich mechanistic palette observed for DNA charge transfer is becoming well understood due to elegant experiments and theory (see. chemical. for instance. given the set of mechanical. Of the four junction types illustrated in figure 3.4 here the relationship between intermolecular electron transfer rates in solution and solid-state molecular junction transport becomes crucial to our understanding of transport processes. The protein self-assembles and self orientsin the membrane. and Joshua Jortner for charge transfer rates. because of its broad range of . and it is now becoming clear that the underlying processes exhibit large mechanistic diversity. DNA oligomers represent perhaps the best-studied experimental example of this category. coherent tunneling can occur. Consider a protein that spans cell membrane and shuttles information across that membrane. the early suggestions that. a certain molecular size is required to achieve such a rich combination of properties. and electronic properties that have been built into it. but it is actually small and efficiently designed.10 Indeed. In general. for very short distance motion (over a few base pairs). Exponential decay in the conductance with increasing distance has been seen directly in DNA molecules folded into hairpin shapes. inelastic hopping has been strongly suggested. the tunneling parametersâ¼ the height and width of the tunnel barrierâ¼ are modulated by interactions with a bath of harmonic oscillators that account for the chemical environment. The rotaxane molecule shown in figure 3dmight appear large and complex. it recognizes and binds to other very specific proteins. this is the most general and interesting. The model assumes that for a charge tunneling from a donor to an acceptor site. In addition to its biological importance and its use as a synthetic component of molecular nanostructures. and. Intramolecular electron transfer rates in DNA have been extensively investigated in solution *ok*. it also might switch between two forms. indeed. The fundamental motion of electrons or holes from one site to another very broadly follows the standard model developed by Rudy Marcus. only one of which will transmit the chemical signal. and the transition to incoherent hopping has been seen in measurements of the efficiency with which holes are transferred along the molecule. Noel Hush. Proteins are large molecules.4.

what sorts of circuit architectures can best take advantage of molecular electronics. in the past two years. DNA appears uncolored and long-range coherent charge motion is improbable. transport in DNA junctions will show that the molecule (or at least naturally occurring DNA) is essentially a wide-band gap semiconductor characterized by localized hole hopping between the low-energy guanineâ¼ cytosine (CG) pairs (G yields the most stable positive ion). a metal. Most probably. The complexity and richness of DNA junction behavior typify the challenge that the molecular electronics community faces in predicting and understanding transport in molecular junctions. and solvent dynamics. progress toward identifying and constructing working molecular electronics circuitry has advanced quickly. structural reorganization. in which charge motion is accompanied by molecular distortion. The ensuing question. Significant effects should arise from various other processes. the measurements are difficult to interpret. For example. As a result. The . counter-ion motion. the junction conductance through functionally diverse *OK* molecular systems would still be complex.mechanistic possibilities. Anderson type charge localization. Electrical transport in DNA molecular junctions is much messierâ¼ as should be true for any molecular junction of the type represented in figure 3d. consistent with the suggestion by Cees Dekker and his collaborators that DNA is a wide-band gap semiconductor11 that can exhibit activated transport for relatively short distances (less than 10 nm or so) but effectively behaves as an insulator at distances exceeding 20 nm. such as polar on-type hopping. caused by the difference in energy between electrons localized on GC and adenosineâ¼ thymine (AT) pairs. Because the band gap is large. Electrode mixing. The available data are. is now receiving quite a bit of attention both from computer scientists (who have published largely in the patent literature) and from experimentalists. and appropriate extensions to theory are not really available. If the measurements and systems were well defined. reports in reputable journals have stated that DNA acts as an insulator. structural dynamics and disorder. DNA might act as a paradigm for electron transfer generally seem to be correct. circuits Molecular electronics The power of chemical synthesis to design specific and perhaps even useful device behaviors is rapidly being realized. more or less. geometric reorganization. and a superconductor. and sample preparation all add to the intricacies. a semiconductor.

The general concept is shown on the left. The simplest of these circuitsâ¼ and one that has-been experimentally demonstratedâ¼ is a memory circuit. One wire within each . The dominant circuit structure that has arisen from those considerations is the crossbar. 12. Both memory and logic circuits have been demonstrated from molecular electronics and Nan wire crossbars. Each multiplexer consists of four sets of complementary wire pairs. tolerance of manufacturing defects.14 Box 2 (above) illustrates how such a patchwork integrated-circuit architecture might be laid out and presents some detail on the simplest of the circuit componentsâ¼ a molecular-electronic random access memory.proposed circuit architectures have attempted to deal with five key issues: scalability to near molecular dimensions. such as chemically directed assembly. bridging between device densities potentially achievable at the molecular scale and those associated with standard lithography. would require only 10 wirehairs for each multiplexer. shown on the right. for example.1. and each junction can store a single bit. 13Arapidly developing area of architectural research involves stitching together a patchwork quilt of different types of crossbars with the goal of configuring an efficient computational platform. Bitable molecular switches are sandwiched at the crossings of the densely patterned Nan wires. consists of two major components. which is essentially an expanded ticktacktoe board. and fabrication simplicity. This particular circuit satisfies Crossbars all five and of the key Demultiplexers One of the most attractive architectures for designing molecular-electronics circuits for computational applications and interfacing them to the macroscopic world is the crossbar. introduction of non-traditional fabrication methods. and signal routing circuits is laid out. The central crossbarâ¼ the crossing of16 vertical and 16 horizontal black wiresâ¼ constitutes a 256-bit memory circuit. The multiplexers here adopt some interesting architectural variations that allow them to bridge from the micron or sub micron scale of the blue wires to the nanometer scale of the black wires. memory. The scaling is logarithmic: 210nanowires. Each set of the larger blue wires is arranged into what is called a binary tree multiplexer. designed to address 24 nano wires. formed from wires and having individual molecular or molecularscale devices sandwiched within the junctions. The memory. The crossbar is an intrinsically versatile circuit and is tolerant of manufacturing defects. where a sort of patchwork quilt of logic.

Controlled fabrication to within specified tolerancesâ¼ and its experimental verificationâ¼ is a particular problem. the multiplexer acts as a fourinput AND gate so that only when all four inputs are high does a given Nan wire go high. which could be used either as a random access memory or as a combination logic and memory circuit. Fully reproducible measurements of junction conductance are just beginning in labs at Cornell. There is a real need for robust modeling methods to bridge the gap between the synthesis and understanding of molecules in solution and the performance of solid-state molecular devices. Controlling the properties of moleculeâ¼ electrode interfaces . Self-assembly schemes based on molecular recognition will be crucial for that task. When a given address (0110. Note also that the frequencies of the patterns of connections are important. Note that the separation between the individual contacts is much larger than the pitch of the nano wires. (a) This optical micrograph shows a collection of 64-junctionmolecular circuits. At the upper right is shown more detail for a multiplexer wire that selects a pattern of four connects followed by four opens. Delft. Molecular electronics devices. Harvard. (b) An atomic force micrograph of one of the circuits. a 0 input. for example. each pair of wires has a complementary arrangement of connections. that larger separation greatly reduces the fabrication demands. Those two characteristics allow the architecture to bridge the micron or submicron length scales of lithography to the nanometer length scales of molecular electronics and chemical assembly. Along each blue wire is a series of rectifying connections (gray bars) to the Nan wires. sends one wire low and its complement high. fabricated by a combination of soft-imprinting techniques for the wires and chemical assembly for the molecules at the wire intersections. The orange bars indicate how one wire (red) is selected by each multiplexer. Purdue.pair has an inverted input. but not the absolute registry: Each nano wire is uniquely addressable. The molecules used The in future this circuit of are molecular bitable relaxants electronics The fundamental challenges of realizing a true molecular electronics technology are daunting. but the mapping of addresses to nanowires is not important. and Karlsruhe Universities and at the Naval Research Laboratory and other centers. Additional challenges involve finding fabrication approaches that can couple the densities achievable through lithography with those achievable through molecular assembly. for example) misapplied.

single-molecule devices may emerge as*OK* the high-resolution spectroscopy tool that will eventually link experiment and theory. If. such as the computational applications discussed in this article. for example. researchers working in this area of nanotechnology have made transistors out of carbon nanotubes with switches connecting molecules to metal wire leads. Rapid progress is being made to address these challenges. and fabricated at a device density between 1011 and 1012 cmâ¼ 2.and constructing molecular electronic devices that can exhibit signal gain are also problems. In the Jan. surgical robotics. This new research at Columbia sets the stage for advances in real-time diagnosis and disease treatment. we will have made so many fundamental advances that it would be surprising if some computational application is even the most useful result of such work. Previously. have the potential to bridge sub micron to nanometer length scales. But no molecular electronics logic or memory device has been tested against any of the abilities: reliability.15Nanowire field-effect transistors have demonstrated gain. someone does demonstrate a robust. such as the one presented in box 2. Many of the technology goals of molecular electronics. and pathways toward molecular mechanical and Nan mechanical devices are among the likely beneficiaries of the successful development of molecular-electronic integrated circuitry. 20. issue of Science. 2006. and information storage and retrieval. interfaced to the outside world. ultra dense single-molecule sensor arrays. Voltage-gated. Interfaces to bios stems. Towards Molecular Electronics: New Way of Making Molecular Transistors Scientists have long been intrigued by carbon nanotubes. temperature stability. The Columbia team was able to combine the best qualities of carbon nanotubes and organic molecules in a single electronic switch. Binary tree multiplexers. tiny straws of pure carbon measuring less than a hair's width across. and so the challenge may be one of integration of multiple device types rather than discovery of new devices. This . the journal reported. energy-efficient computational platform based on molecular electronics. Successfully linking them in stable arrangements would allow for an impressive increase in both the speed and power of a variety of electronics. and the like. Columbia scientists explain how they have developed a unique way to connect the ends of carbon nanotubes by forming robust molecular bridges between them. potentially rendering room-sized supercomputers obsolete. should probably be viewed as drivers for steering the field forward and for defining the critical and rate limiting challenges that must be overcome.

" says Colin Nuckolls. another co-author of the paper.Columbia research illustrates a more elegant way of making molecular transistors. but without an order-of-magnitude shift in the scale of computer circuitry -. and they are made of carbon. "It opens the door to new types of ultrasmall switches and sensors. experts say.a lithographic technique that makes each cut-end of the nanotube more prone to molecular bonding." the prediction made in 1965 by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore who predicted the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits would double every year. ADVANTAGES ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Able Low to power integrate large Tiny consumption circuit Re-configurable . thin cylinders of carbon unique for their size. an associate professor of chemistry. a molecule can be chemically joined with each end to form a robust nanotube/molecule complex. by combining reaction chemistry with ultrafine lithography. making it easier to connect them chemically. explains Columbia senior research scientist Shalom Wind. shape and physical structure. Attaching molecular wires to single-walled nanotubes involves cutting a tube using nanolithography combined with a localized oxidation process that leaves a nanotube with two ends that are capped with carbon-based acid groups and separated by a molecule-sized gap. Moore said the trend would continue for the foreseeable future. he added. This new method of wiring molecules into the gaps of single-walled carbon nanotubes employs oxidative cutting -. In that tiny space. They have been shown to possess remarkable mechanical and electronic properties. since the nanotube leads are already the same size as the molecules." The nanotubes themselves are long. (see image) rolled into a tube. These new methods of constructing molecular bridges could one day revolutionize the size and scale of computer hardware "Molecular electronics has real-world relevance.a promise represented in Columbia's latest work⼠that prediction could hit a wall in the next decade. The nature of this work is also expected to keep alive "Moore's Law. which operates as a nanoscale transistor. both literally and figuratively. We are able to form a bridge. and a co-author of the Science paper. They can be thought of as a sheet of graphite forming a hexagonal lattice of carbon.

physicstoday. Hush.DISADVANTAGES ¢ ¢ APPLICATIONS ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Displays. This has lead to a variety of physical and chemical phenomena recently observed for charge currents owing through molecular junctions. posing new challenges to theory.calmec. http://www. Energy Molecular Logic and transduction scale memory Sensors devices transistors devices Controlled Hard fabrication within experimental specified tolerances. possess interesting and useful electronic properties. 1006: 1â¼ 20 (2003). Sci. The rapidly developing area of organic -or plasticelectronics is based on these materials. Acad. CONCLUSION Molecular electronics clearly has the advantage of size. The investigations of molecular systems that have been performed in the past have been strongly influenced. or systems based on small organic molecules. Smart Molecular large corporate CONTENTS ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ MOLECULAR WHY ELECTRONICS INTRODUCTION HISTORY TECHNOLOGY MOLETRONICS ¢ TRANSCENDING MOOREâÄ¢S LAW WITH MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS .Y. Motors. Ann. verification. The components of these circuits are "An Overview of the First Half-Century of Molecular Electronics" by Noel S. Molecular electronics is reaching a stage of trustable and reproducible experiments. N. Molecular systems. The potential application of molecular electronics has already attracted the interest of some REFERENCE http://www. so the circuit size would inherently range between 1 to 100 NM.

one can use positive spin & negative spin of a molecule to represent respectively Ë YESâÄ¢ & Ë NOâÄ proposed to be used. is at the same time a highly promising one. molecular electronics is a broad field. till date MooreâÄ¢s law wrote in his original paper entitled Ë Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuit âÄ¢. will be used in networks.DOC (Size: 148. prof. Ë YES Ë ONâÄ¢ and Ë OFFâÄ¢ conditions of a switching transistor. which emerged as an important area of research only in the 1980âÄ¢s. the comple year . INTRODUCTION Will silicon technology become obsolete in future like the value technology done about 50 years ago? Scientists a a relatively new field. The field is a result of a search for alternative materia The field is a challenge but not a replacement for inorganic electronics on immediate terms. IC technology is o gradual increased scale of integration. In the field of communication the role of optical soliton. etc. Prof.¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ MOLECULAR CHARGE FOR TRANSPORT DESIGNING AND ELECTRODE EFFECTS CIRCUITS ARCHITECTURES MOLETRONICS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES APPLICATION FUTURE OF MOLETRONICS CONCLUSION ¢ REFERENCE molecular electronics semina report. electronics age has passed through SSI (small scale integration). For a scaling technology beyond ULSI. Economic solar cells are another existing promise of molecular electronics.Forest Carter put forward a novel idea. the scaling technology may go to molecular scale. It is now over 30 years since Moore talked of this so called technology-mantra.CâÄ¢s are followi prediction was based on a survey of industries and is believed to be correct with research of properties of semicon competitive to semiconductor technology. It is therefore defined as MSE (molecular In order to augment his postulation Prof. Over the longer term. The dramatic reductions i promised by the field of molecular electronics. 12-30 gates. These may be respectively classified as integration technology with 1-12 gates. Therefore hopes run high for real computers with inbuilt thinking functions and bio-chips etc. Semiconductor integration beyond ULSI.5 KB / Downloads: 551) Molecular Electronics abstract. 30-300 g The density of IC technology is increasing in pace with Famour MooreâÄ¢s law of 1965.certainly. if not to increase. Molecular electronics. Carter postulated that instead using a transist represent the two states. which is a by product of non-linear optics. Moreover individual molecules are easily made exactly the same by billions & trillions. This new technology is known as Molecular electronics. In digital electronics. For e.doc (Size: 91 KB / Downloads: 352) ABSTRACT The field of molecular electronics seeks to use individual molecules to perform functions in electronic circuitry no smaller than the smallest features conceivably attainable by semiconductor technology. namely YES & NO of digital electronics. T However. this rate can be expected to continue. which is a high investment and high-risk field. Carter conducted a number of international conferences on the subject. MSI (med integration). over the short term.g. Because it is the area take molecules will be hundreds of times smaller than their semiconductor based counterparts. as of today. Molecular electronics non-linear optics and biologically important materials in the field of electronics. will not remain constant for at least ten more years. that. It was through the ef Conventional electronics technology is much indebted to the integrated circuit (IC) technology.. it is found that I. through conven like quantum effects. .

at least in research areas. ORGANIC DEVICES Molecular Electronics. Polyphenylenes are obtained by binding phenylenes to each other on both sides and ending the chain-like structur . MSE deals with microscop molecules for application in electronics. Mobilities are seen to be low in molecular organic materials. pure semi conducting polymers have channeled into display devices. An active polymer transistor was first reported by Burroughes et al in 1988. the device had some important featur operating frequency was low due to low carrier mobility. The familiar e. The prospects of molecular electronics depend on the successful inte physics. The main categories of MME are organic semiconductors or molecular se materials. These properties. and properties of molecules or macro molecules or organic materials in electronic devices.the cost molecular systems shall be cheaper. Rese Carter who conducted in 1980âÄ¢s a number of international conferences on the subject mainly initiated the intere progress of molecular electronics has always been smooth. Francis Garnier and co-workers in 1990. the prospects of the future have vastly improved. the maximum life of polymer Organic materials have not being able to compete with silicon or inorganic materials to form active electronic dev world wide trend towards organics. But the basic question is whether molecular organic materials will behave like real semi conductors. in addition to low operating frequency.Friend and co-workers Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge. This has immense applica stumbling blocks which are yet to be overcome are efficiency and life time. All FETâÄ¢s reported so far FETs. can be divided into broad areas: Molecular materials of electronics (MME). This behavior is found when T N C Q (tetracyanoquin field mobility has been observed as 3x10-5 cm sq / volt sec. no m Typical resistivity Here it can be pertinent to mention the functioning of p-n junction. Organics. These problem need to be address before organic FETs can be used Recently.75 to 2 eV. The solid state error of electronics owes much silicon. non-linear optical materials and biologically important materials f The use of molecular organic materials as active elements in electronic devices was actually augmented with the d versatile and easy to process. biology. they reported a total org structure comprising an oxidized silicon substrate and a semiconductor polymer layer. material science. as on date. which are intrinsically p-type in semi co There are recent reports of n-type organic semiconductors. can be bonded as a group to you have two binding sites in the ring. chemistry. along with the electrical property of conducting polymers that beh make the polymer a material of hot current research. Historically the concept of molecule electronics dates back to the last century. the conjugated or conducting polymers e synthesized conducting polymers could be employed as either metallic or semi conducting component of a metalrectification ratios in excess of thousands There are reports of polymer based MISFET (metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistor) devices with m quantum efficiencies in the region of 1% photons per electrons. LEDs should have at least 10% efficie minimum of 10000 hrs lifetime is required for flat screen or panel displays till date. Despite this. However a dramatic lead was achieved by Prof. Two of the molecules that have been used to demon carbon nanotubes. etc. These conjugated with improved i possibility that conjugated polymers would be used to manufacture LEDs out of plastic. POLYPHENYLENEâ¼ BASED CHAINS Polyphenylene based molecular wires and switches use chains of organic aromatic benzene rings. is the use of organ started working on organic solids as alternative semiconductors because of their attractive optical properties. giving the phenyl group C6H5. It has great flexibility and c of organic FET from Dr. The flow of electricity can be controlled by adding impurities to silicon. If any molec carrier mobility and demonstrate the existence of controllable band gap of the order of 0.g. photo and electro-chromic materials. Till date. polyphenylenes as well as similar organic molecules have been shown to be capable of switc An individual benzene ring less one of its hydrogens. In addition. it has currents. Polymers took a leading high mobility charge carrier too inhomogeneous to access experimental high mobilities. Recently.

-HC=CH-. or about 30 nA per molecule. Currently. One group was led by R. polyphenylene-based molecular devices conduct an impressive current of electrons. Recently. CARBON-NANOTUBES A second type of molecule that can be used for a molecular electronic backbone is the carbon nanotube or bucky t structures make a very conductive wire. For comparison. and mo techniques for conductive polyphenylene-based chains have been refined by J. the first theoretical paper on m Ratner that appeared in the journal Chemical Physics Letters in November 1974. doubly-bonded ethanol groups. bui rectifiers. the use of physical inspection and manipulation of purpose. Reed at Y Resonant Tunneling Diodes (RTDs) Unlike the rectifying diode. Any other structure will li . Their synthesis is neith To get the precision required to function in electronic circuits. For this reason. Tour-wire-based molecular digital logic has another advantage. For their size. that in concept can be used with To Aliphatic Molecular Insulators Aliphatic organic molecules have nodes in their electron densities above the atomic nuclei. a larger molecule. Metzger at the University of Alabama and the other led by M. This works out to abou based molecular wire. aliphatic molecular insulators and diode switches. because of their v carbon nanotubes.000 Polyp adsorbed to metal contacts on either end. or ethynyl. they will represent the ultimate in digital electronic logic miniaturization. The device is a molecular analog of a larger solid-state RTD that quantum-effect circuitry. Advantages of Polyphenylene-Based Structures With Polyphenylene-based molecules. but not the in the important types of molecular-scale diode switches have been demonstrated: rectifying diodes and resonant tunneli Rectifying Diodes Rectifying diodes.about a half a million times greater than that of a coppe Polyphenylene-based molecules also have the advantage of a well-defined chemistry. Spacers are needed to eliminate steric interference extent of p-orbital overlap between adjacent rings thereby reducing conductiveness.M. use structures that make it more difficult for an electric current A. the molecular electronic community is in a situation where the most chemically flexible molecular back the carbon nanotube. The system was prepared so that all the molecules of the nanopore were current that passed through the molecular-wires was 30 mA. than it is to go the opposite forward direction from A to B. also called molecular rectifiers. Polyphenylene-based molecules bonded with multiply bonded groups (such as ethenyl. Development has been undertaken by several researcher two particular components. These current densities are quite high . They differ in diameters and chiralities and come in a range of conductive are fairly new to the world of chemistry having only been discovered and characterized in the last two decades. it is relatively easy to propose complex molecular structures that are neede synthesized. sensitive experiments by electricity.A. current can pass just as easily in both directions through an RTD. The RTD uses elect to control the diode so as to switch current on and off. an electrical current was passed through a monolayer of approximately 1..g. In fact. singly-bonded aliphatic groups. they c enables aliphatic molecules or groups to act like resistors. The way energy is transferred or channeled from one end of a molecule to the other is via p-type orbitals lying abo length of the molecule thus connecting with the neighboring molecule creating a polyphenylene-based chain. and triple bonded ethanol Polyphenylene-based aromatic molecules with useful structures and properties. But it was only in 1997 that. It Once made. the carbon nanotube (bucky tube) has been measured transmitting currents in t polyphenylene-based molecular-wires do not carry as much current as the bucky tubes however. Tour who has made mole quant Tour wires". carbon nanotubes are stable but they are made only under extreme conditions. Since polyphenylene-based molecules are so muc and operated. and so as to keep electrical current going from the source to synthesized by Tour and demonstrated by Reed. -C= can be inserted as spacers between phenyl rings in a Tour wire. In one experiment.M. Diode Switches A diode is a two terminal device in which current may pass in one direction through the device. Rectifying diodes have been elements of analog and role in the forming and testing of strategies for molecular scale electronics. synthetic flexibility. is not the most flexible chemically. Poly maintained.molecular groups (e.

such as molecular transistors. some of their energy can be lost to other electrons motions and the mot energy levels of the molecule and how they interact with the moleculesâÄ¢ vibrational modes. and NOT. Current research has m materials. If strong coupli would be needed to ensure the reading of a bit. Gain in Molecular Electronic Circuits In large molecular structures deploying molecular devices with power gain. an in-plane molecular wire can be passed over ma split. Molecular Electronic Full Adder By combining two half adders plus an OR gate. The characteristic properties of each device will in general be altered by the quantum wave interferen well. the molecular circuit for the XOR gate is similar to the OR gate. and to achieve fan-out. OR. When currents and voltages representing two addends are passed two inputs that split the current introduced so that the current passes through both of the logic gates regardless of separate outputs. Speeds Energy dissipation relates closely to the speed at which a molecular electronic circuit can operate. Molecular Electronic Half Adder With a complete set of molecular logic gates. you can make a molecular electronic full adder measuring about 2 Combining Individual Devices By bonding together existing functional devices. the I-V behavior of a molecular wire is nonlinear. The XOR an voltage) at both inputs. Nonlinear o which has potential applications in computer communication and information technology. Nonlinearity can be used basically in two ways for electronic devices: frequency conversion and refractive index . you n polyphenylene-based rectifying diodes. To make a NOT gate with diodes. to be highly important. you need a NOT gate. Some molecular devices will take Energy Dissipation When electrons move through a molecule. less reliability and power dissipa optical computers where full advantage of the fundamental speed of light is proposed to be achieved. or low which can be made the same as the complete set AND. But w themselves. The molecular half-added described earlier is one million times smaller than one in a Pent Optical information technology The ever growing demand of increased computing speed is mainly limited by memory accessing time and storage the ultimate speed. They undergo reversible color changes under irradiation at an a order to build a three-dimensional optical memory. larger structures can be made that implement higher binary digital fu XOR gates and measuring only 10 nm x 10 nm. Depending on the m large. there w maintain signal-to-noise ratio. Software is being developed to deal with quantum mechanical issues so that complete molecular electronic c CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLECULAR DEVICES Nonlinear I-V Behavior Unlike solid-state electronics. This would require more time. it is thought that devices of higher functions can be made. an XOR gate measuring about 5 nm x 5 nm can be built. That area is about one million times smaller than would be the area of a correspondin Molecular XOR Gates Using Molecular RTDs and Molecular Rectifying Diodes To complete the diode-based family of logic gates. Discovery of laser in 1960s has given a thrust to the research of NLO materials and their applications. The three switch the insertion of the molecular RTD. This shuts off current flow through the RTD and makes the XOR gateâÄ¢s output 0. inductance and resistance. Photo chromic materials show a bistable property. By using an out-of-plane connector structure. Because of their scale and density.REALIZATION OF BASIC CIRCUITS Molecular AND and OR Gates Using Diode-Diode Logic The circuits for the AND and OR digital logic gates which use diode-diode logic structures have been known for d measure about 3 nm x 4 nm. In o lead that goes to the ground to help minimize signal loss. signal loss should not be a problem because the signal is recombined on the output side of the structure. With the advent of optical fiber communication an interest in components for processing optical signals has arisen technology such as problems of parasitic capacitance. appears appropriate to build a three-dimensional optical memo conceptualized.

com/scientif. it might be possible to store. Cheung. Kim. http://www.light weight. on a molecular scale.Y. MSE is a simple interpolation of IC scaling. G.-L. CONCLUSION The subject of molecular electronics has moved from mere conjuncture to an experimental Therefore finding mo electronics is possible the study of a single molecule is not a problem now as we have STM (scaling tunneling mi Upcoming trends At some of the top laboratories around the country. Search http://www. Lieber "Carbon Nanotube-Based No (2000). Such technologies make even the log transistors on a chip is over.calmec. T W Ebbesen and P M Ajayan Nature. Molecules possess great variety in the structure and properties. the components could be as tiny as 1 nanometer.calmec. Scientific forum http://www. The micro electronic devices on todayâÄ¢s silicon chips have components that are 0. for e. Rueckes. The HP/UCLA group had to build functioning digital computers. VLSI and finally we have ULSI. INTRODUCTION used for second harmonic generation. Currently semiconductor chips are made in multibillion dollar fabrication plants by etching circuitry into layers of requires huge amounts of money to upgrade to newer fab-plants. the prime interest of Molecular Scale Electronics The quest for ever decreasing size but more complex electronic component with high speed ability gave birth to M was put forward by Carter. Scaling of FET and MOS Silicon technology has offered us SSI. and C. The world of computers is in for a change. LSI. E.htm [4]. [2]. "Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes". K. For a long the future and have results that are helping to map the way for them. For instanc There are still many obs Some researches believe that in order for molecular systems to work as computers. making ever smaller device. In molecular CONTENTS 1. Joselevich. a DVD movie on something the size of a grain of rice.. ORGANIC DEVICES . The semiconductor world predicts it will continue to advance the silicon based chip.htm [5]. frequency mixing and parametric amplification. But there are some problems now in further scaling in silicon technology. higher flexibi vital role in the coming years and MSE shall compete with IC technology which is growing in accordance with M REFERENCES [1]. vol. p220 (1992 [3]. These breakthroughs in the field of molecular electronics seem to be giving There are several research groups working in laboratories under top-secret conditions. MSE is a remedial measure. creating electronics circuit small that their si computing speed and memory resulting from circuits so small would stagger virtually all fields of technology and successfully created molecular size switches that can be opened and closed repeatedly.358. scientists are publicly expressing beliefs that before now they revolution where molecules will be used in place of semiconductors. who proposed some molecular analogues of conventional electronic switches. C. they will need to have fault tol The progress made recently has caused a lot of excitements among researches in molecular electronics. RAM. etc. Scaling is an attractive technology. Polymer materials hold hopes of rapid development of improved systems and techniques o polymer optical fibre has a number of advantages over glass fibres like better ductivity.18 microns in size or about o hundred nanometers. Molecular methods c scale of such devices. Tseng. This would make incorporated into all manmade items. They are making progress o Memory (RAM).M. gates an Rather. Research in mol information explosion.g. Researches say that this is still only the beginning in the making of molecular computers. including Sun Microsystems and Motorola have been meeting to con electronics. T. could offer incredibly huge storage capacities. Several computer semiconductor companies.