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Angular In Elevation



NO. 039-185

This workbook

and the material


herein are the property reproduced,


Carrier Corporation

and may not be copied,

or released

without written permission

of Carrier Corporation.


This training unit consists of a video tape presentation with an accompanying workbook. The video program is

divided into sections. you will be directed an exercise

After each video tape section,

to the workbook where you complete

(answer questions and do readings).

This training program complete. The recommended (1)

takes approximately

two hours to

sequence is as follows: gives the introductory remarks,

After the administrator

the student reads the objectives. (2) The student briefly administrator (3) The videotape material. discusses the objectives with the

and other class members. is turned on and the student views the I, the tape reads

Upon completion of tape Section

is turned off. the questions workbook. questions,

The student opens the workbook, and writes the answers directly

in the

When the group has completed the administrator just completed.

the workbook

will review and discuss

the material (4)

~~en there is no further discussion, will start the videotape completed, Students

the administrator When this is

for Section 2.

the tape will be turned off and again the

return to the workbook.


2 .(5) (6) Work through all sections A quiz covering in this manner. administrator's is to be self- the student will refer to the guide. in the entire unit after the the material will be administered by the instructor unit has been completed. (7) In the event that the program administered.

Align light or heavy equipment within the close tolerances specified here-in. Express an understanding of the effect of angular misalignment on Parallel Alignment Readings. 5. Express an understanding of the tools of alignment. Dowel the equipment footings to the sole plates. 8. 3 4. 7. 6. Calculate and compensate for the effect of Machine Thermal changes on Alignment. 9. 3 . the student should be able to: 1. Calculate the exact amount of equipment movement required to correct any given amount of shaft misalignment. Understand the advantages of using alignment brackets.PROGRAM OBJECTIVES On completion of training on "The Four Easy Steps To Good Shaft Alignment". Understand the difference between aligning couplings and aligning shafts. 2. Submit a Comprehensible Alignment Report.


HIGHLIGHTS SECTION #1 Explanation The Four Proper Angular Shaft of Elevation & Plan Views Positions of Misalignment Steps Sequence of Alignment Tolerance Misalignment Alignment vs Coupling Alignment Calculating Use of Dial Selecting Maintaining Required Indicator Movement on Equipment pivot Point Footing the Correct Shaft End Clearance SECTION #2 Instruments Advantages Checking & Tools of Alignment Brackets Sag Alignment Bracket SECTION #3 How To Use The Dial How To Use Alignment How To Check Parallel Angular Indicator Brackets Alignment Tolerance On Parallel Alignment Misalignment Effect of Angular Readings Screw Jack Misalignment vs Hydraulic Report Jack Alignment 5 .


#4 Hot Alignment Calculating Alignment The Effect of Thermal Changes On Machine

How To Take Advantage How To Compensate Doweling Safety Correction Factors Machine

of Allowable


Tolerances or Distortion

For Coupling Footings

Face Wobble

For Dial


Set At Angle






These steps performed in sequence will eliminate guess work and backtracking and will consistantly result in good shaft alignment. Some attempt to correct all four positions of alignment with one set of readings and one move. Most make heavy use of algebraic calculations and graphs and are easily subject to error. "The Four Easy Steps To Good Shaft Alignment"is simple and straight-forward. This procedure.SECTION ONE THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT Most Alignment procedures are very complicated and hard to follow. Elevation View II-. 9 . (See Fi~ure #1). Taking alignment readin~s. Then. Pre-aligning equipment to compensate for thermal changes. B. We'll begin by outlining the four easy steps and the simple calculations that are basic to the procedure. we'll cover the subjects that are common to all alignment procedures such as: A.- - - -'-=-1 ~~ - - - FIGURE 1 Blueprint drafting standards established long ago that an elevation view is seen when standing beside nn object looking straight ahead at the side or end of the object. Calculating for coupling face runout. C.

they could be lost when correction is made with this one is corrected. some others which Following two pieces are the four positions equipment. 10 . in the service the terms "Elevation" could be used. as the other shims and will not change positions are corrected.Plan View FIGURE 2 A "plan" view is seen when object. and building and "Plan" trades must be familiar with should be less confusing than Since everyone blueprints. in elevation (Figure 83). This must be corrected If any of the other three are corrected This ahead of this one. (See Figure looking from above straight dot. MISALIGNMENT of misalignment which can exist between of rotating Angular In Elevation FIGURE 3 Position position #1 is angular misalignment first.m on the #2).

Paralleln I Elevation FIGURE 4 Position #2 is parallel misalignment in elevation (Figure #4). IIISALIGNIiENT Angular In Plan FIGURE 5 Position #3 is angular misalignment in plan (Figure #5). 11 . If Position #3 or #4 is corrected ahead of #2. This move must come ahead of #4 because #4 would definitely be lost in the process of correcting #3. involving equal amounts of shim stock under each footing. The correction here is straight up or down. This can be corrected without losing the angular alignment of position #3 by using a dial indicator at the footings and sliding the equipment straight over an equal amount at each end. one or both could be lost while correcting #2. The correction here will be to slide the rear end of the movable equipment sideways on the sole plate to correct the angle. IIISALlQNII~NT Paralleln I Plan FIGURE 6 Position #4 is parallel misalignment in plan (Figure #6).

These must be Consequently. turbine. Always 12 . there there are four positions to good to avoid of possible shaft misalignment.0003" (three- ten/thousandths of an inch) 10" along inch of travel from the . FIGURE 7 The Misalignment because the shaft shown in Figure #7 is called angular misalignment to the shaft of of the movable unit runs off at an angle owners specify that per the stationary not exceed along unit. unit is frequently a compressor It should or pump.As you can see. from the other shaft more STATIONARY UNIT FIGURE 8 Note too. We are aligning shafts. it shall This means not slope that at a point away the shaft than coupling. of the coupling This hubs are also this at an angle is called keep to each other (See Figure is not the reason not couplings. and movable units may be a gear between be aligned the stationary is movable. taken are four steps sequence shown alignment. angular this in misalignment. that the faces #8). which be noted that the stationary unit is most often The movable etc. in the exact while disturbing one alignment position correcting another. It should first.003". There the driver. Some equipment this angle shall . the shaft. such as a motor.

STATIONAR:_rTI·1 UNlTl --_-_--::::::::::::== -- .D. the pivot point becomes the front It is obvious then that the distance between the rear footing and the pivot point (front footing) is a factor in how much the coupling 13 . STEP #1 LIFT FIGURE 10 Starting with step Dl. the face of the coupling hub is always at a right angle (90°) to the bottom of the equipment footings. To do this. angular in elevation (See Figure #10). which is 4" diameter.mind even when taking alignment readings off the face or O. short or long the shaft may extend out of the unit and no matter what moves we make to the equipment. footings. and it is open at the top . low. This will remain a constant no matter how high. Now we will run through a hypothetical alignment using the four steps and show how to calculate the amount of each move. of the coupling hub.. Lifting the rear footings of the movable unit would tend to close the coupling at the top.005" more than at the bottom. assume readings have been taken across the face of the coupling hub. STATIONARY UNIT FIGURE 9 As shown in Figure 09.

We have assumed the coupling is 4" diameter. and the opening at the top of the coupling is . "How many times will the coupling diameter go into the distance between the front and rear footings?" The answer obviously is 5 times. We make a simple calculation.005" at the top.faces will close at the top for any given amount of lift at the rear footings. 14 . if the distance between the front and rear footings was also 4".010" to close the 4" diameter coupling . with a 4" diameter coupling. then it would be a 1 to 1 ratio and lifting the rear footing .005" at the top. If the distance was 8" between footings.005" larger than at the bottom. ---~_.:_-~.005" STATIONARY UNIT FIGURE 12 The conditions shown in Figure #12 are more realistic. the ratio would become 2 to 1 and the rear footings would have to be raised .005" would close the coupling . "---_==---- 12. So five times .025" thick placed under each rear footing will bring the coupling into good angular alignment in elevation.005" tells us that a shim . the distance between front and rear footings is 20". FIGURE 11 As shown in Figure 1111.

. . . / . . 15 . the indicator button could be placed closer to the shaft center or further out from center if the coupling hub face is larger in diameter. Now. we assumed that the alignment check was made with a dial indicator with its button on the coupling hub face very close to the edge of the 4" diameter (See Figure #13). It is actually the diameter of the circle through which the button of the dial indicator rotates that must be divided into the distance bet~een the front and rea~ footings of the movable unit. Actually. "@' - ' '\. .A FIGURE 13 In our hypothetical measurements for Step #1. ' -- FIGURE 14 The reading could even be taken off brackets attached to the shaft as shown in Figure #14.The distance between footings is measured from center to center of the hold-down bolts. . the dial would rotate through a circle much larger than the coupling hubs. View A-. .. .

STEP #3 Angular In Plan FIGURE 16 Step #3 corrects anguldr misalignment in plan. step #1 can be used here.012" below the shaft of the stationary unit. For now.012" thick shim under each of its footings will bring the shafts into good parallel alignment in elevation.After adjusting misalignment.008" greater on one side than on the other side. let's assume the shaft of the movable unit is . We will get into detailed use of the dial indicator later. The calculation used in Let's assume the distance between coupling faces Divide the coupling is . Placing a . These were both obtained with shims so they will not be lost while performing steps #3 and #4. 16 . always recheck to confirm that the correction was properly made. check to see how high or low the shaft of the movable unit is in relation to the shaft of the stationary unit. is very simple. Steps 1 & 2 are complete. STEP +2 Parallel In Elevation FIGURE 15 Step 112. With a dial indicator. "Parallel in Elevation".

040"). (20") and multiply by . Tighten all hold-down bolts and recheck the indicator. Loosen both rear hold-down bolts and one front hold-down bolt.040". DIAL INDICATOR PIVOT ON A FRONT FOOT. 5 x .008" = .008" (20 . It must Set the indicator on zero. the pivot point to be slightly off the exact distance between the hold-down 17 . This pivoting move (Step #3) can be Burrs may cause influenced by burrs on the bottom of very large footings.. then loosen the same three bolts and readjust. Recheck angular misalignment. FIGURE 17 To do this.4 = 5. If it has changed because of tightening the bolts. So the rear end of the movable unit will have to be moved exactly . be exactly in line with the hold down bolt. Turn the screw jack and move the rear end against the indicator until it registers . It may be necessary to over-shoot or under-shoot the desired reading to have it come out right when the bolts are tightened. place the dial indicator against the rear footing on the side which has the larger coupling opening as shown in Figure #17.040".diameter (4") into the distance between the front and rear hold down bolts. Place a screw jack in position at the opposite rear footing to move the equipment toward the indicator.

The difference would be very slight. find how much the shafts are offset one from the other. With a dial indicator attached to one shaft or coupling and the indicator button on the outside diameter of the other shaft coupling hub. Let's assume it's DIAL INDICATORS SCREW JACKS FIGURE 19 If you have two dial indicators and two screw jacks. you can set up and make the move as shown in Figure G19. then use it and the screwjack ~t the footings the same way you did 18 . . recalculate and make a second move.bolts. STEP +4 Parallel In Plan FIGURE 18 Step #4 is to correct parallel misalignment in plan. But if this happens. Now the trick is to move the movable unit straight over . The same percentage error on the second move will bring the alignment well within tolerance. If there is only one indicator on the job.045".045" without disturbing the angular alignment made in step #3.

pivoting on the front foot on the open side will lengthen this distance. This distance is important and recommendation should be held very close to the coupling manufacturer's which is usually stamped on high speed coupling hubs. Recheck to be sure parallel alignment is within . whereas.045". . 19 . Move one end of the unit against the indicator until it shows Tighten the hold down bolts and move the indicator and screwjack to Loosen three of the hold down bolts and move the other end of the unit. pivoting on the front foot on the closed side of the coupling will shorten the distance between the shaft step 13. This completes the Hypothetical Alignment. As shown in Figure #20. The pivot point must be on the same side of the equipment for each of these moves. this end . then decide how to make the adjustment. If the distance between shaft ends must remain as is then pivot half the required movement on one front footing and half on the other. and that angular alignment has not been disturbed.045".002". the distance between the ends of the shaft will always be affected. FIGURE 20 When making angular adjustments in plan. Check the distance between the shaft ends.

NOTES 20 .

003 11 4. number. 11 . 2.SECTION WRITTEN 1 TEST 1. Identify the following by {] w - D ~ -I - . Check the method by which each of the four steps are corrected.. There are 4 steps to good alignment.009".0015" .. Readings taken across a 8" diameter coupling show it is open at the top .005" .0315" .009" 21 .020" .004 11 . The distance between front and rear footings is 28". Circle the Angular Alignment Readings which would be acceptable if taken on a 12" Diameter Circle • . Shims Step #1 Step #2 Step #3 Step #4 Dial Indicator & Screw Jack 3.009 more than the bottom. Circle the amount of shim you would put under the rear footings to close the top opening .

tight side of the Step # Step # Step # Step # _ _ _ _ Angular in Plan Parallel in Elevation Parallel in Plan Angular in Elevation 22 .5. To shorten the distance between shaft ends. which side of the movable unit would you pivot on? DThe DThe side with the greater coupling opening. 6. Write in the correct number for the fo 11 ow.


NOTES 24 .

Working with incorrect readings results let's review the This is extremely in waste of time and poor alignment. Thickness Gage FIGURE 22 A thickness gauge (Figure 22) can be used where coupling hub ends are close together and obstructions alignment brackets. readings. procedures for taking alignment important.SECTION TWO THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT Now that we know what to do about misalignment. Straight Edge FIGURE 21 Instruments used in checking alignment include a straight edge (Figure #21) which is used mostly for rough alignment and to verify that the misalignment is within the range of the dial indicator. prevent the use of a dial indicator and 25 .

measurements telescope gauge.Taper Gauge FIGURE 23 Taper gauges (Figure #23) can also be used to check close gaps between coupling hubs. readout in thousandths Inside Micrometer FIGURE 24 Inside micrometers (Figure #24) can be used when coupling hubs are inches OUTSIDE MICROMETER FIGURE 25 The outside micrometer (Figure #25) is necessary for chetking the made with the total thickness when using thickness gauges. 26 . They are faster than thickness gauges and give a direct of an inch. and to check shim stock thickness.

It is by far the When used with alignment brackets. micrometers must be on hand to check the telescope FIGURE 27 The Dial Caliper (Figure #27) may be used to check the gap between coupling hub faces. the coupling hub faces.Telescope Gauge FIGURE 26 The telescope gauge (Figure #26) can be used to check the gap between It is rarely used above one inch because outside length. there seldom is room to use it. R DeE ~~ Dial Indicator FIGURE 28 This brings us to the dial indicator (Figure #28). best instrument to use in taking alignment readings. 27 . Because of its length. all alignment readings can be taken without even opening or disconnecting the coupling.

the circle through which the dial indicator very large compared face of the coupling easier the alignment specifications button rotates as shown in the dotted line is to the circle it would make if it was on the hub. a dial reading of 4i would meet the specs. As shown. There are several advantages 1. Rods can be shafts with a square extension attached to either or both brackets. \ / \-:!-rr-fl--~-[ltt1j~ 29 / / '-- /' FIGURE Here you see alignment brackets. Note that the dial indicator is attached to a bracket. put it as close as possible to the bracket. to align the shaft to of an inch per inch). These are: When taking angular alignment readings. If it has to This way be attached to a rod. thousandths On a 15" diameter circle. <. the dial becomes. the dial indicator is set to measure angular misalignment. in using alignment brackets. 28 . its weight will not affect the reading. TS-170 (Figure #29) attached to the rod bridging the coupling. The larger the circle. / I \ \ \ .-< [n-_ __ (i /' -. with its button on the end of the rod. the closer and For example. (3-ten thousandths reading on a 3" diameter coupling hub would have to be less than one-thousandth.

use on It to 4" Diameter They were designed for Shafts where there is very little space between the coupling and the machine. rods or the dial indicator 29 . But they can be used on 1 to 10" diameter shafts. This is the only reading where the weight of the extension can make a significant difference. Whatever amount 50 brackets are used. blocks TS-348 can also be used as brackets. must be checked before the Using the brackets over a closed coupling makes it easier to turn the shafts together. The coupling does not have to be open. See Figure They are 3/4" square. This is important on hot check alignment where the alignment machine 3. starts to cool down. The TS-170 brackets are only 3/8" thick. check them for sag and record the for in readings of parallel alignment in it can be accounted elevation.2. FIGURE 30 Alignment #30.

2" in diameter. Set the dial at O~ are on the bottom. If sag is indicated. rigid. The pipe should be approximately With the brackets on top.[9 I 'r-------~ I Il:: ~------------------~ FIGURE 31 To check the brackets. check for looseness and retest. the dial indicator should be set with its button on top of the extension rod. 30 . any change in the reading can be attributed looseness. check the indicator. Rotate the pipe 1800 so the brackets and dial Since the pipe is to sag or Again. assemble them on a piece of rigid pipe with the extension rods and dial indicator in place (See Figure #31).

NOTES 31 .

--------I t 32 .H. : : ---=_~ __i_~ • .- .-:l_~-I--"---:~~-=.---..-----. • ~ ~ : I i .-~.-I I' ---~~---------.'_-:-OJ_~.--.L!_-+-+--H--t --.----.---_---'-!~...----.~ --~ --~---~~----------~----.ALIGNMENT BRACKET SAG -..

is attached to the bracket the weight When turned on the extension it to hang down In the top position the pipe.002" away from the pipe.002" toward 1800 to the bottom. the indicator the indicator attached to the will hang down in a minus As shown in sketch alignment check #4 a minus sag test reading the correct must be added reading.002" in reading . The minus .001" below position. and rod sag are scaled. Good practice would be to fit them to the machine first then remove them for the sag test. the button has been As shown by the length pushed in to show total shaft.004" reading.004" for "sag" for will show plus and the corrected when . 33 . by 2 as you will see in the next section of the video In sketch #3 the sag test is made with extension resulting rod.001".004". of the rod causes . Transferring shaft "B" the bottom is minus attached this set up to the machine Shaft Deduct as shown in sketch #2 with . the rod will hang down of the indicator sag is plus .COMPENSATING FOR ALIGNMENT BRACKET SAG In the sketches bracket on page ~. Another setting way to correct the indicator for sag would be to add or subtract the sag when dial in the top position on the machine.002" which is correct . the dial indicator Each division shaft extension . to the reading to obtain The brackets they were and indicator must be assembled button on the machine should exactly as the sag tested and the indicator be compressed same amount. In the 1800 position. the indicator . . "A".001" shaft offset the dial is to the low shaft. .002" reading must be divided tape. represents In the sag test in sketch with its button #1 the indicator rod.

NOTES 34 .


NOTES 36 .

and recheck both The reading is plus again top and bottom. we will reciprocating take actual alignment and motor. it can register out. rotate the shafts in the same direction.100" minus. it goes . Our dial indicator bracket with has a range of 200 thousandths. 3600 times to see if it consistently returns Repeatability established is important. are not being held their thrust Next rotate 1800 to the bottom at the bottom and check . At the top. both Never proceed until repeatability is in the set up and when taking alignment readings. 37 .SECTION THREE THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT Now. several set the dial and check indicator on O. Always repeat.100" plus If the button moves to minus.004". readings on a close coupled compressor STEP #1 Angular In Elevation FIGURE 32 We start with Mount alignment step Ill. Now rotate the shafts to O. for angular Rotate misalignment. across the alignment brackets on the shaft with a rod extending the coupling. "Angular in Elevation" (Figure 32). one or both shafts If readings do not against it may be because bearings. its range. Mount it on the it its button half on the end of the extension Now rod and compress up to to approximately or .

a reading would meet the allowable angular Parallel In Elevation STEP +2 FIGURE 33 Step #2 is parallel measurements.005". the hold down bolts the job. tolerance. check.27 times 5\". Before as tight any alignment as you intend always tighten to leave them at the end of The recheck . is .004") footings. If it still has been apart the dial button are squeezed in . hold Divide into the distance is 14". With shows the larger opening is still at the top but is now as high as . Put this amount of shim stock the rear motor Now recheck the angular alignment top to bottom.0033" the dial making an 11" circle. It will down bolts which go 1. first tighten all all hold down bolts.004" further at the top than at the From the shaft measures indicator rear motor 1. this line of the extension rod So the circle made by the dial between the front and so is 11". that rotate the shafts slowly and watch the dial movement bottom. It's easy it means to verify it is plus and not minus shows plus at the . the angular under misalignment (. But. bottom. hub faces .004" at the So the to be fooled.While double checking this reading. determine in elevation using (Figure the full required 33). 38 . dial With angular readings to we have been indicator the amount of movement to make the correction.004".001". center Double line to the center this is 11".27 times. coupling bottom.

: I -r----f fI~-: : I --f----+_ -+-----T-ItIf-- -~ COM. is upside 39 . alignment With the brackets rod. the dial 34. The dial 1800 to the bottom so use a mirror and the reading. the dial indicator on top of the extension and set it to zero. in elevation. __________ t FIGURE 35 back to the machine.-SHAFT . also applies E Now getting parallel place the dial shafts check -M-O-T-O. button attach (Figure the dial 35).RESS:=rR -SHAFT __ __ . Rotate down Compress the and to the middle of its range Rotate and check for repeatability.. reading must be divided by two. can be seen in Figure The indicator adjustment when using will read the sum of A and B.FIGURE 34 With parallel The reason measurements. but the required of this as shown at C. indicator to measure on top. This shaft is only one-half the brackets.

alignment alignment 40 . is . obtained This before misalignment. __ FIGURE 36 you should be aware of. Since it is a plus it means the is attached to the compressor shaft. Pry the motor no more in than two hold-down and retighten at once. before up.010" shim under keep the motor each motor footing to raise it straight loosen up. Put a .010" low. It is possible and parallel to alignment when both angular Figure 36 shows a condition indicate alignment close parallel are very bad.--A ------ --_ l_ D .. j_ c --...020". slip the shims footings. when also applies why good angular is attempted.flashlight to read it. is another parallel C and D would This reason be read. The plus reading motor .. the bolts moving to the other Always take the dial indicator off the bracket when moving the machine. would attached indicate to coupling reasonably B with A with its button on the rim of If the good parallel its button alignment. To from moving bolts side to side or end to end. A dial indicator coupling B.020" reading and the dial must be divided by two. It reads plus .. the sum of the distances gross parallel brackets.. Again check for repeatability at the top and bottom. dial is attached to coupling on the rim of coupling This would using the must be indicate A.

002" at the bottom. FIGURE 38 Again rod. See Figure 37. Actual misalignment tolerance is only half of this so it is well within which is .With the motor raised .010" recheck parallel alignment in elevation. With zero at the top. the allowable for parallel alignment +3 Angular In Plan FIGURE 37 Our next move is step #3 "Angular in Plan". the dial now reads . set the dial so its button See Figure 38.002 inch. With is against the end of the extension position on the brackets in the horizontal 41 .

the required move to correct to correct divided angular this angular the diameter between So. The recommended It measures distance 2. movement. front 1.27.968". . so we can between afford coupling is 2 15/16". First we must these decide on a pivot hubs point.27 times the open of can also be used You recall we previously is making the dial button hold-down move into the distance was 1. the hold-down times Set the dial sure it at zero and move returns to zero in and out several good contact to make it makes against the footing. over and rear motor bolts and the answer . side of the This means coupling. the friction. set the dial at zero. the equipment the required 42 .016" shows we must side of the coupling the rear end of the motor toward . all the motor The other hold-down bolts. This means the largest The method misalignment misalignment the circle of calculating in evaluation in plan. Leave the one at the pivot bolts should be fairly loose. To move the equipment It gives over against a smooth the indicator. pivot on the front foot on the closed Before loosening footing Point any bolts. opening It reads plus is on this side. on the side of the motor it directly the button and that in toward the larger bolt. to let it close we should a little as w~ adjust the angular misalignment.016" on the far side. set the dial indicator with with its button coupling on the rear opening. Now loosen point snug.020".this side. Turn the shafts 1800 and check for angular misalignment. build jumps and gradual up pressure more than until they overcome movement. it is best Hydraulic then to use a jacks screwjack.

to fit the to mounting use your If the job does not have then you have ingenuity. the angular alignment .0015". We have tack welded will use one-half heavy duty hex nuts to the base head set screws on this machine and inch square for screwjacks.SCREWJACK MOUNTING PRONG FIGURE 39 The Carrier Most screwjack Part Number. watch the dial closely. tolerance angular in plan alignment. is shown in Figure 39. centrifugal prong.0033" would which is be good enough per inch. stop and tighten as the bolts the hold-down may change are tightened. machines holes in the sole plates this setup. Recheck circle.0003" 43 . As the screwjack plus is turned. have TI1286-A.020". It is now to meet . bolts. When Watch it gets the dial. On this II" . to It .

Assuming horizontal you have repeatability.#4 Parallel In Plan FIGURE 40 The fourth and final step is "Parallel In Plan". FIGURE 41 For this parallel reading. side. install bar. the indicator 41. its button rotate on the top side of the extension until the brackets See Figure the shafts Set the are in a horizontal plane on this side. rotate the shafts so the brackets are on the opposite 44 . dial at zero. with Now. (Figure 40).

022". again use the dial indicator the motor footings. the pivot point must remain on the same side for each move. If it repeats after several this side. steps completed. we will move one end Remember.The dial reading checks.011" towards To make an exact move. is now plus . recheck the four positions and 45 . on hand. With all four alignment record the results. and screwjack on Since we have only one dial indicator first and then the other. it means the motor must be moved .

2. 46 . 7. 5. Button loose on indicator shaft threads. When the dial indicator button is pressed in toward the dial. When checking parallel alignment in elevation. will the dial read plus or minus. 8. what tools are handy to read the dial when it is in the bottom position? 1. The dial indicator should be removed from the coupling or brackets before making alignment adjustments to: Reset it Avoid damaging it Relocate it 3. 4. 1. 2. Circle the numbers of the items which could cause lack of repeatability when taking dial indicator readings. [ ] Plus [ ] Minus 4. Damaged or sticky indicator. Grasping alignment bracket to turn shaft. 3. 6. Changing direction of shaft rotation.SECTION 3 WRITTEN TEST 1. Loose extension rod. Loose mounting of indicator. Shafts not held against thrust bearings. 2. Loose alignment bracket.

47 . I. [ ] Indicator malfunction. which shaft is low? [ ] Shaft "A" [ ] Shaft "B" 6.o . I' ·l:ib·-------------~ 1800 ~: . [ ] Angular misalignment.r'---------------.010" (MINUS) 5. If parallel alignment readings are not the same when taken from shaft "A" to shaft "B" as they were when taken from shaft "B" to shaft "A".cf.000" SHAFT_-¥- ""B" :: 'I " :: :: " " II " " :I II . In the above sketch (elevation view). what is the most likely cause? [ ] Bent shaft. How low is the low shaft? " 7.



NOTES .so .

six thousandths Most equipment until can be aligned normal as close to zero as possible Then and operated it reaches operating temperature. compensate for the changes you now know occur. shut down and the check the alignment machine before as quickly as possible.000006" x 50 x 20 and it shows that when the machine the shaft will have moved up approximately comes up to temperature. of an inch. possible we have talked about aligning the shafts as close as to zero on the dial indicator. into good alignment temperatures Cast iron and steel will degree fahrenheit change expand or shrink approximately .SECTION FOUR THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT Up to this point. when the machine operating however. to intentionally misalign the shafts as is cold so they will move take over. then you multiply . footings if the shaft's and the operating at which is 20 inches the bottom above the temperature is 50 degrees temperature the alignment was made. then reset it to Turbines and other equipment which operate at very high temperatures recommended discussed. by the must be initially manufacturer set out of alignment calculated the amount as previously or the amount 51 . of the in temperature center per inch of material above Therefore. You can try to realign temperature it cools down too far from operating or wait and let it cool all the way to room temperature. There will be occasions.000006" per length.

electric motors. made the necessary adjustments and rechecked again at operating temperature. it will tend to move toward the cooler at the suction end and away from the condenser at the discharge end. If the compressor is close coupled to the cooler and condenser. Estimates of machine changes caused by temperature changes are really just estimates. gears.From Cooler To Condenser * t Gear Electric Motor Drive Coupling FIGURE 42 Turbines. 52 . gas engines and water pumps will normally move straight up and down. No machine is really aligned until you have checked the alignment at operating temperature. Centrifugal refrigeration compressors (Figure 42) will move down on the suction end and up at the discharge end.

000" SKETCH D 6 t:8~ .002" SKETCH A 6 ~~ . it will be within tolerance (Sketch tiC"). If it expands four thousandths. then you can set its shaft four thousandths low (Sketch "B"). If it expands six thousandths.002" SKETCH E FIGURE 43 On all alignment. it is still within tolerance (Sketch "E"). it will be dead on (Sketch tiD"). you actually have six thousands to play with. you should take advantage of the allowable tolerances. (Sketch "A"). So 53 .~~ .002" If you know which piece of equipment will expand the If it most and know this expansion is going to be at least two thousandths. Parallel tolerance is .002" SKETCH C y ~~- . as shown in Figure 43.004" SKETCH B . only expands two thousandths.

discharge end heats and moves up. FIGURE 45 Now. (THIS DOES NOT APPLY WHEN USING THE DIAL INDICATOR). top to bottom. see Figure 44. let's talk about what can happen when you have to take angular alignment readings off the face of the coupling hubs using inside micrometers (Figure 45). thickness gauges. it will always operate open at the top. taper gauges or telescope gauges. with centrifugal compressors. 54 . the movement reqUired at the hot check will be very little and possibly none at all. For example.FIGURE 44 The same reasoning applies to angular alignment. Coupling hub faces are seldom perfectly true and are frequently damaged by careless handling. the suction end cools Bnd moves down while the Therefore. so the initial alignment should be open at the bottom. taking advantage of the tolerances and calculating for temperature changes. if you set the coupling By dead on. top to bottom and side to side and the coupling hubs should be marked so they can be rotated togethel always turning in the same direction. Readings should be taken 1800 apart.

appeared to be serious misalignment was mostly hub face distortion. (Figure 49) the larger opening changes sides but Again. misalignment changes from side to side. if the indicated larger opening just changes sides. misalignment and some hub face distortion. 46 In Figure 46 the shafts are well aligned but one coupling face is at an By rotating the two shafts together 180°. the amount of misalignment remains the same and stays on the same side as the shafts are rotated 180° so we know this is all misalignment.FIGURE angle to the shaft. smaller amount from the larger amount and divide by two. so the actual misalignment in this instance would be seven thousandths. by adding the two amounts together and dividing by two. but the amount changes. 55 . but remains the identical amount. the Therefore.001" which is well within tolerance. FIGURE 47 In this example (Figure 47). FIGURE 48 This means there is some This can be calculated out In Figure 48 the larger opening remains on the same side as the shafts are rotated 180°. this indicates there is some This time deduct the So. what misalignment and some hub face distortion. FIGURE it also changes amounts. 49 In this last example. The actual misalignment is only . then the shafts are in good alignment.

008" opening hub and the shafts would have been left seriously out of on one side of the Before starting any work around the coupling. be sure to reinstall the coupling safety guard before the machine is operated. When alignment is completed. if only one reading had been taken. idea to remove the fuses. the adjustment have been made to compensate coupling alignment.This points out the importance of taking readings 1800 apart. being worked on. Always think safety. be is it would also be a good sure to lock out the main starter and tag it. for the . As shown would in Figure 45. 56 . to show the equipment If it is a small starter.

Use a 13/32" Drill a drill bit and a size 8 tapered reamer with straight flutes. 57 . and final alignment completed. gear and drive. Doweling permits exact repositioning of components if they have to be moved.DOWELING MACHINERY HOLD DOWN BOLT FOOTI After alignment has been checked at operating temperature (hot check). pilot hole then ream it to the final dimension. all machine components must be doweled to their sole plate or base. Size 8 tapered dowel pins are usually furnished with the Carrier centrifugal refrigeration compressor. it is best to drill new holes rather than try to ream deeper into the old holes. In the event of realignment. Fit the dowel pin so it extends through the sole plate and sufficient length is left above the equipment foot to accommodate removal.

rust preventative coat then with while lead or other anti sieze. Before inserting the dowel pins into the reamed holes. with the manufacturers instructions. Tap the dowel pins lightly hammer. 58 .Place the dowel pins as nearly vertical as possible. Dowel the gear and sound will indicate end only of Carrier proper Dowel the suction drive in accordance compressors. compound. A ringing into position with a small machinist's seating.

006" .000006" = 20" = 20 X 50 X .THERMAL CHANGES IN ALIGNMENT Turbine Centrifugal Refrigeration Compressor 20" EXAMPLE: LENGTH OF METAL OFTEMPERATURE CHANGE COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION 50° = .000006" 59 = .


007" 2.0165" 3.011" . what should the actual reading . and the average temperature of this 18" of metal is 35° higher with the machine operating than it was shut down.SECTION FOUR WRITTEN TEST 1.013" .015". .010" .0185" .006" . What advantage do alignment brackets TS-170 have over alignment blocks TS-348? 4. If the dial indicator is set at a 30° angle to the measurement being taken and it reads be? Circle one: .0038 .004" Circle one .0032" .0129" . how much higher will the shaft be? .0045" . What advantage do alignment blocks TS-348 have over alignment brackets TS-170? 61 . If the distance from the bottom of the machine footing to the shaft centerline is 18".

NOTES 62 .