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W

Division of Engineering

**BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, R. I.
**

J ENGINEERING MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY

CREEP OF POLYURETHANE "UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE FOR NONLINEAR UNIAXIAL STRESS J. S. Y. [AI and W. N. FINDLEY

t

I/

Materials Research Program Brown University ; ARPA SD-86 : ARPA E-76 EMRL-44 February 1971 "

CREEP OF POLYURETHANE UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE FOR NONLINEAR UNIAXIAL STRESS by by•* TrOHNIOAL LIBRARY

J. S. Y. Lai

and W. N. Findley

BLDG. 805

A0ERDEENRO-vIG GROUND, BTEAP-TL

0)

Summary Two methods are described to account for varying temperature during creep. Both employ the modified superposition principle. One uses a reduced time involv-

ing a shift factor which is a function of both stress and temperature history. The other considers the strain to be a function of the current values of stress and temperature. Experiments on polyurethane include constant stress creep and recovery at several temperatures in the nonlinear range and an experiment in which the stress was held constant while the temperature increased at a constant rate, then the stress was removed and the temperature decreased at a constant rate. The strain

in this experiment was predicted by means of the theories from the results of the constant temperature creep tests. The strains in the constant temperature creep and recovery tests were described by means of the multiple integral representation and the modified superposition principle. Most of the nonlinearity and temperature effect were found

in the coefficient of the time-dependent term.

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; formerly Research Associate, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Professor of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Introduction In a recent paper [1] the authors described the results of creep experi-

ments in the nonlinear range on polyurethane in torsion at various temperatures. The results showed that the time dependence could be described adequately by a power function whose exponent was independent of stress and temperature. In the

present paper tension creep experiments in the nonlinear range performed on the same specimen of polyurethane as part of the same series of experiments are reported for several temperatures. Constitutive equations describing these results

are employed to predict the behavior under a constant rate of temperature rise (and fall) during creep (and recovery) at constant stress. Previous investigations of nonlinear viscoelasticity have mostly been confined to room temperature. However, Bernstein, Kearsly and Zapas [2] and Lianis

[3] have extended the concept of a thermorheologically simple viscoelastic material to the nonlinear range. Earlier investigations by the authors [4 to 9] on

poly (vinyl chloride) and polyurethane at room temperature under combined tension and torsion showed that the creep strain could be separated into time-dependent and time-independent parts. The latter could be expressed as a power function The time-independent term was It was

whose exponent was independent of stress state.

nearly linear, but the time-dependent coefficient was strongly nonlinear.

found that the nonlinear behavior could be adequately described by the first three terms of a multiple integral series. For varying loads either the modified super-

position method [5,10] for the mixed time parameters in the kernel functions or the product form [6,10] gave satisfactory results.

N Numbers in brackets identify references listed at the end of this paper.

The loading and measuring devices are as follows. The lower ends of one pair of the rods were attached to the core and the ends . and internal pressure [13].25.11. the Upjohn Company. The carbon content was 59 per cent. torsion. identified as XR6-77. nitrogen 7. hydrogen 6. and the balance oxygen. Dead weights were used in the present work.. with a maximum deviation of 0.-2- Material and Specimen The material used in the experiments was the same as employed in previous work [8.0005 in.12]. It was a full density solid polyurethane having a specific This material..00 in. was cured at a temperature of 250 0 F for two hours. gravity of 1. The polyester resin was derived from a dicarboxylic acid and a triol.3 per cent. Experimental Apparatus The testing machine was designed to test tubular specimens under combined tension.5 per cent. and Supplied by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. was produced by CPR DiviThe sion.9971 in. and the gage length was 4.05 per cent. with a maximum deviaThe material tion of 0. All experiments were performed on the same specimen. The average outside diameter was 0. the average wall thickness was 0.0003 in.5 per cent. chlorine less than 0. Tension and torsion were produced by dead weights or servo control acting through levers and pulleys.05928 in.. The tensile strain measurement was accomplished by using pairs of rods attached to the upper and lower gage points of the test specimen to transmit the motion of the gage points below the furnace. It has been used to investigate creep and stress relaxation behavior under various loading conditions for plastics [4-12] and metals [14-16] and plasticity [17].9. material was prepared from the prepolymer and combined with toluene diisocyanate. The specimen was a tubular type with enlarged threaded ends machined from a solid rod.. ash 0.

thermocouple was embedded in each end of the copper bar. . S. The temperature variation along the gage length was uniform at 75 0 F and 102 0 F. Rela- tive motion of the upper and lower gage points during the test caused an output of the differential transformer which was directly related to the strain. Instruments' Sirect Mark III proportional temperature controller. It was observed that the temperature could be maintained constant throughout 0 the testing period within ± 1/2 F. the following heating devices were added.-3- of the other pair were attached to the coil of a differential transformer. The specimen was heated in an electric The split-tube furnace which was maintained at constant temperature by a C. but increased to 20 F on the outside and 70 F on the on the inside of the specimen at 150 0 F. Four thermocouples were attached with spring clips on the outer surface at equal distances within the gage length of the specimen. sensitivity of the strain measurement was 2 x 10-6 in./in. These served as the heat Temperature in the copper bar was controlled by two Research Incorporated Thermac Model TC5192 temperature controllers operating on the two heaters. Due to the poor conductivity of polyurethane a second heating source inside the specimen tube was used to achieve a more uniform temperature distribution. temperature was measured at six positions by means of chromel-alumel thermocouples with fused hot junctions. N. Two of these thermocouples were cemented on the inner surface of the specimen at positions slightly beyond the gage length. During each of the tests. It was found that the smaller the spacing between the copper bar and One the inner surface of the specimen the better the temperature was controlled. sensing device in the control system. In order to perform creep tests of polyurethane above room temperature. Two small resistor heat- ing cores were attached at both ends of a copper bar and inserted inside the specimen.

In performing the constant stress creep tests./in. to 5. and 97 followed tests whose and £12 = 90. but the latter was ignored in all tests.5 hr. 91. trollers were required. at the test temperature (75 to 160 0 F) did not show a significant difference in the creep response under the same loading conditions. After reaching the test temperature the specimen was kept at this temperature for one hour before the load was applied. 46. however. £12 = 78 . £11 = 120 c11 = 63 x 10-6 in. The thermal expansion was found to be 35.3 per cent. recovery stabilized at £11 = -84 . respectively.2 x 10 in. . and it it shows up as an alters the gage length of The former was taken into account in the conThe stant rate of temperature rise test./in. the Some adjustments of the set points of the con- specimen was left to recover at zero stress at the same test temperature for about one hour. £12 = 102 . Thermal expansion has two effects on tensile strain: apparent creep strain during temperature changes. 48. heat was gradually turned down until it reached room tem- perature. c11 = 95 . After that. gage length was fixed at 75OF and no correction was made for change in gage length -6 with temperature. Except for one experiment the temperature was maintained at a constant value throughout the testing period.. 84.-4- Experimental Procedure and Results The rate of heating the specimen was controlled to about 20 F per minute.0 hr. The zero strain for each test was taken to be the strain reading at temperature just prior to loading. and the specimen was left to recover at room temperature until the strain had returned to less than 40 x 10-6 in. Thus at 160OF the gage length increased about 0. the specimen was loaded for a one-hour period for each test. After unloading at the end of one hour./OF. and Tests 69. the strain measuring instrument. Pilot tests indicated that a soaking period 0F from 0. or appeared to have stabilized before proceeding to the next test./in.

In previous work on the same material at room [8. together with the programmed and measured temperature.11] and elevated [1] temperature. £1 /a about 0. constant stress creep test was also conducted in which the temperature increased at a nearly constant rate.143 n resulting from the individual determin- used in earlier work [8. are shown in Fig. In view of the scatter in ations the value n = 0. for the same reason [1]. ell showed a strong effect. . it was found possible to describe the results of creep strain versus n .9. coi showed scatter and about the increased from same modest temperature effect observed in torsion [1]. The strain versus time. it seems that (1) can be used to describe the The effect of tempera- strain versus time relationship of the present tests also.11] with this material at room temperature and in the companion work in torsion at elevated temperature [1] was chosen as a common value for all stresses and temperatures. sion it was found that there was considerable scatter in 0 but no definite trend as a function of either stress or temperature. Numbers in parentheses identify equations.23 from 75OF to 160 0 F.19 to 0.-5- The test program of the present investigation is shown in Table I. The A tensile strain versus time curves from these tests are shown in Fig. However. the same as in torsion and it more than doubled over the same temperature range. n in (1) was determined by first obtaining the best fit of As in the companion tests in torn 0 each data set to (1) by a least squares method. time under constant stress by a power law with a constant exponent o ii 0 + CEl + C+lt n + n() where c and £11 are functions of stress and n is a constant. then decreased at a nearly constant rate while the stress was removed when the temperature started to decrease. ture on 0. From the results shown in Fig. 3. 1 and 2. £ . 1 and 2.

Also some of the last tests were omitted and a few others whose strains were so out of line as to suggest errors of observation. an extensive period in which changes were tests 39 and 76 and tests 41 and 67 in Table II. As described in [1] the effect of history was greater in torThe results of the repeated tests in tension are summarized Examination of all the data showed that there were changes which The greatest changes occurred during the Possible causes were generally resulted in increased strains. These history effects were ignored in the analysis. tion (1) with the values of than the experimental data. E In the analysis in following sections equaand n in Table I were employed rather Discussion of Results Several experiments were repeated one or more times at intervals during the series of 118 creep tests under tension. . There was. discussed in [1]. in Table II.-60 Also consistent with the work on torsion [1] + e was taken to be independent of 0 temperature in view of the much smaller apparent effect of temperature on 0 + ci0 than on l. l . Compare. Employing these restrictions values of 0 + E and El were re- calculated and are shown in Table I. however. torsion and combined tension and torsion. small. In the analysis of the effect of temperature the data from the first 20 experiments were ignored because of the changes which were occurring. for example. These repeated experiments were used to indicate how much the creep behavior was changing as a result of the history of stress and temperature on the single specimen employed. sion than tension. early tests and again when the largest stresses were applied. The experiments employed in the analysis were undoubtedly influenced to some extent by the prior history of stress and temperature.

.T)ao Determination of Kernel Functions Comparison of (3) kernel functions 2 + N(t. T is temperature E an arbitrary time prior to t and 6(&) =aa(&)a In this equation only terms from the first three orders have R . suggests that the R .T)a 3 . (2) where t is time.T)W( 1 dE 1 +ffw~t-ý lt-E.0 Thus under isothermal conditions and constant stress (2) becomes £(t. a11 a F For uniaxial stress Eii the following equation can be obtained for the creep strain £ = £ .T)d I% 2)d& 1dE W& 00 + 000 J 0 6 . The kernel functions (under different isothermal conditions) and time arguments as indicated. M . where H(t) has the value 1 when t .T) = R(t. constant stress 0 when t < 0 . (3) with (1). M . see for example [4]. f R(t-& .T)a + M(t. N of (2) depend on temperature Under and been retained. representing the test data. .-7-- Analysis Nonlinear Constitutive Equation A nonlinear constitutive equation in the multiple integral form has been described by several investigators. N may have the following forms H(t) is the Heaviside unit function. a(t) = aH(t) * .

a2 = a3 = 0 + . 4. cz for each stress as given in Table I shows that o Therefore Eo The data of can be approximated as a linear function of stress. The reference temperature was chosen as 750 F because . 5 values of for temperatures 100 0 F. E 1000 F. 4.T) where b3 n = 0. respectively.T) N(t. a1 . . 0 F. the time-independent and the time-dependent coefficients (5a) and (5b). 120OF and 140 0 F) was plotted as + In Fig. (6) The time-dependent part of the strain + from Table I versus temperature Then +/a versus a T was plotted for each stress level as shown in Fig. (4) b2 a2 .195 per cent/ksi.143 . 5. for each of several temperatures (75 shown in Fig. a3 are independent of temperature.T) M(t. . From (5b) + (aT 1 a where T1=T - = b (Tl) + b (T )a + b (T )a2 2T1 31 (7a) 1w1 750 F .-8 - R(t. and comparing with (1) results in o c =a + Inserting (4) into (3) +aa 2 +a 3 3 2 3 (5a) (5b) b1(T)a + b2(T)a 2 +b(3 Ma From the results in Table I. were determined as follows. 120OF and 140OF at all stress levels were obtained from the lines of Fig. and are functions of temperature as suggested by the test results. e0 a= al 2 a1 0. = a1 + b (T)tn a 2 + b 2(T)tn a3 a + b3(T)tn b.

000. b3 are independent of temperature. b2 . 6.-9- T = 75 0 F was the lowest temperature used in this study. b 3 = 0 were determined graphically from versus a . bI . c+/a versus a In Fig. (7c) £+/ F(T ) was determined from the amount of vertical shift of Thus F(T ) was approximated by versus temper- ature as shown in Fig. b2 . constant temperature as characterized in this section may be summarized as follows by introducing (4) through (8) into (3) . This implies that only b1 depends on tem- perature. F(TI) = 81T + 8 2 11 2 where 81 = 0. (7c).0045 per cent/ksi(OF) 2 (7d) From (7a). bI . 5.T) = (b1 + 01 T1 + 8 2 T1 )a + b 2 a 2 2 . at T bI b with the result 0. sented by the time-dependent part of the strain can be repre- + £ (c. per cent/(ksi)2 b3 0 . and F(0) = 0 . Therefore (7a) can be rewritten as Ee(a.017. and are independent of temperature. per cent/ksi = 0. curves of Thus at different temperatures are parallel straight lines. in Fig.004. the curve for different temperatures can be obtained by a vertical shift of the S+/a versus b2 a curve for b3 T1 = 0 .00038 per cent/ksi OF (7d) and 82 = 0.TI)2 c += a1 b + b a + bCy2 + F(T) 2 3 1 F(T ) + (7b) (b is the vertical c /c where shift. (8) Thus the constitutive relation of creep strain under constant stress. (7b). 5.

tT) = R(t. at constant stress .K _TEAP-TL A:BERDEB .- 10 - Sa al 1 or + [(b 1 + 61T + 11 21 T2T)a + b a2]t. tI = 1 hr. Creep strains were cal- culated from (9) for each stress and temperature and are shown in Fig.f(aot-t 1 ) where f has the form of (9) and the ala term vanishes. a in ksi.195a + [(0.00038T + 0. (11) Thus the recovery at zero a0 is from (10) for iso- stress after a period thermal conditions Cl1(t) = f(aot) .T)a 3 which becomes (9) when numerical values are supplied.T)a + M(t. TE0O11IIOAL LIBRARY BLDG 305 MD. (12) The recovery strains following constant stress creep were predicted from (9) by means of (12).017 + 0. RO'VING GROUND. 2 £ = 0.0045T2)a 11 (9) + O.000. 7) is not as good as for tor- With the exception of one test the actual strains during recovery were smaller than the strains predicted from the tension tests.O0a 2 ]t 0 . between the theory and test data for tension (Fig. Recovery at Constant Temperature The modified superposition method [5] for multi-step load histories can be expressed as follows for tensile loading €il(t) p I = i=0 [f(ailt-ti) -O a i-l1t-ti t > t (10) where for the present experiments f(a. The results for some of the tests are shown in Fig. Agreement During recovery the contribution of the nonlinear terms is very small. . sion [1]. 1 and 2. 1 4 3 where c is in per cent.T)a2 + N(t. and t in hours. 7.

the first application of stress. as follows: . For tests involving varying temperature during loading. T o aT is the temperais the real time.- 11 - Creep under Continuously Varying Temperature Method A In the analysis of the creep behavior of linear viscoelastic material at different but constant temperatures. T will provide the Thus.C) = J(T o . Consider a general constitutive relation under constant stresses and temperatures. it is intended in this section to explore a possible way of describing the effect of nonlinear creep behavior under varying temperature by generalizing the constitutive relation obtained through creep tests under different but constant temperatures. the determination of aT as a function of temperature necessary information for determination of the reduced time. . no similar method is available to describe nonlinear viscoelastic behavior under varying temperature during loading. where J is the creep compliance. the effects of temperature and time for cer- tain classes of material can be combined into a single parameter through the "time-temperature superposition principle" which may be stated as follows: J(T. Aside from the work reported in [2] and [3]. the definition given by Morland and Lee [18] for reduced time is ft J f dý 0 (15) and t = 0 corresponds to where t is the current time. is the reference temperature and t ture shift factor. (13) S= (14) ý is the reduced time.t) t/aT(T) . • is any prior time.

(16) where J = F (T) + F 2(T)a + T3(T)a 2 (16a) (16b) 2 S[F(T) + F(T)a + F(T)a G(t) In (16) it is assumed that the total creep strain can be separated into a timeJ 0a and a time-dependent part Jt a . .O)G(t) time C 0atT=T 0 orT =0 in (18) can be combined into G(c) by defining a reduced a(TlO) aT t ' (19) where a T(T la) is a shift factor depending on both temperature and stress. while T1 = T-To Ind a 1 =$ 2= 3 8l 82 83 are 1 functions of temperature f(T 1 . c= 0o + [a 1 a + a2a2 + a3]G(C) • (20) Equation (20) can be interpreted as a time-temperature superposition principle [20] provided that the shift factor aT depends on both temperature and stress. J t = [a 1 + a 2 a+a 3a2 Rearrange (16b) such that 2 + 8 1 (T1 ) + 8 2 (T1 )a + 83(T)a ]G(t) (17) Rearranging by factoring out the temperature-independent terms yields Jt = [al + a 2a + a 3 a 2 ] f(Tla)G(t) where f(Tl~a ) (18) 2 Fi =_ 81 (TI) + 8 (T 1 )a + 83(T )a2 2 ++ 2 and a1 ' a2 ' a3 are independent of temperature. Therefore. Equation (9) can be con- independent part sidered as a special case of (16).- 12 S= Jo + JO C j0 a+jt .

. yields satisfactory agreement with experiment. (b) minus the strain that would have t to a previously occurred had the prior stress been applied at the time unstressed material.T] provides a means of account- ing for creep behavior under continuously varying stress and temperature as follows: C(t) Ja(t) + 0 [) +a + ) 3 ]G(•- )} aa( ) dý qSC(c (23) . (c) plus the strain that would have occurred had the current stress been applied at time t to the previously unstressed material.13 - For continuously varying temperature and/or stress. The modified superposition method considers that the strain following a change in stress at time t1 is the sum of: (a) the strain that would have occurred had the stress not been changed. For describing creep behavior under an arbitrary stress history.a(t)] where s is time prior to the current time t and t = 0 at the time stress is first applied. be used to redefine the reduced time ft 0 (18) and (19) can C as follows: ds (21) aT[Tl(s).t-E." proposed by Findley and Lai [5] in summation formh and employed in integral form by Pipkin and Rogers [19]. it has been found that the concept of a "modified superposition principle. In integral form the modified superposition principle can be written as follows =tT t f 0 aQa(E).t T dE(• dE da (22) Introducing (20) into (22) for Q[o(E).

(28) a[Tl'CF(E)] aT 0 aT[TlO(Y)] For varying temperature but constant stress reduces to E(t) a a H(t) 0 . f(T.0(0)] 0 ST For T = T0 . when t < 0 It has the value one when t >0 and zero .(23) reduces to the form originally proposed for the modified superposition method as follows: C(t) J 0 (t) + f+{[ala(E) aa + 2 ) + a3 3G(tE)} aa(E) dE (26) 0 since as defined in For T > T0 (18) for T = T 0 .a) = 1 .(t)] (27) 'ds • = . Thus (23) J a + [ala + a 2a2+aa 3 ]G()3 (29) where ft 0 ds aT[Tl(s). E the strain but constant.- 14 - where Ct 0 ds (24) Sa aT[TI(s). • = t .Oo] (30) ST and C is not involved. H(t) is the Heaviside function.G(t)] = ds (25) aT[Tl(S). and C . and for varying stress a = a(t) may be described by (23) provided that Tt ds aTLT[T110•]" 0 t a T[LTl. a constant.

a)G(t) = r + ýi T Hence (31) becomes c(t) = aa + (b1 a + b 2 a2 )On 1 (32) implies that (ln•] 1TI + 2T1] = + blI + b2 a 81T 1 + 82 1TI T e e b b b 1 +b2a T21 (32) (33) or 81OTI. n j 0 4 ksi (34) b I + b2 and a = the reduced in (30) as .] For varying temperature in which time c is defined from (34) T + = 60t .- 15 - Equation (30) was used to predict the creep strain (total strain minus strain due to thermal expansion) for the test program shown in Fig. 3. + 02 TI aT[Tl.) Therefore G(C) = 0ITI + T2T] + b1i+ b 2 a n = at = f(Tl.75 0 F = 60t where t a = 4000 psi . as follows Equation (9) may be expressed in the form of (18) eT E(t) = a a + (b1 a + b2a2) 1 Comparing (31) with (18) shows that G(t) =tn . + .8T' tn (31) 1 +b2a 21 1 f(T. perature In this program the stress was constant T (t) = T . as follows. and the tem- is time in hours.

. n given in (9). (36) where a = 35. The total strain £T(t) = aT1 + C(t) cT(t) . in (33) with values of is a1 Then b. . (35) Equation (35) was evaluated numerically by using Simpson's rule./in.)()T(t)])(•)} .- 16 - t 0 f 0 (60s) + e2 (60s) b + b 2(4) b 1 +b2(4 21 n ds . F2(T) and Consider that temperature only affects the coefficients F3(T) of (16b).2 x 10-6 in. 3.35) were calculated and are shown in Fig. In (36) it was assumed that the thermal expansion coefficient was inde- pendent of the stress. the creep strain was calculated by using (35) b2 e. For this calculation the temperature change was approximated as steps./OF is the observed value of the coefficient of thermal expansion determined by measuring the thermally induced strain at zero load. The values of e(t) and T(t) predicted from (33. Method B A more direct means of describing the effect of temperature (both constant temperature and varying temperature) on the time-dependent part of the strains (16b) F1 (T) is as follows. Employing the modified superposition method the creep behavior under varying load and temperature can be described from (16) and the modified superposition principle (22) e(t) where Jt() 2 (a1 + a 2 a + a 3or'f(Tl(t).a)G(t-&) aJ(t) + 0 as follows do(. The strains were also evaluated numerically from the T = 60t actual temperature instead of as shown in Fig. 1 2 . 3.)(37) 3{J[(t_).

(39) a1 . 3 are the strains calculated from (38) the actual temperature instead of Figure 3 shows that (38) data than (33-36) (Method A). Jt is In the test program shown in Since the stress was constant.. 3 a = 4000 psi .17 - For the present material the temperature and stress function in given by the function in square brackets in (9). Also. Fig. 3 are the strains at the indicated time from creep tests at a constant stress of 4000 psi and the constant temperature indicated. but they lie below and nearly parallel to the increasing temperature test instead of above as would be expected. and (39) (Method B) are closer to the experimental Also shown by square points in Fig. as would be expected from the nature of Method B. T1 = 60t . and (39) using Also shown in Fig. el. and T . farther below the test data for the increasing temperature test. 3.75 = T1 = 60t . stress but increasing temperature it Comparing these with the data for constant is observed that the four points nearly coin- cide with Method B. using the values of b2 . moved at one hour. bI . This fact may result from differences in temperature disThe prediction of Method A lies still tribution between the two types of tests. integration of (37) by means of the Heaviside function and making use of (9) yielded the following prediction of strains during this part of the experiment: E(t) = a1 a + {[b 1 + e1 (60t) + e 2 (60t) 2]o + b 2a • (38) The corresponding total strain is CT(t) = i(60t) + E(t) The results calculated from (38. Recovery under Continuously Varying Temperature After the rising temperature reached the programmed value of 1350F at one hour the temperature was caused to decrease gradually.39) . the load was re- The temperature and strain during this period of recovery at . e2 n given in (9) are also plotted on Fig.

. at decreasing temperature are shown in Fig. This method accounted for the small variations from con3. especially during falling temperature.= n and where t =0 was taken to be the time at which the first stress was applied. stant rate of temperature rise shown in Fig. 8. Figure 8 shows that in the early . and (41. G() = and G(C .18 - decreasing temperature were as shown in Fig. That is. by the step method were nearly the same as for Computation of the recovery strain by Method A u3ing the modified superposition principle was as follows: E(t) = (bla + b2 a )[G() -G( - (40) t > 1 hr. 3. 8. Since the tempera- ture variation did not occur at a constant rate.C1. The calculated values of strain by Methods A and B for the recovers.C2) were evaluated by Simpson's rule. minus (b) the creep at the same stress applied at one hour with the decreasing temperature that actually occurred from one hour on. the temperature variation was approximated by a series of appropriate steps of constant temperature. where a0 4 ksi . The results for the rising portion T1 = 60t as shown in Fig. The strain corresponding to the recovery at decreasing temperature was computed for both Methods A and B by using the modified superposition principle to account for the abrupt removal of the stress at one hour. the actual history was considered to be equivalent to (a) creep at constant stress through the entire period but at the actual variation in temperature.

However. is also the easier to employ. The other considered the strain to be a Both employ the function only of the current temperature not its past history.- 19 - stage of recovery the test data lie between predictions of the two methods but closest to Method A. Gingrich for typing the manuscript. the strain was represented by a power law of time with a constant exponent independent of temperature. A. One method employed a reduced time involving a shift factor which was a function of both stress and temperature history. modified superposition principle. It was found that the time-dependent strain was a strongly nonlinear function of stress and temperature. J. The authors are greatly indebted to Messrs. Conclusions The following conclusions may be drawn from the experiments and analyses presented in this paper. Acknowledgments This investigation was performed under the auspices of the Advanced Pesearch Projects Agency of the Defense Department [Materials Science Research Program (SD-86)]. F. . The latter method agrees somewhat better than It the former with the trend of experiments on varying temperature and recovery. Tracy and P. Reed for their care in performing the experiments and to Mrs. R. The time-independent part of the strain was found to be independent of The time-dependent part of temperature and linearly proportional to the stress. M. (1) Results of the constant stress creep tests at different temperatures indicate that creep strains are separable into time-independent and time-dependent parts. (2) Two methods were considered to account for varying temperature by using the constitutive relation derived from different constant temperatures. the shape is predicted more accurately by Method B.

. Vol.. Bernstein. and Findley.. 1. N. March 1970. N. 103-113. 92.. 11. ." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. G. Series E. Journal of Basic Engineering.. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1968. Part 3. "Combined Stress Creep Experiments on a Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material to Determine the Kernel Functions for a Multiple Integral Representation of Creep. 105114.. pp. Y. 299-327.. "Integral Constitutive Equation of Nonlinear Thermo-Viscoelasticity. K." Transactions of the Society of Rheology.. K.. "Relationship between the Creep of Solid and Foam Polyurethane Resulting from Combined Stresses. Onaran. June 1970. "A Modified Superposition Principle Applied to Creep of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material under Abrupt Changes in State of Combined Stress. S. J. 3. E-74 on Materials Research Program. 12. 1965. K. C. W. of Research. Journal of Applied Mechanics. W.20 - References 1. N. and Findley. E. ARPA SD-86. and Zapas. 1. N. and Findley. Issue 2... Kearsly. Y. 68B. N. Y. and Lai." Transactions of the Society of Rheology (in press). W. 1967. and Findley. G. Findley." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. 2. Vol. Nonlinear Creep of Polyurethane Predicted from Constant Stress Creep by Three Integral Representations. "Prediction of Uniaxial Stress Relaxation from Creep of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material. Onaran. T. K." Technical Report No.. Issue 2. 12. N. Nolte. and Stanley. Vol. K. "Behavior of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material under Simultaneous Stress Relaxation in Tension and Creep in Torsion. "Elevated Temperature Creep of Polyurethane under Nonlinear Torsional Stress with Step Changes in Torque.. pp. and Findley. N. 9. G. 9. W. 8. W.B.. Vol. Nolte." Purdue University Report AA & ES. N. December 1968. Lai. and Findley." Transactions. 916. W. and Findley. pp.. Series D. "Multiple Step. A. March 1969. 4. No.S. Findley. A. Y. N.. 4.." accepted for publication in the March 1971 issue of Transactions. W.. pp. "Product Form of Kernel Functions for Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of PVC Plastic under Constant Rate Stressing. 12.. 1964.. N. S. 243-257. Vol.. pp.." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. J. Journal of Applied Mechanics. B. Lai." Transactions. 1968. 5. Part 2. L. "Thermodynamics of Perfect Elastic Fluids. W. 361-380. 7. No. 65-1." J. J. "Combined Stress Creep Experiments on Rigid Polyurethane Foam in the Nonlinear Region with Application to Multiple Integral and Modified Superposition Theory. Vol. 36. Findley. p. "Experimental Determination of Some Kernel Functions in the Multiple Integral Method for Nonlinear Creep of Polyvinyl Chloride. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. pp.. N. 217-242. 22-27. 10. W. and Onaran. 6.. Lianis. W. Lai. Vol.. J. 1965. pp. ASME.. 11. S. S." ASTM Journal of Materials.

Normality. 19. Am. Journal of Applied Mechanics (in press). MCG ." Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids. H. Brown University." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. Chem. J.. and Gjelsvik... and Findley. "A Biaxial Testing Machine for Plasticity. "Mechanicai Properties of Substances of High Molecular Weight Dispersion in Concentrated Polymer Solutions and its Dependence on Temperature and Concentration.. Findley." Technical Report No. T. "An Experimental Study of Subsequent Yield Surfaces: Corners. 16. 72. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1962. W. Findley. J. 17. 1962. "Stress Analysis for Linear Viscoelastic Materials with Temperature Variation. "A Nonlinear Integral Representation for Viscoelastic Behavior. N. 3746.." 4th U. Aug. Creep. IV. Contract No.2. pp. 62. and Lee... K. Vol. E.. 233-263. J.. N. pp. Y. P. 893-907. and Findley. Ferry. Brown. Vol. G. G. Morland. and Rogers. W. 1960. Dissertation." J. 1103-1118. "Concerning a Creep Surface for an Aluminum Alloy. 20.." Transactions. Bauschinger and Allied Effects. N. W. W. Bertsch. D. 15.. S. 16. American Society for Testing and Materials. Pipkin. "An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Inelastic Behavior of a Structural Aluminum Alloy at Elevated Temperature. N00014-A-01910003.- 21 - 13. Vol. 14. 1970. 1968. S.D. G. p. Blass. National Congress of Applied Mechanics. and Nolte. J.. 7. 18. pp. W. "Short-Time Biaxial Creep of an Aluminum Alloy with Abrupt Changes of Temperature and State of Stress.. December 1969. Lai. A. pp. 59-72. Office of Naval Research.. K.. C." Proceedings. or Relaxation under Variable Principal-Stress Ratios. L. A." Ph. Soc.. 1950. N.

0 4.052 0.0 75 100 130 140 150 160 75 102 115 130 135 140 75 130 140 75 102 115 126 135 145 0.0 4.028 0.142 0.0 2.0 1.585 " " 0.0 2.267 0.083 0.0 2.100 0.118 0.780 " " " " " 0.0 3.TABLE I Tension Creep Experiments TEST TENSILE STRESS.0 3.268 0. n = 0.195 " " 0.017 0.0 1.178 0.0 2.133 0.053 0.390 " " 0.092 0.068 0.062 0.081 0. ksi TEMPERATURE.216 0.0 1.0 2.0 2.328 .0 4.185 0.0 4. OF = c0 + tn.143 + + 0 % 38 40 51 52 53 54 63 65 41 46 72 48 77 47 50 84 92 91 78 81 97 1.0 4.0 4.0 1.125 0.298 0.0 1.0 3.

2.0843 0.4902+ 0.4341 0.TABLE II Repeated Experiments in Tension TEST STRESS.4368 39 63 76 2000 if " 41 67 49 " 115 0.4419+ 0. psi TEMPERATURE. 1.9957+ + Used in Fig.6368 114 2 77 87 91 " 3000 " 4000 " 0. .6439 0. OF 75 "l i STRAIN AT 1 hr. Per Cent 0..5894 75 " 115 " 0.6672+ 1.4925 " 150 0.

92 CL 0/~ o 0 Experiment rheory 75L 0 0.24 s tesa ifrn !lze osattmeaue - . Creep curve fo7 n 0.96 C 0)0 =0.08 9 0 /45 L 1.10 1.2 0.6 Time hr 0..10 2 Fig.4 0.00 0.Iio 2 1.

7 140L 0. Fig.86 1 0.78 00 *4 0.74 77 0.82 LT z_ 3_ S _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0.1 0 Experiment S0.40O 2.5 C ee 2 ur e f r 2 d 3k si a stress t di fe e n c o s a t t m e a u e .62 0.0.66 75F 09.

.I__5_ _ 40 .2 0. * a a 70 '-=4ksi Actual Temp.0 Time .36.. 39. 3.95 020 0 0.25 -Method 8 ActualT7 1 Me/hodA Eq.6 0.35 o x x x o Creep Strain _ _ A S9 1 Constant Temp.0 _ _.T/=60t MethodA Actual T/ 0) 0)0 0.4 0. L) 1.05-d' 0 0 x) 7 30" EI- x 0.1. 1.Ti-60t I /0 50 1. Creep Tests Method 8 Eq.05 30 11 1. Creep at a constant stress of 4 ksi and increasing temperature . IA Fig. r/ 75OF + 60t o Total Strain I .8 1.45 Test 88.hr.

20 / 0.08 xi 0' .2 0. 4.24 // x S0. Coefficient of time-dependent strain versus temperature for several stresses .0.28 /x x x 0. Fig.04 0 60 80 100 120 'F 140 160 Temperature.36 0.000 0.12 0.

04 + Ib o.o 0.0. 5.02 0 0 2 3 4 5 o-. ksi Fig. 7a) .06 4-- 100O ° 0. £÷/d versus d (see Eq.08 0.

"n 0.' > 0 0 20 40 T= 60 T-75 0 F 80 Temperature. 0045Tr " 0.04 0 4-0 !t 0.. 7d) / .06 a) I " I2 0. + 0.000.02 .000387. Vertical shift of /dl with temperature (see Eq. 6. Fig.

. 115 OF Test 54. 150°F r *0 CA.12 I Test 81.126°F e Theory 0F .2ksi. 140°F -. Iksi. Test 52.0 0* 0 .10 Test5o. 06 m". 135 0 F Test 78. 135 . Iksi. 4ksi. 7.4 Time . .04 •• L.8 1. 3ksi. Iksi. 160°F Test 53.04 ca x .0 Fig.08 _ 0 F C Test 41. Recovery at zero stress and at the indicated temperature following creep for one hour at the same temperature and at the stress shown __ _ ____ ___ .6 . 4ksio. 140 Test 48.hr. 2ksi.2 . 2ksi. 140°F Test 72.

2 2. 3) .8 2.4 2. hr.02 -40 0.5 x x 140 0.03 9 0.2 1.4 1.05 C) CL 70t1oo~-7 0 0.3 0'0 x /'120 0I0 ~0.6 1. 2.01 0 1 1. Recovery at zero stress during decresing temperature following creep at a constant stress of 4 ksi during increasing temperature (see Fig.0. 8.0 Time.6 Fig.4 x130 0.

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