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Creep of Polyurethane

Creep of Polyurethane

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Division of Engineering

BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, R. I.
J ENGINEERING MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY

CREEP OF POLYURETHANE "UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE FOR NONLINEAR UNIAXIAL STRESS J. S. Y. [AI and W. N. FINDLEY

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Materials Research Program Brown University ; ARPA SD-86 : ARPA E-76 EMRL-44 February 1971 "

CREEP OF POLYURETHANE UNDER VARYING TEMPERATURE FOR NONLINEAR UNIAXIAL STRESS by by•* TrOHNIOAL LIBRARY

J. S. Y. Lai

and W. N. Findley

BLDG. 805
A0ERDEENRO-vIG GROUND, BTEAP-TL

0)

Summary Two methods are described to account for varying temperature during creep. Both employ the modified superposition principle. One uses a reduced time involv-

ing a shift factor which is a function of both stress and temperature history. The other considers the strain to be a function of the current values of stress and temperature. Experiments on polyurethane include constant stress creep and recovery at several temperatures in the nonlinear range and an experiment in which the stress was held constant while the temperature increased at a constant rate, then the stress was removed and the temperature decreased at a constant rate. The strain

in this experiment was predicted by means of the theories from the results of the constant temperature creep tests. The strains in the constant temperature creep and recovery tests were described by means of the multiple integral representation and the modified superposition principle. Most of the nonlinearity and temperature effect were found

in the coefficient of the time-dependent term.

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; formerly Research Associate, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Professor of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Introduction In a recent paper [1] the authors described the results of creep experi-

ments in the nonlinear range on polyurethane in torsion at various temperatures. The results showed that the time dependence could be described adequately by a power function whose exponent was independent of stress and temperature. In the

present paper tension creep experiments in the nonlinear range performed on the same specimen of polyurethane as part of the same series of experiments are reported for several temperatures. Constitutive equations describing these results

are employed to predict the behavior under a constant rate of temperature rise (and fall) during creep (and recovery) at constant stress. Previous investigations of nonlinear viscoelasticity have mostly been confined to room temperature. However, Bernstein, Kearsly and Zapas [2] and Lianis

[3] have extended the concept of a thermorheologically simple viscoelastic material to the nonlinear range. Earlier investigations by the authors [4 to 9] on

poly (vinyl chloride) and polyurethane at room temperature under combined tension and torsion showed that the creep strain could be separated into time-dependent and time-independent parts. The latter could be expressed as a power function The time-independent term was It was

whose exponent was independent of stress state.

nearly linear, but the time-dependent coefficient was strongly nonlinear.

found that the nonlinear behavior could be adequately described by the first three terms of a multiple integral series. For varying loads either the modified super-

position method [5,10] for the mixed time parameters in the kernel functions or the product form [6,10] gave satisfactory results.

N Numbers in brackets identify references listed at the end of this paper.

9. identified as XR6-77. ash 0. The carbon content was 59 per cent.05928 in. gravity of 1. All experiments were performed on the same specimen. Experimental Apparatus The testing machine was designed to test tubular specimens under combined tension. the Upjohn Company.11.0003 in.5 per cent. was produced by CPR DiviThe sion. and the balance oxygen.-2- Material and Specimen The material used in the experiments was the same as employed in previous work [8.05 per cent.. The lower ends of one pair of the rods were attached to the core and the ends . The specimen was a tubular type with enlarged threaded ends machined from a solid rod. hydrogen 6.3 per cent.5 per cent...12]. with a maximum deviaThe material tion of 0. The loading and measuring devices are as follows. and Supplied by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The tensile strain measurement was accomplished by using pairs of rods attached to the upper and lower gage points of the test specimen to transmit the motion of the gage points below the furnace.9971 in. was cured at a temperature of 250 0 F for two hours. and the gage length was 4. The average outside diameter was 0.25..0005 in. nitrogen 7.00 in. material was prepared from the prepolymer and combined with toluene diisocyanate. chlorine less than 0. It was a full density solid polyurethane having a specific This material. the average wall thickness was 0. with a maximum deviation of 0. Dead weights were used in the present work. The polyester resin was derived from a dicarboxylic acid and a triol. torsion. It has been used to investigate creep and stress relaxation behavior under various loading conditions for plastics [4-12] and metals [14-16] and plasticity [17]. and internal pressure [13]. Tension and torsion were produced by dead weights or servo control acting through levers and pulleys.

N. Rela- tive motion of the upper and lower gage points during the test caused an output of the differential transformer which was directly related to the strain. the following heating devices were added.-3- of the other pair were attached to the coil of a differential transformer. Four thermocouples were attached with spring clips on the outer surface at equal distances within the gage length of the specimen. During each of the tests. These served as the heat Temperature in the copper bar was controlled by two Research Incorporated Thermac Model TC5192 temperature controllers operating on the two heaters. . Two of these thermocouples were cemented on the inner surface of the specimen at positions slightly beyond the gage length. It was found that the smaller the spacing between the copper bar and One the inner surface of the specimen the better the temperature was controlled./in. It was observed that the temperature could be maintained constant throughout 0 the testing period within ± 1/2 F. sensing device in the control system. but increased to 20 F on the outside and 70 F on the on the inside of the specimen at 150 0 F. Instruments' Sirect Mark III proportional temperature controller. The temperature variation along the gage length was uniform at 75 0 F and 102 0 F. The specimen was heated in an electric The split-tube furnace which was maintained at constant temperature by a C. Two small resistor heat- ing cores were attached at both ends of a copper bar and inserted inside the specimen. sensitivity of the strain measurement was 2 x 10-6 in. Due to the poor conductivity of polyurethane a second heating source inside the specimen tube was used to achieve a more uniform temperature distribution. S. thermocouple was embedded in each end of the copper bar. In order to perform creep tests of polyurethane above room temperature. temperature was measured at six positions by means of chromel-alumel thermocouples with fused hot junctions.

. £12 = 102 . Except for one experiment the temperature was maintained at a constant value throughout the testing period./in. or appeared to have stabilized before proceeding to the next test. 48. After unloading at the end of one hour. trollers were required. and the specimen was left to recover at room temperature until the strain had returned to less than 40 x 10-6 in. and it it shows up as an alters the gage length of The former was taken into account in the conThe stant rate of temperature rise test. respectively./in. but the latter was ignored in all tests. £11 = 120 c11 = 63 x 10-6 in. Pilot tests indicated that a soaking period 0F from 0. 46. Thus at 160OF the gage length increased about 0. and Tests 69. heat was gradually turned down until it reached room tem- perature. c11 = 95 ./OF. the Some adjustments of the set points of the con- specimen was left to recover at zero stress at the same test temperature for about one hour.5 hr. however.0 hr. The zero strain for each test was taken to be the strain reading at temperature just prior to loading. to 5. In performing the constant stress creep tests. The thermal expansion was found to be 35. Thermal expansion has two effects on tensile strain: apparent creep strain during temperature changes. After reaching the test temperature the specimen was kept at this temperature for one hour before the load was applied.3 per cent. at the test temperature (75 to 160 0 F) did not show a significant difference in the creep response under the same loading conditions.-4- Experimental Procedure and Results The rate of heating the specimen was controlled to about 20 F per minute. 91. the strain measuring instrument. £12 = 78 . After that. and 97 followed tests whose and £12 = 90. the specimen was loaded for a one-hour period for each test. 84. gage length was fixed at 75OF and no correction was made for change in gage length -6 with temperature../in.2 x 10 in. recovery stabilized at £11 = -84 .

£ . Numbers in parentheses identify equations. it was found possible to describe the results of creep strain versus n . However. 1 and 2.-5- The test program of the present investigation is shown in Table I. The strain versus time. constant stress creep test was also conducted in which the temperature increased at a nearly constant rate. 3. The A tensile strain versus time curves from these tests are shown in Fig. £1 /a about 0.11] and elevated [1] temperature. are shown in Fig. together with the programmed and measured temperature. From the results shown in Fig. In view of the scatter in ations the value n = 0. .143 n resulting from the individual determin- used in earlier work [8. sion it was found that there was considerable scatter in 0 but no definite trend as a function of either stress or temperature. time under constant stress by a power law with a constant exponent o ii 0 + CEl + C+lt n + n() where c and £11 are functions of stress and n is a constant. 1 and 2. then decreased at a nearly constant rate while the stress was removed when the temperature started to decrease.11] with this material at room temperature and in the companion work in torsion at elevated temperature [1] was chosen as a common value for all stresses and temperatures. ell showed a strong effect.19 to 0. ture on 0. it seems that (1) can be used to describe the The effect of tempera- strain versus time relationship of the present tests also. the same as in torsion and it more than doubled over the same temperature range.23 from 75OF to 160 0 F. for the same reason [1]. n in (1) was determined by first obtaining the best fit of As in the companion tests in torn 0 each data set to (1) by a least squares method. In previous work on the same material at room [8. coi showed scatter and about the increased from same modest temperature effect observed in torsion [1].9.

-60 Also consistent with the work on torsion [1] + e was taken to be independent of 0 temperature in view of the much smaller apparent effect of temperature on 0 + ci0 than on l. As described in [1] the effect of history was greater in torThe results of the repeated tests in tension are summarized Examination of all the data showed that there were changes which The greatest changes occurred during the Possible causes were generally resulted in increased strains. Compare. These history effects were ignored in the analysis. early tests and again when the largest stresses were applied. sion than tension. In the analysis of the effect of temperature the data from the first 20 experiments were ignored because of the changes which were occurring. Employing these restrictions values of 0 + E and El were re- calculated and are shown in Table I. There was. for example. The experiments employed in the analysis were undoubtedly influenced to some extent by the prior history of stress and temperature. tion (1) with the values of than the experimental data. in Table II. These repeated experiments were used to indicate how much the creep behavior was changing as a result of the history of stress and temperature on the single specimen employed. Also some of the last tests were omitted and a few others whose strains were so out of line as to suggest errors of observation. small. E In the analysis in following sections equaand n in Table I were employed rather Discussion of Results Several experiments were repeated one or more times at intervals during the series of 118 creep tests under tension. however. torsion and combined tension and torsion. an extensive period in which changes were tests 39 and 76 and tests 41 and 67 in Table II. l . discussed in [1]. .

T is temperature E an arbitrary time prior to t and 6(&) =aa(&)a In this equation only terms from the first three orders have R . suggests that the R . a11 a F For uniaxial stress Eii the following equation can be obtained for the creep strain £ = £ .0 Thus under isothermal conditions and constant stress (2) becomes £(t.T)a 3 . representing the test data. M . (3) with (1). . N of (2) depend on temperature Under and been retained. (2) where t is time. where H(t) has the value 1 when t . constant stress 0 when t < 0 .-7-- Analysis Nonlinear Constitutive Equation A nonlinear constitutive equation in the multiple integral form has been described by several investigators. f R(t-& . M . N may have the following forms H(t) is the Heaviside unit function. see for example [4].T)W( 1 dE 1 +ffw~t-ý lt-E. .T)ao Determination of Kernel Functions Comparison of (3) kernel functions 2 + N(t.T)a + M(t.T) = R(t.T)d I% 2)d& 1dE W& 00 + 000 J 0 6 . a(t) = aH(t) * . The kernel functions (under different isothermal conditions) and time arguments as indicated.

195 per cent/ksi. 120OF and 140 0 F) was plotted as + In Fig. The reference temperature was chosen as 750 F because . a2 = a3 = 0 + . . . a3 are independent of temperature. e0 a= al 2 a1 0. the time-independent and the time-dependent coefficients (5a) and (5b). 4. a1 .T) where b3 n = 0. From (5b) + (aT 1 a where T1=T - = b (Tl) + b (T )a + b (T )a2 2T1 31 (7a) 1w1 750 F . 4. (6) The time-dependent part of the strain + from Table I versus temperature Then +/a versus a T was plotted for each stress level as shown in Fig.T) M(t.T) N(t. for each of several temperatures (75 shown in Fig. E 1000 F. = a1 + b (T)tn a 2 + b 2(T)tn a3 a + b3(T)tn b. were determined as follows.143 . 5 values of for temperatures 100 0 F. (4) b2 a2 . respectively. cz for each stress as given in Table I shows that o Therefore Eo The data of can be approximated as a linear function of stress. and are functions of temperature as suggested by the test results. and comparing with (1) results in o c =a + Inserting (4) into (3) +aa 2 +a 3 3 2 3 (5a) (5b) b1(T)a + b2(T)a 2 +b(3 Ma From the results in Table I. 0 F. 5. 120OF and 140OF at all stress levels were obtained from the lines of Fig.-8 - R(t.

sented by the time-dependent part of the strain can be repre- + £ (c. per cent/(ksi)2 b3 0 .000. per cent/ksi = 0.004. curves of Thus at different temperatures are parallel straight lines. (7b). b2 . b 3 = 0 were determined graphically from versus a . b2 .-9- T = 75 0 F was the lowest temperature used in this study. F(TI) = 81T + 8 2 11 2 where 81 = 0. constant temperature as characterized in this section may be summarized as follows by introducing (4) through (8) into (3) . This implies that only b1 depends on tem- perature.017. (8) Thus the constitutive relation of creep strain under constant stress. bI .T) = (b1 + 01 T1 + 8 2 T1 )a + b 2 a 2 2 . 5. b3 are independent of temperature. and are independent of temperature. 5.TI)2 c += a1 b + b a + bCy2 + F(T) 2 3 1 F(T ) + (7b) (b is the vertical c /c where shift. in Fig. and F(0) = 0 . at T bI b with the result 0. (7c). bI . c+/a versus a In Fig. Therefore (7a) can be rewritten as Ee(a. the curve for different temperatures can be obtained by a vertical shift of the S+/a versus b2 a curve for b3 T1 = 0 . 6.0045 per cent/ksi(OF) 2 (7d) From (7a).00038 per cent/ksi OF (7d) and 82 = 0. (7c) £+/ F(T ) was determined from the amount of vertical shift of Thus F(T ) was approximated by versus temper- ature as shown in Fig.

TE0O11IIOAL LIBRARY BLDG 305 MD. RO'VING GROUND. (11) Thus the recovery at zero a0 is from (10) for iso- stress after a period thermal conditions Cl1(t) = f(aot) . 7.000. sion [1]. tI = 1 hr.195a + [(0. (12) The recovery strains following constant stress creep were predicted from (9) by means of (12).017 + 0.T)a2 + N(t. .0045T2)a 11 (9) + O. and t in hours. 2 £ = 0.K _TEAP-TL A:BERDEB . 7) is not as good as for tor- With the exception of one test the actual strains during recovery were smaller than the strains predicted from the tension tests.f(aot-t 1 ) where f has the form of (9) and the ala term vanishes.tT) = R(t.T)a + M(t. Creep strains were cal- culated from (9) for each stress and temperature and are shown in Fig. Recovery at Constant Temperature The modified superposition method [5] for multi-step load histories can be expressed as follows for tensile loading €il(t) p I = i=0 [f(ailt-ti) -O a i-l1t-ti t > t (10) where for the present experiments f(a. between the theory and test data for tension (Fig. The results for some of the tests are shown in Fig. a in ksi.00038T + 0.O0a 2 ]t 0 . 1 and 2.T)a 3 which becomes (9) when numerical values are supplied. 1 4 3 where c is in per cent. Agreement During recovery the contribution of the nonlinear terms is very small. at constant stress .- 10 - Sa al 1 or + [(b 1 + 61T + 11 21 T2T)a + b a2]t.

the first application of stress. it is intended in this section to explore a possible way of describing the effect of nonlinear creep behavior under varying temperature by generalizing the constitutive relation obtained through creep tests under different but constant temperatures.- 11 - Creep under Continuously Varying Temperature Method A In the analysis of the creep behavior of linear viscoelastic material at different but constant temperatures. T will provide the Thus. • is any prior time.t) t/aT(T) . the definition given by Morland and Lee [18] for reduced time is ft J f dý 0 (15) and t = 0 corresponds to where t is the current time. (13) S= (14) ý is the reduced time. the determination of aT as a function of temperature necessary information for determination of the reduced time. Consider a general constitutive relation under constant stresses and temperatures. T o aT is the temperais the real time. For tests involving varying temperature during loading. is the reference temperature and t ture shift factor. the effects of temperature and time for cer- tain classes of material can be combined into a single parameter through the "time-temperature superposition principle" which may be stated as follows: J(T. as follows: .C) = J(T o . Aside from the work reported in [2] and [3]. no similar method is available to describe nonlinear viscoelastic behavior under varying temperature during loading. where J is the creep compliance. .

J t = [a 1 + a 2 a+a 3a2 Rearrange (16b) such that 2 + 8 1 (T1 ) + 8 2 (T1 )a + 83(T)a ]G(t) (17) Rearranging by factoring out the temperature-independent terms yields Jt = [al + a 2a + a 3 a 2 ] f(Tla)G(t) where f(Tl~a ) (18) 2 Fi =_ 81 (TI) + 8 (T 1 )a + 83(T )a2 2 ++ 2 and a1 ' a2 ' a3 are independent of temperature. Therefore. Equation (9) can be con- independent part sidered as a special case of (16).O)G(t) time C 0atT=T 0 orT =0 in (18) can be combined into G(c) by defining a reduced a(TlO) aT t ' (19) where a T(T la) is a shift factor depending on both temperature and stress. while T1 = T-To Ind a 1 =$ 2= 3 8l 82 83 are 1 functions of temperature f(T 1 .- 12 S= Jo + JO C j0 a+jt . . c= 0o + [a 1 a + a2a2 + a3]G(C) • (20) Equation (20) can be interpreted as a time-temperature superposition principle [20] provided that the shift factor aT depends on both temperature and stress. (16) where J = F (T) + F 2(T)a + T3(T)a 2 (16a) (16b) 2 S[F(T) + F(T)a + F(T)a G(t) In (16) it is assumed that the total creep strain can be separated into a timeJ 0a and a time-dependent part Jt a .

t T dE(• dE da (22) Introducing (20) into (22) for Q[o(E). yields satisfactory agreement with experiment. it has been found that the concept of a "modified superposition principle. (b) minus the strain that would have t to a previously occurred had the prior stress been applied at the time unstressed material. The modified superposition method considers that the strain following a change in stress at time t1 is the sum of: (a) the strain that would have occurred had the stress not been changed. For describing creep behavior under an arbitrary stress history. (c) plus the strain that would have occurred had the current stress been applied at time t to the previously unstressed material. be used to redefine the reduced time ft 0 (18) and (19) can C as follows: ds (21) aT[Tl(s)..T] provides a means of account- ing for creep behavior under continuously varying stress and temperature as follows: C(t) Ja(t) + 0 [) +a + ) 3 ]G(•- )} aa( ) dý qSC(c (23) ." proposed by Findley and Lai [5] in summation formh and employed in integral form by Pipkin and Rogers [19].13 - For continuously varying temperature and/or stress.t-E.a(t)] where s is time prior to the current time t and t = 0 at the time stress is first applied. In integral form the modified superposition principle can be written as follows =tT t f 0 aQa(E).

when t < 0 It has the value one when t >0 and zero .(t)] (27) 'ds • = . f(T.a) = 1 .(23) reduces to the form originally proposed for the modified superposition method as follows: C(t) J 0 (t) + f+{[ala(E) aa + 2 ) + a3 3G(tE)} aa(E) dE (26) 0 since as defined in For T > T0 (18) for T = T 0 . • = t . and C .- 14 - where Ct 0 ds (24) Sa aT[TI(s).G(t)] = ds (25) aT[Tl(S). and for varying stress a = a(t) may be described by (23) provided that Tt ds aTLT[T110•]" 0 t a T[LTl.0(0)] 0 ST For T = T0 . (28) a[Tl'CF(E)] aT 0 aT[TlO(Y)] For varying temperature but constant stress reduces to E(t) a a H(t) 0 . Thus (23) J a + [ala + a 2a2+aa 3 ]G()3 (29) where ft 0 ds aT[Tl(s).Oo] (30) ST and C is not involved. H(t) is the Heaviside function. a constant. E the strain but constant.

8T' tn (31) 1 +b2a 21 1 f(T. + . n j 0 4 ksi (34) b I + b2 and a = the reduced in (30) as .75 0 F = 60t where t a = 4000 psi . + 02 TI aT[Tl.a)G(t) = r + ýi T Hence (31) becomes c(t) = aa + (b1 a + b 2 a2 )On 1 (32) implies that (ln•] 1TI + 2T1] = + blI + b2 a 81T 1 + 82 1TI T e e b b b 1 +b2a T21 (32) (33) or 81OTI.] For varying temperature in which time c is defined from (34) T + = 60t . and the tem- is time in hours. as follows. 3.- 15 - Equation (30) was used to predict the creep strain (total strain minus strain due to thermal expansion) for the test program shown in Fig. perature In this program the stress was constant T (t) = T .) Therefore G(C) = 0ITI + T2T] + b1i+ b 2 a n = at = f(Tl. as follows Equation (9) may be expressed in the form of (18) eT E(t) = a a + (b1 a + b2a2) 1 Comparing (31) with (18) shows that G(t) =tn .

the creep strain was calculated by using (35) b2 e. Method B A more direct means of describing the effect of temperature (both constant temperature and varying temperature) on the time-dependent part of the strains (16b) F1 (T) is as follows. in (33) with values of is a1 Then b. The total strain £T(t) = aT1 + C(t) cT(t) . . (35) Equation (35) was evaluated numerically by using Simpson's rule. Employing the modified superposition method the creep behavior under varying load and temperature can be described from (16) and the modified superposition principle (22) e(t) where Jt() 2 (a1 + a 2 a + a 3or'f(Tl(t). (36) where a = 35.35) were calculated and are shown in Fig./in.)(37) 3{J[(t_).)()T(t)])(•)} . F2(T) and Consider that temperature only affects the coefficients F3(T) of (16b). 3. 1 2 .a)G(t-&) aJ(t) + 0 as follows do(.2 x 10-6 in./OF is the observed value of the coefficient of thermal expansion determined by measuring the thermally induced strain at zero load. n given in (9).- 16 - t 0 f 0 (60s) + e2 (60s) b + b 2(4) b 1 +b2(4 21 n ds . 3. The values of e(t) and T(t) predicted from (33. In (36) it was assumed that the thermal expansion coefficient was inde- pendent of the stress. For this calculation the temperature change was approximated as steps. The strains were also evaluated numerically from the T = 60t actual temperature instead of as shown in Fig. .

3 a = 4000 psi . (39) a1 . moved at one hour.. bI . T1 = 60t . and T . Jt is In the test program shown in Since the stress was constant. 3 are the strains calculated from (38) the actual temperature instead of Figure 3 shows that (38) data than (33-36) (Method A). integration of (37) by means of the Heaviside function and making use of (9) yielded the following prediction of strains during this part of the experiment: E(t) = a1 a + {[b 1 + e1 (60t) + e 2 (60t) 2]o + b 2a • (38) The corresponding total strain is CT(t) = i(60t) + E(t) The results calculated from (38.75 = T1 = 60t . using the values of b2 .17 - For the present material the temperature and stress function in given by the function in square brackets in (9). 3 are the strains at the indicated time from creep tests at a constant stress of 4000 psi and the constant temperature indicated. This fact may result from differences in temperature disThe prediction of Method A lies still tribution between the two types of tests. Recovery under Continuously Varying Temperature After the rising temperature reached the programmed value of 1350F at one hour the temperature was caused to decrease gradually. the load was re- The temperature and strain during this period of recovery at . Fig. and (39) using Also shown in Fig. as would be expected from the nature of Method B. stress but increasing temperature it Comparing these with the data for constant is observed that the four points nearly coin- cide with Method B. el. e2 n given in (9) are also plotted on Fig. Also.39) . farther below the test data for the increasing temperature test. but they lie below and nearly parallel to the increasing temperature test instead of above as would be expected. and (39) (Method B) are closer to the experimental Also shown by square points in Fig. 3.

The strain corresponding to the recovery at decreasing temperature was computed for both Methods A and B by using the modified superposition principle to account for the abrupt removal of the stress at one hour.C1. Since the tempera- ture variation did not occur at a constant rate.= n and where t =0 was taken to be the time at which the first stress was applied. the temperature variation was approximated by a series of appropriate steps of constant temperature. the actual history was considered to be equivalent to (a) creep at constant stress through the entire period but at the actual variation in temperature. at decreasing temperature are shown in Fig. minus (b) the creep at the same stress applied at one hour with the decreasing temperature that actually occurred from one hour on. and (41. 3. stant rate of temperature rise shown in Fig. where a0 4 ksi . That is.C2) were evaluated by Simpson's rule.. The results for the rising portion T1 = 60t as shown in Fig. This method accounted for the small variations from con3. Figure 8 shows that in the early . 8. especially during falling temperature. G() = and G(C . 8. by the step method were nearly the same as for Computation of the recovery strain by Method A u3ing the modified superposition principle was as follows: E(t) = (bla + b2 a )[G() -G( - (40) t > 1 hr. The calculated values of strain by Methods A and B for the recovers.18 - decreasing temperature were as shown in Fig.

The time-independent part of the strain was found to be independent of The time-dependent part of temperature and linearly proportional to the stress. the strain was represented by a power law of time with a constant exponent independent of temperature. Tracy and P. J. The other considered the strain to be a Both employ the function only of the current temperature not its past history. It was found that the time-dependent strain was a strongly nonlinear function of stress and temperature. (1) Results of the constant stress creep tests at different temperatures indicate that creep strains are separable into time-independent and time-dependent parts. Reed for their care in performing the experiments and to Mrs. The latter method agrees somewhat better than It the former with the trend of experiments on varying temperature and recovery. F. The authors are greatly indebted to Messrs. A. R. . (2) Two methods were considered to account for varying temperature by using the constitutive relation derived from different constant temperatures. One method employed a reduced time involving a shift factor which was a function of both stress and temperature history. M. is also the easier to employ. However. Conclusions The following conclusions may be drawn from the experiments and analyses presented in this paper. the shape is predicted more accurately by Method B.- 19 - stage of recovery the test data lie between predictions of the two methods but closest to Method A. modified superposition principle. Acknowledgments This investigation was performed under the auspices of the Advanced Pesearch Projects Agency of the Defense Department [Materials Science Research Program (SD-86)]. Gingrich for typing the manuscript.

W. B. W. March 1969. 1965... 1. S. Y. Onaran. Vol. N. N. Vol. N. G. Vol. G..B. C." ASTM Journal of Materials. 299-327. W. of Research. K." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. 4. J. Findley. K. Issue 2. S. 4. Lai. 12. A. and Zapas. S... 3. pp. Y. 1967. Vol. Nonlinear Creep of Polyurethane Predicted from Constant Stress Creep by Three Integral Representations. 65-1. Part 3. March 1970.. "Integral Constitutive Equation of Nonlinear Thermo-Viscoelasticity. N. 22-27. Y. "Elevated Temperature Creep of Polyurethane under Nonlinear Torsional Stress with Step Changes in Torque. N. and Findley. E. and Onaran.. 916." Purdue University Report AA & ES. 1965... J. N... and Findley. E-74 on Materials Research Program. N. 5. and Findley. "Behavior of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material under Simultaneous Stress Relaxation in Tension and Creep in Torsion. G.. 68B. Part 2.. Lai. 217-242. 1968.. pp. N. K. Bernstein. 12. ARPA SD-86. "Combined Stress Creep Experiments on Rigid Polyurethane Foam in the Nonlinear Region with Application to Multiple Integral and Modified Superposition Theory." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. K.. Findley. 11. S. 1. 11. Nolte. Vol. Findley.. W. W. Issue 2.. pp. 9... Lianis. N. W. ASME. "Thermodynamics of Perfect Elastic Fluids. 10. 361-380. Kearsly. Journal of Applied Mechanics. 2. 8. 1968. 6. and Findley." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. 105114. "A Modified Superposition Principle Applied to Creep of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material under Abrupt Changes in State of Combined Stress.. Y." Transactions. and Findley. and Findley. 92. A. June 1970. J. K. Series D." Transactions. Nolte.20 - References 1. Journal of Basic Engineering. "Multiple Step. "Experimental Determination of Some Kernel Functions in the Multiple Integral Method for Nonlinear Creep of Polyvinyl Chloride. "Product Form of Kernel Functions for Nonlinear Viscoelasticity of PVC Plastic under Constant Rate Stressing.. 12. and Lai. No. Onaran. . "Relationship between the Creep of Solid and Foam Polyurethane Resulting from Combined Stresses." J. pp. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.. December 1968. W.. N. 36. 9. Vol. W. and Stanley. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.S. Vol. W." accepted for publication in the March 1971 issue of Transactions." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. "Combined Stress Creep Experiments on a Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material to Determine the Kernel Functions for a Multiple Integral Representation of Creep. 7. Lai. J. pp.. Journal of Applied Mechanics." Technical Report No.. and Findley. "Prediction of Uniaxial Stress Relaxation from Creep of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Material.. W. pp. No. N. Series E. pp. 243-257." Transactions of the Society of Rheology (in press). T. L. 1964. p. 103-113.

N00014-A-01910003." Transactions.. 3746. Brown. K. Vol. Office of Naval Research. W. 18. American Society for Testing and Materials. W. "Concerning a Creep Surface for an Aluminum Alloy. G.. 1970. Pipkin. 17. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 16. IV. E. A. Bertsch. J. "Stress Analysis for Linear Viscoelastic Materials with Temperature Variation.. December 1969.. "An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Inelastic Behavior of a Structural Aluminum Alloy at Elevated Temperature." 4th U. J. D. Vol. Morland. 14. pp. Chem. 20. Y. Normality. N.. 1968." Ph. Journal of Applied Mechanics (in press)." Proceedings. "A Nonlinear Integral Representation for Viscoelastic Behavior... W. 16. 893-907. K. and Rogers. pp. and Gjelsvik. 62." Transactions of the Society of Rheology. G.. p.. Aug. pp. 72. and Findley. P. 1962. 1950. "An Experimental Study of Subsequent Yield Surfaces: Corners... W. 15.. Findley. J. "Short-Time Biaxial Creep of an Aluminum Alloy with Abrupt Changes of Temperature and State of Stress. Dissertation. MCG . L. National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Lai.. 59-72. Am. N. N. Bauschinger and Allied Effects. 1962. C. 19. Brown University. J. 1103-1118. Vol." J. 1960. "A Biaxial Testing Machine for Plasticity.2. or Relaxation under Variable Principal-Stress Ratios.D. 7. Blass.- 21 - 13. Creep. G. "Mechanicai Properties of Substances of High Molecular Weight Dispersion in Concentrated Polymer Solutions and its Dependence on Temperature and Concentration. Findley. W. and Lee. and Findley. Contract No." Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids.. pp. S. and Nolte. N. S. 233-263. A.." Technical Report No. Ferry.. Soc. H. T.

142 0.028 0.780 " " " " " 0.185 0.017 0.0 2.0 4.133 0.092 0.268 0.0 4.081 0.0 75 100 130 140 150 160 75 102 115 130 135 140 75 130 140 75 102 115 126 135 145 0.298 0.0 4.052 0.0 1.0 3.585 " " 0.0 1.0 2.267 0.100 0.118 0.390 " " 0.0 2.0 3.0 2.216 0.0 4.143 + + 0 % 38 40 51 52 53 54 63 65 41 46 72 48 77 47 50 84 92 91 78 81 97 1.0 4.0 1.068 0.0 1.083 0.328 .125 0.TABLE I Tension Creep Experiments TEST TENSILE STRESS. OF = c0 + tn.053 0.062 0.0 1. n = 0.0 2. ksi TEMPERATURE.195 " " 0.0 2.0 3.178 0.0 4.

6439 0.0843 0.4925 " 150 0. psi TEMPERATURE.. .6368 114 2 77 87 91 " 3000 " 4000 " 0.9957+ + Used in Fig.6672+ 1.4902+ 0.4341 0.TABLE II Repeated Experiments in Tension TEST STRESS.4368 39 63 76 2000 if " 41 67 49 " 115 0.4419+ 0. Per Cent 0. 1. OF 75 "l i STRAIN AT 1 hr. 2.5894 75 " 115 " 0.

Creep curve fo7 n 0.92 CL 0/~ o 0 Experiment rheory 75L 0 0.96 C 0)0 =0.08 9 0 /45 L 1.00 0.10 2 Fig..10 1.24 s tesa ifrn !lze osattmeaue - .2 0.6 Time hr 0.4 0.Iio 2 1.

82 LT z_ 3_ S _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0. Fig.66 75F 09.1 0 Experiment S0.5 C ee 2 ur e f r 2 d 3k si a stress t di fe e n c o s a t t m e a u e .74 77 0.86 1 0.78 00 *4 0.0.7 140L 0.62 0.40O 2.

2 0. r/ 75OF + 60t o Total Strain I .0 Time .I__5_ _ 40 ..6 0. L) 1.8 1.95 020 0 0. 3.0 _ _..1.hr.45 Test 88.T/=60t MethodA Actual T/ 0) 0)0 0.4 0.Ti-60t I /0 50 1.05 30 11 1. Creep Tests Method 8 Eq. 1. IA Fig. 39. * a a 70 '-=4ksi Actual Temp.36. Creep at a constant stress of 4 ksi and increasing temperature .05-d' 0 0 x) 7 30" EI- x 0.25 -Method 8 ActualT7 1 Me/hodA Eq.35 o x x x o Creep Strain _ _ A S9 1 Constant Temp.

Coefficient of time-dependent strain versus temperature for several stresses .000 0. Fig.2 0.36 0. 4.0.24 // x S0.28 /x x x 0.04 0 60 80 100 120 'F 140 160 Temperature.20 / 0.08 xi 0' .12 0.

08 0.0.02 0 0 2 3 4 5 o-.o 0. £÷/d versus d (see Eq.04 + Ib o. ksi Fig. 7a) .06 4-- 100O ° 0. 5.

"n 0. 7d) / . Vertical shift of /dl with temperature (see Eq.02 .06 a) I " I2 0. 6.' > 0 0 20 40 T= 60 T-75 0 F 80 Temperature. + 0.04 0 4-0 !t 0..000. Fig. 0045Tr " 0.000387.

Iksi.04 ca x . 140°F Test 72.6 .0 0* 0 .12 I Test 81. Iksi. 135 .126°F e Theory 0F . Iksi.. 06 m". 115 OF Test 54. 4ksi. Recovery at zero stress and at the indicated temperature following creep for one hour at the same temperature and at the stress shown __ _ ____ ___ . 140 Test 48.0 Fig. Test 52. 3ksi.08 _ 0 F C Test 41. 7. 160°F Test 53. . 135 0 F Test 78.8 1.4 Time . 2ksi.10 Test5o. 150°F r *0 CA.2 . 140°F -. 4ksio.hr. 2ksi.04 •• L.2ksi.

Recovery at zero stress during decresing temperature following creep at a constant stress of 4 ksi during increasing temperature (see Fig.2 1.05 C) CL 70t1oo~-7 0 0.6 1.03 9 0.01 0 1 1. 8.02 -40 0.4 1.3 0'0 x /'120 0I0 ~0.0 Time. 2.6 Fig.0. 3) .5 x x 140 0.2 2.8 2. hr.4 2.4 x130 0.

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