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a;oos]to, oi aomoo] aS 5il CcncooJo o)6)crD cor6rDo. (sro Co.)ceo)ci o6rB c (ruo6uJ oJoo)cqa cno]ed ae101eni. orc&lu rarg avl "6;1-ro'lororcd

nosccn] ooora]oooDJacloo. mr5.ds'l..ro<or (creativity)

ocAOd ogO.rJolocolJo, croto'l;cotcoat OC"etO:Od agOr;"locOrocrlg.

1

ococ8 e,gol;otocorccr'l

g. Grd(DJcolcoei
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ccosla,oo)cdclP]o c6.ruc(l)ojccncqojlo€oc9 gemOocrrll
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Q)los o$ go bc cDoc&GrDo a oJ o$c6r o6rnoro'noe o.D eil6r ocaD crjlaoroc(r)l"dol<olacco m.l5"ds1":roor (rule-governed creativity) ',:rluoJo. 'r lr'rJgg rolco8gojo orgdorocad olcocnia,'laoJos aro(n66Bgceni ec^crc
r',r,.si sloJ
ocdr

',,,r,ni .-r;tdlao

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ollcrooaceei]acucco8 rsrocll'lmo<n"locoo

d
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l'.'D'laoJOS eroLgil4oroilalE

m;accncdLnaltsg olc6,Jd6Bop ocmccoloerc6rDcCrr]gg a,slo.lceni miallco.r;os oogcoJ tol6scDecctlo.

o.[d{o.locao]o ,-i1er cocaog]erreccol<olceeronrror)r,rrli

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rec.rsicuocff\jt(d.)or ffp"kDccroorJo Ldeao)coorlo

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paD oJc6J5aBoE (20)po (21)go cmo'ko"lo,roem (affirmativc) on,rr,.1 6oBplo (22)go (2 3 )go crilccsi@ (negative ) oJcaJ6cBgJocerd" .4;crDorod (20 )m;o (2 2 )mJo, (2 1 ) cnlo (2 3 )m;o ro'roo'l er;gg Gruo\Docoro olgl.rx;4:'l
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O)]gg

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s'l caoerrel oroJo. ffi)ocud

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orojlrd

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ololalcotl (restriction )ag;6rrecarco. <orool "tgeneleercorril

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cooerrslo-to3o.

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ocerrj.

cdcoJ6mJ(m). o€)oDcecOaa,lel;o.
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crca5ean uE ccnc €oJ6,. oGrBJ o.lce,JccBp;o

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o4co,r5ccnoro'icri ojl"-to"lolocotlcoror'l<o;cm orcal6sng;os ortrcaosrrll
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crro'lacor;o cor5'IDo. p<ollocngco o4oeo oJc6J66Bog pcno (type) oil(rl g;a cerrll aoc cDJo d,stl ol 6rDo. (Dcogod,c sJ€oJCm o.tco5ean <r3 o&, cbt r,l prcr; oorgiloLcaocor;cmro'rcer6.

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ei<o;

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.r]cnialao otccoiaolcrnlg. cacrootctE pcml m5o,;g[o8 c"-rca,3crrflg.
cmrcarca

o'slororif oclo)o ooLgil4too;olcm c"--tslcor;golc€oJcrn eiOI rD.oo\r,\
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recduc@cmito)o: (ntGDcftDcrrlo tojccoc('ollo oer())cp{orofloC

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acerrr'l ao;cm<iir ggnc oLm)or; or or;os oo:gil g<oror'loE ailcroil

,nldemcoileo;o. <urorocaoci dlol oolcolcrucrila,cnt'lralccroro (g,crl'r,rl lrlrorrclir

Gaojelo

acoerncni ccuc mc oil g;GHc. oojc(o)) "-to crileoraeur:g;enecdolfin cu5ormrnood€om;m)S<ooccoi orco,Seanu0 genecaefl o0)sldolcm co] torla,lccDao)cerrl rec"sia0ter;errecoJrntd. poro<o<oloiloE Jnon"Jt
6)l5)C) oJc6,J6sB
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go;<oror1o1eo;cm; (generate), <lornlo4sJeolcml (ennumarate), ojlo.lo'laolcml

lrodoo'laecnszaoE, omrg5<d rec"sjouA ogcrri1ocot1e4tsts crjlaoroeung;orcrrt)lotri
(
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cril.do'l s ocor 6-JoJ ol olo Grd [o olc "d ,)r.\olm)c'loilao;eneccoieleo;a (roro<occoni -ila 1*tco;SaoDlecolo]Bg o{c6, ,,rr,mcrilcood6Bglo, oleroers6,6sBg)o, (uoor6o6uBglo actcolo;6Trecorlo) "6cni rrl.d.or6"si"l€oJ(mJ. oogcco] orororo-jlo8 ..loerororcoE cruc<dolelecolacrE]ele*r r,rr)66Bop ono.r<0rc1g|ao;cmai or5cao6rnolol (form of grammar)<oroilcd erucur ,rr,olcQD oilel rruladocrjlaortcrorcemc"-rcurlagJos cruoocaocorocosoorceni.

r.\c& o6rD6-68 g;enec

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o;CrDco(Dceot oorc<o; recnsrccrocmSlrormr'lalccrororoJld <onoiloQ el;ols; csrococ rlsl4;errecaJaD o$o6,o6rneonog cn5ccofla,o'lceoene "-t;o<oretor;eni. rrrroi o.rlojlcr o{c6@6rD6€Bd;loE fflcrd cco)c@J(Dccocjlcorc<oroo'rcrd o'r'looeronrr ,, ruror; a,cerrildoccD;gg slJo<opr. ec"vocotgglacDJgo caolelacao oolcolJ
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Qo6rT)o.

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(<oo) ero-lcro;rEc"sjccrD'laDccroo eccogjcgcocrD (language utterances)oonog

,'r,.r ofl(0c>o'r0rtlslgi1er3gpd.6)coe a;cr1ao;cm olcm; ot5rortrdrol orcdtnaottE
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m::crfla (ejl.-r5)orn" (phonetic transcription) orcoiai o{Jc(')ro,J mJcrflo,
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i <E cr: crol ao o H s J cm o 6rrs J cr{ c a, o am ean g! oE cn g c cDJ<o.lolcm .to1c";ccnac<E<no (decision procedure).

crjl

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roonBsa o{)6gBocn

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cxJccso6rT)60Bogc())lo, oLlot'l<"u r?cogleplos olJg6o6rT56Bogco]o
racoslc uoccrJ6olm-iaucoo-rroroilercrpor;o

oolco),l

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crjlro"lar,si6m crjlccDqo;ocao ojloslcorcroller<ril

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mtlmcooccc6gBod

cn:lelrcaor

oilcuo"sd66BUA

"6crr,loroorgS*l=f

ojo6rorrrlcojgca,enelcoilo'lao;cm;.

ro'l.d a o em orc nl o, g;er s <ol'l o olca aJ ol dsr3 gs o s o oL gil 4 <o'roi oil "-t "-t; mr-lercooo-toocqo liler jlgo ocgear:uAdd odcocnia,l olqDcocao'I. "61o,'ler;o crc6;ogr5olacD3os 1.:cLnala mJjcsoro(ofo)dgl roncq.ooroilcd o<org3o ffDocroc)

c(/ocfiDffuta,('a
(orJmccroo6rD otSca,oemoloiloo! crLg<6gcono8 g.jcuccnoc(alo

olon]

B@c

cruml1o gcsm;eneccorcfr

orleneccoig. 1 97 O,lc,E oorcorr5a,'l 1.:mila.u"lao1g'clloc<6dm5 eicenE ccnco'l mooetc(ru otucrd' cn "ocm Getorff)o Lote a cd rnclcr:1 avdeo;gq odco crria,l ()Jos (rod(o)ocor ao;.lSlcorccolo;cm2. 1 965op-t (o)oog tolcocerrjlo, cn-l'lalc
crolorril<o8

'

rorgo5cooroi 1957 o;cloE 1965 o.looorJtsB eceto€Jgo. 1965od <or9 der":d6 mi coc o.oe.fl er; gp 1"t c ac erd16r ac<ol5 e (Sta n d a rd Th eo ry ) cot;os o$orau.ocd cno. 1 9 6 5 cnJccro o8io Lojscr) e, otc osoLl ot coo'ro'jl oi aur: etc cor"l g*rrx

ojler ocgaarcd cnl3ceuo14;oa,ceni, oilacnrlollo-tcocerrjla,m.:'lrruccro (Extended Standard Theory)oocm; oilglao;cm oo; cru1ruccroo-JaDot

roocdro ol'lorcro (Cenerative Semantics) oro-i1m; ooaioloD o;cr0ro'r;oeioL;,r ecellocaeln rooaljlcri cruocol'ld onolrleo)6sBgJo 6ldcocn5a,lcolJos ffD'lcDcoo)
erer:otoilcri orcm orla,cmrolJo Grodmo{coJJccDo ololo€tscn cooloolc cucd,.l og s cD ao)l os rao s'l m-nc cn anoil co8 c olem el acrn ercjco ffri ei cor aE cnl eu cn"u cn oqlr
oc
gil

odcoffria,'l oilrecotcno o'-rd<or;. toj(l)cmocs crDooraosoBg;os orgcinrolo,c ( eleie,sj5rDdcBcrdad a;coiieor crildolorcno oacsl€o;crD ) cuco,.r "gdcr$enLc<6 X
r

ojloLccooocm crul(ruBc(p)o oalco<nid)'l mtt"lao194<tfi pcorcoscorcerfi. ognt (nOUo cor oroiloofl cruSod ooc cor crik6 ou cn or;o ojl cro r:oc co ofl otoemot; o o n go crri.o,'l

oerl

cn

j

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crrlcm;

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ol o€t

s

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o{]gorlo (o€(o)o)cao ord(Dcojcco scaerqacal)c"o'lonl' mrlaflc.oim\ .0t SBd eic"-r5 c1"nm5 cn51sd"-rrd' (1977) otcoJl,ooo,' "6crn "t3m5rora,oro'j}oE rncoo, 16'larl or;secrdcor aocenlo'la <Tuoordcn (l.exical Category) corud,oti)),,,
00)Jos

80

@lO
oJ
13

ec.sjcsocanjtroo' au'lapccrolollo l.lcoc@atJo oetolcgoroilo8
ol a rruo orfl

{)dooani6,:laooa o{ca,(o6rpo

-

6r(0]

o]oro{o

-_.

_

t.lOr.) ll

I

ror o)J s 6srt O) dB ouo oril (d) ffuo old (') (Phrasal Category) eanudao;o1so)aei goL oerrder;o oolscoto -ilet cruoor<do 5sBg;o6rem orcr:oceni <argcrocorcoo'floop rimslm:nccno. @ftfi
ff)c o
eo)c

ouo oo"l (o), 16,'l

"gdmi-en:c<6 gloE oto;ororlcor oJmng acgean gceni giloE "gond"j<o]a oe-tcoffdol colqA oflec u)roo,lroEod S od m ccro (o6rn cneors8dd ot;<o'ilor "io g emd or;o p cclo.l gcnorlo cnroEo,l qocnltcrlorn g coi. cool cD coo) o6rD c4car oGTn cnlccloeong;os Lolcao)cotao (Orderi n g of Ru es )aanua crooiao)cdodogs;
cruoord (r)el'l (ro o,
I

'"l3o;oogo1"-tcs1' (Minimalist Programme 1995)coioeton'r1 cn'lrod3;or,rtl r,rorcoffr56r'1. 1 998o4'olcrnoailg$ po8orcoro1m5' (Minimalist Inquirir.r 1998), 1999-oet 'onDcilcol"sloa ooentc.nm5' (Derivation By Phase 19()()) "6cm'l
g"-ieucrudgBglo lvocalcorean gcerd.

orcdrJ6o6rno (Syntactic Component), ffiodmac6rr\r)o (Serlantir
t-omponent), cnncnlaacem.uo (Phonological Component) ogrcm"l o;cm1 oilr.r;r rn6oBpc6ni ore6Jo{c6r@omoroflocncrd oorcocnie'l o.fluoo"lao1oo;ffi)J. olco,.\ ,rr,cem.ooceni lolscD66c6rnDo (Cenerative Component). oro<dLaacemlor;,,
,

coro.lcrrg crilcorloorm(Constraints)ecnglo cril5'ilcrtuma,glo ogcrrllotoeococo

olgoo ojlsoeacao crcBloJoilotcaoo:ua€olo psco)c€o'I. ool "lrdgov0eoJo rec"ua,oQ ecduc€g6rocorcnjlnDloqo oo.lgilcrccoccnl(o)aJ(m ol<uicculoE <oncfl rnr'ku-lc cror ooror oo go g s; oro'i odoc6rre; cu o c oA oo-tc omia,'l a,J o o gc(m J o fl t@alegl5lggd. 1975-CIE 1"-rm:1ral'la,o'14 'cil".dgasro0ar5 oc"-o' ErcoGotd' ..t; m5 ore, omil et] o s (gra o o'l o1 gl 4 coer cn c o (, 66|3 glo s oxnc cn o c g 66B6)S "6cm ffDo5rxffutdo]rm'c1smj oilaorcjl' mllm:occoorofi o; "gcmcllcomgs;cm "l;oilor os oceni, o crco<rti61 o;crri cruloil gfl 4' o-r1a, mi <or(op acerrjla mr'k:ocno' '"-r;rn6oila,mjlro coro',lo8 "jler "-r;ro'i1cor ocgeon<6 orc;oro'iloaocenS, omo! 1.lcocerrila, mjlnoccro' (Revised Extended Standard Theory)<oro'ilcoJ o;o:o
oa,cs;oro'lci. 1980-6E oorcoffiajl <onop c1sm5 <ojlqcDcil o.r"lene;o *ro1"da,o1ao3 ocor;erreccol. oroojloS 6c(o6o (case) <loroerocp" (reoemcrnerum-ucn), ooeua0 u1or.d (enrmlcrildemcoro) orgvocoreor:<.rdao;a3s1 mrnccno oocslotol. "gcm"l toro or;oa, ceni 1 9 80 -o er cnrlatcaor ocoT a,co)ad cnoro eraofl" <cOo!" ooeruo0 5 ollo<i cocaloE (crilqoCcrosm crjlenrcrucn oco5a,) d6)oD col(oceni ele,cs;
oro.r1<o1ao2cmail. emen:a0ru.flocd (1

rurcrjloa,corrrl-ro{o ogcogcff, a,c6tr\D56rl g;o

(

|

nte rp ret i ve Com po nents ccll]o GrxcooJo€rscn

orco5o'n'iloap <orgcroole"erscn (Deep structure)

). er o; (Surfacc

Structure)ccu;o ootco<rrio'l o.rlrgccucno o"lcl)rol;. <crgcroro'la"erscn rcndnru;o {,TUcoroJoerscn oloJorlo crlltdemcoieer;cm]. 1957-oE odcocnis,'l oJc(mgSJ ol4
oU

erolcoJJ ( Kerne I Senten ce ) m:aoE gcno orgoorola rrue,d gmoro'ilrd o:sl

occilooercs;oro'rJ. odcoccrDocn'loroesBsd g"-rcorcolgj <argcrorola,"erscnd,og (,rxcooJoeis cDa gcaefl Ecgco. poi roadrnooro 6r)Jcut€oco(D Gor6rDo aDc (l)J o'rccooenEni 1965<o8 odcocnia'l cril,rda<E"sil€o;e,cor;eneccd]. lorem "Ocrd ,ocdmorcn'lauf, (Cenerative Semanticists) goi <ir1oca,o1eo;6raolo od n c cro'rocril co oeanud <ond m ac g <oro'ilcd 6 co6mocal oooDJ eo6rreoto)l a, ()lo ,,)erqJ(o 6c(oJo cffxoccoro) cru]'-igil4Jaeleloxl;. on<Emo,oEgcnq0)'l@E GDcooJ cruaooillloa,c s](oto.) ogrcoffriai orcd{odoccaLcn"l olro ', (.i s(r)6,gJos
,

(t'entrality of syntax)ootloE go4;crJlcm; a;ccmcllocorcrDloJooco.
rrr'lcm;o <ondLn<oro'r'lcerod'
'rsrddm<oro'iloE

"rd

'o;"-roro'i1oE

ei"-.lcomia,1aor;eis'etdcldmi
98'l )' .g;cm
gncnn<o'ro'iloE

po8 <lotooro€"
oilcroaocqcD

.qnno.li

pailocrp

otdg acemco,

u5caoemJlnola,oA€d
"-ro1o1<oi1ag3o

or;roilcor oocru€Dccrotocs'lrrunccnesBglo (pri nciples ) (Parameters) crildceool4;oa,cend 't"ilcdmngilvAm5 angS .-rroc c"-r<o1e4gg oocrueDccrcrla, or'la,sj6moroile4os cDl(o)cDtojoj6rn

"6;cmo'ilcDlor6oo ,:'er€d' oo(m oJLBcorca,tr<oroiloctp olgdoo orco<Tri<er'leoroi llaojcgororloS ,r),lGo€ocero a;eean'lrrilcmoi mo;aoi ooaoccncojlg. ffDxnDo oo1.'vtrcoco]os to;g;agiloE rnlcm;oced so€ol1cqDctol rrd4a,g;o crJler.-rcs;a,g;o;eneccoro5

cnlcm; o;"r<oro-il

alcAda6'"gcm

,,O(In

6,c

coJ (oro)

l(oE o

rcocnia,'lod

cnJcao) oceo)J

o

ron

re'l

oc crr"laoco o0)crnJ

<oraua€d occDo cDoEa,loaocene'lo1oo;o,qoc6rd oc-tcocnSojl pcdca;o. "r;oilcor <roerigo, o€lscD, rcodroo rcros'lcru,occD oleldgBgJos m'>alooccot 1aal1
"rcncn<o'ro'jlcri

,r./o)ccrnJanJ.

"OCm1 elcrcocnie,lcoroa cruleDccro).raloflcotcgo (o€(oocQO aogccrrilg

(o,JrncoooLolCa,lqD (T ran sformational
63col

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ffucoJo.
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es

an

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pa ramete rs

) aerarreororcoocmccot'I.

Lotoc6rnduBg;o o-rolotoilag;o 1 99 1 o;ood <ncloeracrfl'

,rorocriloroeonod. a,;5;acor;o alocoi€oJoao;o ora,oo orcJao;acorsoceni <arosl
,I

cD{" ooeuadmjlori

(GB ) cocar.loE ooo,6,ccoJo oelgloa(mJ oo;crilcoilo;cm

,r

jloo)aeanua

r)Jtcff)oj(ooca) (oelo)9oo)o cnlccl;nrra<,rd. crr'lderucnuocqo)Jo Lolcaoccnl<l.ooonq (obligatory rules), coremoae,loS ocl(o)o LoJceoccrflccoens ot.larlor

iuudrnean giko8 crflcm; oorcomia,l lcoal roilol gloLls;cmtutl 6c6rnco. o6)fl c qoaSg olocD oocm re c ova vdeoJo o ojc CoU G or aQ)J ts C'roc'l er6,si 6rn66Bo g dsn

,,rrn<6

I

"gcrrilear:ercnco;gg 'lilol-lcucoloo cootcnccroocrjleo6aBglo Goolcollos Lolcaoccnle,Darlo, In|o(no(,) ,/))Lcro5gBglo, crilcorlcrolemeCng]oDc6',€o mr;o1rE"et1rd4ou8.oer orvilor"l2 tnor

(optional rules)

cor<Eroilo'lorJo rarqor@Jocco'l orcu,1.

82 OfO o6mrtfl

BcorucuocmSl<oo: mtriDcmDclr3o toJcaDcooJlo

oerolcsotorlai

,,r,rcomiajlo-)crE

o{c6,o6lDo

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5-JCoJ

oJolcxJo

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llil

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ocroSo,olo8 (oerff)c(D@6rnooro

tcrgcnDo'ldr

l,r rGaoc@(orojloofl

o€rsff) (d- structure)oo drucooJo€tsrn (S-structure)ocoi ocglcm dcetct (move me nt ) rrjlqo) aoc aol olooL<oro1 gp ooJcml. Grucorl5 n€jsff oco) ffulmoloJo (Phonetic Form - PF) oocncorcolaogo"to (Logical Form - LF) oilc

,,oRcra, mJcoloo5or5coro'Jl,
r,r rGQe)c(D6@r"o

i;<ojlo3"-roceo ecoMacDcen5 rogo5coro'rrii. mtcot;.o.trrilrurrl srrlcor)J(rucoodoJo <ols5gBlacD 6coJ66B(/a r.lco'ili)

e14;acerrj'leo;rm;.
G
B co.'1o cru o

"gcm;o

I)rJr2Caa)

mrccr"lcrr'laoJ(rDJ. ccogdo)]os Lolceo)c(r)ojool]o oilcrilorQr. tro m)c(l)J(o6,og pror]eio,cend oiluoo"lo,o'l€oco. oflcrnco8 rurg<rorro1,o,
(ruoOgOCCO GCdUCP6TOCO)OrOrletSelS ACL(o)G0 crl.!96)
1.\C

r.:l)alUOQQ) rEC"Si6,Cr5

'Dlooccncoj;. cxJcaosInP6rlDCCDo pa9

egerOCCnOto.flOOS tSTOOI"gj€6,O(Oo 0lC((0)().

gorcnteDccro6on gJo

a

c er"l

cn

o-r

o

cn

arn

giloE

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6

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GTn

on'r'l cncenf

{)om)nnCoola,sclololJo, lrtlc@)cools](o)
oc-rcocniajlcoroa rnr'lalcooro3Co)j6rcccB56r3org c'ros;<orocjlco]o,cot;o runot
,or'l

odcocrrie,l a1s;<oo8 gecmoE rnoSoloocem;cm<d. rsn<o'jlom ooo! CB ocroX a, corcd cruo(o m)oCs;ororcoi oo:con5ajl loooloo;cm;. po'il cercocol o5o& oemcnjle.uccnrooro'r targd polcrikecoeangco;l <oilo14,

eLlos <sroolro"ldcmoc6,Jon mre,o8 gcneanog

6JroJ

acmcrula ecogieo]os

ol5ca,oem"ro'1c1"-rev5<oloi1o8 uolccrocu-igcn;reo.r'lao;a,ccu;ocerd o":cgrrnro5,

a) b) c) d) e)
f

,,

acoa,rnr'lr:uccr6)o

-

(Case Theory ) acoa,eucrueor:oE oo-rgfl

orcdolfiblr

olgcm:'larc<roro
ollce4cml.

-

(Theta Theory) Loreoeool(oocccD odo6RBUa crtldoto

reoemcn:'lcr:c(nDo

-

(Government Theory) oJolJoeJsmarglosaolo

tlBcoo(o6rncru"rllroo rru3o'kd"e"racqojl *dg oldcil ono.r<or<olgilgccel orjco trria'lqo)oa ogoaocrno or;sd ooooc<dod cru;oL.5ao, oc6r J. no scodo cnl<oJo;o-l roro'r;crjlcm; cag;<or"lt6eoJarcotJo co-rerr4oro;o. (odcDcctootolscDa o{caro6rT) oroi ocrp cru al <6 om al corlo s m) cro gJ acjl ccu c o6 co'jl a aorol er o cnr rzr"l c aor'l a, c ral oJolJor)o LolcaDc(,)oJsJ(oo)lo GrooluoJocani. p4D lol5rxfi\Do n(oJ o]6uol]o
,)cL(oo. QBC or) co5rD56Bcd Crl1O4 coJS 65) GCoTOCO S eOJo m:laloOOl Cru]oj rnOUE o,Soroilcrilo4 6ls]€o c<oro.lcos ao)Jolqq n<o; olerrol;to.
,

orglcolol"eLsoagloscrDJo crjldemcor'l€o]Cm crjlenrcnl "lcom5"ro5o<orol coo<6 cru;"jld*l*).
enrcnr.lrril<Eemor
mco6BB

mialcooro (Binding Theory) cDca5aBg;osaoJo ffudoJ g]oso)Jo olld olcoro 6Dc\rJ6oBog crildem or'leo;cm].

crjlerucnocn m:'lelccroro (Bounding Theory) aDloqo oogilocao;cm;.

o€,sff6glos

":cerncnJl

)

crllorlcroremcruld)c(oo (Control Theory ) crflcorcocriroml;rcnaog oilol
o1eei;cml.
orc

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co (,) 568

gJos

co-rdcm o{c6o6rD Loloc6rr6sB g]o o€rsmcoo6sBg)os
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ooJ a, <orlo oo-r co) <ol; o a,c

oc

olA6 o cor oilo.ro'l aeil6
or or'l c er

end mrc r0 or er 'tc a,'l a <or'l6nonlrorco;cerri elotcomialcor;os '"-tg<o3aogo1"lcs1'
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o-locorerreloro2cm].

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"O(mlalgg

54-2A04

7