P. 1
Prehistoric Religion -- Mills

Prehistoric Religion -- Mills

|Views: 127|Likes:
Published by i11uminate

More info:

Published by: i11uminate on Feb 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less












Cornell University Library


original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the














(H) VIG. 3






S.T. L.



Copyright, 1918,

BY Philo Laos Mills
All Rights Reserved.



The East-Indian


3. 4.

The Aborigines of the Far East The Oldest Symbol of the Human Race, The Latin Cross Facsimile of a Charm-Tube (Malakka)





8. 9.

The The The The The

"Great Master" (Ceylon)
"Spirit-Father in

Heaven" (Borneo)

25 37

"Father of All" (Australia-Melanesia) "Father above the Clouds" (Africa) "Father of Shining Light" (South America)



Specimen of a Buru-Mystery, the Sun-Serpent (India)


14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

The Secret of Life, or the African Snake-Mystery The Giant WoUunqua, or the Australian World-Serpent The Great Medicine, or the North-American Sun-Mystery "To Anu and Ishtar" (Babylonian Votive-Tablet) Sumerian Prayers to Bel, "Father Enlil, Lord of the Lands"
Royal Pyramid Texts
(Egyptian Wall-Paintings)


75 83


A Hymn of Praise to Ashur (Assyrian Tablet) A Prayer to Ishtar, Queen of Heaven (Assyrian
The Transcendence


the God of Israel, the Twenty-third Psalm


20. 21.
22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

The Trilingual Behistun-Inscription of Darius the Great The Yasna of the Avesta (Persian Text) A Primitive Planisphere, The Six Cycles of Creation A Developed Planisphere, The Seven Great Wakandas


151 161


The Seven Tablets of Creation (Babylonian Series), "The Chaos" Do. "The Making of Heaven and Earth," "The Making of Man" The Bilingual Tablets of Sippar, "The Primitive Ocean" The Modelling of Mankind on the Potter's Wheel (Egyptian) The Hebrew Hexahemeron, with Assyrio-Babylonian Parallels
revealing its


163 167
172 173 175 183

30. 31.

Immense Antiquity, but Theological Independence

33. 34. 35. 36.

The Persian Dualism as Expressed in the Ancient Avesta The Babylonian Zodiac, or the Advanced Planisphere The Converted Zodiac, or the Christian Heavens Primitive Paradise Picture, The Seven Heavens and The Tree of Life Developed Paradise Picture, The Seven Wakandas and The Magic Cedar The Adapa-Legend of Babylonia, "The Sage of Eridu" The "Tree of Eridu" (Bilingual Incantation-Text)
Egyptian Fragments on the Tree of Life and the Serpent






39. 40. 41. 42.

The Tree of Life in Assyrio-Babylonian Art The Hebrew Toledoth, with a few Assyrian Parallels The Persian Hom-Yasht (Zoroaster's Vision of the Soma)
Advanced Paradise-Picture, "The Music of the Spheres"
Converted Paradise-Picture, The Christian Apocalj^ptic Signs

217 219 222 223 232 233


The Four Rivers of Paradise (Prehistoric Map of the East) The Island of Borneo as a "Fraction" jof the Lost Continent Ideal Paradise-Scene, "The Enchanted Forest at Night"


The Star


Bethlehem as The Guiding Star

of the


48. 49.
50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

as the Perverted Channels

The Babylonian "Tables of Destiny" of a Prehistoric Hope (Planetary



275 279 291 295 31S 320

Egyptian Parallels on the Advent of a Better Age The Protevangelium, or the First Gospel Given to Man The Gatha Ushtavaiti, or the Persian Cry for Deliverance The Finding of the Light of the World Primitive Sacrifice, "The Sadaka," or The Cain- Abel Sacrifice
Primitive Sacrifice (Malakkan Rite), The "First Fruit" offering Primitive Sacrifice (Malakkan Rite), The Blood-Throwing Primitive Sacrifice (Sinhalese Rite), The Coconut-Offering

56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

326 327




68. 69. 70. 75.

The Deer-Sacrifice The Betel-Palm Offering) The Bird-Sacrifice Primitive Sacrifice (Australian Rite), The Spear-Throwing Primitive Sacrifice (African Rite), The Moduma-Fruit-Offering Primitive Sacrifice (African Rite), The Buffalo Sacrifice Primitive Sacrifice (Amazonian Rite), The Arrow-Shooting Totemic Sacrifice (Indian Rite), The Corisumption of the World-Egg Totemic Sacrifice (African Rite), The Sprinkling of the Meal Totemic Sacrifice (Australian Rite), The Intichiuma Ceremony Totemic Sacrifice (North-American Rite), The Smoke Offering Totemic Sacrifice (North- American Rite), The Sun-Dance Recent Sacrifice, The Pre-Sargonic Temple of Bel at Nippur
Primitive Sacrifice (Sinhalese Rite), Primitive Sacrifice (Bornean Rite), Primitive Sacrifice (Bornean Rite),

334 335

343 345




357 358

Babylonian Incantation Ritual The Statue of Gudea, Patesi of Lagash Recent Sacrifice (Egyptian Rite), The Corn-Offering


. .

78. 79.


82. 83. 84.


87. 88.

Recent Sacrifice (Hebrew-Palestinian Rite), The Sacrifice of Melchisedech The Manna, The Tabernacle, and The Holy of Holies The Temple of Jerusalem in the Visions of Ezekiel Plan of a Parsee Fire-Temple, Bombay, India Recent Sacrifice (Persian Rite), The Mazdaean Soma- Worship Hellenistic Development The Mysteries of Mithras Recent Sacrifice (Brahministic Rite), The Hindoo Pagoda of Trinchinopoli Recent Sacrifice (Brahministic Rite), The Cave-Temple of Vishvakarman ^. ?. Recent Sacrifice (North- American Rite), The "Banquet of the Clouds" Recent Sacrifice (North- American Rite), The Dance of the Corn-Maidens Recent Sacrifice (Aztec Rite), The Great Fire-Temple of Mexico Recent Sacrifice (Aztec Rite), The Burning of the Human Victim The Double Sacrifice of the Redeemer


372 373 374

378 382 383


415 435 437

90. 91. 92.


"Fractio Panis," or the Eucharist in the Catacombs


The Babylonian Ark


Form and Imagery

94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99.

The Deluge-Tablets (Selected Readings) The Deluge-Tablets (Selected Readings) The "House of the Seven Foundations of Heaven and Earth'' The Borsippa Tower-Inscription of Nebuchadnezar II The so-called "Babel-Tablet" describing the Confusion of Tongues Migrations of the Ark and Tower-Motif



459 479 482 483


Savage Picture of the Future Life Ishtar's Descent Into Hell (Assyrian Tablet)



101. 102.

The Isles of the Blessed or the Apex of Pre-Christian Hope The Balance of Truth and the Egyptian Hesperides The Supernatural Consummation The Persian Aftermath, or the Last Judgment

486 487

B. A.

Assyrisches Handworterbuch (Delitzsch-Leipzig, 1896)

Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte (Haupt).
Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington).



Cuneiform Texts of the British Museum (London)
Journal of the Anthropological Institute.
Journal of the American Oriental Society.

A. O. S

J. I.


Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.
Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (Jensen)


R. A. S
R. G. S

O. B.

Keilinschriftliches Textbuch-



Testament (Winckler)

Old Babylonian Inscriptions (Hilprecht-Pennsylvania)'.


"The Old Testament,"


(Works by Pinches

or Jeremias).

Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology
Rawlinson, Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia.

S. B.

Babyloniens und Assyriens

( Jastrow-Giessen,



Sacred Books of the East (Clarendon Press, Oxford).


Report of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington).
f iir


Zeitschrift Zeitschrift

Katholische Theologie (Innsbruck)


f iir


Wissenschaf t




But more than

The same Ught

of reason has also a moral aspect,



points to a great Lawgiver, the guardian of the moral conscience, one has written His law in the heart of man in such manner that

The 'primary dictates of the Natural out some culpability. (S. Thom 1, 2.
ch. 5-17ff.)


cannot be ignored withSuarez, de Legibus, 2,

q. 94.

apart from any revealed decree, the love, honor, and worship of God, together with the love and respect for his neighbor, are to a large extent natural to man, nay, that even the practice of sacrifice, with the various rites or ceremonies that may yet accompany it, is so flrmly rooted in the very constitution of man that it may be called instinctive. To put it briefly, the "prehistoric" religion of man may be said to embrace a belief in God as Creator and Judge, the binding power of the ten commandments, and the offering up of some kind of atonement-rites. On the other hand this "natural" religion has its well-defined limits
that, quite

This means

"// any man shall say that in the divine revelation no true and proper mysteries are contained, but that all the doctrines of faith can be understood and demonstrated by properly cultivated reason out of natural principles, let him be anathema." (Vat. III. Can. 4,


important to understand that throughout this work we are treating of man as under a double aspect, natural and supernatural, and that no attempt is being made to ground supernatural doctrines upon naturalistic antecedents, but rather to show that the supposed parallelisms are typical and nothing more. This concerns more especially
it is


(1) (2) (3)

the relation of the cosmic triads to the doctrine of the Trinity,

the belief in a saving demiurge as distinct

from the divine Messiah,

the use of certain medicines as preceding the Seven Sacraments,

In each case it will be our endeavor to show that no triad has ever developed into a Trinity, no demiurge into a divine Redeemer, no medicine It will be found that the former are into a supernatural Sacrament. from the latter by a gulf which no unaided power of reason can separated

Nevertheless, as the golden thread of the supernatural has never been
entirely lost in

any age of the human



cannot say


race, whether historic or prehistoric, extent the primitive revelation has not been

preserved in this or that fragment of prehistoric antiquity or by this or that section of primitive man, it is clearly impossible to treat this subject in such a manner as to exclude the influx of all supernatural light from the rich body of folk-lore which we are about to examine.



For if the two orders of truth are so inextricably woven together in every period of man, we must be prepared to find occasional vestiges of an idea which we know from other sources to have been a revealed dogma. Hence in the treatment of this subject due allowance must be made for the necessary infiltration of supernatural light upon a belief, a tradition or a practice which could never have been derived from the innate tendencies of human nature. This may apply to any of the following subjects

"God" we intend to show that the idea of a supreme man, but that any intimations of a "Trinity" must be traced to a past revelation, handed down in corrupt form.

Under the


personal Being

entirely natural to


the creation of

Under "Creation" the idea of six creative epochs, culminating in man, may be looked upon as the relic of a fuller light. Under "Paradise"
it is

clear that the story of the elevation




presupposes a fact which cannot be gleaned by natural

reasoning alone.

Under "Redemption" it is particularly plain that, although the (4) longing for salvation is inherent in the human breast, the distinct prophecy of a divine Messiah to come is something that cannot be read from the stars.
historic medicines are suggested

and Sacramentals" we note that the various preby the various religious needs in the life of man, but that the idea of a "suffering" god, and pre-eminently that of the Mystical Lamb, must be regarded as a supernatural symbolism of an



all-sufficient Sacrifice to come, while the purely natural medicines have no connexion whatever with the seven supernatural channels of grace.

or water

Under "Retribution" the recollection of a great devastation by must be traced in part at least to a "visitation from heaven."

Under "Life Eternal" the notion of a heaven of delights and a hell (7) punishment is natural enough, though the subject of a "beatific vision" must, if genuine, be handled with similar reservations.

Thus we
history of

see that nature

and super-nature

are so intertwined in the


in all ages,

the exclusion of the other,

—^we must always allow for some supernatural

thait it is

quite impossible to treat the one to

Nevertheless, as the primary aim of our present study is simply bring out a voluminous collection of prehistoric facts, and then to interpret those facts in the light of our own supernatural standpoint, it is evident that the question of fact should be the primary one theories and explanations should in every instance be made to follow. In this way each of the above subjects will be brought before the reader just as it presents itself to us in perfectly nude and colorless form, and only in the subsequent analysis will an attempt be mad6 to group the phenomena in such a manner as to suggest some theological conclusions.

"Have ye not read. dabbled with Tylor's Primitive Culture." (Matt. 19. Then there are those who' have. Then again to there are other subjects tion to man's supernatural destiny. Primitive m/m was monogamous. in which the existence of a very primitive human type. that He who made man from the beginning. is sought to be demonstrated out of the purely scientific and ethnological data. that the human race has on the contrary raised itself by its own impetus from the lowest fetichism and animal-worship to the most exalted monotheism and monogamous practices of modern times. wives.4 PREHISTORIC RELIGION The importance of such a work seems to me to be obvious. If the one is true. 8. it is quite certain that the Messiah refers to it not simply as speech-figure. our primitive is a man.) As Christ is continually quoting the Torah. or if in possession of any religion at all. leaving to the biologist the task of accounting for such a type. . not a developed anthropoid. the other is clearly false. with Frazer's pretentious work on Totemism and Exogamy. and part of this history includes the originally sacred character of the marriage-tie. How is this consistent with the dignity and nobility of human nature? To them we offer our Introduction. popular or professional. In the first place there are those whose superficial reading has brought them in contact with perverted views of the nature and origin of man. In other words. this can hardly be squared with the current notions. 4. Now whatever view we may take of the Paradise-story as having a mystical content. made them male and female?" "Moses by reason of the hardness of your heart permitted you to put away youi*. polygamy belongs to a later age. but which in their united force point to conclusions of precisely the opposite characterj^it is the All-Father belief which precedes the totemic or animistic cult by indefinite ages. it is clear that He regards it as — revealed history. They have been taught to look to a purely animal ancestor as the progenitor of the human race and naturally feel disquieted when they hear of a confessedly simian type as the only representative of primitive man. To them we shall oppose an enormous array of religious facts which have only recently been unearthed. but from the beginning it was not so. an age of original which have a more intimate relaThe fact that the Redeemer points innocence which was subsequently lost by an act of moral rebellion. 19. and who are firmly convinced that primitive man was either entirely atheistic. of normal mental and moral qualities. and only in later times was the belief corrupted. Primitive man believed in God. but as an actual condition of the first couple. that the idea of God was developed out of the ghost or the magical nature-cult.

and in defending the one. destruction. of which humanity as such could not have lost the entire record. the face of the earth in their entirety. of the corrupting Nephilim. it will stand to reason that they must have some impress in the prehistoric annals of the race. But what is more important. 26ff.) Finally we have the revealed picture of the Father in Heaven as the Dispenser of justice. 5 In like manner the story of Eden cannot be dissolved into myth. and took them all away. and in searching for these traces. ^it is part of a revelation given to man in paradise. Cor.) If words mean anything at all. so also shall the coming of the Son of man be. Similarly the idea and the hope of Redemption is traced by the Messiah and indeed by the whole cycle of Christian thought to the earliest ages of man. 6. 22. all these things. they must have left some mark of their presence in their trail. so also in Christ all shall be made is founded. they imply a period of corruption. of the salvation of the few and the destruction of the many in the Great Flood. so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. as the Rewarder of the good and the Punisher of the wicked. we shall be indirectly supporting the divine tradition: "Thou art a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech." (Heb." (Mat. together with the broad doctrines of a future recompense in soul and body alike. they must be to some extent verifiaJjle. that it should have left no vestiges whatever in the folk-lore of humanity? And in the — picture of the Tree of Life. we are defending the other. of the rising dualism of humanity. (I. 24. of blind evolutionary forces? The first and second Adam stand and fall together. have we not a distinct intimation of the originally unbloody nature of the primitive sacrifice? If these are facts left and not fancies. ma/rrying and giving in marriage. of the pious Enoch. Is it conceivable that this revelation should have been entirely lost. but is upon which the whole of Christian theology "And as in Adam all die. in the bread and wine of Melchisedech. in the first-fruit offerings of Cain. if a record of momentous facts and actual prehistoric beliefs. 37 Lk. 5. — . Here again the portrayal of the ten antediluvian patriarchs. the Great Deluge is quoted by Christ as actual history: "And as in the days of Noe.PROLOG a definite prehistoric event. For as in the days before the flood they were eating and drinking. of the righteous Noah. and reconstitution of the human race upon a more recent Asiatic level." regarded as a mere product of nature. even till that day in which Noe entered into the ark and they knew not till the flood came. If real and actual events. could not have vanished from.) What becomes of this doctrine if man be alive. 17. 15.

and therefore you find Him for the idea of .6 PREHISTORIC RELIGION Now I am aware that I shall be met with the usual objection that I trying to prove too much. for a ubiquitous deluge. that I am starting with dogmas. and therefore you deny the concept to the savage you have no belief in an age of original innocence. and 'supernatural' enlightenment of the human race you are reading the past by the light of the present. but I will endeavor to remove it by an appeal to a more balanced judgment. you have a horror of sacrifice and the greatest contempt for holy observances. and therefore you entirely ignore the gropings of the savage heart for final deliverance. are looking for God. for the garden of pleasure. and therefore you throw over all the testimonies to that effect. throughout you are consciously doctoring the facts to make them square with your own preconceived views on the nature. because it fits in beautifully with your own esohatology. — trying to make out a case for universal nihilism in religion. and therefore every first-fruit offering takes on a sacrificial character. and therefore — To this polite insinuation we make the following polite reply: "You are not looking for God." . origin. and therefore you convert the savage heavens and hells into mere dream-states. and therefore you studiously avoid everything that can reimotely point to such an event. you are evidently . and therefore every belief in a demiurge points to a future Messiah. for a heaven. somewhat as follows : "You creation. a more approved system of reasoning. and therefore it is easily verified. and therefore you do not find Him. you have no adequate idea of redemption. you have been taught to throw unending ridicule on the story of the ark. and therefore every story of a floating raft is a direct reference to such an event. you have lost all faith in a definite hereafter. —a petitio principii of the worst kind. that I have already made up my mind that such and such must be the case. and therefore you interpret the entire ritual of mankind as nothing but mummery and magical superstition. you have no conception of the act of creation. It is . can am We imagine such an objector appealing to the so-called "colorless" methods of modern science and baldly denouncing our entire thesis as an a priori assumption. for a primitive unbloody sacrifice." a pity that we should start with a mutual misunderstanding. for redemption. in short. hell and purgatory. it can be readily mapped out. you are wilfully perverting the plain message of humanity to suit your own decadent philosophy. plainly begging the question.

but I cannot argue it away by an appeal to idealistic philosophy. — it is a perfectly fair chal- Then. and this should commend itself to any fair-minded. here of course we are liable to part company. that there are certain truths that are beyond the limits of unassisted reason to attain. lenge. You derive the entire folk-lore of the human race out of a merely natural reflexion on the facts of consciousness. In like manner it ought to be possible to bring together a sufficient number of data in the pre-history of of reality is which the science of discovery man to point to more or less definite conclusions. they cannot be spun out of mere reflexions. It will surely be allowed that there is an order independent of a man's personal sympathies. though I also allow that some of it can be proved by natural reason. that are frankly mysteries. —I will do the same. otherwise would come to an end. my own logic forces me to trace these beliefs to super-naiursl causes. What these truths are. — — — — — . to measure the Infinite by the capacity of our feeble brain-cells a slight disproportion! If then I find a belief or a practice in the prehistoric past which is evidently more than a mere product of natural philosophy. of the fact that man has preserved many fractions of a primitive undiluted truth. The testimony of the senses is objective and absolute." I may not enjoy the sensations of an earthquake. putting out of our minds as far as possible any personal leanings towards this or that aspect of life or existence. our first duty should be to eliminate the personal equation as far as possible. You appeal to the facts of prehistoric antiquity.searcher after truth. And upon what do I ground this persuasion? I ground it upon what is nothing more or less than a principle of reason itself. to me they are eloquent of a far deeper truth. and it is here that we stand upon two entirely different pedestals. which in the course of ages has become corrupted by a downward moral development. that transcend the full comprehension of the human intellect. To deny this would be to deny the existence of psychic powers higher than our own. there would be nothing to "discover. In other words. to look upon things as they are. we have just been considering. I derive that same folk-lore out of a primitive plenitude of supernatural truth. they demand a communication from the Father of lights. It is simply a case of separating the lower from the higher sources of intellectual vision. which has since been shattered into a thousand fragments. To you the religious phenomena may suggest nothing but a spontaneous evolutionism out of the inner consciousness of man.PROLOG 7 Let us approach this subject in a frankly impartial spirit. whether I accept those conclusions as illustrating my own philosophical opinions or not. as to interpretation.

everything is psychological "tendency. On the other hand. the one follows the other. but logically they are two distinct operations of the in God. because mind. and is already condemned by the above propositions on the "natural" knowledge of God. paradise is converted into a pious allegory. that it is in direct opposition to the repeated declarations of the Church. worthy to be followed.8 PREHISTORIC RELIGION With the supernatural thus well in the foreground. Those who would avoid all appeals to the past records of the race on the score of "traditionalism" are in reality secret immanentists they have no belief that divine dogmas have any real or objective basis. The separation of faith and history is a modernistic error. the opposite practice of dissolving the entire body of revealed truth into myth and allegory. on independent grounds. Before I can follow any tradition. then. however inspiring. it is an insidious tendency which we have long since outgrown. and therefore they scorn every attempt to find such a basis. and has must therede facto been lost by a large section of the humaji race. fore be prepared not only for corruptions but for entire eclipses of truth. But there are two errors that we must guard against. and the error of immanentism. (See the decree "Lamentabili" passim. that the tradition Thus a belief in God as Creator and is true. is far more fatal in its consequences than any over-estimation of the tradition-argument. But apart — — from this. danger of deriving all forms of belief from a divine tradition. —the error of traditionalism.—I believe in God. I must be sure. and only symbolism that forms the background of dogma." It is needless to state that this Origenistic allegorism is gnawing at the very entrails of a sound theology. and those who interpret the opening chapters of Genesis as mere "poetry" incur the risk of a severe censure.) We . because He exists. it is quite certain that a divine tradition may be lost. The elevation and fall of man are not physical but symbolical' events. though this is fortunately the great exception. I believe He has spoken. we have no fear of bringing to light certain aspects of belief and practice which may at first sight appear surprising. The two acts may synchronise in this or that particulai" circumstance. there is no objective or absolute criterion of truth. Noah's ark consigned to the realm of pedagogic literature. of looking upon the supernatural as a mere evolution out of subjective states of consciousness. pure and simple. — . throughout it is symbolism. and the reports of the Biblical Commission. As to the Rewarder of the human race precedes the act of faith in a divine tradition at least in nature if not in time.

The supernatural certainty in a divine tradition may coexist with a non-committal attitude on the subject of its prehistoric transmission. but because it is revealed. once given. it is still eternally true. he assents to the deposit. But we have already noted that. even if not confirmed by vestiges. If. and that the entire subject of prehistoric faith is a comparatively modern acquisition. and to find nothing at all is a wilful conspiracy against natural reason no less than against supernatural light. and it is on the face of it incredible that in view of the enlarged field of modern research nothing whatever should be left of the finger of God in human history to be discovered by scientific means. but what if the savage has a vague recollection of a similar work? It seems hard to believe that our first parents ate of the forbidden fruit at the instigation of a "talking" serpent.PROLOG which Another question. naturally leads the cautious believer to suspend his judgment. in the treatment of certain aspects of this question we have erred on the side of excessive realism. it is a pardonable antidote to the prevalent looseness with which the historic supernatural is dismissed. The enemy has been throwing this at us for many centuries. not because it is provable. of The fact that some of its positive verification in this or that instance. may. these vestiges may be regarded as doubtful. the supernatural has never entirely vanished. This is a point which we must always bear in mind. to be sure. For it is not per se inconceivable that a divine revelation. and wisely points to divine authority as the ultimate norm of supernatural truth. This is a well-intended measure of safety. try to find too much. although corruptions and perversions of truth are only to be expected in all the ages of man. as I have said. faitli is proved by history. simply ignored as a power in the life of man. might have vanished from the earth in such a way as to leave but few vestiges. but what if a unique drowning'Calamity is one of the most widespread traditions of the human We — race?' . is 9 that which concerns the degree in to what extent the divine tradition can be supported by archaeological facts. it is simply ignoring the overwhelming evidence of both sources of truth. But it is better to find too much than too little. that the true picture of prehistoric man were at length presented. and none that are at all unsullied by later corruptions. we may overestimate the content of the message by carrying into it too much of our own psychology. and it is time that the tide were turned. then. It is easy enough to sneer at the six "days" of creation. but what if this is one of the earliest persuasions of man? It is easy to make cheap jokes about a universal deluge.

hell. the main body of facts can hardly be questioned. that the six days of Genesis admit of such valuable illustration. who belong to the "household of faith. all these things sound traditional and orthodox. to hear ritualistic. hitherto regarded by some as almost a romance. the Persian Magi of the gospels." and of a real heaven. and they cannot fail to be reassuring.10 PREHISTORIC RELIGION Those who studiously avoid these subjects have a secret conviction that they never actually occurred. cannot but bring solace to a humanity distraught with doubts and with religious dissensions. it is a direct repudiation of their favorite thesis of a gradual rise of the religious conscience out of a mental and moral zero. let there be no misunderstanding of our initial purpose. and purgatory. and in fact to the entire school of negative thinkers. they find that of all the peoples of antiquity we alone of the noble Aryan race. To such as these. the common hope of Jew and Gentile alike. and are rather happy to do so. and are ready for the fight. that the Tree of Life and the Garden of God are once more restored to them as physical realities. they seem to support the revealed position in a thousand — different ways. and the entire sacrificial practice will tend to show that man is by nature Finally. but they having nothing better to offer in their place. the same group of believers will be looking for the Star of Redemption in the later ages of man they will thrill with delight when if — . have firmly determined to fight this universal atheism. . and they might as well be candid enough to say so. in fact. Even (1) surprise. in fact. But to those of the conservative school. it helps to support their theory of a progressive evolution of dogmas. overdrawn in this or that particular instance. far removed from a merely esoteric religion. the present work cannot but be distasteful. once more of a real "ark." this book may yet convey a double impression — We — : There are those to whom the religious data will come as a welcome They will be glad to feel that the sign of the Cross is so ancient. universal sympathy the natural instinct by which man uses the medicines of nature as the natural expression of his religious feelings. Nay more. they offer us a blank. were allowed to find the King of Glory as the reward of our supernatural faith. they will see in the First-fruit Sadaka a distant symbolism of the divine benevolence. They may smile at our reconstructions. Is this not a beautiful confirmation of the gospel narrative. that the All-Father cult is the earliest religion of man. and they make Christ our Lord the one unique Light of the World. almost too good to be true? Then again the early sacrificial They will hail with rites of humanity will make a similar impression.

it does not repudiate it. supporting that very scheme It does not of religious evolutionism which you pretend to condemn. If this is not poles — apart from modern immanentism. that prehistoric man should have shared. as out of a rich mine. and one which we are doing our best to remove. What? The sign of the Gross before Christ? The hexahemeron before Moses? The tree of Ufa before Redemption before the Redeemer? The sadaka before the Eden? Eucharist? Medicines before sacraments? Deluge-heroes before Ararat? Visions of God before Calvary? It looks as if you were deriving the whole of the revealed basis of faith out of a mere human tradition. and the last state of my soul is worse than the first. It is therefore untrue to say that we are evolving dogmas. and we intend to apply it cautiously. "culmination. unfit for any "pagan" hands to touch. not repudiations of Christian dogma. we find many striking beliefs in the early history of man. in toto. cannot be evolved out of naturalistic speculations. we are presupposing a large body of primitive dogma.PROLOG 11 There are others. even if it is also true that some of these ideas might have been suggested by the natural constitution of man. we deny the insinuation — — are not deriving the religious ideas of humanity out of a are starting with the primitive blank. however remotely. not closing with it. In the first place. to whom the same religious data (2) might suggest an erroneous inference. supernatural. on the contrary. that the latter is but the crown and apex of many previous attempts to solve the riddle of existence. but unsparingly. it is needless to repeat that the above impression is indeed deplorable. however. After what we have just been expounding on the mutual relation of the natural and the supernatural in all ages of man. then what is it? It reestablishes the supernatural." It leaves me with a less powerful grip on the supernatural than I had before. . which latter. then. So far from being elevated by all this prehistoric rubbish. I am on the contrary chagrined and depressed at its evident portent. out of which. the sacred traditions of man have been quarried. as we shall invariably show. If. We — We We have separated the two sources with sufficient clearness. making the supernatural to "grow" out of the natural. simply the pleroma or the natural fulfilment of the spontaneous longings of the human race. they are so many confirmations. but rather it lessens my faith. This will always remain the most powerful 'critique' at our disposal. incresise. but out of a primitive plenitude. to be told that some of our most cherished dogmas have been anticipated by unregenerate savages. It seems to imply that there is nothing entirely unique in the Christian religion. in a volume of holy lore and tradition which I cannot but regard as all-sacred.

although forms may be indefinitely ancient. not destroyed or entirely cancelled by its higher — — — operations. in no case more so than in the sudden and violent transition which marks the use of the pagan rites from the entirely new use of the Christian mysteries. is a modern acquisition. though never with the splendor of Christian truth. Thus they expand our ideas of the divine government. we are happy to find that "God's in his heaven. it is most important to distinguish between the external form and the internal content of a religion. indeed they point so forcibly in this direction that they cannot be explained without the theory of a partial survival of revealed truth over large sections of the hulman race. and it was not very difficult to prove that Christianity was immensely superior to any of its "heathen" competitors. ^whether in theological terminology. AH this. and the further we mount up. the stronger and purer does the light of heaven appear to shine. "all the gods of the gentiles are demons. There was a time when we could shelve the prehistoric problem by a wholesale denunciation of every form of pre-Christian belief as a damnable superstition. they do not becloud them. but illuminations are the prominent feature in the earlier periods of the race. the content is liable to change. or in the external ritual by which religion is expressed. and in keeping time with this new world of thought that is opening out before us. is something that we must be prepared for. Not corruptions. Omnes dii gentium daemonia. and cannot be argued away by a worn-out appeal to the uniqueness of Christian ceremonies on the purely material side. it must be candidly admitted that some of us have all too narrow a view of the divine economy. however."—such was the cry with which the early Christian apologists justly assailed the disgusting vices with which the contemporary pagan world was rank. Nature is perfected by grace. Finally. It is here especially that we must guard against any misconstructions. and from this point of view we may rightfully admit some continuity with the remote past. an unadulterated falsehood." The discovery of these facts should furnish a strong support to — the dogma of a primitive revelation. For. viewed in their broader and more general aspects.12 PREHISTORIC RELIGION In the second place. Are there not many things in our Christian ritual which. all's right with the world. . But the matter assumes a different aspect when we ascend into high antiquity. The discovery of preChristian analogies. exhibit some external points of resemblance to Jewish or pagan practice? Does not religion clothe herself in similar garb the world over? The fact is there are certain natural forms by which religion is expressed in all ages of man.

between the Old and the New Law." — — — — — . and they will be convinced of the opposite.PROLOG 13 But continuity of form has nothing to do with continuity of content. nor the rite of Baptism from a Mithraic doucbe. there is many a rationalist that can learn from primitive man the art of invoking God by prostrations of body no less than of soul. but neither can the Holy Rosary be derived from an Astarte-cult. with its fifteen mysteries of the life of Christ. a "living" faith. nay even the apostasy of some of his early followers. There is a primitive light to which the Messiah would call us back. heaven-begotten mysteries.wheels ? If mere externals be the test of a similarity. pictures. nor the Blessed Sacrament with a transplanted So'maworship. the formula of the Annunciation. 3. by consecrating every minute to some ritual act. 53. Sacred candles have nothing to do with prehistoric torches. and in finding its vestiges. "How can a man be born when he\ is old?". we shall be adding but one more jewel to the crown of His Divinity. John. we do not hesitate to reveal the beauty and the symmetry of pre-Christian faith in all its fulness. are indeed in a pitiable state. by using beads. With this initial misunderstanding removed. as is evident from the misconstruction put upon His words.) If these were current beliefs. prayer-beads and Rosary. the "eucharistic" chapter of St. the Messiah inaugurates an entirely new dispensation. our religion is symbolic and sacramental. they are new. and incense as the vivid expressions of his own interior faith. we answer. and the vain babblings of the gentiles. and those who cannot see the essential difference between bath-house and Baptism. there is no bridge between paganism and Christianity. soma and Sacred Host. The use of prayer-beads and holy water is as old as the ocean. with their knotted cords and their spinning prayer. "lights. 6. But when it comes to dogma. ^we may even hail them as — the forerunners of better things to come. and to this extent we are nearer to Him than he. In each case there are external resemblances and typical prefigurations which it would be unwise to deny. water. 4. yes. Did any savage ever baptise in the name of a triune God? any Persian paitish see in the "bread of chastity" the body and blood of a crucified Savior? Is there anything in common between the Dominican Rosary. "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" (John. without needlessly clipping its wings under the absurd pretext that it will destroy the uniqueness of the gospel. they would not have occasioned the wonderment. as providential or prehistoric but to evolve the one out of the other indicates the crassest ignorance of the meaning and content of the Christian formulae. Let them read the gospel of the New Birth. transcendent.

that the name of Christ nearer and dearer to him now that he sees what the divine Being has meant to humanity throughout the ages of time. If. the present work is branded as a "Tendenzschrift. to let them know that real science has a very different story to tell. how vividly the teachings of Christ are illustrated by the prehistoric annals of mankind. and to re-examine the data to see whether the message of science is in reality such as it is commonly given out to be. If this book accomplishes nothing more than to restore to primitive man his birthright as a God-created being. and by cultivating a negative habit of mind we gradually what becomes undermine the entire basis of supernatural truth. To what extent this is actually borne out by the facts must of course be our main object of controversy. whether in fact it forces us to assume so radical a position. yet how incomparably superior is the Faith of Pentecost. the whole structure gradually dwindles from our mind. of the Bible as the infallible word of God? And if Moses be consigned to the limbo of romance. But that this may be the final effect of the book. human and to whom the opening chapters of Genesis in appalling contradiction to If the revealed history of primitive and destiny of the seem to be the unanimous voice of modern research. It is surely worth while to save what we can out of this universal wreckage.—we have lost the Faith. it is now to be established by a painstaking analysis of all the data. If it can be shown that this is not the case. it wilL not have been writtejn in vain. all that concerns the nature. There are millions of people who are dtiven to despair by the apparently hopeless verdict of modern science on species. that the main impression of this book will be a favorable one. then. The true tendency will vindicate its own right to existence. man is exploded to the four winds. it is surely high time to bring these facts before the public. that it will help to clear up certain questions which until recently have been handled with indifferent success. is the sincere desire of the author.14 It is PREHISTORIC RELIGION therefore hoped." we have nothing to say beyond what has already been noted above. that his own religion is acquiring a — new lease of life is by its alliance with prehistoric lore. But we hope that it may lead to more than this. and the obvious course is to measure the value of the tendency by an impartial appeal to the logic of facts. origin. how suggestive of heavenly light are many of the beliefs and practices with which he has come in contact. that on the contrary the most recently discovered facts tend to support the revealed tradition with an almost epoch-making force. The reader should feel at the end of this study that he is nearer to the supei'natural than he was before. — . We all have "tendencies" of one kind or another. where is the guarantee that the New Testament will fare any better? The whole system stands and falls together as a unit.

the latter entirely his own composition. No modern writer can face the world of criticism unless he is firmly supported by authorities of the highest rank. —he must let the voice of professional scholarship speak without reserve. Dr. in fact. even if that voice be occasionally ambiguous and wanting in firm and well-tested solidity. Kenyon has given me full authority to publish the "Cuneiform Texts" in the Ulnited States with interlinear transliterations. whose willing cooperation has been secured. field of The — it would be grossly wanting is in propriety not to acknowledge the immense it posmaterial and to offer it to the public in a new and more easily accessible dress. Baltimore. therefore. necessary for me to preface once and for all that a large portion of this book is the result of the labors of specialists. Duncan. Butin and Vaschalde of the Catholic University of America. George S. For while I can say without exaggeration that a large part of the prehistoric and Babylonian cuneiform matter is in a more direct sense my own work. while the entire treatment of the subject." A special and personal tribute of thanks is due to Prof. and especially to Dr. as well as the diagrams. therefore. I am. and to whom I am directly indebted for immediate and timely illumination. A word of acknowledgment is also due to Drs. — . though I wish it to be distinctly understood that all obligations have been publicly or privately acknowledged. been my special endeavor to illustrate this subject by appealing to as many first-class authorities as is conveniently possible. Dr.PROLOG In the nature of the case this pilation. debt that sible for due to the labors of the many authors who have made me to collect this it would be unblushing audacity to attempt such a thing. it is beyond the capacity of any single individual to master it with his own private resources. 15 the character of a work must assume com- comparative and prehistoric religion being wellnigh illimitable. It has. while rare and interesting material has been obtained from Prof. he cannot afford to stand on his own feet. These and that eminent Jewish expert. Hilprecht's "Old Babylonian Inscriptions" and Prof. criticisms and conclusions. Langdon's newly-edited "Sumerian Psalms. Among these obligations those to the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania take the first place. he must be copiously supported by the investigations of others if his work is to be in any sense comprehensive as well as convincing. of the department of Assyriology and Egyptology of Johns Hopkins University. for reviewing the Babylonian matter and transcribing and translating the Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Kennedy. Immanuel Casanowicz. stands and falls with my own personality. It is. are the principal gentlemen in Washington to whom I owe a lasting debt of personal gratitude. re-editing their work per longum et latum. without whom I could hardly have undertaken this work. with its analyses.

And as in the present case the author is at the same time the copyist and has had to do the entire work from cover to cover without any assistance. and for many years Professor of Iranian Literature and Philology in the University of Oxford. Hodge. H. Philo L. in his own day undoubtedly the greatest living authority on the pre-exilic Persian or Achaemanean Zoroastrianism. the copyist is bound to make some slips and oversight. I have taken the liberty of viewing the entire subject from a sometically all that is here offered from the pen of my own — what different standpoint. for supplying me with many archaeological curiosities. and for reviewing the material on the North-American folklore. with all the care that has been given to make these texts. It is therefore confidently they cannot claim to be absolutely exact. New York. it should be understood that these reproductions are only approximations. the few oversights Finally. and still more that of accredited scholars. Capital Publishers. W. Doctor of Divinity of Columbia University. impossible to bring out a "prehistoric bible" of this nature without craving the indulgence of the public. and although I may I rightfully assume that his perspec- literary productions are technically flawless. The present abnormal state of the world has made it impossible to communicate with many of these European gentlemen. Sept. F. try as hard as he may. the late Professor Lawrence Heyworth Mills. expected that. I can only presume their cooperation and generous approval when making use of their sources. . on the subject of its necessary imperfections. It is beyond all human capacity to produce an ideally perfect edition of any ancient text by purely autographic methods. it is — will be readily pardoned in view of the substantial accuracy of the great bulk of the work. Mills. In the meantime a sincere word of appreciation is due to Mr. W. Mr. While I have the highest regard for the standing and the accomplishments of this eminent scholar. he is only human. it would take a small volume even to mention the names of those upon whose works I have reared the greater part of this edifice.16 PREHISTORIC RELIGION In the department of Persian hieratic literature. and especially on the Pueblo ritual. Washington. 24. of the Bureau of American Ethnology. and to his co-workers at the Smithsonian Institution. have put my own tive into their higher theological interpretation. C. I have obtained prac- father. England. Holmes furnished the Aztec fire-temple. tablets and transcriptions as nearly perfect as possible. As to the prehistoric archaeological and ethnological data. D. 1918. whose timely word of advice and assistance would have been most desirable.

no direct connexion between religious man being culturally low but and and morally highly developed. which suggests that there has been a very large. Hence it will be of inestimable value to discover that in every department of religious belief and practice there is evidence of an initial fulness and integrity which cannot be explained on Darwinian or evolutional lines. but even this by no immanent necessity. What we see is the more or less corrupted though comparatively pure survivor. the gap between savage and simian is more glaring in the earlier than in the later ages of humanity. something these questions transcendent. The following should be carefully borne in mind by all who peruse these pages with a view to understanding their general spirit and tendency. Primitive man was undoubtedly an ideal and unique being. but presupposes the direct influx of a higher Power. there is material culture.PREFACE 17 A GENERAL ORIENTATION ON THE STATUS QUAESTIONIS clear To bring before the reader the main points of our present study in more and concise form. but that on the contrary. Hence all the existing savage beliefs are more or less tainted. I have thought it useful to bring out the chief objects of controversy with a vievs^ to shov^^ing how I intend to handle and what provisions have been made to meet the more common objections that will naturally arise and to guard against all possible misunderstandings. philosophically and theologically false. The doctrine of unlimited evolution naturally finds no place in the (1) present work. not the "ideal" man. an advance in culture religiously is often accompanied by a collective degeneration. as something similar to what was once upon the earth. but exhibit greater or less approximations to absolute truth in proportion to their antiquity or to the purity with which the primitive revelation has been handed down. Applying this to the human species as such. if not a universal physical degeneration. (2) by no possibility From this it will follow that no existing type of humanity can (3) be regarded as the bearer of an undiluted primitive faith except as an approximation. the earliest races of . In fact. it will be found that can the original type of mankind be deduced from an anthropoidal precursor. as can be easily proved. Natural reason and supernatural light are at one in condemning a system which is scientifically. Only in Christianity do we find the highest material and moral civilisation fused into one. (4) On the other hand.

October 2. it is true. but I hope to show under each chapter that in no case has the inspired author simply "exploited" the contemporary records. by which the true religious history of man was brought before his vision. THE WRITTEN BIBLE IS LATE IN ITS APPEARANCE BUT ABSOLUTELY PURE AND PRIMITIVE IN ITS MESSAGE. put down as early. but simply that it is relatively pure. it is a pure fiction except when applied to purely — material or cultural data. It would be better to say that there is no "law" of progress when we are dealing with free agents. as I have explained in the Prolog. the dogmatic ideas are absolutely independent and presuppose a direct illumination of the mind of the inspired writer. It is a complicated equation. better expressed by the zigzag than by the straight line. Its application to individual subjects will be found under each chapter. and throughout all history there have been upward and downward developments sometimes going on simultaneously. the internal and external evidence shows very clearly that while the terminology and literary setting may often be traced to extra-biblical parallels. The fact is. it is either the best or the most primitive. In this way the divine tradition is seen to be independent of any of its falsely supposed pagan "sources. but that on the contrary. On no account can a direct equation be established between any biblical and "babylonian" subject in such sense as to insinuate that the one is simply a fuller edition of the other.the inspired biblical truth to the faded or fragmentary supernatural as we read it in the corrupted folklore of humanity. (6) Hence in surveying the succeeding chapters is it must not be in- ferred that because a belief tive. throughout the work and it is Revelation is wider than inspiration. free from every taint of error or corruption." while the supernatural cannot be derived out of the natural. a more perfect recension.18 PREFACE The "Law of Progress" is not so simple that it can be expressed (5) in a single sentence. . WHILE THE EXTRA-BIBLICAL TRADITIONS HOLD A PRIORITY OF COMPOSITION BUT NOT OF CONTENT: THEY ARE VALUABLE ONLY IN SO FAR AS THEY LEND CONFIRMATION TO THE BIBLICAL RECORD WHICH IS ITSELF FOUNDED ON PREHISTORIC RECORDS WHICH HAVE SINGE BEEN LOST. Philo L. comparatively primibe late in its expression but absolutely primitive in its content for the simple reason that the ideal ancestor is beyond our reach. This of course vitally important to its clear understanding. An idea may This concerns more especially the relation of the written super(7) natural or. 1918. Mills. humanity can advance in one sense and retard in another. must be our principal controversial thesis These few words will suffice for the present in order to put into proper perspective the general framework of our collected material.

have so influenced his constitution. as far as the general no type of man at present in existence that can claim to be a literally primitive type. there is climatic. Incessant changes.PREHISTORIC RELIGION INTRODUCTION In every investigation there is something that is taken for granted. In the present study on the primitive religion of man there are two questions that present themselves for immediate solution by way of a preamble: (1) (2) Are there any primitive types of Is it man in existence? possible to reconstruct their religion from the scattered materials that have come down it to us? must be admitted that. in the hope of discovering a new line of facts. In no case can evidence be accepted that is based upon loose or inaccurate data. The deficiency of single areas can generally be corrected by the wealth and promise of more favored regions. to the first question. The material must come from — — — an unimpeachable source. such a type As to the second question. it is true that much of our material is scattered. and at times dtefective. There are some that are culturally recent. and something for which we are searching. physical. Such a form has passed out of existence long ago and is past recovery. The combined picture thus obtained should furnish a sufiicient basis for drawing conclusions of a solid and scientific value. that it would be bold indeed to point to any section of the race as representative of the common ancestor of mankind. On the other hand it is no less evident that among the existing races of man there are great differences. It is with that our present study is occupied. psychological or functional. somatic and psychic. fragmentary. But this is no reason for rejecting the combined weight of the evidence en m/isse. while still others seem to mirror the conditions of life of an age which has long since perished. As verdict of biology is concerned. to represent in fact a type which is relatively primitive. . The material must be carefully sifted. others admittedly ancient. have so modified the organic structure of man. an approach at least to primitive man.

For if the neolithic remains are generally complete and sufficiently numerous to afford a fairly satisfactory picture.^ is otherwise disappointing. Osbom. a rib. It is more certain. 1 Compare 1915). see ourselves reflected in the Lake-dwellers of Europe. they are mere landmarks. THE QUESTION OF "REAL PRIMITIVES" (A) The Evidence op Culture. we may turn to the living races and argue backwards. The same of H. and to'some extent in the Mammoth and Bear-hunters of the great A We But the further we go back. —The Pre-Ghbllean Age — In looking for the earliest types of humanity there are two methods at our disposal. The one is the method of palaeontology. reconstructions are more ingenuous than scientific. and more complete. milestones in the early history of man. I. Men of the Old Stone types they are possibly Age. though as anthropoidal of some value. for the earliest vestiges of his bones and industry. ^we are told to Ice Age. It has been possible in recent times to produce a fairly accurate picture of neolithic and even palaeolithic man. the glacial skeletons are with few exceptions faulty and fragmentary. Scott-EUiot. But their combined result look They tell us little of the real appearance of nothing of his social organisation. (New York. the more dim grows the picture. we may say that the lowest and — humanity is apt to represent the earlier type. Now it is quite true that these buried or "fossil" remains are very important. and the general principle of a gradation of culture unquestionable. We may dig into the earth and search for his early remains. But in comparing the value of each method we shall find that the evidence afforded by the living survivor is in many respects more certain. —because in all its — the existing type brings before us the life of primitive entirety. At most. and both are fruitful and productive of important results. more direct. or. the other of comparative ethnology. who^e in this connection G. because we see the original actually before our eyes. they consist for the most part of portions of a skull. they furnish in fact an indirect check to the ethnological data. (London. F. based on a few and cranial fragments. of his daily life. from which with their accompanying industry the living form is conjured up from the dead.11 PREHISTORIC RELIGION Let us approach this subject in the light of existing evidence. flints man without the help of imaginary reconstructions. brief consideration will make this clear. the more scanty — to the Australian for his modern representative. 1916). than that obtained from his osseous remains. it is more direct. ^— and His Story. or a shin-bone. little man. Prehistoric Man . it is more comleast developed section of — — plete. the materials for the reconstruction of man. an otherwise admirable work. ^because the number of facts is greater. and next to nothing of his religious beliefs.

It belongs essentially to those half-cultured yellow races of Central Asia who have carried their yellow metal to the furthest ends of the earth. has ever been abandoned without the introduction of a higher industry. there is hardly a single case in which a typical industry. an age of peace and of spiritual enlightenment? = The Bronze Age But if the use of the black metals marks the highest level of "civilised" man. North Africa. the New World. for J. It is possible. not perhaps in person. between 2. 33Sff. and even catastrophes. that where we find a comparative blank we have reasons to suspect a case of arrested development. graphic data. but by contact with neighboring peoples. (Chicago. Manuel d'Archeologie. of transportation. and its presence is an infallible index that these peoples are living in a period which has definitely passed away for the higher races. The Ages op Man living in the age of iron feel quite certain that It is evident for instance that is we are now steel. to live like a savage. and we it and where these are entirely absent lived before these a sufficiently plain proof that the people powers or commodities were discovered or became the recognised means of construction. —a primitive survival. that in the upward ascent of man the lower normally precedes the higher stage of civilisation. C. far A Who are the lowest in the scale of human culture? For the general principle will be accepted. an extraordinary catastrophe. all have felt the influence of the bronze sword. the Malay Archipelago. entirely forgotten. (Paris. W. but it is quite impossible for an entire race to do so without assuming something akin to a miracle. of electricity and motor-cars. On this the buried remains speak with no uncertain voice. inventions and technology Thomas. Arabia. India. Dechelette. for palaeo- . where is the evidence that this age was material rather than — moral. p. once established. for a man to bury himself in the back woods. 1908). 1912). and as to the celebrated "golden" age. These shining metals are also found in say. in the early history of man.INTRODUCTION of III to the existing races more satisfactory method is that of turning man and asking ourselves the simple question. of course. which industry has been normally evolved out of the lower. In every case the cruder tools have given away to the more perfected implements.and 4000 B. I. the Indians being the bearers of a high copper industry. Source-book for Social Origins. by which the whole of the former civilisation was wiped out. Now although there is some evidence for cultural breaks. the preceding Bronze and Copper Period is no less distinctive. to return to the "simple" life. — ^Comp.

the latter a specially commodious and portable means of locomotion. In all other quarters it is partly fused with the metal cultures. housing. for the latter are clearly imported or superficially acquired. a difference which is accompanied by a standard of life and industry which Man is no longer tied to the soil. human and Australian regions of the — The Old Stone Age But the shape and finish of stone implements is by no means uniform. more and more dependent on the needs and circumstances of the hour. The American Indian is still living in the Stone Age. it exists in its purity only in the wilder and less accessible portions of the globe. ^^skin-raiment.IV PREHISTORIC RELIGION The New Stone Age It is possible. the Bantus of Eastern Africa. though it still forms the background of the Central Indian. (Vienna. 'W. the North-African. Though distributed over vast sections of the earth's surface. Der Mensch der Vorzeit. nutrition.' — Ancient Hunters and their modern Representatives. far East. 253. round-house. glacial culture of Europe reached America at a later age. more especially in the Oceanic of progress. interest. Clothing. LVI. he is in every respect more primitive. the Prairie Indians of North America. a period between 10 and 20000 years before Christ. and the native North and South-American cultures. otherwise he would not continue the use of stone as the chief instrument of his handicraft. and its name marks it ofT from all the metallic cultures. There is a sharp distinction between the perfected and polished flint of the neolithic age and the more crude productions of its predecessor. Among the peoples where this phase of life may still be seen in its more essential features are the wild Dravidians of Southern to the — — India. to go considerably further down in the scale "We have all heard of the great Stone Age. navigation. — of his inspira- all are adapted more simple requirements of the buffalo-hunt. The See p. 1914). has become a wild hunter. 160ff. and for similar reasons the above races must be dated back to a period at least equally early. pp. more espeThey carry us back to the time when our forefathers hunted the bison on the steppes of Central Europe. even though he understands the use of copper and has borrowed his steel chisel from the whites. and again the Australian and Melanesian peoples of Oceanica. 316ff. SoUas. is too striking and conditions of life. It is' notpretended that the American and European Palaeolithic were strictly contemporaneous. 176. and so on. (London 1915) pp J. it becomes the chief theme of his art. Obermaier. the general similarity in habits cially in the interior. for whom the animal creation possesses a paramount tion. etc. they show a continual tendency to become less artificial. not to arrest attention. While the staple foods and commodities vary considerably throughout this region. however. . forest-fauna. This puts him back at least 5000 years before the commencement of the present era. bark-canoe.

(weapons and implements).) * W. 242. and that several notable writers have boldly denied it. rough flints of jagged outline. that acknowledged experts are unable to agree as to the human origin of these flints." * — Skeat and C. and live in the simplest of wind-shelters. pp. consists of a sharp sliver of bamboo. (habitations). or of decorating themselves with the feathers of birds. except in so far as their exclusive use would seem to show that the users had not yet arrived at the stage known as the Ghellean industry. and in some cases are still passing. however. and pointed pieces of wood. 113. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. shells. but have no knowledge of navigation. they are of no value as a timepiece. W. especially when their mode and manner of life is even more primitive than anything to be found in the Stone Ages. they hunt the tiger. Their weapons are the wooden bow and the bamboo blowpipe. Blagden. the aboriginal life. (food). bones. Vol. but simply pick up the eoliths ready made. however." which are hardly more than scrapers. but they do not resort to the hunting of game until their supply of vegetable food begins to give out. an indispensable work on 200. None are in the habit of dressing themselves in the skins of animals. Vol. If. were ever manufactured by any of the wild tribes. of irregular pattern. still found among them. the suggestion arises that they may belong to an age before flint-chisels were manufactured. and whose cutting-implements consist for the most part of flakes. Bone. O. II. they "plow" fire. The most primitive form of knife. bambooslivers. hardened or "tempered" by flre. 168ff. (fire).INTRODUCTION The Age Will ity it V when human- op Shell. I. 1906). we find a group of peoples who cannot manufacture any kind of a flint. "They use a girdle made of leaves or fungus-strings. 11/ff. 249ff. — . which makes a very fair tool. (music). (hunting). they are not a safe means for measuring the age or industry of a people. but it is an open question whether any forms of stone implement. Who are — these peoples? Geographical Extent op the Bamboo Culture Malay Peninsula: "Stone implements are very numerous in the (1) peninsula. 137-138. 109. Their bamboo tubes furnish the only music. the weight of evidence being decidedly against it. They live off wild yams and jungle produce. to arrive at a period had not even acquired the art of making the pointed flint. recommended \o all beginners (copious illustrations. (dress). (London. Th(e rudimentary stage through which these tribes have passed. In view of the fact. of cutting the hard stone into the more or less defmite form of a lozenge? Such a period seems to be postulated by the existence of "eoliths. the elephant and the rhinoceros. may perhaps be more accurately described as a "wood and bone" age than as an age of stone. except possibly chips or flakes. and Bamboo still be possible to sink lower.

The Andamanese assert that the sake of the they never. for which purpose shells apparently have been generally employed. etc. G. 324ff. 160161 (flint chips and shells.). 36ff. but do not manufacture any kind of canoe. 'W. even chisels of stone. p.'^ ^ E. except in the shape of quartz-eoliths. Negritos of Zambales (Manila.Veddas the use of unknown. axes. is apparently the bow and arrow seem Philippines: The Negritos of Zambales make practically every(4) thing out of bamboos. Navigation is all are made of the same material. as now. In no single case has the use of stone chiseling instruments been reported." Their only vesture consists of small bunches of Pandanus-leaves. made of solid tree-stumps. and formerly hollowed out with shells. p. On the Original Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. were thrown among the rubbish when no longer in use. — — wanting. Before the (quite recent) introduction of iron. p. "The arrow is still the almost universal cutting-tool. Stoliczka. tongs." also affirm that the fragments that (3) Southern India. fish. cf. and bark fibre-strings.' stone. Ceylon: to —Among the Forest." Both are made of hardwood or bamboo. They cannot make fire. adzes. 179 (shell-adze). is yet in constant use. A. hunt the forest deer with bamboo bows and arrows. banana-leaves. — ethnology) . » C. Baskets. With large bows and harpoons they hunt for flesh. Like them they make crude pottery. though here also their primary diet is a vegetable one. (general p. (tools. of water-holders. Notes on the Kjokken-Moddings of the Andaman Islands). 1885). Man. Their leaf-hut is equally primitive. H. though not employed in such a variety of ways as it is by many savages. p. p. but produce rude pottery and fairly good canoes. (Cambridge. Here perform the function of implements. or fowl indiscriminately. p. and netting-needles. knives. as we had good opportunity of ascertaining at Hennebedda. made arrow-heads. fiddles and flutes. 1911). In the wild state they build rough wind-screens. but rarely if ever with stone. for the making of harpoon and arrow-shafts. and no implement has been found which might be supposed to have served as a stone saw or scraper. p. 1904). 157 (bamboos). Seligman.VI PREHISTORIC RELIGION Geographical Extent of the Bamboo Culture (2) cutting Andaman Islands: "Stones are not used by the Andamanese wood or bone. knives. when They iron was scarce. and the bowstring of twisted tree-bast. skins of animals are not made use of in any way. or have been found in the kitchen-middens are merely quartz-flakes or broken pieces of cooking stones or hones which in former times. and use the bamboo firestick. The bamboo. small holes were bored with bone or pieces of shell. 39 (huts). (London. and their huts are simple lean-to's or tree-shelters. combs. The Veddas. p. and their hunting-life closely resembles that of the Andamanese. 110 (attire). Reed. 39-48. (huts). the latter being usually crushed by a hammer — for for marrow. 19-20 (quartz implements).

(London. flutes. undated) p. Vol. XXXI. bone.^^ British North Borneo. This distinctive culture may in fact be traced far into Melanesia. of bamboo harps. and — — bamboo. Ling Roth. 919. 9-26ff. L'Ethnographie actuelle de I'Afrique meridionale. A. Ankermann. the natives preferring the use of tooth. p. Materialien zur Naturgeschichte der Insel Celebes. and blowpipes. and as to the use of stone implements. Mgr. 1907) Vol. Haddon. Rawling. and among the Tapiros these and the split bamboos are the only cutting instruments of native use. and live by hunting and gathering the wild fruits and jungle produce. use of cocoanutinterior. where it still survives in the bambooprimitive knives. LeRoy. wenhuis. (Wiesbaden. of palm and banana-leaves. and bamboo industry. quivers and Jew's Central Africa: harps. " C. a very similar stage of industrial life has been revealed." Though in possession of a stone adze. p. Williamson. there are many tribes in the interior that reveal vestiges of a far more primitive state. V." New Guinea and Melanesia: Though the Papuans are living in (5) an age of stone. do not cultivate the soil. there is nothing intermediate between the borrowed iron and the prehistoric bone or shell-industry." (6) —^Among the Akkas or Negrillos of the great Congo region. 1913) p. absence of clothing. >Iieu320. that are so frequently met with. (Leyden. (London. (London. fire-stick. but their quality is far inferior to the Magdalenian flints. Vol.INTRODUCTION Geographical Extent op the Bamboo Culture (3) VII Borneo: The wild Dayaks. Sarasin. 11 B. Instit. and brown. pitched to the ground. (1906) p. implements. p. 125. 1901). 1905). 16-18 . 1912) p. Most of the above elements are here represented in equally crude form. shells. The Mafulus of the East know nothing but a shell. 52. and still more with the Philippine region. Pt. Anthr. They are a nomad people who build no permanent houses of any kind. (London. and F. are grouped in small communities and inhabit the dense jungle at the head-waters of the principal rivers of Borneo. I. W. C. » P. 253-259 (shells. (Tours. W. The Land of the New Guinea Pygmies. Journ. Central Africa has hardly been touched by the palaeolithic wave. I. if we except a few stone hammers or scrapers. Head-hunters. (1901) Vol. Their mode of life is very much more primitive than that of the Kayans and other inhabitants of the Leaf-shelter. the actual use of higher stone implements being conspicuous by its absence. their stone axe being borrowed from the coast tribes. white. Hose and McDougall. G.^ Celebes: The Toalas or "Back-woodsmen" of Celebes make (4) quartz imitations of palaeolithic celts. Among the Mimika of the North-West "the one and only kind of shelter (except the communal dwelling) is the and temporary leaf-hut. all connect them with the Malakkan. 1896) A. Anthropos. or Bakatans. p. 255. and its isolation is still to be accounted for. a great deal of their cutting is done by means of shells and bone-scrapers. p. The Mafulu Mountain People of British New Guinea. — bows and arrows. bone. The Natives of Sarawak and I. black. Les Pygmees d'Afrique et de ITnde. split rattans). 26flf. 8H. Quer durch Borneo. I.

) i* G. but have never possessed one. such a theory is gravely impugned by the parallel condition of very low peoples at the extreme southern ends of each of the continents. cane. 176. and it is based on the fact that so few of the natives understand the art of making a celt. 14-33. 1899) p. to wit A But if all the above The Tasmanians. and Fuegians an almost identical state of affairs as in the equatorial only the tropical material. Ehrenreich. 1894) p 200-204ff. social and religious complexity is seen to form a "convergence" irresistible "H " in its power. mental. Cooper DD. If a stoneindustry is nevertheless in existence. M. though they are otherwise intelligent and the materials are not wanting. where stone is scarce. this alone is sufficient evidence that they have never learnt the art of making clothes or houses. and wood and bamboo abundant. Unter den Naturvolkem Central Brasiliens (Berlin. c. tooth.wood. they are a Here find belt. W. . 62f f. as it is inconceivable that such an enormous section of humanity should have sunk to the crude level of life in which we find them. Uber die Botokudos. and the exceedingly low state of their culture is out of harmony with what we (9) — — — of the material condition of the stone-age peoples. The Tasmanian is still very near the "eolithic" age of industry. A similar condition is revealed by the Kaingang and Botokudos in the mountainous regions of Eastern Brazil. XLI.^' The same to some extent of the Bushmen. a level far below the wildest of North-American Indians. bamboo. Bulletin 63 of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington. pp. and his manner of life is almost equally primitive.VIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Geographical Extent oe the Bamboo Culture SoiUh America: In the forests of Central Brazil there are groups of wild peoples who seem to be on the same primitive level of existence. 67. wood. stones and sticks are his only weapons. the above author is convinced that these are not native but imported features." If then a pre-palaeolithic age A — 12 K. All their necessities are supplied by the natural produce of the jungle. p. Stow The The Aborigines of Native Races of South-Africa (London. where the entire For a full presentation of the material. flakes or scrapers his only tools. (Halifax. 223. of the loss of a high stone culture through migration into the tropics. or palm." The very fact that these tribes go almost naked and sleep in miserable lean-to's in spite of the biting frosts of a frigid climate." Pre-palaeolithic Horizon (?) is unquestionable. and bone. it will seem highly probable that the above equatorial peoples have not lost a higher stone industry. 83. J. P. 121ff.) Ling-RoA Tasmania." know Parallel Culture in the Antarctic Region phenomena be explained on the principle of acclimatisation. out of which weapons and implements are manufactured. Von den Steinen. 1917) p."— such is the implied conclusion of the greatest expert on the Amazonian region. 14S (eoliths. 415 culture argument see below. rattan. Bushmen. 1887. less we "survival." also the Fuegians. "The Shingu-tribes are living in an age of shell. 1910) p. 1. i«Obermaier. (in ZE.

Sarasin. but must be determined in every case by the concomitant evidence of the cultural and ethnological sciences. relationThus Skeat. (intrinsic probability). four-. No. 221. I. which is largely independent of the collective group. Stow. 1917). Hartland.63. Rawling. there is something to be said for the psychological method. or such a state of society is largely unknown to a point upon which I desire to lay particular stress. 275. 494. This means that a sociological argument tends to become more and more a cultural one. given a complex system. Nevertheless. vi^hich in this respect should claim our principal attention. that the individual must have existed before the social group. the complicated institution of totemism. 33. p. "Matrilineal Kinship and the Question of its Priority. Vol. and not otherwise. S8. if not the 1° ship.-March. Ehrenreich. Nay more. V . and is treated as such by the more advanced experts. While a primitive tribal division is here and there to be found. 149. Such a solution seems as far off as ever as long as we confine ourselves to one line of argument to the exclusion of every other. Now Kingship and aristocracies are for the most part unknown. 59-121. a theory which is entirely arbitrary and has no foundation in fact. Comp. known as the two-. . 7S3f f on the Patriarchate. Ling-Roth (Tasm). etc. natural "headmanship" by far the more common. Thomas. Von den Steinen. 177. CXCVII." eight-class "phratries. the priority of a system should be judged by the priority of its culture. 40. IX —the Patrurchal'Agb This is not the place to enter into a discussion of all the theories that have been propounded to solve the problem of the primitive social organisation of man. totemism. Reed. S. in comparing the social condition of the above peoples even with their nearest neighbors. a method of government in which the father of a family obtains a "natural" leadership. the supposed priority of this or that social system cannot be judged on its ovs^n merits. I. The author seems to be entirely oblivious of the above peoples. evidently the basis of the entire system. government. under social organisation. IV. LeRoy. a perceptible difference is at once noticeable. and simple patriarchal rule on family units the most com- mon of all. 90. (II). Contra : E. 125. only form. whose analysis is excellent but incomplete. and it is See the above authors passim. 114. Man." — — these peoples. In other words. 210. Seligman. unless we admit a system of group-evolution from lower forms.S7. Williamson. Coojjer. that." Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. where father-right is the preponderating. whether as class or clan. What we see in this lowest stratum of human culture is the prominence of the individual as against the state. But Bushmen are more advanced and most Melanesians have arrived at totemic organisation.INTRODUCTION (B)The Evidence op Government. 330. hereditary chieftainship as a rule the exception. and may no doubt have taken place in very early times. 70. But what is still more important. 30. by which the whole of the community is divided into innumerable clans or septs. to this extent at least. it seems quite certain that the family must have preceded the higher unit. Ling-Roth (Borneo). 1 (Jan. 202-212. Hose and McDougall. also W. a more simple state of society is thereby postulated. Source-Book for Social Origins (1912). and these again combined into higher groups.

which is equally at the bottom of the weakness which brought down the native states of Central and South America. was. have never been able to spread permanently beyond their natural boundaries. and facts indicate that the chief reason for this is want of sufficient food ( ?) The sociability of man sprang in the main from progressive intellectual and material civilisation. S38. contains no single really large state. Even now there are savage peoples of the loXvest type who live rather in separate families than in tribes. . All the evidence we possess tends to show that among our earliest human ancestors the family. which can from time to time enter into combination with others of the same kind. i' Westermarck. so frequently coinciding. In that country." " 18 F Human Ratzel. forced the nucleus of every social group. to maintain kingdoms like Sokoto or Uganda. which are a privilege of the higher . the less its duration and the looser its cohesion. Y. in their coinmon barrack or village. but also. not merely to found. Even in our own day the great powers of South and East Asia lacked the clearness and definition in the matter of political allegiance. Marriage (N. The family of blood-relations. not the tribe. so exclusive. represents at the same time a political unit. In the Malay Archipelago it seems not to have been until the arrival of Islam that the formation of states rose above disjointed village communities." " that. The History of . the natural guardian of the children was not the father. civilisations. I. at least the principal factor in the earliest "The suggestion . new ones form themselves from the old tribes. with all its wealth of population. high as they stand in warlike organisation. in olden times. A History of Mankind. whilst the tie that kept together husband and wife. p. has no foundation in fact. Even in the Mussulman states of the Sudan we meet with this want of firm internal cohesion. to which perhaps it is bound by more distant relationship. 138. Even the Zulus. such as we meet with among the Fulbes or Wahuma. Negro Africa. but the maternal uncle.X PREHISTORIC RELIGION This has been well expressed by Ratzel and Westermarck: "Among most 'natural' races the family and society form unions so large. When the empires fall to pieces. But it is quite content to remain by itself so long as no external power operates to shake its narrow contentment. and at the same time maintain cohesion with their own country. The rapid break-up of (the later) empires is counterbalanced by the sturdy tribal life. parents and children. the greater an empire. even if with difficulty. p. that little remains to spare for the state. Vol. forms of man's social life. It requires greater organising and consolidating power. 1903). if not the only. Neither has the hypothesis that all the males of the tribe indiscriminately were the guardians.

cit. no declensions. but as fully constituted words. monosyllabic roots are common. or infixes as an integral part of a word is quite frequently wanting. 0. affixes. actions. no conjugations. or tenses. almost to within reach of the South-American continent. Now such a statement is at variance with facts. or postpositions. Nearly all the tongues spoken by the above peoples are simple and crude in the extreme. O. apud Skeat op. if they had ever possessed one. lOlff. according to which inflexional or polysynthetic stage. and apart from any theories. and that primitive languages already show an matter of syllables. they the On are ipso facto the earlier forms. if we except a few inversions or prepositional uses." and comp. Versuch einer Sakai-Grammatik (Anthropos. further evidence for the priority and remote antiquity of the Oceanic tongues. they simply do not exist. 1885) p. and to some extent also for modern English. and even when of two or more syllables. appositions. there is practically no syntax. the use of prefixes. ^* 481ff. and is demonstrable for the modern Chinese. that because we find words that are short and simple. The meaning is more often determined by the context or by the tone of voice. IX 1914) p. or things. XI —the Prb-Inplbxional Age that the structure its same principle it is impossible to argue with absolute certainty and vocabulary of a language is an infallible index of relative age. H. The history of language is not so simple a matter that it can be expressed by a rigid formula. together with a higher numeral system. no gender. The Melanesian Languages (Oxford. Phonetic decay has affected nearly every living tongue. extending from Hawai to New Zealand. moods. number or case. But what is more striking. least in the the monosyllabic invariably precedes the agglutinative. . For the other regions see the above authors under "language. and from Madagascar to Easter Island. This means that many of these tongues have not even arrived at the agglutinative stage of development. There is considerable evidence to shovir that human language was originally one. Vol. at A the other hand it is equally one-sided to deny the existence of primitive "roots" on the ground that no root-sound was ever uttered by man. verb. the existing distribution of archaic Melanesian forms is phenomenal. Tauern. 529. Again. or adjective. and as to inflexions. There is often no article. no delicate arrangement of words or particles by which the meaning of the sentence is more or less modified. no voices. descriptive of persons. a complex organisation. not only as interjections.INTRODUCTION (C)The Evidence op Language. other than occasional inversions. The same word may stand for noun. Codrington.^* — — — For the aboriginal dialects of Malakka. reduplications. II. and continued to be one in root-sounds long after agglutination had begun to operate. this again the reverse process is conceivable. On advanced. consult C. Blagden. it seems incredible that these races should have entirely lost a developed grammar.

" they appear to be.ang-an-ka-nin. Ja-lok me-nang eng hot chip ma se-rak bort chep. "I and my children eat boiled rice". [mxi. in which the same fundamental roots may be traced.) tOrpeng ta adja bali pen-ya-long. Al-lo bu-in bi-tu-in alet la-lang-it. Thus. moon. "My father (is) a great chief. a-chitik. the etc. man-bad. point in the same direction.) belt we have such forms as Aba-angui pa-pa kamu-shi-ni.) Sinhalese. is {ke. "House mine very small". father (of) shining light".) The Philippine Negrito and Bornean Dayak exhibit the Austronesian tongues in their greatest purity. The Andamanese. direction) will go to forest. now." i» These examples are taken partly from quoted authorities. "Sun. twa passive of ta. bring the bow. Further illustrations will be found throughout the text of this book. dona a-chitik a-be-ri nga-ke. "Father-mother are good". axe.-past time). {wa sign of plural. Ok iodz eng ma he. and to show in fact traces of an original linguistic unity. exist. Iko sam a-nak m. etc. general Abu eng to. as witness: A-ma na-na ma-ham-pa. great man. or rather "imitative. ab-ja-bag. "I eat rice". He chip ma'lor?. (lona. "You go to where? (whither?)". re. though essentially monosyllabic. thopa ammat appat enda kiyapa.—fing. great master". papang. . For the Congo region of Central Africa we have abundant illustrations: A-bor-ta a-dya ani-dmba wa-lungu wa^nkula wa-aka wa^ba-twa. shine in the sky". abe. though the structure is otherwise For the Amazonian polysynthetic. Bash-ki! (imitating cry of deer). but. though expressions like {a)-baia. shows archaic forms as spoken by the wilder Veddas: Bus-kV Bas-Ki! adina atak gena at baruwak gena pimbina atak gena. catch birds". did. fruit-trees. great spirit. and A-ba-lin-go Orma-ka ta-bru-wa stars. "Bush-ki. The father hunter. the persecuted race". a-be-ri-nga-ke. the black man.XII PREHISTORIC RELIGION To take an illustration from the Senoi-Sakai dialects of Central Malakka." literally: artam. to hunt. dara.Australian group. and firestick. "Dora was formerly a bad man. man-good present time) {Abu. "Father (of) heaven. but now he is a good one. at-natu. The many — lit. Derk eng be ma-chut. and tell your mother and father to come". who has made the heavens. dora (proper name). a heavenly spirit" (Central Bornese and Forest-Dayak) The Melanesian languages will be found to re-echo many of the above word forms. we shall see at a glance how simple. partly from material collected by the author independently. (Zambal-Aeta. the great one. eda. "Tomorrow brother mine particle for motion. "He has killed flsh this-one". exist-did.cha cha-na.-father or mother. gen- erically for man. formerly. "Our Father (in) heaven (is a) great father. mung-an. (feuphonic. "Give axe mine to him". {atak gena. mara-wa. Heh te-las kuh ka jih. though considerably influenced by Sanskrit. peng ta adja. I'eda-re. This is less the case "with the Tasmanian. pulling-stick. apai. has advanced to agglutination: Ar-tam do-ra ab-ja-bag I'eda-re. great master.

ajid must have taken place at a very early age of human devel- — There can now be little doubt that the first measuring-rod of humanity was supplied by the human body. holding up sticks or fingers. according to the relative position of sun. and finally by all the fingers united. t^/o. At the same time.— father. 265ff. and minutes. and they become opment.—certified for Borneo and the adjacent territory. that were first used to express number. four. ^plants. can hardly be credited to the unsophisticated consciousness of early man. Australians rarely get beyond four or five. f. which (except for day and night-divisions. moon. Assyriologie. based on the five fingers of one hand. In the Andaman Islands the only arithmetic consists of one. weeks. or "Mental culture". this and the middle-finger. mother. the Sinhalese twenty being incomprehensible. (Hose-McDougall. . 2» Evidence on tion".— see the same. and many. Among the aborigines of Malakka native numerals do not extend beyond three. animals. 193). 11.—yo. For a possibly still earlier 3-system.INTRODUCTION '(D)Thb Evidence of Mathematics and Music XIII THE quinary system AND THE PENTATONIC SCALE It will stand to reason that when life is simple and the needs of a peo- ple are few. sometimes under "Language". seasons and so on). of determining. 1915). for instance. and more especially the fingers. requires an elaborate study of the motions of the heavenly bodies. all higher digits being demonstrably of Malay origin. the number of foodstuffs collected. and compare the East Indian one. expressed by the forefinger. the one-to-five series being again fundamental. some method of measuring things. confused when attempting to count above five or six. two. while the Tastnanians close their counting with five. June. The five-system is equally prominent among the Melanesians. or five. hours. where we have reasons to suspect a primitive survival. the decimal system being by comparison complicated and presupposing at least a greater number of things to count. that there will be little or nothing to count.—will be clearly of primary importance. two. the science of counting will be correspondingly weakly developed. while the astronomical method of dividing the year into months. or at most ten. and stars in the zodiac etc. dua. Can this and the absence of exact time-divisions be explained on any other principle but that of a primitive finger-counting? 2° this subject will be found in each of the above authors under "NumeraCompare G. Pagan Tribes. three. which shows that this is not a mere local but a universal trait of very primitive peoples. Now this is in harmony with what we actually find among the lowest peoples of whom we know. it was the legs and arms. child. Zur Entstehung des 60— Systems (Zeitschr. They count things by their fingers and toes. The Philippine Negritos and the Bornean Dayaks are in a very similar stage. days. p. The Veddas count everything by one's. This means that the first mathematical system was a quinary one. "Arithmetic". The same or very similar conditions are presented in Central Africa and South-America. Kewitsch. or birds. and more especially in the Banks Islands.

Such a system is evidently more primitive or at least more undeveloped than the octave. though this also is found. esp. and reminding in its plaintive wail of the sorrowful tones of the Gregorian. the latter of which offers no less than 57 tones or semitones with all the accidentals. first instrument used by man was his own voice. What has the evidence to say on this subject? By the "Pentatonic Scale" is to be understood a succession of sounds which do not cover the whole of our modern octave. and these were destined to furnish the basis for all the string. the buluh consisting of nothing but a bamboo tube strung with one. but stop at the fifth note of the series. that this "plain chant" dates back to the very beginnings of the race. and this is found as a fact to be the most universal tone-producer. Bow-bamboo). It exists both in major and minor modes. to judge from the records that have so far been obtained. which. 601-615. (ZE. and sometimes decidedly sensual music of later times. Compare Erich von Hornbostel. or percussion-instruments of later ages. two. Uber ein akustisches Kriterium fiir Kulturzusammenhange. As a curiosity the bamboo-viol of Indonesia is at least worth mentioning. 257-266. the tonic. the same five fingers will also suggest a series of five musical sounds which is the leading idea of the "scale. ^wind. II." five-tone singing. sol. and is in striking contrast to the polyphonic. Side by side. p. or the modern eight-octave system. double-octave. It is not too much to say. etc. . mi. This scale has the advantage of great simplicity as well as beauty. expression of sound by natural or artificial contrivances. that is.XIV PREHISTORIC RELIGION But if the finger-method represents the earUest because ^Khe most "natural" means for the expression of number. that among the great majority of our "primitives". or three There is some difference between this and the pieces of plant-fibre! rauanasiron-flddles of India. re. fa. this series of five tones do. It consists of three fundamental elements. the rebab of Arabia. and the modern Amati to the As there can be no doubt that the — — Violin!" 21 For details on this interesting subject see the above authors under "Music" "Instruments". 1911). Ling-Roth (Borneo). Even the Hindoo. the mediant. furnishes the normal range of their voices as well as their instruments. and North-American folk-song can show nothing so primitive role in — as this in the East Indies. Hornbostel speaks of "Quintenparallelen. Australian. and the dominant. all other tones being either disregarded or looked upon as the members of a new scale. when sounded together give the beautiful triad of harmony that was destined to play such a prominent modern music. we find the bow and the bamboo tube at an extremely early period of human development. however. fugal. The prehistoric five-tone scale has no connection with the Scotch-Irish Pentatonic. It is known as the Aka Buluh (lit." though there is of course no necessary intrinsic connexion between the two. the minor triad being particularly dulcet. Suffice it to say.

it must be admitted that the primitive nature of man. Wallace. Y. 221-240. Haddon. upon what grounds this assertion is made. even if parallel. Dwight. Keane. of heat. (Cambridge. ^ Consult among others A. 1908). Ethnology. To this opinion the great majority of writers are now converging. apart from our knowledge from revealed sources. 1912). as they probably are. 1912) p.INTRODUCTION (E)The Evidence op Physique. Thoughts of a Catholic Anatomist. We are thus inclined to look to the melanic races as satisfying more closely the demands of a monogenetic original. (Munich. point suspiciously in the same direction. eludes our grasp. And indeed. ISff. K." ^ At the same time there are a certain number of facts. C. 1911). 45. were more or less uniform. If he arose during the last glaciation or in high altitudes. which seem to suggest that we must look to the Let us see above equatorial races as the nearest approach to the primitive type. and his possible existence under pliocene suns. if not equatorial. A. A. anthropoidal forms. 325ff. The fact that man is a non-furry animal would seem to indicate that he saw the light in a warm climate. R. 178-181. H. Natural Selection and Tropical Nature. 1895). Hugo Obermaier. there has come the conviction that the earlier types must be sought among those branches of humanity that exhibit the conditions of life that are decidedly tropical. p. 8-9. In other words we may have to go back to the time when the whole earth was covered with giant grasses and bamboos. p. (Stuttgart. Naturgeschichte des Menschen. p. existing Java skull — — ignore. even if considerations of climate are not always the primary ones. Stratz. 199. 1909) pp. In the words of Dwight and Kohlbriigge. Kohlbrugge. we have grave reasons for believing that man as a species His Ghellean industry was certainly interglacial. (N. Die morphologische Abstammung des Menschen. (London & New York. was such as naturally to suggest the type of humanity that is now confined to the two tropics. pp. With the growing consciousness of the enormous antiquity of man. The Wanderings of Peoples. L. 88. But the fact is. Dr. Kulturelemente der Menscheit. H. of food. vegetation and moisture. occupations. Weule. a more or less familiar "white" type is not unpicturable. The question of temperature as a morphological factor is one which we cannot is pre-glacial. . we have not even seen its face. (Stuttgart. when the conditions of climate. "we know nothing of the great problem of evolution. descriptive and scientific. 1912) p. 1904) p.^ IT. (1) A Tropical Form It is true that we have no means for fixing the first appearance of man with anything like certainty. and the and other remains. that he belongs in fact to the tropical fauna. whether physical or mental. and habits of life. (Stuttgart. XV —the Pre-Neanderthal Age It has been seen that the reconstruction of the primitive type offers no ordinary difficulties. (Cambridge. when the combined action of environment. Der Mensch der Vorzeit.

The term "Indo-Austral" is meant to include any land (possibly submerged) extending from Peninsular Asia southwards vaguely "Australasia" "temuria" "Miocene Continent". is the term "melanic" "primitive" man. it is important to note that we do not take it in this restricted. Obermaier. but is contradicted by the palaeontological and zoological evidence. the existing primitives as we actually find them are distributed over an area which shows that they followed the higher anthropoids but are in no wise descended from them. 3 Keane. c. to and more especially to South-Eastern Asia in our quest for the earlier forms. (1916). as we shall presently see. which confines the tropics. the continuous evolution of higher life to the eastern tropics.' It is true that the "higher life"-zone extends into Central Africa. Men of the Old Stone Age. Thus it is precisely the zoological and biological data that make the Southern-Asiatic theory so powerful. this would locate man at the poles with as much propriety as on the equator. p. * See especially Oberon the matter. as far as we can conjecture. Palm-trees and magnolias then flourished as far north as Spitzbergen.XVI PREHISTORIC RELIGION (2) An Indo-Oceanig Form But there are other and more weighty reasons why we should turn. Given a more or less uniform climate in the earlier days of the earth's history. but in the wider sense of "constitutionally darkskinned. 49. But it has always been felt that these groups are too sporadic and isolated to form anything like a continuous bridge. loc. supra. the nearest approach in a lineal descent to the supposed best specialists--. which are perhaps equally ancient." As such it includes not only the negroid. In no other portion of the earth is there such cumulative evidence for the continuity of floral and faunal development* If then the verdict of biologists is now almost unanimous on the OldWorld origin of man. and in fossil form as far north as Switzerland. Compare Osbom. which is purely hypothetical. and European anthropoids can hardly be said to furnish us with a complete cycle of higher forms. or approximately so. the proto-mongoloid and proto-caucasioid peoples. etc. Stratz. 1. maier. Africa is poor in fossils. the pan-American theorists finding but little favor — among our what type of humanity intended to imply. Haddon. cit. Now the Southern-Asiatic and Australasian area is precisely that region in which these forms predominate. All that is here intended is that the tawny to dark-faced aborigines of the far East are. and for this reason nearly all modern authors turn to this area as to the cradle of the race. where we have the Pleiopithecus of the miocene.the question arises. but. the leading Catholic authority . SUff. p. This might be a plausible argument. Though it is commonly associated vdth a negroid physiognomy. Contrary to the Darwinian theory. etc. 380. Wallace.

the latter being the famous known as Negritos. The latter exist in three varieties. Ethnology. degenerates. 190S) p. all this. Mueller. 1-43 (Opinions of Huxley. pp. whether he be five or six feet in height. apart from mere plausibilities. that these are in any case the most tropical peoples and exhibit the most rudimentary form of life and industry. ' For a full discussion of the biological question.INTRODUCTION (3) XVIi A Melanig Sub-Form Another and more subtle question is that of the relative priority of the melanic races among one another. though with considerable hesitancy).* It is evident that this question cannot be settled in the present state of our knowledge. 144ff. civilisation. Globus. ^the normal melanic. Ranke. Hackel. Virchow. Die Stellung der Pygmaenvolker in der Entwickelungsgeschichte der Menscheit. Klaatsch. see J. psychology being equal. (The two latter from the Catholic standpoint). that the true homo primigenius must be sought among the Indo-Australians as the nearest approach to (Followed by diluvial man. Veddas. Hubrecht. Kollmann. Obermaier. Piltdown. Schmidt. that we must go beyond diluvial man to a still more primitive. (Stuttgart. Kollman. Mgr. Die Abstammung des Menschen. 242-263.) Rt. 1910) pp. dolichocephalic and low-brow types. that some of the tertiary anthropoids are more strikingly human. LeRoy. Haeckel. Heidelberg. Java. (Neanderthal. XVI. Les ^gm^es d'Afrique et de I'Inde (Tours. that nearly all the diluvial skeletons are of normal height. . Klaatsch. ante-diluvian. forscher-Gesellschaft. Miiller. (The general position of Keane.) Schwalbe. Basel. 283-308. Kollmann. Also Keane. etc. Ranke. Kohlbriigge. Schmidt. and the pygmoidal sub-form. etc. There are two types that present themselves. 1902) Vol. Also Rev. undated) pp. 87. or bio- logical freaks. and exhibit these qualities in a manner which they share with the above races alone. and not to be swayed either by sentiment or by the sound of great names. based on previous speculations of Huxley.) — (2) For the priority of the normal type it is asserted that there is no palaeontological evidence for the existence of any pygmoidal primitives. W. on the embryological theory. It is necessary in the first place to be impartial. Nevertheless it is worth while to bring forward the chief arguments which. As to sentiment. Rev. Here there is room for considerable controversy. that the biogenetic law requires a juvenile as a prelude to the fully developed type. tend to make the priority of a human sub-type a fairly strong proposition. pre-Neanderthal form of high-brow features. (1) It is argued in favor of the pygmoidal races that they are real "firstforms". Die Pygmaen und Hire systematische Stellung innerhalb des Menschengeschlechts (Verhandlungen der NaturIdem. it makes no diflference to "Man". that the negritos are pygmies. (on the starvation-theory). and Jakuns Malayan sea-gypsies who form the undercurrent of the present Malayan — — . moreover. that the development of the race follows the development of the individual and postulates therefore a more juvenile form.

the broad nose. 1. Gerland. something very different from the long-headed. Also A. human. 1. all these are not so much anthropoidal as infantile. c. —Negrito-Negrillo. p. and Polynesian sub-area is strongly negroid. 2 (Neanderthal). 5 ft. p. 1. There is nothing pathological about this type. or pall-like hair. 175 (for lanugo). Foremost among these is the lanugo. Meyer. being more professional in this line of research than those of the rival school. and regularly with the human foetus. who are moreover divided. vigorous. (1902) p. but which is not The embryonic phenomena — found among any other section of humanity of which we know. 1899) p. if not foetal traits. an opinion which has been recently revived by Kollmann. c. 1. 4 (2) ft.l) taper into the And negrito (av. Toala-Vedda.XVIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Normal and Sub-normal Forms as to authorities. healthy. Comp. more or less embryonic or foetal form. the smallness of the legs and hands in proportion to the trunk. c. p. Schmidt. The uniformity and distribution of these peoples is another proof The fact that we find three nearly identical types on both sides of the Indian Ocean. 33-37. normal profile. p. 10). (1) There is a gradual decrease of stature as we descend into the remote past. c. p. almost embryonic symptoms which are altogether unique.'' (3) of their antiquity. Kollmann. c. 1895). 82. The Study of Mammals. and stamp their possessors — as being possibly a very primitive people. (Gomp. 27. 748. and brachycephalism. Kollmann. Keane. 325. the balance is if anything in favor of the sub-type theory. 5ft. 242-294. for Nubian and Akka-type. . supra.* large ' For gradations of stature among living races. 1. LeRoy. 191-192. but rather the opposite. which makes the combined impression a passable one.— The reader is cautioned against many of Keane's statements. (Munich. (side-face. c. are particularly strong among the This does not imply any genetic relation with existing anthropoids. p. 184-192. Birkner. p. 1. in Globus. Huxley. » Recently called Papuasia. Quatrefages extended this area even to the New World. c. the receding chin. as we know him. see F. 1914) p. straight features. Comp. B. Die Rassen und Volker der Comp. Haddon. though true in the main. which are '' mere caricatures. Australian. Flower and Lydekker. the large eye-balls. in the case of the Veddas of curly black hair. 1. p. Birkner. This form is characterised by the high brow. the names of Schmidt. — ^this fact can hardly be explained except on the theory of priority. 81. as are his appended sketches. p. The physical uniformity of the Oceanic Race (London. that all have races that surround them. Schmidt. 194-203 (for infantile traits). It is normal. Tas- manian-Bushmen that been isolated by the stronger . Then again. 6 to 5 ft. modern European with neolithic and glacial man. 79. ^but exhibits certain very primitive. LeRoy. c. Moreover a portion of the Indo-Asian. the appearance of a very primitive. 1 c. 321ff. The Distribution of Negritos (Dresden. The Veddas (av. Keane. which occurs sporadically among these types. 1. sloping-faced negro. and presupposes a melanic and probably a negrito basis in extremely remote times. are entirely unreliable on the negrito physique. which. limbs).» negrito races. — all are sub-types to the higher races. It is generally surmounted by an abundance of frizzly. Menscheit.

It is a type of mankind which is quite interesting. it is well to know what can be said in favor of its antiquity.— (3) American together with the Fuegian primitives at the far southern end of the continent. this in make many respects a (A) PURE NEGRITOS (1) Indo-Oceanic: Andaman The Semang of Malakka. and Tasmanians are of principal interest to us as belonging to one of the oldest groups of humanity in existence. to woolly hair be made the chief though test of priority. The Tapuya races of Central Brazil. the Mincopi of the Islands the Aeta of the Philippines. Of these the Veddas. In fact the evidence is sufficiently positive and sufficiently variegated to establish a certain presumption in favor of its truth. as this is one of the types of humanity that is to be the main object of the present study. Wambutti." are dealing with a pre-Australian. though it is far from certain that these can be classed with them. and the existing The Piltdown skull is a high-brow type. Though small of stature. of the Great with scattered East. (as far as us). The negritos are divided into two sections. the Vedda-varieties exhibit an attractive exterior. the Toalas of Celebes. and is partly at variance vs^ith facts. Watwa. etc. . the Veddas of (1) Indo-Oceanic: Ceylon. In any case.INTRODUCTION Normal AND Sub-normal Forms (4) XIX alleged absence of palaeontological evidence is at most a negative argument. so far discovered. Indo-Oceanic and African. (B) pygmoidal races The Sakai and Jakun of Malakka. Besides the pure negritos. Most of the glacial skeletons are rather below the normal. etc. The Ainos of Japan are at present irreducible. to Congo known The Akka. See Osborn. and the axtinct Tasmanians. pre-Neanderthal form. their almost biblical countenances. Dayaks. the Java remains being very possibly those of a female gibbon (!) Such in brief are the reasons which make the theory of a subtype more or less plausible. now proved to be fully human. unmarred by scarification. (2) African: The Bushmen only are : so far known to belong to this group. properly so called. (1916). African: Forest. the Forest-Dayaks of Borneo (?). Botokudos. partly not to the point. and the existing We fragments are too problematical to furnish any certain conclusions. Men of the Old Stone Age. the Tapiro and Mafulu of New (2) Guinea. Batwa. 512 (Appendix). belonging to the third interp.and West-African Negrillos. * The earliest certainly human remains glacial (Riss-Wurm). Their splendid physique. If tropical — man and will be seen that (A) takes precedence of (B). it we cannot afford ignore (B) as a very primitive offshoot of early man. who are slightly below the normal height. there are the allied pygmoidal races mentioned above. their noble locks of curly or wavy hair. all combine to — worthy approximation to primitive man.

the 'hairy Aino' being very probably the survival of a pre-Mongoliari race. or bodily proportions. Such a convergence would seem to indicate that the real primitive was a composite. physiognomy. and with features of almost European regularity. as we have seen. and has also shown a fair degree of persistency in both eastern and western tropics. which characterised by the lank or sleek hair-section. If there are good reasons for believing that primitive man belongs to the torrid belt. The Veddas are perhaps equally ancient. On the basis of flat or round hair-sections we find the following grada- — tions among existing races : (1) Nigritic Form—Frizzly Hair—Flat Section— (Negroid). may not impossibly represent the nearest approach to the Thus on less close — underived original. black. At the same time the shapely Vedda. whether in stature. — — (Caucasioid). this should make us hesitate in assigning point blank the priority to the woollyhaired varieties. the three types furnishing the germs as it were for the three main divisions of humanity. white. here that the juvenile traits are most pronounced. if moreover we admit. there is the proto-Malayic or Jakun form of humanity. among a people that are almost equally low down in the scale of culture. (proto-Indian form). and this also within the tropics and suspiciously near the negrito areas. that the case for the negritos is a plausible one. It is (Infant hair). as being a medium-type and satisfying all the essential requirements of a primitive. the downy or fluffy nature of the lanugo tending to confirm it. — (3) Malayic Form —Lank Hair —^Round Section — (Mongoloid). with long curly 'ocks. it is still far from certain that the woolly-haired types are necessarily the earlier ones. especially when coupled with the cultural and ethnological data. it is quite probable that this accompanies the earliest form of bodily evolution as yet known to us. that he embodied the characteristics of many races. Finally. The Real Primitive a Composite the embryological theory of sub-forms we find three more or approaches to what is believed to be the aboriginal form. if we are to is consider the Brazilian aborigines as their nearest relatives. however. involves no small assumption. It may be argued that as the weak hair-section predominates in the eastern tropics. (2) Veddaic Form —Smooth Hair —Elliptic Section Nevertheless. These also are wild races on extremely low levels of existence. in the near Pacific. the existence of a very similar type with wavy or Caucasian hair. the Malayan invasion being quite recent. and more especially to the Oceanic regions of the Old World. . and yellow.XX PREHISTORIC RELIGION Three Types op Melanic Primitives This.

" "Their skin-color is a dark chocolate brown. Stratr. wavy-haired. symmetrical limbs. c.^ Sinhalese Type: "The Veddas are a medium brown-black the eyes are always dark-brown the chin is rarely prominent the lips. or Bakatans. 1. — "The physique of the inland tribes is supeThe Kayans and Muruts are specially lithe and bronzy. race. p. which these tribes possess in common with wild animals. like the Battaks (of Sumatra). 81. Haddon. 5-7. are not tumid the jaw is not prognathous short. their face round. their nose short. and statuesque". 1. with moderately long faces. their sweet". L pp. imposing brows. rior to that of the Malays. hardened by incessant use.^ 1 Skeat. Burbidge. p. p. 34-36. their hair woolly and brownish-black. p. goat-like exhalations of the negro are not found (2) — among breath (3) them. Rassenschonheit. 192-193. and wavy. p. 1. almost mediterranean aboriginal race and are closely related. s Seligman. 1880)." "The face of the Sakai is fairly long and broad. with broad chests. 100. 43-48. p. Also 34-42. Deformed people and dwarfs are extremely rare". F. as well as a natural restlessness of the eyes themselves. are a slender tribes. and are not unfrequently described as showing a magnificent physique. » Ling-Roth (Borneo) Vol. but pointed towards the chin. c.^ Andamanese Type: "The remark that is commonly made by strangers who see them for the first time is. The lips are medium-thick. . (combined statement). is When in health and under ordinary circumstances. 'How well these savages are developed!' In confirmation of this I would refer you to the photographs. (Stuttgart. rancid. fairly regular features". 1. W. straight-limbed. The Aeta have practically no prognathism". the most striking peculiarity in their appearance being a certain wild look about the region of the eyes. and they have large brown eyes. 17-18. men. and paler in color than most the finest of aboriginals. active. though well developed. very much as the Veddas. 56-57ff. 57. long. and well-developed muscles. c. 16-19. their color is distinctly lighter than that of the Semang. their forehead narrow and projecting. with the American and Oceanic primitives". I.* (4) Philippine Type: —"So far some of the Aetas are very well-built little (5) Bornean Type: —"The Forest Dayaks. and their nostrils much distended. far less than the lips of the African negro. 1. with long They are among and wavy hair. The ammoniacal.INTRODUCTION Recent Evidence on the Physique op These Peoples XXI Malakkcm Type:—"Both Semang and Sakai are generally well(1) formed. = Man. 156. c. not identical." The hair is black. "It seems very probable if that the pure Dayaks. of moderate height. c. "The Semang as a race were far from being unpleasant-looking people. and are not protruding. dolichocephalic race. The Gardens of the Sun." — — — — — — from being ape-like in appearance. and moderately broad noses". 1904). p. belong to a proto- morphic. * Reed. (London.

agile. «LeRoy.^" These reports might be multiplied indefinitely. c. I am firmly convinced that craniology alone is a very poor index of the physical and even mental character of a race. the lips thick. skin-diseases.'' The Tasmanians were a negroid race of low but the existing reports reveal in some cases a noble picture. deep brown eyes. 1. it would seem that they were (8) Tasmanian Type: stature. 14ff. the eyes black. 7-lOff. they are at times even contradictory on the other. though the evidence on this subject is scanty and at times conflicting. 1. The nose was straight and broad. from which it appears that native diseases are few and non-syphilitic. (7) without any signs of deformity or dwarfishness. On the contrary he is a very gay. and in color a dark chocolate. (10) go absolutely nude. ' Rawling. Like the Kaingang they have oval faces. 1914). p. such exact statistics are not always to be obtained. c. Teschauer. (Compare them with the Bushmen?) ^ closely allied to the race. The mongolic traits are very generally absent — among them. black horizontal eyes. p. 41ff. strong and wiry. But on the one hand. and the amount of disease prevalent in this swampy district are taken into consideration". that the character of early above races are the physical equals of any others. IX. common opinion of the low. degraded. cranial measurements. Ehrenreich. quasi-simian man is one that needs to be severely corrected. the meagre food upon which he subsists. The Pt. S.— "They were of good proportions. To judge from the earlier prints. and some hygienic respects perhaps their superiors. and so on. and exhibit at times a splendid physique. and extended into further details on the physical anthropology of these peoples. '» . the general contour of the face oval." (9) — South American Type: The Botokudos are of medium stature. 1. P. 1. They are in all essentials a Vedda-race. consult the same authors under "Medicine". c. — to medium though their Papuan affinities are still form an ethnic group of their own. 2S3. (Anthropos. it However shows defective the above summary as a complete scientific statement." "Physically the Papuan of the Mimika Coast is an extraordinarily fine creature. — — ." «Sarasin. p. well-built little man. and black wavy hair. and perhaps they African Type: "The Negrillo is far from being deformed or badly proportioned. p. their exact stature. 21. Die Caingang oder Coroados-Indianer. 11.* Papuan Type. medium brown complexion. or nervous troubles among them. lofty brow. c. and brown rather than copper complexions.XXII Celebesian PREHISTORIC RELIGION Recent Evidence on the Physique op these Peoples Type:—The Toalas or "Backwoodsmen" of Celebes are (6) of medium height. 110. 91. 54. 71. I have seen no ugly wounds. Papuan uncertain. "Disease". ^^For medical statistics. J. » Ling-Roth (Tasm) p. which is all the more surprising when the slothful life he leads. p.


BORNEO SPECIMENS OF THE VBI)l)A-SAKAI-TOAI.5 feet 8 inches high. G. OKANti-l Kir.vak. MARTIN SENOA-SAKAIJIAEAKKA). II.v hunting.v live b. VI.i a D. but this ehar-acteristic may have been jieculiar to the man. I'l. P. and use the sumptian or hlow-pipe. I'kits do not biiUd liouses.AKKA \N-KANO«IT.i seen one I kit and lie was a chief. R.VN-I50RNE6) P.vak <liiff who ono<> lived with Uiimh ioi' a while that they make teniporar. PT. vm . V (II). and with a rather refined face. 19).THE ABORIGINES OF THE FAR EAST PRIMITIVE GROUP-PICTURES MALAKKA 1!\K \'I' SENOI- SENOIJMAI. and I have licen (old b. Borneo. and a rather more prominent nose than the D. (FOR TO. or Kayan.v. V.AND CO>IP.VKASIN.\EA-CEEEBES) . slim. The..\T. I ha\e onl. a wellbuilt man aliont . 19. SEFIfJMAN (VEDnA-CEYEON) PE.\RE 1'. Apud TiuB-IJotli. ONE OF THE FJAREIEST GROFI'S OF MANKIND IN EXISTENCE. EING-ROTII (BAK. TAKEN FROM C. II. S. "The . . Vol." (Maxwell..A-BAKAXAN TYPE Ol' HiaiANITY. 1. Mala.v shelters between buttresses of larce forest trees.

Such a united testimony can hardly be accidental. Kayans or Kanowits. show no who. The face is oval. — described above. a confused but noble type may be dimly discerned in the background. which in the depths of the forest verges into a lighter tint. industry. Here in the supposed cradle of mankind. It is of medium height. while their stature approaches the normal. but makes the antiquity and priority of these peoples an increasingly certain proposition. generally youthful features which tends to show that they belong to the same child-group of humanity that we have already .INTRODUCTION The Physical Picture of Primitive XXIII Man are now in possession of sufficient materials for forming a more or less proximate estimate of the physical appearance of primitive man. at the meetingpoint of Malaysia and Papuasia. we shall find that the Central Indonesian we group contains specimens of humanity that are as low as any to be found on earth. (See the frontispiece and the appended group-pictures) . Botokudos of South-America. and perhaps also the Tasmanians. an estimate which is based not upon hypothetical fragments. It will be seen that the groups which we have established as the "child-races" of man are practically the same as those which we have found to be primitive on entirely independent grounds. but upon We humanity which antedate anything that can be certainly known from the buried remains. of black. Such for instance are the wild Dayaks of Borneo. These are largely "ideal" traits. but the juvenile symptoms are nevertheless strongly marked. that there are some very low races of man that are physically well-developed. practically normal. if it does not sometimes exceed it. this it will appear that Stature that it is From is not the final test. brown. the eyes large and piercing. and of statuesque bearing. culture. as a The Bornean Type If Normal Primitive take the East-Indian types as the nearest approach to the real primitive on biological grounds. Whether as Toalas or Toradjas. and yellow races. the Fuegians and the actual appearance of living groups of — . social and linguistic phenomena. fresh — complexions. however juvenile signs of being stunted or underdeveloped. Bukits or Bakatans. rarely to be found in combination. are we brought face to face with a type of humanity which forcibly recalls the traditional picture of the father of humanity. possible to have very primitive peoples in other respects. But on closer inspection it will be noticed that cultural and physical evolution do not always proceed pari passu. slender hands and feet. The color is a genial dark-brown. with well-proportioned limbs. the long black hair falls in graceful curls over the shoulders. the forehead erect.

that he was probably a composite. But room such an "ideal" is beyond the powers of any known science to reconstruct. Such being the present cedence over the other. that the races in question do approximate more closely to the primitive conditions of life.XXIV PREHISTORIC RELIGION Summary. Did not the giant Germans ridicule the puny Romans as a band of pygmies? And yet the "pygmies" conquered the world. and in a tone of contempt. and can only be explained on the supposition of a fundamental unity of stock. that he may have been anything from a simple Negrito up to a handsome Vedda. Doubtless there has been a process of degeneration as well as evolution. "veddas". that the real primitive eludes our grasp. climatic. somatic. state of our knowledge. This does not imply of course that any one type can be taken as literally primitive. Moreover the general similarity of type. — — . however. —and the cultural and it the term itself. but that the youth of humanity would seem to be in harmony with a youthful type. In this way human. by successive climatic modifications the present races of mankind have been developed. understanding by this the more or less nigritian sub-types of Oceania. dealing with these types they will be referred to as "negritos". that this idea should be rendered increasingly plausible. social and industrial than any other section of humanity that has so far come within our knowledge. from which — — . The existing types are shadows of the original. "toalas". . or simple "primitives". biological data . "dayaks". as the case may be. the antiquity of the proto-melanic area. which makes the fixity of any single type largely problematical. It must never be forgotten. mental and social culture. for such a type is no longer in existence. such a type being commonly called pygmoidal. while ample an "ideal" form in the remote past. and possibly South America is one that makes a growing impression on the mind of the student. fresh from the hand seem of the Creator. has long been a puzzle to ethnologists. —Convergence of Evidence It will thus be seen that from whatever point of view the subject be approached. to suggest ilr— is On the supposition then. the original itself has been their dignity will be safeguarded as in the best sense will be left for the priority of lost. of physical. Central Africa. But in spite of this it will hardly be denied. implying as does an unfortunate one. over such vast and widely separated areas. The designation is therefore best avoided. it is useless to indulge in further speculations as to which of these varieties should claim preThere has been a tendency in recent times to look upon these so-called pygmoidal races as the common progenitors of humanity. but in its one line perfect.

1891). much will depend on the character and equipment of the reporter. Names that and LeRoy. (1) As to the truth of that which is reported. (1) the authenticity of report. 1912).* are apt to solicit our attention on the score of seriousness. "Andrew Lang. (Paris. though in an opposite direction. Idem.'' Prefects apostolic. this subject has to all all it is beginning occupy the serious attention of persuasions. p. 1910).* missionaries of the Divine Word. who have been brought to change their opinions solely by an impartial examination of the overwhelming evidence of facts.* apostles of the Sacred Heartj like Meyer* and Egedi. Schneider. 1910. I'Comp. Foy. 1885). it is important to separate the clear from the doubtful. Intern. If however their writings be suspected of "tendency". *Mrs. Magic and Religion. Oxford. these tendencies can easily be corrected by more secular writers. 1912). Congr. (Stuttgart. Die Religion der afrikanischen Naturvolker. This concerns the authenticity of two factors. 1911). If to this be added the names of Breuil and Cartaillac. (Vienna. like Mgr. their folklore and their mythology in a manner that is epoch-making and that reflects undying credit on the great Institution that brought them forth. like Schneider^ — — Though novelty. = Cartaillac-Breuil. and Ankermann. (Vienna. XLIff. that of prehistoric religion quite recent. whatever their powers of observa- beyond the average of trustworthiness. have involuntarily brought out the same results.INTRODUCTION II. Der Mensch der Vorzeit (Munich. . they have penetrated into regions that are rarely if ever visited by the white man. see below under Kulturkreis. (London. Dunn. like Schmidt and Hestermann. if on no other But apart from this.^ are admittedly colorless. The latter department is being pioneered by men who. (Miinster. Parker * and Andrew Lang " are frankly "converts". Mythologie der austronesischen Volker. Langloh-Parker. 'The Culture-cycle school. Secret of the Totem (London. and — — (2) the authenticity of tradition. are certainly include those of Catholic bishops. of Religions (Basle. »Rev. (Paris. 1908." of Piette and Obermaier. W. and they have studied their customs. the indigenous element from that which has been borrowed from an outside source.' experts in the allied field of palaeontology and rock-paintings the honor-list of the Catholic Church swells to a noble figure. Idem. La Caveme * Articles in Anthropos passim. while Mrs. or are living. 1910). Louvain. of religious students of ^Mgr. (Miinster. 1904. "Dr. 1901-9). The field of comparative religion is a new one. Pygmaenvolker. 1907-1914). "Mgr. d'Altamira a Santillane. they have lived. Ursprung der Gottesidee. XXV THE SOURCE-QUESTION In estimating the value of a prehistoric tradition. W. La Religion des Primitifs. Graebner. Idem. (Mitnster. A. The Making of Religion. 1912). Thomas. LeRoy.^" the attractions as well as the dangers of men of science. Die Naturvolker. The Euahlayi Tribe. tion. 1905). the certain from the problematic. on intimate personal terms with the natives. Schmidt. Hugo Obermaier. whose "tendencies".

Rawling" and Williamson ^^ for New Guinea. Howitt" and Ling-Roth" for the Tasmanian. 1910). B." Reed. 28 k." for the Philippines. Les Pygmees d'Afrique " G. Thomas. 1883). (Chicago. H. As to special sources for particular addition to the above. Blagden. ^^ A. and Sarasin " for the Toalas."° for the lank-haired primitives of the Amazonian belt. Seligman "" for the Veddas. but whose united testimony is surely powerful. 1913). Von den Steinen Unter den Naturvolkem Central Brasiliens. (Indo-Asiatic and Eurasian). (Paris. Von den Steinen "* and Ehrenreich. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. The Aborigines of Tasmania. "A. 3 vols. With regard to the wavy-and sleek-haired pygtmoidal races.XXVI So areas. so reference-work on primitive man in general will be found in W. For the Central African Negrillos we have only one standard work. Ling-Roth. (Manila. don. Portman. in Thus we have Skeat. 2 vols. 2» Paul Ehrenreich. 1906). where the name of Stow^* stands easily first. 1905). Skeat and C. i^ R. Stow. (Berlin. 12 H. The Veddas. Hewitt. PREHISTORIC RELIGION general survey. Materialien zur Kenntniss der wilden Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malakka. Names and titles are too numerous to ancient. W. Pa^an Races of the Malay Peninsula. =«>R.Australian region. Man. Paul and Dr. op. Meyer. op. Also. peoples. (Tours. 3 vols. 1886). I. 1899. 1912). A "W. i*E. (Cambridge. G. with early man. Missions aux Philippines. it is chiefly for the reason that something should be said to complete the picture. 1905). glacial and neolithic. chiefly religious. Seligman and Brenda Z.'" —they will be found in the footnotes. A. A . W. 26 q. (Jena. W. (London. Martin. G. cit. (Paris. 22 H. The Negritos of Zambales. 27 ^r. V. Fritz Sarasin.^' The same for the South-African Bushmen. O." for the Malakkan races. i» C. Rawling. 26 Skeat-Blagden. (London." and Martin. 1904)." and Montano. Meyer." Vaughan-Stevens. vols. LeRoy. 1904). Reed. 1894). Tylor's Primitive Culture should be read with caution as many of his data are entirely unreliable. We have Skeat"" again for the Sakai. 23 LeRoy. under 11 W. 1902). i* Joseph Montano. 1892-4). with excellent bibliography. Voyage aux Philippines. The Native Races of South Africa. authorities are quoted only for the sake of comparison. so little is yet known of their higher culture that they are not always a safe investment in the present state of our knowledge. (London. but includes the somewhat taller Tasmanians and Bushmen as cognate races with hair of woolly texture. sup. (Wiesbaden. (Leipzig. cit. The aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. (Berlin. Bishop of Alinda. Engl. 1911). good Die Mythen und Legenden der Siid-Amerikanischen Urvolker. rare). 1899. undated). much for a we have. be mentioned in this place. 1912). Maiterialien zur Naturgeschichte der Insel Celebes. Die Philippinen. (Calcutta. if it is only to show how the primitive ideals may still be kept up by a group of races which on the above ethnological schedule are possibly equally As to the much later. that of Mgr. whose divided voices might be open to question. and in the New World. 1887). i" M. Idem. Source-Book for Social Origins. Seligman. Williamson. supra. (Lonet de ITnde. (Berlin. each section. The Land of the New Guinea Pygmies. (with valuable plates). If we touch upon these races at all. rare). W. This completes the negrito cycle strictly so-called. a large number of independent authors. 1905). 2 (London. (London. The Mafulu Mountain People of British New Guinea. Die Inlandstamme der Malaischen Halbinsel. (Halifax. Only the most important can be given here. Man " and Portman " for the Andaman Islands. History of our Relations with the Andamanese. Vaughan-Stevens.

1907-1916). both twovolume works. ^9 journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia. Quer durch Borneo. Idem. 1901). Het Animisme in den Indischen Archipel. In Centraal Borneo. Cooper is opening out a new world of research in the antarctic zone. commonly known as Posos or Alfoors. Among these are and Nieuwenhuis. Idem. who wish to pursue this subject at further length and do some original work on areas that are still largely unexplored.INTRODUCTION Supplementary Sources XXVII For those. The Relation of men and animals in Sarawak. Vol. . Hose and McDougall in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. however. the only two white men that have given us anything like a complete account of the beliefs and practices of the Forest-Dayaks and their allies in the tropical jungle. 1-228. Bull. '* Charles Hose and William McDougall. Riedel. 1886). (London. though the work of Nieuwenhuis is otherwise indispensible. ^^A.=' concerning the wild inhabitants of Central Borneo. 1906). black. "The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. 1894). white."' Nor should the Molukkas be passed over without comparing the flndings of Kruyt and Riedel on the subject of the pre-Islamic Malayan and Papuan faith. s°A. (Hague. Head-hunters. Nieuwenhuis. 38de jaarg. Anthr.*" reports of the Royal Netherlands Missionary Society ally inspected. XXXI. (London. 1896). Journ. De sluik-en kroesharigen rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua. Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelingsgenootschap. 63 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Cooper. 2 vols. which are as yet very obscure. 2 vols. 1917). For similar reasons the mythology of the Gelebesian Toradjas. Haddon. (ibid). ^. W. 1900). a geographical publication of the Dutch government. Inst. 1904). ^^A. and the articles that have api>eared on the same subject from the pen of Messrs. p. (Leyden. ^'Fr. I would recommend as a preliminary study the inspection of certain works which have recently attracted considerable attention by reason of the important facts which they promise to bring to light. both of which contain at times interesting material. the startling disclosures of the two latter should be carefully examined and weighed. Finally the important work of Dr.^* As to New Guinea itself. Also the reports of 9ie Koninklijke Nederlandsche Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. and in a more recent work. (Hague. (London. as they may shed some valuable light on the Toala beliefs. should not be omitted. it is a land of mystery. and brown. (Vienna. 1901). an annual report published at the Hague. De legenden der Poso-Alfoeren. (Leyden. *" J. his immense collection of facts on the South-American Fuegians being altogether invaluable. (Straits branch). (The Hague. ss Mededeelingen van wege het Koninklijke Nederlandsche Zendelingsgenootschap." In view of the fact that many of these inland tribes are as primitive as any to be found in the archipelago. The Pagan Tribes of Borneo. '^Anthropos. Kruyt. (Washington.^^ — '* should be occasionThese and the Journal of the Indian Archipelago '° furnish in fact the main channels through which further light in this region may be expected. which are here found in juxtaposition. Netherlands. Analytical and critical Bibliography of the tribes of Tierra del Fuego and adjacent territory. C. but the current articles in the Anthropos " and the the collections or discoveries of Ling Roth." Haddon. DD. 1912). M. 173-213. (London. Also Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Idem.

12-21. The secrecy of the cult. II. that changes have been incredibly slow. a clear and forcible statement. 1901). an improbable assumption. in view of the parallel phenomena in the social and cultural field. It is through the principle of "cumulative convergence" that the mind beg^ins to see that the early development of man exhibits a homogeneity of mental phenomena which is so striking that. the nature of its propagation. in arts and industries. It is through elimination of all impossible values that the unknown quantity is discovered. Lang. must of course be determined in single instances. . Comp. which it would level. that they occupied from time immemorial. such an idea seems altogether unlikely. But if there is one thing that palaeontology has impressed upon our minds. The objection on the score of "hoary antiquity" is sentimental rather than scientific. the mythology in which it is clothed. A. Now if such a 'stagnation' be admitted in type and physiognomy. that before that time the unpolished flint was in use for at least double that period and the rough eolith for periods indefinitely longer. and that in many instances there have been 'stagnations' of ancient areas which have left them in precisely the same condition. Magic and Religion. an essential connexion is positively demanded between the age of a people and its corresponding beliefs. on "The Theory of Loan-gods".^" — *" Comp. Chapt. the evidence is in most cases too strong to be resisted. in social and linguistic phenomena. social and industrial. an excellent article by Father Le Clercq 'Indications pratiques pour faire des observations en matiere religieuse chez les peuples incultes'. in Anthropos. 507. XLI. pp. surely be unwise to put down as a mere coincidence. Can it be possible that this or any other section of humanity has preserved intact a tradition which upon the most conservative estimate must reach back many thousands of years? From what we know of 'progress' in modern times. Whether they do this or not. —Indigenous Origin more complex problem is that of the antiquity and indigenous (2) origin of the beliefs and practices that are reported. See below. It seems difficult to realise. (London. that Chinese culture has been stagnant for three-thousand years. why not a stagnation in religion also? Does it not form an important. Wherever a borrowing cannot be distinctly proved.XXVIII The PREHISTORIC RELIGION Source-Question. nay. that the neolithic age was for six-thousand years non-metallic. the most essential cultural element of all? But this is a problem of wide ramifications. (pp. it is the fact that for countless ages the human race has been on the same uniform level of culture. the fidelity with which it is echoed in distant centers on exactly the same all these make a combined impression of originality. VIII. (1913) p. But per- A — haps we have not been schooled in time-values. that the evidence for the remote antiquity of a cult is based on the convergent testimony of numerous and widely separated sources. They may in some cases produce moral certainty. for instance. : 121. 15-45). Suffice it to say for the present.

(New York. 1912) II. tion is alone sufficient to prove his higher mentality. were unable to protect their species from extinction. » Westermarck. Y. by the large sheer force of his ingenuity and contriving-power. (N. These hasty inductions were destined to be modified. how far can they be said to embody an adequate. p. Evidence for this was believed to be abundant. *Obermaier. as opinions have not been wanting that have boldly affirmed. that while and swift-footed animals. clothing. they could not always recognise pictures. 1904). that his intellect is but little removed from the associative power of brutes. from Sir John Lubbock^ down to Tylor^ and even Westermarck. THE PSYCHOLOGY OP PRIMITIVES —A Normal Mentality— XXIX Another question that has intimate bearings on the present subject is that of the mental capacity of the races with which we are dealing. they had no names for generic ideas.* the "deluge" — — Lubbock. 60-99. partly by the more profound study of the nature-peoples as we actually find them. Given a set form of religious beliefs. when so little could be said for his modern survivor. . They could not count beyond four. that the so-called "savage" of today is a mental pariah.* and it was easy to case for the stupidity of primitive man. it has long been recognised that the very fact of the survival of man amid the wreck and ruin of the glacial epoch is in itself a proof of his decided superiority to the animal creation. (N. Primitive Culture. In both make out a cases have materials come to our hand that have greatly influenced. Ed. This impression has colored the works of nearly all writers. —^Inventive Power— (1) As to palaeontology. 6th. = Tylor. It has even been argued that the art of making fire by fricport. fire. The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas. 418. What he lacks in physical and muscular strength. in some cases reversed. 548. our judgment on the early mentality of the race. op. Ed. means of transdevices. that is a metaphysical idea of divine truth? Have the races in question a sufiicient power of abstraction to attain to the idea of God in any sense in which we understand it? Clearly there is room for discussion here. cit. like the Cave-Bear and the Irish Elk. saved his race from by means of inventions. 1 4th. Thus it has come to pass. Weule. they were slow and unprogressive. p. they were stunted if not obtuse. man alone has.INTRODUCTION m. partly by the findings of palaeontology. Y. he more than makes up by the quickening power of his intellect. tools. 595. Die Kultur der Kulturlosen. 1910) p. Prehistoric Times.

' Summing up "Primitive man was this question Prof. 1908. 253. both in form and capacity. There is in fact so close a resemblance between the Neanderthal and the modern Australian skull. ' Cartailhac-Breuil. For neolithic man parallels may be found among the Gaucasic races of today. ^ E. 126. Physicians and Scientists. in Proc. 38. however undeveloped the type may be. . p." (to the Magdalenian the inventive talent already referred : — ." * Compare also some very similar remarks made by Eduard Meyer in his new History of Antiquity. Anat.^ deserts us.) ^Kollmann. such a conclusion seems altogether premature. . vol. (Klaatsch. but the finger of ethnology points with growing emphasis to the equatorial belt.^ For reasons that have already been given." 1 1. and offers the melanic sub-type as a possible transition Once more. with this type. Granted. an admittedly cold and materially prejudiced author: "We shall have to descend to the fifth dynasty of Egypt in order to And parallels of equal worth. of artistic refinement which is surprising and which has caused many to look upon them as masterpieces. that many authors. a loophole must surely be left for the priority of still earlier types on the Here palaeontology basis of Kollmann's theory of pre-glacial forms. p. Geschichte des Altertums. paintings) . the more recent discoveries of rock-paintings have revealed a degree of esthetic taste. p. 247. that diluvial man and the Australian type are close parallels. * Klaatsch. op. —High Art— But before quitting the field of buried antiquity. which have rarely if ever been excelled. . —Cranial Capacity Then again the fossil remains of man are telling a similar story. Congress of German (Berlin. . Soc. the to glacial man. Klaatsch thus expresses himself He is rather to be looked upon as a superior neither bad nor stupid ('hochstehendes Wesen') who by the power of his individbeinguality and mental adroitness was in many respects above the parvenues of culture.XXX PREHISTORIC RELIGION Psychology. Obermaier. while the palaeolithic type recalls a confused Gaucasioid to-Mongoloid to-Negroid image which is best expressed by the Dravidian or Indo-Australian races of our time. supra. and even primitive man. They have revealed the fact that there is no substantial difference between man glacial and man recent. 1910). that in both cases we are dealing with a true 'homo sapiens'. I. Meyer. therefore. dead is interpreted by the living form. c. Australian-Preneanderthaloid. the past yields to the present. have boldly identified the diluvial race. call attention to the general verdict of this science on ment of the human race during the long period of the would be well to endowIce Age. Apart from it the mental to. including Klaatsch and Virchow. at the Cologne cit. 1908.

Man. Portman. like their discovery. (SR. intelligent. travelers —of almost fairy-like —such are a few of the epithets that have been employed by different deft- in their reports "Intelligence" is of course from different and widely separated areas. "Bright. a new acquisition. If then the Mammoth. keen. owing to want of fixity in the type. Der diluviale Mensch in Europa.^ deer-man inventive — —"Intelligence"— But it is a far cry from these to our own primitives of the equatorial Here we have nothing but ethnology to go by. p. 111-116. (Mun. Johnston. 2S3f.and Reinface. we shall find it difficult in some cases to note any difference. the same meed of praise should be due to his modern survivor. cit. adroit. Obermaier. always allowing for possible degenerations. it is a faculty which is relatively high. but the sense in which it is used in the present place is at least synonymous with that of adaption of means to ends. The Pygmies of the Great Congo Forest. etc. Opinions of Skeat. Reed. Far from being crude. Clearly we are here face to with a direct racial equation. his and artistic faculty. either solicits our admiration by reason of his prowess. if we compare the bone-engravings of the Indian and Eskimo with those of his palaeolithic forefathers. belt. See also Johnston. and implies therefore a delicate perception of cause and effect. op.INTRODUCTION Psychology. 489). Pygmaenvolker. more than a mere 'instinct'. or in any sense blunt or puny. an elastic term. 1912). his skill. relatively 'perfect'. 1902. LeRoy. Meyer. Stow. 2 . pp. Les Pygmees. Much the same may be said of their other industries and their habits of life. and has been employed with a variety of popular meanings. What then is to be learnt of this interesting people? Are they 'pygmies' in intellect as they are supposed to be in their bodily frames? Far from it. collected by Schmidt. or vice versa. What have the living races to us of their own psychology? Does not the preceding eulogy seem rather far-fetched when applied to existing races as we actually find tell them? And yet there are enormous sections of humanity that are living on approximately the same level as the Magdalenian bear-hunters. I have only to refer to the rock-paintings and chromographs of the modern Australians and Bushmen to see how nearly they approach the diluvial type. to antedate the age of the earliest fossil remains of man. ness".^ — ^Birkner. Then again. vivacious. as they are believed to be 'pre-glacial'. The study of their psychology is. or with a 'mental convergence' of such a nature that the psychology of the past may be safely interpreted by the light of the present.—The Modern Survivor (2) XXXI So far the verdict of archaeology. 9S-14S.

c. LeRoy. Mental Evolution in 1. (Compare the scholastic 'potency' and 'act').* intelligence at least equal to those of their own age". I. retaining also a knowledge of his mother tongue. the paucity of their numerals. Brinton. etc. 1. 117. Man. » Man. p. who had been educated in an orphan-school. New . (Am. (12). (whether native or borrowed). Borneo. for mstance. in spite of his tender years. c. the absence of generic terms. as in other departments of life. Romanes. Pygmees. Man is careful to add. their existing psychology has been largely mis- interpreted. infinity. vol. Dr. and who. (1896). In all these matters means are proportioned to ends. for I could instance others. a paucity of terms. inherent defect in 1. Mr. LeRoy speaks of polyglot Akkas (0-koas). largely misunderstood. —Abstractive Power Yet even with these concessions there these 'low' may be some doubt as to whether and culturally backward types are in any sense worthy to figure as the earliest representatives of the race. 1889) p. it seems to be clear that those theories will have to be revised. confined to 'essential' relations. through want of training. * Compare D. who was his superior.^ — (2) On the other hand. The former may exist in full vigor. and the far East. a small vocabulary. p. eternity. as we understand them? To this question a twofold answer may be given. peoples. as well as speak and write in both these languages.XXXII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Psychology. certainly not a sign of degeneracy. * Portman. remain dormant or undeveloped. that speak so slightingly of the 'infant mentality' of early man. G. the reports of the Mission Fathers in British p. J. 15. where we meet with statistics that are surprising. could read English and Urdu fluently. 28. this alone implies a power of abstraction.' — iThe c p 11. argue against any really abstractive knowledge on their part. and one lad in particular. Les Compare. "this is not an exceptional case. He had besides acquired a fair knowledge of arithmetic. while the latter may. " Man. though the simplicity of their wants begets a simplicity of language. Religions Guinea. 143-144.^ But the best test is that of the school or mission house. Y. with "an teachers. Brander mentions the case of a young boy. And. The fact that these races are endowed with speech.' While little is yet known of this subject. (1) It is important to distinguish between the capacity for intellectual processes and their facility. Does not the sexless character of their language. c." ' That this is not a mere case of infant precocity is shown by the fact that some of them have been known in later years to figure as Mgr. ^ Parker 1. Then again many are gifted with wonderful memories. p. 27-28. and he and many other missionaries have assured us that they show as deep a grasp of the Catholic Faith as any other races with which they have come in contact. any adequate perception of immensity. of primitive Indians). (N.

I.INTRODUCTION Psychology. 'W. It is generally admitted. I. and in both cases the backwardness but of the state of the science". They certainly do not deal largely in abstraction. Thomas in his new Souroe-Book. 1912). and their languages are poor in abstract terms. He says:— "Another serious charge against the intelligence of the lower races is power of abstraction. but lack of practice. an exceedingly useful manual. 1912). To one skilled in any line an unpracticed person seems very stupid.'' is not a matter of mental incapacity. But there is a great difference between the habit of thinking in abstract terms and the ability to do so. W. and if the activities are nil. and number. then abstract modes of thought are forced on the mind. we find that they compare favorably with ourselves in any to The degree which abstraction is group depends on the complexity of the test which involves a fair comparison. and lead a miserable existence. philosophy. space. The mind is nothing but the means of manipulating the outside world. they show no lack of power. 160-164. and systems of reckoning time. When we come further to examine the degree in which they possess it. like the Veddas and Bushmen. (Chicago. with little or nothing to count. (Chicago. and when thought is a profession. Thomas. however. the mind is simple. . The directions of attention and the simplicity or complexity of mental processes depend on the character of the external situation which the mind has to manipulate. When science. and logic. // the activities are simple. who have no trade or commerce. test of the On the other side of abstraction number we have another and while the lower races show lack of . . XXXIII —Abstractive Power This subject has been well handled by Mr. that the use of speech involves the power of abstraction. three. It is true that tribes have been found with no names for numbers beyond two. Sir Henry Savile and the Bushmen are both woefully backward. From the standpoint of modern mathematics. Source-Book for Social Origins. This does not argue absence of power of abstraction in the lower races. the mind would be nil. so that all races have the power in some degree. or five but these are isolated groups. are taught in the schools. and this is apparently the reason why travelers report that the black and yellow races have feeble powers of abstraction. . . when the attention is not so much engaged in perceptual as in deliberate acts. lack of the employed in the activities of a activities and on the complexity of consciousness in the group. pp. power of practice in this.

that. with little or no coherence. of promiscuity. and legitimate outlet for its operations. (Savage ideas of virtue.^ 1 2 See for instance Lubbock. in fact. Also in 223-224. op. And such. beastly. they rarely. And so. the tendency to violate the moral law will be considerably diminished. criticism has taken a new turn. has become almost a dogma. desert their consort". In the first place. and it has been found necessary to make some important concessions. It has already been remarked group-marriage and free to turn to — — — that the Negrito social system is primitive to a degree. corresponding to two classes of races.^ And yet it was difficult to believe that these races could have fallen below the average of the higher anthropoids. Under the pressure of extreme evolution theories. A summary cit. 436. animalish". say of the Orang. while considerable antenuptial freedom seems to be allowed. All reports agree. 540-SS9. Johnston. he cannot compare in this respect to his more primitive prototype. however.XXXIV IV. is found to be the case. the Negro and the Negrito. Westermarck. general op. LeRoy. whenever this subject is treated. such are the expressions that are commonly heard. type which is divine truth. which is ethically fit to be the recipient of What light have the sciences to shed on this question? —Past versus Present— (1) It cannot be denied that the general tone of ethnology has until recent years been decidedly negative. "the Negritos as a race are virtuous. which is generally monogamous. 'Low. c. The father of the family is king. PREHISTORIC RELIGION THE SOCIOLOGY OF PRIMITIVES —A Normal Morality— the mentality to the morality of these races. 424. It is made up of simple family units. cit. absence of religion). the social to pass over. — all in one. Human Marriage. in estimating the general character of If we pass from for the reason that these peoples. c. that it is worse than useless unless it finds a normal. healthy. degraded. ex professo. of the evidence will be found in Schmidt. We have only any of the more widely-read works on this subject to see how thoroughly this idea has taken possession of the modern mind. While the former is considerably better than he is commonly painted. love. Now it is clear that under such a system of direct paternal surveillance. and ethical question is one that we cannot afford There must be some guarantee that we are dealing with a fully 'human'. or otherwise. op. it is chiefly mind alone furnishes an incomplete picture of man. 1. physician. ruler. the priority of a lower standard of ethics. "once married. op. judge." and that. II. Quite recently. cit. . if ever. 155-168.p. there are two classes of morals. priest.

— — dence : "This idea of the laxity of the marriage-tie among the negritos may possibly arise from the great ante-nuptial freedom which appears to be allowed. the Semang of both sexes are in the highest degree faithful to one another and that cases of unfaithfulness are exceedingly rare. to their wives is a very remarkable infidelity trait in their They are strictly to monogamous. among the wild Dayaks of Borneo. among the Aeta of the Philippines. conjugal fidelity till death is not the exception. and in the Romish Church". 61ff. though permitted. . That conjugal infidelity is strongly discountenanced.* "So far from the contract being regarded as a merely temporary arrangement. If the offender is caught and is unable to pay the necessary fine. There seems to be a sentiment against it. ^Reed. in spite of the numerical superiority of the latter. Nieuwenhuis. «Seligman. Borneo. (London. 100. Here is the evi. among the Toalas of Celebes.° "The Veddas' constancy character. ^a. no incompatibility of temper or other cause is allowed to dissolve the union. and the equality of conjugal rights between man and woman. some Papuans of (certain tribes) in Sumatra. W. on the Andaman Islands.* to the marriage-tie »L. p. Morals in Evolution. death. 150. argues for a degree of continence and sexual self-control that we would hardly expect among a people on such a low level of culture". the Veddas of Ceylon.'' "Highly significant as against other Dayak tribes is the complete fidelity among the Bahau. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. p. I. "the punishment for adultery was death". c. and while bigamy polygamy. 1. was extremely rare". among the Igorrotes and Italones of the Philippines. the Sakai "divorce. is indissoluble among the Andamanese. Vol.INTRODUCTION Morality. p. to be set aside at the will of either party. and whether in the husband or wife appears be unknown". Hobhouse.' "Marriage And. 76f f. but there is every reason to believe that when once married. he might have added among the aborigines of Malakka. the penalty is death". 65-67. (Translation from the Dutch)." Among is shown by the penalty assigned to it. require further evidence on this subject? Here are the words who writes from a purely material or "evolutional" : point of view New Guinea. but the rule". II. XXXV —High Standards Do we of a recent author. T. c. ' Man. 87-88. among many of the American and Australian aborigines. 1906) Vol. "I do not remember a single case in which a Besisi had more than one wife". Centraalp. polyandry. I. and among the Jakun. Vol. * Skeat. 67. SS-S6. and among the Negrillos of Central Africa. 1. are unknown. p. p.' "Divorce is not very common among the Negritos of Zambales.

for a second offence she is speared in the leg. c. p. 1. p. c. p. 221224 (Translation from the French). that "no penalty attaches strict. that we have reasons to suspect a growing invasion of Hottentot influence. 280.* PREHISTORIC RELIGION Morality. that which gives him paternity. Die Caingang etc. and that polygamous unions have undoubtedly occurred. 258. J.^* Among is divorce The same remarks apply to some extent to the Tasmanians and Bushmen. these testimonies suggest. (N. the father is priest. c. Less so among the Gaingang and Bakairi. for here the family ties are no longer as rigid. 1903) pp. and that wife-loaning is occaKurnai bigamy is allowed. Stow. life. if they do not always prove the permanency of the marriage-bond. 22ff. 1. 431-517ff. c. 126. 1. 1. 95. and his only". Von den Steinen. "Howitt. The author is careful to add." For the Congo-region Mgr. But there is considerable evidence to show. that exceptions are too numerous to allow of any universal statement in the matter. the father is judge. p. We are distinctly told that divorce is prohibited under the usual penalties." Taken all in all. monogamists. Y. . that stability marks the normal state of the family. 1. "LeRoy. polygamy is by no means unknown. we saw that it was precisely the family which monopolises everything else. monogamy preponderates and punished with blows. Among the are otherwise man". even if the occasional custom ried of taking two or more wives connects them with the common Patagonian The Fuegians. pp. 113.^^ the South-American Botokudos. in like the primitive Among practice. For the first offense she is branded with a flrestick. c. 1. 31. Vol. c. p. seem to have preserved many ideals of the Yahgans the unity and stability of the marstate is a very general characteristic. who supports this thesis with an abundance of data. ^^ Cf. S. sionally practiced. but sex-relations "Wives were not exchanged under any circumstances. V (II). Westermarck. strict —High Standards . Human Marriage 1* Cooper. i8 Ling Roth (Tasm) p. Teschauer. There seems to be no uniform standard in the Amazonian belt. that while monogamy is the rule.*" manner. and exact statistics are difficult to obtain. however. LeRoy gives similar testimony: "When we visited the diff'erent camps. for further offences she is killed.XXXVI "The Toalas are rare". however. pp. c. p. ^^ Ehrenreich. 1. 1. 332ff. c." •Sarasin. and he unites all these attributes in one quality. Infidelity and desertion are In Australia "a wife is bound to be faithful to her husband. the latter being due to economic causes. His wife is his. 166. and polygamy and desertion are said to be practiced. Die Botokudos. P. It is more especially among the Bushmen. ." It is added. to the nor were lent to friendly visitors". The father is ruler. and are in any case a valuable argument for the priority and the preponderance of a high standard of marital ideals.

if the opposite practice is reported from this or that particular region. which in this respect claim to stand so high. LeRoy. Edit. Certainly any race that will sacrifice in this respect food and clothing. that these people are not withmercy. 227f. nay even life itself. b Comp. say with the Malays. XXXVII —Absence op Grosser Grimes infanticide. and care for the aged is But there also evidence to out the higher virtues. LeRoy. and H. not only —Cultivation (2) op Higher Virtues — show. but these do not affect the general statement. can hardly be called a degenerate. p. 1. is something that cannot fail to make a powerful impression upon the mind of the unprejudiced student. 766. sociales Leben bei den Naturvolkern. p." writes Gol. it can nearly always be traced to external causes of pressure and persecution. 141 f. or at least its extreme rarity. For the general morality of the nature-peoples see also Joseph Miiller. liberality. for the support and the little ones. 25-26. but is of the aged an ideal people. 61. murder. the sanctity of the marriagetie. 872. cit. but even to many of the so-called culture-peoples. and the infirm. Moreover. op. Further evidence Man. but it forms no part of primitive practice as such. (Leipzig. Visscher. that the care of offspring." 2 Schmidt.* Respect for women and children. 147. charity. (for philanthropy). Individual cases are indeed reported. and other forms of violence. ^virtues that are rarely if ever associated with 'primitive' man. p. whether to person or property. Negritos of Zambales.^ such a strong contrast. As to honesty and the love of truth. on this subject will be found below under each section. 8 A W . Religion u. Das sexuelle Leben der Naturvolker. 1901). it has come to the notice of more than one traveler how favorably they compare with many of the civilised peoples. 2d. and in some sections degeneracy has undoubtedly set in. As to cannibalism. 2 vols. II. (general statistics). and selfsacrifice. Reed. and "head-hunting"? It is certainly a remarkit able fact that offer is precisely in these particulars that these stock-races to their more powerful congeners. 1 Schmidt. — — truth. "I have never detected an untruth except one arising from errors of judgment. 594." and similar reports have reached us from other parts of Oceania and Central Africa. Howitt. LeRoy. * Portman. c. (Bonn. 212.INTRODUCTION Morality. p. owing to contact with "higher" races. theft. is one of the most noticeable features of these peoples. the respect for life and liberty. But have not ugly reports reached us with regard to cannibalism. has destroyed the simplicity of their nomadic life. in this regard. pp. Sporadic cases may occur here and there. by forcing an alien culture upon them. is in many cases equally well attested. 1911). justice. History. which. it is one of the latest triumphs of ethnology to have demonstrated its relative absence.^ The same may be said of infanticide. 193. Reed. The general absence of crime. p.

existence of cannibalism in their midst. the eating of the enemy's "liver" being an exceptional and doubtful tues of truthfulness. 106. "The Veddas are affectionate and indulgent parents. — — community".) 11-12. — — — — . 207-208. though there was one case in which a woman gave birth to a child at fifty. chastity. She was despised by the other women. 37. (Comp. 43. "None of the wilder junglefolk are cannibals. apparently unknown. . more free in every way from crime". and the helpless. "The only case of suicide of which we heard took place in connection with a breach of the common rule of conjugal fidelity". but should they cry. "In every respect the women seem to be treated as the equals of the men. is but scant justice to acknowledge it that. 109. 1.' (3) For the Veddas: —"The Hennebeddas have retained their old vir- and courtesy". They have a keen sense of ownership. sup. 45. the aged. their wishes are immediately gratified by either parent". Andaman Islands. » '' Man. occurred among them". she entirely lost position and status in the clan. more honest. the men SI tmed usually to give the women and children their share first". 497. c. and it at least in historical times. and these. II. "Every care and consideration are paid by all classes to the very young. suicide discovered of the "Not a trace could be is unknown among them". "Child-bearing generally continues up to the age of about forty-two years. 285. "When an unmarried Jakun girl had recourse to procuring abortion. may be worth For the Malakkans: "Grime among the Semang appears to be (1) extremely rare". 524. even in far off times". Pagan Races. the babies are generally happy. "The unnatural custom of infanticide is unknown to the Andamanese". "Theft and murder among the Sakai are so exceedingly rare as to be a quantity ndgligeable". Indeed. and there is no proof at all that cannibalism has ever. quarrels are rare. SOI.' » Skeat. being made special objects of interest and attention.* all . and violent crimes. instance. rude and uncultivated as these people are. Elsewhere we are informed that the average number of children in a Sakai family is four". the weak. 88-90. "The fact is. Portman. when we gave presents of food. invariably fare better in regard to the comforts and necessaries of life than any of the otherwise more fortunate members of the (2) For the Andamanese: —"That outcome of civilisation. cit. less covetous. 24. 25. together with cannibalistic practices.XXXVIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Moral Statistics In illustration of these principles a few testimonies quoting in greater detail. yet in some respects they are vastly superior to the races by whom they are likely to be absorbed. Seligman. I. and scorned as a bride by the men and finally she exposed herself to the disgrace of being chastised by her parents". op. more truthful.

other than head-huntare unknown. The Malays generally are courteous. 1. " Haddon." grateful. are very mild savages. but when they have gained confidence. they are not head-hunters. Williamson. The Melanesians." For the Papuans: As a race the Papuans can hardly be described mild-mannered folk. There is either at present or in (5) no evidence of cannibalism among the pure Aetas. Grimes of violence. and probably never do any injury by making a false statement. 343. The disposition of the Negrito is peaceable. Negritos of Zambales. though information on this subject is as yet too fragmentary to furnish any certain conclusions. are moderately truthful. and temperance. p. For the Bornean Dayaks:—"The Land-Dayaks are amiable. and doubtless also to the Tapiro above. The wild Bakatans. 62. 156. 152. But monogamy is the rule with the Borneans. p. on the other hand. while. far superior". c. Slavery and head-hunting are alike unknown in this region. This continues through life. dignified. 63. Rawling. "it may be safely asserted that in the Banks Islands and Santa Cruz there has been no cannibalism. and hospitable.INTRODUCTION Moral Statistics XXXIX For the Philippine Negritos: "Murder is so rare as to be almost unknown. 322. 320. the Sun. 345. any previous times. 61." (6) — as a peaceful or Reed. do not keep slaves. I have never detected an untruth except one arising from errors of judgment. and certainly shy and timid-looking. the Malays are lethargic and luxurious". Nevertheless it is worth noting that neither the Tapiros nor Mafulus are habitual cannibals. The Tapiro. p. Comp. Parents seem to have great affection for their children. and family life reveals an attractive picture. at least in point of truthfulness. though the natives were not ignorant of the practice of it by others". The aboriginals are active. I believe that (4) — many whom he of the vices of the negrito are due to contact with the Malayan. who are very fond of their children. Hose. to is. 63. 275. 1. "It must not be imagined that either the Malays or the native Borneans are the bloodthirsty savages they are sometimes made out to be. The Mafulu. or Forest-Dayaks." (Combined testimony of Low. and kind to the women". Haddon. 321. as is shown by the care which the aged receive at the hands of the juniors. The same remarks apply in part to the Papuan Mafulu. and polygamy with the Malays. The Gardens of . 56. honesty. c. (and vice versa). 27f f. " Codrington. p. p. On first acquaintance they appear melancholy. as a class. are generous to one another. 179flf. the latter confining the practice to the devouring of an enemy. » " Burbidge. ing. they show themselves in their true colors as a cheerful and bright people. Among the Melanesians. p. and McDougall). honest. and seldom leads him into trouble. moral and hospitable. p.

p. 766. infanticide. ^^L. 2. 332. the matter can be taken up by the council-women of the gens. 209-217 short translation). " Langloh-Parker. 1887). 1. The Origin and Development of Moral Ideals. 44-62. Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. This is a proof that in the ordinary course of life chastity has — . Rivet. Nudity is not obscenity... pp. c. p. its also. 193. Aborigines. but the answer was always a negative one except among the Beku who are a mixed race." . p. (Zeitschrift. when too old or too sick to walk". 1." For the Central Africans: "The sentiment of shame is universal (8) among the Negrillos. but among the Botokudos divorce is punished with blows. Cf. Vol. p. (7) when my sisters were drowned while bathing". Cannibalism. Contributions to American Ethnology." "The Kurnai men carry their — wives about the country. . Vols. p. in the case of murder. ^'LeRoy. and it is lawful to take from them whatever can be filched. Von den Steinen. . or burning". — for theft twofold . The punishment for adultery consists of various bodily mutilations . and as exhibiting a trait of character highly creditable to the race". Powell. Sourcebook (1912)." "The three deadly sins were unprovoked murder. but if the crime is flagrant. 59-69 (condensed statement). W. maiming is com- pounded . a masterly digest. (Tasm). Slander and calumny are equally reproved. IV. Morgan. in which it is understood that sexual indulgence has its rights. Thomas. . stabbing. " Howitt. c." For the North-American Indians: "A maiden guilty of fornica(9) tion may be punished by her mother or female guardian. 1907) p. as elsewhere. at the period of their discovery. 20 Data taken from Ehrenreich. Among all monogamy preponderates. compensation must be offered to the witchcraft is punished by death. H.'"* In most other respects these peoples resemble the North-American Indian. ^i Further information in Westermarck. and head-hunting appear to show a steady increase the nearer we approach the Andean plateaus. lying to the elders of the tribe. tomaaggrieved party hawking. . — 1. 333f. 8S5. As to theft it is strictly prohibited among themselves. p. restitution must be made ..^' "The common and substantially universal custom of hospitality among the American Indians. ^^J. I have made frequent inquiries about cannibalism. They have a fellow feeling for one another. pp. The black. Uber die Botokudos. 31ff. Les Pygmees. c. particular feasts. . Vol. 97 . As to and usurpers. "Ling Roth (quoting original authorities).XL PREHISTORIC RELIGION Moral Statistics For the Tasmmiian-Australians: "I was saved by a native girl. assisting each others. . they are looked as strangers other as the occasion may require". and with the Yivaros multiple marriages are no longer uncommon. fur Ethnologic. Les Indiens Yivaros (Anthropologic. like the white man has invented certain special dances. p. secret initiations etc. or stealing a woman within the prohibited degrees". must be regarded as evidence of a generous disposition. I. Houses and Home-life of the American pp." "There was no cannibalism in Tasmania". 1. among the Bakairi it is freely countenanced. P. 78." For the Amazonian Peoples: ^We find a striking gradation of (10) morals as we pass from the primitive East to the more advanced West. (1912). "Idem.

* Frobenius. 1895)." Graebner. Foy.^ Foy. it will follow that the occasional overlapping of one culture over the other will entail a corresponding overlapping of ideas and produce a complexity. (ZE. "Ankermann. In this way many of the 'primitive' areas have been overflooded by a later culture. Die melanesische Bogenkultur.^ Andree. SPONTANEITY OR COLLECTIVISM? THEORY OF CULTURAL UNITS AND 'CIRCLES' XLI (KULTURKREIS) There is one more question to be considered before approaching this subject at closer range. The former is represented by the school of Bastian. pp. ^R. Idem. Methode der Ethnologie. p." lA. 1909. (Berlin. (Berlin. Bastian Der "Volkergedanke. that identities are mere coincidences while others are as firmly convinced that the accumulation of these identities is so striking that some genetic connexion must be postulated. Graebner. Volkerkunde. mann. Ethnographische Parallelen tind Vergleiche. without regard to time. while the latter is the position taken up by Ratzel. Schmidt in Anthropos. *Fr. 1910). with a view to determining their origination. 1910). 1889). Andree. Volkerkunde." etc. 1905. Thomas. Ftihrer durch das Rautenstrauch-Joest Museum. W. 1902). and how far has it been imported from a foreign source? such is the question upon the answer to which much of the value of the succeeding pages will have to depend. but must be examined and carefully dissected before it can pass muster as a primitive belief. (ZE.' etc. 1911). 1881). (Hannover. (Cologne). (Leipzig. whena question of analysing a religious complexity." and many others. and F Graebner. (1911). in which the prior and posterior elements should be clearly recognised. In answering this question ethnologists have been divided into two camps. Geographische Kulturkunde. or by transmission from definite centers corresponding to different eras of social and cultural development. " L. Frobenius. or industry. Die allgemeine Mythologie und ihre ethnologischen Gnindlagen. place. 54-84). 790S. How far is this mythology native. 28f). Kulturkreise u. It concerns the analysis of religious facts." Ehrenreich. ^ N. Schmidt. either spontaneously. (Leipzig. that there must be some equation between different 'cultures' and different 'phases' of belief. 7S9f). 1904). 730f). Kulturkreise in Australien. (Heidelberg. 'P. 1905. (Vienna. Kulturschichten in Oceanien. Thus if it can be proved that certain forms of belief go hand in hand with certain forms of this is a it is culture and with them exclusively. Mythologie der austronesischen Volker.INTRODUCTION V. "General exposition by W. (ZE. Kulturkreise in Afrika. Ehrenreich.' Thomas. will be seen immediately. and present to us a mythology which cannot be left as it stands." Anker. Idem. *F. There are those that believe that similarities in the laws of thought are sufficient to produce similarities of development. * W. 2 vols. — — That ever problem of vast importance. p.^ Schmidt. of determining the priority of this or that element in the complexity. (Anthr. (Leipzig. SW. VL . 1910. 1010-1036. Ratzel.

But more than this. in one sense or another. Winkler. pp. For indeed that notion. is something that must be clearly postulated in any system that would account for the development of the human race in all its fulness and complexity. d'Ethnologie. p. 255ff). Schmidt) (Bibliography)." an observation which. has become almost irresistible. 1907). races." "H. "A. and so on. and these again this thought was at the bottom of to different climates. Hestermann.XLII PREHISTORIC RELIGION KULTURKREIS Now with regard to this whole subject it may be said in a general way that there is no reason to take an extreme or exclusive view. soil productive material. in the sense of cultural 'eras' (with or without racial contact). also E. The fact that different cultures correspond to different ages. the elemental theory and has become the mainstay of the tradition-argument. that with similar conditions of climate. Idem. The wholesale application of the transmission theory. 1907). these change. that the number of identities is felt to be so striking. though not always with the same physiographic persistency.). (Paris. Himmels-und Weltenbild der Babylonier. 99. (ibid. 117ff. have only to recall the heroic attempts of Winkler" and Jeremias^^ to reduce the whole of the astral mythology to Pan-Babylonian waves of culture to see how easy it is to make our conclusions overlap our premises though here the mistake was caused by deficiency of material and has no bearings on the general truth of the culture-notion as such. Totemism. (even down to the smallest details) that the idea of transmission. the newer idea of organic and cultural units encircling the earth in successive waves of social and mental advancement is one that is steadily gaining ground — — — We . Ed. i* See the "Semaine d'Ethnologie religieuse" of Louvain. Kulturkreis. that when all they change. . that led Buckle of old to exclaim: "Give me the latitude and longitude of a nation. 1913). 1903). that the psychology of man is very much the world over. (Leipzig. Solar and Lunar Mythology. and I will give you its religion. pp. however distorted. Astralmythen. Die Panbabylonisten. Comp. Jeremias. (ibid. (Leipzig. that it embodies an important truth. — and is now coming more and more to the front. (Leipzig. It was this general law. similar developments are apt to follow. Stiicken. namely. only with this difference. ("L'Etude. verified in numerous instances." by W. There can be no doubt that the "elemental" concept has come to stay. 35-56. contains some germs of truth when applied to religious expression. the the same and fact. ^has been the occasion of great abuses and led many to abandon the whole system as an artificial construction. Thus while the old theory of spontaneous development still holds its own. 2d. either for or against the system of "unified progress" or otherwise. (understanding by this a liieral migration not only of culture but also of culture-bearers).

or shell-scraper. the local exogamy. E.Cycles for Three Epochs XLI 1 What then are the facts upon which the Broadly they may be stated as follows : new system is founded? our Let us take two typical cultures. that of the NorthAmerican Indians. priest. 1. II. 'All the sources agree on this point. which was often spliced. the tubeviol. . 134). the tree-float.' let us take the North-American Indian on the broad prairies. (Hgwitt. that as there is uniformity in nearly every aspect of life. the earth or tent-funeral. 168). diversity The points to be noted are briefly these In the "primitive" culture there are certain similarities between the (1) negrito peoples and their allies which extend. he produced Are by rapidly twirling a stick he used a heavy spear. 1 the idea of relationship is see LeRoy. or round houses of earth or grass. tipped. the simplest of bows and arrows. wigwam. that goes by the name of totemism. more pronounced. c. the quinary numeration. The Sexrelation to marriage. they are found to embrace such details as the leaf-apron. formerly wrapt in heavy blankets of buffalo-skin. Comparing these two cultures. and a decidedly higher culture. the bamboo knife. and that forbids the killing or eating of the totem. V-XIV above for the combined data. as well as a general absence of that complex system of relationship between a man and a natural (generally a living) object.or Conception-bird (the dove). This region is characterised by extreme simplicity.) "There is no trace of totemism among the Semang" writes Skeat. and a stoneheaded club. as we have seen. the wooden clapper. He lived in tent. was covered with He was quills and feather-ornament. There during paris only the Soul. p. 148. the pejitatonic scale. that of own "primitives". both of thought and practice. 260). Australia among the Kurnai who are otherwise non-toteraic. the stone hammer. or doubly-reflected. professions. the patriarchal system. ^we begin to suspect more and more that they form a complete cultural unit. the fire-plow. but is designed to prevent indigestion though bird reappears in S. c. as well as a massive bow. (2) Now . —a certain uniformity within each culture.) turition. which is eaten by the mother The so-called "taboo" or "yat-tub" of the Adamanese has no (Ibid. other than those dictated by the natural requirements of sex. there is probably a uniformity in religion also. into the Now if these similarities are found to extend still further. and medicine-man. Moreover it is especially to social sphere. and was often painted or tattooed. 19Sff. and a certain radical between the cultures. II. the paternal descent. For Central Africa. the bone. a broad shield. if — be noted that there is a minimum of astral mythology in this region. The father of the family combines in his own person the office of king. (1. the windscreen. the lowest known culture. etc. 1. c. we are struck by two — — features. 3-S. (Man. c. (See pp.INTRODUCTION Culture. 1. or vocations in life. And such in fact is found to be the case. etc. the balsaraft. or the intermarrying of those that belong to the same totemic clan. there are no classes.

Comp.or treeburial. or sometimes cremated. A. 4 vols. 1884). 237. XXIII. Franz Boas. Dorsey. consult Frazer. Matrimonial rites are complicated. Jacobsen. and in addition to this he is often obliged to marry into another class or "phratry".' ' « Cultural items will be found in F. in Zeitschr. 1893) po 191-193. the sea. Report. J. National Museum for 1895 (Washington. (383)-(385). may be proved by any one who will examine this mythology in All the plainsmen "dance" to the sun. or rock. (Washington. there is a wonderful similarity of beliefs throughout this region. in which the "mask of the sun" and the fire-wheel are leading features. and had acquired the art of making pottery and of weaving his own garments. whether on skin. Boas. 213. and the thunder-bird. Also Sth Report of B. 325. 275. either by a strenuous fast. Before he arrives at manhood. When a man dies. and his songs extend over three octaves. Apeu't from the question of a supreme divinity. Rep. 52. drum. He governs the tribe or nation by means of a single chieftaincy. p. Totemism and Exogamy. pp. as in some sense his direct ancestor. p. while the Kwakiutl of the far North-West claim to be descended from the sun. 395. of U. and the spirit of any being can become the spirit of a man. and the rattle. or by some other form of bodily penance which admitts him to a full knowledge of the secrets or mysteries of the tribe. Idem. He counts by the vigesimal or the decimal system. 1910). to which at death they return. they "come" its native setting. (Washington.XLIV PREHISTORIC RELIGION Culture-Gycles for Three Epochs He knew how to sharpen. man is forbidden to marry any woman of his own clan-totem. (London. more important than all. S. though the latter are still in the handmade stage of development. O. That this is not putting the case too strongly. 1897). and the buffalo. of Siouan Cults. J. who thus acquires supernatural power. For the mythologies. there is a strong solar element running through the mythology. 423. which makes the sub-totem divide with the group-totem the power of regulating the tie. he is often given a platform. B. or balsas. manipulations. 533. which is often hereditary. bone. and to treat the patient by means of dances. and they have an elaborate ghost-dance. the bear. the dignity passing from father to son in a regular line. A . and the corpse is either embalmed and mummified. In the words of Dr. pp. The social organisation and the secret societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. 389. A. 1907). pp. Blackfoot Lodge Tales (London. Hodge. But. He was a paintfer in polychrome. he is initiated. "Geheimbunde der Kiistenbewohner NordWest-Amerikas". G. Grinnell. E. Study Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Ethnol. p. and plies the rivers in well-shaped canoes. and the like. sometimes also to polish stone. These ordeals are managed by professional "medicine-men". "all nature is animated. 502. For North-American totemism and matrimonial rites. 3d. who have the power to expel bad spirits. wood. and he was an expert carver in horn. Music he expresses chiefly by means of the bone-flute. and wood. III. and the whole of nature is looked upon as genetically related to man. "bull-boats". "dug-outs". A incantations. each under its respective heading. from the sun. Dr. 11th. 374-375ff. 347ff. W. Vol. Handbook of American Indians. Omaha Sociology.

188. This system of metamorphic evolution and transmigration of souls finds a Nay more. pp. burial-rites. (in so far as they are not hindooised). (W. we the and "gotras" show an identical organisation. for Indian totemism in general. exhibit such a striking resemblance to the North-American Indian in their social and matrimonial life. the platform or pyre-funeral. : — — . vi^hether close parallel in far-off India. Roy. 78. many —implements. "The (aboriginal) Mallas". App. a circumstance that intimates a Scythian (?) or non-Aryan origin. pp. the same fear of devouring an ancestor concealed in this or that plant or animal totem. who. 321. LavsTence basins.'"' "Like other primitive races of Turanian or Scythian origin (?). for totemism and metempsychosis in Assam. ^S.INTRODUCTION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs XLV But these ideas are not confined to the North-American continent.) Oppert. it goes look at it from the industrial. p. and with these and the Khasis of of the sky. Africa. Thurston. plants or animals. — the Moon. shell-trumpet). animate or inanimate.* Practically all the Dravidian races believe in their descent from the totems. social. 400-412. Comp 218-335. writes Professor Oppert. 624 (Bark-belt). 1908). XXff. E. As to India. C. and Australasia. the same permission to the fact that the clans same eat the said totem as a sacred or "sacramental" rite. that some resemblance in their religious ideas is only to be expected. the painting or embalming of the corpse. ^ Comp. 388ff. 1893). 1912). so of the minor elements of the totemistic complex are difficult to initiations. ' lb. the Todas revere the great luminaries buff'alo is sacred. vol. p. or religious point of view." ^ With the latter the and cannot be killed or eaten. (circumcision. we find practice of the "sororate" (or marriage with deceased wife's sister). 556 (Boomerang. Ethnographic Notes in Southern India. all attested in numerous instances. with the great central orb of heaven. the Dravidian "Sin Bonga". the existence of circumcision. "G. * lb. the Sun and — Assam transmigration of souls into the totems is clearly taught. however the rudimentary bow. and it calls for some explanation. still worship the Sun." It is true that modern India has been largely "overcoated" by a higher culture. p. &c. 354-466. 186-188. (Madras. lb. besides the Fire. op. The Mundas and their country. whether from that trace. which associates all natural objects. VIII (1913) pp. II. See Roy. p. generally known as Dravidians. The original inhabitants of India. c. cit. sun. ' Frazer. the use of palaeoliths in the wild state. "like their ancestors. the same taboos on food. 272-274. the mental or the cultural point of view. p. and above all the same kind of astral mythology. etc). 140-145-150 (funeral). which is the presiding deity of Multan.^ But in its main outlines this picture is almost a reproduction of the conditions that exist in the Missouri and St.! This is hardly a Brahminical importation. 466 (Fire-drill). Apart from hand in hand with a very similar culture. (Calcutta. there are wild tribes living in (he Dekkan. Here the totemic relation is not clearly recognised. except on sacrificial occasions. pp. (London. Criticism in Anthrop. Schmidt. (note 4). the buffalo-hunt. moon. on solar mythology. 1.

. pp. animal hunting by means of bevelled bows. . . class-"phratries" in the latter. " 11. and in comparing them with the Iroquois of NorthEastern America. . . S. bone. . op. 61. Africa) ?" And he suggests the "action of similar minds". and the Moon-god in But if identical — — — Melanesia. 331. R. as the middle ages differ from classic times and from "What communication was posthe twentieth century. and this without any reference to the remaining ethnological data. communal life in one case. The Natives of Saravak and British North Borneo. . . H. But in the meantime they form a cultural unit. 348. 228. L. . pp. — many parts. 998f. Australia. Morgan. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Here we have the same totemic system as in India and North America. The Northern Tribes of C. by reason of impassable (?) oceans. round-houses in the one. Frazer. ^the argument for a cultural connexion. G. . mask-dances and secret societies in the other. Africa between the Kamilaroi (E. he says: "Their agreement in the principles and most of the details of a complex family system has been justly described by its discoverer. 174. « Spencer and Gillen. C. Australia) and the Herero. 145. Wales and S. (Cambridge. H. (London. from the fire-drill down to the and the shell-trumpet. All the minor pointed the solid canoe. The Melanesians. flint-headed spears. together with circumcision. 25-150 (New Guinea and Melanesia). Graebner in Anthrop. of the natural logic of the human mind to the facts of the social system preserved in the experience of mankind' ". E. . 226. even if by oceanic highways. gabled houses in the other. cit. Not one or two elements only. mummification.* And yet he draws a menacing parallelism between Dravidian and Australian totemism. America between Dravidians and Iroquois between N. both of — these areas of overlapping each other in the culture. (Oxford. as distinct from the "archaic" or "neolithic" types. 74-75. and bone-constructed harpoons. op. Says Frazer: sible between Southern India and N.* Now can all these facts be fortuitous? Can all these identities be explained by a merely accidental.^" — 'H. II. To take but one instance. cit. ^begins to assume serious proportions. 1891) 32. Seligman. 15. but whole complexities of culture are here at stake. mental "convergence"? Perhaps. V. Codrington. sand. platform-burial.or woodcarving. as 'one of the most extraordinary applications elements flint. 1896). Foy. clans or "septs" in the former. L. all these elements are vividly represented in this region and are partly fused on the Australian continent. » IV. Roth. 69. even down to many minor details. — . 185-217 (Indonesia). Comp.or rock-painting. .'' Here we have in the "Alcheringa" that same idea of transmigration and re-incarnation of totemic spirits in the womb of the mother that has been mentioned above. and find the combination of points. 1910). (W. pp. IV (1909) pp. Australasia.XLVI PREHISTORIC RELIGION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs we pass over to Eastern Africa and Australasia. We have the Sun-god in Indonesia.

stars. the idea of a personal descent from these objects. a parallelism which extends to solar symbols. 51-62 (North America). cit. and masked dances. pp. * Obermaier. it requires us to assume an intimate cultural interdependence of humanity at a certain definite stage of its development. 'Frazer. South-Central est purity. Apart from the question of was propagated. Hindoo or Brahminical. 253-258. etc. plants. pp. cit. op. and North-Central North America. see Graebner Die Melanesische Bogenkultur (supra). animal paintings. times do we find the idea of metempsychosis at all strongly developed. 413-430. This does not imply the absence of all neolithic or "metallic" elements. Central India (in parts). 13. ^whether by land-bridge or ocean-passage. and the statistics given on pp. For alleged Egyptian totemism.^ Moreover from what is known of Neolithic peoples in the strict sense. North-American Cliff-dwellers. Compare any of the items in the above summary. vsdth prohibition of marriage to those of the same totem. North-African Mauretanians. (India).^ Finally there is a striking parallelism between palaeolithic man (as known to us) and the social — — — — — and industrial condition of these peoples. Also Frazer. Oceanic Polynesians. Capart in "Semaine theistic) d'EthnoIogie religieuse" (supra) pp. is conspicuous by its absence. 1). V-XIV. (both are possible). European Lake-dwellers. but without any relation to marriage or the classificatory system. IV.INTRODUCTION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs XLVII Now the point that the It "cycIe"-theory wishes to bring forward is this: affirms that the similarities throughout this area are altogether too strikto be dismissed as mere coincidences.* (Australia). parallelism with Oceania and strong palaeolithic sur2 For analogies and contrasts between totem-culture and European Neolithic. Foy. W. 181-186 (Africa) 149-154. 274-278. &c.— showing . 225-227. This stage is known as the "Totem-culture". 1031 note." Not until far later. 167-171 vivals iComp. see J. cit.' ib. op. of which the following facts are believed to be provable: ing how the culture — — That it is later than the "archaic" culture. moon. But it does imply that there is a strong under-current of pre-neolithic or "palaeolithic" elements precisely in those sections of the area that have preserved the totemistic culture in its greatCentral Australia. Implying a palaeolithic 12-14 (pre-Caucasic) 30-38 (pre-polytotemism. 1025-1030. worship of sun. &p. (2) That it is earlier than the neolithic and a fortiori to the metallic (or bronze) ages. op. There is hardly a section of humanity that has not felt the influence of the polished flint or the bronze sword. hand-silhouettes. Africa. IV. (Recent culture). (1) This would appear to be self-evident. The whole complexity is in every way more advanced. (No. it appears to be more and more evident that though they have some analogies to the totem-culture. animals etc.

and of the more advanced social and mental phenomena that accompany it. Moon. supra. Outlines of M. The Zuni Indians. themselves immaterial. the abode of numerous spiritis beings. op. marriage — — . GushZuni Creation-myths. in which sun. and are particularly elaborate in the Alaskan region. Rep. presenting an almost modern appearance. and the compound double-reflected bow. and on the Pacific coast sories. 247fr. 13th. Ann. In place of the simple wigwam. (1904) passim. * For mythology and sociology see F.* ing. chisels. the age of polished and hafted flint. is clearly a and boring-tools new invention. Colorado. These have since spread over nearly the entire continent. 5 . Superfine axes. (Washington. the elaborately painted vessels and the famous "Navajo-loom" being an addition to any museum. he becomes are mere symbols a spirit. we find the built-up plank-boat. 1891). which is often constructed of large and solid blocks of masonry. they are the center of an astronomical ritual. and with this a new world of ideas. C. Stevenson. 23d. migrating from star to star. and stars are not so much the genetic causes of things as the exponents of the divine will. generally described as Pueblos. but they are of finer quality among the highland tribes. This is evident from the fact that no longer dependent on cosmic or animal ancestry. moon. Among what nounced as one of the most is must be proThe Pueblo "Sun-Priests" originBut. and New Mexico. In other words. the Zuni Indian and the Navajo is a comparatively well-dressed man. Blow-horns and polyphonic flutes accompany a richly melodic chant. with all the We have entered in short a new world modern accesof culture. and moccasins. formerly so common in the plain-states. Fire is made by the flint and pyrites method as well as by drilling. E. of particular interest to us. H. man has become independent of nature and his spirits are personal "gods" who manifest Sun. B. p. it is more espethe plateau-Indians of Arizona.XLVIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs This is illustrated by a comparison of the totem-culture with the last great prehistoric era that we know of. A. ally controlled not only the weather. his loom-weaved shirts^ trousers. Cultural Items in Hodge. the totems and at death man is delivered from nature.^ these the institution of hereditary Priest-Kingship distinctive. do. cially region. — Venus. Instead of the miserable skins or blankets. made of several testify to strips of buffalo-horn. and their will by the relative position of the heavenly bodies. but the entire gens or nation. that we meet with a far higher culture (3) To begin again with the North-American among than is to be found in most of the other sections of the continent. rcu-wa. cit. the sign of a settled nonnomadic civilisation. Rep. while as potters and weavers the Pueblos are unexcelled. a more finished industry. we here meet with the castellated dwelling or cliff-house.

Babylonian. for Indo-European. on this opinions are divided but the practice of tomb-burial and of supplying the deceased wdth a large part of his personal and household effects. whose vice-regent is the "son of heaven" or the national high-priest. in which the heavenly bodies are looked upon as so many distinct persons. in the escape of the soul (or demon) from its material environ- ment. There is an abundance of material to prove. shows without a question that the life beyond is conceived as essentially the same as the present. Moreover the occasional trepanning of the skull reveals a strong belief in — — — spiritism. the cross. it appears that they stood on a very similar stage of culture. Schmidt. and the contempore-echoed in the later rary Chinese theology. . navigation. it does not re-enter the brutes. 1912). This is not a sun-cult in the purely material sense. Mesopotamian Archaeology (N. the Polynesian. or in the entrails of certain animals. Architecture. vs^hich shows that our main contention is a correct one. they may be supplemented by a vast material from the Old World. From what can be known of the mound-builders of neolithic Europe. the eight-rayed star being the foundation of Babylonian religion. painting.' Dechelette Manuel ' For the European Neolithic consult Obermaier. Man is no longer descended from plants or animals. but passes to a land of shades or to a life of glory. d'Archeologie (Paris. cit. and as such he is free to marry within certain degrees of descent. of Egypt — . who decides the fate of kingdoms and the conduct of private life largely by what he sees in the skies. and Polynesian data. op. the swastika. including food and drink "for the journey". in the twelve signs of the zodiac. the solar orb being invariably the "father" of The same ideas are all the gods and himself apparently transcendent. Handcock. These and the stone "circles" may or may not be taken as solar symbols. In every case we have a "heavenly one" or a "shining father". and with this has come a different aspect of life and existence. he is "created" by god or demi-god. op. music. Y. and so on. it has become "divine". 347-630.' Further and more definite evidence is obtained from the buried remains and Mesopotamia. the star. Religign has become largely astrological and animistic. » S. Also Jastrow.INTRODUCTION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs XLIX But if these data be justly regarded as inconclusive. infra. As to his soul. their large stone monuments being frequently inscribed with very similar hieroglyphs. P. 465-524. and later. he becomes in fact more and more aristocratic. Graeco-Roman. 1908) pp. that the earliest symbols for divinity were disas we shall presently see tinctly astral. sculpture. Egyptian. more and more endogamous. though the evidence can here only be given in brief. Sayce. etc. pp. Meyer. there is no return to the buffalos. cit. all show a far more developed state than anything to be found among the totemic peoples. the sexagesimal system finally triumphant. but an astrotheological system.

183-187. though they are generally subordinate to chief divinity and have no genetic relation to man. In the following table. and in which the astral elements have become real divinities. Recent opinions on Totemism. and to require transitional stages from one culture to the other. known as the "Bow". IV. pp. Foy. . a supra-mundane being. which makes him a unique. Thus between the "Archaic". I periods. 99. are given the main results of this system as applied to five principal This table is compiled from original sources. will stand the test of verification.* and this. Altarische Religion. which is believed to be prepalaeolithic. modern ethnologists have carried the culture-notion to such an extent as to subdivide these areas into smaller units. and which is characterised by an extreme simplicity of thought and practice. from its Cp. which belongs roughly speak(2) ing to the palaeolithic. (Henotheism). 1 This would seem to follow nature. Then again the Totem- — . Magthe Neolithic age similarly into three stages. Totemism and 1.they insert the "Boomerang"-culture. but leaves the transcendent Cause of nature otherwise untouched. pp. Animism. 225ff. ^Aurignacian. —and — — — the times. 1918). by the absence of cosmic or animal "pedigrees". pp. Also O. Solutrean. though he 'belongs' to it. These are : The "primitive" or "archaic" stage.'' The more "modern" or "recent" stage. 93. will be found in the Compte-Rendu of the "Semaine d'Ethnologie" (Louvain. sup. Schmidt. non-totemic character. ^ Comp.they introduce a "Twoclass" or "Mask"-culture with similar tendencies. But whether all these "transitions" etc. cit. his descent from that object. which is contemporary (3) with the neolithic. Reallexicon der indogermanischen Alterthumskunde. LVILVII). for the first time. (in the press). "Polynesian" and "Arctic" culture.and the "Totem".^ The "mediaeval" or "totemic" stage. opera Exogamy. and his possible return into that object by palingenesis or re-birth.and Recent. (with a supposed lunar mythology) and between the Totem. c. vol. 824ff. 1912) p. Schmidt. mony very vitally. loc. Leopold von Spencer and Gillen. be divided into three sections. * Graebner. 241 f. Ankermann.L PREHISTORIC RELIGION Culture-Cycles for Three Epochs From all this material it may be inferred with some certainty that there are at least three epochs in the pre-history of man. exhaustive and is subject to indefinite modification with the advance of culture may dalenian. Solar and Lunar Mythology. (Munich. but it makes no pretence to being final or believe. citata supra. corresponding to three mental or social stages in the evolution of the race. as also the supposed equations between any given age and its accompanying industry (down to the smallest details). from the sun or moon down to a blade of grass it affects food and matri(1) . and whose dominant note is the identity of a man with a natural object. ^which seem to be well proven. Schroeder. This object may be anything. Man is not 'classified' with 2 Frazer. and by the general superiority of man over nature.* But besides these general complexities. (p. remains to be seen. Schrader. 4-6.

and would seem to suggest that the kindred fields of ethnology and comparative mythology run on parallel lines. Does it not seem on the face of it probable that the gap between the lower and the far higher culture is bridged over by some intervening stage of development. carver. Indo-Australia. Man could hardly become such a fine artist. The evolution of perfected tools requires time. some transition from the one to the other? Such transitions have been verified over and over again in the domain of palaeontology. to Australia.INTRODUCTION Arguments for the Five-Period System Advanced LI It has been seen that a threefold stratification of culture is fairly well evidenced by nearly all the data from taken from three extreme and w^idely separated periods of humanity. Let us consider these two transitions one by one. which can be traced from Southern India. the upper Nile and the lower Amazon (Shingu Region). —"boomerang"-culture Between the Oceanic Primitives on the one hand and the advanced Indo-Asiatic and totemic peoples on the other. and through North America to Peru and "Bundle-Canoe" is found in regions as far apart as the Coromandel-Coast and Tasmania. (Bororo-Group?). which has left vestiges of its presence in Indo-Africa. — — first transitional stage. show a parallel course of development. The existence of a transitional Azylian-Tardenoisian stage. with microlithic industry. which require the perfected the Ghellean-Mousterian as a stepping-stone to Aurignacian-Magdalenian industry. and possibly in Indo-SouthAmerica. corresponding to some extent with the industrial change. Its architecture rarely exceeds that of the bee-hive hut. painter. perfected bone-needles. Let us see to what extent this argument is borne out by the facts. or tunnel-house. through Egypt to the Sudan. some intervening periods necessary It seems incredible that the a transitional period. boat-builder in a day. . and such time is clearly marked in the annals of archaeology. and masked dances. stringed instruments. whether from the archaeological or the ethnological point of view. may now be regarded as certain. rise from the crude primitive to the plicated totemic culture could have taken place without leaving tiges of comsome ves- Such vestiges are revealed in the palaeonto- logical data. Similarly the rise from the Magdalenian to the full Neolithic reveals a hiatus which has only recently filled out. engraver. and its typical weapon is the Boomerang. through Malaysia Central Brazil. an intermediate type of humanity is revealed in the proto-Malayan family. Its .

66-102 (Migrations of solar and lunar myths. The wild Malays of the East. however unsubstantial. that anything like a uniformity. 28ff). the more complex dv^^eliings. be laid with a fair degree of security. and the South-American data seem to reflect many of its distinctive features. and the practice of more or less occult magic by means of the whirring-disk or "bull-roarer". to South-East Australia on the one hand. is a clear indication that the bearers of this culture have learnt more of the arts and sciences than their immediate predecessors. (Lunar Myths). pp. Methode. Graebner. (1905). From what is so far known of the mythology of these peoples. the Tasmanioids of Australia. the material is as yet far too fragmentary to admit of any generalisations. even though it falls equally short of that of their immediate successors. the Nigerians of the Sudan. and practices. is hardly to be expected. W. hovs'ever crude. reich. the association of religious ideas with the waxing and waning moon. Idem. 182. Die Mythen und Legenden der siid-amerikanischen Urvolker. 115. that is.^ climate. Foy. is too significant to be dismissed offhand as a mere side-issue. As to social organisation and higher beliefs. 34-36. (1910). EhrenSchmidt. p. p. 262-272. a presumption is formed that they are linked together in their beliefs as well. it appears that in large sections of the Oceanic and South American regions. the lizard extends with slight variations from the Malay Peninsula. (1910). AUgeraeine Mythologie. (ZE. Idem. 60.LI I PREHISTORIC RELIGION Arguments for the Five-Period System This reveals a considerable advance upon prinaitive conditions.—the "Spider-Moon. — — and adopted culture. We shall find very shortly that the idea of the "Spider-Moon". both in — — . But upon one aspect of this development emphasis can. 22Sff (Data for five continents)*. Mythologie der austronesischen.). of bundle-canoes and of a highly finished throwing-instrument. physique either in beliefs — — . (1911). W. 42-44. far from it but the elements common to Indo-Africa and Australia are sufficiently striking to merit the further consideration of ethnologists. the manufacture of plaited belts and basket-work. and to the farthest Amazonian regions on the other. all these exhibit such striking variations. the Tamils of Southern India. Fiihrer. 155. pp. 25. Considering that these territories are already linked together by many of the cultural elements above referred to. and this opinion has recently been defended with considerable force by several experts in ethnology and comparative mythology. 72. Kulturkreise 149. . and the Bororos of Central Brazil. and the association of divinity with some mysterious and apparently sagacious animal the spider. for the combined area." etc. p. in that the making of palaeoliths. p. Volker. It is not pretended that all the items of this culture can be verified throughout the above vast area. 190S. IF. in Ozeanien. through Central Borneo and Melanesia. I think. 149.

the skull-trophy with associated head-hunting. though the growing contact with higher cultures and the general fusion of cultures will probably account for the apparent want of continuity in its geographical distribution. Here we shall discover that the above elements are accompanied by the painted mask. If we look to the existing races of mankind as its possible representative. The palaeontological evidence has brought to light an intervening stratum.or masked-dances. esp. Also in Foy. LIII OR "MASK"-CULTURE the pure totemculture and the classiflcatory-system. Der Mensch der Vorzeit (1912) pp. or at least to some unified or collective development. (Anthropos. known as the Azylian-Tardenoisan period. 1S6_. p. late-palaeolithic parallels. 998ff. that it is possible to have the class-system without totemism and vice versa. and from Alaska to Brazil. 2 Frazer. and for the performance of costume. it is being felt that these complexities are too strong to be accidental. Manuel d'Archeologie. 170. the East-Indian-Melanesian. even though in practice they are nearly always found together. (Paris. 225ff. and above all the Ghost-Dance. pp. 434-43S. which is the most distinctive of all the external features of this culture. ' Items will be found valuable in F. (1910). 1908). pp. 150. 75. which was famous for the production of superfine flints and bone-needles. 1909). Yet even Frazer soon began to recognise that the two ideas are by no means synonymous. 136. 318ff. and which can be traced from Nigeria to Melanesia. Totemism and Exogamy. and the more advanced North and South-American peoples. we shall find that in no single case has this culture been preserved with anything like purity. Dechelette. the bamboo-flddle and pan-pipe.INTRODUCTION Arguments for the Five-Period System SECOND TRANSITIONAL STAGE. the WestAfrican-Bantu. for Also J. Both appeared to be so closely intertwined. . on the origin of exogamy and the class-system. In nearly every case. the female "matriarchate". I83. if European Palaeolithic (Azylian stage) be included. p. for the manufacture of higher musical instruments. and their geographical distribution. op. the gable-roofed clubhouse. (with a map). the men's secret society. 71-136. Obermaier. as to form almost a unit. Comp. IV.' While many of the intervening links have disappeared. 213-222. Graebner. 61. 424-430. that a parallelism over such Until recently no separation has been —TWO-CLASS made between widely separated areas points to some genetic relation in the past. SO inextricably woven together. the built-up canoe or plank-boat. Die Melanesische Bogenkultur. but that strong undercurrents of the culture may be discerned among the Turanian-Asiatic. cit. the social and industrial stage of this period may be marked off from the full neolithic on the one hand and from the preceding "glacial" stage on the other. Vol. showing distribution oyer five continents." It has been shown that the break between the full Magdalenian and the early Neolithic culture is no longer as abrupt as was once supposed. p.

1899). and the case for an intervening much obscurity still surrounds this subject culture. 20-68 (social features). and W. Ursprung. Also Graebner. the "eye" patterns. Codrington.LIV PREHISTORIC RELIGION Arguments for the Five-Period System partly The quality of belief which is characteristic for this period is intimated. the bright and dark moon being often symbolical of the twofold division of society into the class-phratries. Schmidt. partly by the existing races as we actually find them. with existing survivals among nature-peoples. R. which without attaining to the full maturity of a universal animism. there is throughout a strongly developed ghost-worship. 93-148. — — . (secret societies and mysteries). Eagle-Hawk and Crow. who now occupies the principal position in the cult. vast regions. the two typical birds of the class-system. the convergingpoint in the ritual. We have only to refer to the decapitated skeletons of Ofnet and Mas phantastic figures with masked heads that adorn so many of the French and Spanish caverns of this period. distributed over such are alone sufficient to prove this. it is to say the least strongly suggested in the other? But as to the nature of the existing beliefs. does it not seem highly probable that they mirror to some extent their religious beliefs. 302ff. — — — . giving the latest discoveries of the Abbe Breuil (Paris. pp. etc. Siidamerikanische Mytiiologie. the fire-walk. from Melanesia to Brazil however vague and mysterious may be their inner symbolism. 69-115. including their industry. supra." But whatever be exact relation of the social and mythological data. pp. the ghostjdance. 2S3-2S8). (pp. not to speak of the spiral designs. Mythologie. 34Sff. Ehrenreich. upon which the skull-cult.). the amputated fingers. p. p. c. that where a spirit-cult is demonstrable in the one case. Mathew. pp. Austronesische (skull-trophies. is becoming increasingly strong with every fresh discovery. p. (1910). *Obermaier. 1910). has brought the tribal ancestor into bold relief. 1891). (London and Melbourne. and illustrated in part by the above peoples. and other symbolic devices. to the and other secret orgies. characterised by the above features. pp. The Melanesians. sup. 128ff. the hand-silhouettes. The combined data furnish sufficient evidence for inferring that a pronounced spirit-cult with a developed ancestor-worship forms as it were the background. The numerous "ghost-societies". loc. cit. the painted pebbles. which division is commonly expressed in Oceania by the "Eagle-Hawk and Grow". d'Azyl. Foy. (Oxford. it is the lunar phases which again arouse the interest of man. The fact that most of these dancing-escapades take place by moonlight has transferred the central object of the mythology from the sun to the moon. 34f f . "J. have been in part engrafted. to see how faithfully many if not most of these features are represented among the surviving peoples above enumerated.* If they have so many elements in common with late-glacial man. 1. by the numerous buried remains.

Die Urgesellschaft Idem. op. nearly every supposed break has brought to light an intervening bridge. for which reason they are of little or no value as It will thus be seen that in the the exponents of an early tradition. and with great clearness by the writers of the Cologne-school. of the greater primitiveness of the non-metal ages. 63-110. Such transitions are not only a priori probable. Further details in Obermaier. or in any full sense primitive. However deficient many of the existing prove to be. the craze. the huge monuments of WesternEurasia. Polynesia. bereft of many of its old-time terrors. Northern India. 1912). the lacustrian is sharply divided from the later megalithic and pyramid-building-stage. was then the order of the day. the so-called "Pantaloonculture". and Peru. esp. Weule. — analysis of any known culture Periods may be multiplied indefinitely. and that. that of stitched moccasin foot-wear and European trousers. they embody five of the earliest stages in the upward ascent of man. were. combined evidence. myth- most part recognisable. however. 103ihre Lebensfursorge. 271ff. (1912) pp. the sub-arctic peoples of the far North gave birth to the most recent of all developments of prehistoric industry. the discovery of the ethnological parallels being comparatively recent. as to call for some period of development during which massiveness in architecture became. far from being ancient. the ocean became the common highway of commerce.INTRODUCTION Arguments for the Five-Period System Thus ological LV ethnological. pp. and have been long since recognised in the field of archaeology. with typical three-cornered (Polynesian) sails and elegantly constructed rudders. both in structure and design. links may — — . (Stuttgart.« « und 136. Thus in the Neolithic. op. the existing sub-arctic populations are in reality the bearers of a very late. pp. cit. Part II. but for certain periods plainly demonstrable. and such deficiencies are only to be expected by analogy with geological "breeiks" the convergence is in most cases too striking not to rivet the attention of the inquiring student. Foy. the . Advanced navigation in finely constructed galleys. from which the transition from a lower to a higher civilisation may as a rule be vaguely recognised. establishes a fairly strong presumption in favor of at least two intermediate stages. the above five periods may be deemed sufficient. which are marked off with sufficient clearness to be for the — —palaeontological. It is not always realised that the standard male attire of modern as it common — times is the distant descendant of the Eskimo snow-costume. pp. In view. Leitfaden. pp. at. W. At a still later period. . being characterised by so many similarities. 439ff. almost contemporary phase of civilisation. K. 76.

(Magic). Bamboo Cord vessels and basket-work. Body-painting in parts) Nose. bone and (Chellean-Mousterian Industry) shell-scrapers (untouched). Fasting and lustration. Zig-zag patterns. First-fruits Headmanship ( ? ) Fasting and tooth-pulling. ARTS AND INDUSTRIES: The Bamboo Vessel & Charm-tube.LVI THE PREHISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF MAM (A) ARCHAIC ( (B) BOOMERANG TIME-TABLE: (PRE-PALAEOLITHIC) Oceanic Primitive (East Ind. Plantain. Pine-apple. Wild Boar. originally wanting. Network. CLOTHING: Leaf-Belt and Skin-Mantle Loin-strap and Fur-jacket. "spider"-moon. WEAPONS: Staff-Bow. with and fencing-shield. Blowpipe in parts. : Bee-hive Hut and Tunnel-house. Bow and arrow survive. Mythology appears in simple anthropomorphic dress. and Rhinoceros in Indo-Africa) Narcotics originally wanting. Region of Lunar Mythology. Painting and Scarification. Chipped Flint and Stone Axe. Maternal. or Windshelter. —clan-exogamy ?) Simple earth or tent-grave. spear. and Ear-ornament. Banana. & Plaited Belts and Head^bands. with fibre-string & reed arrow. Palm-fruit. Also clubs & simple spears. Supposed Monotheistic Belt.) African Primitive (Congo Belt) Australian Primitive (Tasman) " EARLY-PALAEOLITHIC) RAGE-TYPE: (survivals) Amazonian Primitive (Brazil)?* Indo-Asian-Malaysian (Tamil) G. Palm-fruit. HABITATION: Cave. Eleph. Wand or Bull-roarer. Lip. Cremation. club. African Nigerian (Sudanese) Indo-Asian-Australian (Sub-zone) [ndo-Asian-Amazonian (Bororo)?* Tropical to Mild. Sounding-stick and Bull-roarer. FIRE-MAKING Fire-Strap and Fire-Plow Fire-Plow and Fire-Drill. Tent. . Niche or Tree-grave. with elective NAVIGATION: GOVERNMENT: INITIATION: Patriarchal Family-system. with "natural" Headinanship. Bone implements survive. Glaciation.) (Staple Animal) (Narcotics) Banana. New-World culture Note : The whole of the must be looked upon as . ORNAMENT: Generally wanting. ( MARRIAGE: BURIAL: BELIEFS: Paternal. Eleph. Divinity as waxing and waning moon. IMPLEMENTS: Stone Hammer. CLIMATE: Tropical (with Pluviation) FOOD: (Veg. Bamboo-Knife & Flint-chips. Balsa-Raft and Bundle-Canoe. Wild Boar. (Tiger. & Hair-string technique. —local exogamy. The Magic Crude Pottery. Presidential Clan-system. Boomerang dominates. First-fruits SACRIFICE: and animals. and Hippopotamus in Indo-Africa). Simple tracery. Narcot. MUSIC: TheMonochord. and animals. (Tiger. (Combs Shell-necklace in Malaysia. or "Pangolo"? Tree-Float or "Balsa"-Raft. flakes.

Kingship and Aristrocracy. Fire-Drill Pile-. w. American?* Mild. & Barley-Cult.) LVII >R FIVE PERIODS—CULTURE SCHEDULE (C) TOTEM (D) TWO-GLASS (E) RECENT (ADV. Horse. "Mana". Carved Painting & Engraving. Ghost-dance Advanced Solar Mythology. Sling-Bow. classes. Panpipe. Corn. Ghost-garb. The Painted Mask in its The Diadem. & Fur-jacket. Normal. iephant. Branding and Tattooing. from Asia. Exogamy. Throwing- Flinted Spear star Bludgeon. Cremation. Rhinoceros. ffalo. Double-reflected Arctic Bow. The Painted Mask. Round Shield. ated Spear.* Glaciation recedes. cult point to Spiritism. Bone Dagger. inity as Genetic Power mature. (NEOLITHIC) Eurasian-Caucasian (Ligur). ( Azylian-Tardenoisian Digging-stick or shovel. etc. Sheep. outriggers &c. riarchal Sept-system. Dog. Organ. & Spiral Pattern. :ion of Skull-Trophy. Bark-cincture Corn. Spindle-whirl. ik. Great Elk & Forest-Stag. Class Exogamy. (weaved). Reindeer. w. und-House or e-Drill relied Wigwam. Glaciation full. Flinted Spear. 'n. nting & Scarification. ture. Maternal. Oceanic-Polynesian. ting with electing Ghosfrdance. all Flax-garments. Star and Swastika. Bow (oval section). Tropics retain fauna. Melanesian-Pan-American. Tomb-burial. & Circumcision. N. Ground or polished ( Flint. Local n. Fiddle. h hereditary chief. Hemp.) rcotics imported. nted Flint (perfected) arignacian-Magdalenian) le i Small Flint. Branding and Tattooing. and Pine-apple. Advanced Lunar Mythology. & Spiral Pattern. etc. varieties. Rice. Bark-canoe & Plank-boat. ime & Flower-ornament. or Cliff-House. and Fire-Saw. Drum. Fire-Pump. Gong. Fire-walk. temic Crests & Head-gear. Tobacco. ter importation America forms a separate province . African-Mauretanian. and Pine-apple. PALAEOLITHIC) lo-Asian-Dravidian (Kolar) 3t-African (LATE PALAEOLITHIC) Indoasian-Eurasian (Turan) West-African Bantuan East-Papuan-Australian West-Indian N. Narcotics imported. Circle Painted Phonetic Alphab. Bantuan 3st-Papuan-Australian st-Indian N. tform. Rice. Bevelled Bow Flat Bow w. (Animism). Spiral CincBoar-tooth necklace. Kangaroo. Paternal. 'k-canoe and Dug-out. Betel-nut. Sail-boat. etc. Solar Mythology. Corn. & Morning- Fire-Flint. le-Flute & Shell-Trumpet. Presidential Tribe-System Patriarchal-National. Horse. Bone Needle. Pottery vis. Pebbles. Stone-. Broad Shield. Horn. Cremation. Divinity as "World-Soul" or & Skeleton- (Totemism). Pig. Reindeer. & Fur-jacket. ernal. Alluvium begins. Gable-roofed Glub-House. etc. Painting & Scarification. Hammock and Rope-bridge. Totemic Exogamy. American?* treme. ["k-cincture Tropics retain fauna. Buffalo. Piano. Mummification. Human. Sheep. cle carved Figurine. & Loom-weaving. Flenusian-Robenhausen) implements (perfected) Knee-adze. (perfected). Wheat. Cannibalism and Human.

Such a proof has been broadly intimated in the preceding analysis. and social data reveal such an astounding similarity and distinctive coloring. Is it sufficiently strong to establish a corresponding mental development. finds it satisfactory. mental.LVIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Does the Evidence Garry Conviction? social As a broad generalisation. It points the finger to those regions where such a parallelism may be expected. The data it is will be tested and verified in the ensuing study. that nature has yielded one more of her secrets. but summary and suggestive rather than final and exhaustive. it makes no pretense to establishing a rigid equation between the ethnological and the mythological data. The points enumerated are not too few. some genetic unity in the past will seem to be postu- . that for three (or possibly five) broad eras of humanity. The Culture-Schedule is a Well-Propounded Working-Scheme Like other movements in the inductive sciences it has to pass through the stage of extended verification before it can attain to the dignity of a fully demonstrated system. The proof will then be brought nearer. and where it is in part demonstrated. comes to the conclusion that he has discovered a "law". pointing to some leading motif or guidingtheme as being uppermost for the time? This from the above evidence may be regarded as a fairly safe induction. only through a detailed examination of each area that anything like a cumulative argument can be propounded with any hope of success. stratification in beliefs and practices may be estab- lished with greater or less certainty or probability. the analysis not too brief. The mythologies must be whereby some such carefully dissected. to prove that in a given age the thoughts and mythologies of a people will assume a definite color and tendency. that lated. It is by means of more or less plausible theories that the greatest triumphs of modern science have been attained. it would seem some such groups of and industrial development are revealed with considerable certainty by all the data that are so far accessible to us. In like manner The Parallelism Between Mental and Which it is Social Evolution is a Thesis Requires Extensive and Individual Proof. and by repeated applications in numerous individual instances. But it does not lay claim to such convincing power as to render a detailed investigation superfluous. to warrant a decisive verdict on the subject for at least three cidtural epochs. then. as the case may be. The discoverer uses an artificial scheme as a "working-hypothesis". the material.

11-30. VI. etc. in so far as they concern its purely material aspect: (1) mations. ('Ethnographische Parallelen') esp. Also K. Dixon. Weule. Graebner the credit of having called attention to some striking parallelisms between American and Oceanic culture. 1010-1036. and even the idea of wholesale borrowing in this or that particular instance. though often reserved. it is hoped. following Andree. Kultur der Kulturlosen. the throwing-stick. Roland B. the hammock and perhaps the institution of the men's house and certain peculiar masked dances and forms of masks in use in Papuan Melanesia and in America only in parts of Brazil. in a monograph. the use of a masticatory with lime. lapping. Anthropos. At the same time he gives Dr. exception being taken only which in the first effort to master such an enormous area. viz: —"the true plank-canoe. "The Independence of the Culture of the American Indian. the blowgun. . and is open to conviction. but admit of much over- The migration of The culture does not imply a migration of culture- "bearers. vol. decidedly in favor of transmission-possibilities. The partisans of independent development the "historical" on the same level : — iCbmp. the following points deserve to be noted. 16. What have the leading specialists to say on the subject? origination but rather to their dissemination.^ But more than this. and leaves the question an open one. XXXV. without facts or with too few facts." (But what about the Ghost-Dance in the far North-West?) Elsewhere he puts with the "evolutionary" school "We have. industry. though he is otherwise non-committal. admits a cultural borrowing "within the enclosed province". 46-55.INTRODUCTION Application of the Fobm-Critemon LIX In estimating the value of this system. the general tone of criticism. is on the whole to smaller details. are naturally difficult to verify in all their complexity. head-hunting and associated skull-cults. and that by the amassing of more or less heterogeneous and unrelated facts from all over the world a continuous development through definite stages of culture may everywhere be shown. (1912) pp. p. ^ In "Science". (2) The equations between time. where the author. left behind us the period of vague and futile theorising. (supra) pp. With these provisos we will now reconsider the scheme. are only approxiThey do not pretend to be rigidly fixed." " handles the Asiatic theory somewhat roughly as "in no sense demonstrated". but there are still many who believe that evolution is the master-key which will unlock all doors." (3) cultural items for any single region have no reference to their They simply mean that in form of culture obtained the ascendancy. race. Professor Dixon is on the whole the most cautious writer on this subject._ (1912) pp. this or that period this or that It is to be noted in the first place that none of the "convergence" school of writers excludes the idea of cultural "units".

He argues that many of the identities are mere "analogies" and have different meanings under different conditions of origination. the Pan-flute (or so. which we may find in Asia. « Erland Nordenskjold. (Paris. so strong in fact as to produce a "unity" of culture. pp. Nordenskjold. and who would explain similarities in culture between widely separated peoples on this basis or on that of convergent evolution. Une Contribution a la Connaissance de I'Anthropogeographie de de la Societe des Amerjcanistes de Paris.* draws a valuable distinction between the morphology and the teleology of a culture.or Suspension-Bridge. "We have. etc. of recently given utterance to a similar pos- Criticism in Anthropos. Holmes. as for instance the different kinds of etc. and America. See also Anthrop. S0S-S06. Is it possible that such a complicated instrument could have been invented independently in Asia and America? I hardly think have also the Blow-pipe. Lowie's ideas. 24f. though suggestive. 8 (1912) lore. pp. Melanesia. the big Alarm-drum. and the possibility that by analysis and comparison their historic relationships may be determined. *In the Journal of American Folkpp. VI. form-criterion is connexion. different elements of civilisation. comes as a welcome surprise. the U. I'Amerique.LX REfflSTORIC RELIGION Application op the Form-Cmterion based on the theory of the psychological unity of the human mind. (1912). pp. I believe that it is impossible to deny that we have. He says: "Without accepting the classification of Mr. for instance. (1912). 1912). H. with or without "historical relationships". the bold stand taken by Prof. H. H. and that where the weak. Mouth-organ). in an article "On the Principle of Convergence in Ethnology". Tome IX." Dixon therefore clearly recognises "definite stages of culture". for opinions of Franz Boas and W. especially in South America. His analysis has revealed a strong parallelism and has failed to disprove an historical throwing-sticks. VII. has W. But he seems to overlook the principle that many of these analogies may become identities by serving exactly the same purpose. 24-42. Vol.* R." • — — We — It is interesting to note in this connexion that Prof. (1911). are too rigid and one-sided to be likely to triumph. are set over against those who believe in the "complexity" of cultures. the star-headed Bludgeon or 'Morning-star' Club. the Rope. S. pp. 1018ff. platform-graves." As against the hesitating attitude of American writers. loin-cinctures. the all of 'Ikattic' Tattooing-process. Graebner. Lowie. the teleological criterion is by comparison strong. "Criticism in Anthropos VII. which without any doubt have come from Asia and Melanesia. National sibility : Museum. in Journale XXV . the 'Sling-Bow' whose singular Asiatic-American distribution is well known. one of the greatest Americanists of the day. To prove identity of culture there must be not only identity of form but identity of purpose in the details of the culture. 1061-1062. Rivers on the same subject.

Clark. — When. Reprint. p. 36. and perhaps even the Black races". H. however. and he begins to inquire whether the people concerned in the making of these two groups of artifacts are not related or have not in some way come in close contact. bannerstones. see articles by Dall. that it is attracting the attention of high authorsimilarities to — ities. and though he does not handle the question of stratified culture. in the American Anthropologist. « Ibid. adzes. No. Holmes. Hagar. Vol. gouges. a strong admission. and given materials. Holmes then mentions the peculiar forms of axes. men of all races reach kindred results. observes that the blade of the knife in each case is hooked keen and highly specialised. 1912). XIV. Gidley. and also not in any case in more remote localities on the respective continents. given needs. His interest is intensified when he observes that the groups of closely identical blades occur in two transoceanic areas at points of nearest approach. the Polynesian. ceramics. etc. that in numerous localities on the shores of the one continent the culture traces have close those of the adjacent transoceanic areas. he does not exclude a possible migration of "members of the White.INTRODUCTION Application op the Form-Criterion Prof.'' This is only an ideal case. LXI Holmes takes the following suppositional case: "The student examining certain collections of primitive antiquities discovers that a particular form of chipped flint knife-blade occurs in America and also in the Old World. and he concludes without hesitation. and a further identical elaboration for purposes of embellishment. (Jan-March. . and his previous impressions are decidedly strengthened.* These quotations will be sufficient to show that "transmission" is beginning to be talked about. he discovers how currents and trade winds by means of which sea-going craft could make the ocean voyage from continent to continent with comparative ease. not only at one but at many points". and no such resemblances elsewhere. but Prof. et al. p. he learns that similar phenomena occur elsewhere. 'W. he wonders such correspondence could occur. 33-34. which he compares with Old-World models. pyramid-temples. for Neolithic connexions those by Hough. he at the end. When going more deeply into the investigation. and concludes safely. For Pleistocene connexions. though it falls short of culture-cycles as such. Pressing his inveson the two continents other knife-blades of chipped flint with curved and keen point and identical specialisation to facilitate hafting. 1. and he is astonished to discover further that the two areas involved are connected by oceanic tigation further. Later he finds that other objects of handicraft belonging to these adjacent areas have similar correspondences. in the same number. that contact of peoples and transfer of transoceanic cultures have taken place. and explains the occurrence by the oft-observed fact that with a given state of culture.

etc. the Danish expert of Copenhagen. The first he calls the historic times swept over the "Coast". Cultural phe- nomena areas. is and has been one of the greatest promoters of cultwral development" this to the Asiatic-American province. which in all ages has taken place in a great many different ways. which in prenorthern regions. This and prefer to search for cultural centers' tural transmission. large cultural waves. Vol. but these are evidently far more ancient than the writer would seem to imply. 1916) p. he says: study of arctic clothing. Memoirs of the Anthropol. Assoc. Trousers developed from breechcloth (passing between the legs). The conical lodge and the birch-bark canoe are also mentioned in this connexion as well as the reindeer nomadism. This some extent be a matter of personal taste. Clothing developed from the poncho type. the second the "Inland". it is noteworthy that one of pur greatest authorities on prehistoric footwear should be tracing our highest arctic culture to two The author then distinguishes two independent waves originating in Asia. Clothing developed from the loose mantle (originally a simple 2. the results of which have been published in my book Arktiske Skinddragter. . 'Gudmund Hatt. Moccasins and boots developed from moccasins ("moccasin- boots"). Applying "My deerskin) 3. and which brought with it that most valuable possession of arctic races. III. Am. No. has strengthened the opinion that Northern Asia has been the scene of a great development of clothing types. and transmission of cultural elements. Others have a natural dislike for independent origins tion of Prof. 5. 6. 246ff. extending from Lapland to Labrador. he finds it difficult to believe that this can be explained without transmission. Moccasins and their relation to arctic footwear.LXII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Application op the Form-Criterion is brought out with unhesitating force in a very recent publicaGudmund Hatt.or "Eskimo-culture". Boots and shoes developed from stocking and sandal ("sandal- boots"). of striking similarity may develop independently in different But when we find a certain cultural element distributed over a continuous area. which was without snow-shoes.or "Tungusic-culture". Trousers developed from leggings (with triangular genital cloth). may perhaps to and the ways and roads of culThe present writer belongs to the latter class. 4. 3 (July-Sept. In his analysis of the distribution of various types of arctic footwear. It is and always has been much easier to borrow an idea from one's neighbors than to originate a new idea. "Some ethnologists like to imagine local and independent origins for cultural phenomena. though they may have reached northern Asia at a comparatively late epoch." 1. In any case. we have a right and the obligation to search for a center of origin.

"Further study made it clear that those I have called the immigrant though possessing these features in common. . . Sept." . " Ibid. p. Rivers. If I am right in my analysis of Oceanic culture. 385-397. . p. (1911) pp. of the immigrants into Melanesia. classsystem) had reached Melanesia at different times and with decided differences of culture". 259-283 (an able article).. people." He says "It was through the combined study of social forms and of language that I was led to see that the change I had traced (between different systems of blood-relation) was not a spontaneous evolution. 1912-13. The Ethnological Analysis of Culture. 392. XXXIV. Rivers. and this purely from the ethnological or cultural data. The combined morphological and linguistic study of systems of relationship has led me to recognise that a definite course of social development had taken place in an aboriginal society under the influence of an immigrant people". (totemism. p. Cooper. can have no firm and civilisations now spread over the earth's surface. but one which had taken place under the influence of a blending of peoples.INTRODUCTION Parallelism with the Mental Development LXIII Among English writers the idea of a mental parallelism is for the first time prominently defended by Dr. the Melanesian concept of these speculations. The Evolution of Man. " lb. . who in a lecture delivered before the British Association for the Advancement of Science calls attention to "The Ethnological Analysis of Culture" as a new field of research. H.. The Higher Culture of Early Man (Eccles.^^^ This is the first estimate as far as I know (in English) of the religious value of the Kulturkreis. "In recent speculation the idea of mana is coming to be regarded as having been the basis of religious ideas and practice. in "Science" Vol. W. . Elliot Smith. John M. 390. ." Mana and animism are therefore looked upon as concomitant and later developments in religious history. 1914. Without such an analysis it is impossible to say whether an institution or belief possessed by a people who seem simple and primitive mxiy not really be the product of a relatively advanced culture forming but one element of a complexity which at first sight seems simple and homogeneous" "I tried to indicate that evolutionary speculation have basis unless there has been a previous analysis of cultures .) pp. DD. p. 390. H. is Ibid. a cult of the dead being certainly one of the most definite of their religious institutions". Rev. . preceding animism as the earliest form of It is religion. certain that the mana is not a suitable basis for word mana belongs to the culture and not to that of the aborigines." 10 W. for the immigrants were already in a very advanced stage of animistic religion. (Smiths. " Comp.. Rep. Review. " Ibid. p. totemism and animism being regarded as distinctly later phenomena. 389. 5S3-SS4)." The evidence certainly does not support the view that the concept of mana is more primitive than animism. .

Vol. p. a "unified" development. while its composing elements may have arisen here or there". but also to the fact that under similar conditions which prevail in a limited area.American "Our considerations make the manifestations of the and comparative mythology probable that the wide differences between folk-lore : human mind in various stages of culture may be due almost entirely to the form of individual experience. the laws of probability exclude the theory that in this continuous area the complex phenomenon has arisen independently in various places. Vol. the expression of mental activity of a community tends to show a characteristic historic develop- study of these changes among the races of derived our theory of the general development of human culture. the amount of normal individual variation It in each race. IX. perhaps not even reach. From a comparative man is community. notwithstanding this similarity in the form of individual mental processes. 1-11. implying a collective progress. which is determined by the geographical and social environiment of the individual. the organisation of the mind is on the whole alike. Speaking of its expression in terms of a dominant mythology. It has been indicated that. would seem that. in different races. the human mind creates similar products. But the development of culture must not be confounded with the development of mind. which may in no way differ from the minds of a community occupying a much more advanced stage of culture". Culture is an expression of the achievements of the mind. ." ities "Journal of American Folk-lore. Boas. that the similarof mythologies are not only due to borrowing.^* Boas thus emphasises the psychological unity of the human race.LXIV PREHISTORIC RELIGION Parallelism with the Mental Development Still more clear is the voice of Dr. it seems quite incredible that the same complex theory should originate twice in a limited territory. F. While there is a certain truth in this argument so far as elementary forms of human thought are concerned. but compels us to assume that in its present complex form its distribution is due to dissemination. XIV p. 11. admittedly one of the greatit est authorities on North. and shows the cumulative effects of the activities of many minds. Wherever geographical continuity of the area of distribution of a complex ethnic phenomenon is found. The very complexity of the tales and their gradu£d dwindling down to which I have referred above. while he admits that culture is an index of its collective manifestation. he says : "Perhaps the objection may be raised to my argument. But it is not an expression of the organisation of the minds constituting the ment. and that the varieties of mind in different races do not exceed. cannot possibly be explained by any other method than thai of dissemination. "Ibidem.

and from Indonesia to Siberia. which forms almost a mythological province with certain portions of Eastern Asia. p." Journal of American Folk-lore. and fairy-tales are to be looked upon as the relics of a very ancient layer of On the other hand. a tradition covering the whole of the New World. are demonstrably of northern. found in W. be looked upon as a ceriain proposition". while many others belong to distant areas. and we recognise that in each and every mythology of North America we must expect to find numerous foreign elements.^* (The italics are ours) From the greatest specialist on South-American mythology we are now assured that these similarities do not stop here. we know that there also diffusion has taken place through the whole area. legends. Ibidem. the same author makes the following characteristic summary the Old : me to the following conclusions. p. 10. ^this may be affirmed with certainty is much more copiously represented in America than has been heretofore supposed. and to Northern and Eastern Africa. 313. Ehrenreich. upon which The analysis of one definite mythology of North America shows that in it are embodied elements from all over the con"These considerations lead I desire to lay stress tinent. Thomas. In most cases we can dis- cover the channels through which the tale flowed. These quotations i" P. A whole number of South-American myths. probably of pacific coast. (Chicago. Corap. for uralaltaic and East-Indian connexions. from Western Europe to the islands of Japan. And this leads to the conclusion that similarities of culture on our continent are always more likely due to diffusion than to independent development. says Paul Ehrenreich. 308. 1-11. but stretches with its numerous offshoots far into the South"It may — — . or. we must even extend this area along the Northern Pacific coast of America as far south as Columbia River. "that the legends of both halves of the New World are organically interrelated. p. IX. Source-Book. These are facts that cannot be disputed". pp. This is not confined to the north-western region. and can be traced at least in part into the Eastern Hemisphere. but extend far into the Gordilleran region. and even a complete set of well-rounded hero-stories. 100. Sudamerikanische Mythologie (1905). p. 97-98. the southern continent being by no means isolated. In the light of the similarities of inventions and myths. Vol. When we turn to the Old World. I.* INTRODUCTION Parallelism with the Mental Development LXV Coming to the native North American mythology and its relation to World groups. in other words. the greater number belonging to neighboring districts. origin. American region". Old-World mythology. and infiltration of mythical elements and motives. younger peregrination a corresponding uniformity of combinations. 1912). idem. that dissemination of tales has taken place all over the continent. ISS. 18 may also be .

in its passage from west to east. and others again in India. of Manchester University. "The American thunder-bird and the winged snake ivith deer's antlers certainly came from the Old World". were quite unknown to me when my conclusions were first formulated. civilisation of America". Schmidt. which it supplies with antlers". "We can trace the association of the deer with control of the waters from Babylonia along the whole Asiatic littoral. G. Pre-Columbian Civilisation in America. XV. (Science. to know that the association of the eagle or hawk with all these varied phenomena was not due to the reasons Mr. ^'^ 20 G Vol. In a current article in "Science" he voices his conviction that "those whose minds are still sufficiently alert to be no longer blinded by the outworn dogmas of Bastian and Tylor will be led to accept the views which I have sketched as the only possible interpretation of the facts" "The writings of Graebner. Hopkins as having "proved up to the and more especially the Indian. and the toater. (natural instinct). Foy. and India. March.LXVI PREHISTORIC RELIGION Parallelism with the Mental Development Still more recently Prof. England. 241ff. Elliot Smith. the eagle. The mingling of eagle-people with sun-people and the association of the latter with serpent-people and with the worshippers of Osiris (the controller of water) was the beginning of the cotnplex blending of the symbol of the sun. and America". Babylonia. Ankermann. watching the symbolism gradually increase in richness and complexity as. Elliot Smith. the serpent. p. their views and mine have nothing in common except that both repudiate the speculations and the antiquated psychology which for fa/r too long have been permitted to hide the truth". and Montadon. Here are some of his "facts":— — "We are now sufficiently acquainted with the earliest literatures of Egypt. Brinton gives. it blends with a variety of other elements. The Origin of the 1917). is it at all credible that the Algonkin and Iroquois serpent with wings and deer's horns is an independent invention?" — citing Prof. In the Babylonian thunder-bird further attributes were added. and believes that "in the light of our present knowledge it is now possible to refer to its original source the germ of a very large number of elements in the pre-Columbian He concludes by hilt" the Asiatic. the far East. until eventually it emerges in the Chinese dragon. . has expressed his opinion in such clear and forcible language that vi^e cannot help feeling there must be something back of the scheme. Frobenius. derivation of many of the religious ideas of the American Iroquois. "In the light of the complex history and the scores of wholly chance circumstances that contributed to the making up of this Asiatic wonder-beast.

They do not of themselves demonstrate the further claim that this development has taken place in If now we turn to the certain well-defined and progressive periods. and whose more specific utterances appear to lend it a powerful corroboration. to say the least. Combined evidence for a "stratified" development. said. as I have be sought in the continual application of the schedule to definite and detailed instances. who are not as yet identified with any definite "scheme" of development. must. and thus the idea of broad units of culture. ethis now seen to be endorsed in nological. It is true that the above extracts are only broad statements. showing the general homogeneity and interdependence of cultural or mythological phenomena over certain wide areas.or bronze-age peoples. of this there can be no doubt. from which its importance and its truth may be the tested. if Ehrenreich is prepared to stake his reputation on certain successive waves of Asiatic and PanAmerican traditions binding together whole continents in a common inheritance of folk-lore. as is strikingly illustrated by the earliest phenomena of negrito culture. extending in almost unbroken continuity from the earliest times is. it is renewed zest. if not a genetic interdependence. or America it will stand to reason that if a convergence of material and mental phenomena be admitted for the earliest ages of man. or mythological point of view its main outlines by the voice of authorities. detailed evidence as given in the preceding summary.INTRODUCTION PARALLEIilSM LXVII WITH THE MENTAL DEVELOPMENT As all these writers are dealing with comparatively advanced. be also admitted for the higher peoples. but who see in its general — — . These opinions strongly corroborate the Period-system. more completely . and its further confirmation must. ^whether from the archaeological. and to see how surely time to turn to the period-scheme with beautifully these conclusions accord with detailed what culture-specialists by profession have discovered by more examination. admitted even by the supposed advocates of spontaneous development. Melanesia. tendencies a movement in the right direction. stone. If Boas and Nordenskjold make out such a strong case for a mythological or cultural "province" in their respective departments. we shall find I think that the combined 'materifil is sufficiently weighty and sufficiently welltested to merit the serious consideration of a scientific mind. We are now in position to appreciate this subject in its proper perspective. "What was there shown to be solidly evidenced. ^whether in Asia. such a convergence. in view of the above testimonies. powerfully suggested. — — — .

V-XV. system. p. even if we include Eurasia and Australasia. that is. On the other hand. (b) in the rudimentary arts and industries. elements re-appear as but without the totemic therefore. ment can only be attained by a detailed examination of each individual As a broad system. I wish to say once and for all. The Arctic (and Antarctic) problem is one that is still to be worked out in many of its details. in which the primitive relation. such as the 'bull-roarer'.LXVIII PREHISTORIC RELIGION Preliminary Conclusions my own position in the matter. do not regard the above evidence as sufficiently exhaustive in all its parts to be able to serve as the only foundation upon which the stately structure of a religious system is to be reared. their higher interpretation in terms of a corresponding mythology is not always beyond criticism. (Compare the modern 'whirly-gig' or 'buzzing'-toy) Then again it is risky in the present state of our knowledge to speak of all culture as having been derived from Asia. (102-125) Discussion by leading experts. Even if it be allowed. it would be foolish not to recognise the important services that the system may render to the religious student in all those matters which seem to be well-established. 21 Further opinions on Wien" Vol. but which will require many years of patient labor and investigation to be verified in all its details. or astral mythology. cosmic. the above schedule may be safely fol(even down to the transitional stages). belt. the time has not yet come to speak with certainty of 'AustroAsiatic waves of influence' as excluding all native or autochthonous developments. — (3) The existence of a still later and strongly animistic deities. These and other uncertainties have made me hesitate to give full sanction to a theory which is still dividing the attention of the learned world. but its complete endorselowed. (1) manner (2) all The intrusion of a later and far more complicated culture in which these elements have become dominated by a totemic. (c) in the primitive social state (d) in the general absence of totemism and of "nature-affinity" theories (e) in the personal and anthropomorphic mythology which makes man (and God?) the first and most direct object of apprehension. . Though the evidence points strongly in this direction. has always served the same magical purpose and no other. (see above pp. that most of the ethnological data are substantially accurate. though the fundamental features of (1) are still to be traced. 42 this subject in "Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in (1912) pp. as a rigid transmissionAs I to that . and we cannot always be sure that a given instrument. and may yet modify a universal theory of transmission. These are : The extreme simplicity of the primaeval area (a) in the nomadic of life. as indeed it must. XLIII).

belt. Thus. without any differentiations either as to physique. and other details. With their help to any given mythology into its component parts. in their vital relation to man. Now it is the value of these generalisations apparent. South. implements. an orderly succession of different social and mental complexities which cor"ages" or "stages" of belief. To take but one illusAustralian Continent. and given a solar turn to the preceding. strong Animism). though is influence can be felt in other sections (Mana. Until recently there has been no distinction made between North. advancing from the North(3) west. East. but when we have ninety-nine percent of totemism in one area to only one percent in the other. animals. stars. plants. and determine the earlier and the later elements of the mythology with some possible to dissect degree of accuracy. It is truei. but has affected the continent chiefly its on the Northern and Eastern border. advanced to the center. sun. for instance :— respond tration. which. Where in former times people saw nothing but the casual and the haphazard. 'Phratraic' culture has invaded the continent North-East.INTRODUCTION APPLICATION LXIX From these conclusions it is evident that the culture-notion admits of valuable applications. except on the a priori grounds that this or that social system unust have been the more primitive one. and driven the former into from the (4) The Two-Class or the background. weapons. There is the To^em-culture. The whole continent was looked upon as a homogeneous unit. which is 'archaic' or nearly This forms the basis of a large portion of the South-Eastern maritime There is a 'Boomeranff'-l&yer. In this way many of the Australian areas can be successfully "expurgated. it will stand such as to reason that the elements that make up the totemistic complex. industries. or West. originating (vaguely) (5) in Eurasia has travelled via India and Indonesia into Oceania. With the help of a more powerful method. that these elements are sometimes confused and difficult to disentangle. There is a Tasmanian under-current." . which. has taken possession of the center. it is now possible to separate at least five different layers or epochs of culture with nearly the same precision as that with which the geologist discovers layers or stratifications in the earth's crust. and finally there is a Neolithic wave. language. of course. there now reigns the dominion of law. must be — — first removed in order to reveal the pre-totemic mythology in all its purity. — to different ^the (1) so. moon. which has been pushed into the and in which magic and a lunar mythology become promi- (2) far South-East nent.

the universal picture will be reserved for our concluding chapter. — ^that of bringing the entire religious system before the reader in a single glance. That this is really the case can of course only be brought settled. with the chief points of criticism and their suggested solutions. in which the elements of time. This was the method by which astronomers discovered the "Ring" of 256 (?) asteroids. (2) of the identities. as the basis for a classification. This does that the question of cultural origins or mythological propagait is In the following study scheme above indicated not tion is is now mean is Quite the contrary. whether in the field of cosmology or of to a positive proof It is attempted. and interfdependericies of religious ideas. —and handled under {l)Direct Analysis: —Here are given the for ^The is to etc. In this manner it is hoped that the treatment will gain in clearness and focus the attention of the student upon the main point at issue. and conclusion. Then (2) Combined or Ctimparative Analysis: (a) of Antiquity. as follows: — material arranged according —God. followed by criticism — — and coimter-criticism of recent authors. (c) of Interpretation. broadly speaking. statistics each area. (native or imported)-. a double aspect. sociology. and higher beliefs form as it were a "unity". The treatment is theological headings.LXX PREHISTORIC RELIGION therefore taken for granted that the cultureappreciated at its proper value. It has been found more serviceable to separate the direct from the comparative analysis for the simple reason that it is quite impossible to estimate this problem in its true proportions without a clear understanding (1) of the precise "state of the question" for each area. industry. It simply affirms that there that the items enumerated under each section are sufficiently well-tested to serve. The other alternative. which can only be discovered by a detailed comparison and collation of all the sources and their location in a definite "system" of primitive belief. is (very briefly). (by combination of sources). It is time alone that can bring forth complete certainties. similarities. where before they suspected nothing but an accidental display of meteoric phenomena. . Creation. thereby good evidence to show by a far wider analysis than the one we have just only through repeated applications and verifications in individual cases that a proposed "system" passes over into a demonstrated fact. race. (b) of Sources. (of the areas examined). offers too much material to be easily digested. Paradise. whether by convergence or by actual physical transmission. the accumulation of evidence for the social and religious solidarity of man during the earliest epoch of his evolution that is at — present known to us. The individual picture will be given first.

which show that the despised primitive is as receptive of supernatural doctrines and as retentive of them. or pre-glacial. glacial. as the morphological traits of these peoples show a striking divergence from any of the simian types. ethnological. that the proto- melanoids of the far East are in the primitive type. In this respect the above races compare favorably with the higher peoples. of gross crime. On no account can the primitive type be derived from any exist- ing anthropoids. which cannot now be reconstructed. points to a relatively symmetrical. issued. It is further contradicted by the reports from the missionary field. kindliness and generosity are strongly inculcated from the tenderest years. On the contrary. the lessons of honesty. however. known Among the is Furthermore. as any of his more favored or "civilised" brethren. high- brow form. there sacrifice.onogamy There is considerable evidence to prove that the instituis very generally recognised by the lowest races of man that are the case. existing representatives of the race (5) —as the "protomorphic" group. Isolated survivals may exist elsewhere. whether as theft. In every case we have a "homo sapiens" endowed with different degrees of mental facility. (4) We are therefore justified in looking to the latter as the earliest . . or at least a rarity. Primitive (2) man The combined evidence data establishes sociological a of the biological. nor is there a shred of evidence for the "homo alalus" or speechless man. tion of m. many respects the nearest approach to This means that the real primitive was probably a composite. East-Indian primitives this is especially a very general absence. depending upon the complexity of his needs and environment. as well as an equally strong convergence into an unknown type. (3) an "ideal" form from which the three main divisions of humanity have — . proto-malay) as germinal vestiges. and more especially to the Oceanic regions of the Old World. infanticide. vedda. charity. leaving the existing its sub-forms {negrito.^ and strong presumption. human These statistics are sufficient to show that the supposed incapacity (8) of primitive man to be the recipient or the bearer of a relatively high order of theological truth is ipso facto an untenable. proposition. cannibalism.INTRODUCTION SUMMARY The main (1) LXXI results of this introductory survey are therefore as follows : belongs to the torrid zone. and social and domestic relations reveal a simple. of primitives is far higher than was formerly susThere is no essential difference between man recent. (7) The morality of primitives has recently been placed in a far more favorable light. The combined evidence. or to us. but attractive picture. murder. The mentality (6) pected.

We will now proceed to the examination of the religious material as such. — . however. or at least are characteristic of their respective cultures. a broad summary of what has already been discovered. rather than the research It is itself. in which magic and spiritism respecclaim an important element in the religious belief. in order that the exact position of the status quaes- tionis may the more easily be recognised. from vs^hich by an ethnological and mythit may be show^n that certain groups of ideas go hand in hand v^'ith certain definite stages of culture. I have thought it useful to summarise once more the main points of our present contention. it will stand to reason thai they developments in religious history. and are characteristic of certain definite periods of human development. and should therefore merit our primary attention. // therefore to be absent A (13) proved are all laier exclusion it magic and totemism. (12) tively A existence of further investigation has disclosed with some probability the two intermediate layers. and by a similar process of may be proved that they follow one another in the order indicated. But without a preliminary schedule it is quite impossible to (16) understand the bearings of this subject on the religious problem as such. necessary it is to distinguish the original This can only be accomplished (10) ological analysis of culture. ^beginning with the lowest aborigines of Oceania. (H) preliminary analysis of three vi^ide epochs of humanity has revealed the fact that the institution known as totemism is confined to a certain group of races. and concluding with the highest culture-peoples of North and South America. and is attracting the attention of all scholars. Detailed proof will be found in the following study.LXXH (9) PREHISTORIC RELIGION SUMMARY In the analysis of any given mythology. can be from the earliest belt. the facts will be able to (18) speak for themselves. presents the results of professional research. spiritism and animism. however. from the imported elements. Independently of all theories. and lower than the full neolithic and civilised races of antiquity. which are higher than any of the above primitives. in which (15) each of the above statements will be made good by a rigid examination of the cultural and mythological data for each successive or typical region. (14) but it Such a proof has been roughly outlined in the above analysis. many In its broader tendencies the system is receiving the support of (17) notaJjle experts.

PREHISTORIC RELIGION CHAPTER THE FIRST DE DEO UNO The Savage in its idea of a Supreme Being origin and development — Direct Analysis- .


379f f. but is rather a decrepid survival of the aboriginal Ocean-tongue. Cf. He is angered by the commission of sin. etc. Materialien zur Kenntniss der wilden Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malakka. Vaughan-Stevens. p. . W. 177-178. He is the supreme Judge of souls and the Master of life and death. Martin. 1. None of these peoples make celts. and the formula. Vol. Malakka. Perak Semang Negrito. W. pp. Then again the three peninsular races form the true three gradations of culture. His name is Kari. op There to possess the qualities of a and is He a deity worshipped by the aborigines of Malakka who seems supreme Being. 132ff. with a definite ritual. (London. Malayan. Pygmaenvolker (Stuttgart. => 242-254. Slc?at. Skeat. bone. and is moved by the pleadings of Pie on man's behalf. (Berlin. (Jena. Vol. even before the creation. founded partly on H. p. a mythological ancestor? Are the Semang the real aborigines of the land? Is testimony of the reporters be trusted? Let us consider these points one by one. 932-987. 1905) pp. spoken long before the Malayans and other races had invaded the archipelago. In the present instance there are special reasons for believing that the Semang are among the earliest inhabitants of Malakka. in which the Semang occupy the lowest rung of the ladder. In the first place. He requires at times a sacrifice of blood. Die Inlandstatnme der Malaischen Halbinsel. These were made by Pie. Prov. 219ff.* All this shows that we are dealing with an — — aboriginal people. His will is irresistible. aborigines of the land. II. "Blood! I throw you up to Heaven!" is of supernatural size and of fiery breath. 1910). — — . human blood-aspersion accompanied by the burning of incense. all things that concern man. 117. Schmidt. The racial antiquity of the negritos in general has already been (1) vindicated in the preceding pages. but shows pity for man. (benzoine). He knows all things. and their language cannot be identified with any known dialect. III. - . Indone^which shows that they were not the invaders but the invaded. R. and are surrounded by taller and more powerful races. Three questions suggest themselves with regard (1) to these data: (2) Can the not the wording rather advanced and somewhat suggestive of foreign influence? (3) May not the supreme figure be a glorified hero. excepting the earth and the body of man. W. 53-54. pp. at least He can do all things. 199-205. but are living in an age of wood. and bamboo. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. -j 1 Points taken from II. 1) 1 KARI is Peninsular Region. 494-496. 1894).GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (A. 107-109. a subordinate being or demiurge. J. they inhabit the interior of the country. He has always existed. ?." All their industries and habits of life are on the same primitive level of crudeness. » Skeat. sian. 1906). (Thunder) described by the natives in the following terms : — but is now invisible. He has made all things.

. an imported religion can hardly be admitted in the present instance for the following reasons : First: There are no traces of Hindoo or Western-Asiatic influences. ever contending for supremacy. the testimony of Vaughan-Stevens is generally accepted. The supreme Being is simply the Sky-Lord. specific. with its strong metempsychosis-doctrine. The fact that most of his details have been verified. ^ S?hini4t. c. —"establishes". the absence of Christological notions excludes the former. and to whom the soul returns at the hour of death. challenging — His authority. II. "a presumption in favor of Man and Portman. much less the pantheism that accompanies it. and much mythological now matter.^ If then is pre-Austro-asiatic in name. where we have abundant evidence for its authenticity.* Finally: — —The name Kari cannot be derived from any known Malayan Kari both pre-Islamic and pre-Brahministic in concept. 2U. divinity. » Ibid. and it is not too much to say that He is a native which shows that the name at least could not The secrecy of the cult is also heavily against imporhave been borrowed.2 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (2) With regard to the sources. Gould the Moslems have introduced this faith without introducing some at least of the Moslem practices. Needless to say. indigenous source. It may therefore be presumed in default of evidence to the contrary. « Skeat. or Austroasiatic tongue. God" "of sources are trustworthy. we must remember that a striking similarity of belief among widely-separated aborigines points to a common internal. Second: There are no traces of Christian or Islamic influences. As to the native origin of the belief. II. with its distinctive rites and ceremonies. m-m.—blood-charms. But apart from this. in the words of Skeat. not the high and mighty divinities of Western Asia. 1. Brahminism. wind-spirits.or Sky-spirits is rather too with all its details. and the picture of his general accuracy". while the worship of Allah. burial-bamboos. II.* This is further strengthened by the fact that in the neighboring Andaman Islands a very similar deity has been inde- pendently verified by a "Thunder- surrounded by Wind. 204. finds little support among these simple people." His Wind-spirits are the executioners of His will. It is a forcible reminder of the Thunder-Gods of South-East Australia and other primitive regions. more especially the general custom of circumcision? There is nothing exactly analogous to the human Blood-throwing of the Negritos among any of the civilised races of the Peninsula. • Ilbid. has little in common with the simple invocation of Kari for protection from lightning. to have been arbitrarily invented. that the fiery breath. who hurls His shafts in the thunder-storm. tation. 209.

at least until they again give Him occasion to do so". .^^ and the moral and personal nature of this sacrifice is also attested by Vaughan-Stevens "Kari Himself makes no use of the blood thus sacrificed. Tappern." they are brought into close relation with Kari and Pie. He can do all things. strictly symbolic. The magical combs and mystical bamboos serve as protections against As such they might be interpreted as charms or amulets. I. II. with the exclamation "Blood! I throw you up to Heaven! I draw blood. or words to : that effect. the invocation being repeated each time that the liquid is thrown up. to the Creator. where the interpretations are giY?n> esp. This is proved by the fact. a beautiful ceremony. the (3) With regard to interpretation. 205." The purpose of this strange rite is to avert the thunderbolts of the Almighty. following points should be considered in greater detail : disease. and thrown in a bamboo-cylinder up to Heaven. until all is finished. He has made all things. from whom in fact they derive all their efficacy." as some have suggested. "lb. NO." This is more especially the case with the so- called "Blood-Gharm" in which human blood is drawn from the shin-bone. that He is its direct object. (Kari). mixed with a little water. "lb. they are all the "servants" of Kari. for there — . described by Skeat. the theory of is positively maintain. as far as we know. Chini. 199. He helps to create. and suggestive of some symbolic meaning. » Ibid. has Himself instituted the rite. spirit and ancestor-worship. "He knovj^s all things. ciL II. by a human "life"sacrifice. p. says Skeat. 212. 436ff. op. that Kari. But the important point is. 214. It shows that Heaven can only be regained by the shedding of blood." But as to magic and animism." Thus the supposed "thunder-charm" is in reality an atonement-sacrifice to the supreme divinity. It is through the divinity that the "charm" is worked. Moreover the qualities assigned to Him can hardly be applied to spirits or saints. but is pacified by this sign of His children's : repentance and ceases to hurl His thunderbolts. 211-214. etc. 20S." It is true that we have a possible ancestor. play a very subordinate role. 180. "Skeat. and continue His complaints of their misdeeds to their creator-demiurge. I draw curdled blood! Blood! I throw you up to the sun!". These. solid or liquid. is a regular sacrifice offered. ' 1.' There are also numerous Wind or Sky-spirits. that although they serve the purpose of apparent "safeguards. in Pie.GOD OGEANIG PRIMITIVE FORM jdiflicult to 3 a "glorified hero" is no ancestor-worship or cult of the dead. II. Myth-bamboo. II. however. ^the offering of the most precious substances. but more likely a Mediator. II. Minang. and to none. "is a Semang sacrifice addressed to Kari". Pie. "The practice of throwing blood up to the skies". This and the analogous practices connected with the "magic flower" are in fact among the earliest forms of the Sadaka at present known to us. the Thunder-God. though the ceremony is of course only mystical. not merely to placate the "angry skies. and is appeased by sacrifice.—jSenrtu. — i» See the Bamboo-pattefns • Skeat. 217. 420ff.

II. "The Semang religion shows remarkably few traces demon-worship. " Ibid. that "He possesses the essential attributes of a Supreme Being". it will probably be admitted that in some of its more fundamental features the moral condition of the natives is not overdrawn." It shows that all these bamboos have an inner moral relation to a personal deity. XXXVIII.and ancestor-worship is still less in evidence. 460. the answer is that the conclusion is altogether too premature. though informal cries for help and protection are attested in this or that instance. 524. 1." while the latter conducts the dying soul directly to the judgment-seat of Kari. " Ibid 1 c I 4S8-4S9. The medicine-man is still identified with the tribal chief. 1. an opinion which — is at least worth quoting. I. an early custom. Authorities are strong on this point." and he casts out not "demons" of disease." practice of spirit-feeding is quite unknown. 196.^^ This judgment-seat is vividly depicted in the famous MythBamboo. But if magic is practically nil. II. The above practices show clearly that Kari is worshipped. The former sanctifies the marriage-bond very much as a wedding-ring does among ourselves.and Burial-bamboos are better described as "sacramentals" than as wonder-working charms. " Schmidt. p. 229. it is owing to our meagre knowledge as yet of the interior lives of these people. If then the objection be raised that the alleged "divinity" is shrouded in magic. and to the fact that they express their feelings and yearnings for the divine in actions rather than words. that it is not founded on a careful analysis of facts. and this proves that He is a Person. 181. to their extreme reticence with regard to things sacred. 181. no human life-sacriflce. and the natives are in many respects "vastly superior to the races by whom they are likely to be absorbed". »» Ibid. " Ibid. but the disease itself. however crude in execution. spirit. No. c I. there is no fear of any occult ancestor returning to life in the shape of a ghost. I. II. of requiring propitiation. " Ibid.^" it From these data may be concluded that Kari all is a transcendent Per- sonality. c. both by word and action. and Qompare the extracts given above.^' 1* Skeat 200. If but few formal prayers have so far been authenticated. " Ibid. and still less of any sort of animistic beliefs". Though this is doubtless an exaggerated estimate. which. II. " Skeat. Conjugal fidelity is strict. 225." There is here a minimum of crime. and no cannibalism. 1. brings out the supreme position of the Thunder-God in a manner that is quite unmistakable. which shows that the idea of demoniacal possession is not Then again the yet fully present to the mind of these savages." Vaughan-Stevens declares in fact that they do not believe in ancestor-spirits at all. 448-454. not a mere force or nature-power. .4 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM In like manner the Birth. that there little personal worship connected with this belief. very little fear of ghosts. p.

Kari decreed their death. circulation. II. and stories of a great Deluge are also in At death each soul is Nevertheless there is still hope. according to its merits. runs the Mantra legend. II. even if the phantastic forms under which He appears are equally good evidence that we are here in presence of a simple-minded and strongly anthropomorphic mythology. as it is distinctly stated that He "commanded" Pie to complete the work. with a personal God in the center. II.^* Moreover He has prepared a Paradise for man. known as the "Island of Fruits" or the "Rising Land" where He stations the first human couple. symbolised by the powerful metaphor.^* Paradise. 209. II. that the entire race was not which man — — — . 2« 336. "Let men die like the Banana. Now. not only is Pie clearly a subordinate being. Ayer and Tanah.^' These grow on the ParadiseTree. II. 21Sir. The statement that Kari made all things is in itself a vague proposition unless some details are given as to how He made them. 212. 336ff. the Banana (?) to abstain from certain fruits." here the Argus-Pheasant. and Underworld. of an exacting Judge. 211. ?8 "Idem. which bird is then religiously eaten by the mother as a sacred obligation. "His Breath". to what extent this action was a personal and direct process. during which Sky and Wind-spirits. — — — . " Idem. is either condemned to a boiling lake. Earth. The common Malakkan tradition has it that originally men were destined to live forever. II. Idem. meaning "Water" and "Earth".''' This takes place in successive periods. Idem. fr II. 211. and this under penalty of death. 292. Idem. the command during certain the Palm.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM 5 If further evidence be desired on this subject. and are sent out by Him to the womb of the expectant mother in the form of the "Soul-Bird. during to — — may offered up the first-fruits of the earth to His Creator. but Kari produces the entire universe by His word. evidently connected in some way with the breach of a divine command."' brought before the judgment-seat of Kari. or admitted to the joys of Kari's Fruitextinguished. which we regard as the earliest form of the Paradisaic Sacrifice.^^ There are also distinct echoes of a state of primitive innocence and immortality. It is the story of a heavenly Father. "Skeat. the "mediator". but a pure theology. "Idem. are all pictured as the result of a divine action. and leave their offspring behind". 207.'" These items make it more clear than ever that what we have here is not a loose bundle of nature-myths. II. Kari inspires the soul of man directly. "there was no pain or sickness there" but that through the growing wickedness and disobedience of man. seasons. and it v^as only through the intercession of Pie. .'" Though Pie produces the body of man. Heaven. and. "Kari Himself gave them souls". Idem. 'o 207. a suggestive nomenclature. 211. we might call attention a few points in the mythology and legends of the Malakkan Negritos which throw an interesting sidelight on the nature of these beliefs.

that their ideas are beliefs in general. speaking of course relatively. etc. . the picture presented by the supreme Divinity is anthropomorphic 6Uid undeniably childlike. which we have every reason to believe embodies the most ancient and unadulterated tradition of the human race. enough evidence has — — — — accord. and the absence of any animistic or spiritistic beliefs. anything like a recent borrowing from high cultures is very generally ruled out. there are no traces of any such influence. will be seen that the main objection to the authenticity of these beliefs is that the races in question are not primitive. Finally. with a slightly higher grade of industry. As to a borrowing from outside sources. the supposed "magical" practices resolve themselves into the use of certain articles." tower head and shoulders above all wind-spirits and demiurges. not by their own hidden virtue. and to protect the wearer from harm. that He alone operates through them.). which are believed to be sacred. Nay more. It probably borrowed. other obscure practices to point. even if native. makes the picture of a "Supreme Person. they much mixed up with magical and be of any theological value. and their mythology can be' It shows no traces of importation from any source left to stand as it is. but this only in extremely remote times.—being paralleled only by certain sections of Central Africa and possibly Tasmania. The Malakkan Negritos are among the least contaminated. but by the fact that the Divinity has ordained them. and they are too that. They are in a certain sense "sacramentals".—it may not be amiss to call attention to the main points of this controversy in so far as they affect the question of Negrito and of which this is a good average specimen. as far as our present sources of knowledge can carry us. but of this in the present instance there is hardly a sign. Thus magic in the absolute sense can hardly be said to exist. though in some few cases the cast and color of the mythology. transcendent Being. may demand some contact with a more advanced wave of civilisation. With this the social and ethical data are in striking fall short of being theistic. however sacred. (bamboos. but this is all in favor of His personal character and His remote antiquity. As to the first surely been given to show that of all the known peoples these are the lowest and least developed exemplars of the human family and in this case they are unquestionably the aborigines of the land. they may even obscure and obliterate the original picture. Such influences may conceivably affect the form and even the content of the legends. other than that of the common Oceanic tradition.<5 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM As this is one of the earliest and possibly purest regions of Negrito culture.



. II. Vol. 131flf. which are cleansed and prepared for Him by a mother-mediator.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITVE FORM (A. the demons. we find an equally crude people. Martin. as He invariably knows when men do wrong. Though not definitely mentioned as Creator. they are characterised by a social and industrial culture almost equally low. 234ff. cit. Vaughan-Stevens. fruits. 11. He presides over the existing universe. and as such are entitled to be called the jointaborigines of Central Malakka. having the power of life and death over the human race and the spiritual world alike. that we are in presence of something noble. offered to offer!" ^ He requires a sacrifice of blood. He is immortal. 984-985. Dr. and in some cases amalgamating with them. cit II. occupies a very similar position. 1 Points taken from Skeat. this relation is more striking on the cultural than on the physical side. (cult of the dead). pp. the Sakai or Senoi. Though of taller stature. are indirectly Him as a prophylactic sacrifice. "Uber religiose Vorstellungen bei den niedrigsten Menschenformen". 179. He is the supreme and final Judge of souls. (Father. to wit He is of supernatural size and invisible. who washes their souls in a purifying water. Lanyut . For although their wild life and crude industry is almost equally undeveloped. He seems be omniscient. p. op. With them they form the background of the pre-Malayan populathe earliest groups of tion of the peninsula. But though Semang and Sakai are intimately inter-related. This makes the study of the above races a most interesting one. which. Prov. but may also show mercy. emphasising high morality but "obscure" ( ?) religious beliefs. Paul Sarasin. even though their stature be slightly higher. Comp. 124-140. among whom the deity Peng. Master). 1904) pp. In looking into the face of a Senoi. He is angered by the commission of certain acts. the following points Sakai and the authenticity of should be noted : These people share with the negritos the honor of belonging to mankind that we know of. but man is described as appealing to to — Him for help in difficulties. His punishments are inflicted by means of His agents. op. Pagan Races. we feel irresistibly that the traditional picture of the father of humanity has been brought perceptibly nearer. Selangor. incense. International Congress of Religions (Basle. there are reasons for believing that the long wavy hair of the Sakai-Toala-Vedda group is nearer to the supposed foetustype of the real primitive than the short beady curls of the negrito. He appears as the champion of man against both demons and wild beasts. and though apparently directed to "spirits". something comparatively dignified. "Accept this bowl of blood we to the ethnic position of the With regard (1) this belief. op Perak and Adjoining these wild jungle-folk. 2) 7 PENG—The Senoi-Sakai Tribes of Malakka.

all this shows that the religion of the aborigines could hardly have been borrowed from the latter in globo. II. are therefore justified in treating the main body of this tradition as substantially indigenous. they embody in substance the pre-Malayic and pre-Brahmin'God'. polygamy. Peng. wind. and the main traits of the mythology seem to bear it out . Peng). For if Tuhan is suspiciously Malayan.8 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (2) According to Skeat "an analysis of the character of the Sakai {Tuhan. Like Kari. with a discussion of the sources. penyalong. independent. See Blagden. among which circumcision. even if some few features might have Altered through in this or that particular instance. and other portions of the Indian archipelago. the use of "bamboos" with cryptic allegorical inscriptions. reveeding many nonMalayan as well as non-negrito expressions. 178. cit pp. shows that he occupies very much the same place in the Sakai cosmogony as is occupied by Kari and Pie in that of the Semang". life.* If this is correct. p. and "that the real difficulty in treating Semang and Sakai religion will be to discover their points of difference". . he is surrounded by a multitude of sky. he is certainly the ruler if not the creator of man. This together with the existence of very similar if not identical practices. which is the universal root for "father" in all ages. — istio belief. by equally distinctive ceremonies. recognised in the expressions penghulu. abu. p. Papang. the consecration of birth. or earthspirits. It will gain additional force when we consider that the identical expression. op. and the student is therefore referred to chief points 6ibove enumerated.' * The term "Peng" is old-Malayan for "father"' and may be • Skeat. Peng is a supreme Sky-Lord. the supposed mediator.. Pa. penglim. etc. and good and bad alike return to him as their judge. and Pirman is evidently the Arabic Firman. the designation of Peng as the "High Father" of the Sakai seems to be peculiar to this lower stratum of the population and to re-echo the earliest designations for fatherhood that we know of. and still more of any strongly Islamic or Hindoo rites. the general absence of totemism. Peng. Vol. the above remarks on the native origin of the Semang beliefs apply with equal force to the Sakai. &c). This and the general coherence of the mythology.Apu (Abu). Papa. and death. points to a parallel. . (Pen-ya-long) is found also in Borneo — We — . a consideration which gathers additional strength when we consider that the linguistic evidence tends to support it. Pang. form an important if not an essential constituent. 557 (for Peng). prehistoric tradition. the office of Lanyut being paralleled to some extent by that of Pie. organised asceticism. Apa {Aba). etc.195. Pirman. elaborate pilgrimages and the like. For it is precisely in the all-important matter of the name of the divinity that an outside borrowing becomes difficult to maintain. for "Chief" apud Skeat. 598 (for pa. an inversion or reduplication of the still more primitive Ap (Ab).

II. 234. but no demon. 297. 235 (Bamboo markings).^ and the throwing-up of the blood (or water)." we have good reasons for believing that it is precisely this mixture of blood with the more advanced peninsular tribes which is directly responsible for this largely negative cult. where he is servea by and by the female giantess. an important point. an evident proof of omnipotence. 242. the "MotherLong-breasts". 239. • Vaughan-Stevens.* That these laws may be distantly connected with a first-fruit taboo is suggested by the paradise-legend and the modern custom of still reserving certain fruits on certain occasions. pp. I. "Accept this bowl of blood we offer!" such — is the Blandas or mixed-blood Sakai. imprinted or incised on the surface. the his glorification. where "man and beast lived on fruits alone. p. is allowed to afflict them unthout His permission.' Now these "Charm-Bamboos". There is in fact an "Island of Fruits" prepared by Peng for the first couple. Ba-lut and Wa-lut. II. partly malignant. If.* Their function is to avert disease. 9 and said to live in the high heavens. the sacrifice is seem- ingly transferred to the "devil. and Peng ordered them to slay the wild beasts for food and taught them the art of hunting and is Thus Peng the wind-spirits — — the use of the so-called "bamboos". or burial. For it is only by the power of Peng that the demons exist. whose office of purifier has been mentioned above. by warding off contrary evils. II. but nobody else can kill them". petitions. an indirect act of worship.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM This will become increasingly clear the moment the beliefs (3) practices of these people are studied in their native dress. Idem. and every tree and plant bore sweet and wholesome fruit".* « Skeat op. but in the sequel the power of the apes and demons proved too strong. not even the tiger-spirit. to procure supernatural favors at least negatively. • Skeat. and votive-ordeals that frequently accompany this rite reveal a strong sense of religious dependence. the burning of incense (in a cocoa- the oblation formula among numerous lustrations. » ^ Idem. 475. half the trees were turned sour. II. then. and are none the less theistic because their primary object seems to be to expel the demons. marriage. . to dispel the harmful demons. dt II. I28ff. These beings are partly helpful. III. That these are dependent beings created by Him alone may be certainly inferred from the fact that "Peng is able to annihilate them. it is the "Father-God" that has instituted the sacred rites. for rebellion against His laws. and can also increase their numbers. 241-289. are here distinctly traced to Peng as their originating source. he has willed their expulsion. the famous "SevenBamboo" actually containing the marks of his celestial hands. Granny Lanyut. and their suppression means nut-shell). more especially as these visitations are looked upon as a punishment for wrong-doing. Skeat. whether for birth.

23S-240. it is the sugar-palm and the cocoa-nut. 11. 257ff. was extremely rare" (Lias). though a few names and items seem to postulate an independent tradition." It is the "World Eagle" that protects the secret of life. "Divorce. theft equally rare" (Idem)." 9 Skeat. from Malayan as from supposed Christian (!) dence of any such influence? sources. to show them the way to the "Husks of the Clouds". " Idem. though permitted. I. the moral nature of this divinity may be inferred from the character of the natives as we actually find them. 256. the areca-leaf being regarded as specially efficacious. affectionate and faithful both to their family and friends. II. irredeemable it will fall into a boiling lake. for "if Peng intends a man to be injured. their fruits and juices possess the power of healing all diseases. " Idem. giving the cit. and th© areca-palm that most important "life-giving" trees.10 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM Again. op. they can do without police" (De Morgan). 261.' These and figure as the the celebrated love-plant. their natural state they are given neither to lying nor cheating" (Hale). that it must have affected these tribes in particular instances. 285. and there is no proof at all of past cannibalism". we must remember that Malayan shamanism is rampant throughout the peninsula. are remotely connected in the popular belief with the days of man's innocence. "The punishment for adultery was death" (Maxwell). "None of these races are cannibals. "Murder is exceedingly rare." Throughout the analogy with the Semang-system is apparent. II. I. "They are a most peaceful race. also 501. the wording and sequence of events is very similar. always anxious In to assist any white man that happened to be in want of assistance. their efficacy depending in each case on the will of the Almighty. and never make war on each other or go in for any sort of inter-tribal fighting" (Skeat). the chinduai. But if magic and demonism appear to be more pronounced. Where is the evi- Finally. and it is through the application of their leaves to the sick and dying that the most important cures are worked. the big Dragon that overwhelms the earth with a deluge of water. but that the wording and content of the mythology and most of the native customs are as underivable if where repentant. "They are most kind and simple-hearted. if righteous and it will pass over to the "Island of Fruit-Trees". 529. Here they wait till Peng sends them a friend of the same sex. 527- combined evidence. " Idem. . there is no remedy against it". pp. whose delicate blossom is crushed in water and oil and then consumed by the patient. II. and at death the soul is washed by Mother Lanyut in the purgatorial waters and conducted over the Paradise-bridge. "Thanks to their honesty.

A.*. F.of London. Hervey. esp. these beliefs will be sufficient. The pleadings of Tu Entah "The Lord knows who" are of no avail. & H. Borie. I. though considerably above the negrito average. we know — — makes the earth habitable. Notice sur les Mantras. chiefly against demons. Their arts and industries. op. A few remarks on the nature of The Jakuns are the of. which sky was 'originally very near low and near to the earth'. He seems section of the aborigines. among which the blood-throwing ceremony is still practiced among a is This being and man. The Mantra Traditions. In the sequel To Entah arranges the climate. Prov. and are undoubtedly the fore-runners of the historic Malayan family. 189ff. which shows many more analogies with the preceding than with the civilised Islamic system. . as he knows the actions of man and is capable of destroying him. and the good are carried to Tuhan's Fruit-Island. which they have distributed over large portions of the Indian archipelago. . and Tuhan. are yet sufficiently undeveloped to merit the title of "pre-lithic".GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (A. 10. fixes the divisions of time. Tuhan di Bawah . 3) 11 TUHAN The Mantka-Jakuns op Malakka — . "Let men die like the banana" is Tuhan's verdict. He is guardian of human destiny and to some extent a divine judge. and should be judged accordingly. in Transactions of Ethnological Soci-'-. cit. p. founded on D. transl. He has appointed certain sacrificial observances. of Selangor As the last of the pagan peninsular races the "savage Malays" of southern Malakka deserve at least a passing notice. partly ^Skeat. To Entah. At death the soul is judged by Tuhan.^ This makes a borrowing of religious ideas on the face of it unlikely. vol. 2 idem. 72fif. 304ff. J. 290-376. Of their native divinity. . by P. a few important facts may be gathered — : a "Lord of the Underworld" and a creator of the earth to be omniscient and all-powerful. and saves the race from the deluge. and is out of harmony with the tone of the mythology. Here there was no death but an abundance of fruits. S. (1) earliest sleek-haired brachicephalic race that Together with the Semang-Sakai they belong to the lowest group of pygmoidals in existence. No. 319-348 (on the Mantra). He has a son or demiurge. the parents of the race. and lives beneath it (sic) He dwells beneath the land of Nayek and by his power supports all above him. seeing that mankind multiplied too rapidly (through eating the fruit) turned half of them into trees. to whom he has entrusted the care of the race. p. who came from a place called 'Rising Land' in the sky. 66. II. Thus they form the third member of the aboriginal group. "Tuhan di Bawah has made the earth. III. and their distinctive weapon is the bamboogun or "blowpipe". R. He is the Father of Ayer and Tanah. Bourien.

m Loean. the expression "Lord of the Underworld" marks a decided degeneration. or Love-Plant. For although "crimes are very rare". Here again we have the Chinduai. Vol. . Bellainy etc. Pirman. 76. and tortoises. it the world and everything that is visible. II. apud Skeat. p. says Skeat. as well as the "Yearning Bamboo". makes a derivation from Mussulman sources impossible to maintain.12 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM is Pirman (Master). grows etc. with a savior-demiurge. native touches. and Gaffer "Engkoh" (or Jongkoh) who is the guardian of Paradise. and above all their almost universal mediators or "saviors". or that the magician's power was considered to be derived from Him and entirely dependent on His pleasure". 283ff. Ind. though even here "I do not remember a single case in which a Besisi had more than one wife". 'Idem.' On the contrary. etc. I. and can only be approached through the mediumship of Jewa-Jewa. 353. and other distinctively In the parallel tradition of the Benua. while the theistic part of the belief. their Poyangism. "The Mantra". with and stellar-myths. even if occasionally marred by contrary examples. This is further illustrated by the ethical data. All spirits derive their power from Him.' T R Skeat IL I. their developed magic. Cp. "have not to any great extent acquired any of the Malayan ideas respecting the form of the earth. their sacrificial "trays". their numerous guardians. 512! II. C. Tuhan. 298-319." "The Malays" (like Mr. again. Journ.. The general decency of these people. On the other hand. it is Tuhan to whom they pray to release their moon-ancestors from Island of Fruits. "Skeat. it is far more likely that the natives have borrowed many of their superstitious practices (as well as their less-pleasing morals) from the Malays. The Orang-Benua of Johor. as we have seen. the motion of the sun. with the ghost-god. they form an indivisible unit. Archipel. their solar — be linguistically traced to outside influences. the "thunder-fruit" and the "father-mother"-god being most conspicuous among the orang-utan or "wild men of the more and more pronounced — woods". may the more we penetrate into the more isolated sections of this region. is an argument in favor of their simple if crude religious — beliefs." Among the Besisi. the sacred Gocopalm. II.* their apes Throughout the wording of the creation-legends. polygamy and divorce have eaten their way into the social fabric. Logan) "were not aware. and reveals with some force the contact with demonism. "cannibalism unheard of". «G. only to be expected. even if individual expressions. 319. In every case the "Lord-Master" is intimately interwoven with the rest of the folklore. 285. finding its duplicate in the Islamic shamanism of the day. who made He dwells in the sky and is himself invisible. "theft unknown". their rising-lands and fruit-palaces. either that the Benua believed in God.

V. (South Andaman) Adjacent to the coast of Malakka. The following difficulties might suggest themselves with regard to this — — — — — The antiquity of this region is not incontestable. has wife and family. As such they are real primitives. there is a worshipped who is described in very similar terms. Of Him it is said: ' deity Though His appearance is like was never born and is immortal. the deluge. p. These more apparent than of considerable weight. These exist only in rudimentary form and are believed to be for the most part indigenous. wax-burning. 6uid Puluga eternal. (2) The sources are scanty and IndoMalayan influences not impossible. (1) industries are — . (4) is powerless to Puluga rather a female spider or possibly a lizard. Man. Schmidt. A . I. canoebuilding. to wit: There is strong anthropomorphism Puluga eats and drinks. the somewhat advanced. even if some of their industries are slightly above the Negrito level. 89ff. excepting only the powers of evil. Cp. p. H. knowing even the thoughts of men's hearts. c. ^the offering-up of the first-fruits of the season. theft. 'Man. Notes on the Kjokken-Moddings of the And. fire. He has instituted a sacrifice. ^ Man. He is the Judge from whom each soul receives sentence after death. Stoliczka. 161. He By Him the world and all objects. and the "celts of tertiary sandstone" the rudest of scrapers. etc. c p. painting. 1899) Vol. The subject. The natives cannot work stone. grave assault. falsehood. knows things "while it is day". and is said to affect their course of action in life. M. 193-219. (Calcutta. no sense divine. sacrifice.' The supposed palaeoliths found in the kitchen-middens are really quartz-eoliths. 1. 160ff. ^which is implied by the command not to partake of the said fruits during a portion of the rainy season. murder. but without cult and without is in but as they seem to be may not be out of place: (1) The Andamanese belong to the Archaic belt. Islds. 85. Portman. There is also an incipient dualism. pottery. The penalty for this in remote times was said to be death. in the Andaman Islands. gives way to anger. and sometimes deigns to afford relief. He is now-a-days invisible. 44-45. animate and inanimate were created. (Thunder). the following considerations — — ^ Points taken from E. p. His name is Puluga. pp. don. The original inhabitants of the Andaman Islands (LonHistory of our Relations with the Andamanese. but employ chips and flakes in the natural state. 1883). spirits of evil are control them. (3) The picture is tarnished by two defects which seem to be serious. VI).GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (B) 13 PULUGA—Andaman Islands MiNcori Negrito. He is regarded as omniscient while it is day. 1. of purely Negrito stock (p.* difficulties are real. He is angered by the commission of certain sins. ^while to those in pain or distress He is pitiful. —they seem apparently self-created.

a (2) testimony paralleled by Skeat and Vaughan-Stevens in Malaysia. A "Thunder-God". " Portman. and the figure of Puluga is supreme. and surrounded by Wind. He is pre-Christian." ° and he points to the immense antiquity of the race. Thus it is next to certain that the idea of divinity could not have been borrowed from any of the Central or Western-Asiatic religions. whether of historic or prehistoric times. these words are significant. but I cannot agree with it. not sharing His authority with any other gods or demigods of Asiatic or Indian fame. singular.or ancestor-worship in any part of the islands. c. and the absence of any vestiges. "The anthropological professors are very anxious to prove that the Andamanese must have derived their word for.* and he calls attention to the want of any tradition. agrees too closely with what has been found in other Negrito areas to have been invented or bor- rowed. He is pre-Brahministic. 45. "of fiery breath".or Sky-spirits. — astoundingly high- * Man. because there has never been the shadow of Mussulman influence in the islands and the entire mythology and practice of the Andamanese excludes it. p. But that these influences must have been extremely remote. to the absence of any traces. is evident from the fact that there are not the smallest vestiges of any such influence as having proceeded from any of the higher cultures. Vol. They show that people of unprejudiced minds and of considerable erudition have openly acknowledged the existence of native divinities independently of "civilised" sources. A History. Both Man and Portman bear witness to this. or otherwise. and this is here notoriously absent. Thus Puluga is pre-Islamic. and their idea of. I. even though their physical and moral attributes may seem cases elsewhere. a Deity from some of the more civilised nations. because pantheism and metempsychosis agrees very ill with the simple personal position of Puluga and His direct lordship over His creatures. 88-89. He is pre-Shaministic because there are not the least traces of spirit. who return directly to Him as their Judge. linguistic. because it is inconceivable that any missionaries could have landed among the people without leaving some impress of a Christian soteriology on their minds or in their language. p. As the greatest authority on Andamanese history.14 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM The convergence between the testimony of Man and Portman. and to the existence of parallel We — Similarly Portman. to their seclusion and innate conservatism. cultural. is a strong argument for its authenticity. cannot of course exclude all outside influences. "It is extremely improbable that their legends were the result of the teaching of missionaries" says Man. 1. etc.. and unique. even though the wicked spirits are eternally opposed to Him. .

shows without a question. though greatly feared. as witness its entire absence in other Negrito regions. is a later accretion derived from continental sources. or Bone-necklace. (bright and dark moon). we have every reason to believe. and His "anger" is generally an ethical anger at the sins of men. not impossible. and the expression "to know things while it is day" reveals the inroads of an undoubtedly later circle of ideas. are powerless to create. the spirits of evil. they have no theistic attributes. is clearly revealed by the ethnological data. 90. Man. This is suggested by the fact that some of the Andamanese industries are rather above the average of Negrito culture. c. p. p. and indeed quite probable. i. c. as nearly all the Negrito divinities are unmarried figures and are generally said to "know all things" without qualification. Central Africa. Also Schmidt. Puluga is in this respect a unique Being.'' The "dreamers" are not a fixed cast. 29. though self-created.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (3) 15 But while the remote antiquity of this cult seems unquestionable. But even if the report be left to stand as it does. with or without the moon-motif. and that Puluga Himself has been mixed up with a lunar mythology which. they have no connexion with day and night themes. with black daughters and white sons" is believed to be a lunar complex. Malakka. it is — Be this as it may. This mythology affects the form rather than the content of the legends. 95." and the association of Puluga with the spider in certain sections of these islands. Pygmaenvolker. cit. but it has modified to some extent the primitive picture of divinity by introducing unworthy conceptions of the divine. the "Spider-Moon". ' Man. After recovery no ceremonies of purification take place". and this no doubt will account for the fact that the evil spirits have become independent of Puluga. 1. they are neither obeyed nor in any sense worshipped or appeased.* said that « «Comp. Thus while the "eating and drinking" of Puluga may be described as a harmless metaphor. with the revolution of the heavens. op. . that some outside influences in the early dawn of humanity may have invaded the islands in a slightly later period of development. 211-212. Man. it cannot be magic itself is at all strongly developed. as we shall presently see. p. Puluga's "wife and family". Moreover the description of Puluga's wife and family as the "mother eel. are employed in the hope of averting or curing illness. but must earn their reputation". that He has come in contact with the typical theme of the Boomerang culture. the intrusion of later notions. the first and only case of dualism among the entire Negrito cycle. and. p. Tasmania. "No charms except the Chauga-ta. If then a later wave of culture has made some inroads.

both usurping the position of the Thunder-God. pp. "Compare A. or other objects. c. XXIV. worshipped in the best sense. p. where this theme is conspicuous by its absence. the personal Heaven-God.1<5 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM As to animism and spirit-worship. It consists in bringing the supreme figure into connexion with the waxing and waning moon. the female spider. or human lish sacrifice. Quat-Marawa. p. "There is no trace to be found of the worship of trees. 1. by the sacriflc* of obedience and of the first-fruits of the earth. rules supreme in South-Andaman. Central Brazil. where we have reasons to suspect an outside influence. and Oluga. Daramulun. Portman. In the Andamans and Nicobars. and identifying Him in some way with the spider. I. (Bark-cincture. more (4) advanced Oceanic region. stones. and down into the heart of South-America. &c) This has robbed the North and Little Andamanese of the clear notion of a Creator. Out-rigged Canoes. but has left Puluga in exclusive possession of the center. 825-826. infanticide. Now these are precisely the areas that are more advanced. (lexical analysis). Man to "It is from regard to the fact that their beliefs approximate so exclaim closely to the true Faith concerning the Deity that I have adopted the Eng. personal Being. Platform-couches. Also B. 1. II. 13. v. c. in the neighboring North and Little Andamans we find Biliku. — : method of spelling all equivalents of 'God' with an initial capital". 45-46. Brown. Thus Amaka. cannibalism. it seems more natural to suppose that Puluga is a primeval Heaven-God. (New York. and Central-African divinities. Communal-dwelling. whose voice is the thunder. and they one and all belong to a slightly higher stage of culture. The marriage-tie is strict. even But if His picture is slightly tarnished by sexual and unworthy themes. 257-271. pp.* Altogether. which has forced Mr. This agrees with the ethical data. the female lizard. (q. 1909). I. Round-house. pp. Portman. or some other mysterious animal. This phase can be traced throughout the secondary. 95. Puluga. 1903). Schmidt. that the original Heaven-God has no connection with animal or astral symbols. R. 721-726. 204-210. 40. Tasmanian. supreme.). " Man. 30. pp. . and Kamushini are all spinning spiders surrounded by a strong lunar mythology. Now this is precisely the case in the Andaman Islands. and there is a notable absence of gross crime. 44. and whose shafts the lightning. note. Such is the true picture of Puluga. but whose image has been obscured in parts by the intrusion of a somewhat later phase of belief. no organised worsliip of ancestors or of the forces of nature can be said to exist. Kloss. 28-43. in "Folk-Lore" (Sept. •Man 1 "See Man c. compared with the Malakkan. 90. Cp. and it is a mistake to suppose that they adore or invoke the celestial bodies". This is a clear proof that they are a later development. the lizard.

That this is the sum-total of all their beliefs and practices seems hardly credible. That is why the First-fruit sacrifice is offered up to this day. Men became more and more violent. of any personal invocations of his name. the to at- even the bad spirits are forced prepared a Paradise for man Furthermore. and interior side of the religion. Here also he has Wotaemi. stated that death and misery came upon man " Details and items will be found in Man. 90-106 . the tices of the acknowledge his sway. cit. makes it increasingly doubtful vi'hether he can be regarded as in any sense a living. he shows them all the different fruit-trees of the jungle. and with his only son. and here he instructs them in the arts and industries of life. In the meantime those who have kept his commandments pass over the Paradise-bridge to live forever with Puluga in his Sky-Palace. This is a plausible objection. they grew more and more remiss in observing the laws of Puluga. it is distinctly through disobeying the divine command. Into this Garden of Pleasure he places the first man and woman. of the seas and the underworld. nor should we expect to find them. pp. But what is more important. It is even remarkable that enough should have leaked out of their beliefs to supply two white men with the skeleton at least of a religious creed. except a favored few who repeople the earth from Wotaemi. Pichor. Here we have the Paradisaic Sacrifice in clear outline. of any cries for help. and in doing this he commands them not to partake of certain fruits during the rainy season. with the Morovin or Sky-spirits. the idea of abstention from an otherwise legitimate gratification. & locality in South Andaman Island. Thus the Creation-legends speak of Puluga's Sky-Palace where he reigns with his numerous family. but I have already called of attention to the fact that observations of this nature are extremely difficult to make by reason of the shyness and timidity of the natives and their reserve on all matters of a private and religious nature. he is the Creator of heaven and earth. even though formal prayers in our modern sense are largely at a discount. and supplies them with the power of speech. But apart from our ignorance of the numerous legends and some of the pracAndamanese leave no room for doubt that Puluga is a real force and power in their lives. until finally he sends a great Flood and destroys them all.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM 17 Yet even with these concessions it may still be objected that the absence any disUnet cult of the alleged divinity. protection. op. through eating the forbidden fruit. personal divinity. and the like." offering up of the first fruits of the garden. Tomo and Ghana. As in Malakka. a kind of mediator or archangel.

cit. who invariably fair better than their more fortunate In so far as these practices can be proved to be in force. in the absence of all the more brutal and unnatural practices that so often disfigure the lives of many of the nature-peoples. By fasting and abstinence man offers to the Giver of all that which he prizes most dearly. they argue for a high grade of belief. at least. — 1* Further particulars on this subject in Man. however exalted. I. that the best proof for the cult of a divine Being is afforded partly by the position He occupies in the popular mind. op. that it is practical. so much better for the common-sense philosophy. we answer that the mythology of the Andamanese clearly implies such a worship. as a pledge that he and his Father are one. 45. op. even if the — — word. ^the best form of worship. with whom his people have been and are still in close communion.^* But if a complete act of religion demands some external manifestation. Surely this is a "worship". pp. we know among so little. or. itself This consciousness of a supernatural being need not express in words so much as in acts. but that he is looked upon as a Creator. he is still ruling over them. that the divinity is commensurate to produce the result. what form itself shows afflicted. in the unity and stability of the married tie. more does it take? other things in the high tone of morality that is here apparently in vogue. A simple theism is here reflected in the simple lives of a simple people. the It How then is this worship expressed in practice. surely the flrst-fruit sacrifice is such an act. 43. some visible acknowledgment of the Creator's dominion over His creatures. are reconciled. 42ff. partly by the degree in which His laws are obeyed and are a controlling force in the customs and habits of the people. he is their Father. of which direct. p. helps to make it more personal. and finally in the delicate care that is taken of the old. common-sense philosophy. a Judge. his means of subsistence. in the general security of human life. . and the brethren. Also Porttnan. they prove that such a belief brings forth good fruits. Now the above legends show with considerable force that Puluga is not a mere myth. or seems at least to accompany Him. it speaks for itself. especially as it leads to a Creator of all. a Ruler. But if these phenomena be put down as mere "nature-religion". cit. and one of the highest kind. sick. He then consumes the very object he has sacrificed as a token of union. a Lawgiver. 67S. 24.18 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM If then it is still insisted that we have no means of proving a personal worship. and the like. nor is he an ancestor or a glorified hero. It need not be clothed in words.



c. they were at an early period who was He settlers from the Ganges valley.—a helpful and benevolent being. account in every attempt to reconstruct their early religion. pp. a mere weather-doctor. Sarasin. or departed spirit or tribal chief. I would like to state briefly why I regard this being as originally more than a tribal hunter. all spirits acknowledging Him as the "Lord of the Dead". with a later infusion of Tamil blood. which leads us to expect that here at least the old Vedda beliefs should appear in their purest form. Dr. accompanied by the burning of incense.—Southern India. Among the Forest Veddas or Hennebeddas. That there are such beliefs is now unquestionable. once upon earth and taught them all they know. however. 318ff. as He still hears the petitions of his children. .* Though generally free from foreign influence. and is petitioned for temporal and spiritual favors. 2) 19 KANDE-YAKA—The Veddas. The Veddas are the last vestiges of a pre-palaeolithic race in India.^ On this subject a few concise statements will be sufficient. who may be no more than a great yaka. Ceylon Among the Forest.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (B. who intermarried with them and became the Sinhalese of the present day. and this for the following reasons : 1 Points taken from C. (arts and industries). and is in some sense omniscient. 20 (quartz-eoliths). and nothing in heaven and earth happens without his permission. Seligman. 124ff. It is true that the absence of any creation-legends makes this "mighty hunter" of the Veddas a rather weak figure. Comp. he speaks of a "Lord of the Dead". This explains the fact that many of the Veddas are decidedly advanced. Religiose Vorstellungen bei den niedrigsten Menschenformen. ^with kingship and nobility and this must be taken into invaded by — — . But when we consider the intimate relation between religious belief and public and private morals. during which He is invoked as Kande-Wanniya. op. Seligman confirms the reports of the two Sarasins that there is a pronounced worship of ancestors and cult of the dead. supra. Apparently He was without beginning and is certainly without end. Kande Yaka. 81 (family-life). The Veddas. even if his creative-power is not clearly provable. ' Seligman. who seems to stand very high in the minds of the natives. 1911). pp. 132ff. (Cambridge. we are inclined to suspend a hasty verdict on this subject and to look upon him as the relic of a better and purer state of religious consciousness. G. Nay more. 1. or "Great Master". All things are subject to Him. cit. there is still great obscurity.Veddas of the interior of Ceylon there is a cult of a personal being known as Kande-Yaka or "Great Spirit". He is pictured as an "ideal hunter". requires a sacrifice of first-fruits and animals. but whose rather unique position as the "Lord" of the lesser spirits and the object of invocation at the Fa/ca-sacrifice for protection from evil and success in hunting seems to reflect many of the negrito practices in this regard. p. but as to their nature. 30. p. we meet with very primitive traits. p.

The Veddas are a beautiful. Finally. p. slightly amended » Seligman. — this in my opinion should make us hesitate in putting down is Kande-Yaka as a mere ghost-god. and the fact that none of these nae yakas or departed spirits are addressed in precisely the same strain as the foregoing. wind. together with the high morality of the and their strictly monogamous life. take the following invocations at the Kirikoraha ceremonies. who continues to cause this rain of great drops. spirit-feeding is only too common. violence. is natives ' in parts). etc. adultery. drops from a dense cloud. Seligman. p. cause rain!" Great Master. forbidding any needless aggression. and He is unmarried. which is here con(5) spicuously high. comparatively free from the polytheistic superstructure. (3) is immortal. 144. peace-loving. etc. Long life! Long life!"^ "King of the "It is the . c. implying some notion of (4) transcendence. Biff. and it seems difficult to account for all the above facts without assuming some consciousness.' renders the theory of a purely ancestral god more and more difficult to maintain.* that there "no worship of sun or moon". * Seligman. 1. He (2) command. to the great God of the chief place of the hill. Without doubt the ancestor-cult strongly developed in this region. that none are described as the causes of natural phenomena or as having anything like the same prominence. and He has supreme finite He listens to prayer for favors that are beyond power to bestow. who continues to go unto this hill. grant your divine favor to the beautiful cooked food of this offering which I give! May it seem good to you to arrange it at the point of the arrow. 1. the fact that "no reverence is paid to heavenly bodies". of a quasi-supernatural Power.20 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (1) He is not described as having any human ancestors. The Great Master of the highest place of the hill. however bedimmed in parts. He is above all spirits. He controls rain. cit. In illustration. for it is precisely both doubtless inherited from the hybrid Sinhalese among the Hennebeddas and their more primitive kin that the simple picture of an all-bestowing Mahappa or Great Father looms up in clearer — . and highly moral race. He is the guardian of the moral conscience. gentle-mannered. op. 284-286 (Texts and Translations by H. {Kande Wanniya) whose place is on the crest of this hill. Parker. makes out footprint by footprint of excellent sambar deer!" "Long life! Long life! To the Great Master. who continues to go from hill to hill. in which the sacred cocoanut is offered to Kande Yaka: — hills. c. and seasons. The sixty-seven here referred to are nearly all bandaras or deified chiefs. who lias become the Chief of the group of the sixtyseven of the hill!" "Today. pp. . perspective.

Panay. 1. a spirit He knows all things. though in what relation we are not informed. He can do all things. XLV. p. Steen A. (Zambales. at least all things that concern man. He is invoked on certain occasions. : — He appears to dwell in a huge rock. is at : — — one instance offered only to the supreme Spirit. iW. OP. quoting Fr. The Negritos of Zambales. and are on the lowest level of culture. Negritos of North Luzon. or demonism. These are generally known as Aetas. though He goes by the name of "Maker" or "Creator" in other parts. It is therefore all-important to note that the regions examined are with one exception the most primitive in the islands. Bille. in Globus. together with many evil practices of a later age. (1884). There are elaborate exorcism-rites with dances and manipulations. (2) The feeding of the spirits of the dead is a common practice. Villaverde. 1904) p. He sees their actions at all times. The Philippine Negritos are pure only in South Luzon. our Maker!" He has instituted a sacrifice. they are strongly saturated with Malayan blood. and is therefore in some sense the guardian of the moral order. Such practices seem to point to an advanced spirit-worship. A brief consideration of these points will be sufficient. A. and the medicine-man plies a large and lucrative traffic. = Reed. with the invocation: "This for Thee!" a thanksgiving after the chase. deer-sacrifice. Reed. bananasacrifice. ^which. 1) 21 ANITO Phillipine Negritos. Negros. quoting Father Estevan Mena. He punishes the wrongdoing of man by sending diseases. Blumentritt. Against the authenticity of this belief it might be urged: least in — Neither the antiquity of the regions nor the genuineness of the (1) sources are beyond challenge. 75. I. c. and of whom the following information may be gathered from different sources tered. (Manila. North and South Luzon The material on the Philippine religion is unfortunately rather scatThere is however a great supernatural Being who is generally described as Anito in South Luzon. and more especially in North Luzon. 1852) Vol. . p. (Copenhagen. p. 65. and Mindanao. cannibalism and head-hunting. and that all ethnologists look upon the Aetas as the aborigines of the land. and as such He is the Lord of all spirits. F. 452. Reise der Corvette Galathea.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (G. when He is prayed to in low tones "Praise to the Supreme Being. and have adopted a higher type of civilisation. as at weddings. to Him directly. though sometimes offered to the minor spirits. 17-23. (1) Bataan) and in portions of the islands of Alabat. and probably the supreme Judge of mankind as a consequence. He has evidently created all things. and is greatly feared.* In all other regions. (Alabat Aetas). He is above all other spirits. but is otherwise invisible.

. substantial houses. hierarchy. the existence of spiritism in some form or another is a correspondingly prominent feature. for it is precisely from Alabat and South Luzon. 1. B. —^we — — Votive-offerings and spirit-feeding are quite unknown in these sections. The very simplicity of this nomadic cult. although degeneracy has set in among the half-breeds of North-Luzon. or circumcision-rite. a Being worshipped by prayer and sacrifice. there can hardly be any doubt as to their genuinebe some complaint of their content. c. and lead simple. that the reports of a supreme personal Divinity come to us in their strongest if simplest form. that although spirit-worship has invaded these populations in parts. or exist only as sporadic phenomena. is recognised as an Over-Lord. areas of least contamination. 1898). Vol. We know that cast-priesthoods and professional medicine-men are admittedly later elements. For antiquity.* 8 Reed 33ff. &c. however. as witness its general absence in Malakka. though the poverty of the material reported is ness. and probably Tasmania. 1899). it must also be admitted. who. the Shamanism of Western Asia finding practically no response among the Negritos in their purest state. We must remember. 1 c Montano. of the fact that so little has been reported. but there may disappointing. 71. that this task is a very difficult one. III. even as a Creator. is a guarantee of its non-Malayan origin. J.. not confined to any one section of the island group. a supreme Spirit. Meyer. that as nearly all these populations have come in contact with a later Indonesian wave of culture. nay. Schmidt. they are nevertheless precious. that the idea is continuous. A. This idea extends also into the third area. Comp.—North Luzon. however. the Andaman Islands. Voyage aux Philippines. — — It may therefore be concluded. two of them Catholic priests. the pure Aetas are a peaceable race. of its remote Here also the moral statistics are comparatively high. 61ff. Zambales and find the distinct outlines of a divinity. Central Africa.—and these from three different areas. It shows. it has not succeeded in dethroning a personal Creator in the oldest region. p. indispensable fragments. upright and virtuous lives. (Paris. (Dresden. and although the reports have come to us only in fragments. must surely carry some weight. 142ff. Die Philippinen. (2) Alabat. The testimony of three independent witnesses. p. however mysterious His nature. somewhat This means that for two very primitive areas. But even in the Philippines there are signs that the Shamanistic wave has but little affected the purest and least advanced section of the aborigines. On the other hand. ^though here the reports are equally fragmentary. use of higher musical instruments. as many of them have advanced to ranch-life. without temple.22 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM As to the sources.

we thank you for this successful hunt! Here is your share of the spoils I' This is done to feed and appease the spirits which the Negritos believe inhabit all places. takes a small part of the entrails or heart. which. this Banana-sacrifice to Anito is a forcible reminder of the Paradisaic or First-fruit sacrifice of the Andamanese.' * Reed. or some other article of food. there are interesting customs at the end of the chase which deserve to be noticed. If they do. "A bed of green rushes or cane is made on which the animal is placed and skinned. helpful or malevolent. there are several points connected with the social and religious practices of these people that deserve to be considered in greater detail. p. are not always heeded in such cases.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM 23 But if the direct reports of a supreme divinity in this region are disappointingly brief. and the supreme Being himself. and the exclamation "This for Thee!" might well be applied in this place. who has his abiding place in this rock.* It is a pity that this reporter has not supplied us with more information as to the nature of these spirits. This done. Col. is an important point in favor of their benevolence. and where the natives are still living the half-naked life of the deer-hunter which is content with the frail and collapsible windshelter. He says indeed that "all adverse circumstances. whether good or evil. bad luck or accident is sure to attend the trip". but dead ancestors. p. the head man of the party. 1. 2) The Negritos op Zambales In the Zambales region. unsuccessful hunts. p. Negritos of Zambales. Be this as it may. at the same time chanting in a monotone a few words which mean 'Spirits. cuts it into fine bits and scatters the pieces in all directions. Reed has described the ceremony in a few forcible words. the spirits are not much considered". and the ceremony is never neglected". ' Reed. c. or the most important man present. failure of crops. and it appears that these spirits are not demons. which is best known to us. which the Negritos believe to be the home of One powerful Spirit. 6S. But more than all. c. . Vaiaverde's report of the Negritos of North Luzon (above). are attributed to them.' This has the suspicious ring of the "Creator" of the Alabats. called Anito. 48. the author goes on to say that "there is a huge black bowlder. and is in any case an interesting find. 1. and that so long as things go well.' But even good spirits. sickness. 65. with the hunting formula mentioned above. ' Taken from Fr. and that the spirits of all who die enter this one Spirit. as they may help to shed some valuable light on nature of the belief and the power it has to enforce the moral law by sanctions more or less rigorous. * Reed. No Negrito ever passes this rock without leaving a banana. (C.

and for amusement. p. he got an arrow through both legs from savage Negritos along the trail who could have known nothing of the occurrence. " See Reed's photographs. of imploring His mercy. before he had gone far. with a direct Judge. spurned it by kicking it with his foot and eating part of a banana and throwing the rest in the opposite direction. they placed the sacred Banana with the evident hope of securing some favor. pompadour-type may be clearly distinguished. 65. He is the Master of human destiny." 8 Reed. "unshaved" Negrito is seen at his — best. harmless enough in their way. but of whose inner nature we are still left in the dark. and. " Reed. Senor Lesaca.^ This incident is given for what it is worth. once passed this rock.24 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM In connection with tliis ceremony. 37-38. they obtain a "sacred" character analogous to the Malakkan tubes (q. for if the dead can obtain favors. c. they do not pass into lower animals. nexion with the divinity.* This also implies that Anito listens to prayer. For Anito has a direct control of human life. it is because someone has cut down a tree or killed an animal belonging to a spirit which has invoked the aid of the supreme Spirit in inflicting a more severe punishment than it can do alone". pp. 1.). that He is invoked by His needy ones. together with other "charm-tubes" of the variety that we have already In so far as these articles are brought into concertified for Malakka.*" Such in brief is the picture of Anito. 1. sure enough. But in the absence of any clear proof to this effect and the far greater development of spiritism. v. It is also worth noting that here too the so-called "Magic Comb" is in use. so surely can the living. The Negritos were much concerned and said that something would happen to him. but of no definite religious import. where the original "Reed. ibidem. the lesser ones from the lesser anitos. but it shows that there was something peculiarly sacred to these people in the mysterious rock. If smallpox visits a rancheria. and where. as upon a gigantic altar. . Of course this only strengthened the belief. It is here in the Philippines that the pure. "Disease is considered the punishment for wrong-doing. we have reasons to suspect that most of these objects are mere "good-luck" amulets. a being who is evidently transcendent. and greatly to the horror of the Negritos with him—. Col. in which the Great Anito was believed to be present. the more serious diseases coming from the supreme Anito. Moreover it is distinctly stated that the dead return to Anito. c. Reed tells us that the present governor of Zambales. which is one more proof that we are dealing with a strong personality.



the discoveries of Dr. with the simple invocation: Ama-ka! Bali-Penya-longI "Our Father in Heaven!" — — few preliminary remarks on this subject will be necessary. and paler in color than most tribes. p. And first. which can only be remedied by collating all the designations for divinity both here and among the neighboring Kenyahs. IL pp. 1912). all these are aboriginal symptoms which. black. as Het has supreme control over human life. are grouped in small communities and inhabit the dense jungle at the head-waters of the principal rivers of Borneo. (J. but live on whatever they can find in the jungle. There is here an apparent discrepancy. XXXI. though they furnish a sufficient basis for drawing conclusions of considerable value when coupled with the remaining data. as to the name of the divinity. I. Charles Hose and W. Abali (Amaka). see below. The Pagan Tribes of. Doh Penyalong. For the work of Dr. 173-213). and even these are confined to the barest essentials. Head-hunters. C. (London. who is a specitd He is the destiny. (For ethnology and religious beliefs). Haddon. and are moreover a genial and attractive race. a "Mother-Mediator". Idem. A absence of a higher stone or metallic industry. of whom the following information may be gathered : — supreme Governor of the world and the Master of human and knows all things. variously known as Amei. together with their bamboo implements and blowpipes. 1 Vol. From this it will appear that Aba (Ama). He has a female partner. (London. A. H. 1896). firestick. Nieuwenhuis being very important. of moderate height. Vol. to the Spice — Islands. 1901). 1901. BaMngo. connect them with the central Malakkan and also with the Philippine region. The Relation between men and animals in Sarawak. among which the throwing up of blood and the offering up of the sacred blossom of the betel-palm are the most distinctive. Nieuwenhuis. He is a Thunder-God and a "Father in Heaven". McDougall. The wild "Punans". Unfortunately there are only two white men that have supplied us with any exact details of their religious beliefs. They do not cultivate the soil. as we shall see. pp. and Kalamantans. . 185-186. Kayans. at least in so far as they concern the human race. and brown. white. Balingo (Tamei. Vol. or Bali Penyalong. p. He is a good being. 27. (London. 1) 25 AMAKA The Forest Dayaks op Central Borneo Among the wild inhabitants of the interior of Borneo there is a belief in a mysterious being. He has instituted their sacred rites and observances. L London. 320flf. p. Ling Roth. Borneo. The Natives of Sarawak and British North-Borneo. They may therefore be classed as "primitives" in the best sense. Bali. They are a slender race. which makes their study a doubly interesting one. the form Amaka extending. to whom they have access in all their needs. A. 1-19. Tamaka). 16ff. He sees patroness of women. or "Bakatans". Leaf -hut. and is evidently their Judge. are fundamental for this region. both helpful and benevolent. scarcity of clothing.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITrVE FORM (D. far into the Molukkas. (for general ethnology).

They are a cheerful and bright people. p. op. they are not head-hunters. » Haddon. terms equally well known to the wild forest-folk. apud Ling-Roth.'' Again. Pagan Tfibes. In this manner Aba-lingo is probably the original of Balingo. Brooke. "worship the Supreme Being (sic) as the Kenyas do. This being is probably conceived anthropomorphically but they make no images in human form. 320-321. 17. I. and truth-loving God as the author and keeper of the public conscience." This is an attractive picture. and the blossom of the Betel-Palm is solemnly offered to the Aba-lingo.26 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM Thus the reported by Hose and McDougall as Bali-lutong can more primitive elements. as it tends to reveal a moral.^ It is certainly noteworthy that one of the few prayers so far recorded should be addressed directly to Him. easily be dissected into name "The Punans". (evidently the same being). and they address Him as Bali-lutong. and they do not look for guidance or answer to prayer in the entrails of animals". . the high thunder-god of the neighboring Kenyas. Pagan Tribes. who seems to be the principal object of their trust. op. 121. (innocent of vices. Compare Hose. Hose-McDougall. 180 » * Idem.* This seems to reveal an extraordinary power for help. Moreover. and moderately truthful. "the term bali is only applied to a being having special powers of the sort that we should call supernalural". p. Men and Animals. peaceful. I 175 (no cannibalism). and we do not — — know that Bali-Penyalong is supposed by them to have a wife — ^their rites involve no animal sacrifices. who are very fond of their children and kind to the women". in which the roots ab-bor ling-long-lung reappear in many of the above word-combinations. cit. the "Spirit-Father-in-Heaven". writes Dr. "indeed no human being is addressed or spoken of with the title bali". Their medicine-men are sometimes called in by people of other tribes and enjoy a high reputation". II. 19S. 196. 186. But it is impossible to appreciate this subject without comparing them with their next-door neighbors. as when at the common sacrificial ceremony the ritual fires are lighted. 189 (hatred of crocodiles). signifying Father. High. and like all other peoples they believe themselves to be surrounded by spirits which may be harmful to them. the Bali-Penyalong. primitive family life). though the word bali has also a secondary technical sense of "spirit" or "soul". for neither the crocodile nor the omen bird are of any serious significance in this ceremony. Master. II. They have similar ideas with regard to the soul of man and its destination after death. Pagan Tribes. 84. Clouds. "Idem. "The Punans are very mild savages. p. cit. 29. II. do not keep slaves. as I shall presently show. the Kenyas and Kayans. "The Bakatans are not cannibals". are generous to one another. Hose. etc. Men and Animals. and probably never do any injury by making a false statement. Heaven. "They pray to Bali-Penyalong.

. and the lowest in point of culture. p. (2 Vols. a hen or a pig slaughtered. allruling Spirit or Bruwa. Leyden. p. and the women pray to Do Tenangan. & Comp.—Amaka's place of heavenly delights. At death the good are carried to Apu Lagran. Here the "Blood-Brotherhood" is firmly established. 100-103. p. in which fires are lighted. Leyden. 112-132. 98-99. Tamaka). »IbiA p. M* . having innumerable spirits under His sway. Nteuwenhuis. is of considerable value. 139-141. A.* But the most distinctive feature is the cult of the Hawk. his wife". who is the "High Father" of the Kayans. pp. 184-185. with the words Bali Penyalong to take away all sickness from us and to keep us from all harm!" ' accompanied by the flame and smoke of the ritual flres and the sprinkling of the worshippers and the image of Bali Penyalong with the blood of the bird. who made the first human pair. which is never killed or eaten. Hose. 1900) VoL t. and an egg offered to him with the invocation: "This is for thee to eat! Carry my message directly to Laki Tenangan. who induces a rice-famine in the earthly Paradise. which makes it probable that they embody a very similar belief. and Bali Penyalong is "the supreme Being to whom the Kenyahs pray for guidance in important undertakings. but somewhat differently worded. "Ibid p. Idem. but he is a mediator between God and man. Here also the hen and the egg are sacrificed. 189-190.. "when each of the two men drinks or smokes in a cigarette a little of the other's blood drawn with a bamboo knife". who punishes the violations of the moral law. Here Balingo is distinctly the god of thunder. while the women pray to Doh Penyalong. I. or 'Grandfather Tenangan'. but is offered in "0 Spirit of this bird Ask sacrifice to Bali-Penyalong. Quer durch Borneo. 17S. This report. In Centraal Bomett. But the most important point in this ceremony is the fact that the omen-bird is not in itself the divinity.^ Among the Kayans we find the same fundamental ideas. furnished by an eminent scientific expert. (2 vols.** 10 and Animals. an omen-bird. Adja and Djaja. (This is a short English version of the original Dutch and German report). his wife". « Ibid. For the Kalai^atitsiilS) see the Bakatans above. W. as is clear from the sacrificial rite. and foods are wrapt in bananaleaves and liquids offered in bamboo-cylinders to the Great To. as less professional it tends to corroborate the findings of authors and to supply us with something approaching to a native story of world-origins. who is an all-knowing. "Like the Kenyahs they worship a supreme Being under the name of Laki Tenangan. that I may become well.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM 27 Of these the Kenyahs are the nearest blood-relations of the Bakatans. 177. who spins the world out like a spider. and mxiy train my children in the patfi of right living!" In the parallel account furnished by Dr. or "Universal Spirit". p. 192. 1904) Vol. Here Laki Neho appears under the form of the Hawk. Nieuwenhuis it is Amei Tingei (intensitive Amxika. : — but that "they look upon the hawks as messengers or intermediaries between themselves and Bali Penyalong". «Hose.

11.'. Again. who sends guidance and warnings by the omen-birds. >2 Ibid. p: 202-212. an important point. I. But as to the purity and authenticity of this belief. with a numerical preponderance of the argues for a degree of continence and sexual self-control that is surprising among a people on such a low level of culture.28 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM Now in collating all this evidence it seems to be clear that the belief a supreme personal Being shines through the different mythologies in a manner which makes it quite impossible to confound Him with any bird. with all the animistic practices that it implies. but this is not "totemism". pp. p. His female "partner" being prominent only among the Kenyahs and the more advanced tribes. and is quite unimportant among the Bakatans or lowest aborigines of the land. and we cannot conclude without saying something as to the possible origin of this conception of a beneficent Being. But we do not think that vieiv is tenable. and the equality of conjugal rights between latter. while it is a dead one the Ibans or Sea-Dayaks. directly or indirectly. 1910). Vol. (Vienna. eat'. In Centraal Borneo. nor is the "spirit" of a pig. however sacred. shows a steady decrease the more we penetrate into the primitive zone. Comp. the hawk or omenbird becomes less conspicuous the more we delve into the jungle. more powerful than all the others. least of all among the Bakatans. is shunned and avoided. With that exception there is probably no vsfild animal of the jungle that the Punans do not kill and The crocodile. W. As a fact. beast. and who receives and answers prayers carried to Him by the souls of the fowls and pigs. Schmidt." "Hose and McDougall. man and woman. "The prevalence of the beliefs in a supreme Being" says Hose. It might be thought that this concept had been borrowed. from the Malays." And the authors emphasise the fact that this is a living belief among the wild forest-men. close to Malay influence. griticism. also P. "tends to prevent the development of totemism. Again. Men and Animals. 195. or any other animal invoked in order to obtain mystic communion with Him. it is to be noted that there is no organised totemism among any of the natives. " Nieuwenhuis. The simple "Our Father" of the jungle-folk has little or no connection with the omen-bird. lOO. while the general absence of nature and ancestor-worship is at least equally striking. 12. Mythologie der Austronesischen Volker. . This shows that divination. (Translation from the Outch). 23ff. p. He is sexless and wifeless." Jor which reason we are amply justified in contending for a pure and lofty cult of divinity. for further . far from Malay influence. and one upon which Archdeacon Perham concurs.^^ Moreover "It is doubtful whether those of the aboriginals who have mixed least with the other peoples pay any attention to the omen-birds.— "Highly significant as against other Dayak — — tribes is the complete fidelity to the marriage-tie among the Bahau (or wild men of the interior). or tribal ancestor.

. Batara. ^*P. 477ff. c. 1. II. p. while Pcdinge is too suspiciously near Kalangi not to reveal the fundamental meaning of Pa-lingo as the "Fatherin-Heaven". Tonteniboansche Teksten. offers them a stone and a banana. Vol. apparent. and F. 469. (1894) p. out of stone. Among the Makassars and Buginese of Southern Celebes we find AdjiPatoto as the "Ruler of Destiny". A. 126. " Schwartz-Adriani. Part II. He is prayed to by gods and men. 1907). The latter makes two human beings. "the Lord" who descends from heaven in a bamboo and prepares a paradise for man there is evidence to show that they were originally free from the sex-relation. who has made heaven and earth. Here I-M is the common Austronesian I-laki. as we shall presently see. vs^hich cannot but remind us of the betel-fruit offerings above. and breathes into them the breath of life. or "backwoodsmen". p. Sarasin. Wilken. He conducts them to a high mountain. The latter is a female. He forms the background of the Minahassa Though apparently one of the sons of Lumimu'ut. his position as the "Lord of Heaven" and his identification with Muntu'untu. and He is the Helper of man and the Ruler of human destiny. A67B. Idem (Hague. with whom is associated Datu-Palinge as the "Creator" of the world. (Wiesbaden. (the mountainpeak) "the Great Master. the "Highest One". and have a divine child. Het Animisme in den Indischen Archipel {Leyden.^" A similar tradition is preserved by the Toradjas of the interior. and is acknowledged as the Lord by all the gods". religious statistics are as yet very meagre. Though these deities are apparently married. the "Mother Earth". man and woman. . and a being called Samoa takes the place of the demiurge. or I-langi. Materialien zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Insel Celebes. and where the phonetic analogy with Kalangi is once more — . For the Toalas. and through choosing the banana they have lost the gift of immortality. The authors speak vaguely of a tree-cult w^ith sacrifice. — . 337. p. 339flf.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (D. seems to reveal a distinct notion of transcendence. 232ff. Also. 1905) Vol. " G. Here also He is the center of a "tree-cult with sacrifice".^' Kalangi himself. (Leyden. Kruyt. C. of which Ka-langi as the "Chief" or Creator of Heaven is but a variation. 1885) p. V. 1906) p. Mededeeligen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelingsgenootschap." Fortunately the deficiency can be supplied in part by the neighboring tribes. which as Yalangi means nothing less than "I am in Heaven" (the Great "I AM"?)." But as to traditions of Northern Celebes. i^Kruyt.2) 29 The Toalas and Toradajas op Celebes These conclusions are seen to be still further corroborated by the existence of a common form Kalangi as the designation for the "Heavenly One" among the aborigines of Central Celebes. it is true. but AdjiPatoto suggests "Fatherhood". among whom I-lai and In-dara figure as the "Father-Mother"-God.

though their creative power is here no longer as vivid.is always subordinate to Adja. etc) are identical terms. sexless. which shows that Amaka-Balingo-Kalangi is essentially causative. The natives say that they came down from heaven. its reduplicated or syncopated form appearing in all combinations with Ba." — It will now be seen with what right we have identified the forms Aba. as the origineil designations for the divine "Fatherhood" throughout the central Indonesian zone. "Life". "Father in Heaven" as the universal basic form. has its source. Vpu Langi.30 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (D. both of whom are invoked on solemn occasions. ('s Gravenhage. the "Father" of All. The same tradition is found among ihe natives of Burn. Ka-lingo. p Slff. Pu. Pa. Ka-langi. and who lives in the place where Anin. Schmidt. showing that He is distinct and above the creation and above His female "mediator". which was planted on the mountain summit of an island in the West. Dara. and an Earth-mother. These are invoked by the common expression Aamina Lanito. Ka. which however was planted by Amaka. It is He that carries on a continual war against thunder and lightning. Ama-ka. Bu. Mu. Ka and Ta are for the most part intensitive or from which we get Ka-ri. Austronesische Mythologie. Langiseries is fundamental for "Heaven". Pa-lingo. (Compare also Lowa-Langi of the Niassians). "Clouds". sluik-en kroes-harigen rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua. Ab or is one of the earliest roots for "father" in existence. "Light". For Ceram Frederik Riedel reports of a Heaven-god. Apu. "Father-Mother-Heaven". where Vbun Langi and Ubun Sanane are evidently synonymous with the above. Do. On the other hand Da. Ama. 94ff . 68. etc.3) The Ceramese-Amboina Group. Adjam. pp. the idea of "thunder" being a secondary notion expressive of power. as "Blood". *» Further discussion in W. Adji. Vpu Tapene. Ma. Pu-lingo (perhaps Pu-luga?) Ma-amba. men springing out of the Kanari-tree. Djadja. and so on.. De 7." w Fr. others that they sprang out of the Nunu-tree. Ta. Vpu. 1886) Riedel. etc. which shows that both are equally heavenly. as the male "governor". —Southern Molukkas Finally we have the mixed Malayan and Papuan populations of the eastern Spice Islands. a species of fig. Mu-lungu. such as Ba-lingo. "Creator". Ta-ma~ka. signifying "Great Father". etc. among whom we find the same mythological concepts in all their essentials. "Female Principle". the collateral forms Vpu Lanito and Upu Vme revealing the fact that Amaka and Upu {Apo. Amaka. 11. the wind. 23. SS. Am Mu-untu. etc. Chawah. 160ff. while the La. which in combination with the A6a-notion reveals Aba-Langi. This is further emphasized by the Amaka Lanito and the Inaka Utne of the Amboina-group. Tdmaka.

This is suggested by the fact that the astral triad. which extends from here to Tasmania on the one side. and earth. That the former overshadows the latter. Vol. he seems to be an eternal being. De sluik-en kroes-harigen rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua. and to whom they still pray and offer wild fruits. being a triple invocation to Boitai as the "Lord of the sun. p. Dyabu-vulan. 89ff. however. 82. and earth. Austronesische Mythologie. to wit.^ That this is really the case is rendered increasingly certain by the testimony of Baron Van Hoevell. once more a divine couple. to whom they have continual access in prayer. but the following points should be noted: in which appears that they worship an "Abuda" or "Father"-Boitai. We leave Indonesia proper and enter the enormous domain of Papuasia. "0 Moon. that the astral mythology has made considerable inroads in these regions. the former of here vaguely "Lordship". and is a supra-mundane being. 1) 31 ABUDA—The Aru Islanders. 1 Fr. in laran. W. — — — titles will show that the position of sun. Boitai is therefore an abu. moon. to be sure. and in his triple manifestation He is in fact an Abuda. » Comp. purely descriptive and complementary. is of very little significance in this region. but in which the idea of a single divine personality is clearly revealed. to whom I am indebted for these references. who distinctly states that there is no vestige of an organised sun-cult on the — islands. ('sGravenhage. the Lord of the moon. p. New Guinea In crossing the Molukkas we have already entered the "black" region. and to Fiji and New Caledonia on the other.* I am prepared to admit. as the ancestor of all the frizzly-haired Papuans. —^Arapura Bay. being entirely eclipsed by Boitai. the Papuan type begins to assume the ascendancy. At the same time an analysis of Dyabu reveals once more the two roots dya and abu. moon. Of the aborigines of the Aru Islands we have as yet little knowledge. "who under these islands". the "Lady" of the Sea. which is only to be expected from their growing contact with higher cultures. and Taidue. Schmidt.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (E. doubtless a later addition to the more abu which we have already identified as the "father"-root in the earliest zone." a suggestive prayer. . the "Lord" of the Earth. XXXIII (1890). Taal-Land-en Volkenkundt. in which He is invoked in astronomical language. Ind.formula. Riedel. Though pictured as a man. a "Life-giver". what is Dyabumore probable. an "Oldest One". etc. is either subordinate. and the Lord of the earth. may be inferred from the conjuration. Lord-Sun! Thou who seest all things that are in Heaven and Earth!" An inspection of His It lives at the foundation. which is surprising in view of the confused racial and religious character of these which is primitive peoples. Dyabu-vava. or. sun.

and there may even be recognition of a supreme deity. the woolly hair. (London. . There is no ancestor-cult or ceremonial spirit-worship. Death appears to be regarded as a natural event. Monogamy is usual and women are not ill-treated. being always small. if such exist. Harrison. however.. though the information gained is sufficient to show that they fall into line with other negritos scattered in small groups over Conspicuous a wide but discontinuous area of the earth's surface. there will be no departure from the prevailing Amongst these. It will rison : "In the case of the Tapiro of tain New Guinea recently discovered by Cap- Rawling and his colleagues. we are » H. totemism and clan-systems are wanting or simplicity. and the broad head. hereditary chieftainship is apparently unknown. but in some cases at least a belief in supernatural beings is known to prevail. they are ulotrichous melanic brachicephals of an average height of less than five feet. the Semang of parts of the Malay Peninsula. S. rudimentary. the dark skin. To use the language of science. and the agreement with other pygmy groups. H. and the social groups partake of the nature of family associations.' Speaking of their social and religious customs. on the neRrito-question. among the physical characters of the Tapiro are the low stature. Andaman Islands.* But as we have no knowledge to the forced to turn of the Tapiro beliefs as such. The former are usually called Negritos. 266-267. The following is from the pen of Dr. The same definition may be applied to certain pygmy-tribes found in regions not far distant. HarOf the tion. in Rawling. he says "We have no information as to the manners and customs. 2) The Tapiros. circumstances prevented anything but a preliminary survey.—North-West Netherlands New Guinea newly discovered Tapiros we have as yet no definite informabe useful. and the latter are often spoken of as Negrillos. p. though platform and social or tribal organisation of the Tapiro.32 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (E. adjacent areas for further enlightenment. 275. The Negrito-group has hitherto included only the Andamanese of the . to call attention to a few anthropological and ethnological data which may serve as a help for correctly estimating their religious position. * Ibid. and the Acta of the Philippines. . The Land of the New Guinea Pygmies. for which the only native name is that of Tapiro". and burial of the dead in the ground is customary. 1913) p. To these must now be added the negritos of Dutch New Guinea. but if they are in tree-burial are occasionally practiced in some groups". S. . and not as the result of witchcraft or sorcery. and also in Central Africa. the villages.

. "They forbidden to eat the casuar forever". my father. p. their semi-nomadic life and loose social organisation being based exclusively on "natural" or clan standard. my sisters. my mother. who lives in the heavens and has no temples or sculptured representations.. on the German side of the great continental divide. and look upon my wife. V. Father Schmidt. the mother runs into the forest and shrieks to Wonekau as follows: Wonekau! Thou art good! Go. and tell the whites. and in their own way. but let their own story. "When a child has been lost in the back-woods. and in . as he says. has arrived at the sixth or eighth year. directs the destinies of man. The is following conversation with one of the aboriginals certainly interest- ing:— "Has Wonekau lived in heaven for a long time. They acknowledge a supreme ieing whom they call Awona-kawa or Wonekau. my fellow-beings!" It is fortunate that in this case we have the direct reports of a very reliable witness. my friends. as follows haven't told I me" was the answer. "but am — — : 'Anthropos. my uncles. 1029ff. 3) 33 AWONA-KAWA The Karesau-Islanders of German New Guinea This deficiency can now be supplied by the Karesau-Islanders. — — . with eyes raised to heaven. which. These peoples are sufficiently low to have been the bearers of an aboriginal Papuan faith. and gone to the coast to live with the whites. was most them tell careful not to suggest anything to the minds of the natives. the Creator of all. my brothers. the Rev. and is appealed to in all important undertakings. and providential being. including women and children assist offering of fruits and animals. benevolent. who inhabit the coast region directly to the north-east. approaches nearest to the primitive Organised totemism is here unknown. D. my cousins. my aunts. "When a child. The same report will be found. who. where. but is himself an invisible. showing that the idea of timeless duration was not absent. forever?" . as we have seen.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (E. He is solemnly invoked in the following strain: "0 Wonekau! Come down. that my child must come back!" ^this apropos of the fact that the child had left the maternal hearth. supplemented part corrected in Austronesische Mythologie. my children. all of which are points favorable to a lofty cult of divinity. and spirit and ancestorworship at a minimum. S. In this He is distinguished from the ancestor-spirits who He is recognised as the Maker if not live in the marea or spirit-house. the fatheriells him all iaboiit Wonekau and what He demands. 117-119. II. At the end of the initiation-ceremony for there is an youths in which all. headmanship. in their own words. known as the Charles-Louis range or the Victor-Emmanuel mountains. who is very powerful. (190S) p. (as long as time lasts).

are they under the earth?".34 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM "They are not to steal arrows. Is not 'Gott' the same as your Wonekau and our Wonakau?" A more conspicuous proof of the originality of a religious system could hardly be of desired. after being warned by his fellows with the words. who. which accords well with His heavenly character. "I don't know". partly by the phrasesees all things. When a man has finished a difficult piece of work. I have suggested Awona-kawa as the original Wonekau. you must not do that. you must give back the woman". This would give the meaning "Father on High". It is still too early to say how far these lofty notions extend into the interior. The Lord Wonekau is already seeing you". Wonekau has made it so". But if people do steal. is one of the many surprises to which we are gradually becoming accustomed in other regions. this report must be pronounced as one of the most well-supported and epoch-making in the entire "black" belt. But what is more important. they answer: "You mustn't laugh. its native origin. He makes the Pleiades and the stars!" and so on. At night the men gather together on the sea-shore. Children for the first time trained in the mission-school of Tumleo involuntarily exclaimed: "Now You boys of Dallmannhafen! it comes out that father was right after all. The Pleiades and the stars are shining. cocoa-nuts. it seems to be fully established. Taking it all together. and one of which our Catholic missionary fathers may well be proud. but the first pillars of the bridge have been constructed connecting the Aru Islands with Dutch and German New Guinea. He is very good. Further evidence of the moral nature of this being is furnished by the story of the adulterer. "That comes from Wonekau. or other things. When strangers are amused at their native customs. He is invisible. who helped him". Wonekau. no one may steal the wife of another. but are consigned to the flames". — — — — : — ology of the legends. a borrowing from Christian sources is directly repudiated by the natives themselves. partly by the isolation of the natives. As to the authenticity of this belief. The discovery of a monotheistic and monogamous people among the "barbarous and bloodthirsty Papuans". hitherto regarded as irreducible. . "Where are these flames. they say. "Friend. Our land is very good. is finally reproved by the leader with the strong allocution "Friend. they are not taken by Wonekau into His palace in Heaven. This is a great year. and one tells the story of Wonekau under the light of the stars: "Men and fellow beings! We are in existence! (Just think of it). I will say nothing more to you. for Wonekau though He cannot be seen Himself.

" • R. of Cambridge. Williamson. Philippines). or may be a spirit. A. C. and ask to be told in what direction he travelled. Nevertheless. who are the controlling power of Melanesian religion. he has no external cult. and they have no fear of them". . They believe that it was Chidibey who taught them all their customs. *Idem. 264-265.' They know of a semi-divine being called Chi-di-bey. but they have no doubt as to this. England. but they have no ceremonies with reference to these. 4) 35 CHIDIBEY—The Mafulu Negritos op British New Guinea Of the Mafulus of North-West British New Guinea a few interesting have been collected by Mr. »Idem. the fact that many of them are of mixed Melanesian blood and have naturally borrowed some of their customs. Williamson. who is without fixed habitation. they always point out one which is from east to west. (they appear to be vague as to this). They regret his having left the country. This agrees well with the primitive culture of the Mafulu. Wherever you may be. Anito of the dwells or manifests his presence on certain rocks. who (Comp. he has ceded all his rights to the more popular "spirits". such as cannibalism and ghostworship (though only to a limited extent). he has lost the role of Creator. 1912). pp. including dancing and manufacture. if you speak of this personage. have no ceremonies or observances with reference to him. who teaches them all they know.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (E. whose crude bamboo industry and non-totemic organisation is in such facts contrast to the perfected stone civilisation of the Melanesians. where he is now living. who "may be a mem. and that he ultimately reached and remained in the land of the white man. £ind do not address to him any supplications. The Mafulu Mountain People of British New Guinea (London. 266ff. who has immense power. who is a benevolent being. and they do not regard him as still continuing to exercise any influence over them and their affairs. Haddon. and that the superior knowledge of the white man has been acquired from him. Robert W. this will explain the fact that the above divinity is no longer untarnished.'' It is impossible to read this report without being reminded of the old negrito Heaven-God. W. Note:— I have adopted the spelling Chi-di-bey as the phonetic equivaJent of the original Tsi-di-be. whose valuable work on the social and religious condition of that people has been commended by Prof. One of the Fathers of the mission was seriously asked by a native whether he had ever seen Chidibey {\) They seem to think that he is essentially a beneficent being. and who once passed through their country in a direction from east to west. who has "immense power". p. As traces of his passage through their country they will show you certain extraordinarily shaped rocks and stones.

it must be offset bythe fact that in practice he is hardly more than a dead ancestor. the Spider. his helpmate. "It is certain". though in view of Mafulu "primitiveness". 145fF. he is helpful and good-natured. it seems more of totemism. Perhaps the nearest approach to him will be found in Quat of the Banks Islands". 266ff. if not a supreme being. (Oxford. whose worship has been lost by spiritism. 266. that I may go on a safe sea! Beat down the waves. •Idem." Now it is this uniqueness and isolation among all other manistic taboos of the Papuo-Melanesian belt. Their Anthropology and Folklore. Schmidt. cit. Codrington. of ghost-dance probable that he is the wreck of a former Amaka^god. Austronesische Mythologie. Williamson. p. — — .. The Melanesians. with the above divinity. however. as follows "Qxmt-Marawa! Look down upon me! Prepare the sea. winds. darkness. he is a married divinity with eleven brothers but apparently no sons. a mere phantom. . Mr. 128. that I may come to a safe harbor!" While this has an inspiring ring. storms. 141. op. 107. "Comp. makes the existence of some interconnexion in the remote past an almost certain proposition. and though his name is invoked in the hour of need. p. though at times facetious. pp. « R. H. says Codrington. 1891). he is the Quat or "Lord" of the Underworld. His character. of reincarnation-doctrine. certified for New Guinea and highly probable for Melanesia. he has been confused with the tribal ghost. "that he was believed to have made things in another sense from that in which men could be said to have made them. He is but one of a multitude of vui. the "SpiderMoon". who is in every sense his duplicate. and certainly a personal one. (Central Melanesia)." light. money. is generally pure and noble. "Williamson. It is possible of course that the Mafulu divinity may be a faint echo of Quat. it is always coupled with that of Marawa.* Though born or evolved from a stone. and even human life are occasionally sacrificed. he is treated and fed like a disembodied spirit. Williamson writes "I have been unable to find an account of any spiritual or partly spiritual being associated with the beliefs of Papuans or Melanesians who can be regarded as similar to Chidibey. "Idem. 154-158. he is a vui or pow^erful spirit. and has taught men the arts. ^which seems to reveal a rather superior. which together with the strong Negrito strain. to whom flrst-fruits.. rains.—a. 159ff. pp. 5) QUAT-MARAWA—CENTRAL MELANESIA This is illustrated by the figure of Quat-Mamwa. absence of high stone culture.36 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (E. — : : — — — . but whose unique personality still survives in the popular mind. 69. quondam deity of the tribes inhabiting the Banks Islands. . pp. 90.* Nevertheless he is associated with Maraiva. He has fixed the natural condition of things in the world.^" By comparing him. a coUaborateur in the act of creation or a possible demiurge. seasons He has made man out of clay and woman out of supple twigs".



72 (address). there is excessive anthropomorphism. supra. (London. Ridley. p. in "Folkpp. (Denial of divine attributes). lA. . the leader of the tribe. Hartland. Inst. Darling and Murray-river tribes. — important : (a) Baiame of the Kamilaroi. 4-5. 1. 3? —South Eastern Belt offers an enormous field for sociological For our present purposes. c.^ Baiame rewards the good and punishes the wicked both here and hereafter. 1. Extreme South. in Journ. 1904). loc.' (2) It has been suggested that Baiame is nothing but a deified hero. ' Parker. (F) (1) BAIAME. 17.* Baiame instils reverence and fear in a manner which is not shared by any other being. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. are inconsistent with any ideas of a Supreme Being. or Initiationfol- Rite. VII. p. McDonald.^^ It is therefore on the face of it that missionary influence — — — — unlikely that this picture is of any real value. however. pp. * Parker. affection. reverence. c. untranslated). p. He is "very. — — as when "Baiame. Father of All!" is invoked at the Bora. 79-80 (Baiame-song. the theory of apotheosis. 1. (London. ^ Langloh-Parker. 79. duty. South Coast (e) Mungan-ngaua of the Kurnai.— Kamilaroi.' To Baiame alone prayers are ofTered and the sacrifice of obedience. pp. "He can do what He wishes". Vol. Kamilaroi. and linguistically connected with the so-called "primaeval" area. lore". Let us consider them one by — one. Cp. Parker.^ Baiame knows all things. Journ.. p. and (d) Daramulun of the Yuin-Kuri. 2 » E. ethnically. Thomas in "Man".GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (F) Australia-Tasmania. SOO-SOl. p. "He who made all things is Baiame".^ The "High Gods" of Australia may be conveniently grouped as follows.* Baiame can do all things.—that region of the far South-East that faces Tasmania and is generally credited with being one of the most primitive haunts of man in existence. Dec. c. « W. Inland Basin. (Sydney. W.^" (3) Baiame's "wives". the old theory of importation again. 46. but never older". 506-507. (c) Bundjil of the Kulin. Creator? For Baiame. p. The Euahlayi Tribe. etc. B. it will be sufficient to treat of those tribes only that are racially. W. Tylor. Instit. and Archdeacon Gunther. Anthrop. Howitt. * McDonald and Gunther. 8-9 (prayer). 24-33. Vol. * McDonald. XXI. pp. 257. 283-299 (Limits of savage religion). He is "all-seeing Spirit". (1905). cit. and (b) Nurrundere of the Narrinyeri. 1866). Gippsland. 1898. 9. but is apparently marred by the lowing defects taken from different points of view: (1) It has been said that these tribes are no longer "primitive" and is not improbable. ^who has been invested with supernatural honors in order to magnify the tribe-consciousness. very old. i» Howitt. 1905). " E. c. c. however rudimentary. cited by N. Anthrop. 136. 1. and these are only the most The continent of Australia study. (Exaggeration of human attributes). —Great — — —the following information is to hand : Baiame is eternal. 491.' All this savors of high theism. New South Wales One. S. "hunting-expeditions".* Baiame has made all things. 1.

Anthropologic der Naturvolker.38 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM Let us see to what extent these objections are justified. i» 1* Religion. the general sparsity of clothing in spite of a more rigorous climate. (London. For if a later wave of prehistoric influence must be admitted. Parker writes: Baiame in whispers by a very old native. said to have been already greyhaired. our greatest authority. Here the evidence gives no uncertain sound. 5. 1901). p. (ten years before the missions). A. . for a social and religious mixture. c. But He was a worshipful being. Thomas. A different question is that of the native origin of the beliefs. 25. IV. S04-50S. the grass apron. as (he) and all my informants aver". pp 796-798. while the existence of a different circle of ideas will argue just as strongly for their introduction from a higher culture. when Sir Thomas Mitchell discovered the Narran in 1846. (Leipzig. (summary). the Tasmanian. Langloh-Parker. emphatically denies importation. They have an elaborate totemic system with four matrimonial classes. they live in more solid structures. If certain features of this mythology can be proved to be common to the lowest Negrito and Tasmanian belt. revealed in the mysteries. or at least to be strongly associated with it. must therefore be prepared for something anomalous. Vol. long before missionaries came. This is revealed by their approximation to the Tasmanian type and by the fact that there is a strong under-current of very primitive culture which agrees very ill with an advanced stone-civilisation. Tylor's objection that no savage mind is capable of such "advanced" thought is directly contradicted by the testimony of Lang. Wait*. provided these ideas can be shown to be peculiar to that culture. Magic and Thomas loc. ^^ Langloh-Parker. and have discovered the art of making flint implements of palaeolithic and even neolithic design. It is quite true that none of these Australian tribes are strictly (1) "primitive". that these ideas are indigenous. an institution which is quite unknown among the lowest races of mankind. with whom they must have fused in very remote times. Their culture is in every way more advanced. it will stand to reason that these are the earlier forms. there are clear traces or survivals of an earlier age. supra. Comp. that is primitive compared with the pure Negrito and the suggested Tasmanian type. evidence which ought to be conclusive. Native Tribes.^* — — — We — — — 1* Howitt. Howitt has proved conclusively that Baiame ante"I was first told of dates all the missions. cit. Yet with all this. p. and of an earlier race. 1872). p.^* especially as Waitz. the windshelter. and others." Similarly Thomas has shown that Baiame dates back to 1830. a recent borrowing from Christian sources is now impossible to maintain. the fire-plow. Howitt. 1. Lang.^* and Mrs.

in which they are instructed in all the details of what can only be called a "religion". etc. the worship that is given to Baiame. an "ideal headman" who lives in the sky. pp. He is worshipped. to whom all breaches of His laws are reported by the all-seeing spirit at a man's death." Then again. Moreover a headman. but it will have to be proved that such a headman ever existed. an omnipotent Being. it is not on the face of it impossible that the supposed divinity might have been derived from an ancestor. that "the blacks may live long". for the "three deadly sins are: unprovoked murder. an The transition from human to divine attributes is too Baiame stands out of all relation to tribal chiefs. for he is satisfied that Baiame in His present form is. 1. He has commanded them to observe the customs. and the youth are put through a severe fire. Ursprung der Gottesidee. Parker. though "great". and to whom the natives pray in the hour of need. It concerns the origin of the idea. and he is judged accordingly". but there is strong evidence to show. 349flf. (Miinster.or ancestor-worship from which such a concept could have been developed. 7-9. — — he was worshipped and adorned with the supernatural qualities above mentioned. or Initiation-ceremony. the image is human.and fasting-test. Schmidt. 173. that this could hardly have been the origin of the belief.'° — — " Howitt. lying to the elders of the tribe. p. a "Creator". a "Maker of all things". At the Borah. that "He may send rain". it is "theorizing" on the probable origin of the belief. Howitt's objection is therefore merely "all-seeing Spirit". Cf. the petition to Baiame. 507. all are so many indications that we are dealing with a superhuman. abrupt. 1912). There is no trace of hero. He requires them to observe the moral law. not only is this unprovable. Native Tribes. whose laws the tribes are now obeying!". and stealing a woman within the forbidden degrees". He is solemnly invoked as "Father of All. pp. not the idea itself. c. while they are not. an "ideal" being. Finally. that "the dead may rest in peace". He is "the original source of all totems". but the attributes are superhuman. Baiame "has made all things". "o For the facts. 78-79. Now.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (2) 39 generally abandoned. is hardly a "Baiame". That a great headman might have suggested the idea is not per se impossible. nay more that But if the theory of a "Loan-God" is now and detailed reasons for this will appear in the sequel. Moreover "kindliness towards the old and sick is strictly inculcated as a command of Baiame. to say the least.. But this is going beyond the immediate data. "an endless Being". "because Baiame says so". a speculative one. . to medicine-men and magicians. is something that is difficult to derive from a defunct ancestor. and His hold over the public conscience. an omniscient.

and by eliminating the elements that are demonstrably later. the original picture of Baiame stands out in bold relief. 1. 388ff. Parker. pp. 370flF. Schmidt. hunting-escapades. where we find the Emu-Sun. Thus two different phases of thought are here in collision. above. and there are no tions of the divine. 50-60. This culture. sun. Ursprung. and the solar ideas that accompany it. moon and animals have no relation to Him. (Cp. although a decadence in beliefs and practices is here distinctly noticegrowing nature-worship with magical and totemic ceremonies. able. 222. by his role by his confusion with the sun and the emu. Central Africa. is very generally unmarried. For any being that can vindicate the moral law not only in the future but also in the present life. Cp. " .^" If then Baiame is tarnished in part by solar and sexual features. c. that aspect which binds them to the central Aruntas. there is a strong undercurrent of pure theology which has left Baiame in undisputed possession of the field. an invisible being?" We are here face to face. the supernatural notes His Divinity. as plastic representa- feet. a high standard. It corresponds to the more advanced aspect of Kamilaroi civilisation. point 1). we know from what quarter this part of His picture could alone have been derived. c. that of the East Indies. in which certain features are clearly of later growth. etc. p. and probably Tasmania." This argumentation will appear more conclusive the more the subject For the present it should be observed that is developed in greater detail.''* — — : — — — 21 Hartland. partly with a harmless anthropomorphism. by his invocation under the form of a crude clay figure which is anything but suggestive of a spiritual. partly with a social and religious complexity. is the leading be easily proved by the very similar figure of Altjira among the strongly totemic Aruntas. moral Being who requires from His creatures a strict account of their actions. Ursprung. the hunting-theme is absent. can be traced to at least four continents. 1. "s Schmidt. wife and family. the supreme Being is But as a "hunter". XLIII. must be more than a 'headman'. of the supreme Judge of heaven and earth. he must be a faint image. to say the least. p. and other undignified traits. 22 See Introduction p. with Emu motif of the Australian totem-culture. 61-70fr. while its more primitive features suggest just as forcibly that the simple picture of the All-Father rivets Him to the lowest Stratum of belief as yet known to us. Baiame as the Sun-god. the result of a fusion with higher and later forms culture.40 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (3) not Baiame disfigured by "wife and family". and is in every way more advanced than any of the Negrito cycles or the supposed Tasmanian belt. This can be shown by the fact that in the most primitive region. the Negrito Tasmanian circle. cannibalistic practices. to wit The human notes bring out His Personality. if He has been may dragged into the world of plant and animal totems. supra.

theory and practice being not always in harmony and many revolting customs in vogue. it being her first fault. and the two ravished virgins are the two stars in the Pleiades that shine with a diminished brightness. 1. 52-54. to and when exhausted is unbound and left by her relations to the do as they please to her. do not steal. and tossed from one to the other. baby. 1. The seven virgins are the Pleiades. and only the Wundah. 9S-96. the almost inevitable result is death". be kind!" . baby! Be kind. violent though will speak for themselves : "Should a girl be found guilty of frailty. give to one. this may serve as a good example of Australian belief and practice in its earlier form." Charity and self-sacrifice are inculcated from the tenderest years. but indicative of a strong moral feeling. But if they failed to keep up the Borah rites as He had taught them. and the blacks live on earth. give to all. baby. the following customs.^" — men The practice of killing half-caste babies is justified on the plea that Baiame's laws have been ignored. «' Parker. after having bound her hands and feet. her brothers and nearest male relations made a ring around her. For Baiame had said that "as long as the blacks kept his sacred laws. and toss her one from the other until she is in a dazed condition and almost frightened to death. she being bound. 60. a brutal custom. give to him. then He would move and their end would come. p.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM some of them undoubtedly seem. this picture will show beyond doubt that Baiame has — — a close relation to morals. 1. Mothers sing to their babies somewhat as follows: "Give to me. men from any of the clans make a ring around her. . interesting though such a discussion might prove to be.While there are some ugly blotches on the morality of these tribes. while the remaining five remained spotless. leave it alone. do not touch what belongs to another. «» Parker. p. baby. as the want of space and the poverty of matter forbid a more lengthy discussion in these pages. " Parker. Of the still earlier but far less known divinities of the South-East a brief summary will be sufficient.28 The high price that is placed upon chastity is illustrated by the beautiful legend of the seven virgins that came down from heaven. c. As the best known of the Australian "High-Gods". c. p. be in their country". two of whom were ravished by mortals and made to live with them. 41 In illustration of this subject. Should a w^oman have been discovered to be an absolute w^anton. or white devils. give to her baby. c. that He is an ethical Being. that His children have strayed from the path of virtue. so long should He stay in His crystal seat (in heaven).

collate.—Narrinye!ri Tribes. and there is a starvation-ceremony by which the youth are admitted to full membership of the clan. a Wallaby-offering. and He sees you!". Brough-Smith.' By disentangling the complicated mythology.* Here again the notion of a headman. but is now in heaven. South Australu As an equivalent of Baiame. and has taught men the arts and sciences. The Narrinyeri. stands the figure of Nurrundere. and the Father in Heaven. 1878) Vol I. and has ordained a sacrifice which he requires at stated intervals. with paternal descent. 488. (Adelaide. c. 40.) When these items are removed as out of harmony with the more primitive aspect of this people. a being who is distinctly superhuman. or Fomalhaut). p. the material is scanty and difficult to Moreover his picture is tarnished by astral features. 491-492. (Gomp. —KuLiN tribes. and his work the rainbow. though he is pictured under human forms. 1879). in short. can be separated from that of a Maker and Giver of all. 610. and stars. 1. c.' He is no longer on earth. with mixed human and divine attributes. a personal being.42 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (P) (2) NURRUNDERE. may be clearly discerned in the background. . « Howitt. 423-442. as witness: is is He is the Maker of all things. 1." (F) (3) BUNDJIL. (Melbourne. p. 260. and the teacher of arts and sciences. The Aborigines of Victoria c 128 489-492. the chief deity of the Narrinyeri-tribes. p. c. socially and culturally. pp. by which this central figure has been obscured. p. You see Him. » Howitt. 55. Marriage in these tribes is on the local totemic system with male descent. and his name is uttered only with the greatest — reverence. * Taplin. the guardian of the moral order. associated more or less with the sun. with thunder and rainbow-traits. Taplin. it has been possible to eliminate one by one those notes or attributes that are inconsistent with his prime qualities and show traces of belonging to a later group of ideas. 1 c p S7f * '^ . Cp. often contradictory. His sons (or brothers) are also stars. "See!" (pointing to the star). Spirit and ancestor-worship are wanting. hunter. as he is now identified with a star. or at least weakly developed. SS. I Howitt. but with some approach to Bundjil below. (Altair. Howitt. South West Victoria For Bundjil of the Kulin tribes. We have already seen that the notion of a married divinity.' This is the region of two-class totemism. I. ibid. He has made all things. 434. moon. "that one is Bundjil. 126. c. 1. 673. (Murray).^ He has brought his people down the river. and his alleged wives are two black swans. p. and is conspicuously absent in the earliest stream of human tradition. is the leading theme of the more advanced totem-culture. 1. Taplin.^ His voice is the thunder. » Howitt. the original picture of Bundjil as the Heaven-God. quoting G. p." He He « Taplin. or tribal leader.

Howitt. moreover. — —the so-called Kuringal. He is Biamban.—YuiN-KuRi. but stands supreme as the one God of heaven to whom deference is due. He has only one leg. But that they are later accretions derived from the same source as in the preceding cases. » iHowitt. (Schwirrholzgeist). his heard in the thunder. Marriage in these tribes is on the simple totemic system with local exogamy He is . * Ridley. Moreover his maimed condition is by no means primitive. his later associaa falcon. . 58Sflf. 1. 344-349. ^while the bull-roarer-spirit is a natural intensification of his hidden presence. Master. ' Howftt. Cp. New South Wales Another prominent figure in this connection is that of Daramulun. at least in one instance. is re-echoed in the whirring of the "Bull-roarer". p. but is now in heaven. pp. Thunder-God of the Kuri nation. 553. 563ff. 156.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (P) (4) 43 DARAMULUN .' But if this picture of Daramulun tions are indeed manifold. voice. which has become more and more blended with magical rites. the more pure is the picture presented by the supreme Being. spider. the more free from sexual and naturalistic details. 560. p.* He has taught mankind the arts and industries. p. reveals a close connection with the central Arunta totemic region. It is remarkable that he is one of the few deities in Australia that is not hampered with rivals or assistants or family retinue. Ursprung. Kamilaroi. p. and is very angry when they do wrong. Howitt. This is the only occasion on which his picture is allowed to be exposed or his name uttered. »HowJtt. where animal and astral themes are alone in evidence.* He was once upon earth. or sacred wand. or lizard.^ He is Creator of all things. 516-562. 494-495. c.—New South Wales. of no essential importance to his main character as a creating divinity. » SS3. that the nearer we approach the Tasmanian region. p. highly probable.' It will be noted. and one who is deputed to take his place marshals the young men. to say the least. the existing figures are all complete. Schmidt. or is which Biamban. He can go everywhere and do anything. and in the name of Daramulun knocks out one of their front teeth.—Father. pp. His identification with the falcon. He can see people. and He alone has instituted the high the sacred mysteries. (Dara-mulun) He is the spirit that dwells in the Bullroarer as in a secret charm.' These items may be interpreted as accidentals. — — and male descent. On these occasions. is. — — is simple and clear. *Ibid. He has a mother. the Emu. and his association with the emu-sun. The women and uninitiated know Him only under the more common title Papang'. where He watches the actions of men. and that compels obedience by virtue of its own hidden power. or "Great Master".

C. (Adam?). It has been objected that real nature of this story is somewhat thin. and is the direct ancestor of the Kurnai. 630ff. and for this reason. in which all were drowned except a few of their own ancestors. South Victoria As the last and in many respects the purest form in Australian theology. ^bullthat bear his name. with "sex"-totems and male descent. He is their father. 269-271. These are kept a strict secret. Tundun.44 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (F) (5) MUNGAN-NGAUA. that it leaves Mungan-ngaua undermined. or Jeraeils. who was married. but the sparsity of is at most a negative argument. (5) to obey the food-restrictions. pp. pp. He sent down fire from heaven.—Mungan-ngaua . 1. These are among the most primitive and strongly Tasmanioid tribes on the entire continent.ethical being. He had a son. (2) to share everything with — with their friends. and to them obscurely. who lived on earth and taught the Kurnai all they know. and are known only to the initiated. Gippsland."^ — — . the "Father" of the — — Unfortunately but little is known of his physical and ethical traits. the Author and Guardian of the moral law. Ursprung. 490. He instituted the Jeraeil at the command of his father. 324-332. Some tribal traitor impiously roarers revealed the secrets to the women. op. and proves little when compared with the unique position that He occupies in the life of the people. (the Aurora Australis). . (3) to live peaceably fere 1 Howitt. where the youth are instructed in the following terms: race. Tundun. and is certainly immortal. He is the only divinity that has no other name but that which describes his paternal relation to mssi. ' Comp. their judge. and their lawgiver. ' Idem. such as Tulaba.— KuRNAi. (4) not to interwith girls and married women. He gave them also their personal names. and a great flood. pp. p. their teacher.* their friends. and made the instruments. He has commanded them (1) to listen to and obey the old men. Marriage in these tribes is on the local system. After this He left the earth and ascended into heaven. Pwitt. Schmidt. Perhaps the most vivid picture of his character is obtained at one of these tribal initiations. where He still remains.^ from which it is evident that we are dealing with an . human "Long ago there was a great being called Mungan-ngaua. 633. At least this much may be affirmed: role as Creator is inferential rather the attributes that are assigned to Him He was apparently never made. It must be confessed that the his than self-evident. "Our Father". cit. etc. the figure of Mungan-ngaua looms bright and clear as the supreme being of the Kurnai tribes of South-East Victoria.

53-54. These accounts speak of a divinity. South Tasmania. The full name. at first "with tails and without knee-joints. Schmidt. whatsoever He may be.* — — 1 Collected by H. whose name. of whom however they have a very vague idea and who as they say. before 1834. to wit — — : He is is the spirit of light this point all are agreed." If these items mean nothing more. ^ Compare Schmidt. 1822). "which they sing to their imaginary deity. from which most of the present material has been derived. Ursprung. Leigh. (Extremus-UnusEminens). He is addressed by prayers and invocations. p. for Milligan and the lexical analysis. The exact meaning must be determined by future lexicologists. ^ The simplicity of this story is a guarantee of its native origin. and full of sympathy for the sufferers. now extinct. cut off their tails and lubricated their joints. (On He a benevolent being and the author of good. presides over the day. The Aborigines of Tasmania. see Ling-Roth. which imply an ethical relation of worship and a "feeling" for personality. we have only the most slender statistics. collected and quoted by Ling-Roth. Horton. and therefore in some sense supreme. 1821). (1821). For the sources.^ Only those. 216flf. it must be admitted that the evidence is neither as clear nor as copious as might have been desired. will be of any religious value to us that depict the natives as they existed before their loss of liberty. pp. and it does not appear that they acknowledge more than one God". either as "Spirit of great creative power" according to Milligan. says Jeffreys (1820). This divinity. Ling-Roth in his classic work. moreover. at least over the human race. "These creatures have a song". Leigh. according to Fr. (Ibidem). while an evil spirit or demon appears at night. though only seriously studied since the time of Milligan. Tiggana-Marra^Booncn . though the tail-motif leaves. 1820. (Jeffreys. can hardly be any other than that of the chief god of the Mount Royal tribes.GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (F) (6) 45 MARRA-BOONA. — and is opposed to the spirit of darkness. But the explicit statement of three very early writers must surely be of some weight. . that is. 1899). Marra Boona. of course. Horton also testifies. much to be desired in the way of a pure concept. when another being descended from heaven. He is the Creator of man. (Horton. before they were placed under conditions of pressure. (1854). or simply as "High-One-Exalted!'. (Halifax. that the origin of man is apparently attributed to a good. wise and benevolent Creator. —1820-1822). Approaching this subject in greater detail. that they have a creationlegend. they look upon as the Giver of good. at least. etc. if not of the universe. according to which they were created "by a benevolent Being". has been variously interpreted by scholars. Jeffreys.^ In any case these epithets fit in well with the vague descriptions of a deity that have been handed down from very early sources. they imply.—Tasmanian Pure Of the aborigines of Tasmania. more especially as the lexical evidence tends to support it.

and that they may return in health and safety". To the good spirit they attribute all the good. p. It means that Tasmanian religion antedates the cosmic theology by indefinite periods. and benevolent divinity. op. unassociated with the elaborate nature-worship of later times. and personal worship seem to be implied by the existing data. All agree that there was no cannibalism. providence. Bonwick. demonism and Tasmanian religion. 54. with whom from the standpoint of culture as well as physique the Tasmanians are From these data manians at closely allied. This and the absence of totemism * brings it very near the Negrito level. spirit-worship to be the chief constituent of it may be inferred with great probability that the Tasone time recognised a single. recognise with the exception of Robinson. "Idem. where the authorities are given. 63. pp. p. 162 (infanticide). and no infanticide except such as was forced upon them by contact with whites. writes :— "Their religious : Similarly Leigh. cit.46 GOD OCEANIC PRIMITIVE FORM (1822). unadulterated cult of divinity. confirm in part the earlier reports. we are left very largely in the dark. We cannot therefore reject the united testimony of the earlier reports confirmed by Milligan's lexical studies in 1854. that could give us a clue to the "forms" under which it took place. beliefs are very obscure.* 8 Ling-Roth.' we have an important point in favor of a pure. (1832-1870). 67fF.—p. The word "spirit" is dubious. in order to implore his protection over their absent friends. whose creative power is attested as early as 1821. and the evil spirit the night. Note:— "There in awe of the sun. they believe in two spirits the good spirit governs the day. But with regard to His nature. This is a consideration of no small value. p. The marriage-tie was strict and adultery was punished with blows. 113-115 (marriage)." From what can still be known of this interesting people it appears that they stood on a comparatively high moral level. *Ideni. they are accustomed to sing to the good spirit. The later testimonies of Henderson. p. they have turned more and more to spiritism as a last refuge to their shattered hopes. supreme. Lloyd. etc. When any member of the family is on a journey. Nevertheless. Robinson. opposed by another. 54. and to the wicked spirit all the evil. 97 (cannibalism). (I have not been able to procure the the originals). It reveals the existence a "Great High One".or moon-worship on the part of the natives. nor that they associated childbirth with is no evidence that they were moon". and whose benevolence. and we have no knowledge of ancient Tasmanian worship. (totemism). that the supreme divinity has no relation to sun or moon-cult. If however Ling-Roth is right in his explicit denial of any sun. with this difference that all. Idem. and that with the loss of their liberty and their constrained conditions of life. (culture). . p. malevolent divinity.



that although Waka is also the name for God among the Hamitic Gallas. as when He descends from heaven and — — : men at His will. Creator. transferred also? Moreover the Negrillos commonly speak the language of their neighbors. where the author states that on the contrary the first-fruit idea was borrowed from the Watwa. 17^178. which is now generally admitted. LeRoy. c. poured out. in which the best portions of food are burnt. He is the Judge of all. Pygmaenvolker. (Allah). the author has taken care to determine that no charms or amulets of any kind are used by the natives in the hope of driving out the pepos. but cannot be seen Himself. * LeRoy.GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM (G) 47 The Akka-Batua Negrillos op Central Africa The Negrillos of Central Africa. to my children!" The Boni-Watwas are pure primitives and their antiquity unquestionAs to possible importation. though famed since classic times. He and requires a sacrifice. fakirs. . note 1. hast given Grant me me this buffalo. this honey. And even now. a spiritual He is the Master of all and has given them all they have. who are then buried in the earth. or firstling-sacrifice is common to nearly all the Negrillos. Behold continued strength and life. 232. it is hardly probable from the want of any Islamic features in their religion that the name or idea is of Islam origin. » Schmidt. such as dances and dervishes. Les Pygmees. have only recently been studied with anything like precision. LeRoy in a personal interview with the natives — col- Waka being(?). this wine. p. and has no bearing on the native origin of the As to spiritistic and magical belief. But the materials that have come to hand are nevertheless sufficiently well-tested and sufficiently surprising to merit further inquiry. their neighbors. This is a strong point against importation. undated). of which they know nothing. and is generally wanting among all tribes or peoples of Mohammedan persuasion. L c. p. ^ idem. can see everything. or thrown up to heaven. ^ See above pp. and Waka would be their natural expression for what the Gallas call God. Negrilles d'Afrique et Negritos de I'Asie. why were not other Islamic elements.' practices. 232. pp. Comp. 176. Schmidt. with the following words takes the lives of is severe "Waka! Thou thy portion. 178. For if so. circumcision and medicine-men. 1. or bad spirits. it is to be noted.' '^Mjgr. (G) (1) WAKA East Central Africa. this on the testimony of a Pocorao tribesman. p.. (Tours. little enough is known of their more subtle beliefs to be able to pass any final conclusions as to their character. p. 4. and that no harm may come able. This is in fact a mere question of terminology.* On the other hand the Sadaka. —Boni-Watwa : lected Of a mysterious being called Waka the following facts have been by Mgr.

believed from time immemorial. though further information will be necessary before any more definite opinion can be formed. and have no priests and sorcerers.48 GOD (G) (2) CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM INDAGARRA. "to be strong" (?). If he has been good. West-Africa. Central-African beliefs. If evil. who moreover assures us that superior to that of the Bantus. Then it gradually rises and ascends to God.' . but who is He is the first man.i The following facts deserve in any case to be noted : He appears to abide made the first man and a subordinate spirit. ^less violence. This. aboriginal.—Urundi-Watwa Father J. He causes men to live and to die. in the heavens and cannot now be seen. (inter- view : He lives on high. M.—Mid-Central Africa. His name has no connection with the neighboring divinity. God throws him into the fire. greater Such — observance of chastity. and His voice is the thunder. when He sends the good upwards to a place of enjoyment. which All these things. LeRoy has obtained the following information concerning Nzambij—again by pensonal (G) (3) NZAMBI.' is the verdict of Mgr. with rewards and punishments. he associates with a verb meaning "to live". God.* Batuas. Mgr. and "in His sight we are all very small". are therefore justified in conjecturing that this is a deity "similar to Waka above. He is the Master of all. we are assured.* renders the conclusion probable that these are primary. (Urundi). whose name. As against Anyambie of the Nkomis. Indagarra. his shadow descends into the earth. (or Adam). Ajongo-Gaboon (Mixed) From the Gaboon-region. and the Ajongo wear no amulets. the parents of the race. who may be a mediator. and that very few temples or fetich-houses are to be found.' Similar reports have reached us of the Akkas." etc. the first woman. The author also states that few amulets are worn by the natives. and is accompanied by a this belief is higher standard of private and public morals. (Purgatory). you will possess great forests and want nothing". supreme Judge of man after death. deeper and deeper. though they manufacture them for the neighboring Warundi and Watutsi. and the bad downwards to a place of misery. the Ajongo have is above (sic!). Nzambi is distinctly a Judge. Van der Burgt reports of a deity in Central Africa. He has made all. LeRoy.says: "Stay here. When a man dies. He has He has Ryangombe. which in this case identified in the popular mind with the are certainly imported features. in connection with the firstling-sacrifice above mentioned. Wambuttis. We —^West-Central Africa.

the best of it. I kill know When a buffalo. a difference which I had already discovered on the eastern coast and which to my astonishment I found to be the same on the other side of Africa. I knew this. irisis. p. when to you find honey. . you want " 'Yes. and this entirely to their advantage. he knows only the Wa-nyika and the Mussulman'. I give a short English version of the original French. but He is severe. 'Why not? are these things wicked?' — — 'We know nothing about them'.. was the answer. He wants His sheu'e of things. and we give it to Him. If I find honey. I must first scatter a little of it over the ground. these forests. (close to Malindi. He whom the Swahilis call Mu-ungu." "I have been singularly struck". One part remains there to be burnt. I drew from him a remark which surprised me. LeRoy. He gives us these lands. . and made the acquaintance of the chief. one of the few white men who has ever taken the trouble to handle this matter with anything like satisfaction. and all those things which other tribes carry around their necks. was my remark. and place it on the fire. —but doing example "Wakal Thou ' : We ' LeRoy. says the bishop. but it was better to play the ignorant. He is the Master of all. you say nothing?' 'I I say for do. this wine. 49 how and at the same time to obtain a graphic idea the natives express their religious views to those whom they feel they can make their confidentials. : to know? in this. ^between our little men and the neighboring tribes. (Sadaka) . Zanzebar). what do you do to expel him?' 'The pepo never comes to us. hast given me this buffalo.. for example when you you?' I kill a buffalo. if you want take a small portion. I take none of it until I have thrown a little into the forest or up to heaven. And when I get palmwine. 'But if the pepo (or spirit) enters one of your bodies. 17SB. cit. "what is Waka?" "You have never heard of Waka? Why. these Bonis carry no amulets. this honey. when some evil threatens 'Listen. When I accidentally invaded the Boni-settlement. Contrary to the custom of the Bantus around them. and everywhere'. and let this savage explain himself in his own way. these rivers. "at the difference which exists.GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM To of illustrate this subject." "Have you seen Him?" "Seen Waka? Who could ever see Waka? But He sees us easily. arms. op. everything that you see live off Him. Behold thy portion. 'And you have no sacrifice either. and that no harm may come to my children !" " Waka is the Galla name for God. I cannot do better than quote verbatim the report of Mgr. pagan or more or less mussulman. 'No'. the other I eat with my children. Is that what everything. " 'I do not see among you those dawas. Grant me strength and life. "Waka?" said I.

offering up the sacred nut as a "present to the Lord". while Inda-gdrra is taken to mean "The Strong One" "He who is alive". Nzambi {Nza-amba) is "He who creates". Waka has made men and all things directly. of a descent from trees or animals. a profound impression upon me. and comparatively moral people. Also. LeRoy's interesting pictures. how these simple childish people reverence themselves and their Creator. from which the meaning "High Man" "Great Master" may not improbably be revealed. or very intermittently. and which wanted to make out (according to the books) that religious and other knowledge goes hand in hand with material civilisation"." Rut if the magical and animistic practices of the Rantus are here conspicuously absent. any notions of totemism. there are no reincarnations. and at death He is their immediate Judge. "I have found no group in which He was unknown. superior by far as they were to those commonly scattered among their agricultural. him whom he has deprived of For remain under the eye of God". and every time he found not only "the recognition of a personal and supreme Divinity" but the offering up of sacrifices to His name. sedentary. The author concludes:— "These backwoodsman-ideas of God and of sacrifice that is due to Him made. . and their family life and social customs should be studied with the help of Mgr." a verdict with which Gasati agrees. Then it is we bury him dangerous to in the earth. p. des Primitifs (Paris. affectionate. They reversed the conceptions that I had made on the subject. the expression Abe-Yehu-Mu-lungu will speak for itself — Wa "Our Father. 187. from which they abstain at stated intervals. are equally distant. As to the name of this divinity. who art in Heaven!" "" 10 LeRoy 1 c. which will reveal more powerfully than any words can do. "They have a fellow-feeling for one another. Moreover. 193.so GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM "Sometimes He comes into our camp and makes one of us die. 112ff. among whom monogamy prevails and women are not ill treated. They have a natural shyness towards the Chimpanzee. and comparatively civilised neighbors. ^^ Ibid. except among the Reku (or Rushmen). This is only one specimen of the above author's numerous interviews with the natives.^^ They are a peaceful. I repeat. they do not spring from lower forms. The answer was always in the negative. p. 173ff.' La Religion ^^ Por linguistic notes and invocations see Idem. "For my part". "I made many inquiries to know whether the negrillos were cannibals. he says. life. 301. the latter containing the secret of life. the word Waka contains the two roots and Ka. In any case. p. 1911) p. assisting one another as the occasion may require". and they regard the Moduma-Tree as sacred.

SOlff. c. and banishment to a mysterious region under the water.GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM (H) 51 KAANG South-African Belt. but only with Kaang causes to live and causes to die. and which ends with swooning and nose-bleeding. that of the Maluti. 1. 113. but he got spoilt through the heart of rain. 134. make their combined character very difficult to estimate. partly from J. (use of palaeoliths. man. Idem. p. shows inroads of the totem-culture in the West. "He has made all things and we pray to Him". He is to be addressed in times of famine. there is a general consensus of opinion that they are an ancient people. (Kalahari Desert. Stow. loin-strap. They are also beyond the negrito stature. in which both sexes take part. p. 120. 132-134. » . p. but leaves his nature undetermined in the more primitive region. we hear of a great being called Kaang. former and probably more elevated conception of the divine. Dr. 1.' These. 151. * Idem. • Idem." A similar invasion of animal ideas has been noted in Australia and the Andaman Islands. M. 125. 186. poisoned arrows. Bleek's identification of Kaang with the grasshopper. whose character has been partly lost by growing social and moral deterioration. » Ideni. which makes their position an anomalous one.^ have powerful hereditary chiefs. South Africa). it seems probable that Kaang is an old Bushman "God". ' Stow. by contrast with qualities of an opposite nature. (Paris. 95-97. (Mantis). Orpen. ^ stow. he "At first fighting so many things" (Idea of original goodness contending with increasing evil). p. {Mo'koma). 129ff.^ show vestiges of totemic ideas. SO-Sl. that this figure is too humanised and corrupted in its present appearance It points at the most to a to satisfy the rigid demands of a pure theism.' are strongly addicted to magic. but the transgression of whose rites on the score of sexual excess is punished by Kaang with ter- "And He transformation into beasts. however. conflicting This is owing to the fact that these tribes are no longer unadulterated. The following prayer is authenticated: "0 Kaang. 2 Idem.). 133-134. rible chastisements. p. p. Kaang! Are we not thy children? Bo you not see our hunger? Give us food!" gives us both our hands full". c. and in the most primitive area. pottery. Arbousset. etc.) It must be admitted. 1874. pp. (q. polygamy and infanticide in parts. Cape Monthly Magazine. Nevertheless. (Master).* and exhibit a morality by no means flawless. Glimpse into the mythology of the Maluti Bushmen. Relation d'un voyage au Cap de Bonne Esperance. (London. or before going to war. pp.' He has instituted the Mo'koma or "Dance of Blood". » Idem. 1910). gives or refuses was very good and nice. pp. a terrible gambol. taken partly from T. but exhibit certain advanced features. (Maluti) Of the Bushman religion. 40. or Mountain-Bushmen. — ^G. side by side with very early elements. v. (Maluti). — — Kaang cannot be seen with the eyes." From what has been seen above. fire-stick. or when performing the sacred dance. of whom the following information has been gathered: reports are in circulation. The Native Races of South Africa. A. p. 1842) p. July. " Idem. 12. —Kalahari Bushmen. (wind-screen. and polychrome).

A few vital statistics are worth volumes of undigested folk-lore. It is now time to turn our attention to another group. the Oceanic Negritos. to wit. Taking this area as a whole. This completes the cycle of negrito races and their allies. represents a transition to a somewhat different type of humanity. which serves as an excellent and at present the only popular introduction to the study of Negrillo beliefs. — be denied that the races in question. Negrillo and (1) Bushman. however. to maintain. if not impossible. which. In the present case the splendid work of Mgr. that with such an expenditure of labor the material reported should be apparently small. there must needs be considerable dilflculty and not a little disappointment. makes the above supposition increJisingly dilTicult.52 GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN PRIMITIVE FORM Review main outlines of the earliest African faith as yet cannot be denied that the picture is fragmentary. to bring more secrets to the surface. the Tasmanians and Bushmen being included as cognate races of woolly hair. It cannot now The facts collected are sufficiently numerous and variegated to (2) warrant the conclusion that a personal and providential "Maker of AH" is not only acknowledged. but worshipped and invoked by His needy children. there can be no doubt that the main points established admit of a fairly rigid demonstration. But the quantity of the matter offered is not always the best test of its veracity. This simple childlike religion binds the Negrillos to their brethren. to penetrate beyond the veil of tribal secrecy. of its relative importance. LeRoy has opened out a new world of investigation in Central Africa. The more essential points of his report have been given above. which is one more point in favor of its authenticity. for the more descriptive matter the reader is referred to the work itself. We must remember. are the real aborigines of the African continent. of secondary issues. It is also impossible to suppose that their beliefs were borrowed from "higher" peoples for the simple reason that their isolation and the want of any higher traces. and the facts that he has brought to light should be a stimulus for every searcher after truth to widen its domain. and that in the first endeavor to uncover these beliefs. though closely allied to them. . whether in their tradition or in their practices. brief are the It Such in known to us. that this is an entirely new field. that the conclusions drawn are not in every case beyond criticism. that the material offered is far from voluminous.



GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM (K) 53 South American Region. pp. or "Barbarians". with elements derived from the Boomerang-culture. —Tapuyas. (Washington. . p. though. they are possibly of pre-Indian origin.^ historic). pp. But cannibalism and head-hunting have made violent inroads in this region. G. The Aborigines of South America. in Archiv fiir Religionswissenschaft. they have no developed totemic ideas (local exogamy). Vol. There is no clear evidence of totemism. Rivet.* — — Also K. etc. when his servants hold mystic communion with him. Brinton. Brazil. but otherwise indefinable. Natema. Church. taller stature. p. Central Brazil. 23S-2S4. though little enough is known of their higher beliefs to justify any certain conclusions as to We their nature. (Leipzig. 1912). — invaders of the New World.jungle to mountain-creek in quest of such animal and vegetable food as can be collected by the crudest of weapons (staff-bow. (London. historique. E. they are . Amer. XVIII. 47. p. (K) (1) IGUANCHI. (religion). These tribes. or E. 1898) VoL XI. Peru The Yivaros of the upper Amazon are not generally classed as Tapuyas. (ethnography). and they wander from river. have therefore classified them as "late archaic". ^ K. Leitfaden. we cannot consider them on precisely the same level as the East-Indian Negritos. a former Tapuya-zone. ethnographique. known under the collective name of "Tapuyas". the Yivaros are a decadent people. 33iS. confines of the tropical forest by the stronger races that followed in their wake. Preuss. all of which stamp their possessors as being one of the earliest edge. 293. Arithr. * Comp. (proto-Malayic.' He also appears as a fire-spewing ape. and as such they merit our attention. L'Anthropologie. p. Jakun) they antedate the age of stone (wood and bone industry). more complex culture). XI. But a few items of their belief may serve to interpret a region where a primitive undercurrent is to be suspected. comp. pp. they have no permanent settlements (wind-screen). This shows at least that a personal cult is in evidence. and is worshipped in the narcotic-trance. XIV (1911). Les Indiens livaros. The Dwarf Tribe on the Upper Amazon. 277-279 (unidentified). but his name is invoked on all occasions. (lank hair. are believed by some authorities to be the earliest representatives of a South-American indigenous race of which we have any knowl- a former age when they that they were pushed into the remote They are the modern descendants of the "Lagoa-Santa" race (premore or less pygmoidal. boomerang?).—Yivaros— West-Central . 66ff. Of his personal character nothing is known. 1912). Weule. supreme. 'Idem. Religionen der Naturvolker Amerikas. lb. D. who lives in volcanoes and spits fire. 1 G.^ Their unique divinity Iguanchi is probably identical with Pillan. The fact that we find extremely low races in the heart of Brazil sug- gests the conclusion that they are the survivals of held exclusive dominion of the soil. but leaves Iguanchi himself a blurred image. for reasons already given. 293flE.X. a ThunderGod. Etude geographique.

(Congr.* they "plow" fire. * Id.^ they go practically naked. Karnes. Quat-Marawa above). the best on South America" (Thomas." Similar legends are told throughout the Amazonian region. and in still earlier times with the heavens in general. the Shinguregion gives promise of better results. 30-31. Amaka. 86-90." This idea of justice is particularly strong among the Tupi. whether sun. though the Tupi employ a throwing-stick. the reward of virtue and Monan." Staff-bow." the ethical qualities as 1 K. 1905). Kayurukre. Source-Book. Von den Steinen. Somatically they are of low to medium stature. In fact. (Gomp. and live a largely nomadic life. but rather a strong lunar mythology with a peculiar "spider"-motive. for linguistic connection through Kaingang. boomerang. p. and invariably with a high moral purpose. approaching nearer to the Botokudo-type. 231f. they and the Paressis. Bororos. as well as the peculiar facial disfigurement that accompanies them. nose. see p. ^id. our leading authority is convinced that these are not native but imported features. makes it more than probable that he was once connected with the moon. (Berlin." If it is true that some of these people can also work stone and produce fair pottery. C. and Gaingang. whose righteous posterity repeople the earth. wood. « Idem. Teschauer.. tooth. He has made Keri and Kasme. Une fete bresilienne celebree a Rouen en 1555. 32-35.^ As to their industries. 1900). 228. « Idem. Unter den Naturvolkem Central Brasiliens (Berlin. Here the Bakairi and other allied peoples are not impossibly the forerunners of the great Amazonian family. Creation-Ieijend. the combined folklore of the Brazilian races is so immense and these heroes of the divine mercy so extremely numerous that. Amer. the Creator. which again suggests the typical theme of the Boomerang-circle. J. 364ff. admittedly the most primitive type of mankind on the continent. Anthropos IX. (Paris. p. Kamu may be taken vaguely as "Ught".or moon-light. Hd. They have neither lance. in which Irinmaffe alone is saved.' This is illustrated by Kamushini.—Bakairi-Bororo— South Central . Paris. and He controls the moral law by sanctions that are rigorous and severe. lip. S. » Id. 228fr. ft 881). i'G)mp. p. pp. 40-55ff. blowpipe. Die Mythen und Legenden der Siid-Amerikanischen Urvolker. Paul Ehrerireich. Also L. Md. and bull-roarer are well represented in this region. and bark-canoe and balsa are still in evidence. 204. 375. 317ff. which is content vs^ith the simple hut or windshelter. 203. In any case Kamushini is apparently a Greater. nor poisoned arrow. the supreme figure of Bakairi mythology. 200f •Denis. in Compte Rendu. Whether the name be Arowakish or not. Adaip. Also P. and ear-ornament. Puluga. where — — mankind by a conflagration. apart from any creation-legends. and bone". 1894) "a justly famous work.' Finally there is no totemism. . Brazil But if the upper Amazon is largely a "terra incognita". for . as most of the Bakairi cannot make celts. (1914). the first human twins.54 (K) (2) GOD KAMUSHINI. "the Shingu are living in an age of shell. 160-165. Die Kaingang oder Coroados-Indianer. and the fact that he appears under the form of a spider. spinning the universe out of his brain. 1851) pp. destroys punishment of vice point vaguely to certain similar vested in some form of supreme moral Governor.

p. though "good". an indirect hint that life and death are possibly connected with a forbidden food. a heavenly world blazing with light. op. The Bakairi trace everything to heavenly origins. superhuman being and as "making threads like a spider". etc. For although a creation is not explicitly mentioned. and Kamushini was apparently supreme. because. for he "makes men out of arrows and women out of maize-stampers". The firm conviction that there would be no death if all men were good. such a creation is hinted at by the designation of Kamushini as a being belonging to a "different people". cit. 39. and paradise was earth. who then address him as "Papa". he is the cause of his people's death. a "heavenly spider". there is a mysterious transmutation-scene in which Keri thus addresses the god of heaven {Kamushini). seems to insinuate that immortality was lost in paradise as the result of a rebellion against the decrees of heaven. that death is the result of divine justice. how the reign of immortality came to an end. this seems to imply that death is in some way the result of sin. and the mystery is*. heaven and earth were destined to be parted. the oldest figure of the mythology. without recounting the Keri-Kame legend with some detail. of bad magic. Father a plain index of paternal though non-sexual tions." The story opens with Kamushini. for ever since men have continued to die. and Keri himself has had to make men out of arrows. heaven and earth were united. In those days men lived for ever. and heaven went upward. offerings of fruits are still placed on the Keri and Kames-Tree. But whatever be the origin of death. 348flf. "You shall not stay here. how heaven and earth were separated. to estimate this subject in its true propor- and at the same time to realise its weak features. that death is the result of sorcery. there was no death. As an atonement for the sins of man. 1. and so in the beginning. p. 3^. and Keri and Kame appear to be ready-made. p. of a moral failure. but I do not wish my people to die!" And Heaven answered "I will stay !" and Keri replied "Then / will change !" After that he and all his people went off to the earth. the king of heaven. Moreover he is evidently the creator of man. Ehrenreich. — — . — — . . the author of all existence. The prayer of Keri to Heaven that he may leave them. c. the Heaven-god. however. Keri's attempt to escape justice by "changing his climate" was doomed to disappointment. « Idem. all was heaven. which food must be sacrificed to Heaven in order to procure recon- on the — : — — : — ciliation.** " Von den Steinen. relations.GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM It is 55 impossible. though not necessarily in far off times. You are good. my people are dying! And yet you remain here.

c. 1. however sporadic. From the beginning there is no very clear distinction between creator and creature. and the position of women comparatively high. 31. have been frequently confused. Keri and Kame. and abstains from all foods and dissipations which he conceives will endanger the life of the child. is strongly developed the Bakairi as among other Brazilian tribes. so intense is his consciousness that he and his child are one( !). not only the fire and brimstone of the past. and his only. The body is always the "couvade". he is Keri lives in heaven. that the original Heaven-god has been mixed up with On the other tioned. but the surprisingly high tone of the stories should not blind us to their inherent deficiencies. p. For although theft is rare. den Steinen. and consists of a fasting-ordeal during which the father of the new-born child sleeps or shares his bed with the latter. 339 (mat- burial). they change and produce things with equal ease. but especially ferocious demons are said to devour the culprit." This picture has many attractive features. however. — . Karnes. violation of the moral law. both abortion and desertion are said to be common. he is the grandfather of the Bakairi". . of social customs. in so far as he feels himself one with the new-born"." This singularly beautiful custom is evidently meant to symbolise not only the close union between father and child. would clothe their message of salvation in the cast and phraseology above described. 334-336." another. and the natives themselves repudiate it. p. c. It is evident. however accommodating. i» Ehrenreich." interred. and the practice of cannibalism. we know nothing of him. Nearly all have the tradition of a great flood or Are which was brought upon mankind through their own culpability. "Is Keri the 'god' of the Portuguese?" "No. both are sun and moon-heroes. 1. ." hand the native origin of the legends can hardly be quesseems quite certain that no intruding missionaries. is far from It ideal. 349. i» Ibid. but also that the child is his. pp. 380. his place has been taken by the bup^ or ghost-god. On the other hand those who observe the sacred customs and abstain from witchcraft will never die but will go to tlie paradise of their ancestors. 334flf. that Keri. p. Terrible consequences are believed to follow from its neglect. and Kamushini. which is the natural outcome of a The morals of the natives tend to bear this out. . both temporal and eternal.56 GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM The idea of retribution. they are facetious and in some cases even ridiculous. shows that the condition of these people trivial theology. "The father is a patient. p. of among — This institution is regarded as particularly sacred. " Idem. " Von "Idem. the national ancestors. and the hypothetical Heaven-god has been long since forgotten.

Hilaire. the idea is of mis- being imported by the Catholic priests. consult G. 35. formed. which seems strange when we consider the compactness of the Catholic system. 34-35. Joyce. there is not a vestige of Christological dogma.or moonworship are undeveloped.— not to speak of Aba-angui of the Guarayo. Vabale of the Paressi. He is invoked in the chase. — — (K) (3) TuPAN. "master". (1887) p. partially obscured by lunar worship. ^^ has a native ring that recalls strangely many of the Negrito practices in this regard (thunder-charm?). 66-71. this is certainly a bold exploit even and when we consider that very similar stories are told of of the Tupi and of Kayurukre of the Kaingang. '* . Nevertheless the fact that Kamushini is said to have "made men out of arrows. After death the body is interred. rank them as quasi-primitives. and women Monan for a Hercules. East-Central Brazil as certain. and spiritism seems to have had no effect on the supremacy of the "Great Master". "tupans". beehive hut. a Tupi-Guarani word signifying "chief". South American Archaeology (1912).GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM 57 Are we to think of mere "culture-heroes" after the type of Deucalion and Pyrrha? I agree with Ehrenreich that a creation in the strict sense is difficult to prove from the existing data. f. Crepaation and urn-burial are wanting. p. p. Chieftaincy is limited. monogamy preponderates. fire-plow. Karu of the Mundruku. ibid. Church. Zeitschr. Karakara of the Guayakuru. also called notoriously unsafe to rely too exclusively on the latter — There are some facts that seem to point in an opposite direction. while they themselves are unborn or immortal. ^* For anthropology and ethnology. is one that we cannot afford to dismiss. nose and lip-ornament. though some of them work flint. the custom of shooting arrows into the air during thunder-storms. " Ibid." Windshelter. or equipped man. and Tiri of the Yurakare. a "Thunder"-god. on religion. But it source. "In the Botokudos we have the oldest representatives of the Ges" (pure Tapuyas)." That the Botokudos worship a personal divinity may now be regarded He is known as Tupan. The Aborigines of South America (1912) p. out of maize-stampers" (!). Uber die Botokudos. Reported by Renault and St. the question of an All-Father belief in this region. —BoTOKUDOs— — . The difficulty in this case concerns his derivation. Sun. and that in their present form these stories have the unmistakable ring of hero-legends. 81. all of whom are "fathers" of humanity and are said to have made. is that while the word is native.^* He is "^iPaul Ehremreich. "The Greont Chief is angry". T. but cannibalism and infanticide are not unknown. 256if. In my own opinion these semidivine "culture-heroes" are a forcible reminder of the Quat-Marawa legends of Melanesia. p. and should be interpreted accordingly. Moreover. with the exclamation. Ethnol. Some have suggested sionary origin.

Moreover their shells. p. and the Alacalufs. which are as yet none too numerous. A negative is notoriously risky when there is a question of a savage's higher religious beliefs. however. the first and the third of whom occupy the same relation to the higher Patagonian peoples that the Botokudos do to the higher Arowaks. the Onas. such as are spoken of by Admiral Fitz-Roy. it is the "Land of Fire".58 GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM (L) Patagonian Extension. the natives have been heard to say at times that "such a one has been taken by Gopoff". 1) THE GOOD AND THE EVIL SPIRIT OP THE YAHGANS The Rev. but the prominence of the negative cult makes it dlfflcuW to say. what this "benevolent being" really is. As to Aiapakal and Lucooma. as. Here we find three groups of primitives. or Creator. when a man dies. it is hard to say. an evil spirit. the former is hardly more than a deceased witch-doctor. the "Tasmanians" of the New World. Bove's "Good Spirit". The Yahgans. in the work immediately cited. seem to be well supplied with malevolent spirits and beings. known as the Yahgans. and flakeimplements tell a similar story. tribes As a southern dffshoot of on the Straits of — — — (L. while the latter is the spirit of the tides and whirl-pools. Capt. this is a fairly strong proof that they antedate the age of round-houses and of stitched or weaved garments. Mr. . —^Tibrra del Fubgo the same Amazonian race certain Fuegian Maghellan should merit our final attention by reason of the additional light that they promise to shed on the Brazilian data. or whether they are only lower good and evil spirits. and to whom the portions of a fish. Gjoper." i» Rev. DD. they are the relics of a tropical race whose artificial methods of keeping warm by means of extensive bon-fires has given the name to the archipelago. God. Captain Bove mentions both a good deity and an evil deity among the Yahgans. Finally the absence of totemism and of elaborate tribal divisions is a sociological fact which in combination with the industrial data reveals with sufficient clearness that we are dealing with an antarctic survival.. M. in spite of a thermometer which is frequently below freezing. 148-149. or even an infant are This may of course have no connexion with occasionally sacrificed. and in this case we have fairly good evidence to the contrary. whom they greatly dread. their flint arrow-heads being probably of remote Patagonian origin. bones. The bee-hive hut of the Yahgans and their almost naked existence. Bridges repeatedly stated that the Yahgans have no supreme deity. as are a few other items of the specifically "Ona" culture. J. Whether these are two greater spirits corresponding to Yerri-Yupon and Yaccy-ma among the Alacalufs. a dog.

an Alacaluf added: "Rain come down snow come down hail come down wind blow-blow very much blow very bad to kill man big man in woods no like it him very angry!" This is probably the same being as the Taqudtu of the Salesian Fathers. p. 3) YERRI-YUPON of the Alagalups" According to our best-authenticated reports the religious ideas of the Alacalufs verge upon dualism. he takes them without more ado into his great canoe and carries them away from home. Bulletin 63 of the Bureau of American Ethnology. J. who is certain of knowing every word and every action. Gottesidee. cause bad weather. shows. and also in "an evil spirit. and who influences the weather according to a man's conduct". for most of whom. The relatively — high tone of morality. In practice. p. If he finds any man or woman idle or distracted. M. Cooper. implying justice. After narrating the killing of a thief. more (L. Yaccy-ma. though polygamy is allowed. "A great black man is supposed to be wandering about the woods and mountains. at least. Yerri-Yupon. that the Onas have a vague idea of a power that rules. p. in spite of contrary instances. they think. who. Schmidt. "an invisible being whom they imagine to be a giant. who cannot be escaped. — — — — — — — — It seems quite clear that Yerri Yupon is more than a "weather-doctor" on the one hand. and the natives are a quiet and peaceable race. (Washington. He is supposed to be like an immense black man". if the report be correct. and he appears on the whole to be an evil being.GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM (L. however. is able to do all kinds of mischief. who travels by day and by night in a large canoe over the seas and through the air. It is at night particularly that the Alacalufs dread to meet this terrible being". as he is "invoked in times of distress and danger" and "the good go to a delightful forest. This and the splendid Yahgan physique makes them an attractive object of study. ther information in Rev. 2) WALICHU OP the Onas 59 Father Beauvoirs identification of Jhowen with the Hebrew Jahwe is startling than commendable. I73ff. Compare Lang. 1917). author of all good. Making of Religion. famine. is Monogamy the i' Fur»* Recent evidence shows that Fitz-Ro/s "Oionoans" are the identical race. but the account of a certain divinity called Walichu. D. Analytical Bibliography of the Tribes of Tierra del Fuego and adjacent islands. where they cannot escape".D. and invoked in time of distress and danger". He is perhaps a faded supreme Being. illness. and the wicked to a deep well. who "sends good and bad things to men". They believe in a "good spirit. 203!!. etc. 145- . This idea of a big black man in the woods has been independently verified by at least two observers. tends to bear this more general rule.. and less than an "exalted ethical being" on the other. cannibalism is unknown. the invocation of two deceased weather-doctors by the living medicine-men is the only worship recorded. The Onas believe in metempsychosis." out.

tion cannot compare that the nearer to these earliest exemplars of South-American civilisaour Old-World primitives. interesting to note. which has since become corrupted. or their religious beliefs. the few items reveal a powerful helper rather than a rigorous judge. a being who forbids adultery. To sum up then. The is With this brief hypothetical Pillan apparently a "thunder-god" like Puluga. they far East. but these lessons are not always heeded in practice. etc. the "maker". yet appears to sanction the to face taking of life. the more vivid becomes the picture of a simple "Father" or "Master" of aJl. Kamushini "spins" the world out of his brain. but he is more distinctly a person. It is their morality. however.60 GOD AMAZONIAN PRIMITIVE FORM Summary American survey of the more essential points of the Southfaith in its earlier form. but under the are often forgotten. either in their antiquity. but whose simple outlines may still be discerned in the fragments. and purest region. blasphemy. when the Tapuya races extended their influence to the foot of the Andes. Yet even here.. but is the direct moulder of to the earliest we approach human destiny. who is simply the leader of his people. Finally. The reason why he has even been mentioned in the present place is simply to complete the picture. we note at the outset that what little is shown of the supreme figure in the mythology is no longer as simple and clear as in the corresponding African and Oceanic region. though here the greater purity of the stock and their more primitive footing has preserved the more ancient form of the belief in a clearer perspective. apparently transcendent. where Monan and similar "makers" act as the punishers of mankind for their adultery. a magnified man. if not the "creator" of all. but still supernormal. a flre-spewing monkey.—a "living" god. the picture of more face Tupan among the Botokudos brings us once with a "Great Master". sacrilege. one who has no connection with ape or spider. etc. which is hardly a noble conception of the divine. The same remarks apply to the Shingu-region. if you will. The fact that the Yivaros are a comparatively advanced people is no argument that the deity is not a survival of far earlier days. to chronicle what little is known of the only personal deity that is so far reported from the far Western portion of the Amazonian region. but whose laws have more hold upon the conscience. Relics of the moral idea of justice may be discerned in the fire and flood-legends. of the form of Iguanchi he is also an ape. But even in their present condition the Yivaro-tribes are sufliciently antique to merit consideration as the possible carriers of an earlier faith. .



Schmidt. or birdAt death the soul resacrifice. including the entire host of bongos. (mud-huts). W. the supposed Austroand Bona.* ancestors. p. (agriculture. Schmidt. cit. See also the Introduction above. throwingsticks. sunlight. hunt by means of simple bows and arrows. with the words "O Sin-Bonga. op.—Central India. He is the ever-beneficent God of gods. 'Roy. and the existence of undoubted palaeoliths. known as Sin Bonga. 1) 61 FORM Aborigines. to the undilTerentiated and of these the Munda-Kol tribes of Western Bengal are the best representatives of an "unclaimed ignoble horde. wooden spears. according to merit. do we find preserved the ancient systems of totemism and exogamy". and 24-26. p. more perfectly than elsewhere in India. 1.' The carved wooden bowl and the bamboo-flute point in the same direction. either as man or beast. 265. metallic arts). Vol. in Anthropos. the nomadic life as shown by the Among these are the general tendency to minimum of their clothing. C. and this is the distinctive feature of the Munda religious beliefs. W. in the Compte Rendue of the Louvain Congress (1913). ' S. op. 467ff. (Munda-Kol) SIN-BONGA. (of native manufacture). the Indo-African-Australian-North American cultural connexion. the bachelor's dormitory. p. The Mvndas and their country. rice-offering. Roy.* Although this is no longer strictly true. perhaps the nearest approach glacial type. p. Australia). Spirit. . X. Comp.— KoLARiAN There are good reasons for believing that Gentral India is the radiatingpoint of the totem-culture. the practice of painting and anointing the dead. (Neanderthal). pp. cit p. p. all of — — . 273. 1. c. He is apparently judge of man and is invoked in prayer. they are sufficiently backward in many ways to reveal many of the more prominent features of the palaeolithic belt. p. the gennesian equivalents being Sina. — — with the Australians. XLV. (late pleistocene?). 15. whose name is commonly rendered "Sun-Spirit". "Roy. Finally we have the hereditary chief. 'Roy. 471. (Calcutta. secures their geologic past and their continuity with palaeolithic culture. * Frazer. Where before we had a comparative freedom from metempsychosis. p. IV. 361if. : ^ Frazer. Totemism and Exogamy. the author of the universe and man. (mid-glacial). or minor spirits. 285. II. and above all a totemic system of marriage and consanguinity which is be^sed on animal of their habitations. Vol. daylight This being seems to possess the attributes of eral term for God. save us!" incarnates. to prepare the soil for better forms of life". c. the Mundas having been largely civilised by their Hindoo neighbors. the instability and the general popularity of the buffalo. that phase of belief which can be traced to four continents. (comp.GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIG (M. which suggest the conclusion that "here.^ The Indo-Kolarian or Dravidian races are. The discovery of numerous caves with rude ornamentation. we now have an explicit doctrine of animal descent with a possible return into animal forms. who occupy the background of Indian history as the jungle once covered the land. divinity. 2ff. 1912). VIII (1913).* These Kolarian tribes worship a Light-god. etc.

to say the least. but the Munda belief and practice is rather opposed to them. 18-22. the existence of pre-Aryan divinities of a similar nature has now been firmly established by Prof. found among peoples where no such Brahminical influence can be suspected. pre-Aryan. belonging to the group of languages that were spoken in India long before the Hindoos ever were heard of. 471. and the parallel case of the Todas and other races of strictly territorial. (Braunschweig. and In the words of Roy. some account of Vishnu. with his distinctive laws and ceremonial observances? Now. his unique and personal position May he him toto caelo from any Brahminical triads. but is pure Austroasiatic or Austronesian. The original inhabitants of India. a precarious proposition.* 'Roy. and where did he come from? not be of Hindoo or Brahminical origin in view of the reincarnation-doctrine with which he is associated? It is satisfactory to note that we have excellent reasons for believing that this is a native. not only are these conspicuously absent. W. nor are connected. It would be more true to say that the Aryans have borrowed this belief from the Dravidians. makes his derivation from Hindoo or Mussulman sources. IX (1914) pp. law-books. 1893) p.62 GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIG But what FORM is the nature of this deity. cit. 190S. "the Munda's idea of other primitive peoples. op. ascetical or strongly polygamous peoples. which belief binds the latter with the far-off Australians. supposed Turanian (?) origin. op. (London. and the fact that he is worshipped without temples. "Roy. Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. p. peculiarly national.' In the second place. it is underivable either from strongly Furthermore. though ostensibly realistic.also P T Iyengar "Did the Dravidians of India obtain their culture from the Aryan Immigrant?" Anthropos. and that the Hindoo intrusion can always be separated as something sporadic differentiates and out of harmony with the national life. 719-7268. 188. Foy. In the first place his name cannot be derived from Aryan sources.* the doctrine of reincarnation from Brahminism are hopelessly at sea with the facts. those who would derive to understand. *G Oppert. Die Mon-Khmer Volker ah Bindeglied zwischen den Volkem Central Asiens und Austronesiens. the Brahministic reincarnations. Idem. 78. as this is one of the earliest. . Should we not expect to find some traces of Hindoo or Islamic notions. cit. have no essential relation to the laws of marriage. Moreover. though not the earliest. Schmidt. 227. Die Gottheiten der Inder. p. and not half so elaborately worked out as by his Hindoo neighbors". c. rebirth is yet in a rudimentary stage. persuasions more natural and easy of mankind. as far as we know. p. North-Americans. Oppert. and not impossibly Central India. with any definite matri- monial interdicts. as it is far out of their reach. or ascetical rites. pre-Brahrainistic divinity. p. 1. makes the figure of Sin Bonga more and Finally. some faint echo of Allah. something that the Mundas have ever detested from time immemorial. 1-lS. 1906). and whose radiating center is now believed to be Southern Asia. Comp.

of a being who is not clearly transcendent: There is no statement that the Sun-God created the waters. the Sun-God. To take an illustration "In the beginning of time". which seem to be anterior.GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIG 63 FORM As to the inner nature of this divinity. This idea. though such a creation might be implied in the context. — ^'Roy.-IX. the first human beings". It shows that Sin-Bonga. is the supreme deity of Munda mythology". almost biblical ring." etc. if not identified. it has drawn the divinity into the world of lifeless matter. of a "totem"-god. described as the most valuable of . of "brooding" over the waters. the Sun-God. V. and stars is a point that suggests their eternity. of evolving things out of "eggs". Spirit. to man? It is true that the expression "sun-god" is not in itself decisive. has colored the entire mythological system of the Mundas. op. moon. with the sun. to the universe. he is certainly a "light"-god. harmless and even beautiful as it may seem. though a person. it is the first indication of a half-naturalised Creator. light-month?). and out of this egg came forth a boy and a girl. brooded over the waters and the first beings that were born were a tortoise. runs the old Mundari legend. p. "Roy. Finally a certain swan laid an egg. He next filled the earth with birds and beasts of all sorts and sizes." What then is his relation to nature. and though Father Schmidt insinuates a possible lunar origin. more especially as Sin-Bonga is himself the Sun(3) Throughout the idea of "hatching" by sun-power. 1. is too strong to be lightly dismissed. And with this clay Sin-Bonga made this beautiful earth of ours. this is of no great import in view of the fact that his name might have travelled from India to Oceanica. or at least coeval with him. Sin-Bonga commanded these first-born of all animals to bring him a lump of clay from the depths of the ocean. Mundari mythical note. Sin-Bonga. and that among the Mundas he is universally identified with the sun. that he acts by "solar" power. At his bidding the earth brought forth trees. "the face of was covered with water. c p. legends. (2) The absence of any creation of sun. This legend has a dignified. is intimately connected. as he commands in the imperative mood. and the earth a leech. (Austronesian Simi-Bona. plants. XX. Nevertheless there are certain points that are strangely suggestive of a nature-god. but (1) that he "brooded over" the waters. "Sin-Bonga. it has made Him part and parcel of the world. herbs and creepers. a crab. Moreover he is apparently a Creator and evidently a Person. The great luminary is too common an object in the heavens not to attract the attention of all men in all ages. the cit.

are the chief regulators of the tie. 290. Father Schmidt finds no evidence for the belief in the descent of men from their totems. that although the supreme divinity is not forgotten. whether as man or animal. 292. or reptile implies a return into the totem and a vital relation to nature of no ordinary kind. less exacting in morals. Now this is a point of no small importance. their neighbors.(or Bhelva-tree) spirit. Frazer also testifies that the Oraons. 482. Now such a naturalisation is bound to leave its and eschatological aspects to of the question. but the intermarriage of those who belong to the same totemic kili or clan. of which there are no less than 339. This genetic relation between a man and his "totem" has produced a feeling of identity. 1. and even the "red earth" are their direct ancestors. the efficacy of the entire function depends on the Soso-tree. c. but is condemned to be reborn. "Roy. But more than this. and starts a long incantation to the Soso. whose branch the worshipper then religiously plants in his fields to increase the harvest. II. The Soso-Bonga ceremony. though theoretically supreme. there is less of prayer and more of magic in this. . animals. has become otiose." Then again the growth of magical and spiritistic practices is a striking feature. in which the story of Sin-Bonga is related. this evidently on the score of incest.64 GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIO FORM who . For among the Mundas divorce is openly recognised and there is at times considerable sexual laxity. " Frazer. social and cultural complexity. red earth. 455. and its "sun-god". Hence the general persuasion of these people that they are not only connected. a sort of fructification-rite." — — — — " Frazer. that plants. II. which forbids not only the killing or eating of the totem. c. "Roy. p. A impress on the social is himself related deity nature as the sun-light." They have local exogamy with tribal endogamy and male descent of the totem. beast. we are dealing with a new mental. a paraller relation. though he admits a close. This and the formerly common practice of cannibalism and human sacrifice shows that we have entered a different world of ethical consciousness. inserts an egg with a So«o-slip in the center.^' To conclude.religion. The clan-totems. sprinkles the whole with rice. But surely the transformation into bird. in which the "ghost-finder" draws a figure on the ground with coal-dust. and rice-flour. The soul is not summoned to the judgment-seat of God. 1. "like many other totemic peoples conceive themselves to be descended from their totems". there is no escape from palingenesis. but in some way related to the lower creation. is apt to produce the conviction that his children are also related to her. p. shows without a question. nay that they are bound to her by fetters that can never be completely shaken off. there is no deliverance from nature at the hour of death.

but the entire mythology and practice of these people tends to show that a Father in Heaven is no longer as vivid to them as in the earlier days of the world. we require special proof that the sun is a person. and that where we have an elaborate sun-cult. the ghostis one which I would not exclude but would rather approve as in harmony with similar practices in all ages of humanity. that he is simply a buru-bonga. p. as any miserable mannikin or idealised thunder-man. and Taboos". if not the Soso-slip — — . not a mere force or principle. and I for one do not wish to place any obstacles in the path of those to whom the religious data suggest such an interpretation. A. XIV. 230-232. and hurling his lightnings. a vague deity. nay as a possible "sacrament". and the sun is as good a "representation" of God. We cannot of course penetrate beneath the surface of things. But the point that I wish to bring forward is simply this. Comp. Hence the interpretation of the Soso. Frazer. which is thus brought into close relation with the Giver of all and cherished with a peculiar affection as sacred to him. that the picture of deity as sun-spirit is surely harmless enough. — ^° 269. I. 256- . that he is apparently the object of the ceremony.— the desire of union with the divine. 120. partly identified with his own creation. more "mystical". more mysterious. that the idea of personality is more easily suggested by "man" than by "sun". that the supposed magical practices are in reality invocations to the supreme divinity under the form of a flower-stalk. The above data show moreover that the sun-spirit is not forgotten. The alliance between the deity and the solar orb is in many respects an advance upon the crude anthropomorphisms that we find among many primitive peoples. IV. p. himself unpicturable. But even with these concessions it would surely be premature to conclude that the God of Heaven is actually believed to present in any of the burtis or sacred totems in unadulterated form.GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIG It 65 FORM be objected. Chap. sitting on the clouds. This is a well-timed observation. practice is may — reminding with its evident symboUsm of the sacred palms of Holy Week(?). that this estimate of Munda belief and needlessly severe. "First-fruits II. 265. Totemism and Exogamy. 590. however. as finder devouring the egg. Lang. Magic and Religion. that his action is less direct. In the present case we have a "sun-man" who seems to furnish the proof. esp." tery". that he is invoked and treated as a person. and yet his want of direct control over the life and destiny of man seems to indicate that his cosmic preponderate over his personal traits. a beautiful harvest-ceremony. of the life and resurrection symbols of all nations. or Bhelva-Tree totem as a "mys- — a sacred "medicine".

the function may be interpreted as a simple dedication-ceremony to the "patrons" of all the bulTalos. or Cattle-deity. Then follows a long incantation to the Snake-deity. This ceremony is repeated the next morning. (London. ^'W. yellow flowers that are particularly abundant in this region. handful of rice is A then thrown over the cattle by way of a benedictory rite. G." That the serpent is intimately connected with the sun is revealed by the stone slabs. another race of Turanian or pre-Aryan origin. i»E. H. (PI. There is a striking similarity between these and the dedication-rites Of the Todas of Southern India. The . At the door of the buffalo-shed a black fowl is sacrificed and rice-beer offered up to the Gorea-Bonga. 1906). p. Orijtinal Inhabitants of India. The custom of offering up this or that plant or animal to the local deity of the village or to the householdgod is too common a practice to be called in any sense distinctive. and are sent out to the pasturage bedecked with gay marigolds. and cannot be killed or eaten except on sacriflcial occasions. representing the "Sun-Serpent". 290. and the Serpent. 1908). pp. a ground-drawing is made in rice-flower representing the convolutions of the reptile in all possible forms. cit. and Anally the buffalos and other cattle are washed and anointed with oil or lard. nor is it necessarily polytheistic because the name of the Marang Burn or "Great God" is not explicitly mentioned. a particularly favorite theme among the Mallas and other aborigines of Southern India. »<>Idem. is to say the least a prominent feature among the Dravidian races. (Madras. The Todas. Ethnographic Notes in Southern India.66 GOD INDO-ASIATIG TOTEMIC FORM Of these fiurM-mysteries we have ample evidence both here and in other parts of the Indian peninsula. Thus at the Sohorai festival of the Sacred Buffalo." In the Malabar ceremony of the Snake-totem. when the buffalos are brought home and lamps are lighted near them. Thurston. Here also the buffalo is sacred. PL XXIII."* Thus the concept of deity as the Sun. 1893). op. Oppert. 186-188. who is himself a representative of the sungod. the leading idea being that of — divine protection. (London. 481. I have endeavored to indicate in the above. p. XVI). To what extent this involves an identification of One Deity with the totems among the Munda-Kol. during which the performer brandishes a fruit-stalk (here the Cocoa-nut) in the hope of warding off the serpent's bite. Comp. etc." In so far as all these bongos are in control of a supreme Sun-Spirit. the Buffalo. the Munda owners of bufFalos remain fasting all day until the evening. Rivers. the Bhelva-Tree. »'Roy.



Making of Religion. 1 Foy. we may We as/c it "Mulungu! Send us rain! We are in Send us clouds of rain. with the result that many of these elements appear in the far South. 298ff. the round-house. 176ff. though he In many parts his name is still invoked in is in all and through all". La Religion des Primitifs. extending with slight variations from the Tana to the Zambezi. but in others. more especially the bark-belt.2) 67 MULUNGU. and he is simply known as Unku-lunkulu. 1909). the fire-drill. to the inner nature of Mulungu. 48. Comp. Die Religion der afrikanischen Naturvolker.* There is evidence. we hunger! and we obtain food. these central figures of Bantu mythology with considerable detail. 2 . 28* LeRoy. (1891). He is mysterious. etc. p. fiir Ethnologic Schneider. Ankertnann. But as . The name variously translated as "He who is in heaven". nor earth nor anything. 213ff. ' « Idem. which are more recent of and more direct. 139.' The following are the main points of the report Mulungu is a great Sky. that Mulungu. 184ff. » LeRoy.^ For this region the form Mulungu is fundamental for deity. late bishop of Paderborn. our Father!" "O of thee. » Idem. Modimo. the "Ancient of Days". the "Old.or Light-Lord. a sense which we — is cannot afford to ignore. p.— (Eastern Bantu) The cultural connexion between India-Africa. p. platform-burial. "neither nor spirit. 182-185. though in nearly every case the Western-Asiatic neolithic wave has driven the forms a primary older civilisation into the background. send us peace. Magic and Religion. India-North America. circumcision. Mu-ingu. Mulungu.West. as among the Hereros. p. but he himself is unique and indescribable. op. He has many mulungus or minor : under him. and comp. cit p. p.* prayer and sacrifice. 235. etc. as among the Zulus. Ursprung. pp. the carved figurine. Ktilturkreise in Africa. and far into the Mgr. tranqmllity". makes it more than probable that they form in a sense a religious unit. has already treated interior. etc.^ but his reports must be supplemented by those of Mgr. however. 59-100.GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN TOTEMIG FORM (M. {Mu-lungu. his worship has long since been abandoned. in which the institution of totemism if not a paramount element. LeRoy. Among the Bantus of Eastern Africa nearly all the items of this culture may still be traced. Old One". Schneider. B. Zeitschr. like that between IndiaAustralia. South-African for "spirit" "soul" etc. Schmidt. Morimo. nor heaven.— East Central Africa. are thy children. Some of the old invocaspirits man tions breathe quite a lofty spirit: misery. op. (1905) p. 54-84. Lang. cit. tions for divinity in these Let us consider for a moment the various appellaBantu lands and note the widely divergent meanif ings that are assigned to words of similar not identical sound. p. and is believed to be the author the world and of all existence. nor ghost.'' Such aspirations are a clear indication of a personal beneficent divinity. Mungu) or as the equivalent of Molimo. the halfround bow. to show that the name and the idea may be taken in a very different sense. (Paris.

"line". "The Wa-gogo think that if a person kills or eats the animal which is the totem of his clan. p. II. admittedly one of the centers of African totemism. "Frazer. "abusive language is very much indulged in. but her children do not inherit it. but the form mu-longo as a designation for the totemic taboo is too suspiciously near the above to be passed over in silence. Jowrn.307. the inroads of moral laxity. Morality in this region is not flawless. "descent".' In view of the conflicting etymologies given above and its additional derivation from the Kanioka molongo. but not himself". and the women especially lose all sense of modesty. so each Wagogo family has its mulongo (forbidden thing). * Schmidt. Theal's theory is vet to be oroved false. 140. especially into snakes and serpents. "As a Wa-gogo clan has its muziro (forbidden thing). the family taboo. which is transmitted from the father to his children. Inst. The wife may have a different mulongo from that of her husband. and more especially for the genetic relation of things." While this is doubtless an exaggeration or at most a sporadic phenomenon. "At time of circumcision".* Moreover. 403. Cole. there is a very general belief in the transmigration of souls into the lower animals.^ Frazer. he thereby endangers his relations. " LeRoy. Frazer. and the country becomes a mighty bedlam". there are strong reasons for believing that he has lost much of his original purity.\m) P. p. 1 c. and the other set (mulongo) to the families. II. that he has been drawn into this own creation as a family totem. 403. ?Mithr. To is the loss of hair and teeth. lOlff. 1. that he is simply "taboo". Ursprung. p.68 GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN TOTEMIC FORM I am not in a position to speak with any linguistic certainty. says Mr. . op. T Frazer. of general polygamy. a double set of totems. XX3CII (. ^^H. Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa. Cole. . But although the ancient picture of a Father in Heaven is still in evidence. 388-392 (Theory of Bantu Totemism).* we are equally justified in inferring that mulungu is an abstract for anything sacred or mysterious. a word apparently meaning "row". where it occurs side by side with the form mu-ziro. Vol. 404. that he is himself to a certain extent a nature-god. II." What then is Mulungu? It would be premature to reach any dogmatic conclusions from the existing material. which shows that the supposed divinity is incapable of delivering man from the shackles of nature. The mulongo eat the mulongo involves said to cause the skin to fall off. is a fact that can hardly be denied. like the Herero." Totemism and Exogamy. Qit. to eat the muziro tary in the male line". It is found among the Wagogo and other tribes of German East Africa. one set {muziro) being appropriated to the clans. Dr. From this account it would seen that the Wa-gogo have. c. II. the occult ancestor. The latter are herediis apparently forbidden only after marriage. throughout the Bantu domain.

Not only is the hyaena sacrifled to Mulungu. disproimpersonal power.GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN TOTEMIC FORM 69 But the character of a divinity is best described by the legends. rites and practices of a people in his regard. pp. the Heaven-God. who alone may touch it or give it to the children whom they nurse. raise neither." "A. his right hand.and Thunder-men that drive away thunder-storms by throwing an axe into the clouds with the exclamation: "Thunder! Be silent in our townl^* We have little information of the higher Nandi beliefs. as among the Nandi. Then follows a "Sun-Dance". when the sun rises in a cloudy sky. 6Sff. and the people come and get Are for themselves from his. C. but among many. Arbousset et Comp. (compare the Malakkan negritos). of the control of nature by means of parallel. there is a whole tribe dedicated to the Sun. Daumas. (Oxford. 3S0ff. — earth will re-kindle the fires of the solar orb. Further South. on the public place of the village. ablution the chief kindles a flre in his hut. he is afflicting their heart (!). The members of this "Sun-Tribe" say that. Voyage d'Exploration." Here there are special Sun. p. while orphans who have lost both parents. —the celestial ancestor. The Nandi. How far does he help or direct them? To what extent is he a personal power in their lives? Now it is interesting to observe that throughout the Eastern Bantu domain the Sun and the Hyaena are intimately interconnected. while the flre in the hut of the Sunchief is best explained by supposing that the kindling of the fires of the portionate forces. Making of Religion. II. The similar customs among many savage and semi-civilised peoples tend to confirm this view. "Idem. in the hope that their spirits may share the occult powers of the animal. "Ibidem. savors strongly of sympathetic magic. p. the bodies of the dead are given to the hyaenas to eat. that they may communicate with their ancestors. 3. that they are in a peculiar sense sacred. 1908). The people go down in a body On returning to the village after this to the river to wash their bodies. among the Bechuanas. In this dance he who has lost his father lifts his hat towards the sun he who has lost his mother. All the food of the previous day is then given to the old women. mulungu. so that it would be premature to conclude that this is a mere thunder-charm. II. Magic and Religion. — probable case of long-distance magic. founded as it is upon detailed and repeated observations among numerous and widely separated races of mankind." It is not easy to interpret this ceremony with anything like satisfacBut the saluting of the sun. but cross both hands on the breast. 70S. 373. Hollis. " 374. . seem to reveal some connexion between the Sun and the ancestor. . 235. hands in honor of the dead ancestor. Frazer. But the custom such as it is. accompanied by a monotonous chant. Lang. p. and the raising and crossing of the tion.

But the combined picture can hardly be rejected in those points that are particularly prominent. the production of rain and sunshine by more or less occult agencies. except in isolated sections of the North East. and these are the more or less direct cult of the Sun and the Hyaena. he is transcendent. more especially to strangers. but the above data show with sufficient clearness. Serpent. So the one who waited for the rain was called 'She who was related by marriage to the rain'. To what extent this is the case in each individual instance. whether for better or for worse. The one said. "Once upon a time there were two sisters. and the general absence of personal prayers to the great Mulungu. and the one who had no fear of the heat was called 'She who is related by marriage to the Sun'. makes it more and more probable that this is a vague divinity whose name is invoked in parts. whose uncle was dead. which. either on the subject of the origin. and the belief that man. Some allowance must always be made for the pictorial and symbolic method by which savages commonly convey their meaning. but whose personality has been dimmed in others by the growing importance these objects are in related to some way A realistic interpretation is suggested of nature-powers. or on the equally difficult question of the nature of these beliefs.70 GOD CENTRAL AFRICAN TOTEMIC FORM Among the Hereros of the far South-West there are curious stories of Sun and Rain-clans. that the ancestor has migrated to the Sun. it is impossible from the existing material to determine." It cannot be said that these stories carry much conviction. and they the origin of the thought they would go to the funeral. he is the totem. but they shed little light on the real origin of the cult. Hence the strong expression "to be married to the Sun" implies at least this much. that they are his ancestors. they are evidently mythical and extremely simple. . let us wait for the rain'. with the funeral of a relative. sacred or profane just in proportion to the degree in which his All-Father character is still recognised. Finally. must remain for the present a disputed question. In so far as Mulungu is the Father of All. 'It is very hot. or Hyaena. That was the origin of the Sun and Rain clans. and away she went to the funeral. and that in both cases the Sun-cult is associated with the souls of the deceased. But the other had no fear of the heat. for this reason. that the concept has been largely naturalised. by the fact that the disembodied spirit speaks "through" the Hyaena. in so far as he is Sun. obtains the closest relation to the survivor expressed by the marriage-relation.



and eschatology. which is eternal. their original features. 1. * C. Loritja Stamme in Central. 14Sff. ("Dream-Time"). ' Thomas. Central Australia. Of this being. Leondem stadtischen Volkermuseum der Stadt Frankfurt. partly animal form that the Arunta derive the whole universe of being. 1. and partly fashioned by totemic lizard-gods. It is from these inapertwas. (Aboriginal One?) a few reliable facts have been gathered by G. inter-interas. the good return to the great Altjira. (London. But though his image is human. or shapeless ancestors. 3) 71 ALTJIRA. his personality has been largely forgotten. In other words he is a totemised Heaven-God. and represented as a big strong man of ruddy complexion. however. 1907-1910) Vol. who has become part and parcel of nature. (Frankfurt. he has no ethical relation to man. by evil spirits. and though "good" {mara). 1904). Strehlow. 124. 913. but evolved from shapeless masses during the primaeval age of evolution. According to another tradition. reincarnation. I. . (the uncreated. for "Dream-Time".' Like the Indian divinity he lives in the Sun. if not to entirely eclipae. their counterpart in Australia is still more immersed in the nature-complex. (Aranda) p. or vaguely as the "taboo". of which he forms the climax.Australien. though formerly supreme. {am. edited by F. Alcheringa. L Thomas says in his Source-book that "his reports are important as supplementary to and corrective of those of Spencer and — Gillen in the Altjira is same region". he and his family have emuor dog's feet. Altjira. Moreover in every Central-Australian tribe without exception there exists a belief that each soul is a reincarnation of a totemic ancestor.* is an eternal being. » Strehlow. who carry out his behests. pp. who arose out of nature and has conquered the high heavens. 372. Strehlow. a recent missionary. p. — (Arunta Tribe) But if the preceding divinities are partly related to nature and man. * See Spencer and Gillen. while the wicked are devoured is — — — .' This will become increasingly evident the more the Arunta customs and beliefs are studied as a whole and compared with the neighboring cults. Throughout this region the divinities have been mixed up with the forces of nature to such an extent as to hide. Ursprung. tralia. or serpents. who neither fear nor love him. Die Aranda hardi. is now an evolutional divinity with emu-feet(!). he is not the creator of the world. The Northern Tribes of Central Aus1. called also altjira-inkaras. 8.^ of whom W. These were not created.GOD CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN TOTEMIC FORM (M.unga-quiniaquinia). This the first indication of his solar character. to which he may return at the hour of death. whose long flaxen hair hangs over his shoulders. Altjira. who instituted the rites of circumcision and subincision. he has several beautiful wives and many sons and daughters. immortal ones) of partly human. 174ff. p. 16. Source-book. c. in Veroffentlichungen «nd aus * Schmidt. either as the "sun-spirit". (Loritja) p. the long glistening hair representing the sun's rays. .* The main outlines of this system seem clear enough.

Wah. But more than this. and probably worshipped. undying. bedaubed with paint and emu-feathers. In fact. Of these ideas that of the "Emu-Sun" is one of the most important. of all existence. Across Australia. grass-seed totems. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. a forgotten God. of half animal nature. by the surrounding tribesmen. though Such a it is capable of a religious interpretation with a personal god. His very name has been applied to the shapeless "monads". This ceremony.72 GOD CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN TOTEMIC FORM For it seems clear that this another case of an otiose divinity. his personality is hardly recognised. It is difficult to explain such a "rudimentary survival" unless we suppose that. The former brandishes a flower-stalk. — totemism with male descent. Wah. pp.' •Spencer and Gillen. which. cannibalism. there are few supplications to a Heavenly Father. a certain notion of transcendence is here implied. it is these practices. is magical rather than religious. but secondarily the emu-intestines. with the revolting custom of "subincision. are made upon the ground in red or black ochre. this alone suggests that He was at one time supreme. and the like. of superhuman outlines. 737. Both performers kneel one behind the other. he was at one time a "living" God. etc. unloved and unrespected. of righteous ethical qualities. elaborate drawings representing primarily the sun. while the latter holds a small disk with a central patch representing the navel of the original sun-ancestor. 182. 268-273flf. suggestive though it be. — in of the Emu-totem. . lizards. an impersonal force. pp. Idem. the germs of all life. a former Creator. feathers." have given the proverbially shady reputation to the modern "savage" as most of us hear of him. one personifying the tribe. wifeloaning. but rather crude magical incantations to the sun for the increase of food. (1912). personality may still be traced in part. The fact that Altjira is eternal. Monogamy is in vogue. smd infanticide. but polygamy. but he is a married divinity. an evolutional god. eggs. But with this more ancient concept there has been blended a different set of ideas. take their place in the center. and by swaying their bodies from side to side seek to obtain supernatural power from the emu-sun to the accompaniment of a rude incantation. like the divinities of the South-East. The identification of Altjira with the Sun and the Emu is the first indication that we are dealing with a naturalised divinity.* Now in so far as Altjira is behind the sun. for the multiplication of totems. 'Ibidem. This is not putting the case too strongly. The Aruntas have 4-class which they alone are recognised as Thus at the Intichiuma ceremony all-powerful. Wah!. Vol. But the fact is. the other a "sun"-ancestor (sic). it is through Altjira that the "charm" is operated. 11. Then two men. are all represented in this region. who as the altjird-inkaras are unborn. They are the centers of an elaborate cult.

it is precisely for the reason that here more than elsewhere animism and spirit-worship have made more than ordinary progress. Magic and Religion. At the most.^^ It also shows that here." To substantiate such a proposition. Ursprung. 798. •Strehlow.* If the same cannot be said of the Dieri nation. 1874). the name is certainly applied to the snake and lizard totems from which the Dieri believe themselves to be descended. » S. (Adelaide. Mooramoora written as a proper name. the mura-mura is a wonder-working ancestor. snake or spider. the mura- — — of the snake-totem.GOD CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN TOTEMIG FORM Among 73 other strongly totemised cults of this region those of the neighto be mentioned. 268. for the reason that their chief divinity Tukura is in many respects a duplicate of the foregoing. falcon. On the contrary." The attempt of Lang and others to read a unique divinity into this term is one that does not commend itself to an impartial criticism. whatever other meanings may have been attached to the term. I. a group of tribes inhabiting the Lake-Eyre region. as in the intichiumxt ceremonies to the North. that the above data are corroborated by the appearance of a parallel divinity among a people who are culturally and industrially on nearly the same level. quondam Creator. are of such a nature. whose personality has been lost by excessive naturalism. the Dieri designation for the alcheringa of the Aruntas. 260ff. in which two men dig up the fossil here distinctly called mura-mura. it is hardly probable that this supposed "ancestor" mura ceremony reptile. The Dieri Tribe. rainmaker. the existing data tend to show that mura-mura is either generic. a personal cult would have to be clearly proved. collect the supposed excrement of the animal. and it is sufflcient in the present place to indicate. if anything specific. ghost. entities are multiplied by occult forces which are not clearly in control of a personal divinity. 269. — is much more than a mysterious magical agency. Schmidt. There may be some doubt as to the exact meaning of the term Mura Mura. ibidem. or. p. this is as good evidence as can be desired that. Frazer. p." Gason. 62-63. op. 480-482. for the Minkani ceremony. whether with Gason we take it as "the Good Spirit". as seems more likely from the practices of these people. supra. the half-animal indescribables who are the origin of all existence. " Lang. sprinkle the remains with blood drawn from the arm. p. Such an interpretation will gather additional force when we consider the numerous parallel cases in this immediate area in which the divinity is If the neighboring deities identified with emu. Nay more. p. . it is the defunct ancestor that alone is recognised. spirit. Howitt. etc. it is simply the generic designation for anything mysterious. or whether. *' Thus it is probable that Frazer's view comes very near the truth. 350. All the remarks that have been made of the former apply with equal force boring Loritja deserve — to the latter. cit. but of such a cult there is no direct evidence. ancestor. Native Tribes of South-East Australia. and he of half-animal form. and then scatter the mixture over the sandhills in the hope of increasing the supply of carpet-snakes.

are paramount in the interior and comparatively unknown or unheeded on the coast. will now be able to appreciate how sharply the divinities of Central Australia are marked off from those of the far South-East. can hardly be questioned. But that such a belief is entirely absent. 1906). It may be a concealed. This is one of the few regions of Australia where the pure 2-class system with maternal descent is in vogue. has supplied Baiame with Emu-feet. though the few items collected by Schmidt are too vague and isolated to carry conviction.—which is not in itself impossible the religion of these people can hardly be called more than a disguised form of nature and ancestor-worship.74 GOD CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN TOTEMIC FORM This is of course mostly negative evidence. as well as to trace the origin of those elements in the latter which are clearly disfigurements. expressed in ritual rather than words. the Emu-Sun. — — . 73 N. we have reasons to believe that spiritism. Thomas Kinship-organisation in Australia. expressed by mura-mura. Native Tribes of Central Australia. W.^' — ." We Celiter. 1' and Group-marriage above. and until it can be proved that the Great muramura{7) has made the totem his own. but in neither case has the totem-culture dethroned the ancient Father in Heaven in the most primitive region of the Australian continent as yet known to us. technically called the Pirauru-relation not simply as an aberrant phenomenon. In any case.. based on the apparent absence of personal invocations to a supreme Being. etc. but has since been abandoned in favor of a more alluring belief. i* See under Baiame. Altjira. If the All-Father is strong in the South-East and weak in the it is because the sun and the emu. 37ff. the lizard and the carpetsnake. if not the deterioration of the idea Fr. I do not pretend for one moment to assert. but as a legally recognised matrimonial state. it is a noteworthy fact that here alone do we And the strange practice of group-marriage. They show at the outside that the deity was formerly worshipped. Howitt. cannibalism. symbolic belief. While there is no essential connexion between this and a lower standard of practice. and there are one or two vague indications that Mura-Mura was at one time^ invoked by the mythical ancestors. that He is working in and through the supposed ancestor. With this the social and ethical data are in suspicious accord. . But that such a deterioration has here set in. it has associated Daramulun with the Lizard. in itself an important point as it helps to explain the genesis. pp. p. (Cambridge. and head-hunting are the accompaniments of a culture which is typically late-Melanesian and which is here represented in its most vivid form.



the wording of the report. the flint-headed spear." But on the one hand. Rep. 2 volumes. . HaAdbook of American Indians. in the administration of their medicine to the sick and afflicted. 108. All the Magi. of the animal. or. the bone-flute.. the totemic marriage. . the patriarchal septsystem. Owen Dorsey that the writer mistook the generic name Wakanda for a specific one. 87ff. pp.— even if exaggerated. . the carved figurine. and some allowance must therefore be made for the possible intrusion of later stages of belief. incomprehensible. mimic the action and voice." things by the to ^ For each of these items consult F. prayers on the opposite page. » See Frazer III. See also the Sun-Dance E. writes "The Wakanda is believed to be the best of beings. the furblanket. and He is supposed to afflict them with sickness. iFrazer. "sacred". (Washington. Omniscience. the platform and treeburial. III. Dorsey. in which smoke is heaven with the exclamation. 11th. and that he "rules" over them. A Study of nilation » Frazer. however. for their evil deeds. is the smoke!" blown up They say they do this because Wakanda "gave" them the pipes. the tribal initiation. and vast powers are attributed to Him. not necessarily the supreme Being. Totemism and Exogamy. the face and body paint. anything sacred. as follows: Of Wakanda of the Omaha an early authority. 398. is their respective medicine. the bark-canoe. poverty or misfortune. which.* This no doubt is possible. that in which the Wakanda appeared to them.GOD (M. J.. seems inconsistent with the idea of a merely tutelary power. (Washmgton.^ We have the nomadic life. Wakanda. his personal nature is attested among other "Smoke" ceremony of the Buffalo men. the round-house.. etc. p. anything wonderful. the buffalo-hunt. B. "Here.. 1894). the halfround bovs'. O. in other words. the polychrome picture. the fire-drill." * Now it is objected by J. III. he is supposed to appear to different persons under different forms. variously exaggerated and modified. an excellent comHodge.^ It is to be noted. The name wakan is used indefinitely It's best equivfor anything marvellous. that it stands for any great spirit. and the Fountain of Mystic Medicine. Prairie Belt— (Sioux-Dakota-Omaha) It is in the broad Prairie-belt of the Missouri basin that the more advanced totem-culture of North-America has been preserved in its most distinctive form. 'Ibidem. the throwing-stick. owl. * Siouan Cults. on the other hand. alent is toboo. He appears to one in the shape of a grizzly bear. to a third in that of a beaver. W. they say. He seems to be a Protean god. to another in that of a bison. 4) 75 NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM WAKANDA. mysterious. 1907-10). the Creator and Preserver of all things. Edwin James. omnipresence. that these elements have been largely fused with a later neolithic and copper wave of industry. 372-430. A.

This they do by dancing around a vessel of water and spurting the water into the air in imitation of rain. that he appears under a myriad forms. that "the Sun. or anterior to the world. the Moon. there is something essentially deficient. p. or a god above'. p. in this case the Sun. Though theoretically supreme. c. Omaha Sociology. Dorsey. Omaha Sociology. the dying-man is told. 1884). mostly shows. in Kodge. "Idem. but it This ceremony is rich in symbolism. 0. 'Dorsey. wrapped in buffalo skins. A Study of Siouan Cults. as witness: During the Buffalo-Dance of the Omaha Ghost-Society the members prance about disguised in the skins and horns of the animal and then come together for the purpose of making rain.' Members the to — of the Turtle-clan draw a figure of the turtle on the ground and place some pieces of cloth on the figure in the hope of dispelling a fog. E. spill the water on the ground. fall down. the beliefs and practices of the Omahas tend to reveal a vague nature-worship in which the wakans are primary germinal-units.' The same tribes have an order of Thunder-shamans. and that there is practically no supreme or absolute worship attached to him.76 GOD NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM is But this question is not so easily disposed of. (Washington." But the most distinctive ceremony of all the Plains tribes was the Sun-Dance. 651. in the words of Dorsey. 1. upon human destiny. 395. p. 11th. and other celestial phenomena. II. There are also no clear-cut crea- tion-myths to sh. to operate all wonders. which contain within themselves the power produce all things.' 'Great Medicine' (Wakanda). A. 240. This "You are going to the is carried still further in the death-ceremony. Report. The fact that Wakanda the general term for "Mystery". makes it difficult to believe that he is in any real sense a unique divinity. » Idem. Then they upset the vessel. a transcendent being. besmirching their faces in the act. astrological. being symbolised by the center pole". pp. On the contrary. the highest of which is the Sun." It will be noticed how close is the approach to the Intichiuma ceremonies of Australia and the Soso-bonga rites of Central India. 3d. something essentially sinister in his make-up. " Idem. . "You are going to rejoin your ancestors!" " This shows with considerable clearness that the Wakanda is essentially a nature-god. 347fl. 229. Rep. who predict the weather by what they see in dreams and visions of the Thunder-being. in which the performers gyrated for hours before a buffalo^skull and a sacred pole — representing the Sun. Here again it is the Sun and the Buffalo that figure as the most important agencies. he has lost his hold upon human life. the Great Wakanda. For any god that can suffer his clients to reappear as buffalos can hardly be described as a wise and benevolent Creator. animals the bulTalos". — ij. spoken of as the 'Great Mystery. B. superior. and lap the water up. Handbook. or 'Man was even more prominent in their eyes. p.ovf that he is above.

In so far as He is above the totems. a Ruler. 897. Such a "communion"-rite is indeed beautiful to contemplate. the word is also applied to objects or phenomena regarded as sacred or mysterious. should — hesitate in associating this idea with the unknown X. H. but in so far as simply the X of existence. the solar predominating over the human features. gives life. the whole process being described as the "Great Mystery". such a function is hardly more than a charm. p. during his fast. are distinctly thrown out to us. Thus it is not impossible that under some lesser wakan. The fact that hints of a "Man above". Fletcher of Washington. Hodge. "See the article on the Wakanda by Miss Alice B. together with the common tendency of man to personify nature. the Great Unknown. and the above remarks are at least in part justified. a Giver. Hewitt. B. that He is not simply a magic force or potency. and I am he!'. 787. N. for the ability to move is to the Omaha mind synonymous with life. These two uses of the word are never confused in the minds of the thoughtful. the Omaha sings 'Wakanda! Here needy he stands.of magic. that is. the mere sum-total of all the powers in existence. but it is yet to be proved that Wakanda is present as a Person. and even partaken of by the worshipper as a sacrament of union with the divine. in . While Wakanda "is the name given to the mysterious all-pervading and life-giving power to which certain anthropomorphic aspects are attributed. there — the Great Wakanda may be concealed to buffalo. his address is to 'the power that moves'. and even a creative meaning into the term." " If then we have some standingground for a personal divinity. unique and incommunicable. Also ofl the Totem by J. turtle — . of a Maker. to make it human and lifelike. more especially under the "Sacred Corn". offered up to the Supreme Being as a sacrifice of atonement. it is no less evident that this divinity is associated if not identified with the Sun. Handbook. it is shrouded in magical and totemic practices which may have an intimate relation to Him. and that acknowledged authorities like Dorsey and Fletcher are able to read a personal. but of whose "sacred" character make us — — is no clear proof. this. In this prayer the Omaha is not crying to those forces or forms spoken of as wakanda in songs that relate to objects seen in dreams or to symbols. When. bear. p. 'causes to move'. such an imparting of power is not inconceivable. Ibid.GOD NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM Are we then that to 77 conclude that this is typical for the entire continent. with the result that a direct personal worship is here at a minimum. whom He imparts His divine character in a secret and incomprehensive manner. (1910). what we find is at most a nature-worship disguised by the term wakanda? This in the present state of our knowledge would be a somewhat premature induction. a transcendent Wakanda. snake.

1885). whether in the mental or physical world. that which surpasses the ordinary powers of man to compreh(!nd anything extraordinary. of which Mr. F. II. and especially developed on the North American continent. 230. Minn. and the entire catalogue of attributes that are assigned to the Orenda shows how confused and entangled the notion is. the orendawakan-manitoo system has either expanded the notion. 382ff." " How a "local" force can be always "immanent in some object" is difficult to understand. or. 800). Chamberlain under "Manito" (Hodge. The Algonquin Manitoo and the Iroquois Orenda have practically the same meaning. (St.. as a branch of the Iroquois. it appears to be more and more probable that although a commanding figure is for the most part traceable in single outline. (Hodge. and of the Virginians we know too little to be able to pass any final judgment as to the nature of their beliefs as a totemic people. or enthralled by the orenda of occult ritualistic formulas endowed with more potency. Hence the existence of "High Gods" in the Iroquois region must be interpreted by the parallel light of the orenda." The Napi divinity of the Blackfeet and the Ahone-god of the Virginians are unquestionably prominent and apparently personal. and not at all omnipotent (sic). under "Orenda". they belong to the Orenda-r&gion. suppressed. I. or "Great Spirit". how far from satisfying the rigid demands of a theistic notion. Paul. and this in view of the undoubted existence of parallel cases elsewhere. A History of the Oiibways. though convincing evidence is in most cases difficult Manitoo to obtain. attracted. acquired. divinities. W. and ever embodied and immanent in some object. . nay with a Creator of all. Frazer. H(!re too the term cannot be interpreted as a personal one without qualifi- is interesting to note in "mystery" as a common — — . it has been brought into connexion with a personal divinity. increased. local and not omnipresent. although it was believed that it could be transferred. IH. myterious in mode of action. Making of Riligion. "A. cation. limited in function and efficiency. Warren. "Cp. but the Blackfeet have outgrown totemism. designating "the mysterious and potencies and powers of life and of the universe. "W. Hewitt thus writes "This hypothetic principle was conceived to be immaterial.. 63-65. Hewitt. While a personal dominance can be proved in this or that instance. but consistency is hardly to be expected in this place." Moreover. occult. "J. the sources are too far off to allow of any exact definiFrom what has already been found of existing tions as to its nature. impersonal. likely : — — .78 GOD NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM It ttiis connection that the generic idea of designation for the Godhead is particularly strong.147). unknown is an appellative."" As the Kitchi Manito. makes the Chippewa deity a strong figure. pp. what is more it has obscured it by a confused jumble of nature-beliefs. Lang.237ff. B.

the the bull-roarer. and the balsa-raft flint." Father Boscana in his labors the Acagchemem tribes of Southern California thus writes of their religious beliefs: " "Although ignorant as they were of the knowledge among — — of the true God. Juan Capistrano. that they might become good. I.) " . Polygyny and divorce exist side by side with the stricter code of an earlier age. the throwing-stick. There was also less regard for the sanctity of life. hospitality and the like are also on record. and blood-revenge were once the order of the day. the round-house. At the age of six or seven years they gave him a kind of god as protector. 1846. and mocassin-raiment. in whom they were to place entire confidence who would protect them from harm." (M. 808. duels. Alta California. Cannibalism in some form or another was at one time practised by all these tribes. in "Life in California". though striking instances of kindliness. for He was invisible. and there is evidence to show that irregular unions. An Historical Account of the Origin. Y. Wars. to whom pottery. or exist only as sporadic features. (California region).—Pacific Belt— (California Region) The Rocky Mountain divide separates the Plains and Plateau Indians from their more primitive forbears on the Pacific slope. 5) GHINIGCHINICH. are largely unknown. and Traditions of the Indians at the Missionary Establishment of S. by an American [A. there is here no longer that delicate perception of the moral fitness of things that we find in the earlier stages of human society. and avoid the The perverse child invariably was destroyed. They were not. S71. cit. op. agriculture. 200. the self-bow. While the noble and the ignominious are mysteriously intertwined in all the ages of man. etc. which were strongly impressed upon their minds. Fr. the unpolished wooden boomerang. weaving. passim. Robinson]. 270. parents of such remained dishonored. They lead the half-naked life of the deerhunter that goes hand in hand with the loin-cloth. even at sacred functions were by no means unknown. the fire-drill. pp. Geronimo Boscana. a very rare work. and the fate of the evil. or to those of sharing the brave qualities of an enemy. (Frazer. an animal. III. but if He did appear to them at any time. The picture in short is a twofold one. however.GOD NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM 79 The social and moral statistics tend to bear this out. whether confined to cases of hunger. the bone-whistle. 12 Hodge. N. and inhabited the mountains and bowels of the earth. the basket-canoe. but the growing inroads of a weaker standard are distinctly noticeable. the moral instruction given by parents to their children was contained in the precepts of Chinigchinich. called the Acagchemem Nation. Customs. it was in the shape of an animal of the — most terrific description. Chinigchinich. 404. i' Items in Hodge. to consider this animal as the real God.

" This and the narcotic ceremony recorded above shows with some force that the divinity has lost much of his power to control the life and destiny of man by rational sanctions. had selected for their particular veneration. While the former is invisible and benevolent. or rattlesnake. Moreover Merriam assures us all these Californian tribes believe that they "came from" certain animals. and by his want of direct control of the moral law. as a closer relations with nature. X.80 GOD NORTH AMERICAN TOTEMIG FORM This was not Chinigchinich. of the totem-culture in its earlier stage. . mere coincidence. in the American Anthropologist. or rocks. trees. the Mulungu of Africa. matrimonial totemism of the undeveloped form (individual and local). This is evidenced by his role as a married hunter. 793. for though an advanced clansystem is here absent. and for three days were deprived of any sustenance whatever. II. the Altjira-Inkara of Australia." The report then describes how the neophyte is commanded to obey implicitly whatever visions are vouchsafed him during the trance. a kind of drink was administered to them. To what extent these elements have affected the combined picture of the divinity. made from a plant called Pibat. or the Wakanda of North America. which suggests the conclusion that they may also return to the same by re-birth. Institutions appear to be patriarchal and plutocratic. It tain similarity of belief will thus be seen that throughout the totemic zone there exists a cerand practice which is too striking to be put down In every case the divinity h^as been drawn into whether as the Buru-Bonga of India. how he finally divulges the secret to the by-standers and the commands of the mysterious apparition. No. Compare Hodge. which the God. This is characteristic Devil. but another called Touch. which was reduced to a powder. and mixed with other intoxicating ingredients. (1908). by his cosmic and solar character. with local exogamy and male descent. that he is after all only a nature-god. This report is of value because it reveals a distinction between the supreme divinity and the totems. the latter are visible and of animal form. Chinigchinich. Soon after taking this preparation they became senseless. signifying a That they might know the class of animal. crow. by his possible confusion with the tribal totem. 4. is now known to exist. Throughout this region there is also a strong belief in metempsychosis and in the multiplication of entities by impersonal magic. }« JHerriam. will be discussed later on. how he imagines an interview with a bear.

Alpine. On this system it will be possible to read the religion historic The association of memory is of the lake-dwellers and megalithic architects partly in the linguistic records of the past. (Jena. remains to be seen. Hamitio nor Mongolic but which is associated with the beginnings of all four. pp. encircling the earth in almost unbroken confrom the Alps and Carpathians to the Caucasus. W. it was by no means the earliest or only one.' King. Egypt. 1901) p.* — IF. (Cultural influence on Egfjrpt. the so-called "Sumerian" race of the Mesopotamian plains. by the fact that the modern ethnical boundaries correspond very largely to the ancient ones. and Patagonia on the other. and Iran. Schrader. and it seems certain that we must go beyond Europe to Western Asia in order to find the real beginnings of neolithic civilisation. 1907) pp. Now such a center is found in that portion of Western Asia which is racially and territorially neutral. Asia. 1912). IV. O. Semitic. 998ff.— among others the Dagger and the Blow horn. and through the Himalayan region to Indo-China and Polynesia on the one hand. 108. neither Aryan. 36ff: (Craniology)'. (Berlin. 40. and tenanted by a people whose physique and language are tially tinuity. (London. pp. (Strassburg. (Nordic. History of Sumer and Akkad. to Arabia. op. Mexico. (Anthropos. 'L. Sprachyergleichung und Urgeschichte. in Praehistorische Zeitschrift. Graebner. 1912). seems to postulate some common radiating center from which the proto-Caucasian race must first have emerged into prominence. 349f. .GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM (N) EURASIAN-POLYNESIAN-CORDILLERAN 81 GrOUP. — — — . Whatever be the exact interrelation of these peoples in prehistoric ages. irreducible. and such a link is sufficiently prominent in the "land of the four rivers" to merit our serious consideration. Peru. Die Melanesische Bogenkultur. Mediterranean Group). 1029-1030. as the character of this culture was fundamentally Caucasian. It is believed to be solidly probable by reason of the striking homogeneity of that culture. and the West). some remote binding-link seems to be called for. Ethriblogy. which are still associated with a very similar culture. A p. Schliz. (Advanced neolithic and bronze age). and to Alaska. 824ff. Wanderings. It is essen- a highland culture. The threefold dispersion of Caucasian races. and we are therefore justified in using the latter as one of our sources. (Polynesian-Cordilleran extension) ? But if the Aryan race was a conspicuous figure during the second stone age. = Cbmp.^ Whether this will be substantiated by further evidence. In the meantime it can hardly be doubted that. Reallexicon der indogermanischen Alterthumskunde. p. Idem. pp. Conip. A. also Keane. partly in the existing Austronesian and Cordilleran-American traditions. " Graebner.— NEOLITHIC BeLT. which are well certified for the middle-European Pile-period. (Recent) the European Neolithic with the Caucasian race of one of the most daring achievements of modern ethnology. 1909) pp. it was at least in part Indogermanic. (Aryan religion). and by the survival into historic times of certain elements that are believed to be peculiar to the Indogermanic races. cit. 321-348. Haddon.

the simplest kind of pottery." For these remote ages the alluvial mounds of Mesopotamia have revealed a culture which is characteristically neolithic. Lowest strata. We have the simple mat-garment. Weissbach. the clay figurine. predynastic it were a unit. It was not even Caucasian in the modern sense. the bone-needle. the reed-boat. it is only in Egypt and appeal must be Mesopotamia that we possess the earliest extant syllabic or alphabetic writing. 1912). This agrees well with the theory above supported and is only to be expected on the supposition that they antedate any existing representatives of the Caucasian stock. while their language has been affiliated with nearly every known tongue. revealing perhaps some Mongolia affinities. the xylophone. the developed boomerang. the polished flint-knife. "Items in S. it is because the finger of archaeology points strongly in this direction. forming a possible tlink between the Dravidians of Central India and the pre-Aryan Ligurians of the middle''white" races as European Pile-belt. because we require a neutral Gaucasioid race as the bearer of the earliest neolithic culture. the wooden lyre. in Egypt. 8-10000. the "patesi"-kingship. Die Sumerische Frage. though the nature of the soil will account for its strongly "alluvial" character. and not impossibly to the eighth millennium before Christ.* Here we have a people whose prehistoric past ascends indefinitely. or apron. the sling-bow. * Comp. 4-SOOO.82 GOD WESTERN It is ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM not pretended that this was the direct ancestor of any of the we now know them. P. (iion-totemic) and above all the tomb-burial with contracted corpse. but is better described as proto-Gaucasioid. (indigenous).'' (Leipzig. (New York. Hieroglyphic. la&x. pp 00 cit . 3-4000. . Finally. If then we raise the Sumerian problem to the forefront of ethnic possibilities in relation to early neolithic man. "Ur-Nina. the free marriage. and because it carries us back to a time when the whole of Western Eurasia formed as a time which was pre-Sargonic in Babylonia. and this must always be a heavy denominator in any attempt to evaluate in their true proportions the early beliefs and practices of a civilisation which has been buried for — tve-thousand years. Mesofotataiah Archaeology. and to the buried records of the past. 1898) (Linguistic theory) King. Ctaieiform. and this in its earlier stages. Handcock. 3000." It will be seen that most of these elements fit in well with what we know of the early pre-megalithic lacustrian age. 40-55 (ethnical affinities). (unmarked). (hand-weaved) the mud-hut and the clay architecture. as distinct from mere pictographs. as our present generally prehistoric in Persia. Their ethnic position is still largely problematical. the fire-flint. which is now believed to antedate the cremation-rite of the later Caucasian and Indogermanic peoples. 1-15 ((Jeneral Introduction) pp. F.



to take the test of worship. c. 189. is He *Cun. p. While the hieroglyphic evidence tends to show some connexion with the sun in very remote times. but is more of the nature of a patron saint." in whose honor he builds a temple. Texts. the "loving Father of Enlil. p. the title "king" or "father" points with equal force to a great Personality. 1. in which he dedicates the great temple of Kish to Anu. 1907). His high antiquity is proved by the fact that the same ideogram can be read as a hieroglyph far into the pre-dynastic age (4000). Wilson.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM (N. For. evolution being ^^ "^^ ^TlN *M— *^^ ®*®' (compare the Chinese yt^ Egyptian —^ Indogermanic ). * Idem. 1) 83 ANU—EN-LIL—EN-KI— Sumerian Triad The three ideograms for Heaven-Earth-Underworld (An-Li-Ki) are well represented on the earliest tablets from Nippur and Lagash. or things? (3) Is there any evidence to show that either has held a personal supremacy over the other from time immemorial? known to us is that on the votiveking of Kish. persons. while in the second case he is speaking of a who shares something of this exalted position. Ill.nw-sign in this passage. ISSff.* Lugal Zaggisi (2800) calls himself the highpriest of Anu. the deity prefix to Istar-Ninni." Now the use of the ^. p. the tablet quoted above. 121SS." "King of the gods. 1896). "to and then determinately. Hilprecht. ischen <* Inscriptions." shows with some we are dealing with the "divinity" par "High One". while in the case of Anu himself it was unnecessary to add any other ideogram He is Himself the God of all gods. Moreover. It runs as follows:— One of the earliest inscriptions as yet tablet of Lugal-Tarsi. though the symbol its is unquestionably a solar or astral one. "King of the lands". nian Writing (Leipzig-Baltimore). 160. as a mere force that in the first instance excellence. to the cliffs of Arizona. No. in fact. and that a very similar sign has been certified : among Europe the pictographs of the early neolithic age." to whom he sacrifices ' and Lugal-Tarsi builds the great temple of Kish in honor of Anu. . The question arises: (1) Can any precedence be established for them as signs? (2) Do they stand for abstractions. King of the lands. Die sumer* Barton. The Swastika (Wash. (Age of Mesilim).' Ur-Engur invokes Nannar (the moon) as the "mighty bull of Anu" (the sun?). p. Dangin. p. Old Babylonian » Th. C. first absolutely. king of Kish. erected the wall of this temple. all the lesser divinities. a Person. Anu. 79. This determinative use marks. Vol. Idem. "the daughter of Anu.'' from the mounds of As to the nature of Anu. at a date which can hardly be less than 3000-3100 B. (and the Lady Ninni). Thureau-Dargin. and to Ninni —the Lady Ninni—hath ^ Lugal-Tarsi. S. 101. Gudea calls his patron saint Bau. (British Museum). Babylound akkadischen Konigsinschriften (Leipzig. "To Anu. 926 ff. I. a protecting goddess. 2. the Heavenly One. p.

En-zu. (Leipzig. shows that the astral divinity An is not simply a nature-power. Gudea calls Ningirsu the "son of En-lil. is a tempting device.-D. . we may conclude with some probability that Anu is the Father of all the gods.--!! ^S^^ 2^.-D.84 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM Thus the expression lu-gal. symbolised by the orb of heaven or the star as the most appropriate expression of his mysterious nature. 40." ^^^^ etc.*-. and finally >Jl ^:3Tr signifying is "Lord" of the earth. 37. His worship almost as old as that of Anu and equally prominent. In both cases the prefix En is ideographically represented on the earliest tablets by the hand and Thus scepter. and Wisdom". whereas no other deity is ever called the "Father" of Anu. Hehn. J. the above inscriptions reveal a fatherly ruler. From the fact that Anu is called the "Father of En-lil".- h -j||[|H|- . 157. 1913). clouds. together with adda for "father".-D. a singularly abstract designation. but a living personal character." «Th." In any case he figures as such from the earliest times. a celestial patesi. and En-ki. I even venture to suggest that the term dingir as the common appellative for divinity may contain the notion of "life-power" {tin-gir?) in the sense that the divine nature is conceived as "life" and therefore not as a mere force or tendency of matter." Entemena. the latest and on the subject. the winds. but the same logic would force us to include many of the minor dingirs as equally manifestations of the divine. « En-shagkush-an-na attributes his victories to En-lil. for "king" is literally "great man". the god of the deep. or air. H. "House of Water. 98ff. the god of the earth. with sufficient clearness." and that he is identical with E-A Ea. The designation of deity as "Highness. Side by side with the God of Heaven. 60." but the fact that he is universally associated with the liquid element." — Now what is the relation of these deities to one another? Are they three independent divinities. 26. 124.-D. later . we have En-lil. or the air. kingship." makes it more probable that the above should be read "Lord of the Deep." "Father of gods. "Cp. 18. or any of them. we shall indeed never know. the god of battles. dominion. 14. and this. biblische und babylonische Gottesidee." of the "Underworld. Aa." the "mighty warrior" of En-lil. or three aspects or manifestations of a single divinity? This for want of unimpeachable evidence can never be known with certainty. In like manner En-ki is the first fc:^ ^^ ' ^^^ Anally ^SX'^j^i • '^^^^ ^^ ^°^- monly translated "Lord of the Land. But apart from this. "King of the Lahds. En-lil is written Wor . but the "Fountain of Wisdom" as well. 'Th. but to what extent identical or of the same nature with one. 1-29. ' Eannatum calls him "King of heaven and earth. Die best work ''Th. »Th. "Water. and for many he is not only the Lord of the Deep. 96. pp. denoting lordship. Dominion.

the sea. In the parallel Adapa-myih. Anu-Bel-Ea. The Seven Tablets of Creation. At the same time. the Chaos. Lachmu-Lachamu. "Compare Hehn. (London. In this legend it is En-lil (Bel). personal. a theogony in which Anu himself is pictured as rising out of heaven and earth. however heavenly. and Anu thus becomes a Creator by means of his "generated" divinities. Vols. Keilschriftforschung (Freiburg. does not satisfy the full defiThere must be some evidence that he is looked on as a Maker. Bel. figures in the celebrated story of Bel and the Dragon. Now of such evidence we have in the nition of deity. Heaven-Earth. — — . 1. who as the Serpent Tiamat. and in the Gilgamesh-Epic it is distinctly stated that En-ki created the first man in the image of Anu through bani. XII. surely a vivid creationlegend. c. the "mother of them all". for even here lonian triad. by cutting off his head and mixing his blood with the slime of the earth. symbolising: — Chaos-Deep (?) Day-Dawn (?). 1902). that alone are recognised as real. 1903) p. and all that is therein. But this account is not isolated. But what is more important. evolutionary forces. if not a Creator of all. the divine hieroglyph and the above "theogony" seem to point to the possibility that he and his entire hierarchy were at one time more closely related to nature. In the well-known Creation-Epic we find the following concatenation : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 etc. King. J Nikel Die Genesis in .IStar. the latter as a mere patronal goddess. the functions assigned to the one may be safely transferred to the other. W. whence the name allotted to him was Ea- then we have reasons to suspect that Anu-Bel {Enlil)-Ea formed a cosmic triad even in the earliest. producing agencies. Anu. who cleaves the great Serpent in twain. Sky-Lord-Deep. which are themselves the children of the day and dawn. Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series. It is still a disputed point to what extent these are If void. Mnmmu-Apsu." Mummu-Apsu-IStar be excluded. present instance only the barest fragments. pre-Sargonic times.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM 85 But a mere Sky-lord." in "For the text see L. (the Earth?). when the ancient pantheon had already been swallowed up by the single commanding personality of Bel-Marduk. out of which he makes heaven and earth. the saviour-god of Mesopotamia. their great enemy being Mummu. and these again the children of Mvmmu. and these from the later Semitic-Babylonian period. we have the famous "septette" of divinity which is so characteristic of later Babylonian thought. while man he fashions in an extraordinary manner. 113.and XIII. the entire system seems to insinuate an evolution of gods. more directly associated with its immanent. Ea. Ansar-KiSar. the former as an indeterminate (Tiamat?). it — it is the Baby- — is En-ki (Ea) who creates the Actopo-man. If Arum —"God-created". poetical personifications or real personalities. Mistress.

the God of the Deep. the Patesi. as crystal white. the lost city of Adab. Here no doubt the great sacrifices took place. "Compare E. the fertile. yet evidently in conjunction with Anu. at Eridu. acting as the vice-gerent of the Almighty. it is the Ghaldaean "trinity" that treasure. 1910). J. which like a forest spread its shade. and the ox. . more especially the one on Sacrifice. in holy place Its it blossomed. T. and by a musical performance on the rude harpsichord or wooden lyre. There is in fact ample evidence for the personal leadership of the triad. between the parting rivers". Dhorme. Thus the worship was. Alone the God of Light. This was accompanied by the burning of incense or aromatic spices. Here again a serpent.86 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM we find those strange echoes of a "tree of life". PL. Mesopotamian Archaeology." its the center of the earth. Adapa has lost the "Bread to and Water of Life" because he follows the advice of the ask of Anu clothing and oil. the hero travels to the "Isles of the Blest" and obtains a marvellous root from his ancestor. In the Gilgamesh-Epic. leaves the couch of Ba-u. Handeock. statues. (N. The discovery of beads. (Paris. The shrine Its seat Ea was its home. XVI. the Heaven-God. there is reason to believe that each guardian deity had his own shrine at the summit of the Zikkurat. in imitation of a mountain. and bloodless offerings were made of bread and wine. He dwells within. From the title. — "At Eridu a palm-tree grew. as far as we can conjecture. but on his return a serpent darts up and he loses the precious In the Deluge story again. to judge by the representations on many of the early steles. the translated "Noah". lugal kurkurra and the temple remains. "God of Light" lit: "Sun-god" "Tammuz" (ibid). La Religion Assyro-babylonienne. roots were of bright." — 183ff. 1912) (latest excavations). both humane and dignified. decrees the destruction of man and saves the righteous few very much as reject the latter. (N. 1912) and P. Banks. temple-tower. nor is there any proof that the bodies of the dead were burnt in supposed "crematories". of the sheep. even for the earliest period. i» Further details in S. or Priest-King." There is no evidence to show that at any time human sacrifices were olfered up to the deity. and to — Ocean-God in the biblical legend. Into its But the moral of the story is not flawless. plays such a conspicuous part. but of his worship in those remote times we know very little. recalling the First-Fruit sacrifice of the far East and of Central Africa. or the E-kur. Hath no man ever entered. holy house. P. "Text in C. Bismya. hardly a straightforward action. they spread forth to the waters. Y. in which Ea. For further particulars on these and similar subjects the reader is referred to the succeeding chapters. Y. and temple-lamps shows that it took place under plastic forms. a temptation and fall. the ram. 46. the custom of tomb-burial of the dead being now well certified. On lowland coast.



. Lord of the lands. IV. return. return. 2. look favorably upon this land! Have mercy upon the people! Give me power to rule with a firm 1. take the following formula for the general confession of sins : "0 Lord. Jastrow. Father Enlil. great are my sins! God. . PI. cited on the opposite page. Father Enlil. return. which is generally branded as "superstitious. Father Enlil. II. cit. . look down upon thy city! 9. 102. my transgressions are many. pi. return look down upon thy city! 5. Jastrow. Cun. Old Babyl. ^'' Rawlinson. piy beloved Father! Grant me long life! Give rest and peace unto this land! Make my armies to flourish! Preserve the sanctuaries. 154.any. look down upon thy city! 8. king of Uruk. Who protectest the weak against the strong. p. A "Heaven-God" was too distant and abstract a conception to withstand the encroachments of a "Lord of the lands"." Again. XV. great are my sins! God. Inscr. ioff. i' Hilprecht. strong Lord directing mankind! 6. Lord of the lands. conclusion to some But there may prompt "Cun. whoever it be. look down upon thy city! 3. my transgressions are m. living hand!" " Again. strong and mighty one. and Vanderburgh. who seest by thine own power! 5. Father Enlil. Thur. Texts. Lord of the command! 3. return. Father of the land. with an elaborate incantation-ritual for the expulsion of witches. Assyrian transcription for Enlil (Bel). return. return. Who regardest us unth eyes of mercy.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM As to the 87 expression of worship by prayer. Dang. 3-8. I. look down upon thy city! 4. Shepherd of the blackheads. op. thus addresses the god of Nippur: "0 Enlil. Who bringest forth the light. At the temple of Bel in Nippur the lamentation-ritual of this kind was parall-merciful Father. ticularly vivid: upon an "Father Enlil. my transgressions are many." and which seems to detract from the simplicity and purity of an All-Father cult. look down upon thy city!" and so on in endless refrain. Texts. and demoniacal obsession. look down upon thy city! 2. 13. look down upon thy city! 7. i' Cun. the oldest Sumerian hymns reveal a deep feeling of dependence we must But not be surprised if these supplications are directed chiefly to Enlil. 87. shepherd of the blackheads! 4. heptascopy. return. King of the lands. Compare the versions ofLangdon.' 2. one who was in a peculiar sense the national savior. 394of Western Asia. . Elima nituki. Lord of the living command. Jastrow I. PI. this is a fact which cannot be passed over without revealing a belief in magical and spiritistic agencies. return. who causest multitudes to repose in peace!" " 1. XV._. ("whoever it be"=:"kriown or unknown"). "0 mighty Enlil. no. Inscript. the second member of the triad. look down upon thy city! 6. 1-9. lo. Lugal-Zaggisi. Father Enlil. is my this sins!" us to modify The existence of divination. great are " evidence of another kind that exteint. augury.

It is Shamash. arise. manu. but the combination shamah-manu is and the "Shamanism" as a doctrine of "fire-spirits" to be Manistic animism. the imprisoned demon is let loose. is too suggestive of lightly dismissed. 1896). and even the diagnosis of future events by inspecting the liver of the sacrificial animal is more or less called "magical" if a excusable in proportion as the vi^hole action is referred to the deity. led to the study of the science of medicine. 68-87.) Also Delitzsch. the Lord of humanity arise. under shamu. Moreover in the shiptu-viinal for the expulsion of often invoked : demons we find the higher divinities "May Anu and Antum arise. 14. They are all dingir-ilu. sometimes to their great misfortune. the god of divination. cit. . to give life by his irrevocable decrees! May Ea. whose kabittu or liver-soul decides the fate of humanity. is believed to be the expression of his divine will. the manu or "ghastly look" being the chief exponent of this secret power. No. and mighty personalities. a long litany for the sick. water-aspersions — — — . bird-flights "evil eye". etc. & Shiptu-tablets. the Lord of Nippur. And this is the one point that should never be ignored whenever we attempt to read the exact meemings into terms which have long since changed their original significations. minutu. however reprehensible. The growing importance of the nature powers. by which stars and entrails. as we shall see. to dispel the disease! May Bel. Hence the fearu-inspections and the s/iip^M-incantations must be interpreted in the light of a higher belief. IV." — ^B Surpu. not simply as mystery-forces. It is tions. who the father of this science. are in direct control of human life. the ritual-tablets in Zimmern. he who with his hands made mankind". surely an appropriate custom. I do not venture to hazard any etymologies. the distinction between god and demon being often difiicult to trace. Such a practice. is too pronounced a fact to be put down as a mere side-issue. (i7) Samas ^manrm. (Leipzig. Handworterbuch. was destined to be one of the most important moulding-forces of early neolithic region. loc. PI. The invocation of a patron saint and the expulsion of a harmful demon is the most natural of religious actions. which for the time identified with the soul of the deity. with occasional phallic developments. in which they become the expressions of a divine power acting was through the kabittu. in Zimmern. with many spiritistic and occult practices.88 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM I have already had occasion to remark that a ceremony can only be supreme Being is deliberately and explicitly excluded. I. the soul or "liver" of the animal.—high. X. and the sufferer restored to health. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der babylonischen Religion. but as personal life-centers endowed with "zi" "lifeor spirit-power" has produced a hierarchy of strong independent divinities which is frankly polytheistic. Assyr. 57. 1901). &c. . in which by means of prayers and purgaand so on.^" Yet with all this the intrusion of demon-worship. (Incantation-text). (Leipzig. ^iComp.

(tormentors. VIZ." But even admitting that zi was originally the flowering reed. Babylonian Writing. used in all conjuration-formulas. J^jj^ . under nisu. nis irsiti lu-u tOr-mat. ( Again. but never to my knowledge described as zi. To think that I should have dug this canal !" Delitzsch goes so far as to say that nisu stands for existence. PI. PI. god. A. Price. 89. the shaimmu balati of the Baby. 6. 2' Barton. V. shedu.'^ It occurs very early. "Lord of Life" and by such combinations as zi-kum or zi-kura. 1. 23 Sarzec. or "Tree of Life". eral. or healing herb. C. 1. « Barton. 22. cit. Assyrisches Handworterbuch. which as the "Life of Heaven and Earth" became the standard formula for the expulsion of demons. the "Life" of Ea {zi dingir Ea) being interpreted by the parallel en-zi. 3. as it is — not applied to the tigillu. the ^^ y\. 18 No. op. B.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC OR NEOLITHIC FORM 89 then is the idea expressed by zi7 Does it stand for life in genor for a special form or manifestation of life. and there is no clear proof that it was used for lilu or wandering spirits. which was evidently the Sumerian symbol for the gesh-tin. even though it might also be taken for "spirits"? specifically.^C^ =11). What Assyr. utukku (great ones). 1. ni-is — . : mayest thou conjure it! Life of earth. C. Comp. 9. which cures the patient on such occasions.=' Thus niS Hani. —the source of immortality. there is no evidence to show that it was a disembodied spirit. nis Same lu-u ta-mat. XVII. 482-483. I-S8. or more ASur beli-iarabi sum-ma^inalibbi Mbe annuti naru suatu la uSahru. Kol. 11. "By Ashur. T. 1. is it too much to say that zi stands for life. 19. IX. the Assyrian transcriptions show with considerable clearness that the Semitic invaders understood the expression in a similar sense. and is generally translated "life". ^. Assy- rian nisu. though he admits its application to spirits or demons in some instances. p. great god! . "a word of very broad signification". Thus a well-known sij)tvL-\&h\&i. 3. ekimmu. ends with an incantation to the heaven and earth — — .^' If then the Semitic transcribers read such a lofty and refined meaning into the term. 91. labartu. " Rawlinson. I. IS. which begins with an invocation to the Ocean"0 Life of Heaven. . PI. Cun. Cylinder-inscriptions of Gudea. much less a demon. A. . essence. D.=' Here it is apparently used as an abstract. the soul-double? Hieroglyphically zi is expressed by the flowering stalk. PI. lonians.. 76. the disembodied spirit. being the "Life of the gods". The great Decouvertes en Chaldee. the equivalent of en-ti. mayest thou conjure it!" in which zi appears to have no other meaning than that of life in general. 32-51. Texts. destroyers). 1. 1913). galu. — .. as the latter are known as lilu. akkhasu (capturers) labasu. 2» Delitzsch. No. as suggested by the ideogram. being found in the inscriptions of Ean- natum and Gudea between two and three thousand B. (Leipzig-Baltimore. or personality. Th. lilitu (airy ones).or spirit-power in general. 23. (general form). alu.

90 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC OR REGENT FORM Thus the application seems of zi to the High gods. It is true of course that on this view En-Hl would be a "Lord of ghosts". it has arrived at the — "Isles of the Blessed". mistic. though fasts and penances survive as a secondary means for achieving the same end. " Sayce. This represents a distinct advance upon — clearly a survival of the paradisaic or first-fruit libations of the days of man's innocence. After that the outlook is gloomy. the life is also true that there direction. by which the bonga or the wakan is secured as a personal guardian. 278. "was distinct from the zi. but it must be remembered that the earliest picture-writing gives no direct intimation of a malevolent being. clouds. or ghost". 2» Ibid. p. an ethereal Essence. That ghost-hunting was rampant during this period admits of no doubt. the abode of "the spirits in prison". The Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia. but Aralu. the zi represented the man himself in his personality if that personality were destroyed. but is at once distorted and applied in the wrong all was above totems. air. or an impersonal "Mystery" on the other. . While the zi belonged to the world of the living. If it is a spiritistic side to the concept. says Prof. to reveal a . (Edinburgh. . the HI belonged to the world of the dead". it has no more need of earthly necessities. while it appears to be anideeper notion of divinity than can be conveyed by a discarnate form. a mere phantasm. . 280. —the ghost-god. in which a new idea is struggling for recognition. though clothed in the garb of nature. Life". union with the divine is once more obtained by the more direct channels of prayer and sacrifice." "Unlike the Hlla. when it was applied to the night-spirits that terrified the living in the form of a cloud. it also ceased to exist". Sayce. There is no clear vision of a heavenly Father. this is only to be expected by analogy with all great movements. but it was a secondary development. Yet the soul has crossed the rivers of death. the identification of HI with the demon not being provable except in the later shiptu-ritual. . As all the preceding systems. who. an offset to the elaborate fasts. — and animating power of all being. p. one who was more than a personal "Father" on the one hand. not a primary one. it cannot be proved that Bel was originally evolved from the ghost. 1903). but is vaguely expressive of earth. the dreams and trance-visions. in a general sense. it is immortal. Though magic and demonism are strongly developed within the historical period. AH culminates in the "Bread and Water of the bloodless immolation ofTered to Anu by the earliest kings. "The HI. Rather should it be said that the zi of the gods represents perhaps the first attempt to define the nature of the supreme Being as a "Personal Spirit". the land of shades.



146ff. and soon the triads began to appear. Comp. Baltimore.. 2) 91 OSIRIS—ISIS— HORUS—Egyptian Nome-Triad monuments We that are told by Prof. Virey. p. c. 6. 1910). before mankind created. before the gods were created. K. This divinity is always depicted in human form. who gave birth to all the gods. etc. These are the nine parts of the heart of Atum. indicating Father-Air-Dew-Earth-Sky-Light-Land-Deep-Mistress. with the orginial Set. from which the combinations arose Atum-Ra.triad. who created himself. frequently mention God. and are thus invoked: "0 mighty Ennead of gods which is at Heliopolis. Duncan. le dieu unique. p. Maspero that the earliest Egyptian possess. George S. 374. 1. it is From of the Dead as the "Creator of the heavens.^ But the first strong reference to the monotheistic concept is found in the pyramid of King Pepi I. Vol. and he is described in the Book passage. Sethe. These startling words are based upon the disclosures of certain pyramid texts in which men and gods are pictured as the result of a single divine action." and the instrumental "by" in this argued that a single personal Creator is here intended. p. p. about 2500 B. tends to show that this or a very similar figure was looked upon as the maker or modeller of all. 1910). i. 1. Vol.into being. who bestows upon the gods the strength of youth". II. g. Amon-Ra. 2 1 Evidence in Virey. 1. . . 10 ff. le dieu un." Virey. and the position of the national Osiris. who has begotten all there is. 7. "came . the remaining eight parts of his "heart" are at least equally essential. those of the III. and IV. whose heart spreads out to them!" * This first is and apparently unique as clear evidence as can be desired that although A iwrn-fla is a divinity. 44.. p.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM (N. Atum-ShuTefnut-Geb-Nut-Osiris-Isis-Set-Nephtys. Trans- lations by Prof. c. * Sethe. — But figure. and ^ Erman. p. he is sexless and wifeless. of Johns Hopkins University. C. La Religion de I'ancienne Egypte. Virey. LXXIX. it is the great Ennead of Heliopolis that can alone interpret this Here 12 345 6789 we find a generation of gods in the following order A tum-Shu-Tefnut-Geb-Nut-Osii'is-Isis-Set-Nephtys. II. we was was "This King Pepi was born by his father Atiem. is here plainly indicated. the one God Dieu. Book of the Dead. (Paris. before death had been the use of the passive voice made. Ernian. the Maker of all existence. 1. the Lord of life.. Die altagyptischen Pyramidentexte (Leipzig." Osiris-IsisHorus. Atem.Agyptische Religion Heperet lit. side by side with certain divine persons. Atum. (Berlin. and that the appearance of the same hieroglyph in remote antiquity. c. before the earth was created. 73ff. 136. 1-5. p. the famous Nome-Triad. children of Atum. dynasties. Horus-Ra. among which Tum-Shu-Tefnut furnishes probably the model for the great Egyptian "trinity. p. Tum. before the sky created. 1909). Osiris-Ra. 302.' At last equally old is the designation Ra or Re for the material sun.

are to all intents ahd purposes separate divinities. and the rest. whether as Chnum-Ra or Shu-Ra. The entire theology of the Nile reveals a series of independent divinities. who as the "concealed" Sun inherits the fulness of the divine majesty under the later dynasty of Thebes. 127-152. Encyl. The designation of Tum-Ra as the "All-Sun". (Bab." In every case the similarity if not the identity of attributes points to an underlying unity of essence. In the first place we have the mysterious Nun at the beginning of the series. whether of Memphis or Thebes. op." or as the great Amon-Ra. ^wisdom. who however unified in the abstract. p. 101. even if Nun himself be personified and endowed with all the divine prerogatives of his children. 148. the whole culminating in Osiris-Isis-Horus as in the most vivid manifestation of the divine. tions of the "All-Sun-God". "Estimates on this p. apparently timeless and eternal. and the Holy Nine be looked upon as nine aspects or revela- — . m cit. 329flf. with a strong monotheistic background. Brugsch. This is a plausible argument. question (Cath.92 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM Are we then to infer that the different "gods" of the Egyptian pantheon are distinct divinities or different aspects of one and the same divinity? This will depend on the interpretation of the "Holy Nine". but cannot be allowed to stand as it does without considerable qualification. How far is this genealogy still to be carried? But if a generation of gods be ruled out as unproven. p. H. p. a phase of belief analogous to that of — ancient Mesopotamia. more especially as the sup- posed Sun-god is not a blind nature-force. the "great god Pan". They are all Creators. is one that suggests a monotheistic interpretation. Ra. there arises the "World-Egg. 1. c. It is possible of course that Nunu is an interpolation. but a creating and life-giving Personality. that this idea of transcendence has been largely lost sight of. "Idem. modelling the egg — which conceals moulder of the light and the germ of the future world (a direct man after the analogy of the potter's wheel) . but rather polytheistic. "Idem. of a rise of divinities out of lower powers. Sayce. 90-99. This belief is neither pantheistic nor monotheistic.. op. out of which. providence. Mummu) but even so. Hyvernat. p. power. and their relation to the later triads." and from this again the Sunlight. V. etc. p. there is still the practical difTiculty." This has the suspicious ring of a theogony. revealing himself in the Ennead through increasingly higher forms. the term 'Henotheism' expressing most probably its rather complex manifestation. and one who transmits these attributes to his apparent "successors" in undiminished brightness. cit. of which the different nome-gods are but varying expressions. as out of the chaotic deep. Article "Egypt" . Vol." loBrugsch. To this conclusion most of our authors seem to give their eissent. S02ff. 22.). who then becomes the Father of all existence. it shows that we may have to go beyond Tum-Ra to the still more archaic Nunu or Water-chaos as the Father of the Light-god.

both appellations being equally ancient and designating one and the different forms. It tends show that all these solar deities are different were an by relative position. Earth. and this is precisely the cal combinations. a sign that one divinity is tantamount to another. the midday. Horus. also J. In this manner the triad has become inverted. and power of influencing the earth. and the murder of Osiris. then Horus represents the sun at the zenith. This symbolism is deep inner meaning. p. 1. of the corn.. to same Light-god conceived under dence tends bear this out. p. admits of a similar interpretation. merely a vt^ider or more concrete expression of what has been is known and believed before. 611ff. p. c. the "All-Sun". 8-12. pp. c. then the expression Osiris as the equivalent of Tum-Ra may be looked upon as nothing but a nominal variation of the latter. Religion * This is an original sketch. Virey. 18-48. Osiris is both lexically The monumental eviand ideographically the "many-eyed". brightness. Osiris-Isis-Set. the "all-seeing one". his son Horus becomes the King of Heaven (Midday Sun) while Osiris takes the place of Set in the Underworld. the of vegetation. are but four designations for the four successive positions of the sun. For if Anu-Bel-Ea stands for Heaven. the Typhon-god having been slain by Horus to avenge his father's death. in which the four divinities are clearly the manifestations of a single fla-power. (Osiris-Set). 231flf. Turn. and secondarily for the four seasons. But in the conflict between light and darkness. 1.or the summer-sun. while Horus is the Sky-Lord. 1912). Comp. while Osiris is the midnight or winter-sun. Brugsch. 1. Erm^ op. and Osiris. . hence for the four points of the compass. Y. the sun in general. Mythologie der alten Agypter. This is suggested by the following combinations. the original Egyptian triad. the mother-earth. H. If such a transfer be regarded as an equivalence. The analogy with Babylon is apparent. cit. and Isis is the passive generative principle. Development of Religion and Thought in ancient Egypt (N. founded partly on the data 10. Thus the socalled Egyptian ''trinity" is to some extent accounted for. essential and form as it unity. Breasted. a valuable ' Cp.' aspects of the All-Sun. p. 34. 15.* not without to its symbol of fruitfulness. the earth. of Brugsch.' There is in fact symbol of Tum-Ra in all astrologigood reason for believing that Ra. summary. 42ff. u. being differentiated only . c. Osiris is the king of shades. 149ff. shedding his benevolent rays at different angles over If Tum-Ra be taken as Isis. symbolised by "^^^^ the rising and setting sun.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM 93 Now the transfer of divine attributes from one personality to another one of the commonest features of Egyptian religion. ' For Osiris-legend. and Underworld. Erraan. p.

— i^See 11 De la T Capart. I draw near to see thine excellences!" the soul to the Great Ka-Ho-Tep. one of the earliest and best authenticated examples of Egyptian sacrifice. great God. Lord of the twofold Truth! I come to Thee. 1913) p. Sayce. op. . 274ff. The repudiation of every form of sin on the part of the penitent proves that Osiris is a lover of charity. his ghost or "luminous spirit". I. is — — the Semitic kabittu (liver). Maspero. describes the invisible. . That this legend may be very ancient in Egypt is revealed by the neolithic graves. op. of Horus in the form of the one which leaves the personality of these deities unscathed. p. Osiris. (Serapis) ? he not a dying and murdered god. are unquestionably the objects of a cult even in the earliest times. the spiritual part of man. "Praise be to Thee. a mere mummy. cit. the feeding of the corpse being paralleled by the feeding of Osiris with the Corn-fruit libations of Egypt. cjt. there to be judged by him and his forty-two assessors. in Compte Rendu of the Louvain Congress. Saussaye. 153-180. Men are not descended from animals. the body. But the important point to consider is this The lingering vestiges of totemic ideas are only to be expected in this region. my — such was the greeting of Lord. incapable of satisfying even the most elementary definitions of deity? The strong animalworship of ancient Egypt is a glaring fact that cannot be explained away any arbitrary theory of symbolism. chastity. soul.(1905). whatever be the outward form in which they appear. and Child." . (Paris. Mother. . 166ff. but of the institution of totemIs : ism itself there is so far no direct evidence. and self-sacrifice. they speak to us in the language of superhuman demigods. and of fasting and taboo the monuments are equally silent. "/ am pure! I am pure!" such wa. {HI). where the custom of dismembering the corpse and then burying the fragments with trinkets and food-stuffs "for the journey" recalls the dismemberment of the body of Osiris and its re-union in the form of a mummy. For whatever be the fate of the Ka. 214-240. Osiris-Apis. and spirit-"double". they are still transcendent. The ox.s his repeated exclamation. I. Lord of the twofold Truth! Praise to Thee. and rises with him to the Paradise of Alu." But the nature of Osiris is more clearly revealed by the Ka-Ba-Khu.94 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM But is not Osiris identified with the sacred bull. pp. and hawk. Lehrbpch der Religionsgeschichte. . and the serpent. there is no exogamy but rather endogamy in the clan. . the "Shining Spirit". 46-70. the ku-spirit of man follows Osiris through the limbo of darkness." The incarnation of the divinity in the form of a bull or a beetle. p. i«Cojmp. the crocodile. of Isis in that of the sacred Corn. This is evident from the Osirislegend alone. in which the triad speaks and acts as Father. which like the Sumerian zi.

91. etc. ! arise resplendent.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM ciated without taking into consideration the It is 95 evident that the character of Egyptian religion cannot be appremeaning and function of the Ka. through which the Ka passes in entering the tomb. and both the equivalent of the Assyr. 420. Truth rises high unto the nose of the god Ra on the day on which my Ka is where I am. i*Book of the Dead. c. I am purified thereby. a "ghost". op. p. 6. It is living in a world of shams and pictures. Texts. which is clearly symbolical of a disembodied form. the philosophy of the "double".." This is illustrated by the following address which the dead man makes to his Ka on the day of resurrection : Behold I cpme to thee. 1. zi-kum. under m«.. 1. This affects such forms as Enzi. Barton. c. p. and these for it are as good as the reality. it is an abstract for "life". seeth. Delitzsch. " A H." In both cases we are dealing with a flowering reed. zi-kura. my Ka flourishes even as they. it is but a rarified body. 58. 23. ka-Ra. the life-double. yet as the double of the — body it is subject to limitations. My head and my arm are restored to me where I am. ni!u. I Now it is a noteworthy fact that the Egyptian sign for the Ka y y corresponds to some extent with the Babylonian ideogram for "life" (Sum. lonian Writing. the niS ilani being the "life" or spirit" of the gods. p. paralleled by the Eyptian ka-chepra. Nevertheless real food-stuffs are offered to the Kd. The scale of the balance rises. who wast my Ka during life I labor. I bring grains of incense. p." Handworterbuch. 1. or the simil. crt. No. lOS. which is given to them that are on the horizon. zi-an-ki. kaTurn. nay it is in need of food and sustenance." formulae for the higher ones in heaven are recited "Hail to thee. Erman. Baby- "Cun. " Sayce. 27SS. IX. and I thereby purify that which goeth forth from thee . c. I flourish. Saycc. the picture. itude of the divine. (En-ti) En-lil. I am hale. 56-70. as there is a sharp distinction between the Ka or zi of a god and the god himself. 102. and in this it is distinguished from the Khu or pure "light-soul" which has got beyond the stage of earthly necessities. 1903) p. Brugsch. That it embodies an immaterial concept seems certain. (s. I. This is shown by the fact that the Ka of a dead man can only communicate with his entombed mummy by means of a pictured door. Ideogr. ch. whose ears hear. They flourish. WYj^ ) > "ot so much in their external form. ka-Hotep. Sayce.. Osiris-ka. the necklace of the god Ra. . where I am". zi. and as such it partakes of a material nature. p. as in the context in which they are found. (Edinburgh. Assyrisches Virey. I am strong. The Religions of ancient Egypt and Babylonia. whether single or double. 306. I am that amulet of green feldspar. I am he whose eye The sacrificial I am not a beast of sacrifice. 231ff. the zi of Eridu being the HI of Nippur.

61. It entered their homes and waking and sleeping. etc. 309. For similar . even if it worked through inanimate spirit. ^" Idem. p. "The double did not allow its family to forget it. the objects. p. 467ff. the semi-divine dynasty which intervened between the dynasties of gods and men. — — ened the sphere of divine action in its better manifestations.96 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM But Ka is not the highest expression of the divine nature. are the four major stars of the Great Bear. "As in Egypt. symbolised by the PhoeThis expression is the most subtle that can well be conceived for conveying the notion of rarified light as the most appropriate picture of what is essentially spiritual. cit. the zi of heaven and earth. op. Brugsch op cit. 114. Text." " Sayce. It is even on record that Turn begat Shu and Tefnut by means of a solitary act. terrified thism. ^' Masi<ero. and would even suck their blood like the modern vampire". surely the limit of a distorted notion. The four Khu of Horns. and above all things. of hungry ghost and heavenly spirit. 276." Phallic symbols. 407." This sublime and apparently advanced concept could only be kept pure. belief in a spiritual power emanating from countless life-centers. Dawn of Civilisation. founded on Pyr. see idem. stories of Horus. so in Babylonia. khu. an isolated case. of its nature immortal and godlike. cit. animism was the earliest shape assumed by religion." Their Babylonian equivalent was the zi of the gods. the invisible life-power concealed in all being. whenever the ffa-worship took exclusive possession of the field. and they became the "Manes" or Guardian-spirits of Manetho. the needy or carnal double. which as the HI or hobgoblin of the Euphrates. The confusion of Ka and Khu.=" Throughout the attribution of personal spiritual powers even to lifeless objects of whatever kind. *" ' op. even if it be looked upon as aberrant phenomenon. but used all the means at them of its existence. testify to the preverted nature of this influence. Unas. p. the zi of all things. 58. both in Egypt and Babylonia. was often such that the whole system degenerated into a demon-worship with the most baneful moral consequences to the race. the less material soul. ^ Sayce. seeking rest and finding none. It was essentially personal. the mythical fire-bird. 423. p. struck them down with disease and madness. by its sudden apparitions. There is ba. however. entailed a correspondingly dangerous tendency. wandered about from tomb to tomb. and it was through animism that the Sumerian formed his conception of the — divine". the Sun.. the completely emancipated nix. while it broadits disposal to remind their bodies. p. But this was only partially to be the case. "spark" of the divine intelligence. in so far as it was separated from the lower Ka. (Maspero). We are here in presence of what is commonly called "animism".

2300 B. military. but how far these early Semitic ideas extend into the prehistoric past. the gods are human. SanguIlut-Utar. for the existing records to determine. yet not identified with her. and divine combinations are at least equally frequent. etc. not to speak of the later Aramaic combinations with El. "Servant of God. is the great god of battles. op. now well known. numen). India. the point is that they are each independent. Whether this can be proved by evidence that is strictly suasive.3) 97 ASHUR-ISHTAR-ADAD— (Assyrian Triad) "As far back as we can trace the history of Semitic religion. for divinity in general. though animal or astral symbolism has rarely. L p. and aggressive. p. 49ff. that humanity has been elevated a likeness with the divine. and early Greece. (ca. ' See L. that Adad is the lightning-flash. B. for early Assyrian inscriptions in Cappadocia (ca.* to to Combinations With Ilu —Ayil—El It will be difficult to prove that the Semitic-Babylonian Ilu. or Arabia. its fundamental conception is always the same. builder of the temple of Ishtar. p. Thus Ashur. he is unique. self-directing personalities. he is sexless and childless. (Lat.). In any case Ilu occupies the same place on the Euphrates that Ra occupies on the Nile. Sangu-Ilu-Asir. he admits of no rivals. remains to be seen. Certain it is. Thus we have Ilu-Suma. The antiquity of AshurIlu as a person is thus supported by good monumental evidence. personal. Semitic religion shows comparatively few traces of animal-worship. apex meeting-point?). is symbolised by the winged orb of heaven. Canaan. HighPriest of Ashur". Nevertheless an absolute Ilu cannot be excluded. and is indeed quite probable in view of the similar use of Anu in Sumerian antiquity. early Babylonian kings. that the Cherubim are winged figures with the heads of eagles. in Annals of Arehaeol. been rejected. 3000. cit. even admitting that these divinities are garbed in the nature-symbolism of the totem-age. was ever used as more than an appellative. one of the earliest authenticated rulers. the High God of the Assyrian pantheon. and men are divine". that by contrast with Egypt. and though he produces all things. C). * Idem.' Sumula-Ilu. 366-372.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM (N. that Ishtar is the morning or evening star. . This is evident from the fact that Ashur. that is. though of solar form. 351. 0. The Cappadocian Tablets of Liverpool. another Ilu-Suma.^ These words are meant imply that divinity is always personal. it is impossible ^ Sayce. Vol. he is not linked with inferior divinities. & Anthropology (Liverpool. 1908). (Venus). Pinches.. whether in Babylonia. Only among the Aramaeans and Phoenicians can the forms El and Hut be certified as proper names for individual deities. revealing themselves in nature. supreme. if ever. Iluma-Ilu. though distinctly human. But. (goal.

. To Belit. *Andrae. Rei. we And the following concatenation : — "To Shamash. places Ishtar side by side with Anu-Adad. Assyr.98 GOD WESTERN. who brings thrift to the people. Der Anu-Adad Tempel. 1800). the (See under Assyrian belief being revealed by the Semitic-Babylonian. I. who multiplies the posterity. who conducts the waters. C. To Ninib. who grants the victory. precisely because these are the oldest — and best known divinities of the entire Mesopotamian plains. Z44tt. and not to the national god whose temple dates from the time of Samsi-Adad. p. Belit. until by the time of Sargon. who lays the foundation of my city. To Ashur. 6.' it has been inferred that the Ashur-cult was originally imageless. indeed quite probable." (On the Northern gate of the palace) (On the Western of the palace) gate gate (On the Southern of the palace) (On the inner wall of the palace) (On the outer wall). Ea. «See M. who gives the overflow. (HOO). 1905) Vol. who gives fertility to the land. and Adad at the Eastern gate. Babyl. 1). (ca. who gives years to the king and protection to his troops. where we find the early Semitic ideas of God represented in their greatest purity. Hence the religion of the Northern kingdom may be safely interpreted by that of the Southern in its more advanced form. (Names inscribed on the Eastern gate of the palace) To Bel. and Anu with Ishtar. (Giessen. who completes the work of our hands. 1909).*. with whom Ashur is also invoked. To Anu. and references. To Belit ilani. though of little importance. 1. N. for texts No.emote period through the times of Tiglath-Pileser down to the age of Sargon and Sennacherib. Jastrow. Bel. that for all practical purposes they form a unit. Now the fact that Ashur occupies the inner wall of the palace. u. To Ishtar. "Rawlinson. (Leipzig. To Ea. which is Tiglath-Pileser I.ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM The development of Ashur-worship can be traced in outline from the above i. the Northern and Southern gates being inscribed with the common Assyrio-Babylonian names. To Adad. who founds the city for eternity. If however we would trace the development of ilu in its highest form. I. seems to show that preferential positions are assigned to the distinctively Assyrian divinities. though Shamash is coupled with Adad. From the fact that the earliest temple at Ashur was dedicated to Anu and Adad about 2400 B. and from that time the Assyrian triad became more and more prominent. while Ishtar stands at the Western.' is We are thus brought to the conclusion that the Assyrian pantheon so closely interlaced with that of Babylonia. we must turn to the land of the Hebrews.


A HYMN OF PRAISE TO ASHUR "LORD OF LORDS ALL-KNOWING" K. BEUGIOX BABYI/ONIENS AMI) A8SYBIENS.W— &AK1-JB1 A*UH bU—4U—»l (*')SI. 32.TU liu^TU—KU(ll. 1M»>.U— MB AD NA-— A—Tl A— MAn — WtS LU U» . 32. AND FB. •U»—-ru iUf— TU— KUOIUDBEI. (AVJM (ltU> MU— &IM C-TIU lUkSI ^tuK OA»l-a>AM-WU NIK-^KI E SE . HABTIN. U6 JASTBOW.KU«tkU^-^A TA-MIT— X*-iu.« art<W-*«u — NA—.MC llD— «jjL 4<-9AN<«Wk M. (LEIPZIG. tU-'Uft-'rA. ILANI MU l&IM Sl MA' A Tl IiLU)AiuH seutStm—au u mu— bu ItANI u «| ka— ia— ma MA A Tl MS-. ^ Uk Uk KI^SIT— »U uVk—TA—X %A UT I RU— KA—i«r I 20 Kl — M* -TIR &«»-•> E SlD-^<KA (K<)-MA %l BU-RU— UM.wr SES CBAIO. SU ItiM UUO-^kUL. tlMATt 1^ (ILU)AiuRMkt (**tA.I^A—AH KUf(— us kU — UT_jrAk •0 — KAR «A«.U)aei. Bg«. ASSnUO-BABTTONIAN BEXIGIOVB TEXTS.I •<A— RU XI~KIR— ku •<. ises) I. TEXTE8 BELIOIECX.B XI — KlR-JUl ^M— liu g — MAW-a^a '8*t. (GIRSSEN.:tMIMSA-~AH — ftu TA-KtIT— tAJku L. Tl TAH-~ai»^—-TU A-NA—4e-MS-E t-U Aa— KU— U— T» e— NU — US—— MUT—TAk— tU A— NA a A (&U«p«in— 1\ A— A—Tl < »R—^» KA^-t* uai-MI AB-KAI.I«li)H. IMS) V. . (FABI8. ILAMI BA—««U (VtBBU) U IkANI IMU— AL kIB OkU) «%—XMR <HU——\t KU KA— I^A>fc NIK— kA— A— Tl Ml— &U0^> A&UK.EL MA-TA— A-TI LU>uS. I.5 8 OBV. P.

Textes Religieux (Paris. 12. thy servant. when he beholds thy face. I will extol his virtue. i. Comp. and let thy spirit be appeased. Creation (London. I. 18. Source of all gods. c. of many of the hymns and prayers addressed to the two highest 1. Martin. that generations to come may hear of his name—13. — Though the hymn exists only in fragments and requires (28) is obvious. King. / will praise his power. Thai I — — Creator of the heavens. wearer of the crown of dominion! Lady! Majestic is thy rank! Over all the gods is it exalted! 40. Lord of the gods and Master of our fate! 5. 1902). Plates 32-34. Where 8. 520. 21. / unll re- veal the splendor of him who dwells in his holy temple. / will praise his greatness. subtle Intelligence. divinest of all divinities! 2. Comp. II. thou lookest in pity. Vol. framer of all decrees. 66-08. p. Truly pity me. 43. 3258). 9. / will exalt his memory. ii. "/ pray unto thee. Glorious one! Whose name evokes fear. his foundations cannot be seen. 17. (K. sighing. p. all-knowing! 4.. i. From all eternity is Thy Name"? 20. mighty Heart. pp. Father of Ishtar.) Vol. Directress of mankind! 3. which is * full of sorrow and sighing?" — » Craig. /. the analogy to Psalm 29 Again 1. Assyrio-Babylonian (Leipzig. the dead man lives again. Lady of Ladies. and hearken unto my prayer! 45^ Cry unto me "It is enough!". How long shall my body Umient. Mistress of the spirits of heaven! 4. Retranslation Religious Texts. Former of the mountains. (Paris. all-knowing! 2. Thou art mighty. His spirit is like the mountains. members of the Assyrian pantheon: "Mighty Lord of Lords. cry unto thee. afflicted is saved from his affliction. 10. I. Prince of the gods! Master Ashur! Mighty Lord. my Lady. 356 flF. Choix de Textes c. from Jastrow. Vol. Vol. majesty. Look upon me. . he shines like the firmament ^22. / will praise his dominion for ever and ever— the wise one — 14. whose word travels to the ends of the earth.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM But 99 we cannot leave the banks of the Euphrates without calling atten- tion to the lofty tone. 1903). Father Ashur! the Almighty! Lord of Lords. Ishtar! Queen of all people. and Lord of the lands! 6. ruler of weapons. PI. Jastrow. 126. 7. I. IL Dhorme. Him of great Understanding. Irnini! Thou art raised on high.. valiant daughter of the Moon! 6. p. How long shall my heart be afflicted. Arbiter of the gods. ' edit. (new germ. 1907). 7. thou hast sovereign power! Exalted is thy name! 5. heavenly Ashur! Lord of our fate! — may reveal his greatness to all nations. arbitress of battles. I will glorify his name! 8. sorrowful. Vol. the almost Palestinian ring. 75-84 (Text). The. 15. much inter- linear reading. p. Thou art the Light of heaven and earth. 46. and in distress. 42. I unll unake known his of Destiny! 3. 189s). the sick is heaJUed. which is full of restlessness and confusion? 47. The Seven Tablets of 222-237 (Transcription and translation). 16. and accept my supplication! 44.

not the unique Jehovah. I supplicate Thee! Be merciful unto me. In like manner. and perhaps it is not too much to say that this early Assyrian faith represents with the Iranian the nearest approach to a supernatural religion.—the idea of justice—. although the High Ones are invoked against sorcery. constant and uniform to be put down as mere accidentals. or purpose of the deity. corruptions which were too Finally. each of which is described in very similar terms. we must be careful not to read a meaning into the text which cannot be found. omens are his divine May — — — "will".100 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM Again. p. Dhorme. pp." lofty. Let not the venom of the sorcerers come near! tranquillity. 210-241 (La Loi morale). . From the penitential formulas it is quite certain that high and noble ideals were in the air." Now in reproducing these passages in the English vernacular. grant me thy peace! Grant me thy favor. Yet with all this the verdict of the tablets is decisive on the subject of a comparatively pure cult of divinity. (London. lines 61-71. Ashur is simply the greatest of great ones. may thy spirit be softened. grant me thy grace Then will I praise thy majesty. they are themselves the object of divination. and hear my prayer. acknowledge thy rule". Destroy my enemies. 11 "King. however suggestive of Jewish-Christian ideas. the exalted character of "Our Lady of Niniveh" should not blind us to the numerous corruptions to which her worship was destined to give rise. proclaim thy glory. 1896). Babylonian Magic. No. a "father of all the gods". 21. 484. the terrible side of divinity. Lord. differs essentially from the latter in that the en-lil Hani or ilu Hani is the first among many deities of the same nature. Have compassion on me and grant me thy grace My god and my goddess (patron-saints) procure for me thy heart be pacified. we must beware of carrying our own psychology into an age in which animism and nature-worship existed side by side with a higher vision of divinity. Comp. Phallic signs in the alphabet were the most natural means for the differentiation of sex. I. mind. grant me thy mercy. an age in which theory and practice were often as violently opposed as they are commonly said to be in all the ages of man. he is yet capable of acts of mercy. a "lord of the lands". Dispel my antagonists. though Adad is the god of storms and represents the fearful. "Merciful Lord among the great gods. the "I AM" of Israel. Thus the expression "Lord of Lords" and "God of Gods". and probably meant no more than indications of gender. it is the kabittu or liver of the sacrificial animal that reveals the heart. La Religion Assyro-Babylonienne. Jastrow. he listens to the cry of the penitent. I turn to Thee.

. AND COMPARE P. VOt. 350FF.A PRAYER TO ISHTAR "QUEEN OF HEAVEN- KNOWN AS THE PBAYEB OF THE BAI8ING OF THE RAND 26187 ifsTu OBV.. D. n.U— 3U Sa MA-UU-U 1>1M—Tl U TA—M»— HI TEXT AND TBANSUTERATION BY CBEATION. ^ASTBOW. 1902). . «-lat i— la-a-ti u— sfct—— c«— — Ki BC-urr Be— u— e—n [ILO> I&-TA1* SaH— HA—T« KUkz-UAT OAr-AP-M B Mu JU-T&^WWAT ». B.IU — MA(n. 1907). IXXV-IjXSJX. A.— LA— s» I^JCl— IR ANA-KU LA « — »AL-LUT MITu • TE— IB-»t MAR-SU I— K. aaSFF. (LONDON.u AT— XI — MA MA-AM.lN PITY" ^ A — &AR TAP— B*L.AU— — KA— A— -r* 6u-MU— W. DHOBBIE.\ A— ei — E KA— l> IkAMI SG — lU—Tl SUP-PU— U HAR— au— HA SI— RU ">VHERE TMOU UOOKESrr.ui aecn— <l-^8i— MA ' —e um— mi-mi—-ia — MI& MAP-H — SlM-NI— MA %|— M«— C TAS— LIP H— Tl 45 A — UU-LAP— lA KA-BIT—TA — K« PA-aS—RA A — rtU-lAP 2UMRI— lA MA—AS— SI ^A MA-LU-U e-%A-A-T\ U SAlrHA-A-Tt A— MU— UAP LI6-BI— lA SUM-R. I. ««•««. TBE SEVEN TABLETS OF VOt. (PABIS. P. B. KING. CHOIX DE TESTES BEUGIECX.I — «.iA-llAT &^Me U «r >H*mM M»r-«*ATflUU)%IN KA-RIT-Tl MUT—TAa-Bl— lA HA— Mi— MAT fil— (ILUJBSUT KAKKJB iA-Kl-MA-AT Tl<— KLl — ON—Tl rttlA.« ^— Ro I'M** "sj^^^K AU— SI— AM— HU A— MuR— <•»—«• Kl m^^ ^=^^]^^m — $U — MU— HU lA ui A— Mi RU PA— Ml— Kl ^UM— RU SU k» AU>I-. PA%-Sl ^— b|— ^AT BV. P. I. W. M.A— Srr (ILU) -rB-NI>^e>e^l LlLU) IR — NI— Nl MO— TA— LA— A— Tl -n latest %l CiaS— RA — A MA.

he «hal\. A UTEBAl. tm^ ^y^ ]w 9 : nQn>D "im niir UFT.HE lStH6KWMaOFCU6»f: 7. HI9 90UI. "GATES. D>iv i^\ir3m q:^''^^'^ T-. T»l. DOUAI. THE KIN4 OF CUORY ? THC THE LORD MIGHTY IN BATTUE. OFEMING DOOBWAY. "UFT IJP YOUB HEADS. VS.ve ^cs 10 : ii:3>n'T» ^y\ ctiy ^nn^ eV«UA«nN0~90ei^.'"ui»'vouR eATe»To've"FRiNces. tBAMSLATIOK OF THE MASSOFOMiD TEXT. ^nm vr^m ]m SHAI. P. a03> OF JACOB.THB KIMC or OCORY? TMB ». ENTER IN. ^y oeeeiTFULUY to hi« NeicHscR.rfcD UFT UF' YOUR GATES "O VB ^RINCES.THE TRANSCENDENCE OF THE GOD OF ISRAEL AS tLI^VSTBATBD BT THB 24TH PSALH. O YE GATES".0<tD OP HOTTS. QTANS IM HIS HOUV THE INNOCENT OF HANSS WHO HATH NOT TAKEN ANJ> THE CUEAN OF HEART.ANS »e VE UFTEO UP.«.VE . A.ORb STRONG AHb MIGHTV.N& MERCY FROM SOB' HI6 SAVIOR THIS IS THE Feneration OF TMEM THAT SEEK THE FAOE OF THE of them that seek him. DOVAI. ENTBANOE (GESENKJS-BBOWN. S3 : nn nuTi THC TKC W0KLB >3n AfU> nswi r>«n rnn^> i feAKTH IS THS tOFtO'S AMD TH« FULNESS TMEREOF TrteVnUT SweiXTHEReiN POR Ht UATH tsouNBGO IT U^OMTHr SEA«i AMO MATW ^ftePARED »T Uf>ON THE fMveR«.Ace ? «HAI. 83S) . m AN© bbve uptci) up. AN» THB KINC OF CUORV SiHAkk GHT6R : icoT\ i» ^in Jii^ccf :nin* imn i>q m WHO V. NOR SWORN n?>"Ki mn* a^ rmis^Mi^ S: ncn5> vim . l». receive a suEssiKte FROM THe tORO. B. io:)n & nmn w ^ni imi xm) IN. "BVEBI-ASTING IDOOBS".I. V." PXTCHE UT. IN VAIN . e/BRUASHNQ »OOR» AMB THE KINC OF Cl^KY rnv miT WHO IS a i>i3 nr I. >^HO SHALC ASCENb OR WHO IhTTO THE MOUNTAtN OF THB LORD.

4) 101 The Divine Names and the Tetragrammaton. or a-ul. shows that Elohim is unquestionably singular and unique. II. a word which is used only of divine action. 26.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM (N. the eight-ray star or sun. (1) Eloflim IS THE UNIVERSAL CAUSE OP EXISTENCE. which raises them far above the astral and half-naturalised divinities of their time. eloah. unlike Elohim. dingir. 'Ibidem. Iflf. 14. two deeply metaphysical concepts. is vaguely concealed in their symbols or in the context in which they are found." also of malku. Thus Ilu is the Sumerian Anu. « 1* Texts. the equivalent of qadmu. 8. 7. II. Amos. in order to bring out the spirituality and transcendence of the Divine Being. origin. THE "ALMIGHTY" Whatever be the root-meaning of ilu. a rare ideogram for "productive power" "splendor" etc. p.' also of digiru. for "divinity". —Hebrew Form In the treatment of the divine names as used in the Old Testament it is important to distinguish between the occurrence of a parallel root in prehistoric antiquity and its use by the inspired author in exactly the same sense as that which characterised its prehistoric signification. to be "first"." «Brit. Mils. 65. Inscr. Die biblische und babylonische Gottesidee. to be "the first". 28. lugal. Sarru. K. to be "in front of". quite apart from the use of bara in the singular number ("created"). 21000. especially in view of the unique position occupied by Jahwe. Sum. 48. 4.' as well as of hilibu. or their equivalence. Jer. " Is. already in circulation for "gods" in general. While a borrowing of roots is unquestionable. 45.^' But. a borrowing of ideas is more and more difficult to maintain. 10 Ibid. alah. 3. and in prepositional form motion is clearly implied. 29." With El the intensitive Eloah. This means that Elohim-Jahwe stand for "Power" and "Subsistence". 48. pp. Ins. {-kuzbu). 30. & . 9ff. 18. Jahwe ("He is"). "Texts. destiny. {El Shaddai) . 1913). in a unique sense the "Almighty". One who is not necessarily identified with any local god. XXV. 19. Cun. Handworterbuch. XIX. baal. Texts. 7. Assyr. which It is is the source of life and the goal of human destiny and divination. 45. to be "strong". 13. Delitzsch. cause. 32. there is a general consensus of opinion that the idea of power. but who is Himself the "septessence" of all the gods. lS0-27lff. (qadam). the Babylonian Jau is hardly a divinity but rather an appellative or pronoun (as it lacks the determinative). XVIII. (Leipzig. Compare Hehn." The Western-Semitic El is possibly connected with a-yil. V. "king" "ruler". {2) Jahwe (Adonai) is the revealing "lord" op the supernatural order The indiscriminate coupling of Jahwe-Elohim. dimmeru. Inscriptions. cannot be certainly traced to non-Jewish parallels. It is significant that the author uses the abstract Elohim. (perhaps tin-gir)^ "Life-Power" (?). and the majestic plural Elohim are closely connected. Rawlinson. 16-1«. and there is every reason to believe that the Tetragram was directly revealed to the great Lawgiver as related in Exod. el.

while the mincha survives in the Holy Eucharist. and there He "places" the man whom He has iriade. of Biblical Literature.'"' "I AM " Comp. He "breathes" into him "the breath of life". hearken unto the words of that prophet. "In the day that thou eatest thereof. Israel. or that dreamer of dreams". and demanded by Him as an supreme dominion. With the ages of while the ideas have been purged. It is only the unblemished firstling that can now atone for his sins. p. . it is his by man to the Creator. Moreover Elohim "speaks". and the sign or the wonder come to pass. 13. . find no sterner rebuke than in the opening pages of the Torah: lonia. THAT I AM". thou shalt surely die!"— He pronounces the three-fold curse. sorcery. Again. and giveth you a sign or you shall not a wonder. Old Testament Theology. 3. 18. . one that shall crush the serpent's head. together with the violent and unnatural crimes that so often accompany them. while magic. (London. "You shall not suffer a witch to live". Lord thy God is one Lord!"" . 35Sff. till finally the Lamb of God Himself comes down from Heaven and offers His life for the redemption of many. shall be utterly destroyed". He ciently — — promises a Redeemer." The ruach Elohim has no connection with ghosts. He "walks" in the garden "in the cool of the day". He issues the solemn decree whose violation cost humanity their life. He "blesses" the work of His hands and declares it "good". Throughout the ritual is founded on tliat of Babyfirst one of the worship. "Ex." save unto the Lord only. and witchcraft. Oehler. Babylonian elements in the Levitical Ritual (Joum. the institution of sacrifice is traced to the very gates of Eden. 21 Ex. the strongest and widest expressions that can well be used in the language. the .20. among you a . It is the offering of Gain which is the first unbloody mincha. He "plants a garden eastward in Eden". 1903). it is a divinely ordained act of man the nature of this sacrifice becomes more severe. Like the institution of mar- precepts of God. He commands in the imperative mood. pp.4." "He that sacrificeth unto any god.102 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM The physical and ethical attributes of the "Lord of Hosts" are suffiwell-known to be summed up in a few remarks. In the Paradise-story the "voice" of Jahwe-Elohim is heard. "Id.1. 14. " Haupt. At the very beginning Bara Elohim eth hashammayim we-eth haaretz "God created the heaven and the earth". and ^oU." That we are dealing with a single personal Creator is evident from the above analysis and from the general cast and color of the creation-narratives. a general synopsis. . or a dreamer of dreams.22. 1900. more and more protracted." "Hear. "Deut. "If there arise prophet. the first latreutic action offered — acknowledgment of riage. see below under "Sacrifice". He forms man "out of the dust of the earth. 55-81).6.22. the ritual becomes more and more bloody.

and in the later Wisdom-literature every allusion to the "Word" of God. there are nevertheless indications that such a unity of nature is not inconsistent vj^ith a plurality of manifestations. . who see in every combination of divine attributes. Elohim as the "Father". 3. 17. {maleacfiim) or as cryptic insinuations of a plurality of persons concealed in the structure and phraseology of certain passages which have long been a serious difficulty to critic and apologist alike. Among these are the almost deliberate changes to the first person plural in certain "majestic" passages. whether as message-bearing angels. 1-3. 7-11. Thus bereshith was taken as the Logos. «» Id. p. 9. "Gen. 230. 7. "And God said" (in the singular). a" Gen. 3.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM Thk Question of Trinitarianism 103 While the divine Unity is thus conspicuously safeguarded from the very beginning. IS. the "Wisdom" of God being reserved for the "Holy Spirit". (Word). but abstractions. 20. followed by. and yet "/ have commanded" " "/ will put enmity" ^* "/ will destroy". Cp. The Words of Jesus. 11. " Id. August De Trinitate. "All these ideas which do not denote concrete hypostases of the Deity. 11. a verdict of "not proven" is the only safe one in the present case. 6. Comp. To what extent are they of any serious dogmatic import? pass over the interpretations of some of the Fathers. We "Wisdom. Adv. Haer. a direct reference to a mystery which was not to be revealed until the fulness of time. 1. »»G. 11. in every description of the divine operations. which expression is actually found in the Greek text of the same passages a few verses below. (Holy Spirit).^^ But quite apart from the very late redaction of the Book of Wisdom. and Abraham's adoration of the three men whom he addresses as "My Lord" (Adonai). IV. 9. such as the Bibletext might have aroused among the common people". (Edinb. Irenaeus Adv. "Let us make man" (in the plural) "in our image and likeness". 18. II. Haer. Adam has become as one of its'V "Let us go down and confound their language". 9.-'' At the same time it is quite permissible to read a deeper meaning into these terms. 1902). has always been a difficult crux for those who see in them nothing but three angelic messengers. Irenaeus. 1. 26. whether as the memra or dibra of the targums. was at once applied in the full hypostatic sense to the Redeemer. 19-20. and there are other considerations which show that such an interpretation may still be regarded as a plausible one. originally served the single purpose of guarding.'" — . where a plurality of persons seems to be wilfully insinuated and yet a unity of essence as mysteriously emphasised." etc. the divine "Son". 2»Id. II. 30. a singular construction. during the reading of Scripture in the synagogues.^" etc. Dalman. " Id. 3. i-uach Elohim as the "Holy Ghost". 22. against sensible representations of God. S." "Behold. »«Gen.

" It is quite true that the translation of Enoch. Ocean. 6.35 Qen. 23-25." the prophecies of and the vision of Ezekiel.104 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM Again. neither any that go down into "The dead praise Thee not. 25-27. 6. that binds the Hebrews with the prehistoric past. Even the patriarchs are in "Abraham's bosom". 31 Numbers.. 24.. that they are "sleeping". . Kadhosh.^ . and who shall go for us?" a mysterious utterance. and peace may be fittingly applied to Father. nS (113). 1-8. in which the Seraphim intone the Trisagion. 6. that they are still waiting for the redemption of Israel. ruach. Underworld. Son. "4 Kings. "The Lord bless thee and keep thee Lord make His face to shine upon thee and be merciful to thee the : : The Lord up His countenance upon thee.^' Noah. etc. 19." the assumption of Elias. l-'H . the symbolism of the Jewish liturgy is suggestive of tri-une conceptions even if it fails to be a rigid proof. how the Jewish nation arrived at such a lofty notion of divinity without the help of a philosophy. with the hope of fesurrection. 8. if not metaphysical. . Ezekiel. Sun.** the salvation of Job.. . kadhosh! and the voice of the Lord is heard "Whom shall / send. kadhash. - 5. If then the idea of God as a personal Word or an invisible Spirit is in such marked advance upon the religious ideas of the timesj it is rather surprising to And the notion of Judgment and a Life to come by comparison weakly developed. more especially Babylonian sources. of an organised system of — speculative thought. "Job. that the dead shall "see God" in both natures. with the triple invocation of Jahwe is somewhat striking. appellations. and the marvel of it is. — : silence". It is this paradisaic "sleep". Elohim. Land. 32 is. The Sheol of the Jews is hardly more hopeful than the Aralu of the Babylonians. We are moving in a different world of thought. 17.'' are clear indications that retribution is swift and decisive. or any other artificial contrivances that are commonly known as triads. '. they do not seem to enjoy the vision of God. memar. 's "^ Ps. dabar. Earth. bereshith. 37. and Spirit as their respective propria. and the outlook is almost equally sorrowful Lord. that He is clearly a Judge. These are not cosmic but personal. have absolutely nothing in common with Heaven. and can only be explained on the principle that the hour of deliverance has not yet come. mercy. .. »* Gen. 2.'^ lift illustrated — But whatever be the interpretation of these obscure texts. Now this is only to be expected. . But the detention of souls in the region of "limbo" is nevertheless too strik- ing a feature not to demand some explanation. it is quite certain that the Trinitarian notion was not derived from pagan. 11.• . The priestly benediction. and give thee peace!"" This is also by the vision of Isaiah. inasmuch as protection.

which was no doubt associated. ^ Ed. is shown by such combinations as Dyaus-pitar. a theory which is again coming to the front it is not impossible — . in the Press). the triangle. the results of liguistic "palaeonotology" have only confirmed what has long been suspected.' Apart from conclusions which are largely speculative. Moreover the personal prominence of the hypothetical deva. Greek. the sun. 599. and although such a discussion would be out of place in these pages. — — . II. Idem. but which was certainly the belief of our ancestors before the dispersion (about 4000 B. C). however. burg. After what we have learnt of symbols and what they stand for. or tlie swastika that div is identical with the orb of heaven. the heavenly Father. Lat. Geschichte des Alterthums (Berlin. diva. Old-Norse. (Leipzig.—the star. ^L. etc. * Compare O. Meyer. 1906). But was deva a person from the very beginning? It is argued from the root-meaning "to shine". 1901). deus. generally personified. wind and water. Esthon. and Israel '* (Lepizig. and perhaps identified. dyaus. the trifolium. 901-903. with the sun-light. Philo. If. Ju-piter. p.* and find a deep elsewhere he speaks of "the extremely primitive Persian sacrificial rite. Mills. Lith.' 1900). pp. . » Idem. L. Old-High-Germ. 1918. Altarische Religion. we have no linguistic or archaeological means for deciding the question. div. . The subject opens out an interesting field of discussion. the priority of these beliefs is still to be demonstrated.^ While this is consoling in view of the animal and even human sacrifices of the Western-Aryans. c. p. from which most of the nominal Indogermanic forms seem to have been derived. 1913) Vol.'^ Here we and decidedly abstract concept of divinity in the forms Ahura (Asura) -Mazda. the only one essentially connected with prayer". that no personality can be proved for what was originally an astral symbol. Iran. H. 1913) Schrader. Reallexicon der indogertnanischen Alterthumskunde. tiu.' On this subject Schrader remarks: "The Persians have preserved the original Indo-germanic ideas of God with great fidelity". moon and stars. The fact is. ^ - . the existence of a prehistoric root. dieva. this argument is not conclusive. with personal prayers to the great Maker of all indicates a high state of theistic feeling. Schrader. 1. Zoroaster. The Gathas of Zoroaster. (Strass- Schroeder. With Him are associated the Mother-earth. Von . sanscr. we can only say that the existing evidence point to a divine "Fatherhood". taeva. the Father-in- — heaven. that we have in Iran the earliest stream of undivided tradition. tyr. Zeus-pater. etc. 605. we cannot refrain from pointing out a few of the reasons that are urging scholars to look to this quarter for inspiration. "Life-Spirit-Lord". (Munich. and the 5oma-sacriflce. the cradle-land of our race be placed on the Western-Asiatic tableland.GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM (N. dawn and fire. Idem. zeus. 5) 105 AHURA—MITHRA—HAOMA— (Indo-Ahvan Development) The reconstruction of the Aryan religion is now well under way. (to shine). (proto-Aryan form). Our own Religion in ancient Persia (Chicago. and from certain Aryan symbols. the Acha'emenids. in fact nearly every department or force in nature.

Tabu. etc. 1887). Asur. Vol. supra. mer- — — . XXXI. king. ciful. Weissbach. for a full discussion of the linguistic problem. that seems to Meyer to decide the question. Zoroaster. . While the former leaves us on the South-Russian steppes. and tality". Yasna. Mithra as "Friendship". like Schrader and Eduard Meyer. but that Persia is as fair an exponent of this early Caucasian theology as any of her Semitic or Egyptian rivals. 230. and the fact that this Mesopotamian race was as non-Aryan as it was non-Semitic. "father. loc. being Vol. and the early kings of Kish (about 3000) conclusion that Iran was not the originator but rather the borrower of Sumerian civilisation. priest. Asmu (close homophones). Die Sumerische Frage. pp. and the parallelism is certainly suggestive. and Israel." On the other hand. Mulltr (Oxford. Afringans. (Leipzig. a few specialists. like Hincks and Langdon. C). 284ff. When acknovi'ledged experts. Euphrates. i« Texts and Translations by Mills. stand out in bold relief. similarities. (the "well-flowing"). and even identities are no proof of direct dependence on either side. Gahs. Apart from the fact that a mountainous region seems to be postulated. c. and such (Patish). ruler". —^with whom are associated as "Life.106 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM The Case for Ahura-Mazda (Iranian Form) — it tends will be seen that the revival of the old Asiatic theory of migrations to make the Iranian position increasingly plausible.'^ As to the linguistic evidence. as well as Prat (Prathu). whose 5oma-plant grows only in high altitudes and is associated in Aryan lore with the Himalayan and Bactrian ranges. with suggested derivations and Sumerian equivalents. 225. the latter would carry us to the highlands surrounding the Pamir-Plateau (!) as the earliest scene of Aryan activity. The Zend-Avesta. Schrader. yet inexorable. and that the earliest Persian petroglyphs do not carry us beyond the famous Behistun-inscription of Darius the Great (about 500 B. Hu-Prathu. "The immemoral antiquity of the Aryan race". Adar. H. Tin. many of the Sumerian i^oots are still largely irreducible. Weissbach. cit. »L. Max F." are beginning to trace Sumerian roots to proto-Aryan originals.' In this he is largely followed by Roth. Tishri (sacred fire-symbols). common designations as Patesi whose very sound is familiar to Aryan ears. Part III. 1. « See H. of the Sacred Books of the East. entitled. Geldner and others. edited by F. Philo. Langdon. it is the narcotic Soma-trance. I. Gathas. 1898). 'Evidence in Meyer. Health. are once more looking to the East for the common radiating center of the Aryan stock. 44S-4S3. (supra) and Idem. Thus we have Apsu and Tiamat (Apsu-Temah) Ansar and Kisar (Ashra-Khshatra) Anu. Pishel. Visparad. the matter is surely vi^orth reconsidering. bountiful. Tebeth. the Achaemenids." Haoma (Soma) Immor- •Meyer. This makes the figure of Ahura-Mazda as a personal Creatorj spiritual. Mills. Babyloniaca. Mtish and Mummu (early serpents). an age incomparably younger than that of all this suggests the Mesilim. Mills. and recently Oldenberg has given expression to the same opinion. .

(I.4)saiNKUK(HA')-AN-W fAM) U-T^A-MaX-tA HI|^MKUK-MC TU-NI-tS Al — AK.JK" En J 111 (M)U lA TA — aS 3:A-U KU. I.y] - - MA KH-Sa-TRA-M A -U -T«A-MA-»a:-aJA-A-MA-l— Y PJ -M A-»A-T«A YA-A-TA-A -a -TVk-YA-l -(xl I .Ai-TA-A MA -Q . TH-A— T ^^"rZi^ g^ - - t-Y I 3SA . § 9.AM (M) JBA — Rl — — -Rl lA-MliS I-KAb-SH IS-ZAN-NU ^ i\lM) U — Ml— jx-i>A SA-wml-TU-A . I. AURAHAZDA OBTAINED THIS KINGDOM.A . C ^ASWJ-xu p^AKU (0 AJS-^A— «Ar ¥IU-I 4a (ll-U) U - m .MI-ia:-»A A-CiA--rA ItiK Q (ILU) U Kl 1S_«| 3»^N-NU a—Sil MU^I JU.THE TRILINGUAL BEHISTUN-INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS THE GREAT ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE BBITI8H MUSEUM.ME MAW.T«A — YA— VA —U -& A .-MAi--rA W .7*A-MA-At-»A-A -HA a>A — MA tai-&ik--mA-M —A -~ T<A — VA — • >^ — Ml — V -Y ft y t- (AO ^•-T^^m — AK TA (lv() •HI YA (M)U MA-uS(J.— -Rl -YA J&AMUl ________^___^____ Kt-A. VAr-H-NA-A 1 A- U — .YA --TM I -YA A - U .AX-3)AF-RA-A-»A^-RA U --pA.IZ~»K —• SAWwi]—TU A-<tA— A I -Ita] ANAKU AS — XAr-£u "THUS SAITH DABIUS THE KING: AVKAMAZDA GAVE BABE ME AID UNTIL ME THIS KINGDOM.MA KH-*A--mA-M ft HA^/j- :ba.Ml . COI^. 10OT). % »).Oia>ON. CAN) U-'BA.V& (MQ iwll UOtt)zUN»(UK-Me-HI <»^1t^^^«^^^gK]^T<W»RfT'^T — — IN ^ t^fVS-MAS-X^-NA(M)U (M) TSAl-AK ZUNKXJK.—BY THE GRACE OF AUBAMAZDA I HOLD THIS KINGDOM" (COL. .1«A-MA.


Also Gathas. or "Hymns. where this subject is treated with more detail. favors the latter supposition. : . At the very outset we And two personal principles at work. but there is no necessity of deriving the "seven spirits of Zekariah directly from the Amesha-Spentas. Evil Falsehood Hate Anarchy Insolence 6 7 Avaetat. fashioned us. Maleachim. Avesta Eschatology compared with the Books of Daniel and Revelations (Chicago. based upon the combined Avesta and Pahlavi texts. or whether they are to be looked upon as dependent spirits after the manner of the Jewish-Christian attributes of divinity. p. 67-83 "God and His Immortals". Our Own Religion. DruJ. However. the "septessence" of divinity surviving in the Sabbath and Hexahemeron of the Jews. as the Yasna. tiful Spirit". whether as a "septade" of attributes or a sevenfold hierarchy. Taramaiti. are clearly of preexilic origin." Ahura-Mdzda^sha. Egyptian lists).GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM 107 But the most characteristic feature of the Zoroastrian faith is its dualism and the doctrine of the seven spirits. lOSff. This is a free translation. '^ See under "Creation". represent the oldest documents of the moral idea and of subjective religion. Mills. the glorious. Vohu-Manah. etc. . the latter are cosmic designations and stand (Compare the Babylonian and for an entirely different circle of ideas. the best. Merethyu Dejection Death 12 series corresponding to each mem- Whether the seven Ameshiis of the first series are seven aspects or which Mazda is one. who is disposes our Who sends His joy-creating grace afar. of archangels. : the radiant. 1908) pp. the esoteric faith "/ will announce and complete my sacrifice to Ahura-Mazda. the Creator. while the former are abstracts. ^' Yasna. and the most beautiful. whose Order is supreme. while the Hebrew Cherubim." Which. passim. 18. a comparison of the Ameshas with the Hebdeads or Enneads of the Euphrates or the Nile reveals at a glance that. ( Ahura-Meizda) it is revealed in the Gathas. 175if. they figure very early both in Avesta and Rig-Veda. Dush-Kshathra. being closely paralleled by the Assyrian karubu and other protecting divinities." As to the nature of Ormazd. the one essentially good. 1. the greatest. p. Kshathra^ramaitijlaurvatat^meretatat Life Truth Love Law Energy Health Immortality These are opposed by an opposite ber : 12 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 Angra-Mainyu. There is ample evidence for a "Holy Seven" or a sevenfold division of divine manifestations in the Babylonian and perhaps even in the Egyptian system. the other essentially evil.^^ who the most boun- ^^ L. each of which brings forth two antagonistic worlds. Idem. six. In any case. though the original number. Whose body{?) minds aright. Seraphim. cannot be determined with certainty. or "Sacrifice". H. Akem-Mana. Who made us and who has nourished and protected us. is all-perfect. I.

and the final triumph of Mazda over the evil spirit. He is the Truth. Rashnu. 14. 7. 19. Iff. 142. He is also omniscient. (700-900 B.^* "Ibid. Sraosha. See under "Redemption" below. of men and of all the "gods"." He is Creator of heaven and earth. a characteristically Iranian touch. their high antiquity seems assured. Suffice it to say that the exorcism of demons is a pronounced feature from the earliest times. perjury. 3. 1% 92. 2» as the Iranian magi (?). 6. and their possible connexion with the Latin manes or the Hindoo jntris." Nevertheless Redemption is promised. s' Yasht.—Spenta-Mamyu. 4flf. Protector and Strengthener.^'' the supreme Judge of man at the end of the world. words. Vendidad. and Haoma. 13. Yima. to be born of a virgin. a good Spirit. VohuManafi— in fact a "lioly" Spirit. the resurrection of the dead. "Yasna. "Details in Yashts (13.^'' In the meantime salvfition may be purchased and forgiveness obtained by a blameless life "in thought. though the Bundahish tradition is very late and disfigured by unworthy details. "Y. the general judgment. and Bundahish. where Ahura-Mazda has stationed the first man. 22) and Vendidad (19) etc. impart health. through an act of prevarication. and deeds". and seems not simply personified to reveal a strong belief in spiritistic influences. ^^ . there is the Paradise of Airyana-Vejah in the Himalayas.*" comparatively late. there are echoes of a Savior. C). "Y. nor to propound any theories on the nature of manah or fravashi as the "soul" or "spirit" of a person. life. 31. 20 Y 28 4 34. but that she was the first to adore at the crib of the Redeemer. and deed". word. 5." an unchangeable Friend. 11. ^ See the Yasna and Ven144ff didad passim. and where Mithra. 62. In the sequel Yima falls into the power of the Serpent. Manali .108 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND RECENT FORM He is tlius declared to be a Spirit. Friendship. through telling an untruth. 43. Azhi-Dakaka. it is rewarded or punished by a heaven or hell of "thoughts. as surviving in its hellenistic form in the "Mysteries of Mithras"." As nearly all these expressions are found in the Gathic Avesta. who will be — — destroyed for ever. 13. untruthfulness. 31. 43. " Y. But if the entire system be branded as forces. 31. by offering up the «oma-sacrifice. by tending the sacred fires {Atar) by abstaining from heresy. At death the soul is judged by its own conscience before Ahura's throne in presence of Mithra. by practicing charity. we answer that the Aryan race was a late arrival on the field — many of the world's activity. and at the end of time will come the last prophet." and all-provident. immortality. that Egypt and Babylon both preceded her by centuries. but personal agencies. generosity. "Behistun." the Founder of a kingdom that is to be for the poor. the sacred Soma-Tree. Furthermore." He is a Teacher and Ijawgiver. violence. He is the supreme Goodness. "Y. philanthropy." omnipotent." I do not intend to handle the difficult question of the origin and antiquity of these beliefs. and sexual sins.—Ee is unique.

in which personal creation recedes . "Friendship". etc. but only the manner of its expression. B. p. even if as nature-symbols they can also be read as "Heaven". Haoma-Soma. In the Yi-king or "Book of Changes" (perhaps 1500 B. * S. E. but also as theological expressions for "Spirit". 77-78.* In the age of Confucius and Laotze (6-500) it is the doctrine of the Tao. "Preserver" and "Destroyer". the yang: and the ying. E. they were worshipped as persons from the remotest. first as Thought-power. Mills. etc. the new triad being simply a theogony of divine manifestations. C). "Earth". Vol. is one that needs to be considerably modified. with Varuna and Indra. THE EARLY VEDIC FAITH IDENTICAL WITH THE AVESTIC-IRANIAN There can no longer be any doubt that the equations Ahura-Asura. Vol. Earth.Veda. I-XLVI). and finally as Storm-power. hold good. ' Cf.^ Brahma-Vis hnu-Siwa take the place of the older pantheon. Our own Religion. Rig. C). xxiiiflf. E. Chinese Thought (Chicago. in which the great triad "Heaven. pp. which in still later times were worked up into the more refined concept of "Creator". all things are the result of two opposite principles. SO. Mithra-Mitra. three aspects of the one undefinable. and compare Paul Carus. ( ?) second as Sun-power. the form in which it is clothed. (Shu-King). -' . 93ff.' In modern Hindooism we find a few faint vestiges of the true light struggling through the mists of a belated naturalism. Vedic Religion. (Yiking). background. as there can be no doubt that. S. B. and over which Shang-Ti rules as the Lord of creation. even if the rigid caste-system is something entirely new. and Man" is symbolished by the trigram. that leads to strong ancestor-worship. illimitable Being. The same to some extent in the Shu-King or "Book of History". "Sun". it was unavoidable that this comparatively lofty theology should be soiled by the prevailing totemism and reincarnationdoctrines of Central India. p. p. — BRAHMINISM AN ARYAN-DRAVIDIAN COMPOUND But in the subsequent intermingling and partial fusion with the IndoKolarian aborigines. with the later Brahmanas and Upanishads (S. 103flf. 2Sflf.'' — ' . historical antiquity (about 2000 B. the "vital monad"—. I-X.^ This does not destroy their personality. on the origin of Aryan culture in India. XL. (Tao-Teh-King). 2 Cf. XVI. 1-15. III. — 1 Oldenberg.GOD WESTEEIN-ASIATIG AND REGENT FORM Brahministic Development originators of a 109 The common impression that the Aryan invaders of India were the more or less pantheistic nature-vs^orship. relics of the totemic age. "Immortality" (?). Iyengar. 1907) p. and this not only as verbal identities (under Grimm's law). culminating in the later Brahminism. p. S. (Khien-Khwan-Kan) called "FatherMother-Son". more and more into the Taoistic Development The existence or parallel ideas among the Mongolian races is a fact that should here be noted. Anthr. B. IX.

to the absence of deliberate obscenity. Kami-busubi. while the latter were agents in the creation. ghost. and the practice of divination.' a world which is gradually speeding to d'histoire et de geographic de Japon. the most important ferial. Meyer. as in China. 1911). Schmidt. and other elemental deities. shows that even the offering of priceless hecatombs and the sacrifice of human life is unable to redeem its own inevitable dissolution. is even if strongly suggestive of a rise of divinities out of nature-powers. however. Takami-musubi. Nevertheless in the works of the above authors there is apparently a "theogony". to the delicate portrayal of social and family life in the character of his heroes. C). it is a "Heavenly Father" that is here intimated. (Yokohama. Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft. 1-136. is directly descended. the latter be treated as "personifications" rather than "personal- ities". which makes Jupiter the son of Saturn. and compare in general die Entwickelung der Religion auf Grund der Babylonischen A.110 GOD WESTERN-ASIATIC AND REGENT FORM Shintoistic Development In the Shinto system of Japan three Creators are prominent from the times. Graeco-Roman belief are sufficiently well The main features of the known. and the combination Zeus-pater. gradually fused with those of the ancestor. The germanic gods have given their names to our days of the week. Qassics passim. II. Oceanus. They arc called Ameno-minaka-nushi. spirit-feeding. Gedanken tiber Qucllen. In the Greek Zeus and the Latin deus this root is particularly clear. . pp. Much the same may be said of the Germanic religion as revealed in the Eddas and the Niebelungen Lied. Tiu's day being next to Sun and MoonIn both religions. and Ed.and demon-hunting. Diet. tells its own story. to "shine". a point which can never be settled. it is the "Way of the gods !" « earliest — Western-Aryan Development Homer and Hesiod religion. and Anally by the fathers of Japan from whom the emperor. 1906). there is a day. of caricaturing the gods by clothing them at times with the basest of human passions. I would however call attention to the generally lofty tone of the father of Greek literature. Geschichte des Altertums. while the position of Uranos. the flrst of whom existed immovably at the time of creation. It is instructive to notice how the early ideas of a transcendent Being are. Ju-piter. 1-242. Deus-pater. strong spirit-cult known as "manism" among the Latins. several other groups. (Leipzig. and to the unbloody sacrifices or "libations" {spondai) to which he bears witness. or Mikado. has already been shown that the liguistic evidence establishes with some certainty the existence of the common Indo-germanlc root div. (ca. Zeus being the son of Chronos (Time). 'See the » Papinot. They are followed by seven generations of heavenly spirits. from which our own word "divinity" has been derived. are the classic sources It for the Graeco-Roman 1000 B.

2 Mgr. So they pressed it together. Prefect Apostolic of British Borneo. The two spirits then essayed the creation of man. Grundlinien einer Vergleichung der Reiigionen u. poured forth the waters. and mirror to some extent the conditions of the earlier lacustrian and the later megalithic periods. though his creation is largely auto- — matic. in the first of which Batara occupies As to there is no a prominent position: "Batara Batara Batara first expanded the heavens. 1 L p. who are living in the advanced stone age. ' Dunn. fibres it first first first —thick as the fruit of the Horse-Mango. direct evidence of his solar character. known as Tanah-Kumpok.^ In the beginning there In the other version greater details are given. (SoUTH SeA ISLANDS it is clear that archaeology alone cannot question of neolithic religion. ll-?4ff. op. Out of these Ara made the heaven and Irik the earth. even if the hatching-theme and the waters are suggestive of WesternAsiatic influences. Trees and plants then sprouted out of their own accord. however vague. and mountains and valleys were formed. The name is the Sanscrit Bhattara ("Lord" "Master"). What light can they throw on the question of a supreme personal divinity? Is this being ultimately of astral origin? From the preceding evidence settle the (a) BATARA Indonesian Recent — (N. and finally as a figure of clay. Batara "works". . The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo (London. 4-7. 6) 111 AUSTRONESIAN DEVELOPMENT.GOD LATER OCEANIC AND RECENT FORM (N. became the ancestors of the race. Comp. Schmidt. Borneo) Batara (or Petara) of the Bornean Sea-Dayaks. By comparing heaven and earth. E. Vol. Luckily there are large groups of peoples that are still on the neolithic level. of the early conditions of neolithic worship. W. including sun. and that can give us some picture. moon. p. They dived under and brought forth two solid substances of the size of a hen's egg. who made them air7 The native origin of these legends is stamped on the very wording. who as male and female. cleft the clay in two parts. Ara and Irik hovered in the form of birds. 1910). Among these are the natives of the SouthSea Islands. 165ff. and then they desert us. pp. the "earthformed". (lacustrian). over which two creative spirits. I. —thick as the crest of a red rooster. and stars. cit. created the earth. W. first as a redsapped tree. H. Ling-Roth. (1906) -pp. (Vienna. 177. The inscriptions carry us back to the fourth or fifth millennium before Christ.— and Batara became man". 1896). was a huge expanse of water. Dunn.—great as the of the rattan. it was found that the earth was too large.— a series on the Iban Dayaks.^ Nevertheless "all spirits came from Batara. MyUiologien der Austronesishen Volker. and he is described as the Maker of heaven and earth and of all things. in Anthropos. The Creation legend appears in two forms.

they are fed with libations and sacrifices after the manner of ghosts. Although he lets men die as a sign of his displeasure. yet he is nevertheless a "good" being. . guard their fingers from theft and their hearts from contamination. but must be offset by other considerations which tend to make the above precepts largely theoretical. "Ibid. Unchastity is believed to be punished by Batara with heavy rain. it seems highly probable that Batara is a supersolar. give drink to the thirsty. Batara approves of industry. the creator of them all. 179ff. but there is no consciousness of any physical relationship with the divine. he requires sacrifice. though there is no clear proof. S-6. Yet he requires two an<M-spirits to make the world. cleanness of tongue. shows that Batara is not the unique Lord of creation that might otherwise be suggested by the above data. cit. an "orphan. Batara cannot be unjust. and can only be atoned for by fire and sacrifice. Patu nadu apai. without father ever without mother". *Perham. — op I. they inflict diseases. and perhaps with another which again points to dualBatara of the Underworld. though there is admittedly only one supreme Batara. He says in substance. op. beneficent. cannot be unchaste. 177. p.' — — . sharing his authority with innumerable antus. honesty. apud Ling-Roth. Endang nadai indai. feed the hungry with rice. p. that although the concept of Batara is by no means a lofty one. p. p. The Sea Dayaks have outgrowH totemism. console the afflicted. they are the sources of divination and bird-augury. . or invisible spirit. If however the concept be native and the interpretation correct. he is the stern guardian of morality. He is always on the side of justice and right. • Compare however Schmidt. with pronounced sun and moon-worship. Divinity is thus possibly multiform. even for the demon of the underworld. uncompromising but relatively supreme being.^ This is an attractive picture. integrity in word and action.* He is an antu. — — and has neither temples nor pictures. Perham's estimate is worth considering. He admonishes men to harbor the stranger. ' cit. evil is not attributed to him. Perham. the antus are continually invoked in the hour of sickness." Again the possibility of Hindoo influence is not altogether ruled out in this case.112 GOD LATER OCEANIC AND REGENT FORM Of the nature of Batara we have considerable information. though he demands prayer. {Pulang Gana) ism. Every locality trodden by an adulterer is cursed by the gods. and the formerly universal practice of cannibalism and head-hunting. until the deed has been expiated by a suitable sacrifice. In the first place Batara is the name for any god or antu. personal. This is the chief point to be not«d in dealing with this stage of belief. 169. He is often addressed as.

123. knows region shows that mana is essentially spiritistic. all religion. '"Idem. being little more than a "Don Quixote". 119 note." Now the point is that mana is no mere occult act through the religion. and has made light and darkness. that is. he is nevertheless born or evolved from a stone. men and women. but a personal. he has a wife and eleven brothers.' Prayer is addressed to the couple as follows: "Quat! Marawa! look down upon me! Prepare the sea. has no form to be seen. 148. ghosts or spirits". " See Codrington passim. that I may go on a safe sea. p.* Sacrifices are made to Quat as to other spirits. . esp. he is associated with Marawa. stone. Beat down the waves. and the mind. p. divinity. thinks. it follows that he In practice. winds and seasons. theif anthropology and folk-lore (Oxford). strong demon. is supernaturally powerful with mxina." If then Quat is himself a vui. 'Idem. spiritual power proceeding from the vui and imparted to men* Though it terminates in matter. however. as far as religious practices go. "Idem. lS4flf. it is initiated in "What is a vui? It lives. though in itself impersonal. meat-offerings. All spirits have it. that I may come to a safe landing-place!"'" which shows that he is a living the "Lord Spider" In the figure of Quat-Mamwa we have . the "Spider". money. p. and it essentially belongs to personal beings to originate it. a spiritual being. the doctrine of secret spiritual force. he is hardly is the source of mana. '= idem. however. But it is mana alone that can interpret this figure. and above all things "mana". in fact." Again. ii9. All Melanesian mana for one's self. — — — however facetious. consists in getting this may medium — material force. p. prayers and sacrifices. though it of w4ter. and can be conveyed in almost anything. he has sunk to the level of a national hero. has no soul because itself is like a soul".GOD LATER OCEANIC AND NEOLITHIC FORM (b) 113 QUAT-MARAWA—Melanesian Transition (Banks Islands) elements of extreme antiquity. p. '* Idem. and though his influence is mainly for good and his character spotless. spiritism. and even human life. The Melanesians.and ancestor-worship of this more than a ghost. p. 191. has more intelligence than a man things which are secret without seeing. but spirits. the "Lord". possibly supreme. though the latter practice is rare and confined chiefly to the minor spirits. skull-cult." "No man. 128flf. he is a vui or disembodied spirit. have it and can impart it. ghosts generally. What then is mana? "This power. "Idem. etc". fused together with ideas of a later age. p. XII. or getting it used for one's benefit. Chapt.'* « R: Codrington. storms and rains. has this power of his own: all that he does is done by the aid of personal beings. however humanised. is always connected with some person who directs it. totemic taboo. or bone. some men. whether disembodied souls or supernatural beings. of first-fruits. "This mana is not fixed in anything. Though he is Quat.

The existence of phallic worship in large sections of Oceania recalls the similar rites of India and Western Asia. in which the forces of nature are not mere "mysteries". The leading idea of this system is the creation of the world by sexual genesis. with which Tangaroa. they demand justice. Here however the sexual act is made the mainspring of creation. they act like guardians. the Earth. at times human sacrifices.114 GOD (c) LATER OCEANIC AND RECENT FORM RANGI-PAPA-TANGAROA—Polynesian Advanced. "Die Entstehung der phallischen Zauberrjten in Austronesien". Austronesische Mythologte. and finally mankind in the full light of day. mana. they require heavy. the Sun. and through the union of Light and Dawn there issue the minor divinities. And while there is an intimate connexion between the heavenly bodies and their divine hypostatisations. as the above divinities control human life and destiny in a very realistic manner." While a divine "parentage" is sufficiently common. This excessive anthropomorphism is clearly a degeneration. has led to a strongly sexual polytheism. Schmidt. is identified as the child of heaven. human generators. they conceal the relation in its coarser forms. pp. ^with what consequences to morality may be well imagined. pp. the lunar orb. If the totemic divinities are frequently married." — 16 A. a sun. not as blind agencies. Papa. it substitutes pro-creation for simple creation. 1881). but intensely human personalities. During the battle between Light and Sound on the one hand and Night and Silence on the other. (Samoa) This is further illustrated by the Polynesian mythology in which the idea of mana has been brought into connexion with the chief deities of the pantheon. It shows that the forces of nature in the mind of neolithic man are represented as human beings. W. has been the occasion of secondary developments which are far from pleasing. the primaeval night. but it brings out the idea of personality in a manner that is quite unmistakable.or star-worship in the purely material sense is not thereby implied. i^Comp. Rangi. Taken all in all. and Tangaroa the Moon. the former conquer. it is a singular fact that both are apt to flourish among populations that are chiefly agrarian. This darkness is called Po. Bastian. 29ff. (Leipzig. Originally Rangi and Papa (heaven and earth) were so closely united in wedlock that no ray of light could penetrate the eternal darkness. 134ff. it is impossible to resist the conclusion that the application of mana to everything in heaven and earth. Die heilige Sage der Polynesier. . each being the "parent" of the higher couple. as developed in the Polynesian Islands. while it has expanded the old totems and made them personal spirit-centers. inorganic or lifeless powers. and to whom the sexualised "sun" is the great source of fertility. and while manism and phallism have no direct connexion.

H. " See Also Mrs. B. may be gathered from the opening lines of a hymn which is jealously guarded from profanation. 16th. all of which belong to the late-megalithic and copper culture which is appropriately called Pan-American or "Cordilleran". one from the plateaus. tion. A. 379. . is a naive attempt to trace the objects of nature to their divine archetypes. the clan-totems are at least "descriptive". 307. and the strongly astronomical setting of the mythology recalls nothing so much as the famous Aztec Sun-Calendar. Totemism and Exogamy. and the expression. and never sung in presence of the Mexican Spanish: rather as "Before the beginning of the New Creation. 7) If in lis GORDILLEnAN EXTENSION. New Mexico) That the Pueblos regard the Supreme Being as in no sense evolved. He is a transcendent Being. This has been called an "Hegelian" notion. Outlines of Zuni Creation-Myths. Frazer. Rep. but an Evolver. do. there is no evidence of reincarnation. p. p. the Maker and Container of All. with the twelve signs of the Zodiac^" . passim. Vol. The Zuni Indians.—ZuNi-PuEBLOS — . pp.and sun-dances are still in evidence. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington.—the last of the prehistoric waves that was destined to affect the two continents. (a) AWONAWILONA. the latter is in some sense a return to those notions. and one from the South-American Andes. but the description is hardly a happy one. and the sun-priests invoke all the powers of nature personified in their efforts to control the climate as weather-doctors. 215-241. E. (1904). F. 251. Tusayan Snake Ceremonies. the All-Father. W. personal Creator is clearly more than an immanent. 23d. Awonawilona. Gushing. C. a creating Awona is here distinctly expressed. that while the former is in part a corruption of the primitive notions.—NORTH AND SoUTH AMERICA conclusion it is we New World. solely had being He then evolved things by thinking himself outward in space". Comp. two from the plains. M. Making of Religion. Rep. namely that there is an essential difference between the the more recent animistic theology. J.^ . At the same time the magical fraternities are no longer totemic. "• . 247. Lang. etc. pp. to "think himself outward in space". The snake. fact. Fewkes. Stevenson. III. (Colorado Basin. —the chiefly to bring out the say a few words of the neolithic divinities of the main point of our present conten- late-glacial and For this purpose it will be sufficient to select four typical divinities. and of animistic multiplicity on the other. and the divine Fatherhood is again prominent. But apart from this. A precosmic. Nevertheless a closer inspection of Zuni mythology and practice will reveal the fact that this divinity has but lately emerged from the nature-connexion. 1891). but with the strong marks of a natureemergence on the one hand. 13th.GOD PAN-AMERICAN REGENT FORM (N.

c. the "power above that controls the universe and moves all things". This power is evidently transcendent and ubiquitous. and the A/ione-divinity of the Virginians. "Our Father in all places". but the conflicting evidence leaves his nature largely his problematical. They seldom even mention of the name except in their religious rites and sacrificial feasts. Z36fl. occasionally oflfer up a captive man. and the sacred bundles. To this cycle must also be referred the A^a?)pa-deity of the Blackfeet. and this to the morning-star (!)* With Tirawa it is different. . Y. Paul. is always accompanied by a sacrifice of tobacco or some other article deemed precious by the Indian. 1885). or of profane swearing. He is addressed as A-ti-us-ta-ka-wa. 1. and it is a firm belief among them that whoever has once been blest with this vision is fated to live to a good old age and in enjoyment of ease and plenty". and there is no word in their language.expressive of a profane oath. 1892) and Lang. buffalo. Ethnology. A History of the Objibways (St. "Through corn. however trivial. Blackfoot Lodge Tales (N. Fletcher. the "SpiritFather" of the Pawnee. who are generally credited with showing strong Aztec affinities. Grinnell. "We see ourselves living with Tirawa" . * Alice C. B. "Ke-che-mune-du". NeShaska) This connexion with the early Mayan culture of Central America is rendered increasingly plausible by the figure of Ti-ra-wa. but returns to Tirawa. Amer. Compare Lang. the — — — — former having distinctly solar associations. and every address to him. Minn. Rep. writes Warren. A Pawnee Ceremony'. 1889). » Comp. Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales. Pawnee— (Platte Vallev. Warren. though it must be added that the whole universe is peopled with ra-was or spirits who are hungry for sacrifice. while the wicked simply cease to exist. "The Hako. deer. « W. Chippewa — . «G.. 63-65.116 GOD (b) PAN-AMERICAN REGENT FORM TIRAWA. now well known. or Wolf-Pawnee. Am. pp.^ He is the Maker of the Pawnees. in 22d. . "is the name used by the Objibways for the being equivalent to our God.* The appearance of the Manitoo as a "perfect man" differentiates this being toto caelo from the totem-gods. Bur. There is nothing to equal the veneration with which the Indian regards this unseen being. we worship Tirawa". The Skidi. which is the ordinary designation for the totem. Moreover at death the soul is not reincarnated. 233-236. They never use his name In vain. as is the case with their more enlightened white brethren. (Minnesota-Canada) seems quite certain that the famous Kitchi Manito or "Great Spirit" Chippewa must be distinguished from the common Algonquin manitoo. Instances are told of persons enduring almost superhuman fasts in order to gain a vision of him in their dreams. not stopping short of human life. Grinnell. 230. Making of Religion.^ (c) It MANITOO. (New York. pp. pp. In such instances the Great Spirit invariably appears to the dreamer in the shape of a beautifully and strongly-formed man.

If unsuccessful he cast his manitu away and offered his faith to more powerful or more friendly deities". analogous to orenda. p. p. in Hodge. « A. and turning to the east". Chamberlain. bad. 29S. good. guardian spirit."' Now in so far as manitoo is the common designation for taboo or totem. Henshaw thus dismisses the question :— "Among the erroneous conceptions regarding the Indian none has taken deeper root than the one which ascribes to him belief in an overruling deity. F. and know no prayers. H. Indian god or devil. "Our Sun. says Andrew Lang. 800. "are prayers. F. and the Jesuit Relations to which Tylor appeals seem to refute the notion of borrowing rather than support it. 1901).GOD PAN-AMERICAN REGENT FORM tions for divinity 117 Maniioo is the best known of all the numerous designaon the North American continent. but can only name him by tlie name of the sun. nor manner of adoring him. Under the heading "Popular As the Gi-eat W. 284. we have no reason to suspect their genuineness. The Limits of Savage Religion. fetish. If successful he adored."* Tylor also speaks of the vague nature of the idea. XXI. and is preserved for us in the records of the tutors themselves. many — — . and yet he attributes the Kitchi Manitoo to missionary influence. "Lang. it is quite true that it has a vague. a multitude of spirits that dwelt in animate and inanimate objects. : — ' H. Anthropol. Vol. as their authors are proverbially accurate and painstaking. "they put on robes. The spirits were the source of good or bad fortune whether on the hunting path or the wartrail. Henshaw. Magic an^ Religion. in the pursuit of a wife or in a ball game. p. vestments. Niscaninou. demon. 284. turii to the east. cit. Very far removed from this tremendous conception of one all-powerful deity was the Indian belief in. p. it may be worth while lo bring forward the chief points upon which the controversy concerning his theistic nature may be said to turn. the 'Great Spirit'. or our God! {1) give us to eat!"^" "Here". •Tylor. the Jesuit missionaries of Canada. Joum. 20. it has signified spirit. To none of his deities did the Indian ascribe moral good or evil. In one passage we read "They believe in a god. W. mysterious sense. 1858). His religion was practical. and made valuable presents. so they say. (collected since 1611). op. genius loci. i» Relations des Jisuites (Quebec Edition. and say. and these are certainly not imported features. A. I. While these reports cannot be always directly verified. . Chamberlain writes in a similar strain: It stands for "the mysterious and unknown potencies and powers of life and of the universe. Nevertheless Warren's report fits in very badly with the above dogmatic conclusions. ibid." And yet. Mr.' Under the article "Manito". to propitiate which was the chief object of his supplications and sacrifices. offered sacrifices. p. As taken over from the Algonquian into the vocabulary of the white man. or indifferent. Instit." Fallacies". "it belongs not to the untutored but to the tutored mind of the savage. II. (London. Vol. etc.

Sun! You have seen my life. by a host of rawas or minor spirits. the Great Spirit shows himself in the form of a man. Here also the finger is occasionally sacrificed. but. there is Napi. he is Na-pi.AMERICAN RECENT FORM But this is not an isolated case. as he is pictured as the Sun. arts. mission- and whom we owe found them ideas to the natives. the important point to be noted others. who made man and woman out of clay. — "Lang." gave them the sins. p. cattle are served out to the virtuous. 29S. p. associated more or less with the sun. "Old Man". In each case we have a native "Spirit-Father". that it was by no means strange to the mind of the savage. that an all-creating invisible Agent was already acknowledged. supra. as indeed he might be. did not carry these already existing."" Again. "We see ourselves living vnth Tirawa!" tion that arises concerns their interpretation. a singularly beautiful and suggestive rite. and the cruel rites of the iV<*^os-dance are performed. Youths sacrifice a finger. and everything in the okan (or ceremony) is sacred to him alone. loc. 236flF. Among the neighboring Blackfeet of the Yellowstone region Natos is the equivalent of "holy" or "divine". Making of Religipii. and the only ques- what do they mean? In venture to say. the Immortal One. and yet addressed as a person. it seems quite clear that the idea of a "Great Spirit" existed side by side with that of the totem. but whose personal character is distinctly revealed by his role as Creator and Governor of the human race. You know that I am pure!" " From other sources we know that the natives believed in immor. who punished them for their them for their disobedience. who brought them who still chastises Now aries. but this connection I the above data. in rewards and punishments in the life to come. Religion. in recognition of prayers answered by Natos. that. "To Natos prayer and sacrifice are offered. Moreover at death there is no return to the animals. "Jesuit .118 GOD PAN. and Napi is addressed in prayer in a high ethical strain: "Pity me. who Tongues of — — fire. the rite partakes of the nature of a sacrament. whatever be the idea concealed by mantoo in general. to is that the reporters. The same writer has collected numerous other examples. This is rendered increasingly certain by the similar position of Awonawilona and Tirawa above. who was before death came into the world. Magic and Relations. under "Tirawa" above. even though he manifested himself in solar form. and by his worship under the form of the "Sacred Corn". in which a transcendent Manitoo is clearly implied. cit. Comp. Prayer is made to Natos only. i' Idem. and was surrounded. possibly the same divinity. tality. which is not impossible. and is also the name for the sun. even if the title Kitchi Manitoo be looked upon for argument's sake as a recent nomenclature.






Of the extinct civilisations of Mexico and Peru we liave considerable monumental and literary remains, but there are no means of dating these remains with anything like security. While much of the architecture and ornament finds a striking parallel in ancient Egypt, India, and even Java, it seems equally certain that the high grade of Mexican sculpture postulates a source within historic times, and the entirely recent character of IncaAztec civilisation makes its value as an exponent of prehistoric conditions of faith and practice of very little importance. Hence the numerous biblical and even Christian allusions, real or fanciful, culminating in the mysterious figure of Quetzalcoatl, are far too late to be of any practical value iii the present place, some of them being demonstrably of Christian,
Islamic, or possibly Buddhistic origin."


we mention




it is


to note the character of

a typical Cordilleran


Pacha-camac is the "World-Soul", the anima mundi, in the literal meaning of the term. The high qualities that are assigned to him are revealed by the data furnished by Garcilasso, a Spanish-Inca writer of the sixteenth century, who testifies that the original people of Peru were totemists, worshippers of all the powers of nature, but that a new sun-cult was established by the first Inca, himself a child of the sun." Thiis new religion,
while it retained much of the external trappings of the old, yet recognisied the "siistainer of the world", a power behind the sun, Pachacamac Ihe being who "advanced the Sun so far above all the stars of heaven". This being had no temples, but "they worshipped him in their hearts^', and he seems to stand for an advanced, almost philosophical concept of





no reason


doubt the authenticity of

this report,



in well with the parallel tradition of Wiracocfm, the pre-Inca Sun-god, whose two sons are Pachacamac and Wichama. The latter obtains from
his father three eggs

from which

princes, females,

and plebeians spring
forced to yield



also the legend that the boneless

Ron was

to the

growing power of Pachacamac, to whom he delivers his kingdom." This shows that Garcilasso's theory is correct. AH the evidence tends to reveal that Pachacamac was formerly a nature-god, who under the new inca empire was raised to a position of supreme importance and stripped of his cosmic features. He represents the highest and latest development of pre-Columbian theology.

J., Article "Mexico" in Cath. Encyclop. Vol. X. p. 2Slff. Vega, Royal Commentaries of Peru, (London, 1688) Engl. Transl., Comp. Lang, 1. c. p. 239S. " Garcilasso, op. cit. Vol. L p. 101 flf. " Lang, p. 242. P. Ehrenreich, Die Mythen und Legenden der Sud-amerikanischen Urvolker, p. 33.

" Garcilasso


Camillus Crivelli, S.





To sum up, the leading features of the American Neolithic are in striking accord with the parallel development in the Old World. In both cases
the transition to a higher stone culture, followed by the copper or bronze age, has been accompanied by a more advanced form of social and political

organisation, in which the "Priest-King", whether in Babylonia, Polynesia, or Peru, forms the center of authority, the divinely appointed "son of heaven". The tendencies of the age are generally conservative,
there is a desire to revive the old notions of a Father in Heaven, at the

same time to develop and deepen the concept by bringing it into harmony with a more expanded knowledge of nature and man. For this purpose the more refined notion of "spirit",—whether as zi, dingir, ka, cfioper, ruach, bruwa, manali, mana, manes, manitoo , was already at hand, and

a great Generator, of a paternal First Cause, in order to bring out the idea of a Universal Spirit, one who was not only a Person, but in a more philosophical sense the invisible source and interior of all being, a universal essence, a "WorldSoul".

needed only

be welded on

to old notions of

In the application of this





inevitable that




developments should be in the wrong direction. From the earliest times, ghost competes with god, ancestor with the living Creator, and in every case we have a Pantheon, more or less evolved, in which the divinities are largely independent, even iif in theory these are held together by a supreme Spirit, a "father" of the immortals. But more than this, the further we advance into the metal ages, the more conspicuous is the figure of the disembodied "double", th6 more baneful is the influence of the demon-god, who, disguised as an angel of light, as an alluring Venus or Astarte, seduces the faithful by his promise of hidden pleasures, a practice which reaches its climax in the temple-prostitution of later times. Yet with all this there is no direct evidence that the megalithic architecture was associated with a phallic cult, even if phallic symbols occur very early, and are characteristic of the megalithic belt. Nor can we be
sure that they meant the same things in those ages that they would in ours. The high and noble thoughts preserved in the earliest hymns show that hhtar and Ninni difl'use a good odor, even if their symbols are not of the choicest. Perversions of the noble are common to all ages, and while such perversions are undoubtedly prominent throughout this period, they do not affect the statement, that, with all its distortions and degenerations, it is grasping out for a higher mental and social life than Was ever known to the mind of primitive man.



to this point has aimed to bring out the chief items in supreme being as far as they can be expressed in the most general and summary manner. We are simply making the first of a series of surveys, in which the divine being, as such, forms the principal object of study, the immediate aim of our searchings. It will readily be conceded that such a hasty and generalised picture cannot but leave much

Our analysis up

the concept of the


be desired in the


of detail, in the


of further corroborative evi-

more abundant illustrations. It is impossible to speak of the nature of God with anything like scientific precision without going far deeper into this matter than is possible within the compass of a hundred and twenty pages we require more explicit information on the practical side of the cult, its exterioration in ritual and sacrifice, and above all its relation to the moral code and to the ideas of a future in short, we require the entire religious complexity of faith and life, practice if we would pass any final judgment as to its character, for which see our concluding chapter. For the present, however, we are in possession of a sufficient number of essential points to establish certain broad tendencies in the domain of religious thought which seem to be characteristic of certain broad eras of human development. We had set out in our Introduction to discover, if possible, some interconnexion between culture and religious belief, to

more exact



examine the validity of the Kulturkreis when applied to religious phenomena, to see how far the schedule is supported by the different eras of
belief as
to be

we actually find them. Needless to say, this subject is too immense exhausted in the few cultural and religious items that we have so far noted as distinctive of the various epochs of human expansion. Only at the conclusion of this treatise will it be found that the combined cultural phenomena present such an astounding homogeneity for the different cycles of man that a universal or collective "unity" is the only solution. At present we can only pave the way for a consideration of these cumulative facts by calling attention to the more important phenomena in the religious field in so far as they concern the idea of the being and nature of God as such, and the priority of the monotheistic belief in gen-



The Father-notion belongs
to the earliest times

Contrary to ttie prevalent notions of sympathetic magic as being the ultimate foundation of all religion, we have already collected sufflcient examples to show that the idea of "personality" is anterior to that of charm-power, that the so-called spells of the primitive savage are in most cases referred to a supreme spell-worker from whom they derive their efficacy. If we return to the opening pages of this chapter, we shall be surprised to find that the idea of a Sky-Father seems to be uppermost in the ritual as in the beliefs of these people. The bamboo-inscriptions alone, not to speak of the mythology, reveal at a glance that the celestial super-

man is back of the cult, that He is operating under the "charm". This would seem to exclude, or at least to modify to a large extent, the summary statement that magic is the origin of the cult and most of our authorities agree in rejecting it. But more than this, the same Sky-Father is also a Creator, He "makes" originally everything, either directly, or by his creating demiurge, and this, with the strong consciousness of a lawgiver, ruling the world by his rewards and punishments, is the most glaring fact that confronts us in the very earliest period of man to which we have access. Can this be explained on any theory so well as that of a primitive
monotheistic belief?




otherwise account for the equally

and least sophisticated tribes are invariably the ones that exhibit the belief in its greatest purity? "Our Father who art in Heaven", such is the formula that seems to be at the foundation of the primitive cult, as is quickly suggested by the most cursory inspection of our data. In every case "Sky-Being" is the uppermost thought in the mind of the native, no other being having exactly the
that the lowest


same importance.




accompanied by a general similarity op thought and PRACTICE over VERY WIDE AREAS

But the most interesting point in this connection is the newly discovered fact that this simple and unique idea, though everywhere to be found, is essentially interwoven with the earliest beginnings of man as far as we have been able to follow them. Re-examine the material on this head, and you will gradually be converted to the idea that these very primitive peoples in Australasia, Central Africa, and South America, are bound together by so many points of similarity, material and mental, that you are almost forced to conclude that the All-Father notion is part and
parcel of their

combined inheritance.

It is


of the primitive culture

impossible to appreciate tliis subject unless we descend into parwhich in the present place can only be given in their barest outIn the first place we have the physical and biological evidence that line. these races form an archaic group which, though divided into numerous subtypes, are very probably the nearest approach to the original ancestor. In the East-Indian area this is especially the case. Furthermore, ^^they are for the most part herbivorous or vegetarian peoples consigned to the tropics, whose manner of life is primitive to a degree. They roam the equatorial forests with practically no clothing, they live in trees, caves, or windshelters, simply gathering the wild produce of nature, and they never hunt game until their supply of vegetable food begins to fail them. Firemaking, if it exists at all, is still in the rubbing, not yet in the twirling or "pumping" stage, and their only weapons are sticks, stones, bovvs, or blow, pipes, which in every case show an approximation to the crudest and least developed form. Flint-chips, flakes, bone or shell-scrapers, are their only implements, the highest cutting instrument being represented by the bamboo knife, the making of flint-chisels being very generally unknown to they are living before the stone age! Arts and industries the natives, corresponding simplicity of development. The palm-leaf and the show a bamboo tube furnish the chief materials of ornament, net-work or pottery being very rare accomplishments. The sounding-stick and the monochord represents the crudest musical instruments, and as to navigation, it can hardly be said to exist, unless we describe under such a title the use of rafts or tree-floats, or the occasional hewing of a dug-out with sharp shells.

This must be supplemented by the mental and social complexity

we would

be missing the main point of our argument were



stop short with the purely material aspect of this question. The similarities go considerably further, they ascend into the mental and social sphere. They

cover such details as the use of simple straight-line patterns in art, of the system in arithmetic, of the flve-tone scale in music, of simple, uninflected nature-sounds in language. They imply that these peoples are entirely destitute of an advanced social organisation, in that each family governs itself by its own father-right and has an extremely loose relation to the community, which community is for the most part temporary and insignificant in numbers. How far all this is removed from the elaborate art, music, language, and government, say, of the North-American Indian


this Again by the Moral and Religious Complexity

of facts of

Yet even this might be regarded as indecisive were we not in possession still more fundamental in nature. The almost universal practice

monogamy and the general respect for the sanctity of human life is the most surprising feature of all. The general absence of wars and intertribal fighting, including the disgusting habit of feasting on human flesh, is something that has only lately come to our notice, and the high ethical standards of most of these tribes, in which adultery, blasphemy, lying, contempt of elders, is sometimes punishable with death, reveals a picture which many of the higher peoples might well envy. It is more especially the absence or the rarity of divorce and infanticide that differentiates these equatorial races from all their successors. And it is they precisely who are most conspicuous for the belief in one God alone, a superhuman, unbribable, ethical being, who, though he cannot be seen, is yet everywhere present, and can do everything he wishes. Does it not seem as if this was an essential concomitant of this rudimentary grade of culture, its most
distinctive characteristic?

The Convergence


too Strong to be Resisted

descend into further details and note the general agreement on other practices, on purification-ceremonies, initiation-rites, unbloody sacrifices, on the law of primogeniture, on the simple non-totemic marriage, on the earth, tree, or river-funeral, together with the general absence of all the more violent and revolting customs, such as the deformation of



infants, the

amputation of

fingers, the

tampering with the sexual organs,

the cutting into the skull or entrails, the offering






marriage by elopment or capture, the pyre-funeral, the institution of slavery, the organisation of phallic dances, etc. and the conclusion is positively forced upon us, that such an enormous convergence, not upon a dozen but upon at least fifty points, cannot be accidental, but that it postulates a unified development of mankind during the earliest period of its existence. Nay more, the fact that the belief in One God overshadows that in any other wind or sky-spirit and is vitally connected with the entire material, mental, and moral conglomerate, shows that this is evidently

The Age
it is

of Monotheistic Illumination,

the period in

attention of


which the heavenly Super-man occupies the principal Whatever be the secondary issues involved in this

matter, our analysis has brought at least this much to the front. and more explicit proof of this thesis will be found in our final

A further

The Succeeding Age Emphasises the Notion op Germ-Power
idea are of


Compared with this all-important fact, the minor interest. A single glance at
is sufficient to


developments of the

the graphic

symbolism of

the totem-peoples

assure us that

we have

entered a different

era of
of life



thought, and one accompanied by a more complex system The cross-symbol of the earliest times is now replaced
the spiral,

by the

more commonly by

and the twisted designs of

this period reveal the fact that the serpent-theme is in the ascendent, the

divinity is pictured as motion, or as sun and serpent combined. True, the ancient idea of fatherhood is still to be found; but we have noted that the concept is no longer as pure, the Sky-father is either a married divinity, as in India- Australia, or he is simply an indefinable power, associated more or less with the occult forces of nature, as throughout the entire zone, and especially in Africa and North-America. have discovered that these peoples are living under an equally distinctive cultural horizon, they have the fur-blanket, the buffalo-hunt, the conical round-house or wigwam, the fire-drill, the elaborate face and body-paint, the finished bow, the flint-headed spear, the chipped palaeolith, the carved mortar, the wooden figurine, the bone-whistle and the polyphonic flute, the birchbark canoe or the built-up boat, which, though occasionally wanting by reason of climatic differences, are yet sufficiently prominent in most of these areas to point again to a unified progress.


But This Prooress
plicated language, a


Accompanied by a Religious Decadence

Yet in spite of an advance to a higher numeral system, a more commore expressive musical art, we have several additional items which, in combination with the social and religious features, suggest however a case of collective moral degeneration. The laxity of the marriage tie, the growing infanticide, the hazing and circumcisionrite, the fertilisation-sacrifice, the cruel medical craft, and above all the highly involved matrimonial system, based upon a reputed descent from animal ancestors, all this, with the platform and cremation-funeral, the fire-walk, and the extraordinary doctrine of a rebirth under lower forms of existence, cannot be passed over without calling forth some serious

philosophical reflexions.



an Age of Religious Degeneration;

in which, as we are beginning to see, the divinity is more often identified with impersonal forces. He is the germ or potency of the world rather than its all-sufficient cause, though glimpses of the latter notion are still it is a double picture. to be found in extenso,


The Recent
Period Develops the Notion op Spirit-Power

But if the cross represents the personal, and the spiral the cosmic side of the divinity, the star brings out His all-pervading psychic force inasmuch as it is allied with the magic flower, the symbol of life. The prominence of astral and spiritistic themes is the one distinctive feature of the But apart from revealed with sufficient clearness in the general mythology of this age, in which the wandering ghost or the "astral body" plays such a prominent part. have seen that this idea is just as characteristic of the early neolithic and bronze culture as that of mystery-force is of the
the zodiac
it is

more recent stage of religious belief, as is evident from and the swastika from Babylonia to Mexico.

the migration of


preceding glacial. It accompanies the setUed agricultural life, the domestication of animals, the weaving of flax garments, the branding or tattooing of the body, the pile-dwelling and the stone-constructed house, the flrepump and the flint and pyrites method, the compound bow and the round
shield, the perfected

and polished


and the spindle-whorl, the making

of finished pottery, the use of blow-horns, drums, xylophones, or rudi-

mentary pianos, the construction of elaborate galleys and plank-con^which, with the re-establishment of father-right, of kingship and aristrocracy, of the original ideal of monogamy, of the dignified tomb-burial, are all so many indications that we are dealing with another grand epoch of harmonised progress, another cultural unity.
structed ships,

The Mental and Material Phenomena are Particularly Convergent
brought out with additional force by the astronomical by the highly inflected grammatical language, by the more advanced polyphonic musical expression, and more especially by the eschatology or latter-day beliefs. That which separates these peoples most fundamentally from their immediate predecessors is the doctrine of the future life as a real, personal existence, independent of nature or of a mythical animal ancestry, the soul is sharply defined from the body, and even if wrongly defined, it has severed its connection with tho oldtime totems, it has become the image or the spark of the divine intelis

Such a unity

or sexagesimal system,




an Age op Religious Reconstruction

However short our preceding study may
it is

of a complete scientific

sufficient for the present to establish this



For neolithic and recent man, the idea of personal spiritual force, independent of the totem, is the one prominent feature of his religious beliefs, and with it the definition of God as the "soul" of the universe.

The Origin and Formation
of the Idea


Coming now to the philosophical questions opened out by the preceding material, it will only be possible for us to indicate in a general manner a few of their more important bearings. And first, as to the origin of the idea, we have considerable evidence to show that the notion of "soul-double", whether as ghost or guardian, is altogether secondary in the mind of the primitive savage, and that this therefore is hardly likely to have been the immediate source of a theistic belief. On the other hand

The idea



as such


entirely natural,


need have no connexion with any extraordinary channels of communiNot only have we definite dogmatic statements on the natural knowledge of God, already considered in our Prolog, but any reasonable person can soon convince himself that the notion of an all-transcending Personality, the maker or creator of all things, is a necessary demand of reason as such, and is obtained by a series of natural logical processes,"

The Argument From Motion
"It is certain that



But an

the world are moved or changed. moved or changed is moved or changed by another. cycle of moving causes is a contradiction in terms.
is first

some things in

Therefore there must be a single




This is the first of the Thomistic proofs, and it may well be called the preliminary basis of this reasoning, if not for the savage, for the philosopher. It aims at simply demonstrating a first Cause, regardless of the nature or character of such a cause. That a potency can only be reduced to act by a power which is already in act, is an analytical judgment of the mind, for a potency ceases to be a potency the moment it flies into



of finite causes

as to an infinite series, an actually infinite number unthinkable, because we would get a greater or lesser which could be divided into fractions, more or less of the infinite


The Argument From Eppiciency

"We find in the realm of nature an order of efficient causes. Now nothing can be its own efficient cause, but is caused by
But an


chain of efficient causes is a contradiction in terms. Therefore there is a primary efficient Cause, itself uncaused".

This second step in our reasoning is very similar to the first, but it emphasizes the genetic relation of a group of causes. It shows that the fact of generation in nature requires the existence of a supreme Generator.


points in S. Thorn.


qu. 2, a.


Hontbeim, Theodicaea. Regnon, Metaphysique

des Causes.


The Argument From Contingency

"Generation and decay show that some things can or cannot exist. Now that which can or cannot exist is not self-existent, And if all things can begin to exist, there was once nothing at all. But nothing can begin to exist without something that does exist, And as it is impossible to multiply the existent ad infinitum. Therefore there must be a primary being which necessarily exists".
This is a more subtle argument in that it starts with the notion of the indetermination or indifference of things with regard to space, time, motion, nay, to their own existence. But once the idea of contingency has been grasped by the mind, the notion of necessary being is unavoidable.

The Argument From Design

these syllogisms prove only the existence of a single, supremely

and necessary

Cause, an infinitely pure Act.


further logical

step establishes the rational character of this Act.


see irrational causes in nature cooperating for a rational end. But that which is unthout reason cannot operate for a rational end without the guidance of a knowing and intelligent being. Therefore a knowing and intelligent being is the director of all things".

This is the easiest and commonest mental process by which the idea of a designing intelligence, a supreme governor of the world, is arrived at. The fact of order and symmetry in the world is as evident to the mind of the primitive as it is to our modern thinkers, but with this difference, that it is a simpler and in some respects a clearer notion. Though the forces of nature are commonly personified, their limited power implies their subordination to a supreme Intelligence, and thus pantheistic immanence has no part in it. Even if nature be endowed with reason, this is all the stronger proof that the first Cause of nature is itself infinitely rational.

The Argument Prom Morality
The moral conscience of mankind reveals the notion of responsibility. But responsibility has no meaning except to a Person, and supreme responsibility requires the existence of a supreme Person. Therefore the moral conscience reveals the existence of a supreme Person.

we have

the final stage, by which, in union with the above, the

existence of a supreme Lawgiver of the human race is only ultimate sanction of human conduct. The fact that

demanded as the must do a thing,



have the power of doing the opposite,

this implies a


The Argument From the Grades op Perfections
in Nature


But if the preceeding deal directly with the idea of causation, there are other arguments which point to the fact of gradation, to the different orders of being as connoting conformity with a divine original.
"There are things in nature which are more or less good, true, and noble. But these grades of perfection argue for the existence of an all-perfect being, in that a more or less points to a greatest or supreme Good. Therefore the gradaiions in nature point to a supreme or perfect Good".
It cannot fail to be seen that the very fact that one thing is better than another presupposes a tertium quid of comparisons, some ideal standard by which the beauty of perfection of a thing is measured. Good and better would have no meaning except when referred to an Absolute Best. Moreover it should not be forgotten that man is incapable of forming an adequate concept of God, he must bring home to himself the fact that a being may be infinitely real, and yet surpassing anything that he can ever imagine. To our poor human fancy nature comes to a timely assistance and offers her own wonders as defying anything that can ever be pictured. If the lightning is immeasurably rapid, it prepares the mind for omnipotent force, if the flower grows by immanent action, it shows that a living divinity is above the powers of chemistry, if the animal is endowed with the faculty of cognition, it will follow that a knowing divinity is more than a life-principle, if man is in possession of reflex reason and the free control of his will, it is just as certain that these higher faculties form an apex or crown of perfection, which is as far above the lower forces of nature as it instinctively points to their still higher consummation in the eternal mind and conscience of God. In each case the lower mystery paves the way for the higher, and thus we have a powerful sanction in nature herself to look for the supersensible.


Positive Concept op


If then we take the shining cross or the globe of light as the most appropriate symbol of God, it is because they suggest in the simplest way the personality, simplicity, and spirituality of the divine Being. Man naturally fell upon this symbol in the earliest ages because it was the safest, the least open to possible perversions suggested by the serpent- or the star- and swastika-theme. From this all-pervading Superman in the clouds the whole of his theology is derived, he has in fact a positive concept of God, not a mere bundle of negations. And if it is soiled by the human, the

imperfect, the anthropomorphic, we must remember that what we see is not the absolute primitive but his immediate and more or less corrupted


The Meeting-Point op Science and Metaphysics

This is not the place to enter into all the modernistic objections to our present thesis, objections which are prompted partly by a wholesale denial of an objective order of reality, partly by the doctrine that nature is self-

and contains the idea of necessity, order, symmetry in her very The first is refuted in the name of "science", in that she presupposes an objective order to be discovered, the second is reduced to a vanishing-point, in that a functional necessity has nothing to do with an absolute or existential necessity, and that even if reason is part and parcel of things, this makes the first Cause all the more reasonable, we cannot evade a transcendent Reason. As to the objection on the score of pain, evil, imperfection, and so on, we all know that these things have an important disciplinary and educational value, nor have we any logical or moral basis whatever to look for an ideally perfect universe, a "best of all possible worlds". In the meantime it will be interesting to note how the more refined branches of modern science illustrate our own principles, how close they come to the borderland of metaphysical truth.^^


Higher Psychology and Personality

modern psychology is the mysterious persistence of personality even in abnormal and subnormal conditions of consciousness. From a purely material standpoint one would have thought that any violent shattering of the system in the shape of a brain-wreck or a hypnotic trance would entail a corresponding change or destruction of personality. Nevertheless a transfer of personality from one subject to another is a figment wanting in any solid proof, there is no evidence whatever that personality as such has ever been destroyed. The philosophy of the subconscious or the subliminal self shows on the contrary that even when stripped of its normal faculties, it is the same ego which persists from beginning to end, we cannot divide personality. We may justly withold our assent to the "phenomena", the supposed power of rapid movement, of bridging the chasms of space and time, of acquirthe



startling revelations of

ing extraordinary knowledge, of speaking in different tongues, of seeing things at a distance(?). Little wonder, however, that our modern psychologists are inclined to see in personality something altogether unique, a "siibstantia sui juris". And for primitive man this is precisely the uppermost intuition,— God is an Infinite Person, He claims an undivided moral


12 On the Philosophy of the Subconscious see among others Sir Oliver Lodge, F. R, S. The Survival of Man, (N. Y. 1909), (personal identity, immaterial telepathy). Also Idem, on Life an<J Matter, Electrons, The Ether of Space.

Potential Energy and Pure Potency


manner the ancient scholastic doctrine of potential being, of which are latent or concealed, receives a new impetus now that such forces are positively required by the commonest of natural phenomena. The definition of coal as "bottled sunlight" and of electric currents as "high potentials" is not a mere play upon words, it implies the existence of forces which have not yet been reduced to act, of germinal forces; they tend to act, and are brought into play by the introduction of outside forces.
In like

pass over the definition of prime matter as "pure potency", of the subform as the "actuating principle", noting, however, its approximation to the current teaching on evolved matter and evolving forms. One of the most recent acquisitions on this head is the doctrine of the instability of prime-forms, of the change of one element into another, of the change of one substance into another without a corresponding change in chemical constitution, of the wonders of polarised light, of isomeric substances, of electric ions and sub-atoms, all of which show that the mediaeval alchemy was not the far-fetched thing that Some would imagine.'


Ethereal Physics and Spirit-Force

Coming more
it is

closely to the ultimate nature of things in their last

certainly a remarkable fact that

face to face with a marvelous the ultimate basis of all

modern science brings us power which she is bound to recognise as her more subtle phenomena. The hypothesis of an

infinitely continuous, yet infinitely elastic fluid, present in all places, per-

meating all forces, compenetrating all substances, the source if not the essence of light, heat, electricity, magnetism, mental telepathy or psychic power, all this points with unmistakable emphasis to a still more subtle nay to an infinitely pure substance, which contains all the lower perfections of nature in a supreme or supereminent degree. If creation itself is so wonderful, what must the Author of that creation be? If science loses herself in a world of ethereal perfections, where is the guarantee that she

word on the subject? She does not. For God is a superHe is the metaphysical light of the world, He is present in all things, yet not identified with any one of them. He is that pure, uncreated Light, which is everywhere felt, but which can only be seen in the
holds the last
ethereal substance,

Here then we have that final aspect of which, falsely defined as world-soul or "psychic absolute" is yet the nearest approach to the doctrine of God as "Universal Spirit".
super-natural state of ecstacy.

5 Sir E. Rutherford, F. R. S. (S. R. 1915-1916), pp. 167-202. 1909).

The constitution of matter and the evolution of the elements, Frederick Soddy, The Interpretation of Radium, (London,


The Question of the Supernatural

seems therefore unnecessary to reiterate that human reason can knowledge of God which is absolutely or metaphysically certain, and that as far as He is simply the source and the ultimate end of all things, this knowledge is purely natural and common to humanity as such. As to the further question whether the full notion of deity as we

arrive at a

does not entail some influx of the supernatural, we must be careful to eliminate those elements that savor of an "elevation" of man or a "triune" nature of God, if we would exclude such an influx. But upon one point we may for the present rest assured with a sufficient degree of confidence.



No Triad Has Ever "Developed" Into a Trinity

We have taken special pains to show that the triple theme of heavenearth-underworld is as natural to man as that of three dimensions in space, that a father in heaven, a son or mother on earth, and a mysterious spirit under the ocean, need have no connection whatever with three Persons in one God, and are as a fact miles apart from it. The father-mother-childnotion is simply the projection of the human family into space, the three
much less consubstantial, and they reveal by nothing so forcibly as their alliance with cosmic, and in later ages with vital and sexual force. We have thus exploded the Babylonian, Egyptian, and Polynesian "trinities" to the four
are in no sense equal,
their earth-begotten nature


But This May be the Vestige of a Supernatural Light
At the same time there are here and there a few expressions which do occasionally appear surprising. The very prominence of the number three, and the frequent hints of a generation or spiration of one divinity out of another cannot be passed over without forcing the conclusion that, however crude in presentation, some of it must be attributed to a higher


in Persia-Palestine


God Pure and a Trinity Adumbrated

But how far all this is removed from the great Lord-God of Israel and from His triple hypostatic manifestations. We have seen that here only is the concept entirely free from the nature-connexion, it stands for power and subsistence, the great I AM, while the triple theophanies prepare the mind for three coequal and coeternal Persons, though they do not pretend to reveal it. They are more than allegories, they are adumbrations.

And This Demands
the race.

a Primitive Revelation


see that the

mately traced

to a divine revelation,

Tetragram and the Trisagion must be ultigiven to man in the earliest days of


Histoiy of the idea of Creation







(5) (6)




With this general survey of the origin and successive development of the idea of supreme Being there arises a demand for greater detail. To what extent is this being a maker or producer of things? What has He
produced, and how has He produced it? An answer to this question cannot fail to shed additional light on the problem of a personal creator. Not that this proposition is wanting in solid evidence. It has already been seen that the idea of personality is strong from the remotest times, that the role
of creator in the sense of
this, there is still

as to the precise or rather of the nature of a long, indefinite process of evolution, with sec-

"maker" is practically universal. But with all some doubt as to the modus operandi of this "creation", degree in which it was immediate, personal, and direct,
to operate.

ondary and impersonal forces chiefly

will stand to reason

that in the early, unspeculative stage of

"how" of creation had was a matter of secondary importance,

existence the problem of probably not yet dawned on the human mind,



or no interest, compared

with the great central fact that the All-Father had "made" man, had spoken to him face to face. The question must therefore be approached with an impartial spirit, with sole desire of understanding if possible,

What was the Early Consciousness op Man on this Subject? How did he picture the great "Amaka" to have acted? Was this action
personal or impersonal, mediate or immediate, direct or by means of a demiurge? A sufficient number of data on this subject ought to incline the evidence more or less perceptibly to one or other of two possibilities, both of which are conceivable,
(1) (2)

The hypothesis

—or by personal demiurge. The hypothesis of indirect creation,—or by evolutionary force.
of direct creation,

is not a quaestio juris but a quaestio facti. admitted, the manner of its operation is not clear. Let us hear the voice of primitive inan on this sub jet. Let us see, what his earliest impressions are, quite apart from any theory as to how they were obtained,



be understood that this

The power


upon what

principle they are to be interpreted.

clear. 208-210. purgatory) presided over by a black being called Kamoj. ^but only at the command of Kwri. op Perak outlines of the Malakkan cosmology have already been sketched in the preceding chapter. These are fashioned by Pie. esting find. and is guarded by a monster being. These consist of three tiers or laytwo highest being the Garden of Fruits or 5engr-Paradise. his helpers. 213. who however demiurge. whence it is carried by the Conception-bird. —Semang Negrito. known as Kari's "Soul-Tree". Wind. He is (3) Among these Pie. which bird is then eaten by the mother during pregnancy. "created". "who ordered him to complete the wotk". etc. but the soul This points is infusel by Kari. who is Totemism and evolutionism are alike wanting in this simple picture. reminding of The soul the mediaeval "soul-making". .134 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (A. guarded by a gigantic baboon. the modern "astral body"(?). (1) ers. 21Sff. deserve to be emphasized. (6) Finally. 1) Malay Peninsula. 177. ^the first attempt to express spirit-qualities in child-language. — . lost souls. here the Argus-Pheasant. such is the expression used of the expectant "She has eaten the bird" Is this creationism or generationism? It is in any case an intermother. and Earth-spirits. while the lowest is the heaven of "brooding clouds". however. the latter a vast cavern or boiling lake. the fruit-god. the first man and woman. II. a kind of logos. 207. as he cannot "create" the soul. All things made by the direct action of a single divine personality. servants. and apparently not evolved from animal forms. inasmuch as they are assodependent ciated with his "breath". (hell. over the soul is "red like blood" and "as small as a grain of maize". — — grows on the "paradise-tree". as they bring out the role of creating divinity in a The main manner that is typical for a large section of the aboriginal group : Order and Manner op Creation /fan lives in the high heavens. the — beings. . or archangels. Pagan Races. delegates a part of this power to a subordinate being or himself of limited power. Here are we find fairly vivid creation-story in rude outline. Moreto some degree of transcendence on the part of the chief divinity. 178.^ I For the main points consult Skeat. {belet). The following points. sun. pp. and stars. for "Kari himself gave them souls". and the abode of wicked spirits and demons. moon. to the womb of the mother. (Berhala) whose nature is not quite — — . (5) Pie creates the earth and the underworld. (2) He creates Sky. (4) The "Paradise-Bridge" is believed to span from earth to heaven. occupies a unique position. Vol. Prov. as he creates the material world.

pp. (4) There and stars. op Perak and Selangor Senoi tribes of Central Malakka we find practically the idensystem. 2) 135 Malay Peninsula. 234-242. (2) His Wind or Sky-spirits are "breathed" by power of annihilating them. from whiqh it appears that animal names are strictly eponymous. Peng. while Pie is — (1) Peng has made all things and lives in a far off fruit-island. a clear-cut creation-system. gigantic woman. Prov. and the underworld are the abodes of the lower and demons. Their souls are evidently a distinct creation. The main thoughts are as follows: ought of Kari. even if some of its links are wanthave no information of the "soul-bird". for he has the imply the opposite power of creating though this not distinctly stated. as nothing is said of an animal ancestry. Pagan Races. which seems to — Foremost among these is the "Granny Lan-yut". and purged and prepared for admission finally to paradise-bridge. the wicked demons cannot afflict humanity "without his permission". however. — him alone. we are justified in inferring that here too creation is an immediate. "young-woman". (5) spirits The earth.^ This is 2 Each of the above statements may be either verified or inferred from Skeat. —Senoi-Sakai. II. and incapable of acting without him. the so-called (3) "Queen of Hell". The first man and woman are called Ba-lut and Wa-lut. 258. but in want of more ing. moon. We exact knowledge as to all the details. and have no relation to marriage or ancestry. they are apparently created or ready-made. according to our best authorities. the sea. "youngman". personal. which (6) the "queen" plunges the souls of the unregenerate. see idem. as she brings all recalcitrant sinners to repentance. who. . over which the Queen-mother pilots the souls of the dead or dying. Vol. and supernatural process. p. For alleged totemism among the Sakai. his "Heavenly Palace". who is a helpful and benevolent mother. and watches over their conduct. as the death of the body leaves the soul to — where it is wander from tomb to jungle. "occupies the same position in the Sakai cosmogony as is occupied by Kari and Pie in that of the Seniang. to be stated.CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (A. (Neraka) into . The latter is a huge river of hot water. called Lan-yut. They are in any case his messengers. and the real difTiculty in treating the tical Among the Semang and Sakai More accurately it religion will be to discover their points of difference". is at least a collaborator in the work of divine government. is a "Paradise-Bridge" connecting the earth with sun. though not a creator. for. which shows that they are "under" hiin. to Peng's fruit-island. the "Father". whence he governs the whole of the universe and man. that Peng takes the place represented by a female mediator. and there is no hint at descent.

—Mantra-Jakun. ' idem . N. all are fixed or in of time. 336-342. it is clear that this action is no longer as direct and universal as in the preceding instances. moon. but "Earth" the sky was "originally very low and near to the earth". it claims kinthe first suggestion of an animal ancestry. 72ff. and benedth these is the land of Nyayek. but the Spirit of the Underworld. but according to another version (recorded by Borie). (1) Tuhan-di-Bawah has made the earth. Peninsula. pp. For the quotation from Borie.—the underworld. Points in Skeat. "Water" and they came from a place called "Rising Land" in the sky. Though the soul is divine and migrates to Tuhan's Fruit-Island. — ones. While there is ample evidence in these legends for the role of a creating "Lord". (4) of "Lord-knowstakes the place of a Sun. and lives beneath below the land of iVj/aj/eft. Pagan Races. though a distinct creation cannot be proved from the data. there are reasons for believing that they have lost much of their producing power. which is strengthened by iron cross-bars. his who" and his subsequent exploits shows that he demiurge. Though Tuhan and To-Entah are regarded as its principal actors. Vol. (3) Among these a being called To-Entah occupies title a high position.—a kind of ghost-god. Though described as the son of the first humans. op Selangor The same ideas are found among the wild Malays at the southern end of the peninsula. (sic). divisions (5) The earth is supported by an iron staff". with this difference. p. he arranges the the succession of day and night. and even (2) He is surrounded by innumerable spirits or hantus. it. Prov. III. II. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London. and even the seasons. and it was here that the creation-drama took place. 3) Malay Peninsula. see Bourien. (6) The first humans are called Ayer and Tanah — . S. These. sent them forth into the plains where for the most part they developed so rapidly that they and their descendants became men.136 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (A. The Lord of the Underworld dwells beneath this land. Vol. Those however who returned to the mountains still remained apes. and stars. having reared their young . the body of man is evolved from lower forms. who are evidently dependent. 344. and by his power supports all above him. which is inhabited by a race of fiends or demons. with the traditional paradise-bridge. Others say that apes are degraded men( !). that the growing importance of spiritism has made the chief figure of the mythology no longer the Lord of heaven. Man is apparently a unique being.' ship with the apes — . some sense appointed by To-Entah. On the wild tribes of the interior of the Malay p. and translation by P. the Mantra were all descended from two white apes.

comparatively pure creation-legend. Tomo and Ghana— and . all except the eldest being girls. 94-9Sflf. all things are created by Puluga. Moreover the description of the eyes". 1) 137 Andaman Islands Among the Andamanese the creation-legends assume a very similar form. pp. married.* *For each of the items consult Man. By her he has (2) He has a wife. and one closely paralleled in the Malakkan region. a possible demiurge. for the use of the inhabitants As these beings are "generated". with their mother. nonranimal divinity. it will be seen that the above items furnish a fairly readable. and these alone are said to be self-created.CREATION EARLY OGEANIG SYSTEM (B. It has already been pointed out that the idea of a married divinity belongs to a later circle of ideas. (6) evil spirits This is further evidenced by the paradise-legend. For a non- . This. (5) The underworld is tenanted by evil spirits of all kinds. (angels). to have existed from time immemorial. as the following sequence of events will show: Puluga lives in a large stone (1) house in the sky and rules all things. that he admits no creating rivals. and are said to be black in appearance. together soul as "red" like blood. — (4) Heaven and earth. all this tends to show that goodness and spirituality are in the ascendant. as does that of the PuZug«-"spider". is only partially the case. hovs^ever. and. they reveal at least that the supreme divinity is in this respect unique. whom he created for himself. (!) eternal. angel and is alone permitted to live with his father. there is no hint at evolutionism. ^which is not altogether clear triumph of Puluga and the annihilation of evil implies their limited dura- — — . of a tendency to recognise the evil creation as in some sense eternal. "He is regarded as a sort of arch(3) Puluga's son is called Pijchor. these last are known as morowin or sky-spirits. the final But even if this be granted. Puluga alone creates — the first man and woman. though there is evidence of an incipient dualism. whose orders it is his duty to make known to the morounn". tion. and though of "human form" "invisible to human with the migration of the good soul to Puluga's FruitPalace. including the Paradise-Bridge. However simple the wording of these stories may be. moon. which spans the eastern sky. sun. self-subsistent. in which the do not appear. they are har'. 15-16. see above. amuse themselves from time to time by throwing fishes and prawns into the streams and sea. which is beneath it (sic). connecting the earth and heaven with purgatory. and stars. 89-90. certainly not as creators. a large family. (sic). pp.dly coof the world. If this element is eliminated. this directly. Aridamah Islands.

2) The Veddas of Ceylon find them the idea of creation has been owing to the fact that many have intermarried with the Sinhalese. etc. on the highest causes the rain-drops to burst from the dense cloud". almost transcendent power that he wields over the lives of the natives and apparently over the forces of nature. though always in subordination to the great Sky-Father. at least. In any case the following points seem to be clear: Though described as the "Lord of the Dead". a Lord of the departed is not inconsistent with a creating divinity. rides on the clouds. This is therefore not surprising that in spite of the unique position of the great Yaka. * Reed. have already pointed out." place of the etc. If then some creative action is provable for the Malakdan divinity. which is regrettable in view of the promising field that appears to be opening out for the religious data. 284ff. An enormous. in a manner that is hardly proper to a finite being. but such anthropomorphisms are not unknown in other very primitive regions. that such petitions as "Cause Rain!" seem to imply some power of controlling the universe. or brother. the distinct record of a series of creative I epochs should be apparently wanting. evolutionism and so on. 2) Philippine Negritos For the Philippine islands the reports are as yet very scattered and far from complete. p. the role of To-Entah being paralleled by that of Bilindi Yaka above. the climate. p. Again.138 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (B. . and have come in contact with Hindoo and Brahminical notions of spontaneous generation. 19-24 above. He also causes rain. who which accords well with (C. Negritos. Unfortunately I have not been able to find any distinct creation-legends for these islands. it will seem that the Anito or Sky-Lord of the Zambal Aetas is very probably a creating spirit. as they stand on a very similar level of culture. 65. that the phraseology of certain invocations is difficult to reconcile with a purely ancestral deity. it may at least be remotely inferred for that of the Veddas. It is true that all men are descended from him after the manner of a human father. Kande Yaka is invoked as the "Great Master. Bilindi Yaka. fixes the seasons. 1. Mention has been made of the "supreme being" of the Alabat Aetas.' ' Seligman. The Veddas. and of his son. whose place is on the crest of the hill. and are of little import when compared with the immense. who is addressed as "Our Maker". to show the continuity of the idea. but for the present we must be satisfied with the bare indications of a creating God sufficiently attested in one insance. If this report is correct. the character of a quondam heaven-god. hill. It is With the Veddas as we now largely obscured. and compare p. the seasons. as is clear from the similar position of Tuhan-di-Bawah in Southern Malakka.amount of work still remains to be done in this region.

Aba Lingo. animal. moon. (1912). Adja and Djaja (or Amei and who. or highest heaven of He is surrounded by innumerable To-bruivas. or human ancestors. though details are as yet wanting. and stars are looked upon as simply shining and non- creative. Here Balingo is the god of thunder. but he is a peraddressed as a man. 141-143. 177-213. and begins to (3) spin out the earth. Vol. that the wilder they are. I. The Bornean cosmology is by contrast particularly the lowest forest-Dayaks of the interior. though apparently descended from semi-humans. He simply dwells in the skies. shells. 129flf. and animistic themes. But he is no longer wifeless. a mere intermediary between themselves and the . 1-27. in J. the Kenyahs. (4) Sun. animals. for Kayans. 1) 139 Central Borneo rich. wild men of the woods it is certainly a remarkable fact. And. though he is still only a "messenger". (1901). Quer durch Borneo. See also Hose-MpDougall. It is only "through the spirit of this bird" that the Father above can be approached.CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (D. Pagan Tribes. or Light-spirits. A spider comes down from heaven on a thread. I. or Hawk. I. crabs. In the parallel 47?mA. to whom the women pray for guidance. which are so popular in these regions. A still more complete version has been preserved whom the Laki Neho appears under the form of the sonal demiurge. "Bakatan". and other animals begin to make their appearance. (Leyden.^ (6) — . how He called them into existence. A.a-tradition we find a fairly well-rounded creation-story: Amei-Tingei. the more free from sexual. is of primary importance. 136. among hawk. II. for forest tribes. and Ine) Finally the first human pair. regardless of how He made them. he has a femalei partner. and Bali Penyalong is the Father in Heaven. 1904). Ba-lingo. p. through which stones. Nieuwenhuis. lives in the (1) immortals. and is evidently their Creator. pp. who are believed to be present in every tree or animal. He has neither wife nor family. can interfere with their direct supplications to Him alone. etc. and banana-trees gradually appear. — commonly called To begin with Orang Ukit or — — chief divinity. XXXI. As such He is above all stars. we have the simple statement that the Father in Heaven. is the supreme Governor of all things. 18SfF. take their place as real men and women in the Apu Kayan or terrestrial Paradise. (5) Worms. and is by the Kayans. . and not even the hawk or the crocodile. BaliPenya-long. A more definite thought is revealed by their neighbors. more important than all. Among these the Bali-Flaki. not as an animal. birds. To take an illustration from these lowest hunting tribes. 98-99. Centraal Borneo. Doh Penyalong. (2) Apu Lagan. winds. iHose and McDougall. the more pure and simple is their theory of worldorigins. to vivify all nature. He has a countless number of feaZi-spirits. Vol.

In order to put life into them. A similar though less vivid tradition is preserved among the Makassars and Minnehassa tribes. has been too much mixed up with sexual and astral themes to be looked upon as unadulterated. (Hague. an instructive example. SI. and the father of numerous children. According to them Ilai and Indara are father-mother deities.* — — 2 Kruyt. thunder and lightning. he is himself the ancestor. Batara. and they began to breathe. the spider-theme and this welded on to a more recent animistic belief. 7. and this is in harmony with the higher material and social civilisation of these peoples. even the lifeless creation. (Hague. 1886). op. a plain intimation that life and existence have come in some way from the "breath of heaven" ( !). supra. 232ff. Het Animisme. Amaka. have preserved the ancient belief in its greatest purity. It is very probable that the Toradjas. 8F '. (Leyden. and "hewed" two beings of the same name out of stone. but his creative power is no longer direct. 3) The Southern Molukkas In the Ceramese-Amboina group the legends show signs of a similar manipulation. there is a growing tendency to see in nature herself a suffloieutly powerful cause of her own operations. 1885) p. 1906) Riedel. and the latter on earth. caused the wind to blow. evidently heaven as He is above all stars. (or Apo). Wilken. Adji-Patoto has a son.'' antiquity. Idem. as being geographically and culturally nearest to the Toalas. but the archaic traits are still distinguishable. This is only to be expected from the far higher cultural state of the Kayans when compared with the Punans and other jungle-folk of the interior. lives in a "place where the wind has its rise". as witness the simple story of the beginnings of the universe and man. cit. He converts order out of chaos and fixes the seasons. There is the tradition that when the deity went back to heaven. the wind ceased to blow. the former of whom lives in heaven.140 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (D. He plants the Kanari-tvee^ from which human beings spring forth. in which the ball or soul pervades all being. When we pass to the neighboring island of Celebes. clouds. p. pp. though distinctly eternal and supramundane. known as Samoa among the Poso-people. or demiurge. he brought them up to the mountain. 106ff. They appear to have a divine child. 2) Celebes In the creation-story just considered we have elements of extreme combined with -slightly later touches. 467ff. — — (D. who descends from heaven on a bamboo and a rainbow. This being came down from heaven on a high mountain. we find a very similar stratification of beliefs. and with it man ceased to breathe and had to die. Secondary and solar causes are his chief agencies. In like manner Kalangi. . — — . but instead of creating man.

stars". supreme position of Wonekau For shining palace above the stars. moon. c. op. Austronesische Mythologie. Schmidt. sexual. Fr. rather the opposite.^ clearly developed.myths are wanting. In every other respect.CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM (E) New Guinea AND Melanesia (1) 141 In the Aru Islands we find the triad of sun. though this is not definitely stated in the few fragments that have come to hand. in a All other spirits are ancestor-gods. shows that it is not the material sun. they have no connexion with Him. spirit-house. but the personal cause of the sun that is worshipped. He is appealed to for help and blessing. Earth. the personal invocations to (6) His name reveal the fact that He is the Father of humanity. and of the spirit-beings as well. plants. or Ancient One. 1. (2) (3) Among the Karesau-Islanders the is lieaves no room for doubt that He the direct cause of the world. "Lord". not in a lower. and trees have no secret or divine properties. Riedel. has no immediate connexion with a stellar cult. He is a living divinity. — the nearest approach to a pure creation-scheme that I have been Papuan region. (3) (4) and are differentiated toto caelo who live in the marea or from the heaven-god. ^ Items in . the data furnished For the Tapiros we have not as yet any definite information. 89ff. It is true that all these peoples are comparatively advanced. that He is behind the stellar phenomena. This will suggest that He is the author of all the visible world.' I Schmidt. In any case. as in This is able to discover in the the present instance. cit p. pp. (1) (2) Wonekau lives in the heavens. and this in a supernatural. p. who have an elaborate host of rival divinities. Of Him alone is it said that "He made the Pleiades and the (5) Animals are eponymous ancestors. 117-119. at present our only authority on this region. or anthropomorphic sense. the title of Dyabu.-—He is in this respect a "deistic" god. is so far off and exalted in His sphere of operations that no record has ever been kept of His earthly actions. that the Abuda. and earth But I have already shown that the Sky-Father is above and beyond the heavenly bodies. however. and is indeed nearer to man than many of the Sunfathers of later times. The interior of New Guinea is still largely unexplored. but the few materials that have been collected should be a stimulus for further research. where a more simple culture reflects a more simple view of existence. 252. But by the neighboring region will help to illustrate this subject with sufficient clearness. For it He is nowhere stated that He is the ancestor of man. but here and there we find isolated patches. Though creation.

'Quat made you to stay outside'. with (1) beautiful pillars of crystal on each side. though a teacher "of immense power" is suggestive. "It is certain". . p. . Moodgegally. and women out of twigs.' be noted that throughout the more primitive Austhere is hardly a single case in which man leaps out of lower tralian zone animal forms in nature. In the Banks Islands of Melanesia the figure of Quat-M(xrawa. though "Creator" is also admitted. to But apart from this. 1) Australia-Tasmania "make". The Euahlayi Tribe. These are not serious sayings. says Codrington. see 4-5. or possibly (5) tenanted by the wicked spirits. fractious child. 121ff. Gregorally. the man who drives it out says to it. who punish the wicked purge them in preparation for paradise. Kamilaroi. the BaHiimo-Paradise. or one crying with hunger. p. souls. and the underworld. Compare Borneo and the Andaman Islands." (F) (F. the latter He has This is made the earth being a fearful place filled with (4) fire. p. To the present day a mother chides a sleepy. baia. Notes on the aborigines of 1882). and first is apparently without through him that he has given the — laws is human race. and takes the place of a mediator. Native Tribes. first He has to the to created the man. the (5) "Lord-Spider" is a faint reminder of Amaka above. Ursprung. who watches (3) the actions of also and one especially. For mythology.142 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM The Mafulus of British New Guinea have not as yet been studied (4) with sufficient thoroughness to reveal any of their ideas on the origin of the world or of man. both relying on James 3 Codrington. rains and seasons even if he is himself evolved from a stone. man. who translates "Great One". Marawa. It fully equipped by the deity. p. 501-502. see Ridley. it demiurge or secondary causes. storms and winds. The Melanesians. Howitt. though his character is too facetious to be taken seriously. Baiame's name is associated by Ridley with a verb. interest : and the following items may be of some Baime is seated in heaven on a throne of transparent crystal. Moreover he makes men out of clay. his role as Creator is now well established. and has a female collaborator. 135. the spider. . and Schmidt. 'Do you think you are going to die? Don't you know that Quat made you so?' If a pig comes indoors to sleep in bad weather. which can be paralleled in other — regions. the so-called Oorooma or Purgatory. and compare Parker. New Holland. but it was believed he had made some creatures and fixed the natural condition of things in the world". 1 For the name Manning. 154-158. which reveals some notion of transcendence. "that Quat was believed to have made things in another sense from that in which men could be said to have made them. He seems to come into existence ready-made. p. (Royal Society of New South Wales. with the words. — (2) He has several sons or sky-spirits. This means that he arranges light and darkness. There can be no doubt that we are here in presence of a lunar myth.

He is the maker of the earth. laid himself upon them. trees. one very black. Taplin. they moved. and are also to be found in "Letters from Victoria Pioneers" (Melbourne. for the divinity is "pleased" at it. the rainbow. e. 491-492. and placed a lump of clay on each of them. His work pleased him again. 88-48$. from which he made two black men. and the latter were fashioned as follows ing. 55-58. Schmidt. How but his paternal relation to man is well established. for the first frizzly. ^ These legends have been collected by Brough-Smith. Then he danced around them a third time. Vol. etc. including one. The Narrinyeri. When Bundjil had formed the bodies. He then gave them both a name. pp. possible demiurge and Binbeal and Paliyan are probably identical. but the exact relation of these persons is uncertain. and navels. Then he polished them all over with his hands. and the second one with smoothe or lank hair. He is said to live in the sky. pp. more like dark-red tiles. 296-297ff. can no longer be quesand what he has created. : "Bundjil made two men out of clay. and danced around it once more. making it the "image" of God. Mythes et Legendes (supra) p. Also in Van Gennep. Then he caused them to talk. he admired it. (2) The The The fact that man's body was made out of previous material. and the other not quite so black. he looked upon the bodies for a long time. (F. They breathed in a land of the North-West (sic) Bundjil cut off two strips of bark. . his son or brother. This must be pronounced as one of the most striking accounts that we possess of the origin of the soul and body of man in the entire Oceanic region. Altair or Fomalhaut{?) He has a numerous progeny. 12-13. he was pleased at his work. Hewitt. personal creation. 423ff. and danced around them. The first one was made with frizzly hair. and men. clay. pp. is not so clear. and they rose up as ripe men. Definite creation-myths are want(F. 178ff. even if its crude anthropomorphic setting leaves much to be desired. 1899) (anonymous). pp. ^Howitt. in his "Aborigines of Victoria". It is for this reason all the more valuable. (1) The idea of a direct. without mediators or helpers. for the second smoothe hair. Comp. the smooth-haired one Berookboom. and is now identified with a star.^ This native legend is given at f. 3) . Bitibeal. Native Tribes. — — — — . 1. 2) tioned. because it clearly brings out .^ Bundjil lives in the heavens. (3) direct inflation of the soul of man. p. After that Bundjil brought them to Paliyan. the frizzly-haired one he called Kookinberook. and breathed his breath into their mouths. This was long. (4) essential goodness of creation. and to have made the rainbow. I. long ago. And as he blew very heavily. noses.ull length. not as children". Ursprung. Then he took fibres from the Eucalyptus-tree and made hairs out of them.CREATION EARLY OGEANIC SYSTEM Australia-Tasmania 143 That Narmn-dere has made all things.

although we find here and there a few ugly and ridiculous touches. He "makes things. and that in cases of extreme parallelism. a suspiciously high-sounding phrase. (Adam?). birds. etc. upon which our author lays particular stress. His creative power is attested in one instance and implied in many others. . he has a son. 490-495. can be inferred from the sources already given in the preceding pages. (F.* This completes the Oceanic cycle of beliefs in their earlier form. who is evidently the first ancestor. full of symfor the sufferers. Ling-Roth. iand. the great majority have a decent and religious flavor. however. However. Tiggana-Marra-Boona stands for "Spirit of great creative power". for the lexical . it is to be noted that there are no signs of totemism among these people. Compare analysis. Like Daramulun. 490-499. coming. if not of the world at large. His role as Father and Lawgiver is strong. Ridley. he was once on earth. he is now in heaven. 2l6ff. p. 6) those of Father. as he does Lawgiver. 1. evident that all these for one and the same an attribute of the one may when direct testimony is not forth- Tasmania Of the Tasmanian cosmology nothing but fragments have survived. and outlived them all.— "there were no men and women. But even — as "High-One'Exalted" or "Great One" (as in the case of Bamme) his creation of man. » ^ Howitt. An evolution out of lower forms in nature is the great exception man is to all intents and purposes a unique being. and throughout. If Milligan's reading is correct. Tundun. is not convincing. §fhfpidt. Then he placed trees on the earth" etc. where all the sources are given. where he still remains. * Howitt. he can go everywhere and do anything". who was with tail but without knee- when another being(?) came down from heaven. 53ff. The creation-stories speak of the earth as originally bare. for it will appear increasingly "deities" are in reality different denominations divinity. though Daramulun has taught them all they know. The Aborigines of Tasmania. our materials become increasingly scanty. Master. His quasi-divine qualities and his proximity to Daramulun render the conclusion probable that he shares — with this being the attributes of Creator. which. but is now in heaven. c. reptiles. it is sufficiently evident that. Kamilaroi. Moreover it is a "beneficent being" who has formed the first man. p. 4) Though Daramulun once lived upon eartli. Ursprung. a point joints.' (F.' (F. where he reigns and rules mankind. 156. p. p. p. 5) Still more meagre is the information we possess of Mungan ngaua.144 CREATION EARLY OCEANIC SYSTEM For the remaining sections of South-East Australia.. Native Tribes. but only animals. cut off their tails and lubricated their knee-joints pathy with fat! Thotigh this has the ring of a belief in animal ancestors. but nothing is said of the direct fashioning of man. be safely transferred to the other. that of Creator only inferential.

who is in heaven.—eastern. {amba. He is a personal being (mu). so to speak. (?). or at least quite unimportant. a name never (1) one. w/iere verse of mind and part short and God resides and how He lias produced the unimatter. {lungu). though he may also be taken as the first ancestor. He who creates. "He commanded. to make) this implies a position above and beyond the visible world. Indeed. He who is strong. and stars (4) have no relation to Him. it is to be presumed that it came directly from Him. the Great {wa intensitive. however. and neither ghost nor pepo. they have not bothered their heads. plants. It would be a mistake. 13Sff. applied to lifeless objects. sons and daughters (2) are alike absent. made all.CREATION CENTRAL AFRICAN SYSTEM (G) 145 Congo Region To the question. to imagine that they have no theory of world origins. pp. — . and the fact that judgment is direct and immediate tends to show that the beginnings of things are of a similar nature. the universal creative activity of this being postulates also the "making" of man. animals. which is but one more proof that they have not yet reached the speculative stage of mental development. but (6) there any hint of an animal divinity. or as Indagarra. is We apparently a mediator. whose son. For as the soul returns directly to God. (5) Still less is totem. Except as the Father beyond the clouds. and they existed". Ryan-gombe. and He "causes to live and causes to die". whether as Waka. over mogohy seems which are as yet too abstruse and comparatively unimportant to engage their serious attention. sun. In every case this being has (3) "in His sight we are all very small". or is the Master of all. that we . and westwould seem that the essentials of a creation-story may yet be traced in the fragmentary reports that have been handed in. moon. anything like a connectad cos- to be entirely unknown among these peoples. Moreover as the equivalent of Mu-lungu of the east. as "coming down from heaven". it is of the same nature. man). they are not even mentioned. . Waka is not a on the contrary the author of all. Les Pygmees d'Afrique Idem. La Religion des Primitifs (1911) p. which is brought into still clearer perspective by His description as a thunder-god. From the combined material questions possess for three sections of this area. This is a point which Mgr. central. except in the case of Indagarra. ka. — While there is no clear-cut paradise-legend. l75-180fF. have no information of minOr spirits. or as Nzambi. the negrillos of Central Africa give for the most evasive answers. ern — it In each case the name of the divinity. LeRoy justly emphasises. and man. et de I'lnde. and the like.^ — 1 Materials will be found in LeRoy.

sun. At this slight upon his character. saying. but only with the man" a spiritual. but since then they have Then Kaang took Kogaz down. and they asked him who sent him there. moon. Kaang became so irate that he drove a peg through each of the performers. and their tails hang crooked. and tied him up in the top of a tree. Before that baboons were men. is As the cause of life and death. the baboons caught him. this is just as clear a proof that his power is far beyond that of any finite being. the one from the other. So he went to where the baboons were. "Your father thinks himself more clever than we are. and as the giver or refuser of rain. him a canna. reveals some contact with magical and animistic notions. So they said.. vi'ho "cannot be seen with the eyes. etc. leaving out the words about Kaang. He has "made all things" and the giver of daily bread. the placing of "charms" on the nose. and scorpions as a punishment. He said his father sent him to cut sticks to make bows. . a southern offshoot same equatorial race. and banished them to the mountains to live on roots. and he wants those bows to kill us. Nevertheless the fact that "Kaang thinks himself clever" and that he is able to raise Kogaz from the dead. But at the suggestion of a little baboon girl (sic).146 CREATION CENTRAL AFRICAN SYSTEM (H) Kalahari Desert The same remarks apply to the Kalahari Bushmen.^ tails reveal " This without is an instructive story. though here the invasion of Bantu and Hottentott influence has colored the mythology with many totemic and animistic of the traits. Kaang clearly the "Lord". and they danced around the tree. but when he awoke he told Koti to give him his charms. They called all the other baboons to hear him. The human and talking baboons that are 8 Stow. and he puts some on his nose and said the baboons have hung Kogaz. so we will kill you". and made him alive again". 117ff. But in the so-called Qumgr-legend. Orpen from one of the Maluti Bushmen of that name. invisible being. The Baboon-dance was thus interpreted by heart of is — Quing :— "Kaang had a son called Kogaz. they changed their song. obtained by Mr. whom he sent into the woods to make While he was doing this. beetles. singing an indescribable baboon song. The Native Races of South Africa (1910) p. for the legends. bows. with a chorus. a growing confusion of the human with the animal nature. and stars alike acknowledge His sway. gave tails. etc. and when they saw him coming. Also. if not actually descended. they are falsely believed to be of the same nature. "Kaang thinks he is clever". Kaang was asleep when Kogaz was killed. So they killed Kogaz. there is clear evidence that men and animals were believed to be closely inter-related. they went on singing as before.

shining). Comp. (3) assume theme) (4) . (Transmutation- Sun. moon. 364S. 39ff. and is thus differentiated from tribal ancestors. Ehren- Stidamerikanishe Mythologie. and stars are propelled by two eagles. It is through a moral failure of some on the part this couple or their descendants that heaven and earth were destined to be parted. his creative powers seem to be shared in part by his own creatures. and formed a world of and splendor. sort This phantastic story has some elements of real greatness. Animals take their place in the hierarchy of being. Heaven and earth were originally united. Central Borneo and the Andaman Islands). The transformation scene is also suggestive. that it is difficult at times to ferret out the original notions. the spider being the symbol of what is hidden and yet tion of the chief divinity as "spinning the productive. but were spun out by Kamushini after the manner of a spider. its Heaven and earth were finally separated.' »Von den reich. Here I would only recall the main points of this legend in so far as they affect the question at present under discussion. (Comp. Father. as he is himself called "the (2) light heavenly Spider". they have no mythical relation to the heaven-god. Keri and Kames "slide off" to the earth. and to give birth to life. but with the (5) exception of the spider. The descripworld out of his mind" is a by no means unhappy method of expressing the silent and myterious nature of creative action. partly from the fact he is "belong to a different people". and heaven disappears upwards.CREATION AMAZONIAN SYSTEM (K) Central Brazil 147 The Brazilian cosmologies are no longer as simple and clear as most They have been mixed up with a variety of lunar and solar myths. identified. and yet is not a married divinity. p. {kamu. from his name. if not of the preceding. (1) partly said to Kamushini is clearly the old heaven-god. The latter "makes men out of arrows. and women out of maize(6) stampers". . and the earth began to present appearance. light. Keri and Kames are the first human twins. p. and perhaps it is best to say that these are faded and fictitious editions of a once powerful original. suggestive of angels. I have already given the Keri-Kame legend as reported by a very trusted authority. which shows that he has a paternal authority above them. These were not self-created. as may be inferred. Steinen. But throughout there is no very clear proof of the uniqueness of this divinity. in which gods and ancestors have been so confused. who address him as Papa. and ever since Keri himself has had to make men out of arrows to replace the dying population. Unter den Naturvolkern Central-Brasiliens.

Bulletin 63. J. Though the idea is by no means absent. All we know statement. Cooper. the first man. but rarely a connected world-system. how difficult to ferret out the truth from the maze of contradictions. The Onas Hardly more satisfactory are the few points of Ona belief. though the transfer of these qualities to some national ancestor tends to diminish if not to destroy its theological value. A. to be well substantiated. or fibrestrings and this directly. This same being then made two mountains or clods of clay. though they are absurdly small and incoherent in their nature. M. The Yahgans of the Yahgan theory of the world is summed up in one They have a persuasion that in former times man and nature were more closely united. He whose dependent beings can also create has lost much of his unique position as the Creator of all.148 CREATION AMAZONIAN SYSTEM For the remaining portions of this area we have abundant fragments. who made all things (sic). p. in B. sun and moon left the earth. but owing to their increasing crimes of violence. 1917). however. E. straw. These ideas of a big man who "makes things" show at least that their origin is attributed to a personal power. he makes man out of clay. without the help of intervening agencies. if they did not actually spring from them. The following items seem. —Tierra del Fuego to us from the Fuegian archipelago are of the not to be wondered at when we consider how far from accurate and consistent have been the reports of those who profess to have studied them. (L) Patagonian Region. Here also and perhaps to a greater degree. or the Yahgans have no distinct ideas on the matter. good or evil. 162-163. nature is apparently animated. The primaeval race was of white complexion and bearded. . Such a notion seems to postulate a more than human power of production. (Washington. and so we can only conclude that either this picture is incomplete. that helped to bring things to their present perfection. nothing is said of the origin of Oumoara. and it seems that there is little or no consciousness of any interfering divinity. and a giant came down from heaven in the shape of a red star and killed them all. In nearly every case the language used of the supreme figure of the mythology seems too strong to apply to an ordinary "headman"—. sun and moon are husband and wife. evidently a new creation. men were married to rocks.* The materials that come This is scantiest. and Pimankel is the first man. Rev. out of which he formed the first Ona man and the first Ona woman.

Reed. and identified with the Creator's "Breath". . 708. XXXVI. The Circle is very rare. .CREATION PRIMITIVE 149 WORLD SYMBOLS Before passing on to the higher systems. It will be found that the Gross. 36-42. (Leipzig. it will be interesting to note these primitive peoples express their ideas of creation graphically. 185. The lozenge as the Jungle-fruit or the magic Flower is the symbol of power of giving life to the inanimate creation. Ceylon. Africa). 4S0-472flf.i (1) The Gross symbol is 4. Australia) Comp. 169ff. of the Other Lineograms (a) The Line and Dot : . 1. and South America. 329. ductiv. though other linear combinations are by no means wanting. 628.. PI. and PI. and South America. certified as the proWind-Spirit for Malakka and Central Indonesia. I-XI. by more or less appropriate symbols. That the rays are more than mere sex-symbols is suggested by the fact that similar rays are found over divine persons of male or of neutral sex. 1. Th..V ^¥^ 4= txtt>^ certified >^tc for the "Father-God" (A6). rep- how resent the three fundamental forms under to which creative action is believed have taken place.. I. ISO. Die Anfange der Schrift. and these may be found over nearly every section of the equatorial belt. . which are meant to convey some notion. Seligman. 1912). for Malakka. As "lightning" it is the vindictive. Melanesia. Danzel. it is the most universal of all cryptograms. as "serpent" the destructive (3) power of the universe. as "water" the purgative. Australia. the divine fecundity. 209. the spiral unknown. though in ordinary use it is simply the designation for man or woman indiscriminately. "Creator". and the Lozenge. Andaman Islands. Borneo. X. c. The Lozenge <)C00^ /> 0^00 for "Thunder-Fruit" {As). (b) (c) The Square and Triangle Q| /\ for "enclosure". New (2) The Zigzag ^x^CCXdX^ ^^^ "Wind-Spirit" (An). c. 553. Williamson (Mafulu). XVII. however rudimentary. S9. Howitt (S. LeRoy (Prim. Guinea. Codrington (Melanesia). for "distance". of the world-process. Among these the so-called "Gharm-Patterns" of Malakka are the most important and furnish the long-sought key for the interpretation of the primitive hieroglyphs. and there can be no question that it stands primarily for "Great Headman". PI. Though demonstrable as a hieroglyph only for the East Indies. Though varying in form and even in meaning. it is found with similar meanings in Australia.. the Zigzag. and PI. Von den Steinen (Brazil). Central Africa.. 499. that is.^_ . . "Man above the Skies". 1 See Skeat. though the divine "glory" is often expressed by the following ideogram This Philippines. Ling-Roth (Borneo) II. 49. E. Central Africa. "Divine One".e Almost equally universal is the zigzag or chevron. Nieuwenhuis (Centraal Borneo) I. 318ff. . . . The preponderance of rectilinear designs is a striking feature in this region.. Man..

—Mo5 As some first of these terms do unquestionably stand for the portions or qualities of a flower. Inlandstamme. I would like to call attention to the essentially symbolic nature of primitive art. the upper crown. Ning Bie ys/y>/\yy> ^^^lA^AiAH the middle chalice. the petals or "blossom". It also shows that the above ideograms can be taken in a more concrete. the so-called flower-patterns. as they promise to furnish an additional solution to the problem of Indonesian hieroglyphics as represented by certain "magic lines" appearing in regular order on the bamboo cylinders. Panel. 426-436.150 CREATION PRIMITIVE WORLD SYMBOLS The Mystic Plower-Patterns As an archaeological curiosity. Panel. This and the absence of sexual or phallic symbols is a very general characteristic' 2 831. and compare the above authors passim. discovered by Vaughan-Stevens. ' Skeat. but one of some psychological interest. g. and verified by SJceat. The principle of pars pro toto is "one of the most important features of the art-work of these tribes".— Was the "smell" of the plant (?) 2nd. the lower crown. 7th. according to the exact meaning that are described. Diagrams reconstructed from Skeat. etc).—Pettier 3rd. Panel.— Tin-H^e/i 6th. Padi mmmmm / 0006^66 the pistil and stamens. 8th. Though capable of depicting entire objects. Panel. I. is assigned to the obscure terms by which they P&nel.^ justified. The Symbolic Nature op Primitive Art As many will feel an instinctive difficulty in accepting these lines as in any sense "imitative" rather than ornamental. this interpretation is not as far-fetched as might at sight appear. Panel. On this system the different panels of the cylinder represent either different flowers or different portions of the same flower. should be mentioned in this place. 397-401. and Martin.—^Satag' 4th. 401-403. 5th. the upper chalice. . as they "represent an object by means of its chief parts or some closely associated idea" (e. though their graphic representation by the above crude lines is certainly interesting. the lower chalice. a stag by a triangle. "they employ in the vast majority of cases patterns which are purely geometrical". Thus 1st. I. p. visibly-descriptive sense. Panel. though th6 remark of the editors that they reveal the "extraordinary intellectual force of the primitive human race" is hardly The discovery of the pistils and petals of a plant cannot be called an "advanced botany". Panel. a bat by a wave-line.



" 1 S. the first human beings. V-VI. herbs (4) creepers of manifold varieties. though his cosmic char- Sun-god is the first indication of impersonal concepts. as the Mundas style themselves. 1912). which are considerably later and partly borrowed. here This is and man among the absent. The leech succeeded in fishing out this lump. p. Their names are Tata Haram and Tata Buri. This is the hatching-idea which was destined to play such a prominent part in later ages. and a which were apparently evolved from the bosom of the deep. the —the animal creation. The bird out of this egg came forth a boy and a girl. the Sun-god. for the Lutkum Haram legend. relating the origin of the minor "deities". C. living most memorable incident of all. Roy. These were the progenitors of the Horo Hqnko.' Hur. and beasts of all sizes. The following are the main points acter as the of this system in so far as they help to interpret the subject: In the beginning of time the face of the earth was covered with (1) water.worship. . 1. to make Him in fact part and parcel of the world. Such is found to be the case in the present instance. brooded over the waters. they drank of the stimulating beverage and lost their innocence. or rice-beer. The Mundas and their country. the ^ Roy. c. but after obtaining from Sin-Bonga the secrets of manufacturing Ili. Here we have a being who is seemingly distinct from nature. At his bidding the earth brought forth trees and plants. — and (5) He next filled things possessing the (6) power the earth with birds of locomotion. unadvanced form. "And now happened And one of the oldest accounts we have of the creation of the world Kolarian races. Sin-Bonga commanded these first-born of all animals to bring of clay from the depths of the ocean. (2) leach. unaffected bring the Creator more and more into touch with the material world. the 'naked male and female ancestors' ". and Sin-Bonga. (3) The first beings that were formed were a tortoise. the swan. p. (Appendix). laid an egg. It has nothing to do with the "Assur"legends of Lutkum Haram and Lutkum Buria. and from this clay Sin-Bonga made this beautiful him a lump earth of ours. the vegetable creation. or 'sons of men'. (Calcutta. The legend goes on to relate how the first human pair were innocent of the relation of the sexes. first authentic account of this story. of the growing practice of nature. 1) If 151 The Kolarian Aborigines op Central India the of the totem-culture in Mundari peoples be looked upon as the earliest representatives its primary. a crab.CREATION LATER TOTEMIC SYSTEM (M. we must be preto pared as yet to find the creation-legends in by the growing tendency a comparatively pure state. Xlff.

. and as he is himself the sun-god. like the "red earth". They are assumed as already in existence.152 CREATION LATER TOTEMIG SYSTEM who This can be proved from the fact that the Assurs are "iron-smelters" do their work in large brick-constructed "furnaces". it is comparatively free from later touches. and into which they return at the hour of death. which connects them at once with the metal ages. "engaged in happy converse (1) with his heavenly consort". Vol. the strongest expressions being "He commanded" or "At his bid(2) else ding". creative action is here no longer as direct or as vivid as in the preceding ages. the induction is not too remote. evolving things "out of eggs" however metaphorical they may be taken to be. p. 468-671. that he acts by solar power. cit. that the sun is the (3) It moon and source of (4) all being. 284-318. of stars. among which Sin-Bonga is the greatest or the Marang Buru. can hardly be passed over without revealing a strong analogy with the supposed "hatching-power" of the sun. not of creations in the strict sense. not full-fledged per- sonalities. The expressions. But as to the preceding legend. and apart from the question of a personal Creator. others again being merely elemental beings. It. the absence of Vishnu and the celebrated triads being remarkable. term bum as a designavague meaning analogous "mystery" or "medicine" of the North. that creation is largely immanent and evolutional. On the other hand. already fully discussed above. and his very name as the "SunSpirit" seems to indicate that he is himself the sun. There is no clear statement that He made the waters or anything without some qualification. it seems quite certain that the idea of a germinal development of being is here for the first time insinuated. For The Sun-god is a married divinity.American Indian. should have been omitted. and therefore not the unique Lord of former times. II. This suggests that they are looked upon as eternal or co-ordinate with the supreme divinity. and then only of formations. p. Frazer. is in fact the key to the whole system.is applied further illustrated by the fact that the here distinctly "totems". as they are such conspicuous objects. or at least the stationing. and the banita bongos are bad burus. The Buru-Bonga This is as a Germ-God tion for the "mountain-spirit" has obtained a to to all the lesser divinities. sun. "brooding over the waters".* ' Roy. and reveals no traces even of Hindoo influences. Of these there are no less than 339. while the manita bongos are good. Totemism and Exogamy. from which all the Mundas are descended. op. This idea of neutral. seems strange that the creation. Every unit in nature — metamorphosis possesses the power of developing into a higher unit.

and the corn to grow". we begin to feel that there may be some solid reasons for connecting these ideas with a definite stage of material development. and stars. p. as we have seen. iPor Mulungu. or how. At the same — time. is etymologically the "Heavenly One". When. XXXII. but. Mulungu. and is applied in fact to nearly everything under the sun. the totem. who has been drawn into the sphere of nature with a greater or less degree of consistency. Unkulunkulu — . The idea of a vegetation-deity is strongly suggested by the (3) numerous taboos on food. Ka-langi. These also are mu-longo. (Compare Mu-untu. heaven-god. 2) 153 The Bantus op Eastern Africa But if these were the only materials for establishing the proposition convincing power might be regarded as weak. Ba-lingo. the Heaven-God. 184flf. especially on certain wild-fruits. (1) not only in Bantu. that the highest mulongo is invariably identified with the solar orb. .^ For their Mulungu. which they may not eat for fear of consuming an ancestor. and through large sections of the Bantu domain it has been shown that the sun is de facto the center of the cult. Vol. p. is also the name for anything sacred or mysterious. however. This tends to show that Mulungu and the sun are identical terms. 402. including the latter. but in no single case (2) there a definite statement as to exactly what he has created. and Rev. (1902). It will be instructive to note that here also the term for "divinity" may be taken in a double sense. p. La Religion des Primitifs. that "He makes the rain to fall. another for the mysterious forces of nature. 317. in J. moon. For mulungu. Nothing is said of any creation of sun.CREATION LATER TOTEMIC SYSTEM (M. consult Frazer. the facts not sufliciently numerous. we find a group of notions in a distant area which is closely parallel to them and accompanied by a very similar complexity of culture. II. Totemism and Exogamy. see LeRoy. is We This being is said to have made all things. As such He is a supreme Father. with a capital M. (or mu-longo). H. one for the Father in Heaven. Cole. Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa. A. Vol. and the only point which now remains to consider is the extent to which this change has influenced the idea of creation. Now among the Bantus of East Central Africa we have already seen that the position of Mulungu is to some extent analogous to In both cases we have an old-time that of the Marang Bum of India. are left with the vague remark that He is the Ancient of days. I. the particle mu being originally used only of personal action or subsistence. "He who is in Heaven". It is (4) assumed that they already exist. also in the Oceanic tongues. of Central Borneo and Celebes).

. c. In the few instances which such a "making" is hinted at. sometimes refusal of The same marriage. (5) mulungu may (6) also reveal himself as of in The absence. This of course does not destroy His original role as Creator. The Nandi. and in some cases it has been proved that an animal cult is alone in evidence. The Mulungu far as an Evolving-Force of From what can be inferred from the combined material that has so come into our possession. This a point of funda- mental importance. 1908). serpent. species. he is the offspring of snakes. To imitate the cry nite being. Frazer. and hyaena. p. that Mulungu in the sense of totem is hardly more than a formative principle. of any account of the creation a point that requires some explanation. that are not directly dependent on the influx of a higher power. as it may dwell in human. or extreme rarity. . animal. For just as the soul of man as a rational supposit is not recognised as in any sense unique. 442. it must surely be admitted that the concept mulungu is not so simple a one that it can be applied to any very defi- ^whether personal or impersonal to the exclusion of every "Whatever may be thought of its linguistic application to the whole of the East-African area in the sense of taboo. 70ff. of the hyaena involves banishment from the tribe. or even astral body indiscriminately. but that they have the power of self-transformation in the sense that the lower can become the higher. 1. that they may communicate with their ancestors". the sun. 11. man is invariably connected with man is the lower creation. there can be no doubt that sufficient examples may be collected to show that animal. — — other.154 CREATION LATER TOTEMIG SYSTEM The close relation between sun. C. and even mineral forms are not regarded as fixed and stable. serpents. shows that an animal. and the higher return into the lower by an immanent power which is frankly recognised as incomprehensible. or hyaenas. but it brings into bold relief the growing consciousness of secret forces in nature. Hollis. an elemental deity. This can hardly be explained except on the basis of a transmigration of the mouth-piece of the cherished ancestor.^ The Nandi imagine that hyaenas hold communication With the spirits of the dead and can talk like human beings. vegetable. the inference is irresistible that the great "Soul" of the universe is very much of the same nature. and other mulungus. for it is ideas are held in many parts of the serpent. (Oxford. That this is no mere metaphor is proved by the extraordinary practice of giving the bodies of the dead to the hyaenas to eat "in the hope that their spirits may share the occult powers of the animal. 2 A. into whose bodies he migrates at the hour of death.

he surely cuts a sorrowful figure in this "scheme of ascent". the "immortal" ones. as one of the staple foods. by which it is believed that the sun's power can be increased or diminished at pleasure. though it is difficult to speak of a "sequence" in this matter. were never made. 176-319. In no case are the heavenly bodies looked upon as a later orna(4) ment. a big of ruddy complexion and with long flaxen hair. As to man himself. A still higher development is reached by the frog.' 3 The entire sequence of thoughts may be found in Spencer and Gillen. of which there is not a sigh. These beings are known as cUtjira-inkaras. Instead of creation we have the famous Alcheringa or "DreamTime". and were subsequently brought to their present state of perfection by a series of lizard-gods described as amunga-quinia-quinia. He is a married divinity whose emu feet and red hair connect him directly with the sun-totem. and finally by the Emu-totem. . The sun is in fact identified with Altjira himself. yam-totem being particularly conspicuous. the quondam Heavenly Father. These links are somewhat as follows: is the "Ancient One". Even if the lizard be looked upon as a demiurge. and is fashioned by the above lizard-gods in a manner that leaves no room for doubt that insignificant creatures of this class are believed to be endowed with powers that are otherwise assigned to a supreme Creator. it is not a mere inference. representing the sun's rays. he is a mere mummy. they is ning. he springs out of the higher inapertwas of half animal half human shape. But though he sits in the high (1) Altfira strong man heavens. pp. the The same germinal power gives birth to the grass seed. he no longer creates or governs the world. the national bird of Australia. except possibly as the fire-totem. 3) 155 The Arunta Tribes of Central Australu The logical conclusion of these notions is reached in the Australian cosmogony. the Hakea-plant.CREATION LATER TOTEMIG SYSTEM (M. he has no relation to man. (3) etty grub. during which all things were gradually evolved from shapeless masses called inapertwas or inter-interas. they had no beginmany words. the lizard. the witchand other forms of vegetable and animal life. This distinctly stated in so connected. and with these the Wind and Water-totems are directly (2) All things are eternal. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. 143-176. the (5) wallaby. so far from being created or even formed by the supreme divinity. where we find a completely closed world-system in which the different links of an endless chain of causes "may for the most part be recognised. and is the first and greatest inkara.

and vice versa. The totems are neither personalities. tion in we have seen. They are simply looked upon as magic centers of action. and carpet-snakes. nor invoked. that is. Moreover there is strictly speaking no sequence of things. all are manufactured or multiplied by certain magical practices known as the intichiuma ceremonies. nor "gods" in anything but a poetical or metaphorical sense. not at all unthinkable. partly identical with Him. a Maker of all. Even under the most favorable interpretation. ^but whether such a process has ever actually taken place. . as This in is pantheistic evolutionism. but controllable for the most part by secondary and occult agencies.156 CREATION LATER TOTEMIG SYSTEM in short are the world-beliefs of the Aruntas. nor "spirits". affording power and protection. Every grade of being is a potential inkara. Yet the manner which this belief reveals itself among these peoples is inconsistent with any clear consciousness of an ever-acting Creator as the remote or proximate cause of the phenomena. Such it Taken as it stands. Thus in which creation — the totems are protecting "mysteries". capable of developing into anything. Even Altjira is brought into this connexion as the sunspirit. of a Being who by a single stroke of his omnipotence has endowed the first created germ with such a marvellous power of self-propagation and so on as to contain within itself the potentiality of giving birth to the whole universe of life and action. but the universe is described as actually coeternal. it reveals a wider grasp of the creative process. Wind. an immortal one. rain. and has the potency of becoming anything in heaven and earth by its own intrinsic essence. no beginning or end to creation. Such a creation is not only explicitly denied by the reports. The totems are neither worshipped. This point deserves to be emphasised. no definite divisions of nature according to species. On the contrary. and. then again as the Emu-totem. in which any recognition or invocation of a stipreme Being is very generally absent. the highest being concealed in lowest. nor prayed to. There is no hint at polytheism in the above beliefs. any proper sense can no longer be spoken of. I say. this is another ques- — upon which I am not at present prepared to enter. Each unit of being is self-created. it is not impossible. while Altjira sits in his chair and has fallen asleep. totem is multiplied by totem. it is a "high potential". and by nothing higher. cannot be said that such an idea of germinal development of being is per se incompatible with a creating first cause.

though I have already given the reasons why this statement must be largely modified. and Morning Star. but in America. (Washington. He is dreaded and is believed to be the cause of erratic like. effect. But throughout the stellar and lunar cult is comparatively undeveloped. in which the position of the stars and planets exert a direct and even a productive influence on the world of nature and man. Missouris. 371-403flF. and is invoked in a manner that is almost personal. pp. In any case. however. as there can be no doubt that "the principal Wakanda is in the upper world and above everything. O. Omahas. Here also nature is divided into certain great "kingdoms". and this marks it off from the strongly astronomical setting of the later cosmologies. Ground. Supplemented by these. Dorsey. he is addressed in symand is believed to secure favors as with the other heavenly bodies. Ponkas. Moon. A Study of Siouan Cults. 4) 157 The Prairie Indians op North America we meet with the same fundamental more elaborate form. there is such a striking similarity of beliefs on this subject that they may be said to form par excellence the totemic province of North In the North American region still notions. of and seldom invoked. notions. no other wakan having the same prominent position. Among the great Siouan family. as they ignore the vegetable and animal creation which is at least equally important. though there is the same vagueness as to the order and succession of phenomena. which includes the Dakotas. The Morning Star is the symbol of hope. and th6 interesting to see by what natural feelings the moon is associated with "lunacy" even at this early period of specially human history. (1) : The Sun-Wakanda It as the greatest Wakanda is the center (2) The Moon by contrast is feared rather than worshipped. < Materials in Report of the Bureau of J. uncanny Its midnight glitter over the waters produces a and has become a mystic emblem of the later ghost-dance. Sun.CREATION LATER TOTEMIC SYSTEM (M. It is hermaphrodism. it is from this being that all things are ultimately derived. Thunder-Being. American Ethnology. : — has already been pointed out that the sun and source of all life and the radiating point of the ritual. . THE SEVEN GREAT WAKANDAS The seven principles of nature are commonly enumerated as DarkUpper World. Uth. 1894). These are evidently given in reverse and partly confused order. they will reveal the following picture ness." They are also incomplete. and other tribes. He is symbolised by the central pole in the tribal sun-dance. (3) pathetic language. Kansas.

the buffalos. as an "Affinity" we have a well-ordered arrangement or natural grouping of which seem at first sight well thought out. the spirit of evil. (6) The "Ground" live grow or — Finally there is the Darkness. Africa and Australia. is the guardian-spirit of the sun. Siouati Cults (supra) showing tent-designs. The same symbols are found in India. 1904). and Wakanda is the "Great Medicine". they are going to rejoin their ancestors". In the creation-story. and man. Of these the ash. ?90ff. Comp. synonymous with the spirit of (7) danger. and are looked upon as possessing a secret power far beyond that of any other beings. they snuffed at the four winds and prayed to them (sic). the corn. in which the totems are protecting "medicines".a great mystery-force. p. (5) By the . XXIII. vital relation. The Wakanda Here things. it is is to be understood all the heavenly hiera generic expression for everything exalted. E. and very probably with the same meanings. Omaha Sociology. and PI. and the buffalo are the most important.A. they jumped about in the water. Spencer and Qillen. who. eminently suggestive. willing to save and to heal his people. who dwelt under the surface of the water. making it muddy. Rep. men were originally "buffalos. the sacred corn and the buffalo forming as it were the climax. When they came to the surface. etc. p. : . B.158 CREATION LATER TOTEMIG SYSTEM (4) The Thunder-Being is another wakan. the cedar. they are his "affinities". 394ff." The "Sun-Serpent" binds in fact four continents in the common inheritance of. p. animals." and beast. the south and east winds were bad" At death the departing souls are told that they are "going to the etc. The north and west winds were good. are believed to control the climate. everything is another comprehensive term for all things that on the earth. Northern Tribes. 229. These by throwing water into the skies. for which there are arguments on both sides. Thurston. "Dorsey. and even the seasons. and is symbolised by the dotted circle. "Upper World" archy united divine. with the Wind and Rain. the spirit opposed to the Great Wakanda. l«2fF. 3d.. E. With these same beings man has an essential. the sun. p. Ethnographic Notes in Southern India. it is no less evident that this being produces the world by a secret immanent process. 'Dorsey. animals. (Madras. etc. in which he is in turn identified with nearly every object in nature. Having reached the land. which is — sufficiently strong proof that there is no essential difference between man In other words each wakan has the power of spontaneously generating a higher wakan. the spiral or the "whorl" as the most appropriate expression of evolutionary force. But apart from the grave question as to whether the Sun-Wakanda is in any full sense a personal Creator. plants.and thunder-men.

1 r bes LeRoy. XVI XXIII XXXVII. now meant (1) The Circle %ljt: ^^^ *^^ "World-Embryo" (Burn). which be identical with the Sun-totem. "World-Egg" it and is de facto to is suggestive enough of the hatching-process of we know (2) with the Emu-egg in Australia. and North America. the spiral and the epicycle are fairly universal and stand for three different aspects of evolution. lltb Report. Dorsey. the cosmic represented by complicated curves and spirals. as the nature. p. and then for the soul of man. B. Thurston. Africa. Les Primitifs. PI. As the "Sun-Ancestor" it is the common expression for the chief divinity. — Developed Cyclograms Of these the double serpent 000000C1. 403ff. XII-XIII. E. Die Anfange. Central Australia. mystical properties and to reflect in some sense the essence of the soul. this ideals easily suggested. This is the staple animal of the hunt. Ethnographic Noteje in Southern /Madras 1906) PI. 1894). ton. which are portray the germinal or evolving power of the universe. while the eye-pattern becomes the natural expression for higher animal life. 126fF. Though many of these signs have in the course of time become purely conventional or ornamental. Africa. . 696ff. As a development of the circle pattern. Siouan Cults.CREATION TOTEMIG WORLD-SYMBOLS As against forces are to 159 the simple straight-line patterns of earlier days. 177. p. Danzel. identified The Spiral /^j\ for the "Sun-Serpent" (Muru-Muru) above area in the sense of simple evolution. The action by which the sun-serpent projects the universe of matter. the dynamic differentiation of things. Certified for the As the coil of the serpent this (3) The Epicycle ^V^J\© for the "Great WhorV' (Wulunku). among which the circle. theme will speak for itself. Spencer and GiUen Northern 1 (A. Washingof Centfal Lstralia. p. "vortex". In AusThe eye is believed to have wonderful tralia it is replaced by the Emu. North-America. and is supposed to represent the multiplication of totems by sun-magic. In a derived sense it may stand for the intestines of an animal ( !) (4) The Mystic Eye is '^^^f for the "Sacred Buffalo" (Warangu) a reasonable induction for those countries in which the buffalo India. synonymous with "compound evolution". This is its primary meaning. India Materials in E. It very often appears with the central dot. This symbol enjoys a very wide distribution and is generally identified with the sun throughout totemic India. ^^ *^® '^°^* distinctive. there is evidence to show that they were originally descriptive symbols. which in combination with the peripheral rays makes its solar symbolism unmistakable.

(Southern India) : — This diagram furnishes at least a proximate clue to the original meaning of the sand and rock-drawings as they are found on the five great and which are often difficult to interpret with any hope of For though we have abundant evidence for the "Emu-Sun" and other Sky-Wakandas as associated with similar spiral lines. ' See Obermaier." continents. This makes the above example all the more valuable. with a studied desire to imitate their colors. XVI. 235. and ostriches. p. XXIII. and Azylian caverns. howevef. a meaning which can generally be inferred from the study of the mythology and the context in which they are implied. p. Mantiel d'Archeologie. p. As an example in which the primary symbolism is still retained.' » Thurston. (ibid) for the connection between sun and serpent. we note the commencement of the fine arts in the proper sense. emus. Comp. there is whirl and motion in things. p. and it is certain that in some cases they have undergone an entire change of meaning. the portrayal of comf)lete subjects as they appear in nature.160 CREATION TOTEMIC WORLD-SYMBOLS The Evolution op the Sun-Sebpent It must be understood that the above symbols are interpreted in their primary sense only. this connexion is not always maintained in practice. which has revealed a similar combination of twisted lines in the Aurignacian. Here again the painted bisons. and is further supplemented by the palaeontological evidence. 230. Symbolism and Naturalism It will be seen that the dominant note of the art-work of this period is symbolic and cyclographic. PI. recall the similar themes of late-glacial man. 290. success. 188. * Obermaier. Side by side. It is used in the Malabar ceremony of the snake-totem. we may take the following drawing in rice-flour which is meant to represent the world-serpent as issuing from the sun and giving birth to the entire universe of being. sometimes with certainty. Magdalenian. c. Pefhelette. 218. 1. Ethnographic Notes. whereby some connexion between symbol and idea may be established with a fair degree of probability. 236flf. . PI. Der Mensch der Vorzeit.


Xm. &I!FF. PL. CHOIX DE TEXTE8 (FABIB.?<Wrt^ If A — KU »?^ Tf Wg»^ wMU . & u ~MA WA ZAK^IVKT APSU— MA 'RtS — TU — ZA>JMi Su — UH Mtt — UM-MU TI-AMAT MU-AI. DHOBME.NU l%-T6-Nl» ^'-PA-T*A ^lA Kl—tS>aU~T^ SU-SA^ LA fc - ' «-KU-. I. WINKLES. IFF. DEUTZBCH. DAS BABITLONISCHE WELTBCHOFFDNOSEPOB. 1. 1.TUM .-. i B-KU-MA e — U$ \ LA NA-BU — U SA. I.MA II^^NI LA jiu-IM— U MA -MA-MA^ Su-MA LA ZUK-KU -WU Sl-MA-ini UA L'^*-!^] to (ILU) UA9-MU (H-U) LA-HA-MU^ uli |A— PU~U I Tf^f: A — X>t an-Sar m: IK (^ilu) i^«- — SU — H!it= U ^ ^1= - — ki— Sa«. WITH BE8TOBED AND COBBECTED READINGS ACCOBDINO TO THE TEXTS OF THE BBITISH MCSECH. 102. TI. L.THE SEVEN TABLETS OF CREATION "THE CHAOS" 8FECIMBN OF TABLET I. OOMFABE VOL.-. KB. VOL. raiNBEN. 4-80.MUf- ^ IS •^^ ^T^ <X AN-S^R ^ILU") A—'MUM 1803). F. 1907). F. KT. . THE SEVEN TABLETS OF CBEATION. la-BA-Nu-MA E-u— &u--[r*u) H^ja >^ rtLU) ^>« A Pll — Su ^^.— —— . 1 (+4SS2S +44614). KDTO.MA-MU SAP-uS AM-MA. W. n. - M — J>A —AT aiM-fVI-Su-ilN r— yt—Ml — U— NVV 6 MB — Su . (LONDON.

they are mostly fragments. . AnHar and KiSar were created {then Long were the days. etc. no marsh was 5. And Mummu. to be seen. translation in Keilinschr. XIII. the Chaos. each operating in complete independence. 92. 1) Early Babylonian Form The Seven Tablets of Creation. This transition (N. the power of influencing all objects by — to a complete hierarchy of "gods" was not the work of a day. King. which have been pieced together with — — much I. water. "When above". though dating in their present appearance from the Hammurabic age. and their close parallelism with the Egyptian system shows that the main body of this tradition may be safely assigned to the third or fourth millennium before Christ. 1. moon. no destiny been fix6d. from whom they derive their mana. Tiamat. of a generation of gods out of natural forces. And the earth beneath yet bare no name. to find this notion Somewhat strongly developed in the earliest period. their secret spiritual force. 1902).CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM With on cycle of thought. When Apsu. yet controllable to a greater or less degree by a supreme Spirit. W. . new stone age we enter a somewhat different The old totems. AndAnSar . (their son) . . — Then were evolved 10. p. Vols. Bibliothek.— And no field had yet been formed. VI. 15. name had yet been named. the beginning of the 161 — . When No of the gods not one had been produced. This is the famous Enuma Elish. to be gradually purified with the rise of the priesthood. Had mingled their waters in one stream. The Seven Tablets of Creation. Das Babylonische Weltschopfungsepos. and Delitzsch. (London. XII. earth. 2. . the mother of them all. the deep.^ 1. about 2000 B. the first that brought them forth. "When above the heavens were not yet named. They have become the symbolic — expression of personal spirit-forces. Anu. therefore. the gods in heaven's midst. in Compare also Jensen's Luzacs Semitic Text and Translation-Series. contain elements of undoubtedly Sumerian antiquity. Lachmu and Lachdmu were the first to rise. C. and so are no longer mere mysteries. As is well known. so called from the opening lines. Long ages passed. iPor the Text see L. patient labor. . air. there came forth) . showing the marks of a closer relation to nature in former times. We must not be surprised. the Depth. of a theogony. It was rather a slow process of development. sun.

1. They describe how the gods took counsel together. cleft fish. His heart prompted him. etc. who shall inhabit (the earth). and heaven". .. and bone tvill I (fashion) / will make man. "the Bestower of all". and appointed Marduk as their champion against the alarming power of Tiamat. and are probably of later composition. to shine forth. "protecting stars". He caused Sin. ^Kakkabani lumasi generally taken as zodiacal constellations. (Jupiter) * . — made a covering for the 143. . or the highest point of the ecliptic. in two parts. the moon-god. he founded. etc.. that man may . Bel. by King). . *A . third. * Nibiru generally for the clear reference to the zodiac with the 36 decani or subdivisions. That the service of the gods be established. Bel-Marduk. here represented as a huge serpent: IV. "And he her in twain. the summer-solstice. That which he conceived in his heart. a copy of it.. stars. thus V. none make a mistake. the chaotic deep. and fourth tablets are occupied chiefly with the exploits of the Semitic-Babylonian national divinity. The great house E-sarra. 'My blood will I take. like a flat The one half of her he set up. and that (may be builty. to determine the days". Twelve months. — 5. The fifth tablet describes the formation or stationing of the sun." After he had (fixed?) the days of the year He fixed the station of Nibir. tablet is a their shrines The seventh hymn of praise to Marduk. he imparted to him: . and the appointment of years and months. describes the creation of man: "When Marduk heard the voice of the gods. gave him the Appointed him as a night-body. three each. "He made the stations for the great gods.. with 5. 1. "Then Bel measured the structure of the Deep. and he devised (a cunning plan) He opened his mouth. he fixed the signs of the zodiac. then for the planet. The VI. 137. moon and stars. A great house.- He ordained the year. he built as the heaven. E-Sarra.. and unto Ea (he spoke). North Pole.162 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Early Babylonian Form The second. defined divisions. {the ocean). He made Anu. and Ea to inhabit as their city". (restored night. As stars resembling them. / tvill create man. sixth tablet. That none of the days might 12. he appointed. err.. .

IS) IV «7 Mt-A -Ut-U&i43 IM — iUi i^A.— LM lUAMI — MA T* iu -MU Ul-U WMK— LU-JU-AH-NI-MA iO Al.— LA m ~ ii»m. 1^ ib— nu — u — ma— mu »i»-wam-Ma (. 3536 ETC.— »^« ILAHt [^INA Se - Ml — Su] [«^] ^U»] M^ Jfi ^ SAL. Ha cJl-OAt. u(iLU)r-A ma-jja—a» — *«-um "THE MAKING OF MAN' (»26«»+K.T. PL. A— KU-MAM — MA &A— MA-MA &A AT>ai U-«A-AL.U UK •! IM-(>JM) LU — Ui-aX-MA MA AWBUA A«MeUA (A> LU A-»*E-LU '- v^^^^^m'Mi^ LU—UB— Ml (A) Iff--A-litB m u EM—X>U BUI.) vr. KA~KA ILAHI I. Xm.-~UL.U>MAK-K|~ ^ M« l£ _ '. ai— nu — tu — u&— iu l^-4M_— 1»M-&» — iA-^U U Kl —m e— Sar-ra. —'Uy — MA Be—UUH LA.e J?5[ TC-NlS UU KUB-BU ^i:m 1^1T>^^»^ Wfflf" MA A—MA UM-KA UI»U— -Tu . JL m>^^TtiSH'^T^*»^ I MB— BA— 4U 1 — BAM— HA-a{niK-LA-A-T|J (lUi) [IT»] £U -M *U A -MA B-A - [[l .THE SEVEN TABLETS OF CREATION "THE MAKING OF HEAVEN AND EARTH" <C.~'nA.2AK-KAK] ^IKA Ll»-W-4u ult-tA— Mtt-H« t MAM-I>tt^NAi\-A-&ig m^(^*^^ — 3)lA tc^'^i^^^X'f »UR~MA t$ — Ml I.•ui)A-NUt>4(iui)sei. 1 (IU1)MMUBUK »tK.

-^y. . F. HINO. SEE BELOW. PAGE 164. (l»ie). 274-298.MI-NI-tN-KgI>4 w 2C <l-pyF>> SAO-BUq -gANg- l y-SU R-RU. VOL.. 180 "THE PRIMITIVE OCEAN" EN ^ ^ AsiAd — ctA. XXXTI. "8DMEBIAN AMD ACCADIAM VIEWS OF BEGIKNING8. I. A.NE-E^-A. OF." ^^^ u US^j^ALU Ul_ "•- ' ' BA ^-^^ — -Nl ffMa<m f3la m mT-^a ^-^^ TAM- tar ^^ 40 -.THE BI-LINGUAL TABLETS OF SIPPAR OVNEIFOBM TEXTS.10. B. O. e i>iNaiR-e-Ne IMA iS-Kl tci min nu Ul- mu.. ME— nA >v IM^ra. UV. -^ T» 'T^ ^^r "imii' vrfr 'mu . 1.17-«A) 17 G)-S»— ilNCilR^^Cil-Si— NE— NA A NAM. CIT. 8S." J. SEE JASTBOW. ^e— ^U —Jj s_^ >&b.JAT'-HAT^ -BA" THE MA — TA — A —-TU CRE/>a-lON BIT* ''at MA ^1 OF I MAN -TUVt • -MA (I.MA "BA' *KU 21 FOB A SEPARATION OF SUMEBIAN AND SEMITIC BOCBCES. Xm.vn-rii-ir. FI.un-rui fe BTTU^ CU-m4 St-T^lLAMl gt-^M -TU H5 4 ^ uv.

M. Anu is the "son" of heaven and earth. that have not been colored by the later Babylonian pantheon. (Water) Tiamat. Anu "creates" by semi-divine mediator. 4Sflf. as Ea or Aa was of the former En-ki (Lord of the Deep). in all sections that are not distinctively Semitic. plied. and above all. LXXIILXXX. 1916) pp. Dhorme. We have already seen that the idea of an evolving divinity is peculiar to the totem-age. (Lord of the Air). In any case. some extent personal and self-subsistent. 24. G. A. 63ff. Sin-Bonga "hatches" the world. to — 1 For the Ur-Nina inscription see Keilinschr. the latter being a development of En-lil. Also M. 1. the Mummu-A'psu . the pre-Sargonic Heaven-God. Thus we have Mummu. I. Nikel. Two (2) questions sug- gest themselves in its regard:— (1) What is its is its age? How should it be interpreted? What theological value? (1) AGE OP THE LEGEND The external evidence carries the story beyond 2000 B. ' Compare J. (Compare the of Ur-Nina with the Nunu-Atum of Heliopolis. Dew. Ocean). For whatever may have been the origin of the gods in former times. P. Bibl. with Bel-Marduk as its head. etc. "Sumerian and Akkadian Views of Beginnings". Nor Anu-Bel-Ea are a cosmic Triad. who are the children of the dawn. (Holmes Anniversary Volume. 1917). took the place of the Semitic Bel-Marduk in the age of Mesilim. . Anu. not to Semitic sources. who lives in the E-sarra. and this cosmogony is one more proof that the neolithic divinity has passed through a pantheistic period of thought on its way to reinfranchisement. all the lesser divinities are subject. to whom all the forces of nature. Die Genesis in Keilschriftforschung.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND RECENT SYSTEM Early Babylonian Form 163 Such in the main is the Babylonian creation-story. IX-X (Introduction). Vol. Cosmogonic Parallels. (Heaven and Earth). 13. p. "the mother of them all". must be referred to Sumerian. of the divine names. who in turn were evolved from the great deep. and the general parallelism with the Egyptian nome-gods in the order and succession of natural forces) . Casanowicz. Washington. I. The greater depth and richness of this concept is evident. op. S. Ansav and Kisar. XXXVI. p. 1. "The Composite Character of the Babylonian Creation-Story". (Dec.' (2) Interpretation It is useless to pretend that a former evolution of gods is not here im- is anything gained by a vain attempt to deny it.. Nevertheless the differences are deep and wide. (Chaos) Apsu. we have every reason to believe. (Dawn. and who. O. and Bel-Marduk is the creating "logos" of Anu. Ill. Twilight?). cit. combined literary tradition with great probability in the fourth and monumental evidence places the main part of the millennium before Christ. or royal "palace". Jastrow. in J. 274-299. (Depth. 1903) pp.' The internal evidence shows that a large portion of the terminology. (Freiburg. Lachmu and Lachamu. . c. the Chaos. King.

Babylon was built. to emphasise the supreme position of of creation. XIII. A brick had not been laid. 1. who was brought into existence by Ea the Ocean-god. the house of the gods. 1. * founded within the ocean. 4-25. T. and endowed with heavenly wisdom. as in Gen. Pinches translation of C. Eridu had not been constructed. . Comp. and finally the building of cities and the establishment of the temple-worship. which the King of the Shining Place was a stream. A city had not been made. in that day Eridu was made. c. —E-sagila. no community had been established. p. E-sagila was completed. an idea which we have found to be very primitive. and Euphrates). 1.^ Again. Dhorme. c. « Haupt. had not been made. who was fashioned by Aruru. 92ff. Sumerian and Akkadian Views of Beginnings. c. c. 48. Dhorme.' « ' sin the main. of the rivers. in a glorious place. 82flF. E-kurra had not been constructed. Jastrow. a beam had not been shaped. appears in the form of Adapa. already translated by namassu above. Jensen. they reveal a "Creator".' From the combined fragments it is not too much to assert that they furnish a valuable supplement to the Enuma Elish. 186ff. He made dust and poured it out beside the foundation. ("no community had been established". B. In Then follows (Tigris The Adapa Legend the Sumerian A-dam. Gilgamesh. that the gods might enjoy a pleasant habitation. 1. Dhorme. the whole of the lands were sea". supremely he proclaimed". its seat had not been made.164 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND RECENT SYSTEM The Bilingual Tablets of Sippar bilingual recension of the creation-story was discovered by Rassam It is of some importance as revealing a logical rather than chronological order of creation. — (Note th^ negative statements) "When E-sagila tvithin the sea there was constructed. A and animals in order man as the lord paradise of God as It also pictures the rising out of the ocean. of various kinds of plants and trees. in the Gilgamesh-Epic the same hero appears as Eabani. I. the making of man preceding that of plants in 1882. a city had not been constructed. the Earth (?). IV. a tree had not been created. 2. 39-37. He made the gods and the Anunaki. "god-created". the making of the "beasts of the field". "Marduk bound together a foundation before the waters. A house had not been built. He also rises from the oceanic Eridu. 2. the glorious city. Incantation (Shiptu) :—' "A glorious home. A plant had not grown up. The Abyss had not been made. As for the glorious hoxise. and is called zer ameluti. 280-281. 1. p. Nippur had not been built. the house of the gods. together. that is "no man created"). He made mankind Arunt made the seed of mankind with — him". K. the "seed of mankind". the seat of the joy of their hearts. {the starry host). * Lugal-DwAsag-Uarduk. PI.

CREATION 165 an Week-Da .

. Rabisu. 14. V. For sukallu-maleachim. Lilu. their antiquity and their meanings are not always beyond challenge. 64. * karubu." Comp. 713. 19) are patron-saints or household gods. 13. the seven being regarded as persons (Dan. reveal the divine will in parFurther subdivisions led to the recogticular cases (Id. for the service of Execution. like the Cherubim of Genesis (3. etc. ISSff. Raphael. ' For cit. II. 381. for the service of Contemplation. Here we find three gradations of divine representatives. 4 5 6 Dominations. 176-178. Comp. "Strength of God" (4). op. A different question is — . An. (Ideogr. "Protecting Ones". 7 8 —for the service of Ministration. Seven Archangels were also taken in a narrower we get the scheme for seven archangels 2 3 4 5 6 7 Barutu Milku Palu Nimeku Siptu Kadiltutu Puluchtu Wisdom Understanding Counsel Strength Knowledge Piety Holy Fear This is one of the few explanations of the "Seven who stand before the Lord". while the sibittu are personal demiurges more or less identified with the stars. IV. Michael. "Ministering Ones". Rel. Further light on this subject in Dhorme. Labartu. Biblische und Babylonische Gottesidee (Leipzig. so the above "seven" became in time identified with His sevenfold power. Genesis. Principalities. 37fF. For lamassu-terapim Delitzsch. p. an identification cannot be proved. to worship. distinctly persons (Id. 174. Kal. * See 29. "Medicine of God" (7). but this only in the Jewish-Christian system . Delitzsch. Seraphim. 1. Idem. {Papsukal). 12. 3S0. An. Ekimmu. huh. On the other hand. 15). "Powerful Ones". 3. Pap. Assyr. 24) are human figures with wings. and his seven tormenUtukku.* : The As 1 it is Sibittu as quite certain that the Sibittu sense as personal ministers. 498. the above names and titles are not exclusive. below. persecut- — ing demons. III. Gabriel. The tors. "Jastrow. I. 278ff. Sibittu as Seven Tormentors Opposed to these is the World-Serpent. Also Nikel. who. 35. as the biblical Maleachim. 3S2. Ra) (3) Sukallu. and true that a unity in plurality is vaguely hinted at in certain there can be no doubt that as the entire pantheon was looked upon as the visible expression of a single universal God-head. Spirits of Adoration. Delitzsch. Kal). While a parallelism is therefore certain. — — (3) 9 Virtues. 8. 31. : (1) (2) 1 2 3 Cherubim. 16. Rawlinson. (2) but admit of much interchange. Thrones. Spirits of Domination. Mah) nition of "Nine Choirs". cit. Tiamtu. and Angels. 13. 10. karubu-sarsar. p. having no direct connexion with the planets. or divine gifts. "Likeness of God" (1). 1913) p. 68. (2) Lamassu. who as the Teraphim of Genesis (31. Tob. Shedu. appearing under various forms as (1) Karubu. and. Powers. Labasu.-Babylonienne. who. op." The Sukalld and the Hierabghies that of personal messengers.166 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (1) It is texts. . Rawl. Spirits of Interpretation. Rawl. Archangels. Hehn. p. the "Spirits" of Isaiah are created graces.



of a "World-Egg. Wash- ington. —Day or The Geb-Nut couple are evidently an inversion of AnSar-KiSar. 146S. p. Osiris-Isis-Horus . Cosmogonic Parallels. or vice-versa. (2) is too striking to be accidental. « For the evolving Eunead see p. associated more or less with Light or Water. Apart from (1) the similarity of sounds. Nunu. Holmes Anniversary Volume.— Turn or ApsUr—. the "merciful Lady" on the Euphrates. is paralleled THE POSITION OF Atum-Ra has already been shown that these terms are either convertible or That appositional. 44. as out. 8-12. Heaven-and-Earth themes are promised in both cases. the evolutionary concept is not wanting. tends to confirm this notion. the Chaos. p. — Finally Nephtys. Sun-Corn-Deep. 7. Fortson Press. (1912). But there are scattered materials dating from different ages out of which some such cosmogony may be reconstructed. 2) 167 Egyptian Form A connected Egyptian cosmogony analogous to that of Babylonia is hardly to be found. (Chaos) Father. Who was the originator. Jensen. Air-. For Creation in general consult Brugsch. being (4) more or less synonymous with Sun-. Virey. where we find the series this with the Babylonian System 2 3 (Mummu) Apsu-Lachmu-Lachamu-AnSar-KiSar-Anu-Bel-Ea-Bau. c. etc. Nevertheless' here also.whole universe derives its being. and Erman. Bel. 46- . p. and Ea. Osiris-Isis-Set suggest a parallelism with Anu. 91 above. Dawn? (Lucas. as Lachmu and Lachamu. Horus however occupying the same position in Egypt as BelMarduk in Babylon. the patroness of the houseby Ishtar-Ba-u. Foremost among these is 9 tum-Shu-Tefnut-Geb-Nut-Osiris-Isis-Set-Nephtys—.) with (3) Air and Dew. for'— It Niinu. c. Casanowicz." the . But the chief points in our present controversy are these Compare 456789 — : Nun. are clearly convertible terms. (1917). p. p. and the parallelism is evident. Religion und Mythologie der alten Aegypter. from which. Mummu. the Sunlight. The Development of Religious Thought in ancient Egypt. Shu and Tefnut. some connexion in the remote past seems certain. gives birth to Rd. 1. the Lady. and Deep-power respectively. Mistress. Breasted. The later Egyptian "trinity".CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (N. (5) hold. the may be plausibly connected is meaning of which similar. even in the earliest period they have a pronounced cult under human forms. the "Sun-Light". and who was the borrower of this chainsystem? This in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to determine. 1. Earth-Sky. Air-Dew. {Nun ) 12 A i the Ennead of 345678 Heliopolis. on the Nile. 101. they are personalities and not mere forces is unquestionable. the idea of a primaeval chaos. the Mother. indicating literally "Father-Sun".

called by the Egyptians Nun. sometimes identified with Tum-Ra above. Surrounded by an impenetrable darkness. the personified Deep. creating— distinctly recognised. and His word called the universe into life. but in which the only Lord of THE Chnum-Ra tradition Another very early tradition is that of Chnum-Ra. —foreseeing. Here the idea of a direct personal action is particularly pronounced. THE CONCLUSIONS TO BE DRAWN From the collected evidence it would seem that. : This is well summarised by Brugsch in the following paragraph "In the beginning there was neither heaven and earth. (sic). Their bodily outlines and colors corresponded after the creation to the primaeval (Exemplary notions of the Divine Spirit concerning His future work. . (also personified). Ptah-Ra. and who as TumWhile it is plain it who Ra acts like a self-conscious divinity. who models the Egg which conceals the light and the germ of the future world". the idea of a personal creation may still be traced in remote outline. or Sun-Father the is the Sun. He is the "Moulder. sprang forth. Potter. which concealed in its bosom the male and female germs. Ra. the immediate cause of life on the earth. felt the desire of creative action. out of the primaeval waters. The deities are not forces but persons. the beginnings of the future world. triad. Who is the primaeval Spirit that is here intended? He is He is no mere force. inseparable from the substance of the primaeval Deep. Creation. ideas?). the concrete source of all being. out of which the Daylight. planning. and argues once more for its high antiquity. the All was filled by the primaeval Deep. although the Egyptian cosmogony shows deep marks of an emergence from pantheism. therefore that is at an aboriginal evolution of deities is same time a self-conscious evolution that here implied. or with Shu-Ra. Hor-Ra.168 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Egyptian Form Here we find the hatching-theme once more in evidence. reaching its cliniax in the Horus-cult of the U^nic Age fully 3000 ye&rs before Christ. the creating Nun-Ra. among whom Nun-Ra-Tum forms possibly the earliest the figure of Atum-Ra soon becomes transcendent. The divine primaeval Spirit. or Workmaster. The first creative act began with the formation of an egg. whose aspect and multiple forms had first been mirrored in his eye. etc. is and revealing himself in Ra. In the Rising Sun the omnipotence of this divine Spirit embodies itself in its most splendid form".

and Ea. in the words of Craig. King of heaven and earth. Master of destiny. 523524 (Edition. it is identical the inheritor of the same fundamental notions already considered above. Vol. their idea of creation was more vivid. 3) 169 Assyrian Form is In so far as the early Assyrian belief lonian. Father of gods. that we have got beyond a theogony. Ashur was known and worshipped in nearly every city of Assyria he became in fact the symbolic expression of the political unity of all the lands of the Tigris. shows. Creator of all men. Jastrow. of a self- — begotten god. (Introduction). the "fashioner of the heaven of Anu and of the Underworld". the cosmologies are identical.' Also p. . by which each of the Babylonian patesis invoked their own state-protectors as in some sense the only "gods". in the deep. of Anu. : "To Ashur. 1905). but with this difference that while Bel was unheeded outside of Nippur and Babylon. that "the doctrine of a divine self-existence. With this idea of a centralised kingship well to the front. (K. Assyrian and Babylonian Religious Texts. that Ishtar. the expression "self-created". development of the northern kingdom it was inevitable that distinctively national tendencies should find their way into the mythology at a comparatively early age and give an equally distinctive coloring to the common with the old Babythat we have But in the separate Western-Asiatic notions of creation and world-origins. Creator of Heaven. Lord of all gods. PI. Bel. to his Lord hath Sennacherib. protector of Igigi and Anunnaki. and the rest. it is not surprising that the northern divinity was destined to become a formidable rival to the old Sumerian pantheon. Shamash. 1 Craig.—fio-nw-M ram-ni-su . — Now while the title "father of gods" is common enough and in no sense distinctive. In any case the following creation-fragment from the time of Sennacherib should be instructive the position of that he is still . Dweller in the shining heavens. It is true one among many. His own Creator. Lord of gods. Whose power is Dweller in the Royal Palace at Ashur. Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyrians. King of Assyria. King of all the gods. and the description of Ashur as pa-ti-ik Sa-mi ilu A-nim u Ki-gal-li.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (N. pp. to the realm of the forgotten. made an image of Ashur". and of the lower world. more strictly philosophical. S413. and finally to consign the Babylonian Triad. Anu. I. III. if not to the actual position of dependent or created beings. still claim an important share of his divine attributes. « Comp. was taught in more than one text". Ashur is by comparison unique and universal. A). Adad. 83. As against the local idea of divinity. As a more purely Semitic people.

Die Genesis. whose names according to Philo Byblius are as follows arises a great primaeval matter. partly with Jewish-Palestinian notions. Through the combined action of these principles or "elements" there which contains the germs of all life. which splits itself into heaven and earth. . Principiis. Thereupon the heavenly bodies begin to be formed. — : (1) (2) (3) Anemos and Bau. but is carried back to two definite individuals. as The latter however adds one more the chief constituent of the universe. but they show that the ancient tradition of a primitive human couple has been preserved. there are no means for proving the point. all tional. pp. 1893).—and from these again Genos and Gennea. From Damascius. little. Pillman. apparently spontaneously and living beings begin to appear on the earth and in the seas. point to abstract. From the items collected by Damascius in his work De Principiis it would seem that this cosmogony reveals points of contact. for creatThe question must therefore be left open. the old totemic theme. if not physical forces. and the Egg-motif again suggests "hatching". ' Quoted by Nikel. partly with Egyptian. But the whole subject is too obscure and the sources too fragmentary to admit of any definite conclusions.—the ancestors of the present Phoenicians. or Water.* On this system the evolution of the world is founded on two principles Pneuma and Chaos Aether and Aer Chronos and Pothos according to Byblius. This "protoplasm" ultimately assumes the form of an egg. according to Eudemos. 125. according to Mochos. and may easily stand for personalities. they simply evolve. though the setting of the creation-legends is otherwise strongly evoluExpressions like "Breath" "Air" "Time" "Desire" and so on. —from whom are descended Aion and Protogonos. De 6-7. Names ing alone mean divinities.170 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Phoenician Paralleo^s If the same cannot be said of the seafaring Phoenicians. Cloud-Mist. 117ff. On the other hand the genealogy of man is not left vaguely in the dark. principle. there is no suggestion that these things were formed by a superior power. (Leipzig. Comp. These names are evidently descriptive or generic. c. — — . Genesis^ p. Though the evidence is only negative. it is owing to our fragmentary knowledge of their cosmological ideas rather than to any demonstrable absence of the creation-idea as such.

1500 B. something extraoradmitted on all sides. the close parallelism with Babylonian forms has revealed the fact that many of these ideas were current in Western Asia at least as early as the third millennium before Christ. Die Genesis. and this makes the theory of a continuous transmission of the divine "deposit". if not the only possible. either for its combined its doctrinal value. the results of modern Assyriology have shown that there is no a priori objection to an immense antiquity for the main body of this tradition. But apart from its esthetic and educational value. though such an antiquity is not in itself demanded. see Nikel. on the cosmogony. 1903). — . 1-124. 4) in Hebrew-Palestinian Form The Hexahemeron of the Hebrews is too well known to require any lengthy exposition in these pages. This will become increasingly evident. in the mind of the author. while its main outlines can be traced back indefinitely and not inconceivably to the earliest ages of mankind. (passim). — — — (2) INTERPRETATION are here in presence of something unique.* authenticity or — . C). it is important to call attention to its doctrinal features. the "bottomless deep".CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (N. the "brooding over the waters". This can best be appreciated by directing attention to the following facts That we dinary. It has been described by persons of very different persuasions as "the sublimest poem" that ever fell from the lips of man. in so far as they have a bearing on the present discussion. we may safely make the assertion that in its present form the creation-story is at least as old as the Amarna-Period (ca. (1) ANTIQUITY As a counterblast to the doctrinnaire assertions of former times. It may be useful. the more this tradition is compared with the earliest mythologies. and (2) regarding its interpretation. however. Be this as it may. not impossibly to the very beginnings of the human race. (Freiburg. (1) regarding its antiquity. to call attention to two questions. at least the most easy and natural hypothesis. in so far they concern its relation to former systems and its own incomparable superiority. pp.—either directly. esp. (Mosaic age). On the one hand. nay. is : ^For the priority and independence of the Mosaic tradition. at present the best and clearest treatment of tiiis subject. or indirectly. the "six-period" development on the other hand the internal evidence shows just £is clearly that the striking differences both in lexicology and doctrinal content can only be explained on the hypothesis of an independent origin. by drawing upon sources which embody a tradition which descends far into the prehistoric past.

without "lizard". But there are other considerations which suggest a more simple solution. of course. or that of strict "creation" in the philosophical sense. . of trinitarian notions. "chiselling".—without "egg". affecting such forms as Elohim. of His "blessing" the man — ABSENCE OP POLYTHEISTIC TOUCHES In view of the strong polytheism of the surrounding nations. 45. an opinion which gathers additional weight by the similar construction-changes in other parts of the book of Genesis. (gods?). the position of Bara Elohim at the head of the sentence indicates a unique divine causality. 48. *Ha-ihammaim we ha-areiz the nearest approach to "cosmos". all this is clear evidence that we are dealing with a supreme Personality. 4. Amos. 7. The continuous alteration of singular and plural numbers defies all the ordinary laws of Hebrew syntax. of His fashion- — ing "out of the dust of the earth". (Let us make man) This classic objection to the divine Unity is however not of much force in view of fact. without "demiurge". of His "breathing into his nostrils work of each day and declaring it "good". It is possible. the breath of life". 2 Comp. as tiiese concern the nature of Elohim-Jahwe.' Furthermore the vivid pictures of the "speaking" of Elohim. 6$. whether that of "making".172 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM ABSENCE OF PANTHEISTIC COLORING Whatever may have been the meaning of bara to the Hebrew mind. that these are plurals of "majesty". that they may be safely taken as such. or. etc.* . we are here once more in presence of a single. of His "commanding" in the imperative mood. at least. S. the universality of thing*. supreme. that these are no more than poetical "licenses". "heaven and earth" being the strongest expression known to the language. and Na^ase Adam. not with a mere nature-force. personal Creator. Is. 18. now generally conceded. a "World-Soul". These supposed "vestiges" are the use of the nominal and verbal plural. 13. yet terminating in the entire universe. At the very beginning we have Bara Elohim. *See the passages given 103 above. is p. there is evidence to show that it is used only of divine action. the divine Unity is in any case safe with Bara but the almost deliberate change to the first person plural in the above passages is suggestive.* But apart from this. Jerem. a grammatical discordance. even if a Trinity of Persons be indirectly hinted at. — — — A RETURN TO PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM A divine Unity of Nature is therefore unassailable. who brings all things into existence "by His Word". distinct from the created world. 4. never of the action of secondary causes. it would not be surprising to find vestiges at least of polytheistic terminology. On any hypothesis. at least. 7. rather than His creative action.

. Y^^ ^^j. ER^ At^* BoaER.1) FIKSX a>AY-" LIQHT"(1.10) TH^UWOUT SECOKD XAY .-Kl-Tt "CReAIOK dpCflAIH IS Ua^fe IMPUED) KAtffH SAMU-U j(e-AM U tO-e MU-^B-^I rOKIH .*\n^'?'ttr HB«B10SWUM<iUP'CJ^H.iduk CRHATfeu-rwe heas/en ano fashioned the EAKTH" " IN "THE BECKNNtNQ Yi^rr Jim ji« b^nl^i^ i^i nMJ^^ii i 0Ui MARDUK) aS-KI (SaMU) IB-NA-A »»Jn-ICAIkAN-NI-HA(0NUYmStt. LAILAH THAT IT (iocs WAS.>!i^nTi'irni (a>AY-NUMBa«S AREVNMMTING) }n$>^i s ^AMAS I-MA I-&IS&MVIE (ITiH) THIKD lyW J* LWXJ'Cl . AS LAB-Mll tA-SA-MU(l.. CLEFT HER N TWAl ^4 U KE A FIAT FISH " I SAIS LermEFE AM-^ROLU^M-^'R.6) ' MARSUK. ^-SU aS-W BAN-W-NA(»IR?mM)(*<5AmwaLHS) LETTME 3BIWUNO API*E«C '(JETTHHl (THE SEPARATION OP LAMB AMD WATWV n\Dy n& TVVrr WO nmy HTTT r*n Krm UT4. J>H tjMnnnno dot IB-NA-A IP-TI-KA })>' tyr\)>ii*}m) 9 SAia: ANU-'bBsMAWJUK-B^ a* HEAVEN-EAKIH-OCeW aWfnHamSHEDOWBJM) ^ LET THE WATERS se GATHBiED TOGerWER INTO ONE PLACE. Litur" (ILU)l-Ay-MU0UJ)U'-HA-MUUS-TA-PU-UCr.ll.He»OeS NOtCFEWEIT.ioVC-IOBASTABUMISSJM<!) AS UR-RA MU-1^1 (I.d^o!>trD]a (ZCni) KI-MA NlWtU fvWS-Dl-E /*1A JlN^-SU BE1WEEN THE vhr^ssvo WAreRS' 'tIAMAT EU-n AW© -TIAMATSAPLm ms con 101 v*^*>>nnnQ 1)11^ d^nn ASUFPERANOUWEH. TMC HEIW' AN» -PtAM-ra^WHO CAUSED THeC^REEN •.ta)" WEBE-CRB«nB>''(:s«VWOMf|) SEA nRMIiMENr p|>*n^) yw/ii§ (IlU MAMHIK) ttj-PI-£l-MA crnJsH wn r.SEarTOWEROrPLAMT«HCt'» Di^D "AKtDCiaD .WATeT^"(l.IB-BA-MU-U fl.1.9) MAR»UK IsfcnEATOfR OFGWAIN. INDEFENDEMOB TnELUDEcaEN.) dv •t9>i"W :iivm i^:^i^ .3rF) 'mVTH?CAL1'^ 0nwn CR&QTD THE HQA^EN AHDTHE EAKTH* RUACH-QOHtM IS OPPOSED Bf lB-B*rNU44A lUNI ff.1-) ma.0CEAMC&5OTP :cmw w>tf^M (lU^ /3tudi> ^.ll5) TOHU XArBOHU AS CHAOS =MUMMU-APSU-TlAMAT-<3DNTCMr>»«i-TRlAD(lr.3«CBUT N©*NAMIN«i' MENTIONOl) ^'^•TOE .THE HEBREW HEXAHEMERON WITH ASSYRIO-BABYLONIAN PARALLELS BBTEAUNQ " ITS HIUENBB AlHTHiVlTX BUT THBOLOOICAI.3) said: MARDUK-^AMAS as solar UEITV is U<JHT.


Dillman. First Mosaic Day. Light The "formless void" with "darkgradually penetrates the "hydroness upon the deep". a more complete. more direct activity. A. creeping and flying (Repbirds). more profound. as a popular matter of deep-sea life synopsis of the six great "works" of creation. be Light!" II. that. mal tiles life. Sixth Mosaic Day. Higher mammalian "Let the earth bring forth the livlife. as follows : I. Fourth Mosaic Day. Second Mosaic Day. DifferentiaSeparation of higher and lower tion of liquids and gases. Die Genesis nach dem Literalsinn erklart. to give the reader embodying The Supposed Concordance This system is based on certain parallelisms which are believed to exist between the Mosiac "Days" and the successive evolution of the cosmos as presented by the data of astronomy. let the earth bring forth". etc. its value is inestimable. ferns). though the be rigidly scientific. (No organisms). visible. First up"Let the dry land appear!". "Let the waters bring forth the creeping thing". As to the method of creation. Uber Kosmogonie vom Standpunkte christlicher Wissenschaft. "Let the fowl fly". Early Mezozoic Age. man!" suggestive. come V. Karl Braun. (Leipzig. They reveal a desire to describe the world-process in more intricate terms. seasons). and Eocene-Pliocene Time (Tertiary) VI. Kaulen. Nevertheless. H. ditto. F. 1908) pp. more expanded view of the creation-drama. (Munster. IV. they are far more elaborate and philosophical than anything to be found in primitive times. First appearance of man ing creature!" "Let us make VI. 1905). (Freiburg. palaeontology. Devonian Time III.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM 173 "in the BEGINNINa GOD CREATED THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH" Yet simple and direct as these narratives are. etc. especially in the and of "luminaries". "Let heaval of land. (Deep"waters". while the personal "Let us make man" indicates a closer. Hoberg. geology. Early Palaeozoic Age. "Let there sphere". V. Third Mosaic Day. more immediate. Archaean Time (Primary Period) I. . etc. Silurian Time II.' to » Comp. III. Fifth Mosaic Day. 1-11. etc. "Let there be a flrmasea life) ment". Jurassic Time Lower ani- Later Mezozoic Age. Heavenly bodies be- "Let there be lights in the firmament!" (Days. Azoic Age. Triassic Tirne (Secondary Period) IV. Dissipation of vapors. G. etc. Cenozoic Age. (Pliocene?). years. leave room for secondary forces. The most cursory inspection of parallelism is this table will show. the expressions "Let the waters. Strack. 1902). it fails etc. Late Palaeozoic Age. Hence the opinion which makes them "scientific". Der biblische Schopfungsbericht (Freiburg. (Fishes followed by the earth bring forth the herb". 1892). Die Genesis (Munich. 1905).

Chochmah .



This idea is for the first time prominently developed in the Persian theology. "Then those Spirits created. Chronos-Pothos. each supreme. to the national triads. but the rulers of two antagonistic worlds. For the righteous the best Mind. though the differences are equally marked. Mills. word. H. with the Geb-Nut development. 1900). with the AnSar-KiSar relation the Shu-Tefnut couple in Egypt. . The same idea is found in such combinations as Pneuma-Chaos. by their deeds are famed. contrast to the Chaos and Water-theme of the Babylonian-Egypwe find two First Spirits at work from the very commence- ment. Heaven". (Leipzig. 29-30. E. As first they two came together. here we have a dualistic theology. in which the two have become independent and mutually exclusive personalities. however. the worst life. See explanatory introductions by the same author (ibidem). which represent the conflicting principles of the Phoenician cosmogony. each eternal. and an evil. We have the Lachmu-Lachamu series in Babylonia. contain the germs of a dualistic system. EARLY IRANIAN FORM By tian system.^ The "coming together" of two opposite forces is a striking reminder of the doublets mentioned above. The Gathas of Zoroaster. couples.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (N. Who as twain How all at the last shall be ordered. etc. each creators. p. Of these let the wise choose aright. and deed. S. in so far as they are not mere supplements. Anu-Bel-Ea. and Osiris-Isis-Horus. physical or mathematical divisions. 5) It 175 Aryan Development be noted that the idea of pairs. in theory at least. or antagonistic prina leading characteristic of the early Caucasian theology. we have good reasons for believing to have been prior to the artificial constructions known as "enneads". While in the former we see a theogony. which we have every reason to believe. the one essentially good. Life and our death decreeing. Now the above couples. male and female principles. A better. In thought. For evil men Hell. 43. which. XXXI. p. they two. And not as the evil-minded". represents one of the earliest and purest forms of Aryan will ciples is — faith.^ = iL. both giving rise. the other essentially evil. Aether-Aer. B. to wit: CREATION AND COUNTER-CREATION "Thus are the Spirits primaeval.

67ff. life. spirits of god In the Amesha-Spentas or "holy spirits" we have either the personified what is more probable. (4) Dush Kshathra. six. the She-devil. 1913) pp. Mills. the Babylonian "septessence" of God as a possible common source. Kine-Soul. or as groups of divine manifestations or hierarchies. 4. Haoma. the Bad Will. the Failure. the Kingship. 17-18. 3) This is not the place to discuss the thorny question of the derivation and possible interconnection of these "spirits". while the arrangements are similar. (6) Haurvatat. 8) and Azhi Dahaka as the seven-headed Dragon of the Johannine vision ( Ap. the Order. (The Divine Authority). the Incompletion of Fruition). whether in structure or content. for Also Idem. the "Toil-Mind". bellion. 1908) p. . "Wicked Author of Wisdom) Asha-Rita. ^ Comp. (The Divine Goodness) (4) Kshathra. Creator of good. There is evidence to show. and Azhi-Dahaka. the Indolence. the Falsity. These are opposed by the great antagonist. Angra Mainyu. and Hehn. the "Law".^ Fravashis. favoring the supposition that they were looked upon as essentially dependent. H. the "Death". the "Wicked (3) Akem Mind". These seven "Immortals" by no means exhaust the list of Yazads. (6) Avaetat. the Logos? (The Divine Truth) (3) Fo/iu Mana/i/the "Good Mind".1 L. Sraosha. the Spirit of Love. the three-headed infernal with a thousand joints. Inverted Power. that. (demons) (1) Ahura-Mazda. (The Divine (2) (2) Druj. Creator of evil. 12. the Cor- ruption. Spirit". the "Dejection". from which it appears kissatu Hani as "sevenfold universality" that the number seven is a common Western-Asiatic possession. False Liberty. the "Great Wise One". . (The Divine the (1) Angra-Mainyu. There is Mithra. the Prayer. the original number. the Hate. Death-Fury. Obedience. the Evil Plan. Avesta Eschatology compared with the Books of Daniel and Revelations. the Dominion. 5) while Aeshma appears as Asmodeus in Tobit (3. Die biblische und babylonische Gottesidee (Leipzig. and they furnish a distant parallel to the "Seven Spirits" of Zechariah (4.176 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Iranian Form the ameshas and the seven attributes. (7) tion" Ameretatat. and his corresponding legion of evil ones : Amesha-Spentas opposed by Daevas. the "Allness". the Disorder of things. . the "Anarchy". Corruption. either as archangels. (Nasu). the "Immortalisaof being. the "Insolence". Fire. Die Siebenzahl. (The Divine Sanctity). the bold Effrontery. (The Divine Con- (7) Merethyu. (Chicago. (5) Aramaiti. the "Lie". Friendship. Discord. But the early prominence of the "seven" can hardly be doubted. 20. Gaush-Urvan. Atar. Daevas. . Nasu. Re(5) Taramaiti. 10) and to the "Seven Stars" and "Seven Spirits" of the Apocalypse (1. Aeshma. the Putrefaction of being summation). the Perfection of things. the two theologies are entirely independent. Manah. or. Health. the created spirits of Ahura-Mazda.

From his seed. (Strassburg. stars. ^neither being nor nothing. 'f Yi-King. Comp. vv. Die Genesis in Keilschriftforschung passim (S. the poetic Edda. E.^" Rig. Aether and Phos. you are the ancestry of the world!"* Though these items do not by any means imply a late : redaction. Ahura Mazda created the world in six periods. the first human couple. » Tao-Teh-King. and then "finds" the first humans. this Qgg brings forth Brahma. the All. . Nikel. Animals. out of which he makes the world. etc. animals and Iranian. plants. B. By the power of his thought. Vol. E. and between them the atmosphere. the first human. p. on the sea-shore. Later Prometheus fashions the body of man.) * * Comp. the order being parallel to that of Genesis." In the Chinese "Book of Changes" it is T'ai-ki Wu-ki.^ The later Taoism substitutes the "vital monad" for this indefinable. who gives him life and the power to recognise his creator. V. Gajomart. Earth. S2ff. » out. 160ff. but the soul is inspired by Athene. but simply the indefinable "That".—Heaven (Light) Waters. 119. Oros and Okeanos.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Iranian Form 177 According to the later Bundahish version. B. in S. there arises through Thought and Desire the AllDarkness. grew up like plants. issues evolutionally from cosmogonic forces. from which are evolved the germs or embryos of all things.Veda. (Freiburg.' In the Old Norse legends it is Odin who slays the monster Ymir. from the other the earth. with the words "You are man." Western-Aryan Form The Theogony of Hesiod also shows a Chaos.* In the Law-Book of Manu. Plants. (S. Man. the later — — man are derived. Die eddische Kosmogonie. Later he gives him a female as a companion. producing Erebus and Styx. » Sources c. from which heaven and earth. (Freiburg. Brahministic and Taoistic Form In strong contrast to the early Vedic Faith.Water. XL). male and female principles. E. X. Gaia and Ouranos." In the Dharma Shastra man issues from the earth at the command of Vishnu. Mythologie der Germanen. E. IS (S. identical with the AvesticBrahminism shows a distinctly downward tendency. and very generally throughJ. the Father of all existence. but the soul was directly inspired by Mazda. he splits the egg into two parts. B. He has produced all things and is still producing them. Idem. and gradually assumed human form. Theogony. From a primaeval Void. 1903). XVI). prompted no doubt by the growing contact with Dravidian totemism and metempsychosis-doctrines. Mashia and Mashiana. Vol. 129. « Hesiod. Ask and Embla. Among these embryos is the "World-Egg". their absence in the earlier Yasna points to some parallel extra- Iranian tradition as their source. 121. but after forty years. to be found in Meyer. the "Great Absolute Nothing" which gives birth to the yang and the ying. passim. Bundahish. 1903). 1891). '«The Sibyl's Song of Voluspa. B. from one of which he forms heaven.

2 In Anthropos. and not impossibly to the shores of the Yellow Sea. How far can this idea be traced to the still more distant Orient. Out of one of these Ara made the heaven. (1) Indonesian Form. and brought forth two solid substances of the size of a hen's egg. who. The Natives of Sarawak and L p. Ara and Irik. . Trees and plants then sprouted forth from the earth of their own accord. hovered in the form of birds. which them pieced together furnish a fairly complete picture. or demiurge. poured forth the waters. also W. together with minor spirits. p. —thick as the it crest of a red rooster. In nearly every case a theogony stands in the background. 177. and finally as a figure of clay. —North-West Borneo Of the cosmology of the Sea-Dayaks of Sarawak we have two accounts. Coinp. for Mgr. who. the clay in two parts. British North Borneo. Batara first first Batara Batara first cleft created the earth. By comparing heaven and earth it was found that the earth was too large. 168ff.— thick as the fruit of the horse-mango. creates or educes the various forms of being quite after the manner of the ancient Heaven-God. Schmidt. who made them all". Austronesische Mythologie. 1910). (Vienna." Vol. (London. together with other divinities. Dunn distinctly states that "all spirits came from Batara. 16. and mountains and valleys were formed. and Irik the earth. but never without an accompanying "lord". 6) AUSTRONESUN FOBM The main body of the Western-Asiatic tradition is thus seen from a more or less homogeneous unit. is again conspicuous. giving birth to higher forms of matter.^ That there is a connection between (a) and (b) seems certain.^ fibres (b) DUNN'S version In the beginning there was nothing but a huge expanse of water. L (1906). which may be traced in its essentials far into Northern India. who as male and female became the ancestors of the race. known as Tanah Kumpok. 1896). the "earth-formed". So they pressed it together. master. For the sake of clearness I will bring this picture once more before the reader. first as a red-sapped tree. (a) perham's version "Batara first expanded the heavens. but soon oversingle commanding Personality. iH. 4-8.— and became man". p. over which the two creative spirits.—great as the of the rattan. Ling-Roth. The two spirits then essayed the creation of man.178 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND RECENT SYSTEM (N. forms or fashions the entire universe of is shadowed by a being. 'Ibid. among the neolithic and half-civilised populations of Oceania? It will be found that here too the ancient concept of a watery chaos. They dived under. p.

sharing his productive power with the lower animal creation. the birth of Light. is generally sexless and wifeless. Bastian. Die heilige Sage der Polynesier. but clearly a debased stage of reflective thought. Schmidt. yet not "lay His Word". Light and Dawn. The detailed creation of man is recounted with some uniformity in these legends. the separaHeaven and Earth implied in the sequel. 29ff. The main ideas of this "procreative" cosmology are as follows : Originally Rangi. the Sound. 1881). It is spiritual. but it shows that in the mind of neolithic man the forces of nature are conceived to be real human beings. During this battle. he springs suddenly into being. (Leipzig. and through the union of Atea and Atanua. man is formed out of the head of a serpent. the primaeval Night. the Dawn. Rangi is himself the heaven. as this idea is either absent or not all pronounced in the earlier legends. Ashur. a being created by the being. is identified as the child of Heaven. yet not evolutionally. In nearly every case he issues from some lower order of which suggests the influx of Tonga myth. p. the best this way but not otherwise picturable. Austronesische Mydiologie. 98-100. Comp. half material. even if not childless. p. these suggest Babylonian and even Hebrew parallels. the eternal Silence. his spermatic power. where the supreme Atum-Ra. and Rongo. he does not grow out of it. Ahura. Atanua. tion of scheme that Western- The primitive darkness. This darkness is called Po. etc. the father-god tends to become a merely human generator. This is about as far as one could well proceed in carrying the original 'man'-notion to its logical. he creates all things. half not exactly definable. that is. but decidedly depraved conclusion. children. and other Then are born Atea Tane. When not continually purified. . were so closely united in wedlock that no ray of light could penetrate the eternal darkness. This is well expressed by the description that is actually given of him. naive attempt to describe what is indescribable. there issue the minor divinities. As yet he is without sex. Who?. But while Elohim "creates" heaven and earth. It represents the coarsest side of an anthropomorphic divinity. the lunar orb. his connubial. without name. out of a dilemma. with which Tangaroa. Kohai . who conquer the empire of Night and of Silence. the Light. it is true. and finally mankind in the full light of day. «A. Thus in the — — "Mother-Dawn". some higher power. but per saltum. the eternal Night. With Po. a candid conrecall the classic There are several items in Asiatic traditions.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (2) 179 Polynesian Form The creation of the world by sexual genesis is the leading idea of the Polynesian mythology. and Papa. but by his secret. fession of ignorance. that they are not impersonal agencies. the Earth. the Heaven. are associated Mutuhei. It indicates a rather advanced. is born.

all seem to postulate some contact with the ancient world. division of the world. Awonawilona. the man of wisdom. though many of these thoughts may well have arisen independently. (5) who as the this is accomplished at the bidding of Awona is evident from the fact that he cries to the Sun-Father for help from the surrounding waters of the deluge. Projection of the higher Life-germs. Comp. Cosmogonic Parallels. (Washington. Outlines of Zuni Creation-Myths. the twins. the first — — Yaluna.— quondam "totems" occupy a prominent position. 7) Pan-American Form In the North-American mythologies the six different periods of creations are sometimes vaguely revealed. and the sevenfold This picture cannot but remind us of the doublets and triads. (c) Awiten Tehulnakwi. (1. the highest point of creation. and Five Planets. . own essence. supra). Poshaiyanka. the All-Father. Projection of Heaven. as distinct constella(4) tions. This is a good indication that the All-Father is transcendent. the "Fourfold Womb of the World". ^the shining Father in heaven. — » F. the three greater for the classic Orient. pp. does not spring from the semi-humans. the fourfold Womb of the world. Projection of Water as distinguished from Light and implying a (2) division of the universe into upper and lower regions. the Maker and Container of all. etc. Ehkona(1) Projection of Light. Gushing.180 CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM (N. which we have already certified The Twin-brothers of light. the lower regions. H. 1891). Projection of Sun. c. how(6) ever. Earth. the four. p. Casanowicz. the mid(b) (3) dle point. for Pubylonia. Emanations. These divine "thoughts" are then projected in a manner which implies a definite order being in nature nearest to His cosmic emanation of the All-Sun. He then evolved all things by "thinking Himself outward in space". the "foremost of men". solely had being". Projection of the "Sacred Corn planted by the Seven Stars". The creation-hymn opens in majestic strain and is singularly free from frivolous touches: — "Before the beginning of the New Making. the "Fourfold-containing Mother-Earth". 379-384ff. 13th. implied in the visible differentiation of the three parts of creation. Awitelin Tsitu. including Man. and North America. but rises out of the ocean as a perfect being. who are His mes- That sengers. the Seven Stars (whether as Planets or Pleiades). known as (a) Apoyan Tachu. Egypt. that He is a personal Being above the nature-powers. are brought into any connexion with this act. Moon. Polynesia. who. beginning with the supreme "Sun-Father" and culminating in the "Wisest Man". In the Pueblo cosmogony we find a fairly complete cycle of divine operations. Report of the Bureau of American Etijnology. and Underworld in their present form. the "All-covering Father-Sky". and that not even the Raven and the Macaw. 46ff.

302. 41 ff. whom in some respects he resembles. Comp. — — . the pre-Inca Sun-god. 117. He created the luminaries and placed them in the sky. combined the with a forcible eschatology. the Gentral and South American data being introduced simply by way of additional illustration. the "Spirit-Father" of the Pawnees. Blackfoot Lodge Tales (N.^ (Gomp. Siidamerikanische Mythologie. obtains from his father three eggs. and copper from which princes. and 386. Grinnell. the Mayan Hunabku. and the suggestion of a primaeval dualism. Cipactonal and Oxomuco. from their hands. gold. Another version reveals distinctly Asiatic traits." As a link between North and South America. and plebeans spring forth. pp. Also. all and — are directly — Fire. But he is also the son of Wiracocha. Those who are interested in the subject should consult the sources given on pp. Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales (New York.CREATION NEOLITHIC AND REGENT SYSTEM Pan-American Form 181 The similar position of Tirawa. both standard. Whatever may be thought of the antiquity of their traditions. and taught them all the arts. heavens. was formed the solid earth. they are evidently demiurges. cit. "Power above that moves things". the commanding position of Quetzalcoatl and his three brothers is still to be accounted for. partly overcome by the triumph of the elder brother. is too strong to be resisted. Wichima. an idea which recalls once more the "world-eggs" of India. 33. waters. Cipactli. After punishing his rebellious creatures by lightning. he became reconciled to them. Phoenicia. females. silver. Idem. shows that these ideas extend over a wide portion of the more advanced Neolithic-American zone. who is described as the "White One. 1889). Royal Commentaries of P?ru (op. and with whom red man "lives" at the hour of death. . to whom the creation of the world has been entrusted. p. I have already shown that Pachacamac is the "World-Soul". As such he shares in the divine qualities of his father. sun. As the sons of the Infinite Being. they are characteristic of the highest North-American culture. supra). "advancing the sun beyond all the stars of heaven". who are each jealous of the other's work. fishes. and from the flesh of the great Fish. Their strong personality.' This must suffice as a general delineation of the main currents of thought on this subject. the Greater and Possessor of all things". who arose from the bosom of the Lake Titicaca. raises these figures far above the simple Sky- Wakandas of the prairies. therefore. Y. the half-brother of Pachacamac. ' See the sources given above. The dignity of the legend is however considerably impaired by the continual strife between the four brothers. It would seem. "Garcilasso de la Vega. and presided over the building of cities. that Pachacamac is an expansion of a former solar deity after the manner of Bel-Marduk in Babylon. B. 119. and ancient Egypt. 1892). the Mexican Aztecs deserve at least a passing notice. Ehrenreich. and the first man and woman. ancient Persia) As to the South-American Incas. — •G. and peopled the earth with inhabitants.

Earth. by which the triple theme of Heaven. Originally the "Allness" or Perfection of things. op. 6. — (3) The Swastika l-4-| for the "Life-Mystery" {Assatu). 353 (Kissatu). While this order is not alvj^ays demonstrable. Ashur. for the The Triangle yS^ "Cosmic Triad" (Kissatu). T. Babylonian Writing. 136. Analogous Radiograms The Triskelion^^ the Volute Vwand the Meander SH are evidently same notions. 261 (Arallu). or some other divine combination is sought to be expressed. The Swastika. and is certified for the entire neolithic belt. 154. Su. it is highly probable that this is a general astronomical symbol for that vague cosmic personality that is. Assyrisches Handworterbuch. Wilson. PL XXXVIfiF. Sar). From what has been said in the preceding chapter. and the Sw^astika will be found to represent three distinct themes of creation and to correspond to some extent to the order in vs'hich they appear. at least. and the Swastika brings out the dynamic or repro- ductive side of the deity. Finally we have the mysterious Fylfot or Swastika. the cop- and the bronze ages respectively. there can be little doubt that they furnish the basis for the per. "Kissatu" it became. (Washington. dt. rocks. The Egyptian pentagon and the Chinese cross are variations of the same sign. 1896) p. 196. Inina). 360 (Kissat-Ilani. in India and China. 134. 186 (Isatu). "Assatu". and pottery of this period. Among these the Star. and the Hindoo Asuras are one and all "flaming" divinities. Ishtar. and which seems to be postulated at the back of (2) all the solar or stellar phenomena. and Underworld. 7 (Ba-Zu-Su). 419 (Irsitu). 500 (Assatu). elaborate astrological combinations of later times. Danzel. S. being found on the menhirs. Nos. being typical of the early neolithic. however. In both cases. dolmens. 353 (As. the "life" or "spirit" of the universe. . the symbol of the great "Trimurti". 143. whose phallic meaning some will regard as certain while to the majority it will suggest the more obvious theme of the rotating sun or fire-wheel. 13 (Anu). 94. pp. the Triangle. and probably stand for the » Materials in Barton. the idea of fecundation by solar or germinal "Are" is clearly implied. its graphic symbolism cannot be passed over without revealing some important links in the history of its development.182 CREATION RECENT WORLD-SYMBOLS To obtain an adequate idea of the general tendency of speculation during this period. 1.^ variations of the above. Kis. This symbol the earliest Babylonian hieroglyph that we know of. 765fiF. 148. Next in antiquity is the triangle. either in simple four-rayed or in more complicated eight-rayed form. 261. Assur). theoretically. (1) The Star is ^|^ for the "World-Soul" (Anutu). 116 (Istar. Delitzsch.



and water-spirits of the earliest times. that is the solar year and the lunar month (roughly 12x30=360). middle to we have AnUrBel-Enlil-Ea universe. during the age equinox was in the constellation of Taurus. were assigned to the different bodies and to their how — . Tehulnakwi (Sky-EarthUnderworld). the Indo-Iranian Asura-Mithra-Soma Isis-Set-Horus. for the highest. we must not carry our twentieth-century zodiac. led to the discovery of the "twelve houses of the sun" and the "twentyeight stations of the moon". position with regard to the ecliptic. which is only ideal. to Thus and lowest points of the which correspond some extent the original Egyptian Osiris- (Heaven-Earth-Storm). or even our planets. and even the heptagon appear very early. (1) when the spring- Cosmic Orientation: —The is first thought that will naturally sug- gest itself to the mind of man that of "the heavens above. the latter being the symbolic expression for the "holy seven". etc. the earth beneath. more or less visible to the human eye. — endeavored to indicate and what meanings the heavens appeared to the early Chaldeans. A and these are often so jumbled and incoherent that it is difficult to draw any certain conclusions. the Assyrian Ashur-Uhtar-Adad . (Heaven-Sun-Earth). here fairly copious. that of counting the number of days during vi^hich sun and moon complete their wanderings through the starry vault. the Polynesian Rangi-Papa-Tangaroa (SunEarth-Moon). the moon. few kudurrus. and the five planets. and the waters that are under the earth" (Exod. and thus the broad basis of the duodecimal and sexagesimal system had been laid. not the copy of any existing print I have all are about we have in the line of inscriptions. into the age of Hammurabi. This in its more recent form is expressed by the cosmic triad.CREATION REGENT WORLD-SYMBOLS The Babylonian Zodiac 183 But triangular and quadrilateral themes are not the only ones. or boundary-stoiies. wind. for which the early Babylonian furnishes probably the model. we must not expect anything either complete or accurately scientific. The pentagon. an idea which can be traced in its germ to the sky. that definite results can be obtained. And so. The former had just begun to be sketched. in going back to the days when the first map of the heavens began to be made. and then for the seven days of the week. Another line of reasoning. 20. 4). or divination-literature. the hexagon. In order to picture the world as it appeared to the first Babylonian "astronomers". American Tachu. while the latter were only five in number. the Hindoo Brahma-Vishnu-Siwa (Heaven-Air-Moisture). the sun. Tsitu. In the following diagram. the N. the Chinese Khien-KhwanKan (Heaven-Earth-Man). It is only from the astrological.

. Winkler. Stukken. Himmels und Weltenbild der Babylonier (Leipzig. Pazag for shooting Centaur (or scorpion-man). Astralmythen (Leipzig. Sin-Diana (Crab). the next step was to associate these points with the ecliptic.' ' Sources in F. Scarab-Moon. 3. in the age of Taurus (about 2000 B. in which Samas-Ninnib is the mace with the "Lion's" head {=Anu) Apsu-Nergal is the "Water-Eagle" (=^a). In the middle was the "sea of glass". The Old Testament in the Light of the Ancient East. the Lord of the Deep {Apsu). Here Waterman= "Flying Eagle"). . who as the "Lord of the Lands" became divided between the Bull and the Scorpion. While exact divisions were not fixed until far later times. Haer. — — — — — .AnSar and KiSar for equilibrium. or path of the sun. 1911). 1912). (Leipzig-New York. 41Sff. as are also the Pleiades.184 CREATION RECENT WORLD-SYMBOLS Planetary Orientation: importance are the seven movwhich in later times were associated with the days of the week. Tuesday. and the Scorpion. — — — . and Venus. dragon-head near Marduk the "Ram". (Compare the four Beasts of Ezekiel (1. the Bull. Marduk-Jupiter (Bull). the orientation being in every case to the south. This identification is rendered increasingly certain by the signs of the inner zodiac. Kugler S. sidered: Lachmu and Lachamu for the Twilight. the spring and the autumn equinox. Sun. Jeremias. while the Waterman as the winter solstice — — . (2) —Next in able bodies of the firmament. 7). 679ff. the Waterman. Monday. P. ment of celestials. Nunu for profundity. and the four Winds and four Gospels of Irenaeus (Adv. which. the "Balance". J. Thus. — . Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babel (Freiburg. the "Archer". as in the Mohammedan Kibla and the modern Roman system. IStar-Venus (Virgin). with the throne of heaven. Moon. A. Zodiacal Orientation: Having obtained the four points of the (3) universe by dividing the middle line into East and West. belonged to Ea.) the period during which the skeleton of the zodiac first began to be mapped out was known as the Lion. Midday-Sun. (Triad: Mummu-Apsu-Nunu=Ea) and finally Tiamat for the "Fish". it seems quite certain that some such arrange- — —the "Twins" (?). —the main features hardly be accidental. can terrestrials and infernals is hinted at. are indefinitely ancient. 10). Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens (Giessen. 1911). Sin-Diana for the spider-moon or scarab. ^Thursday. Vol. Ninib-Mars (Lion). Nebo-Mercury (Scorpion). as under: SamasApollo (Lion). Friday. and Nebo the western "Scorpion" (Equation: BelMoreover the intermediate signs should also be conMarduk-Nebo) . IL pp. Wednesday. C. Nergal-Satum (Waterman) Saturday. 1907). M.—MummM for wisdom. Jastrow. (Triad: Samas-Sin-Istar). and the Apocalypse (4. 1903). and then with the zodiacal signs. Of these. the Lion as the highest point was the realm of Anu and other heavenly ones. Sunday. the "Grab" IStar-Venus for the "Virgin". Between the two was the realm of Bel. E. Marduk is the eastern "Bull". 11). ^the "Goat".

1. as the "Lion of the tribe of Juda". as the Scarab or the "Lord of life". 4. 2flF. ' Many of these signs have been identified in the Catacombs. Ezek. 8. It more especially among the Jewish writers of the Kabbala that we meet with an over-scruplous desire to adapt the pagan wisdom to the letter of is symbol of the orient a direct allusion to the "faith In this manner Jehovah and His seven archangels were the rulers of the Father-Sky and the seven planets. the things "I will utter things concealed from the foun- daton of the world". S. Irenaeus they are also the four winds of heaven and the four gospels. to find in every These ideas are clearly more ancient than the mediaeval theosophy. John. 5. Amos. 20ff. 31.—the first Sign of the (1) — — Cross. in Moses and the Prophets. 10. and Ocean—. or adoring divinities. . 8. As to the inner zodiac. 2. 3. St. the seven "lamps". "Seek Him who made the seven stars and Orion" (either planets or pleiades). 5. as the Scorpion. 13. the Lion. in Pythagoras and Philo. Comp.CREATION RECENT WORLD-SYMBOLS The Jewish Kabbala and the Johannine Wisdom 185 The Babylonian Talmud is naturally replete with astral allusions. 10. "The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand. 6. Is. 5. the symbol of "strength". Again. 4. 5. 6. iSee Kohut. as the Balance. > Matt. many arbitrary names were invented in order to make the resemblance more striking. and the Holy Ghost in Water and Fire. 14. John. 17. 6. or Throne of Crystal. 11. as the Bull or the Ox. and the sacrament-chapels.i once delivered". as the "Vu-gin-King". and the whole universe was mapped out as a cryptic revelation of the divine Mind. and above all things as the Fish. 9. Apoc. the baptismal formula. The primaeval ocean is the "Sea of Glass". as the celestial Twins. 11. or the "Son of Justice". with the Merkaba. and were finally welded into a higher unity by that master of mystic wisdom. the Father in Heaven. the Ox.* "candlesticks". 2. possibly for His two "witnesses". 38. Comp. as the Waterman. the Divine. 9. signified are "concealed". 1. 13.'' (2) Planetary Interpretation: the seven Spirits of Isaiah St. Job. 35. the seven and finally the seven sacraments. find their roots in Sargon of Akkad. is now the symbol of the Trinity. and the Eagle certainly Cherubim. S. Heaven. the Man. The seven stars of the ancients are and the "Seven Stars" and "Seven Spirits" of — John. Ap. Zodiacal Interpretation: The four points of the universe are the (3) four Beasts of Ezekiel and the four Faces of St. 9. 3." — — — . 19. the Logos on Earth. 2. 6. 2. Angelologie im Talmud. 4. as the Archer. 14. s 7. Dan. 6. 9. and the seven golden candlesticks". For St. They Cosmic Interpretation: ^The old triad. the most distinctive symbol of the apostolic church. * Is. or the "Lamb with seven horns". 2. 7. Ap. as the Scapegoat. 1. John. applied also to the seven "angels". we have Christ as the Ram. Though the signs are ancient. 7. Earth. the law.

ing star). 215. "seven-headed The Apocalyptic Signs Are a New Revelation In the accompanying diagram I have brought together a few of the more prominent "converted" signs. for the double Nature. qu. »" Further light on this subject in Jeremias. John the Divine. 12." (d) Lucifer as the falling dragon". 11. we have :— (a) Christ as the tified King of Heaven. 3. 19.186 CREATION REGENT WORLD-SYMBOLS Supplementary Signs :--la addition to the twelve zodiacal points (4) as vaguely symbolical of the twelve characters of Christ. 22. 32. »Ap. 3. Ramsay. they now see the Son of man triumphing over the eternal serpent. it is not a question of reading a few cryptic meanings into the symbolism of the heavens. for the four gospels and the cardinal virtues 5. —"We have seen his star in the the East". for antichrist. in order to show that. The New Cryptograms Finally we get the following numerical for the Divine Unity. . "Matt. the twelve foundations. ^Ap. •Apoc.* (b) Mary as the Queen of Heaven. (Star of the Sea transferred from Ishtar. 12. — Star of the Sea"/ (c) Joseph as the star of Bethlehem. 666. See also under Redemption below. it is the mere framework for an enirely original picture. perdition. and idenwith the morning star. 2. . a fact which makes Christ and His Heavenly Mother the illuminating principle of a new order of creation. etc. 8. 1. the "woman clothed with the sun" and "upon her head a crown of twelve stars" "Sinless and beautiful. — . and theological virtues. the star of the Messiah. Thomas in I. for the sab(5) values: — The Mystic Numbers: 1. made to be the symbols of a unique dispensation. 4. Where before we had the firewheel and the swastika. but are rather transformed by the latter. It will thus be seen at a glance that what was unknown to the pagan world is dimly foreshadowed in the prophets and fully revealed in the wonderful visions of St. star. perverted power. for the Holy Trinity.—"I am the bright. the seven spirits. 2. bath. Was Qirist born in Bethlehem. we now have the beautiful Gross with its saving rays of light. for the twelve apostles. 1. and W. . 11. the even(the great planetary conjunction. however ancient and venerable the pagan zodiac may be taken to be. seated on the white horse. but of interpreting the entire celestial phenomena in the light of a unique supernatural fact. or possibly a supernatural star). p. the seven heavens. it can hardly serve as more than the outer garment of the new dispensation. op. for the hexahemeron 7. 2. the seven sacraments. 16. for the divine missions 6. the morning star". a. That these are entirely new ideas is evident from the most cursory inspection of their content. In this way it will become more clear than ever that the old heavens do not give birth to the new. Their separation from the prehistoric signs is beautifully described by St. cit. 12. where former ages saw nothing but sensual and phallic symbols.* "Wormwood".



He "spins out" the world. the position of Pie being paralleled to some extent by Lanyut and (B) Puluga creates without demiurge (?) the material and To-Entah. Though it will be difficult to give the a satisfactory answer to these questions in every single instance. These examples are sufficient to show. — — same. (2) The Order of Creation. for Pie is a demiurge. or at least to shed some light on their general tendencies. (3) The Extent of Creation. Bundjil is Creator of all. combined weight of a considerable number of data should be sufR- cient to establish a solid preponderance in favor of one or other of these alternatives. then (H) Kaang makes the first the tail is cut ofT and the joints lubricated ( ?) man whole and entire. (logical or chronological?). Even the "soul-bird" comes from paradise. for Pie is dependHe creates indirectly the entire material world. but creates the human pair directly. . This is more especially the case with the soul of man. but "Kari gives them souls" (direct inhalation). which not — — — . As a spider. it will be necessary to combine the foregoing material in such a manner that the main drift and tendency of prehistoric thought may the more easily be recognised. (direct or indirect?). and Tuhan. makes two men out of clay. He forms the first man with tail but without knee-joints. ^the first human pair. but Ba-lingo-Ka-langi-Samoa are super-human first — . spiritual worlds. He directly. the universe out of his brain. These concern: (1) The Manner of Creation. This will resolve itself into three questions. even a demiurge is capable of producing. (continuous or periodic?). Tailed baboons occur later. I. Pirman. essentially the ent. from the answers to which some such picture may be reconstructed.CREATION COMBINED DATA 187 To obtain a general impression of the creation-idea as pictured in the mind of prehistoric man. Gregorally being a divine "son". and they may be multiplied that in the mind of the primitive savage there is a strong indefinitely persuasion that he and all things came directhj from the hand of the Creator. Marra-Boona is apparently Creator. Pie fashions the body of man. PRIMITIVE AGE (1) Manner op Creation (A) Kari creates directly the entire spiritual world. (K) Kamushini spins . (D) Amaka and Quat-Marawa are also spinthey ning spiders. first a black and then a less black one. He has made men out of arrows and women out of maize-stampers. Peng is identical with Kari. (F) Baiame creates all things "breathe into man the breath of life". He "breathes" into their mouths and they live.

(B) Puluga in a similar manner (1) The Sky-Palace. the "shining place". Storms. and Earth-spirits. or etc. (2) Ple-LanyutTo-Entah. Trees. or "only son". are universal Makers. Animals VI. (5) The Earth and the Underworld as productive of plants. From the . the first human twins. Seasons. material creation generally: Earth. (3) Sky. We I. (D) Amaka-Quat-Marawa spins out Heaven and Earth. (4) Stars V. Moon. The Sky. The Paradise-Bridge spanning from the earth to the sun. Palace". and advancing in great stages. Light and Darkness. etc. (G) Waka-Kaang. vegetable. Earth. and finally Man. (5) The Earth and the Underworld. The Heavens in general. known as Adj'a and Djaja. and (B). etc. Earth IV. "breathe" on the shapeless earth and evolve the con(3) tinents. is as far as known to us. and Stars. the good and the evil (6) creation. (6) The first humans. therefore get the following outline of creative epochs: Light n. is (F) Baiame's creation in all respects similar to (A) etc. coming. serpents. etc. but details are not forth- He spins out Heaven and (K) Kamushini resembles (D) and (E). same of Bundjil. (3) Numerous Sky-spirits. The first human couple. (2) The Demiurge. the latter the abode of the blessed. Winds. (6) The body of man. the "Crystal synonymous with "Light". there are no breaks.188 CREATION COMBINED DATA (2) Order of Creation A certain chronological sequence of world-events seems to be vaguely revealed in the earliest legends. Daramulun. (2) Pijchor. Man. the demiurge. General ideogram reveals Sky-. Wind. and is the Father of Keri and Kame. connecting the stars. and demons. made out of earth and water. Wind. immediate. (through Pie). Rains. Wind. monsters. Earth. who as angels or archangels. who as creator of the material world separates the higher from the lower creation by "brood(1) ing clouds". and stars. and Man directly fashioned in the life. and the soul directly. the only "son". (4) Paradise-Bridge. image of divinity. Tomo and Ghana. (5) Earth and Underworld. animals. —mineral. "inhaling" the divine (3) Extent op Creation In every case the creative action is continuous and universal. is combined material it is not too much to assert that creation looked upon as direct. (through Pie). The The order of and animal kingdom. as witness: (A) Kari-Peng-Tuhan creates (1) Threefold Heavens.and Thunder-fruit-God. the abode of divinity. Only under (B) is the origin of the wicked spirits undetermined. moon. Water in. (4) ParadiseBridge. Sun. and Water-spirits.

2) Mulungu as the Heavenly One is all-powerful. (M. It will be seen that while a personal Creator is is still in the background. Bonga is a universal "maker" who lives in the sun. A similar order is probably traceable in the mulungu-systeva of (M.—that Munda-Kol of central (1) Manner op Creation the sun. comparatively pure and undeniably biblical. partly identified with himself. as the Sun-totem a vague mystery-force. and bongos.America is of very similar character. . lesser are mere magical centers of fertilisation. (M. "breeding over the waters". through lizards. (3) The tortoise. as follows: is still — earliest totemic cosmogony. more especially by the — the emu-totem. and finally (6) Man. (2) Sky. an evolving divinity. to interinteras. Australia. who as Tota Haram and Tota Buri. who creates by "hatching". 189 TOTEMIC AGE of the The India. followed by higher bums. 4) In North America The Seven Great Wakandas reveal a similar grouping. or is is a Marang Burn. etc. 1) The order in which the Sun-spirit evolves the creation (1) The High Heaven. of half animal and even mineral form. 1) Sin But he he is (M. but are equally vague. 2) Africa. Creation has become immanent. He is the "fountain" of all the wakans. The only order is from inkaras. Altjira-Tukura of Central Australia. Wind. 3) In the Australian system all things were evolved in "dreamtime". animals. (4) Herbs. to half-human forms. 4) The Wakanda of North. and Eastern Africa.CREATION COMBINED DATA II. good and bad spirits. the crab and the leach. (M. and self-depending. His spirits are largely bums. Entities are multiplied by magic. and trees. showing a gradation from life-units. a "mystery" of nature. known as manita and banita (5) birds. (the sun). and W&ter-Burus. (2) Order op Evolution is this: (M. independent evolutionism gradually beginning to assert itself. an automatic machine. through amungas. slip from the swan's egg. though theoretically supreme. we note the gradual intrusion of a naturalistic system. In the more advanced regions of America. 3) world which is eternal. the latter of which procures the clay out of which the earth is formed. who produce the primaeval ocean. concealed in every plant or animal in nature. developing mankind out of a swan's egg. He has become part of The mulungus (M. — (M. a secret potency contained in all being. has entirely lost the power of creating. a mere link in the endless chain of existence. No distinct time-order has been preserved. self-winding. yet he is himself a wakan. a nature-deity. plants.

emus. mystery. the "father of all the totems". there are vague hints of a chronological succession. however. (b) from the semiin which the Sun-Wakanda plays a leading role. (1) The Sun as the first emanation. and illuminated by the Moon-wakanda. (4) The same units as "grass-seed" totems. (5) The same units as snakes. somewhat as follows: I. (2) The primaeval Ocean measured by the Australian DreamTime. Extent and Meaning of Evolution This is apparently a continuous process of self-evolving germ-units. with the hypothetical "Sun-Spirit". It is certain that in some cases the Sky-Father is completely otiose. On the other hand. (1) The Pre-Gosmic Age. where the sun does not shine. It seems to . buffalos. This spontaneous ascent from lower to higher may be said to take place. they dovetail into one another by imperceptible (3) the be fairly evident. VI. who as the World-Embryo is symbolised by the dotted in three stages circle (2) indicates spiral The Inorganic Period. which is a difficult point and wanting in any clear proof. tantamount to "Light". there the All-Father is not directly active. inter-interas or ''gvo\mA"-wakandas. it is its own productive power. degrees. the (3) sixth mystery. the first mystery. but they have no definite boundaries. the buru-wakan-inkara germinal units as evolving under the Morning Star. in which the "Buffalo Eye" becomes and vision-symbol and culminates in spiritlifeman. with the final result that the whole universe of being (including the infinite) is looked upon as a huge evolutional machine. He starts the world and then leaves it to itself.190 CREATION COMBINED DATA Periods op Evolution But while a clear-cut division of works or "days" is hardly to be expected. halffifth v. Broad eras of this kind are no doubt everywhere implied. lizards. (6) Man humans The evolution of man (a) from the egg. or Light Sun-spirit. the fourth mystery. Water in. fecundated by the Plants Thunder-Being and other Sky-wakandas. Earth IV. the second n. and Animals human forms. and without beginning or end in time. and more or less independent forces. that in this intermediate period of humanity there is a growing consciousness that creation is operated by secondary. (3) The Earth as the Life-Mother. the third mystery. the mystery. during which the "Sun-Serpent" the first vortex or "whirl" of things by the The Organic Period. evolutional. unless we suppose the sun to be concealed under the bums. without limits in spdce. in which All-Father-Sun acts or shines in or through the creation.

In Germany-Scandinavia it. that he or fashioned all things by "cleaving" the deep. 1) If Anu be not too forced that Anu-Bel-Marduk-Ea is a personal Creator. 4) Elohim germinally. either directly or Rangi-Papa. Ara and Irik. For if Bel be described as the logos of Anu. while the soul is inspired by Athene. But Shang-Ti is the "Lord of creation". 3) ful One. but with the marks of the preceding pantheism clearly visible on the surface. and Niu-Hoa forms man out of the yellow earth. a personal Evolver. create by fecundation. Man springs from the head of a evolves all things by "thinking himself outward in is a World-Soul. serpent. — Ashur as the "self-created" is clearly transcendent. 191 RECENT AGE In the second stone age the old idea of personal creation rises once to the front. by what method. and he again the equivalent of Bel-Marduk of Hamurabic times. 5) Ahura-Mazda creates by his seven spirits. but the method is evolutional. and mankind by the cutting off of his head and the mingling of his blood with the earth. from which males and females are produced. He forms man out by means of his two bird-spirits. we do not know. 2) (N. There is at first a decided "theogony". unique. In China. —"He commanded. As Chnum Ra he is the Workmaster who models the egg. Men and women grow up like plants and gradually assume human being. from which all things take their and Vishnu commands the earth to bring forth man. but Zeus soon becomes the only one. is made — Tum-Ra-Osiris is a very similar figure. It will -of this be seen that the idea of a Personal Evolver is the typical theme period. both directly and and they is (N. Anu must be looked upon as an Originator.CREATION COMBINED DATA III. the conclusion (N. and Ea the divine Wisdom. form. Brahma splits the World-Egg. by expanding and cleaving. and Pachacamac from the egg. later woman. 7) Awona space".He creates were created". with or without a personal demiurge. an evolution of gods out of natural forces. an all-power- (M. (N. the creative actions are transferable. etc. In default of this. 6) Batara creates of clay. 5) that "finds" the first human couple. In Greece Chaos is distinctly the father of gods. by "His Word". is Odin (Wotan) that conquers Ymir the Deep and (N. approaching to that of direct Creator. but these soon become independent and assume the role of personal agents. (N. and through Prometheus he fashions the body of man. . all things are derived from the Tai-ki Void by permutations known as the yang-ying principles. more (1) Manner op Creation the equivalent of En-lil in the prehistoric age. under whom man again evolves (N. which contains the World-Germ.

Erebus. {Anu. the divine Triads in cosmic form. Varuna-Indra. — (4) Visible Constellations Stars. etc. Assur.Ku originally or partly cosmic powers. From Anu (Bel-Ea). Rangi-Papa.). The beginnings of vegetation. ApsuAtum.~Adapa. Eabani. The Animal Creation. Phosetc. Asar-Sad. Tanah-Kumpok. {AnSar-KiSar. n. Geb-Nut. the ASur-Mithra-Tishri of Indo-Persia. (Aratu and Trimurti) The Swastika or Fire-wheel. Adar-Tufar. (3) there nevertheless brdad periods of greater or less intensity. as follows (2) : I. Indra-Soma. Yima {Yama). (3) . etc.Pan . expressed by Sun. Khien-Kwan-Shui. symbolised by are (1) The eight-rayed Star or Rising Sun. (5) V. SamaS-IStar-Ea.) the order being sometimes inverted.Ymir. and (SamaS-Sin-IStar) the Hammeoroth of Genesis. some names indicating the earth as the materia ex qua.n. of plants. Atea-Po. Brahma Day and Night Theme (Light) from Elohim (with Seven Spirits) or Ahura-Mazda (with six Ameshas) there issues: (1) The primaeval Deep or Chaos. . {Tiamat-ApophisHydra . and Seasons. Tum-Ra-Osiris) (2) (3) While creative action seems to be continuous Extent and Meaning op Creation and never-ending. Maim-Shamayim. Choshek. . Ouranos-Okeanos. etc) . Amelu. Earth and Plant Theme (Land) IV. shrubs and trees is generally implied. Yang-Ying.— Human Theme (Man) (6) The Creation of Ma. Tiamat-Tehom-Temah-Tad-Taiki. very general throughout serpent being a fundamental. the Theme (Animals) VI. The Hexagonal Cross or Triangle. etc. Heaven. the Shao- Yang and Shao-Ying of China. Sun and Moon Theme (Stars) Moon. appearing more vividly in An-LiVarunaKi. etc). Deucalion-Pyrrfia. Osiris {Isis Set-Horus).192 CREATION COMBINED DATA Order op Creation From the numerous cosmogonies of this period we obtain a fairly complete picture of the succession of divine works or manifestations. Theme (Firmament) in. - the Serpent series. followed by Light and Darkness {Lachmu-Lachamu. as in the Egyptian scheme. (Anu-Bel-Ea) Osiris-Isis-Set (Horus) Brahma-Vishu-Siwa. beginning with the supreme figure of the restored pantheon. . and Ocean as clearly distinguished. {Assdtu.) these couples being fairly universal.). Shu-Tafnut. Ask-Embla. AdamCkawah. Mashia-Mashiana. Ara-Irik. Rangi-Papa-Tangaroa. . etc. the Apollo-Juno-JupiterVenus -Sirius-system of Greece and Rome. Uanachash-Azhi . Aswa. . Heaven and Earth (2) Upper and Lower Worlds. {Mumu-Nunu. Or(Vishnu-Siwa) etc. Khien-Khwan. Istar) expressing (1) Cosmic Light (2) Differentiation of matter (3) Fecundation.Dahaka . Ouranos-Gaia. Shamayim-Eretz-Mayim. Earth.

tending to pantheistic monism. pantheistic. and partly immanent iii action. — — — . were made by God. "Let the earth bring forth". vivid. etc. while the latter leaves ample room for secondary forces. side. For. that while the method is evolutional. and to some extent a supernatural process. But this action is no longer a simple "making" of things without regard to their proximate origins. Even the strongly-worded "Let us make man" refers to the soul rather than the body of man. . the final persuasion. but that it has been colored by the prevailing philosophy of the time. an "inhaling" the simple consciousness that all things the of souls. a germinal power. the growing conviction that . a personal. or the wherefore. the how. that creation is immanent. dust. (1) — Thus we get Creationism as the Archaic Form. theistic. the productive power is transcendent. it be concluded with some certainty that the notion of creation has not been uniform throughout the prehistoric past. (2) Evolutionism as the Totemic Form. clay. —as the case may be. that the soul earth. — — — CONCLUSIONS the results obtained for the three prehistoric ages. which correspond to some extent with the Semitic Hexahemeron. but enriching and expanding the notion by (2). of man was inspired in a very extraordinary manner by the only power that is at all commensurate to perform such an act. regardless of when. thus returning to (1). this method is gradual and germinal rather than instantaneous.CREATION COMBINED DATA General Picture for the Neolithic Age 193 It seems to be evident that in this more recent epoch of humanity there has been a return to the more primitive concept of creation as a direct. a direct fashioning of things. however contemptible the origin of man on the material nearly all the traditions agree. or poly- By comparing may theistic. This is expressed by saying that the chief divinity has "surrendered his blood". (3) Creative Evolutionism as the Recent Form. The drama of the creation is pictured as proceeding in grand evolutional epochs. and anthropomorphic. a tradition which comes to us from the oldest civilisation as yet known to us from the land of Sumer. but which is pictured as concrete. "Let the waters bring forth". transcendent in nature. and making the Creator both in and ubove the creation. — ^the ideal concept. That this is a direct and unique process can hardly be doubted. ^by Infinite Power. as is clear from the "image and likeness of God" which follows it.

("Let the earth". all things being hatched out of mineral. may be traced to remote prehistoric originals.194 CREATION CONCLUSIONS Furthermore. ^less close to (2). however insigniflcant his earthly origin. though closely paralleled by the earliest systems. either with or without the demiurge or sur"breathes" out the whole universe of being in six periods: (1) Light and Darkness. as witness the general similarity of thoughts and topics as revealed by those legends : (1) it In the Primitive Period. and monotheistic setting. least close — in its freedom from pantheistic. or unadulterated form. existed in all its essentials in the earliest ages of man. apart from its recent redaction. Hence the six "Days" of creation — — The Divine Tradition is closest to (1). if the question be asked. and more especially in the oldest legends that have come down to us. to what extent the existing divine tradition of Gen. (3) Earth and Man. that it embodies a series of ancient beliefs. in its personal. though forms and terminologies are undoubtedly similar. unsullied. to be. but have been a wider and deeper aspect of creative power. the answer is that it can be traced to none in particular. until no specific differences are left. the fundamentals of (1) are of Central India. never in simple. vegetable. and animal forms by their own germinal power. (2) Air and Water. and finally (6) Man. his soul being in nearly each case inspired. the germs of which antedate any existing cosmology by indefinite periods. (4) Sun and Moon. who. It may therefore be affirmed with some confidence that we have in the Hebrew tradition the most faithful picture of the early consciousness of man on this subject. rounding — modelled after the divine image. 1-2. to wit enriched by creation by evolution. but become (3) In the Neolithic Period. however recent its Mosaic "redaction" may be taken to (3) . (5) Plants and Animals. who. polytheistic.). and fragments of which have survived in the mythology and folk-lore of many peoples. In other words : — ^but The Divine Tradition is Independent. come once more to the front. direct. It must be looked upon as a compact body of truth which. but rather to all combined. in its partly evolutional coloring. or is the All-Father. spirits. etc. is looked upon as the special work of the deity. (2) In the Palaeolithic Period. . still preserved in the Munda-Kol cosmogony more and more obscured in the distant areas. or dualistic touches.

CHAPTER THE THIRD DE DEO ELEVANTE The Traditions on the Elevation and Fall of Man .


As a more external and descriptive subject it is also more tangible. consciousness of man on this subject? How did he face the problem? This will resolve itself into the investigation of the following points is these are not real evils but blessings in disguise. . it is theology only that can give a complete solution to the mystery of death. an obstacle not impossibly of man's own making. it lends itself more easily to popular treatment. as if the initial purpose of the Creator had been vastly different. apart from the revealed teaching. of ridding the world of undesirables. one that concerns every member of the race in a personal and intimate manner. but rather its universal fulfilment. the consequence of a failure. the result of his own free choice. the universal messenger of time? Does it not seem as if something had gone wrong in the original scheme of creation. that — a necessary ''purge" of humanity. What was the early at present under discussion. Another answer is conceivable. regardless of what philosophy may have to say in the matter. however suggestive. they can bring us no nearer to the main question a question of fact. Am I destined to live for ever? If so. had somehow been frustrated by an obstacle not originally in the divine plan. or a possible probation? (3) immortality lost. why must I die? How^ is it that my body is subject to pain and infirmity. and with what consequences to mankind? How From this threefold consideration it should be possible to clear up this question from the standpoint of facts. are not of much value. the means of making room for higher and better forms of life. that death — : (1) Did this man consider himself as essentially immortal in the beginning? (2) Is there was any record of an ideal state. to disease and decay. and finally to death. a rebellion? These are a priori considerations which. We may think of these things as we may. by no means opposed to the natural law. and this the more so. a fall.PARADISE 195 In approaching the subject of immortality we feel that the burden of a heavy analysis is considerably lightened. For if philosophy is certain of the immortality of the soul. as it is a problem of intensely vital and human interest.

While there is no serpent other than the World-Python." THE PYTHON AND THE RING-DOVE then immortality was lost because mankind multiplied too rapidly. while the fruit of the Soul-Tree is eaten by the mother. they kill the Semang in a body. as well as the Soul-Bird. they breed promiscuously with their offspring. the first human couple. crossing the mountains. "When Kari had but the death-messengers only kill certain individuals at Kari's command. and came down to the Jelmol mountains to look nearer. succumb to their passions. 194-19S. —The Negritos is op Perak "To ask these people whether the soul of strangeness". they were very good. but Pie pitied them and prevailed upon Kari to stop slaughtering mankind except in special cases when his vwath was provoked. The "name-tree" the earthly equivalent of the paradise-tree. THE ISLAND OP PRUITS AND THE SOUL-TREES and death are connected with certain trees is implied by the from the Paradise-Tree.^ As to the origin of bodily death. "When Kari sends his lightnings now. Death was not yet and the Semang. and they ran over his foot like ants. command must have been a prohibition of premature marriage and thus of eating the fruit. . Seeing this. and consider what was to be done. did not see him. 225. he ordered his breath to collect and conduct their souls to heaven". but his breath was fiery and burnt them all up throughout the neighborhood. paradise-fruit. II. and to check the rise of a race of "Let men die like the Banana!" * Such idiots. At the continued disobedience of man. Pagan Races. This means that every new birth implies a fresh eating of the That life fact that Kari sends out souls — — . we have the following fragment of a legend preserved by the negritos of the province of Perak : created man. Kari became furious.196 PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (A. 184. is If it will stand to reason that the divine : 1 Skeat. II. But Kari saw that they were getting too numerous. This the air". is like whom the a very general persuasion throughout the peninsula. was "And how could it an old Malakkan native. which conducts the new soul from Kari's Paradise. 211-212. « Idem. immortal appears the height die? to it is the laconic reply of question seemed superfluous. Kari decrees their death the verdict of the Thunder-God upon those who transgress his laws. 217. evidently a Tree which tree grows on the Island of Fruits and is guarded by the of Life Giant Baboon. in spite of the warnings of the Ring-Dove. * Id. He blew them away. established. The Semang. is II. for none can see him (sic). 1) Malakka. 207. 218. » Idem. II. says a recent reporter. living on fruits. prospered and soon got numerous.

this seems to reveal some connexion between "tree" and "life". Demons or "hantus" however dwelt in all of them. II. the first human pair. however. II. used to knock upon its trunk to warn the demons to leave it. op. 235-236. The fact that the demons are opposed to Peng and that he wishes man to live. It is through the killing of this eagle with a magic knife that Balut wins the hand of Walut. Both are remotely connected with the "Island of Fruits" in the distant ocean. and Peng (or Tuhan) ordered the people to slay wild beasts for food. » Skeat. « Idem. "Then famine commenced. so that many of the "Originally trees took to bearing seeds only." THE PARADISE OP FRUITS AND THE HEALING-TREES giving the Areca or Dampong-Palm which is the most powerful lifewhile the Chinduai or Love-plant is a dangerous stimulant. while the Love-plant is singularly suggestive of a tree of temptation. THE SERPENT AND THE WORLD-EAGLE were turned sour through the machinademons. grasping in his red-hot hands a clump of "Seven-Bamboos". Again. of forbidden knowledge. but the idea of a if Now the trees of the island tions of the — forbidden fruit is strongly suggested. they applied to Peng for help. into which the demons had crept. soon became wroth with man as well. The land. They are "SoulTrees" having the power of life and death. who used to break off twigs and thus incurred the wrath of the demons. the dragon Rahu figures as the power of evil. (world-beliefs). II. . ' Idem. the giant Eagle. however. which causes people to lose their reason and to fall into violent love.PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (A. and are very probably guarded by the same protectors. 2S7. cit. and every tree and plant (even rattan and bamboo) bore sweet and wholesome fruit. we have a faint echo of another "protector".' The stories are somewhat loose and incoherent. 234. forthwith turned the demons themselves into stone". so that they might be revenged upon the apes. 262. The bamboo-demons. whenever they desired to fell a tree. and taught them the use of the blow-pipe.' it is Here tree. (Notice the souring of the trees through the influence of the apes and demons. but he. Whereupon certain trees and plants offered to make their sap poisonous and lend it to man. it is clear that the original trees were good and wholesome. and thus the Areca Palm-fruit may be plausibly connected with the days of man's innocence. though the soul-"bird" is not mentioned. and in Klang-Blok.—The Senoi-tribes op Perak and Selangor The Senoi peoples of Central Malakka have a parallel tradition:— man and beast lived on fruits alone. or else bore sour or noxious fruits". was full of apes. and hence men. as the trees are so closely interwoven with the rest of the story. —an evil power). 2) 197 Malakka.

and life or death-imparting character. II. wife. it is To Entah. "They came from a place called 'Rising Land' in the Sky". as on one occasion a Jakun persisted on eating one of the tempting Cocoa-nuts. with the result that he immediately dropped down dead(!). people slept as they felt inclined. where there is no pain or sickness. mysterious. and have died like the banana. — — full. 337-338. "In the course of time the descendents of Mertang multiplied to such an extent that he was forced to go to the Lord of the Underworld. They are the Coconut. the Mantra possess a peculiarly positive faith in another world". their sons. >• Idem. 3) The Mantra-Jakuns op Selangor "Unlike the Benua of Johor. In those days. and ever since men have ceased to renew their youth like the moon. In the earliest times there used to be three suns. THE RISING LAND AND THE UPAS-TREES There can be little doubt that the Upas-Trees of the Besisi were regarded as "poison-trees" simply to emphasise their dreaded. The same qualities might have been applied to the banana. but grew thin at the waning moon. For if the Tiger represents the devouring enemy of man. . or any other tonic. albeit in vain. the death • Skeat. neither of which are poisonous. 315. and there were no divisions of time". II. and where there is such an abundance of well-water that it brings forth seven lakes". and waxed fat again as called .198 PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (A. and child always one sun left in the sky when the others had set. » Idem. "Let men die like the banana and leave their offspring behind!" is Tuhan's verdict. the "Lord-knows-Who". too. Lord of the Underworld remedied it by turning one-half mankind into trees. which sky was originally "very low and near to the earth" until Belo "raised it with his hands" in order to make room for his farming operations ( !).* she neared the — . 292. who apparentiy have no beUef in the existence of the soul after death. since there was husband. and hence there was no night. The father and mother of the first humans were Ayer and Tanah. Here also there is an Island of Fruits. "Drop of Water" and "Clod of Earth" and it was from Mertang and Belo. that pleads for his salvation. II. "where old people become young again. and represent the state to which things had come." Again. In those days men did not die. 336ff. and Tuhan. that all people were descended.and the Betel-Palm.* THE TIGER AND THE LORD-KNOWS-WHO we have the same idea of over-multiplication as the cause of and divine anger that we have already certified for the negritos. There must surely be some connexion between the loss of innocence and immortality and the eating of some stimulating or "sexual" fruit.

" THE JUNGLE-FRUIT AND THE DIVINE COMMAND Puluga then showed them the various fruit-trees in the jungle. A TRANSGRESSION IMPLIED WITH A PUNISHMENT In the sequel. Puluga created a the present inhabitants. This reveals an essential connexion between the loss of paradise and the transgression of the natural and the divine posithe command to abstain from certain fruits. In the beginning. . and though invisible to human eyes. to trace this culpability to the first ancestors. The species are not determined. p. on the island of South Andaman. lat. 98. In any case. and bearded (sic). the color of the soul is said to be red. p. more and more remiss in the observance of the divine command. Finally Puluga sends a great flood and destroys them all. baskets and canoes. and given to him as his partner. 98° 52'. and by comparing the Malakkan tradition. and Ghana were instructed by Puluga in the art of making fire. Andaman Islands. soul. 94. 1) 199 Andaman Islands "The Andamanese do not regard their shadows. and were equipped with the power of speech. 96-97. As in Malakka. not on the individual. but are rather more explicit in describing the origin and equipment of the first human pair. like much taller. » Ibid. They grew more and more disobedient.PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (B. which then existed only at Wotaemi. and imparting this property to the inferior members at the consummation of time. There is a threefold division of man according to "body. they partake of the form of the person to whom they belong. (long. the first pair and their progeny began to multiply in alarming proportions. but their reflections in a mirror as their souls". Tomo. but that of a spirit is black. » Ibid. He was black. 12° 18'). formed by Puluga. His wife was Ghana Elevadi.^ The paradise-legends are in all respects similar to those of Malakka. OR WOTAEMI-PARADISE This is situated in a definite locality. and spirit". and in doing so he told them not to partake of certain of them during the rains. The main thoughts are as follows : THE garden op PLEASURE.' A PERSONAL SIN OP THE FIRST COUPLE the transgression is fastened on the race. the "spirit" being of its nature immortal. of manufacturing bows and arrows. — 1 Man. not difficult to read between the lines. the loss of indefinite longevity and the expulsion or dispersion from paradise growing is accompanied by the breach of the divine command and by Though it is sexual and moral laxity. but man whose name was Tomo. tive law. and with this multiplication there came a degeneration. pp. after the world had been made.

that as the food is and strength-producing at present. Reed. but perhaps best expressed by "per- mankind. 218ff. seems to insinuate. who is himself the author of all life. 2) Ceylon It will hardly be necessary to prove that the Veddas have a lively faith in immortality. and though intensely real. THE LAND OP THE MORA-TREES One of the few legends on the origin of the Vedda clans speaks of them coming from the "hill of the mora-trees" in the "eastern province". the materials will not allow us (G) PhHiIppines to go. his invisible spirit . that the channels of life a special sacrifice to health- and death are in some way related to a particular food. p.* evidently the consumption of a prohibited food the negritos of — . and the firm belief that "disease is the punishment for wrongdoing". » Seligman. p. which was lost by a moral failure.200 PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (B. of all virtue.' The same line of reasoning applies to the Philippine region. for the wilful transgression of his laws. it an indescribable something. The only intimation we have of a formerly deathless state of however. of all happiness. seems to reveal the same consciousness of a primitive state of integrity. that claims direct kinship with the — — "gods". there is little significance in the story . 73-74. it was probably so in the past. followed by its partial consumption by the worlife to the shippers. if anything can do. where the earliest Veddas lived off the fruits of the jungles. Yaka.* is is neither ghost nor dream-spirit. and the possible hint at a better state of humanity in former as times. It is more especially the yakapart of a man. p. Further than however. Negritos . 122flF. and can only be rectified by the sacrifice of its proximate cause here the Banana.^ KANDE YAKA AND THE SACRED COCONUT A seems more definite to exist thought is revealed by the intimate connexion that between Kande Yaka and the offering up of the coconut as him alone. and were evidently not carnivorous. « Idem. « Idem. this. The giving of the staple commodity of chief divinity. But apart from the association of this life with a definite fruit. it is derived from the fact that the only passport to a life of blessedness is obtained by a close intercommunion with the departed yakas. 65. an indirect one. of Zambales. p. Among Zambales the practice of offering up the banana to the Great Anito. seeing that their entire religion consists of little else than an invocation and propitiation of ancestors. and more especially with the Great is. The Veddas. which sonality".

XXXI. more especially as the forestunless The custom of placing the sacred blossom we suppose that — — . Centraal . it is clearly of the nature of a punishment. Kruyt. But if this is so. it is again the Coconut and the Betel-Palm that are peculiarly sacred. Borneo. your children shall step in your ye chosen the stone.' Had — » NieuwenJ. the Apu Lagan above the clouds. as the rice. XXXVIII. by sending a rice-famine. of the saving over the destroying principle in nature. on the image of the crocodile it symbolises the triumph of life over death. 186. Here it is AmeiTingei that tests the endurance of the first couple. 143. Pagan Tribes. men would never have died. being feared rather than worshipped it is no less evident that the betel-palm is the source of a large part of his sustenance. changeless and immortal". C. This seems to imply the loss of offence. Amei and Djaja. De legenden der Poso-Alfoeren aangaande de eerste menschen. 196. A. or "fatherland of trees". Mededeelingen van wege het Koninlcliike Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap. 99-103. (1894). famine. Quer durch Borneo.PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (D) Borneo 201 Among the Orang Ukit. because "they are made of flimsy bark-fibre" ( ). 1 Hose and McDougall. a decidedly powerful statement. though formerly abundant. p. hujs.^ AMAKA AND THE ENCHANTED FOREST Kayans is a forest of enchanted fruits. —evidently implying some power of healing. I. serpent. The Toradjas of Central Celebes have preserved the words of "Because you have chosen the banana". of the rigors of divine justice. Vol. As it is. but would have gone straight to Amei's Place of Heavenly Delights. « A. I. I. for if the rice never an exceptional treasure by an exceptionally grievous had failed. the banana-tree has offspring. 132. men have a strong sense of immortality. II. the above combination is strangely redolent of tree. your life would have been like the life of the stone. men have to die. the latter being offered to the supreme divinity in order to "call back the wandering souls of the erring". says Samoa to "your life the senthe first shall be like its life. 84. is suddenly withdrawn. and temptation. While nothing is said of the moral cause of this terrestrial paradise of the It is The known as Apu Kayan. commonly known as Punans or Bakatans. and Amei is forced to ascend to the highest Heaven of Amei-Tingel in order to recover it. For if the crocodile in these regions is the greatest enemy of man. Idem. When and the parent-stem dies: so shall ye die place. 340. and the invocation of the "High Father" on these occasions shows pretty clearly that the betel is the symbol of life. of rejuvenation.» I THE STONE AND THE BANANA tence: pair. THE SACRED-PALM AND THE CROCODILE is difficult to interpret.

harigen rassen. which. De sluik en kroesp. while others say that they came out of the Nunu-Tree." CHIDIBEY AND THE DAYS OP PLENTY say. From that time mankind ceased to cast their skins and have died"( !).* AMAKA AND THE KANARI-TREE In the Spice Islands it is Amaka again who plants the Kanari-Tree. 51. p. p. 467S. The Mafulu. 'Wil106. But through the failure of an infant to recognise its aged mother. but they regret that The Mafulus he ever steps.' The Melanesian : tive —"At story of the serpent's skin first men *Wilken. but still instrucnever died. who descends from the skies on a bamboo and a rainbow. There is hint. however. In the Aru Islands similar trees are sacred to the Abuda. and prepares a happy dwelling for man. that Wonekau demands witness: told the of food-stuff as condition of immortality. however. Austronesische Mythologie. p. who taught them all they know. . 265.' left them. p. "Schmidt. 2S2ff." (E) New Guinea and Melanesia primitives. » Riedel. For Batara and his rainbow soon disappeared.—as —"Has Wonekau alived in Heaven afor a long time?" "They haven't sacrifice ! me". and point to certain rocks as the vestiges of his foot- QUAT-MARAWA AND THE SERPENT is amusing. Batara. "but I am forbidden to eat the casuar for ever" This points to some connexion between the eating of the food and the "heavenly" or benignant character of the divinity. whose superior knowledge is acquired from him alone (sic). Idem. the divine (?) son of Adyi and Datu. the mother went to the river and redonned her cast-off skin. and with it the only It is access to paradise. out of which men and women spring forth. but cast their skins like the serpent. 264. few items collected should WONEKAU and THE CASUAR The Karesau-Islanders speak of Wonekau as living in the high heavens and as the ruler of human destiny. 232ff. Kruyt. the Kalangi or Heavenly One. They cannot explain his disappearance. and is now living in the called land of the white man. 117. possibly in recollection of a similar origin. was the answer. though this is only an inference. The Melanesians. is only of short duration. the legends Among the Papuan and Melanesian on this subject are no longer as numerous. though the merit our attention. a species of flg.202 PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION BATARA AND THE RAINBOW Other fragments of the same tradition are found among the Makassars. p. » Codrington. liamson. that in the days of old there was a wonderful being Chidibey. Het Animisme. 7. which was planted on the mountain summit of an island in the West (sic).

630. chop went her tomahawk into that hollow trunk. surely a strong sancat least be in- From ferred (1) (2) the combined matter the following points may from the context: Immortality was the original destiny of man. the paradise-legends are no longer as vivid or well-rounded as in the Indian Archipelago.PARADISE EARLY OCEANIC TRADITION (F) 203 Australu-Tasmania In the Australian region of the far South-East. the woman was gathering firewood and she went near the tree. claiming all it could touch with its wings. p. 5) MUNGAN-NGAUA AND THE "GREAT SECRET" The same notion seems to be implied in the numerous food-restrictions which play such a prominent part at the initiations. 1 Langloh-Parker. though the actors seem to be more far off. however. It is Mungan-ngaua who destroys mankind on account of the violation of a "secret". » Brough-Smith. however. which secret includes the abstention from certain foods as sacrosanct. . The bees made a nest in this tree. will be found to be of some importance. The following fragments. 639. and the women coveted the honey. and out flew a huge bat. Vol. for its observance tion. Man underwent a Tree-probation to which he succumbed. One day.^ (F.' ") It relates how the first man and woman were tree in which a bat lived. 428. This is only to be expected on the theory. but the men forbade them to go near it. pp. now generally accepted. The Euahlayi » Victoria. less individuated. that man did not originate in Australia. But at last one woman determined to get the honey.^ is held to bind under penalty of death. 1) BAIAME AND THE HONEY-TREE The legend says that at first the tribes women were told never to go near a certain were meant to live for ever. which was now let free to roam the world. lest (F. 633. having drifted from Indonesia southwards during the first wave of human expansion. forbidden to go near a they should disturb the creature. as they show the continuity of the same funda- mental ideas. Out flew the bat. Tribe. but was a very early immigrant into that continent. I. (F. The hollow tree. 3) BUNDJIL AND THE BAT-TREE The native origin of this story is rendered highly probable by the existence of a very similar bat-story among the aborigines of Victoria. and men have died ever since. This was the spirit of death. p. The Aborigines of Howitt. (3) Death was the price paid for yielding Thus the skeleton of a paradise-story is handed down in undiminished form. Native Tribes of South-East Australia. 98. to this temptation.

are concealed in certain foods divinity. 180. these people obtain the power of indefinite agility and invisibility. and is a magnificent and very rare tree. probably of this nature.* THE POWER OP INVISIBILITY By mixing the bark or sap of the Moduma with certain other specifics. Idem. Les Pygm^s. Very massive and very tall. it resounds as if to respond" (!). it rises in single majesty near the rivers. in NZAMBI AND THE MODUMA-TREE Among these the so-called for. position in the religious cult that Moduma-Tree occupies such a prominent some explanation of its religious symThere are various specifics for securing bolism seems to be called praeternatural powers that are perhaps more magical than religious in character. but that some such tradition may exist in the undercurrent of the popular mind seems highly probable in the view of the popular legends that are associated with certain lifegiving herbs. which are in the exclusive gift of the "The Moduma". of being able to elude all their enemies. 190 (note). according to merit. no explicit account of a trial or fall of man has so far been reported. as it is not identified with any distinctly religBut it is different with the Moduma-Tree. sometimes with their own blood. holocaust. or punished. they must never be eaten directly.204 PARADISE EARLY AFRICAN TRADITION (G) The Negrillos op Central Africa is evident from their which the soul is judged. The sacred ious notions. says Bishop LeRoy. of seeing extraordinary visions. rewarded. 188- 192.^ 1 LeRoy. p. or "Red-Fruit" for the purpose power of clairvoyance. Its bark emits an agreeable odor and when one strikes it. * Idem. of which I have seen only three specimens. Negrilles d'Afrique » et Negritos de I'Asie. In any case these beliefs and practices tend to show that the higher powers of man — — . not until certain portions have been offered up to the deity. as well as the properties believed to be acquired cannot but their human pursuers suggest the preternatural equipments of the "risen" body. say the natives. to be celebrated. "is a word which comes from the root meaning 'to be famous. to be great'. p. nut of this tree is believed to be the direct gift of the Creator.^ As to the origin of bodily death. While the primary object of this ceremony is evidently a utilitarian one. The application of the Iboga. These fruits are looked upon as sacred. pp. that of protecting themselves against the wild animals of the chase. . and is invariably consumed in the fire and offered to Him as a Nzambi of obtaining the is — . That the Negrillos believe the soul to be immortal eschatology. and at a height of twenty or thirty metres carries a superb crown.

But the following story. and made him alive again". 117 (giving the spyrces). but when he awoke. go on dancing until I return'. though its origin is it is difficult to say why we have to die. ject.PARABISE AFRICAN TRADITION (H) 20S The Bushmen op the Kalahari left but a sleep". that has no place in the counsels of divinity. and gave him a canna. and scorpions as a punishment. sing the way you were singing before'. They called all the other baboons to hear him. who sent him there. For he immediately undoes their work by raising Kogaz to life. by turning them into baboons with crooked tails. 'That is the song I heard. says the Bushmen proverb. The enmity between Kaang and is the demons who kill his firstit born son. and went behind each one of them as they were dancing and making a great dust. And Kaang said. may throw some light on the sub- "Death is in obscurity. and gave it a crack. the baboons have hung Kogaz. whom he sent to cut sticks to make bows. with a chorus. and they danced around the tree. singing an indescribable baboon-song. Then he said. he told Koti to give him his charms.-—surely an unpleasant fate. p. and he put some on his nose. Before that baboons were men. and when they saw him coming close by." Kaang was asleep when Kogaz was killed. KAANG AND THE ENCHANTED BUSH "Kaang. but a little baboongirl said: 'Don't sing that way. that is what I wanted. the baboons caught him. had a son called Kogaz. He said his father sent him to cut sticks to make bows. And they killed Kogaz and tied him in the top of a tree. and he wants those bows to kill us. and said. known as the Quing-legend. and by banishing them to the mountains to live off scorpions. but since that they have tails and their tails hang crooked. 'Sing as the little girl wishes'. and he sent them off to the mountains to live on roots. "Your father thinks himself more clever than we are. beetles. Stow. The Native Races of South Africa. they changed their song so as to omit the words about Kaang. *G. and he drove a peg into each one's back. So he went to where the baboons were. And he went and fetched a bag full of pegs. When Kogaz came to the bush. saying. Then Kaang took Kogaz down. that it is the result of a rebeUion. a clear proof that death is of demoniacal origin. (the "Lord" of the Bushmen). . "Kaang thinks he is clever. so we'll kill you". and they asked him. So they said. and they sang and danced as before.* THE POWER OF IMMORTALITY The only significance of this very nonsensical story is the power of immortality and resurrection that is apparently vested in the "lord" of life.

But the firm conviction that there would be no death if all were good. there was no death. THE ETHICS OF IMMORTALITY The most interesting fact. disease and death are attributed to the baneful influence of witchcraft. This motive is only a negative one. how heaven and earth were separated. 344. and all things were governed. they represent very often the highest pinnacle to which mankind can aspire. for they call him Papa. of bad magic. heaven and earth were united. op. that sin is the origin of death. For if the black arts among many of the nature-peoples go unreproved. a heavenly world. blazing with light and glory. the origin of death is shrouded in mystery. 1 Von den Steinen. in view of the points now under discussion. In those days men lived for ever. that death is the result of sorcery. this implies that death is in some way the result of sin. there is nothing to tell us how the reign of immortality came to an end. But if we confine ourselves to the Bakairi of the upper Shingo. Kari and Kame . op. p.^ This is brought out with considerable force in the paradise-legend. if. of a moral failure. and in or above the heaven was Kamushini. and so in the beginning of the world. . for whom misery. therefore. and indeed of all evil. » Idem. a name which sounds familiar and ought to speak for itself. 4Sff. it is partly because Ihey are among the more primitive. implying. but which is worth studying with greater attention. on the contrary. 348ff. by whom all things were made. or the King of peaven. — DEATH THE RESULT OP WITCHCRAFT In the sequel. and paradise was on earth. Into this world he places the first human twins. is the general persuasion of these peoples that there would be no death if all men were good. made out of arrows and maize-stampers. there being hardly a without its native account of the origin of things or of some story of the "good old times". but it means direct repudiation. partly because they are better known to us than most of folk-lore of the Brazilian races is The the forest-tribes of the interior. which I have already given in the preceding chapters." KAMUSHINI AND HIS HEAVENS The Bakairi trace everything to heavenly origins. Ehrenreich. all was Heaven. p. it is all the more encouraging to find a primitive people.206 PARADISE AMAZONIAN TRADITION (K) Central Brazil tribe or people that is immense. the "Shining Light". Now this is a point of no small importance. and equipped with the power of recognising him as their father. cit p. however. cit.

that they are meant to imply that the primitive pair lost the gift of immortality through the consumption of a forbidden food. but I do not wish my people to die !" But Heaven answers in still more emphatic tones. or the consumption content into the scene. there is a mysterious transformation-scene. of heaven and earth were destined to be parted.— men have continued to die ever since. upon the past sins of men and the consequent loss of eternal life through a moral delinquence. he says. immorality. and that the same food must be sacrificed to the deity in order to reconquer the heavens. "I will stay!". that they would rather live on earth than continue to face the rigors of divine justice. to which Keri replies in disgust. while Heaven goes up- But whatever may have the loss of heavenly innocence. which are sacred. . that they have more than local significance. You are good.— "Then / will change!" At this point he and all his people slide off to the earth. this seems to insinuate that immortality was lost through a rebellion against the decrees of heaven. And yet you remain here. — ward. "my people are dying. —the millennium had come these fragments it is to an end. This thought is easily suggested. is f6rc6d upon us. which seem to THE TRANSFORMATION-SCENE been the proximate cause of the fall of man. he is the cause of his peoleave them. Even the escape of the people and the change of the heavenly for the earthly climate is. however.—all must face their inevitable doom. it seems quite possible. many It may therefore be concluded with some probability. impotent to ward off the fatal decree. They are known as the Keri and Karnes Trees. and Keri's arrowmade men are in no better plight. forbidden fruits. THE IDEA OP JUSTICE From clearly impossible to read a definite ethical But the repeated request of Keri that Heaven may though Heaven is "good". but is wanting in positive proof. during which Keri addresses the god of heaven in language that is more imperative than comprehensible: "You shall not staiy here". that though the idea of a divine vengeance important links in this story are missing. that heaven is in fact "too good" to hold them.PARADISE AMAZONIAN TRADITION THE KERI AND KAMES TREES 20r mentioned in connexion with the national anceshave something to do with this story. ple's death. because. There are two trees tors. the nature of the delinquence being of variously hinted At as black magic. and upon the stumps of which food-stuffs are occasionally placed in the hope of averting the thunderbolts of the Almighty. While there is no direct statement to this effect.

Women held a higher position in those days. and sent a red star. though it is still meagre enough. and then made two mountains or clods of clay. is in fact a very wide persuasion among the Amazonian peoples. in which the heroes are always the righteous few. which turned into a giant on the way down. this legend has little significance. 8 Rev. In any case. p. A few stories are also told of the hero. which was sent as a punishment for their sins. having little power over the life and conduct of man. Washington. E. though this is not certain. and nature seems to have been more friendly to man. Vomoara. 19\7). This does not prove of course that men were originally immortal.208 PARADISE AMAZONIAN TRADITION man has brought this fate This sense of justice. Cooper. . but it helps to show. nor is he brought into any relation with the problem of immortality. and especially the Onas. and that sun and moon were husband and wife{!). that such was the primary intention of the divinity. which here. while the great majority are consumed in some terrible catastrophe. Pimaukel. that physical evil must be traced to moral sources. as far as we know. (L) FuEaiA-PATAQONIA "We have no detailed information on the mythology of the Ghonos and For the Yahgans. and the story of the "bearded white men" is possibly due to Patagonian influence. in conjunction with the above data. it reveals the belief in a better age which was brought to a close by the growing violence of the human race.* Apart from an implicit recognition of an era of peace and social prosperity. (Compare the classic tradition of the dancing Amazons). The giant killed all men. a fair amount of material is available. but he is not associated. (B. they have chiefly themselves to blame. this consciousness that upon himself through his own fault. adultery. When men began to make war on each other. to the neglect of moral prescriptions. and were in fact the ruling class. 162-163. from which the first Ona couple were formed. blasphemy. and the curious tradition that formerly there lived on earth a race of "bearded white men". M. that if things are no longer what they should be. with any culture-teaching. as may be proved by the numerous fire and flood-legends. the sun and moon returned to heaven. A. The Yahqan Traditions A few legends among the Yahgans speak of a time when human beings were married to rocks. as elsewhere in the archipelago. J. Bulletin 63. Alacalufs. neglect of the — couvade. The Oka Legends More interesting is the Ona story of the first man. is a vague belief.



says the legend. which. On this subject the story i6 silent.PARADISE LATER ASIATIC TRADITION (M. This has the ring of remote antiquity. an age in which nature is gradually substituted for the "living" god. So Sin Bonga pointed out Then "their eyes were opened" For "the Hi tasted very sweet and it inflamed their passions. is that it associates the sex-passion with the eating of a root. Among the Mundari peoples legends in a comparatively pure state. They brewed Hi. a unique creation. something freely given to the Creator in return for the gift of immortality. In the creationlegend already related. and drank their of the sexes. approved and freely offered by the divinity. the native equivalent of "the Garden of Adam". it certainly differs widely both from the earliest legends and from the revealed tradition. and "garden". which. though ultimately a blessing. over hills and dales. and is evidently far distant and very different from any existing or cultivated garden. . or "enclosure". OR THE GARDEN OP ADAM As to the scene of the story. fill. as has also the name of the garden. is hardly as dignified as the earlier stories. may originally have been taboo. but rather a stimulating beverage for the multiplication of the human race. of. in which this subject is either not handled at all or else it is plainly intimated that man is direct. and taught them the secret of making Hi or rice-beer therewith. as directed. And the first pair is since remembered as Tota Haram and Tota Buri. for the above words represent the earliest Indonesian expressions for "man". THE ADJAM-GARH. through forests untrodden by the feet of man and over fields unworn by the plough". (Appendix). VI. eiN-BONGA AND THE ILI-ROOT "The first human pair". — * Roy. The importance of the story. however harmless a notion. however. 1) Central 209 Indu Chota Nagpur we find the paradisethey have not as yet been affected by the growing naturalism of the period to which they belong. For the Hi is not a prohibited food containing the seeds of death. the first human pair have been seen to spring from the swan's egg. The Munda«. but a state of primitive innocence seems to be implied. "fort". "master". p. And in due course of time they were blessed with offspring". as the sons of the first humans are depicted as "wandering about over the face of the earth. and things are left very much to themselves with regard to their origins. to "were innocent of the relation them certain vegetable roots.^ Whatever be the moral import of this statement. (the naked male and female ancestor). it is laid in a place called the AdjamGarh.

298fF. that the delinquent must give back to God that of which he has unjustly robbed Him. lost or forfeited by any hypothetical ancestors. 2) Bantu Africa In the Bantu region of East Africa. »LeRoy.* THE SACRED FLOWER The very general custom of reserving the finest products of the jungle for this purpose. This has naturally robbed them of any clear notions of a paradise. that the divine anger is not against personal but against some "original" sin. Here as elsewhere. which seem to imply some consciousness of sin. in some cases even from mineral forms. the guilt was incurred by an unlawful consumption. however. such a belief may be inferred from numerous purification-rites and atonement-sacrifices. but in many cases actually worshipped. La Religion des Primitifs. that with most of them the human race has sprung from lower animal. MULUNGU AND THE POWER OF PARDON When a child is born. that only in few instances is there any consciousness of the direct action of a personal divinity. it is helpless. THE SERPENT the other hand the animal world plays a far more prominent part than in former times. . and more especially the powdered meal of the coconut palm. The nature of this sin is not further specified.210 PARADISE LATER AFRICAN TRADITION (M. he is no longer the enemy but the ancestor of man. as the breach can only be healed by an abstention. Not only is the serpent and the hyaena feared. if not a past moral probathe belief in immortality is tion. the Wanyikas say. for which the totemic peoples are On — famous. a common inversion. (Cult and Sacrifice). live!" Forget what? It is difficult to see some inexplicable fear that the child has already incurred the divine displeasure. immortality forfeited. they have a god-given virtue enabling the consumer to live the divine life. I have not been able to find a definite account of the origin of death or of an ideal state from which the race has fallen. We what faded among these peoples. shows that these things are held to be in some sense sacred. and evidently not for any personal action of its own. Although well-nigh universal. that. but the common practice of offering up the first fruits of the season in this connexion suggests once more. the inroads of totemism are more have already seen that the idea of creation has somestrongly marked. p. by which the divine friendship was lost. The only explanation of this very common formula is that mankind "May God forget it! May he what this can refer to if not to ha^ erred in the past.

attribute wonderful feats in the days of dream-time. Wollunqua. Northern Tribes. this is in so far a noble tradition in that it recognises an ideal "somewhere" in which man lived in apparent friendship with nature. there was no lack of the power of self-transformation. and to increase or decrease the fertility of man and of nature in proportion as they are agsociated with the emu-sun. 3) 211 The Aruntas op Lake Eyre Here The same remarks apply with equal force to the Australian region. the earth. that these wonderful powers have been lost. it is man himself that seems to have his own fate in his own hands. trees. Evolved from the sun. Great things were done in those days. 182. Here the water. and that after three days they regularly rose from the dead. All this. and where rocks. and that is why nowadays nobody rises from the dead after three days. unborn.PARADISE LATER AUSTRALIAN TRADITION (M. and through their combined union or interaction there arose the present race of mankind. After this the body could not come to life again. or the lizard. S13 (combined data). 226. — ALTJIRA AND THE HAKEA-PLANT Possibly some clue to the mystery may be obtained from the grass-seed totems and the Hakea-plant. DEATH THE RESULT OP A "PASSION" The Kaitish say that long ago their dead used to be buried either in trees or underground. however. a mere cogwheel in the machinery of creation.' 8 Spencer and Gillen. or he takes his place as a half-fledged indescribable in what is left of such a place. but in half-animal or embryonic state. he is his own "doctor". Altjira. as these inapertwas or half-made men are spoken of as inkara. which are believed to be specially powerful medicines. and animals spoke to him as his nearest kin. undying. who instead of burying the dead. This happy condition was brought to an end by a delinquent. fell into a passion and kicked the body into the sea. 283. worked out with all the niceties of a modern text-book on biology. is hypothetical. the lizard and the emu were all intermarried. . the paradise of the ancestors. pp. but there is no explanation other than the possible influence of bad magic for the fact that men have to die. or the Ancient One. This is THE FAMOUS ALGHERINGA OR DREAM-TIME Now. we have an elaborate system. Man is now the result of atomic forces. the frog. as they used to do! THE GREAT WOLLUNQUA Another fragment to is which the Warramungas the story about the giant serpent. It was apparently a place of happiness and immortality.

E. The man obeyed. the Creator intended that man should live for ever. which man was commanded never to open under pain of losing his immortality. ever since. She opened the packet to see what was in it. and one sacred fruit. 436. he remained immortal. Here the main idea seems to be that mortality and immortality are both natural to man. the Ash and the Cedar. At last the sun's own daughter who was with the people on earth was bitten by a snake and died. but that the prevalence of one over the other is more a matter of chance than of direct moral purpose. But when the sun passed over them in the sky. and all men have died THE SOUL-PACKET Another version speaks of a soul-packet. Belief in Immortality. that she might live. 4) The Prairie Indians Stories of the origin of death through curiosity are particularly abundant in North America. 1913).' DEATH THE RESULT OP CURIOSITY It will be seen that in both these examples death is the result of a proba- tion in this sense. Rep. and as long as the packet was unopened. though remotely. and they had better die. and the buffalo as the grandfather among the Omaha and other tribes. But his wife was both curious and incredulous.212 PARADISE NORTH-AMERICAN TRADITION (M. the precious contents flew away. p. runs the Cherokee legend. 403. that it was brought upon man by a premature desire to penetrate into divine mysteries. moved by curiosity. Cherokee. Then the sun gave way to remorse and said the people might live for ever.). But this was not to be obtained without a trial. to discover the secret of existence. »Frazer. they unhappily "Now opened the box too soon. and thus life and death are once more connected. THE MYSTIC TRBE-WAKANDAS The Omahas have two sacred trees. Myths of the *Dorsey. 77-78. Uth R?p.A. "The Corn is regarded as the mother. he told the people that there was not room enough for them all. p. and mankind has been subject to death ever since. Study of Siouan Cults. Wth. with a forbidden food. the Corn. (London. A .). A. More- over the connexion of the "Mother-Corn" with the spirit of Life would suggest that the Corn-spirit was contained in the box. E. " Mooney. However." Away flew the spirit. He bade them take a box and fetch his daughter's spirit in the box and bring it to her body. (B. but on no account to open the box until they arrived at the dead body. p. (B." * This may have something to do with the secret of life as suggested by the following legend THE SPIRIT-BOX "In the beginning the sun was made first".


DHOBME. IM-IOI) (|g3) IM HUM — Kl 4l4-KIN>4IG. LIT. (C._.1lU-JSU ^H^^ IMA Kl f ^1^ — NA —A T\ »^pftM ijf^^ »UR «f »^ $A (SINqilpBAWSAR C»^-3ABAI A— MA — 0« XUMU— XI A w — R|~SI-&U0U1)&AM&U AN (ILU) mi _B^ — IMA W 1 •** (*>- TA Bl —•»*»• HA—HAr^-m) Kl—UU-tA—AM *. SM.xAn^-qA-A-Nt-TA ai&—-rm diS-Mi lAi. FINCHES. THE DETII. XTI. . T.-Ul&« M-KVk KI&-TI 9tLHAr&TNI^«U|^i)UB-»-3uMUM«kLA|R-. U. MOff. COMPABE 8ATCB.. P.TBXT.MA — A Kl— «• dU-&J ? (WN*«. Vh.m — A -AM C"-") MA-A — Ul &A (JD-A-AN") . SHOWIKO AM A8SXBIAK TBAK8LATIOM OF A SCUBBIAM OBIOIMA]:.THE TREE OF ERIDU rOBTIOH OF A mUDIGVAIi INCAIIITATIOK. 71.^ JUrBt Nuut MU-»«i-UN^au--ni-iu-tte ^IM^] ai—n Bl.ONIA (IMS). P. CHOIX DE TEXTE8 (1907).— A— AN XU'^-aXIwAU A — &*. THE OLD TESTAaiBMT (IDM) F. GIFFOBD LECTCBES (IMKi). F.K W-eu-IA «m— IMA e-ni-au Kd-KA-NU-U ^MrMH IIV-SlMA>^1t| CLFUJ»aM« aUO-MK-ai SI-3A4IH-A «u. 8S. THOMPSON.AS~-rA tAL— K »-MU-iu 9INam-KI-«tK UK-NU— U ta-BI ** A-Hfc AP-«t-l "WK-SU 4IN-«IM-A—TA MUN-KI (te-AAU SK(>4A-A->N iAOUi)^ K— A 1AU-lAI&-TA-iu IMA K-M-aU QEOlUiJ MA-IA-A-TI K|--ni&-^A — MA Kl — & — KUK. I. ITS— ^1 T»«— MA ( flt) Kl .8 AND ETIL 8PIBITS OF BABTI.«!.

In this manner he has forfeited the gift of eternal life through a deception practiced. but to choose instead the clothing and oil. ' based on Sayce. was created by Ea (Sum. His duty is to furnish the inhabitants of Eridu with food and water. 46. not third member of the Ghaldaean "trinity" (!). "Lord of the Deep". but by the 1 This is a free translation of C. on the opposite page. and endowed with wisdom. Pinches. but the whole subject should be interpreted in the light of the following evidence : (1) THE ADAPA LEGEND Adapa. Into its holy house. Adda. 1) 213 Early Babylonun Form In the later stone age the ancient picture of a tree. It is difficult to date these fragments. between the parting rivers". This may of course refer to any river or any power of danger. is in some way connected with this tree is not imposThe following ideograms for a Babylonian river should be noted :— An God Mush -Tin Life Tir Duv signifying:— —Serpent —Garden—Destruction. Alone the God of Light.' by the serpent. For this act Adapa breaks the wings of the South-Wind. One day Adapa goes out to fish in a canoe. as crystal it blossomed. at Eridu the fertile. the Heaven-God. T. 11. IV. SI.^ THE SERPENT That the serpent sible. in holy place Its roots vs^ere bright. which swamps the boat and causes shipwreck. (Sum. On lowland coast. Its seat the center of the earth. 1. and temptamore vividly before our eyes. but is called to account by Ann. Nun-ki). tion rises once THE PARADISE OP ERIDU is located at the mouths of certain rivers. He dwells within. Dhorme. places Biblioth. but the early Babylonian version is among the clearest. at a place called E-ri-du (Sum.PARADISE REGENT ASIATIC TRADITION (N. serpent. "City of Happiness". ' Jensen. He has been told by Ea to refuse the bread and water of "death" that Anu will offer him. He follows the advice and has rejected THE "bread AND WATER OP LIPE" that conveys immortality. and is overwhelmed by the South-Wind (Zu). Hath no man ever entered. Keilinschr. En-ki). which like a forest spread its sliade. 44a. (This supposes that men are already on the earth). and Rawlinson. its leaves the couch of Bahu. . cited Thompson. The shrine of Ea was its home. (Zu). white. XVI. "father"). they spread forth to the waters. in the midst of which stands THE SUPPOSED "TREE OP LIPE" "At Eridu a palm-tree grew. 92fr.

the nether-world(?) in order to obtain the secret of immortality from his remote ancestor. p. Das babylonische Nimrodepos (Leipzig.tablets (q. but their strongly Semitic coloring should make us hesitate in accepting this version as an unadulterated original. Ea-bani. A. —god-cbeated— — . 124flF. (1916). though this is only negative evidence. serpent. The prominence of the national Bel would seem to exclude it. both in the Eridu-fragment and the Adapa-legend. p. * hand Ann's bread and water of life are surely suggestive. the Flood and the Fall of Man". c. life refused. and the absence of any allusions Bel-Marduk. who creates his hero in the image of Anu through Aruru (the earth?). a serpent darts up from the thicket just as he is about to quench his thirst at a spring. Vol. For the supposed "Sumerian Version of Paradise. XXX. » Compare merit acceptance. the which is meant to describe the furthest limits of then-known world. not on a later hero of diluvian fame. Utnapishtim. moral of the story leaves much to be desired.* AGE AND VALUE OF THE LEiGENDS The prominence of Sumerian names. 290. Langdon. by S. —father op the race — In the sequel it is Gilgamesh. when Sumerian was still the hieratic tongue and required a popular or vernacular transliteration. 1884). the "translated" Noah! He passes through the waters of death. as they bring out the three main points in the fall of man with considerable force to wit. from which it appears that the readmgs are still too problematical to Jensen. is healed of his leprosy in the waters of life. but they tend to show that tree. 267. In combination the — life offered. On his return. makes it quite probable that they antedate the dynastic age of Babylon by several centuries. to THE "bread AND WATER" OP LIPE IMPORTANT On the other even if with the deluge. The deluge-tablets contain elements of undoubtedly Sumerian antiquity. however. 1. and temptation were fastened on the first couple. p. Also their appearance in bilingual form points to a comparatively early redaction. consult Jastrow. Here he obtains a wonderful plant. These features are not decisive. v. Paul Haupt. Nikel. (Philadelphia.214 PARADISE REGENT ASIATIC TRADITION (2) The Gilgamesh-Epic In this story it is the Ocean-God again. "Sumerian and Akkadian Views of Beginnings". who undertakes a long journey to the far East. which as the shammu-balcUi of the Semitic inscriptions is capable of imparting indefinite vitality. Die Genesis. S. O. VI. Prince ibid. ." 120ff. in J. =Adapa. the post-diluvian hero. and after endless adventures he arrives at "the isles op the blessed" in the Erythraean Sea. THE HERB OP LIPE.) these legends offer much food for reflection. as is evident from his designation. and through sheer fright he drops the precious boon and has lost immortality. 1915). trial or probation.



Osiris-Isis is THE PARADISE OP ALU. but no reason is given. There is was apparently unknown. This is a posthumous immortality and gives no solution to the mystery of death. (P-aris. quits the body to ascend to higher realms. and THE TREE OP LIFE. in fact he is the Lord of the dead. ISOff. 2) 215 Egyptian Form On the Nile we find the tion to details. There has also been a confusion of ancestors. La Religion de. why this is so. they are same fundamental notions but with less attenmore vague. "that they might live for ever". Dawn of" Civilisation. ruling over a land flowing with milk and honey. ^ Pyramid Teta. death all who approached this land of light and happiness were assured of eternal life. How then did the "happy times of Ra" come to an end? No direct answer to this question is forthcoming.' Can there be any intimation of A TEMPTATION AND PALL? At least this much may be gathered: (1) Immortality was the original destiny of man. . the soul-double. 7-10. p. Pepi. Perhaps the following items may suggest an answer. Ka.^ This has a distinctly Mesopotamian ring. p. as the tree is enshrined in the "Great House" (Sum. (2) The tree of life imparted this immortality. even if to the "dead"(?). E-gal. the more so.* ^Maspero. which grows in Alu. though in what manner. of eternal creators with pharaonic no longer an abstract designation for divine attributes. (3) The role of the serpent as the enemy of Ra suggests that the divine plan was frustrated. male and female Pharaos.' Uftas. = PjTamid Texts. of unending prosperity. This is divine beings with human mummies. but only as a mummy. who finally conquers the beast very much as Bel-Marduk subdues the great Tiamat. and was given by the stars of heaven to the dead. why this separation is fated to take place. Tfie Texts. we are left — seem uninformed. they are rather themselves the first human couple. the sun-god. situated on one of the numerous islands in the northeastern part of the delta.' During this golden age of humanity. Osiris is immortal. as a punishment and pardon to be implied. Then . E-sarra) which connects it with the sacred palm of Eridu above. 431.PARADISE REGENT ASIATIC TRADITION (N. and ever since the Pharaos have been embalmed with that flesh-preserving ointment which the Egyptians know to use so well. These are important points. 630: 1910). * Comp> Virey. again THE SERPENT APOPHIS figures very early as the arch-enemy of Ra. or Field of Alu. I'ancienhe Egypte. the seven-headed dragon of the deep. -305.

. 207ff. then. that the idea of Cherubim is forced upon us. On the left is a coiled figure which has the suspicious contour of a serpent. It is easy to see how the older ideas on this subject have been to some extent modified. The Old Testament in the Light of the ancient East (I^ndon. » For the monuments. Jeremias. though there is evidence to show and the great national epics antedate the earliest Assyrian dynasty by some centuries. this symbolism is inferential rather than self-evident. On this point experts are still divided. a male and a female (?) apparently stretching out their hands to pick the fruit. but which may be accidental.^ Life THE SUPPOSED TEMPTATION More realistic in some respects is the supposed picture of the temptaand fall as depicted on the well-known seal-cylinder. in fact nationalised. almost stereotyped form. p. p. it has lost much of its simple and natural character. some adulteration for the above reasons is only to be expected. It frequently appears in such conventionalised. in which all attempts to portray a tree of nature has been abandoned. the symbolism is almost tion — — . but it must be admitted that to the unsophisticated observer the whole situation will speak for itself. that we have here another echo of the early undivided tradition. partly because the national pantheon gives it a distinctive coloring. Admitting. 220. The tree is no longer the "sacred palm" but the fir-tree. Also. the literary output of the northern kingdom is worth a separate treatment. that these THE "TREE OP LIFE" Foremost among these are the phantastic representations of the Tree of and its semi-divine guardians which figure so largely in the arttreasures of this people. the "drama" of the fall is still largely hypothetical. it takes the form of a mysterious fruit or flower-symbol. » Ibid. however.' THE "cherubim" Finally the winged figures on either side of the tree of life occur so frequently in Assyrian art. irresistible. which connects it at once with the mountainous region to the north of the Tigris.together. Taking it all . Here we have sitting under a fir-cone tree and two figures. In any case. im). A.216 PARADISE REGENT ASIATIC TRADITION (N. 3) AssYBiAN Form The laiids of the Tigris have inherited the common Babylonian tradi- tion of the origin longs as much to and destiny of man. that the origind tree is hardly recognisable. the dividing line between two cylinders. partly because the famous library of Ashurbanipal has supplied us with artistic monuments for which we look in vain in the land of Sumer. The story of Eridu and Adapa bethe one as to the other.
















]iy:i u


un^^ mn'


IRrfij INA-^fe-Rl












SAM-MU aMATl§ftrnN)ASMEI»en4FElWtHe»»mMT«XaN(<Jll^flM^SI,?«^






T# D^fli

prm^s^ jiivwn'?




hs* inji 10





"THENCE rr wAs




W-l NA-«A-A-TI




Ili-KU-lH-m-MA INA
















riiitxn Jni:i -udb 7^>s dvi':^ EReU» AND Vl«TW«.OI?BBm»"AS»IVINE PFOHCBtTION (AXMPAy[,iQf)S</)








ijjon tt>'2>« tip'> D^nSs rr* M^ MAM-MA 5am-MA iS-sriTRflSE/INmWlKTWEPWNr

5 tjinan



D*n>^ Dn"m



|S_3A-IJIR AMEUJ'Vre NAME IS •.*l«SUV&WnONl C<»l^M^.Sr ,a<}8-805)




Dfii)>ntiHtiT|^!> \T{pQ




nns^rr r\^ ^'^:x] 24



\ymyy v^"^^ ib^> Jt)i«imrT

:3nnrr tan!) -^^^t


(N, 4) Palestinian



2, 8-3, 24,

of the "Garden of Eden" as described in Gen. the following points should be noted in so far as they concern interpretation from the point of view of the inspired writer.^

In the

Hebrew account

The Gan-be-Eden-miqedem is evidently not a mere allegory nor is it an astronomical symbol, nor a highland plateau, nor any portion of the Babylonian plain as known to us. It is rather an indefinite locality in the far East, which must be determined not by existing but by prehistoric geography. For Gan-be-Eden is most probably an appellative, a "Garden of Pleasure" (LXX. Truphe, Vulg. Voluptas), and no Hebrew writer would ever identify the Garden of God with the Assyrian Gannat Edinnu or any portion of the detested Babylonian plain, into which as the land of Shinar, Scnnar, or Sumer, the human race is supposed to have emigrated in a far later, post-diluvian age. (Compare Gen. 11, 2).

Again, the four rivers of Eden are not the four divisions of the Milky the four points of the compass, (Jeremias), nor a fourfold river-system with a common source, (Hoberg, Kaulen), nor a fourfold system of canals with a double source, (Delitzsch), but are rather the modern (Hebrew) designations for the four great branches of a prehistoric oceanic river running between Southern Asia and the miocene continent of Lemuria, and which in bisecting the great land-masses of India, North Africa, Western Eurasia and Arabia, became identified with the four great water-courses of antiquity, The Indus, the Nile, the Volga, and the Euphrates. The writer means to imply that the river of paradise was so gigantic that even after "watering" the garden, it could still give birth to the greatest rivers that he had ever heard of, thus insinuating a cosmic or prehistoric origin. Notice the strong expressions kol eretz Hawilah, kol eretz Rush, qidmath Ashur.

Way, (Gunkel), nor


That two trees of opposite qualities are implied is evident from the context and the subsequent narrative. The 'Etz Hachaiim imparts the divine life, while the 'Etz Hada'ath is the cause of death, (Gen. 2, 17. 3, 22)

The tempter in the form of the Serpent, Hanachash,
cause of

the ultimate



evidently a fallen being, destined to be vanquished.


mann, Genesis,

this subject compare Hoberg, Strak, Genesis, SS-84.

Die Genesis,

pp. 30-43.

Nikel, Genesis, 124ff. Dill-

lag das Paradies? Delitzsch, Driver, Genesis, 38ff. Jeremias, op.


Gunkel, Urgeschichte und Patriarchen, 52-68. Engelkemper, Die vier Paradiesflusse (Munster, 1905).





In the contrast to the artificial notions of a "culture"-paradise, it is refreshing to turn to the simple picture of Adam and Chawah, leading the pure life of nature, unadorned with paint or plumage, unhampered by the trappings and conventionalities of civilisation. They are simply "Earth"


"Life", the "father"

and the "mother" of mankind.

"They are both
This implies a

naked, the

man and


woman, and

are not ashamed".


which human passions are still under the control of reason. Nay more, can easily be inferred from the narrative that this must include the

(b) plenitude of



(a) plenitude of physical,


moral perfection,

through the former of which

man is

immortal, through the latter sinless.


outset, a divine institution.

placed in the Garden of God, it is looked upon as sacrosanct from the Side by side we find

by which man
the tree of

to offer



the tree of knowledge


up the best fruits of the garden, and this under penalty of death.

In the sequel,
that tempts the
it is

the serpent that tempts the

woman, and



man, they are


curiosity, they eat the forbidden

"And immediately their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked, and they sewed figleaves together and made them aprons".

a plain intimation that the eating of the fruit has a sexual


—"She shall bruise thy head, thou shalt bruise his heel". —"In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children". Over the woman —"In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy Over the man:


Over the serpent:






thou return

to the earth.

For dust thou



into dust

shalt thou return".

This shows that
sin of pride

(1) Pain, (2) Travail, (3)

Death, are the result of a

and curiosity, of inordinate thirst for a knowledge temporarily witheld from man. THE CIlERUBIM Finally we have the Cherubim with the flaming sword at the "east" of the garden, "to guard the way to the tree of life". Paradise can now only be regained by the shedding of blood, by some form of "life"


IX, 2)





IX. 8)




(N, 5) Iranian


Form,—Avestic Version

In the Avesta the Garden of

described with considerable detail.^

or "Seed" of Iran(?), Hara-berezaiti from


is situated on the summit of Mount Hukairja,— which a great river takes its rise. This is



the fructifying cause of all nature, the perennial stream. At its outflow, in the middle of the lake Vouru-Kasha, stand two trees, the first

dispelling all diseases

and containing the
life-tree of Genesis.

gift of life

and immortality.

This reminds us of the

The second



the "Seed of AH",

which may correspond

to the tree of

though the exact significance of these

trees is

forbidden knowlvery obscure.

This is the place which Ahura-Mazda has prepared for Mi^/ira,—Friendship— and where Haomor—, Health, Immortality-, have their reign. Here is the garden of Yima, the ruler of the golden age, when there was

neither heat nor cold, hunger nor thirst, sickness nor death, hatred nor nothing impure or contaminated. How was this state of blessedness brought to an end?

It is the six-eyed, triple-headed serpent, Azhi-Dahaka, the incarnation of Angra-Mainyu, the evil spirit, that figures as the enemy of man.

Neither tree nor serpent, however, are brought into any direct connexion with the fall. This is the result of a prevarication on the part of Yima, of speaking the untruth, for which he dies and falls into the powers of Satan. The approach to the tree of life is guarded by the sacred Fish.

In the later tradition of the Bundahish the paradise-river has many subdivisions, including the four rivers of Genesis, and it is Angra-Mainyu himself that brings death to Gajomart and to his children, Mashia and

them to rebellion against their Maker, they yield and finally repudiate the Creator. In this way purity, happiness, and immortality have been irretrievably lost to the human race.
to the spirit of evil,


Dahaka, etc. Later versions Views of Origins, in J. A. O.

Oldest sources in the Hom-Yasht, (Yasna IX), for Yima, Haoma, Airyana Vejah, Azhiin Bundahish, c. XVIIIff. and compare A. Carnoy, Iranian


(1916), p. 311ff.


Indo-Aryan Form,

—^Vedic Version

find the

In so far as the early Vedic tradition is identical with the Avestic, we same picture of the elevation and fall of man in all its essentials.

situated on the lofty Himalayan divide, far above the turmoil and misery of the lower world. Here is the sacred lake, Manasarowar, from which the

rivers or waters of life flow out in every direction.



center stands

with properties in
It is

all respects similar to those of its Persian counterpart. the source of immortality, health, and happiness, and its leaves possess the power of curing diseases. The subsequent account of

is almost a duplicc^te of the Iranian version, the Vedic equivalents being Asura, Mitra, Soma, with Yama as the chief actor, and Ahi-Dasa as the serpent. Here also it is pride and mendacity that leads to the fall, that robs Yuma of eternal life, though neither tree nor serpent are its direct


In the later Vedantas and Upanishads the simple story of a


couple, losing the gift of immortality through personal sin, has been largely obscured by pantheistic speculations. Yet even here the legend of


as the productive ancestor of

under the dominion of

Siwa and Bhawani, both of whom through eating the forbidden fruit, is

certainly interesting.


Fragments of the same notion may possibly be found in the golden-age legends of the Mongolian races, in which the first Celestials are described as immortal and semi-divine, while their posterity is subject to death.

Similar echoes of the

common Asiatic

tradition are audible in the West.

The Four Ages of man, beginning with a Golden Age of innocence and In the happiness, are the typical theme of Graeco-Roman literature. of Prometheus and Pandarus, of Deucalion and Pyrrha, with the figures Olympus of the gods e^nd the Hesperides of the blessed, the vague outlines of a paradise, lost through an act of theft—, are all the more striking, because the Germanic Asgard of the gods was also forfeited by stealing the sacred apples of Iduma. In every case a moral delinquence is brought well

to the front.

(N, 6) (a)


Indonesian Form

Among the more advanced peoples of Indonesia the old banana story has been worked up with a variety of phantastic details. In the Sumatran version of the island of Nias the crab takes the place of the serpent, to


was created a certain being was sent down by God put the last touches to the work of creation. He should have fasted for a month, but unable to withstand the pangs of hunger, he ate some bananas. The choice of food was most unlucky, for had he only eaten river-crabs instead of bananas, men would have cast their skins like crabs and would never have died".^ (This is important only for the fruitconnexion)
the earth


from heaven



Annam and New


it is

the serpent that contains this secret.
is old,

There was a divine command:

"When man


the serpents are old, they shall die,

and be

he shall cast his skin: laid in coffins". But

through an intimidation on the part of the serpent, the command was changed "When the serpent is old, he shall cast his skin but when man is old, he shall die and be laid in the coffin". That is why all creatures are now subject to death except the serpent, who, when he is old, casts his skin and lives for ever." Again The good Spirit loved men, and wished them to live for ever, but he hated the serpents and wished to kill them. So he sent his brother to tell men to cast their skins every year, and the serpents, that they must henceforth die. But the divine messenger gave the contrary command, and since then all lAen have been mortal, but the serpents cast their skins every year and are immortal.^ (Important for the serpent-connexion).
: :



The same idea is found among the Samoans in the distant South-Sea The good Spirit decides that men shall live for ever by shedding The evil spirit suggests the opposite: "Let the shell-flsh their skins. change their skins, and let men die". The latter counsel prevails, and men have had to die ever since.* By combining these stories it will be seen that the elements of a paradise-legend are still preserved, though in faded and somewhat ridiculous form. Moreover there is always some moral idea in the background. It is through disobedience that immortality passes from man to the lower

iFrazer, Belief in Immortality, p. 70. 'Idem, sources are given in each case, see footnotes.









(N, 7)

North America

In the highland belt of North America we find a large body of folk-lore, but rarely an intelligent version of the beginnings or the destiny of man. As a fact, the growing isolation of the New World and its distance from Asiatic centers has given a native coloring to the mythology which is in many cases quite pronounced. But apart from the stories of the "Jackand-the-Beanstalk" variety, there is little that is striking in these legends.


The Zuni Indians have a persuasion
ideal age of blessedness

that in the beginning there


and immortality.

ancestor, Poshaiyankya, as the "first wise", brings this figure in touch with the common tradition of the East. But although the first man is endowed with superhuman wisdom, there is no satisfactory explanation of its loss, nor of the fact that men have to

The very description of the great man", "the wisest of the


The following is the account of a "river-trial". A mother lets her children drop into the waters and they drown. "And so", says the legend, "being received into the midst of the undying ancients, these little ones thus made the way of dying and the path of the dead. For whither they
and yet others have followed these, and so it has continued even unto this day".* From this it appars that the "ancients" were undying, and that death
led in that olden time, others, fain to seek them, have followed,

entered the world through the criminal act of a mother,

—again a moral

The sacred Corn plays a prominent part in the mythology of these from its character as the source of life, it is brought into no direct connexion with the loss of immortality in the beginning.'
peoples, but apart


of the "Mother Corn" as containing the secret of be traced far down into the Gordilleran region. The Aztec and Inca tradition that death is the penalty for tampering with the sacred Corn seems to reveal some consciousness that immortality was lost by precisely such an act, for with nearly all man was deathless at the beginning. This is only indirect reasoning, but the existing legends seem to bear it out, and the destruction of a wicked race by the lightning is a

The same notion

eternal life




IF. H. Gushing, Zuni Creation-Myths, 11th. Rep. B.A.E. (Washington, 1891), p. 381. 2 Idem, p. 404-405. * Idem, p. 393fF. * See the sources above p. 181. Want of space forbids a discussion of further details, but consult Casanowicz, Cosmogonic Parallels, (Washingington, 1917), for a general survey.



(1) (2) (5)


(4) (6)
(6) (1)



(1) <«)

8, 10. 9, 1. 19,



S-13, 91, 14)








a. 8)



4, S) 4, «. ii, t)




Let us


have so far been brought to immortality in general? Can it be said that this persuasion is in any sense universal? Does it concern the body or the soul of man? In what sense is it to be understood? As to the question of "psychic" immortality,— the survival of personal consciousness after death it may be said with some degree of certainty that this persuasion is morally universal, that there is hardly a people to whom the immortality of the soul is not a necessary demand of reason, in some cases a self-evident proposition. "And how could it die? It is like the air!" is the remark of the untutored native. This is well summarised by Frazer in the following paragraph


make a brief review of the facts And first, vi'hat is the evidence for



Belief in Immortality General

"The question whether our conscious personality survives after death has been answered by almost all races of men in the affirmative. On this point sceptical or agnostic peoples are nearly, if not wholly unknown. Accordingly, if abstract truth could be determined, like the gravest issues of national policy, by a show of hands or a counting of heads, the doctrine

human immortality, or at least a among the most firmly established
to the

life after


would deserve



of truths; for, were the question put

whole vote of mankind, there can be no doubt that the 'ayes' would by an overwhelming majority. The few dissenters would be overborne, their voices would be drowned in the general roar. For dissenters there have been among all savages. The Tongans for example thought that only the souls of noblemen are saved, the rest perish with their bodies. However, this aristocratic view has never been popular, and it is not likely

to find

favor in our democratic age".'

This conclusion will,

think, stand the test of rigid investigation.


implies, however, that there are

some exceptions

to the universal


of assent, that "dissenters" have been found


peoples, secret or

This also is capable of verification. Like all other beliefs, it may be lost through a defective mentality or a moral perversity, probably from both combined. But upon one point the prehistoric data are morally unanimous: Man was immortal in the beginning. Nearly
public disbelievers.

the reports


—body and soul—



man was

created to live for ever, and this in both a complete, an integral state of earthly blessed-



Frazer, Belief in Immortality, p. 33. ^ Compare the above data passim. The Buddhist is very late and largely theoretical. Practical Buddhism knows a very real Here-




But the mere fact of immortality is of little significance unless some is given of the mystery of death, of the manner in which this ideal state was brought to a close. Let us collate these accounts for the three principal periods of prehistoric man.

PRIMITIVE VERSION The Site op Paradise

(A) The "Island of Fruits" is the "Rising Land" emerging from the eastern ocean. (B) The Garden of Pleasure is at Wotaemi, a locality in South-



The Land of

the Mora-Trees


in East-Ceylon, or the "eastern

possibly a large rock in the Zambales region of South



The Enchanted Forest is laid in Central Borneo, the fatal Banana eaten in Celebes, immortality was lost on a Papuan or Melanesian

river (E).
(F) The Australian Paradise is non-local, but the Victorian tradition says that the first ancestors "breathed in a land of the North-West" (sic). The African Paradise is apparently on the Congo, or on any beau(G)
tiful river.


The Enchanted Bush belongs
The Brazilian Paradise seems


South Africa, but



cally vague.
to be

on the Amazon, but the cosmic

setting of the story points to a universal or non-national tradition as its

The evidence tends to show that the earliest scene of human activity was located in the far eastern ocean, in what is now the East Indies, or on
any "rising land." In many

however, the locality



The Trees op Immortality
(A) The Tree of Life is the Coconut-Palm, the Tree of Death the Banana. (B) The Tree of Life is the Coconut( ?) the Tree of Death the Plan,


The Tree of

Life is the Coco-

nut, or Betel-Palm.

Tree of Death,

the Banana.
(F) The Tree of Life, is the "Honey"-Tree, the Tree of Death, the



The Tree of

Life is the Coco-

"Bat"-Tree(?). (G) The Tree





nut-Palm, the Tree of Death not

Moduma-Tree, the Tree of Death
perhaps the same. (H) The Tree of Life is "Bush"-Tree, but no details mentioned.
the are


The Tree of

Life is the


or Rice-bush, the Tree of Death, the

Banana ( ?)
In nearly every case

life and death have been connected with certain with two distinct trees. In the Oceanic regions the Tree trees, sometimes of Life is commonly the Palm, while the Banana is the Tree of Death or the

occasion of death.

The Serpent


(A) The World-Python and the Rahu-Dragon are cosmic powers, apparently evil.

The striped Snakes and the Cobras require special exorcism. Bamboos and wild berries are used as charms against the


pent's bite.


The Crocodile is "placated" by the mystic flower of the betel-palm. The Serpent contains the secret of life by "casting his skin". The Carpet-snake is no longer feared but eaten for his supposed


The Cobras

of Central Alligators

and South-Africa are again cosmic


The Amazonian

and Boa-Constrictors exert an "hyp-

notic" influence.

deadly serpent.

Most of these ideas can be explained by the natural antipathy to the Only in Borneo and Melanesia is a possible moral role

Temptation and Fall

Ayer and Tanah lose their immortality by eating the "Soul-Fruit". Tomo and Ghana incur the same loss for similar reasons. For in

both cases death is the result of over-multiplication, the penalty for eating the "source" of life in remote times. Life and death are mystically in the

sacrifice of the Banana shows that this fruit is sacred. Amei and Djaja lose their immortality by some form of rebellion. For Amei is forced to ascend to heaven to recover the rice which has been suddenly withdrawn. Here also the Palm and the Banana are enchanted fruits. In Celebes IM and Indara's choice of the Banana is looked upon as




having a direct moral significance. Death is the immediate consequence. (E) Immortality passes from man to the serpent because a mother fails to cast her skin. This shows at least that a serpent is the occasion of


A woman
If the

breaks into the Honey-Tree, and out


the "Bat" of




Tree no longer works, something

the matter

with man.
It will

If the

If Keri

Bushmen have to die, it is because they insulted the "Lord". and Kames are no longer immortal, magic trees are to be

blamed (?).

be seen that the idea of a moral failure of some kind is practically and the consumption of a forbidden food a very general cause.



Guardian-spirits of the Tree of Life are occasionally mentioned. These among others the Dove, the Argus-Pheasant, and the World-Eagle. The East-Indian Bird of Paradise still hovers in its branches. A more violent guardian is the Semnopithecus, or sacred Ape, and the Australian Bat, the

mysterious death-dealing bird.




Borrowed Tradition?

The first thought that will naturally suggest itself to the critic is that these legends are altogether too Hebrew-Christian in their general contour to be looked upon as unadulterated, as a primitive prehistoric tradition. Can it be possible that these "savages" should be in possession of such







Christian, Islamic, or even Hindooistic peoples?



The indigenous origin of the Indonesian folk-lore among our (1) lowest aborigines has already been vindicated in the preceding chapters.

Any further doubt on this subject will be removed when the data examined in their totality and in their context. Most of these areas, Central Malakkan, Andamanese, Central Bornean, Papuan or Melanesian are beyond the reach of missionaries, admittedly isolated and strongly antiIslamic. The absence of any Christology among the natives shows that no Christians ever came near them, and the Mohammedan dervishes would have had them circumcised long ago, they would be chanting the praises of Allah's heaven of female delights (!), of unending banquets. The Hindoos would surely initiate them in the doctrines of metempsychosis, the Buddhists would give them a foretaste of Nirwana, the science and


not only are these features very generally by the natives themselves, they are strangely dumb when questioned in the dialect of a "higher" faith, they have no knowledge of these "deep" philosophies. For them the Father on High was once their friend, He gave them the power of immortality, but through some moral rebellion on their part, they lost the gift and have had
absent, but they are directly repudiated
to perish,

art of self-extinction.






story, there are

no cosmic


no phan-


Admitting, however, that a filtering-through of later beliefs is (3) not per se impossible, it will have to be shown, where and in what instances this occurred. Now although some echoes of a paradise-story may have reached the ears of the natives wherever they have mixed with the Mussulmans, such a channel is clearly ruled out where they are entirely isolated, as for instance in the Andaman Islands. But it is here precisely that we find the tradition of a paradise, lost through eating the first fruits of the season, in its most vivid form. Can there be any plainer proof that
the legend is prehistoric, that, in view of the numerous and undoubted parallels in other primitive regions and the strongly native setting of the



embodies one of the

earliest traditions of the race?

Monumental evidence in the form of tablets, etc., reveals the fact (4) that fragments of his story were known at least as early as the third millennium before Christ. If then these fragments certainly antedate the coming of the modern civilised nations, we may safely infer that the similar
traditions of far earlier peoples are undoubtedly independent of ciyilised




of the primitive legend

Among the totem peoples the general outlines may still be traced, though with the advancing
torical setting




has became more and more obscured.

The main points are

as follows:

Location op Paradise
It is to be noted in the first place that the cradle of humanity is no longer as definite, no longer as real, as in the earlier ages of man. The Mundas of Central India speak of a distant Garden, "untrodden by the foot of man", but the Australian "Dream-Time" is purely ideal, and the

North-American "Sun-Wakanda" is the only intimation we have of a former heaven upon earth. There seems to be a studied desire to evade the question, to treat the whole subject as an allegory, as a possible rather than an actual affair.
Trees op Immortality
Sacred trees are still conspicuous but they are more rarely connected with the loss of innocence, they are mere curiosities. We have the lliRoot or the Rice-Tree in India, the magic Flower in Africa, the HakeaPlant in Australia, the Ash, the Cedar, and the sacred Corn in North America. These are strength-imparting elixirs, "medicines" which are believed to contain the secret of life. But with the exception of the Hi, no further account is given of them, they have no history.

The Serpent
The Serpent, formerly dreaded,



of creation, whether as the Sun-serpent in Indo-Africa
as the great Wollunqua-beast of Australia; he

He is the source and America, or

the symbol of the whorl

of evolution.

Probation and Fall

Only in one case has the idea of a fruit-consumption been preserved.
In the

Munda-Kol legend

the first pair yield to their passions after taking
lost, it is

the Ili-root; but the probation-idea has been
offered to

simply a stimulant, In Africa the idea of a fall is equally vague. In Australia death is the result of a passion, of a neglect to bury the dead, a sin of impatience or anger. In North America it is the punishment for curiosity, of opening the spirit-box or the soulCulpability is packet, which contains the spirit of the "mother corn". fastened on a female, it is a woman who opens the packet.


for the multiplication of the race.


While a

definite historical picture is generally

wanting, there

is still

the persuasion that immortality



by a moral

by a human




In the more recent period, known as the second stone age, the old immortality-legend is brushed up with more attention to detail. There is a desire to bring out the primitive couple as they are supposed to have actually lived, to give a "drama" of the fall. This is more especially the case in the earlier legends, but begins to fade away the more we advance into the metal ages, where it is preserved in its purity only by one representative, the Western-Semitic. The following will make this clear.


Site op Paradise

(N, 1) The Adapa-legend places the garden of Eridu in southern Mesopotamia, the Gilgamesh-Epic vaguely in the far East, the Isles of the


The Field of Alu is on one of the islands forming the Nile-Delta. The Garden of Eden is in the far East, and the four Rivers are cosmic streams which bisect the great continents. In historical times they were known as the Indus, the Nile, the Volga, and the Euphrates. (Uni(N, 2)

(N, 4)

versal idea).
(N, 5) The Airyana-Veyah is at the summit of Mt. Albordj (Western Himalayas). In the Vedas and Brahmaiias it is at the summit of Mt. Meru (Himalayas), from which the four (or five?) great rivers of India take their rise. In the Graeco-Germanic tradition the Olympus or Asgard of the gods is situated on a high mountain, but the Hesperides are in the far West, pointing to America(?). These geographical items are perhaps purposely vague. (N, 6, 7) In Polynesia and neolithic America the location is not determined. From this it will be seen that the earliest tradition points to an island in the far East. Only the Aryan places it on a lofty mountain.

Trees op Immortality

The Tree
The Tree of

of Life


the Date-Palm, the Tree of Death the

(N, 2)

the Sacred Corn, the Tree of Death not speciis

(N, 3)

The Tree of


the Date-Palm, the Tree of Death the Fir-

(N, 4)

The Tree

of Life has


species, the Tree of

Death has no

The Tree of Life is the Soma-Tree, the Tree of Death, the Taokhma(?). (N, 6) The Tree of Life is the Crab( !), the Tree of Death, the Banana. (N, 7) The Tree of Life is the "Mother Corn", Tree of Death unspecified.
(N, 5)

impossible not to recognise the influence of the national climate in the selection of these trees. In every case they form the staple commodity of lif e^,' or grow only in their respective territories. This is especially the case vvith the Hesperidean "apples", a fruit of little or no importIt is

ance in the tropics.

Only the Hebrew tradition

is free



The Serpent


(N, 1) is a cosmic power and the enemy of Bel-Marduk. The seal-'cyhnder suggests a tempter. Herb Life is lost through a serpent. (N, 2) Apophis is the Nile-Dragon, the enemy of Ra. (N, 4) Hanachash of Genesis is a personal tempter, the mouthpiece of


(N, 5)



the incarnation of Angra-Mainyu, the



(N, 6) The Melanesian Serpent frustrates the divine command by casting his skin. He is the enemy of To-Kambiana, the good Spirit. (N, 7) Serpent-myths are extant, but have lost their religious significance. The serpent figures, therefore, as the power of evil in nearly every section. He is the immediate occasion of the fall in at least three instances.

Temptation and Fall
(N, 1)

Man Man Man


and Water of
the serpent.

Life, or

through eating the fruit, through rejecting the Bread through dropping the Herb of Life, frightened by

(N, 2) (N, 4)
at the



through eating the sacred corn, or rebelling against Ra. through eating of the Tree of Knowledge. This is done

suggestion of the

woman and

at the instigation of the serpent.

through an act of prevarication, through telling a falsehood. In India and later Persia he eats the forbidden fruit, incited by the serpent. In Greece and Western Europe he steals the apples of the gods. (N, 6) Man fell through rejecting the Crab of Life and eating the Banana. Or, he neglects the voice of the serpent to "cast his skin". (N, 7) Man fell through the criminal act of a mother, or possibly through eating or tampering with the Sacred Corn. It is very probable
(N, 5)

Man fell

that the latter tradition is the



(Compare the SpirifrBox of

the prairies).
It is clear that the loss of immortality is here once more connected with a definite moral rebellion against a personal deity. This takes the form of a food-trial in nearly every instance, and is accompanied by some form of serpent-myth. But only among the Hebrews is there anything like a homogeneous account of a first couple, dealing directly with the "LordGod" and acting the entire drama without a break and without any trivial


The Cherubim


The Tree of



guarded by the Karubu, adoring or pro-

tecting ones.
(N, 2) (N, 4)

The Tree of Life is guarded by the rising and the setting Sun. The Tree of Life is guarded by the Cherubim with flaming

(N, 5) The Tree of Life is guarded by Kar-Mahi, the sacred Fish, etc. In Polynesia and N. and S. America the guardian-spirits have appar-

ently faded.


General Results

The main points of the paradise-legend as preserved in the recent age are therefore as follows


(1) tion,

Paradise is a Garden of Fruits in the far East. The Aryan tradihowever, points to the Himalayas, the Graeco-Germanic to the far


The Tree of Life is the Palm of the tropics, the Tree of Death the Side by side we have the Egyptian Corn and the Assyrian Pineapple, life or death-dealing fruits, and the East- and West-Aryan Soma or Apple-trees reveal the national mountain-climate or the European fruit(2)



The Serpent


universally the


of evil, wherever mentioned.

many cases, however, his direct connexion with the fall has been lost. (4) Man has forfeited the gift of eternal life by eating the fruit of the Tree of Death, known in Genesis as the Tree of Knowledge. This is not

always distinguished from the Tree of Life. A serpent tempts by frustrating the divine command, by persuading man that the real intentions of the divinity are different, that he need have no fear, etc. (earliest form).
(5) The Cherubim are distinctly Asiatic, they are at least half-human, and they guard the mystic Tree with almost a cult, they defend and adore


recent tradition with the primitive ver-





appear in a more modern Western-Asiatic dress, they have surviyed the extravagances of the totem-age, and are simply interpreted in the current language of the day, Babylonian, Egyptian, Iranian, and so on, as the case may be. The question arises: Which of these versions embodies more clearly the corWhich is more closely in harmony with the march of rect tradition.
shall find that all the elements in the latter


events as interpreted by an impartial examination of the earliest data? Have we any reason to believe that such a tradition has any value as a

record of real events apart from its theological sanction as a divinely revealed truth, as in some sense descriptive of the elevation and fall of man, however mystical, however incomprehensible?

The Question

op Historical Realism

To answer this question with any hope of success, it will be necessary remove from our minds certain inherited prejudices, which in this to material and utilitarian age are continually dictating a one-sided issue. In spite of the modern vindication of the supernormal, not to speak of the supernatural, the man in the street will always defer his assent to any "improbable story", however well-evidenced.




Let us examine this whole subject in the light of the scientific and mythological data that are now at our disposal.

The Supposed Cradle op Mankind
is considerable evidence to show that the earliest legends of the race point vaguely to an "eastern island" as the first home of mankind. Only the Aryan tradition speaks of a highland plateau which is generally


on native soil, but this is a far later belief connected with the so"mountain-myth" of the later neolithic and bronze age. Hence the Himalayan and Hesperidean versions can hardly be balanced against the combined East-Indian, Australian, Babylonian, and Egyptian versions, in which this locality is described as a mysterious fruit-island, or the revealed Palestinian version, in which it is vaguely assigned to the distant

This idea of


Isles op

the Blessed"

as rising out of the eastern ocean

in striking

harmony with

the teaching

and so on, that the primitive center of radiation must be sought somewhere in the Indo-Australian or IndoAfrican regions, preferably on the Asiatic side of the Wallace-line, in the East-Indian section of that long chain of land-masses that extend from
of biology, ethnology, palaeontology,

Andaman Islands, to Borneo, and, through Malakka, to This is the home of the most primitive peoples that we know of, Negritos, Veddas, Dayaks, Tasmanians, etc. and this alone, together with the African data, should incline the evidence heavily in this direction. It is more especially on those rich spice-laden islands of the Indian Archipelago that nature shows itself in all her tropical majesty and exuberance. Here alone has there been continuity of life from the remote past, here alone do we find the Palm, the Banana, the Plantain, and the Pineapple clustered together in enormous areas, here alone is the air scented with the delicious perfumes of the aromatic gums, the sky illuminated by the gorgeous plumes of the Bird of Paradise. Surely, if any region was ever destined by nature for such a purpose, this would be the
Ceylon, through the



"The Rivers and Waters op Life"
In those early days of the world a Gulf-Stream issued from the far and by dividing the great continents became in time the excavator of the four great river-basins of antiquity, the Indus, the Nile, the Volga, and the Euphrates. In a cosmic sense these are the four Oceans, Arctic, Antarctic, Atlantic, and Pacific. What more natural then than to associate this world-stream with the waters of life, with the four "rivers" of paradise?




The objection that irrigating rivers can. hardly be identified with oceanic currents is one that is prompted by the accepted definition of a river-system in modem times. Few of our so-called "rivers" have been running more than ten-thousand years, and in the ages to which we may
have to fall back there were no rivers in our modern sense, nothing but broad estuaries or enormously long drainage-systems, which in the above cases can be proved to have flown through the regions indicated. The discovery of marine shells in the Ganges valley, in Mesopotamia, in lower Egypt, and in the Ural-Caspian basin, shows that the respective "rivers" were largely "under water" during the periods of glacial or diluvial depression. It is only in comparatively late geologic times that the Himalayan shelf was elevated, and this as much as 20000 feet, which, in combination with similar, though less striking elevations in nearly every portion of the globe, postulates the inundation of most of our river-beds during the long periods of subsidence. If, however, the human species sprang into existence during the last interglacial or Riss-Wiirm period, an era of mild climate

and continental elevation it will stand to reason that the waterways of those days must have been gigantic, no mere creeks or rivulets, except in the mountains. But if the first appearance of man be dated back to the pliocene, the geography of the world would be in still less settled condition, and the above description would have to be indefinitely modified. There would be more and more of the ocean, and less and less land by consequence, and to speak of existing historical rivers as flowing through well-known historical landmarks would be clearly an anachronism.

Prehistoric Geography

our geography to suit the changed climatic and geological conditions of the period of even the latest possible appearwe obtain a picture of the earth in ance of man, third interglacial which land and ocean alternately play the leading role. Without inventing any theoretical "continents", it will be possible to obtain a broad glimpse of our surroundings. Leaving all the land-masses and islands approximately as they are, we shall find ourselves in the midst of an enormous archipelago, of which the continents themselves are in part the members, and through which the pulse of Father Neptune may everywhere be felt. The "river of life", issuing from the Banda Sea, gives birth to the four oceans, and by forcing its way through the Straits of Malakka sweeps the Andaman Islands, bores through Northern India, completely encircles Arabia, and by forcing the Hellespont cuts Eurasia and empties


we have

to revise


into the Arctic Sea.







(1916), P. 4gff.


























AND RECONSTRUCTION Streams known to man

Such a world-stream is no mere phantom, but a definite geological fact, and must have attracted the attention of primitive man, or his immediate successors, when the science of navigation had acquainted him with the
general contour of the earth's surface.
stories of floating islands,
It is

clearly implied in all the

and submerged continents, the lost "Lemuria" and the sunken "Atlantis". Together with the Congobasin and the distant Amazon, these tidal rivers were the chief haunts of man for many ages, and though doubtless unconscious of the fact during his infancy, the "wise" man of post-diluvial fame had acquired a sufficient knowledge of the lay of the land to speak with some confidence of dividing rivers, of bisected continents. Hence the almost universal tradition of


a "floating paradise" during the early neolithic age.

Fractions op the Lost Continent



the first scene of

we would place our finger upon that portion of the map in human activity may be presumed to have taken

place, we find ourselves at a loss to come to any certain decision. The whole subject is too problematical from the point of view of biology to elicit an unchallenged assent. But if we would obtain an approximate picture of the appearance of nature and the conditions of life during those early days of humanity, if we would know where or in what portion of the world the primitive conditions of life and existence have been preserved in their greatest purity and with the least external change, there can be little doubt that the East-Indian region offers on the whole the nearest approach, whether from the biological, anthropological, or cultural

point of view. Let us take a typical island of this region, the gigantic territory of Borneo and witness the panorama that opens before our



The Heart op the Primitive Ocean
The island of Borneo occupies the center of the Indonesian group and one of the most primitive and mysterious lands in existence. Unlike the rest of Malaysia or even Australia, it is comparatively free from the white or the yellow invasion, the English, the Dutch, and the Malays rarely penetrating into the interior. The approach to this land from the "West is one that makes a powerful impression. The lofty range of the Kapuas shoots out into the China Sea, and frowning peaks 6000 feet in height fall in terraces into the waves and give an air of rugged magnificence to the


2 Sources in F. H. Guillemard, Australasia, (London, 1908), Vol. II. p. 213-274. F. W. Burbidge, The Gardens of the Sun, (London, 1880), p. 46ff. Hose-McDougall, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, (London, 1912). Beccari, Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo,

(London, 1904).




rises in single

Spires op Nature's Cathedral

this range the sentinel of Mt. Kinabalu a height of 12000 feet, a beacon-light to the mariners for many miles out to sea. The view from this "tower" of Borneo is said to be unapproachable, as the absence of any lofty elevations at its feet affords an unobstructed vision of the entire land and ocean beneath. Pinnacle rises after pinnacle, as we sweep our eyes over the mountain masses to the south, and were we to follow in the trail of the island divide, we should reach the point of intersection of the mountain-system of Borneo, the axis around which the island ranges may be said to turn. In the language of the natives we have arrived at

At the northern extremity of

"The Central Point op the Earth"
This is a volcanic region dominated by a single conical peak, the sloping Mt. Tebang, and it is from these highlands that the river-systems of the island take their rise. Though of far less altitude than its northern rival. Dr. Nieuwenhuis, who first sighted the peak in 1901, estimated it at between 6 and 7000 feet, and it is now marked at "10000." It is from this point that the mountain ranges of Borneo spread out like the spokes of a wheel, and which gives the island its well-known star-shaped appearance. Little wonder that for the natives this is the apex of the world, the meeting-point of the heavens. But what is still more curious, they speak of

"The Four Rivers"
These are


as the Kayan, the Koti, the Barito,

and the Kapuas,

they are believed to have a common subterranean source in the bowels of Mount Tebang, and they are without a question the four principal rivers of Dutch Borneo. This of course is a mere local or accidental circumstance. Here, as elsewhere, rivers are looked upon as the natural source of life and fertility, and the association of their waters with a mysterious healing power or some other praeternatural quality is too common a trait (Compare, for instance, the to call for any exceptional explanation.

But with all this, miraculous rivers that issue from Mount Meru, India) we are here presented with a very early example of the possible genesis of the idea of a fourfold stream, which cannot be easily paralleled in other very primitive regions. Might it not be possible that some such combination of waters should have suggested to the mind of primitive man the idea of four health-giving rivers as springing out of the mountain of God, and later expanded into the notion of four ocean streams encircling the whole of the habitable world? The rivers of Genesis cannot of course be identified with any existing mountain-torrents but something similar to this may have been the original irrigation-scheme o