Diagenesis

Chapters 5, 6, 7

Diagenesis
Definition Controls on diagenesis Zones, processes and products Porosity Organic matter Summary

Diagenesis
Physical and chemical changes taking place in a sediment or sedimentary rock between deposition and either: a) metamorphism, or b) uplift and weathering Sediment converted into consolidated sedimentary rock Low temperature near-surface processes to higher temperature subsurface processes (<300C and 1-2 kb)

Diagenesis vs. Metamorphism

Controls on Diagenesis
Movement of pore fluids
Meteoric/surface waters into sedimentary basins
Potentiometric head defined by ground water table – above sea level, pore fluids will readily flow into marine sedimentary basins

Thermal convection
Inverse density gradient caused by thermal expansion of water (batholiths, salt domes, etc.)

Compaction
Porosity reduction drives interstitial waters upward

Shallow Carbonate Diagenesis

Boggs 2001

only exteriors of grains affected – micrite rims/envelopes In other cases. high-mag calcite) may then precipitate in holes In some cases. grains may be completely micritized . bacteria.Boggs 2001 Bioturbation Carbonates Micritization Carbonate grains may be bored by fungi. algae Fine-grained (micrite) carbonate (aragonite.

uprm.jpg Diagenetic Processes Mesodiagenesis: four main processes: Compaction Dissolution Precipitation Recrystallization Press and Siever 2001 .Micrite envelopes http://geology.edu/Morelock/GEOLOCN_/7_image/micrit.

flattening Pseudomatrix formation when rock fragments alter to clays under pressure – looks like a primary clay matrix Pressure solution where grain boundaries undergo dissolution and crystallization Compaction Boggs 2001 . Porosity reduced during burial due to overburden pressure Fabrics may form identifiable in thin section including: deformation.Diagenetic Processes McIlreath and Morrow 1990 Compaction Loosely packed sand porosity approaches 25%. distortion. saturated mud 60-80% water.

uga.edu/railsback/PDFimage0212.edu/railsback/PDFimage0208a.uga.gly.html Dissolution Silicate and carbonate minerals dissolved under conditions that are the opposite for cementation Calcite and silicates show opposite behaviour – conditions for precipitation of the one are favourable for dissolution of the other .27 mm www.html Sutured/Concavo-convex contacts 2.4 mm www.Concavo-Convex Contact 0.gly.

html http://www.uwyo.gg. limonite) determined by oxidation state .htm Cementation Development of new precipitates in pore spaces Carbonates (calcite) and silicates (quartz) most common.ca/geology/classes/geol243/243notes/243week10a.html Feldspar dissolution and calcite cement (high-pH conditions) http://faculty. and increased burial temperatures Overgrowths or microcrystalline cement when high pore-water concentrations of hydrous silica Iron oxide (hematite.ca/geology/classes/geol243/243notes/243week10a. also clays in siliciclastic rocks May be in response to groundwater flow.Factors influencing the solubility of CaCO3 http://www.edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStratL1/slideshow_1_7.usask. increasing ionic concentration in pore waters.usask.

htm .edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStratL1/slideshow_1_16.uwyo.Calcite cement Press and Siever 2001 Quartz overgrowths – Dakota Fm.gg. Quartz overgrowths followed by calcite cement http://faculty.

seawater “Subsurface” .basinal brines Use fabric to help infer origin .com/specimens/picshow.Chlorite Cement Boggs 2001 Illite cement webmineral.php?id=1284 Cementation Cementation of carbonates may take place in a variety of realms Meteoric – vadose/phreatic Marine (phreatic) .

edu/~greggjay/Carbonate_Page/LSGallery/pages/c-TF(F)b_10.htm .vu.Carbonate Cements Pendant calcite cement http://sheba.html Bladed calcite cement followed by coarse spar http://web.umr.nl/~imma/Project3.geo.

fine lime mud into coarse sparry calcite .Mineral Replacement Dissolution of one mineral is replaced by another. simultaneously No volume change Carbonate replacement by microcrystalline quartz. feldspars and quartz by carbonates.fr/PERSO/verati/ Mineral Recrystallization Existing mineral retains original chemistry but increases in size Volume change Amorphous silica to coarse crystalline quartz.unice. chert by carbonates. feldspars by clay minerals Sericite www-geoazur.

Burial Dolomitization Dolomite may form as a replacement of a precursor limestone Use textural relationships to determine origin Certain types of calcium carbonate may be preferentially dolomitized Dolomite may be a fracture/void space infill Problem: need mechanism for circulating large volumes of Mg-rich water Dolomite replacing matrix around micritized ooids web.uky.umr.edu/KGS/emsweb/trenton/fieldwork.edu/~greggjay/Carbonate_Page/DoloGallery/ Saddle (“Baroque”) Dolomite http://www.html .

resistant plant cells altered under T&P.hydrous aluminosilicates alteration (<100C heulandite & analcime.stability of certain clay minerals (>100C smectites form mixedlayer clays. 1979) Cambrian-Triassic phosphatic fossils from pale yellow (1.result from groundwater precipitates in porous sandstones Concretions . pyrite authigenesis around an organic nucleus Geodes . >300C) Vitrinite Reflectance .concentric layers of chalcedony with internal crystals of euhedral quartz or calcite Indicators of Diagenetic Histories Conodont color alteration (Harris. >150C prehnite & pumpellyite) Stable isotope ratios – see next slide .Diagenetic Structures Liesegangen bands . 100150C laumontite.nucleated. >200C become illites. siderite.irregularly shaped rounded objects Calcite. >300C only mica remains) Indicators of Diagenetic Histories Zeolite facies . and reflect more light the higher the rank (100-240C) Clay Mineral Transformation . <80C) to black (5. regular shaped rounded objects Nodules .

Isotopic signature of carbonate can indicate diagenetic history Diagenetic Zones Shale Diagenesis Where multiple diagenetic episodes have affected a rock. Use to define burial history. . etc. fluid flow episodes. it can be important to establish the paragenetic sequence Detailed thin section observations SEM images Isotopic analyses of diagenetic phases Etc.

SEM image of quartz overgrowth (Q). chlorite (C). and framboidal pyrite (P) Almon&Davies 1981 Diagenesis of Qtz Arenite .

and packing . sorting.Porosity/Permeability Characterization of porosity and permeability may be a an important part of thin-section description How much? What is origin? Is porosity connected? (implies permeability) Burial and Porosity Boggs 2001 Primary Porosity Amount of void spaces within a rock Primary porosity: a function of grain size.

. amphiboles. pyroxene. etc. diagenesis. plagioclase. texture. and rock fragments Compression produces fractures Secondary Sandstone Porosity Porosity & Permeability Porosity: % of void space in rock/sediment that may contain fluids Total porosity – all pore spaces Effective porosity – connected pores Permeability: ability to transmit fluids Units – Darcies Absolute/relative permeability a function of porosity.Secondary Porosity Development of pore spaces in rock through diagenesis Deep diagenetic fluids dissolve less stable framework grains or cement such as carbonate.

but interconnected – high permeability Large pores.Press and Siever 2001 Small pores. but not connected – low permeability Moldic porosity .

little cement Average Poorly sorted. dolomite Cavernous limestone Crystalline rock Unfractured Fractured Volcanic Rocks . Well cemented Shale Limestone. Interparticle porosity – Dakota Fm. Well-sorted. Porosity and Permeability Sediment Gravel Clean Sand Silt Clay Glacial Till Porosity (%) 25 to 40 30 to 50 35 to 50 35 to 80 10 to 20 Porosity (%) 10 to 30 20 to 30 10 to 20 0 to 10 0 to 30 0 to 20 up to 50 0 to 5 5 to 10 0 to 50 Permeability excellent good to excellent moderate poor poor to moderate Permeability moderate to excellent good to very good moderate to good poor to moderate very poor to poor poor to good excellent very poor poor poor to excellent Rock Conglomerate Sandstone.Secondary porosity – Dakota Fm.

Organic Diagenesis Buried organic matter also undergoes diagenetic transformations Peat -> coal (increase in wt % carbon.uky. decrease in “volatiles”) Hydrocarbon generation Type (gas or oil) depends on temperature and kerogen type Kerogen – set of complex organic compounds.htm .edu/KGS/coal/coal_information. composed of varying proportions of C. H. and O http://www.

van Krevelen plot Summary Diagenesis: Physical and chemical changes taking place in a sediment or sedimentary rock between deposition and either: a) metamorphism. others Summary Three zones: Eodiagenesis – early/shallow diagenesis Mesodiagenesis – deep burial Teleodiagenesis – uplifted Key results: Compaction Dissolution Precipitation Replacement . or b) uplift and weathering Affects all sedimentary deposits Siliciclastics. carbonates. organic.

cementation) or created (dissolution. fracturing) during burial Characterization of porosity type and connectivity can be important Diagenesis of organic deposits leads to formation of coals and hydrocarbons .Summary Porosity May be destroyed (compaction.

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