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Copyright © 2009 Learning Express, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Control Number: 2009927186 A copy of this title is on ﬁle with the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-57685-690-1 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
Introduction • Why spelling is important in today’s world • Overview of how this book works Pretest S E C T I O N 1 : S P E L L I N G S T R AT E G I E S Lesson 1: How to Become a Better Speller • Overview of tips and tricks that will help improve spelling • Review exercises applying the tips Lesson 2: Mnemonics • Explanation of mnemonics and how to create and use them • Review exercises applying common mnemonics Lesson 3: Pronunciation • Understanding how proper pronunciation and sounding out words can help improve spelling • How to use the dictionary’s pronunciation charts • Review exercises of pronunciation Lesson 4: Word Meanings • Understanding how learning a word’s meaning will make it easier to spell • Review exercises of word meanings S E C T I O N 2 : W O R D PA R T S A N D F O R M S Lesson 5: Roots • Explanation of word roots and origins • Understanding and identifying common roots
3 7 9
contents • Chart of common word roots • Review exercises of common roots
Lesson 6: Preﬁxes • Explanation of preﬁxes • Understanding and identifying common preﬁxes • Chart of common preﬁxes • Review exercises of common preﬁxes Lesson 7: Sufﬁxes • Explanation of word roots and origins • Understanding and identifying common roots • Chart of common sufﬁxes • Review exercises of common roots Lesson 8: Compound Words • Understanding how compound words are created • Review exercises of compound words Lesson 9: Regular Verbs • Explanation of verbs and tenses • Understanding verb conjugation rules for the present tense and present participle • Review exercises of the present tenses Lesson 10: Irregular Verbs • Chart of irregular verbs • Review exercises of the past tenses Lesson 11: Vowels • Overview of vowels • Understanding vowel combinations and short and long vowels • Review exercises of vowels and vowel combinations Lesson 12: Using ie and ei • Understanding the difference between using ie and ei • Review exercises of ie and ei Lesson 13: Using ia and ai • Understanding the difference between using ia and ai • Review exercises of ia and ai Lesson 14: Consonants • Overview of consonants and how they are pronounced • Understanding the two sounds of the letters c and g • Review exercises of consonants • Review exercises of c and g
proper adjectives. and titles • Review exercises of capitalization Lesson 19: Abbreviations and Acronyms • Understanding common abbreviations • Explanation of acronyms • Review exercises of abbreviations and acronyms SECTION 4: WORD ENDINGS Lesson 20: Regular Plurals • Understanding plural rules for regular plurals • Review exercises of regular plurals Lesson 21: Irregular Plurals • Understanding plural rules for irregular plurals • Review exercises of irregular plurals Lesson 22: Final y • Understanding when to keep a ﬁnal y and when to change it to i • Review exercises of the ﬁnal y Lesson 23: Final e • Understanding when to keep a ﬁnal e and when to drop it • Review exercises of the ﬁnal e Lesson 24: Doubling Final Consonants • Understanding when to double ﬁnal consonants • Review exercises of ﬁnal consonants 109 115 117 123 127 131 139 141 147 153 157 161 .contents v Lesson 15: Consonant Combinations • Understanding consonant combinations and silent consonants • Review exercises of consonant combinations and silent consonants S E C T I O N 3 : P U N C T U AT I O N Lesson 16: Apostrophes • Understanding apostrophe placement for contractions and possession • Review exercises of apostrophes Lesson 17: Hyphens • Understanding when and how to use a hyphen • Review exercises of hyphens Lesson 18: Capitalization • Understanding capitalization of proper nouns.
vi contents S E C T I O N 5 : S P E C I A L S I T U AT I O N S Lesson 25: Homonyms • Explanation of homonyms • Chart of common homonyms • Review exercises of homonyms Lesson 26: Frequently Misspelled Words • Chart of the most frequently misspelled words • Review exercises of frequently misspelled words Lesson 27: Commonly Confused Words • Explanation of the differences between commonly confused words • Chart of the most commonly confused words • Review exercises of commonly confused words Lesson 28: Business. legal. and technological terms Lesson 29: Literary Terms • Understanding literary terms • Review exercises of literary terms Lesson 30: Foreign Words • Understanding and identifying the most commonly used foreign words • Review exercises of foreign words Posttest 167 169 177 183 189 195 201 207 . and Technological Terms • Understanding terms related to the business. Legal. and technology industries • Review exercises of business. legal.
chances are you think your spelling could use some improvement. not to mention boring. you must learn to spell properly. and new or technical terms that haven’t made it into the spell-check dictionary. And if you are a less-than-stellar speller. Relying on spell-check programs or thinking that no one will notice or care if you spell words incorrectly can cause plenty of problems. Spell-check programs aren’t always reliable. right? Not necessarily. many foreign words.I N T R O D U C T I O N SPELLING CAN BE tricky. Memorizing spelling lists probably seems a bit daunting. It is easy to be tripped up by the many rules—and exceptions to the rules— that go along with them. homonyms. it can be difﬁcult to know how to begin to improve your spelling. technical terms. and words that don’t seem to make any sense at all. especially the incorrect use of homonyms. Many errors can go undetected. If you have picked up this book. with the advent of spell-check programs. you might think that being a good speller isn’t even all that important anymore. After all. If you really want to ensure accuracy. What’s more. The English language is ﬁlled with foreign phrases. This is especially . you can rely on technology to catch your errors.
through e-mail and text messages. tricks. reports. you’re sure to do better on the posttest than you did on the pretest. making each lesson very focused and speciﬁc. you will have a good idea of the areas in which you have the most room for improvement. Each lesson is designed to take you 15 minutes to complete. Most spelling mistakes are common. Once you’ve done this. letters. with a few dozen of them accounting for the majority of all errors. you will improve your spelling ability. The repeated misspelling of simple words in your e-mails. these spelling mistakes are easily corrected. In addition. your spelling ability will increase dramatically. lazy. reports. let’s get started. or anything else that you write in your daily life can make you appear careless. and not very intelligent. This book will not attempt to have you memorize list after list of words. you will learn easy ways to become a better speller. So. could cost you a coveted spot at your ﬁrst-choice school.2 introduction true in the case of formal writing. there is still a place for formal writing in our society. the lessons in this book are designed to teach you the reasons why words are spelled the way they are—and. business memos. It isn’t just the big spelling errors that can cause problems for you. If you learn these common errors and how to correct and avoid them. mistakes on your resume could cost you a job offer. To accomplish this. the book is ﬁlled with tips. Complete each question and then check your work in the answer key. The best way to get started using this book is to take the pretest that follows. Although much of our correspondence these days is fairly casual. Grab a pencil and take your time on the pretest. there are several lists included in this book that you should spend time reading and absorbing. Making spelling errors on your college applications. take the time to complete the posttest. any spelling complexities have been broken down into manageable rules and tips. and rules you can follow to improve your spelling every day. Throughout your life. That is what this book will help you to do. If you’ve dedicated the time to the pursuit of becoming a better speller. applications. resumes. Luckily. formal e-mails for school and business require proper spelling. Yes. In addition. and other correspondence. perhaps more importantly. If you work through each lesson. Later. And the emphasis here is on easy. However. why they are not spelled the way you may think they are—with the hope that by gaining that type of understanding. you will be required to write essays. for example. After you ﬁnish all the lessons in the book. Good luck! . letters.
If you don’t know a particular answer. The pretest consists of 30 questions designed to assess your knowledge of the major spelling concepts and rules that are covered in this book. If you don’t know an answer to a particular question. that gives you a pretty good indication that you should pay attention to the lesson covering that concept! Check your work when you’re done by looking at the answers on page 6. resist the urge to guess.P R E T E S T THIS BOOK STARTS with a pretest. . to give you an idea of where your spelling strengths and weaknesses lie. This test is designed to measure what you know.
15. loud b. Brianne was thrilled that she passed / past her math exam. a feeling of mental unease or discomfort f. Tom doesn’t like the coarse / course texture of cornbread. using hyphens to divide it by its syllables. vendetta 11. to take up a place or space Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. lavish 5. She couldn’t bear / bare to see her sister cry. 14. malaise 10. unreachable 3. 6. August Match the words with their correct meanings. occupy 8. a grudge or feud characterized by acts of retaliation e. eligible 7.4 pretest Write out each word. qualiﬁed to participate c. a short account of an interesting or humorous incident d. 13. euphoric 4. 1. . boisterous a. anecdote 9. 12. comment 2. The two / too girls were shopping for prom dresses.
24. self 29.pretest 5 16. 20. Parker had laid / lain awake for 10 minutes before getting out of bed. 21. I ensured / assured Becky that her new hairstyle was attractive. 26. book 28. 17. Circle the correct form of sit / set in each sentence. She selected heavy stock for her stationery / stationary. Amber ﬁlled her award speech with clichés / chlishés. goose 27. It was unfortunate that Robbie didn’t pass nineth / ninth grade. Evan found his textbook laying / lying under his bed. Febuary / February is Black History Month. 18. 22. 19. Mom asked me to set / sit the table for dinner. truck 30. Setting / Sitting on the hammock is very enjoyable. 23. Correctly spell the plural forms of the following words. 25. Circle the italicized word that is spelled correctly. My dad’s boss gave him an increase in his annual salery / salary. Circle the correct form of lay / lie in each sentence. tornado .
Amber ﬁlled her award speech with clichés. Aug-ust (Lesson 3) 6. (Lesson 27) 22. (Lesson 25) 16. b. Tom doesn’t like the coarse texture of cornbread. (Lesson 25) 17. Mom asked me to set the table for dinner. Sitting on the hammock is very enjoyable. books (Lesson 20) 28. selves (Lesson 20) 29. geese (Lesson 21) 27. (Lesson 4) 12. tornadoes (Lesson 20) . (Lesson 4) 7. (Lesson 25) 13. un-reach-a-ble (Lesson 3) 3. lav-ish (Lesson 3) 5. The two girls were shopping for prom dresses. Brianne was thrilled that she passed her math exam. She couldn’t bear to see her sister cry. (Lesson 26) 26. Evan found his textbook lying under his bed. a. (Lesson 28) 23. February is Black History Month. (Lesson 4) 10. (Lesson 27) 20.6 pretest ANSWERS 1. (Lesson 27) 21. (Lesson 4) 9. (Lesson 25) 15. trucks (Lesson 20) 30. (Lesson 30) 24. f. I assured Becky that her new hairstyle was attractive. com-ment (Lesson 3) 2. (Lesson 25) 18. c. e. d. My dad’s boss gave him an increase in his annual salary. (Lesson 4) 11. (Lesson 27) 19. It was unfortunate that Robbie didn’t pass ninth grade. She selected heavy stock for her stationery. (Lesson 25) 14. Parker had lain awake for 10 minutes before getting out of bed. eu-phor-ic (Lesson 3) 4. (Lesson 23) 25. (Lesson 4) 8.
and other tactics in this section will help you to do just that! . Think about the strategies outlined in this section as you would think about any other plan.S E C T I O N 1 spelling strategies EMPLOYING A FEW key strategies will shorten the amount of time it takes for you to become a better speller. Following the tips. tricks. they are steps for you to take to reach your ultimate goal. your goal is to boost your spelling ability. In this case.
. or rule that when learned and applied will set you on your way toward better spelling. they are made through instruction and practice. trick. we’ll cover some of the tactics that you can employ to reinforce what you learn in each of the lessons in this book. Good spellers are not born. —MARILYN VOS SAVANT (1946– ) AMERICAN MAGAZINE COLUMNIST In this first lesson. and rules. Each lesson in this book will cover a speciﬁc tip.L E S S O N 1 how to become a better speller When our spelling is perfect. THE FIRST STEP to becoming a better speller is not to despair over your current spelling ability. You may think you are a terrible speller. put your energies toward learning a few tips and tricks that will vastly improve your spelling skills. tricks. But when it’s flawed. it prompts strong negative associations. Before you get started. instead of worrying about being a less-than-stellar speller. it’s invisible. but that doesn’t mean you will always be a terrible speller. So. take some time to read through the guidelines here for how to reinforce those tips.
write the deﬁnition(s) of the word. Since that incorrect spelling has become ingrained. • Write a complete word on one side of each card. you might have trouble imagining the word spelled differently. chances are you won’t mind being a bit silly. but once you notice that you are no longer making careless spelling mistakes. Quiz yourself by trying to ﬁll in the blank correctly. Maybe you’ve misspelled deﬁnitely for as long as you can remember. Here are some ways in which you can use ﬂash cards to your advantage: • On the front of each card.10 spelling strategies USE FLASH CARDS At ﬁrst. will reinforce the word in your mind. Have someone say a word from your deck of ﬂash cards and then try to spell that word. no. write a word you want to learn. All you need to create them is a pack of index cards or scraps of paper and a pen. On the other side. preﬁxes. MAKE A PERSONALIZED SPELLING LIST Once you’ve completed the lessons in this book. Flash cards are easy and convenient to use. you can read the deﬁnition(s) and try to identify the word. But once you become aware of your error. use ﬂash cards to learn roots. However. though. In other words. the spelling will make sense to you (see Lesson 5 for more on word roots). and sufﬁxes. It might take time for that new understanding to stick. writing it as deﬁnately. Conversely. there will probably still be certain words that trip you up. forcing yourself to use it—correctly— as often as possible. If you have a hard time spelling a word. you will have a ﬁrmer grasp on your spelling errors. if you’ve read the lessons carefully and completed the practice exercises. Write the complete word on the back. and come to understand the meaning of the root ﬁnite. you might feel silly using ﬂash cards. by learning the whys and hows of spelling. Leave out a key letter. This may seem like an odd instruction: If the words are tricky. You could also have a friend quiz you. Make a list of those words and try to use them in your writing as often as possible. either out loud or on a separate sheet of paper. Quiz yourself by reading the word and trying to state the deﬁnition(s). That’s where practice becomes . • Instead of trying to learn hundreds of words. shouldn’t you just avoid them? Well. you’ll be more aware of words that you typically spell incorrectly.
you will experience language. blogs. Take a look at Lesson 4 for more information on using the dictionary and understanding word meanings. the more you will recognize words that are spelled properly. and other courses free of charge. You can also purchase books dedicated to word games. magazines. Using the correct spelling of deﬁnitely as frequently as you can will ensure that it replaces the incorrect spelling in your mind for good. Not only can you borrow books and periodicals from the library but most libraries offer a variety of self-improvement. So don’t turn your nose up at the dry texts. You will be exposed to new and different words and you will see them in action. just make sure you read other things. you’ll ﬁnd yourself reading words that you’ve used when speaking but haven’t known how they were spelled. All of this will reinforce your spelling skills.how to become a better speller 11 essential. The next time you are at the library. bulletin. you might want to try keeping a dictionary handy. Or. computer. Don’t think. you will be exposed to many different types of words. AND READ SOME MORE One of the easiest ways to improve your spelling ability is to read. short stories. Read whatever you want to! Newspapers. you can look it up right away. if you prefer a more solitary pursuit. Then. when you come across a word that you don’t know. or calendar of events. that you need to force yourself to read dry or dull texts. READ. . and novels are all full of words that can expand your knowledge. hobby. do crossword puzzles or jumbles. magazines. If you read many different media. graphic novels. too! When you read. however. Reading will allow you to understand tricky words in the context of others. PLAY WORD GAMES Gather some family members or friends to play word games like Scrabble® or Boggle®. and journals that can help you improve your spelling. Most daily newspapers have crossword puzzles and many of them also have jumbles. READ. The more you read. When you read. TIP: Your school or local library is filled with books. ask for a copy of its most recent newsletter. Chances are. or visit websites that feature jumbles and crossword puzzles.
Second. ask him or her to proofread for a period of time everything that you write. right? Well. Not what you want to do when you are attempting to improve your ability! Turning off your spell-check function will force you to proofread your writing very carefully. your spell-check will not alert you to the error. the notion of turning off your spell-check function may seem scary. TURN OFF YOUR SPELL-CHECK FUNCTION If you are a subpar speller. Furthermore. ASK FOR HELP If you really want to improve your spelling. that may not be the best thing to do. the spell-check tool actually reinforces your spelling errors. In spelling. In this way. As you do. which will help you learn correct spelling. including www. Many sites offer this type of service.com. If you know someone who is a particularly good speller or apt proofreader. why not sign up for Word of the Day e-mails? These will enhance your vocabulary and increase your familiarity with the spelling of various words. First. Other keys to becoming a better speller are outlined in the following lessons in this section: Use mnemonics. After all. ask them to point out any spelling errors you make in your e-mails. but use it incorrectly (in the case of homonyms. This may take a little more time than you are used to spending on your writing. and friends that you are attempting to become a better speller. and pay attention to word meanings.12 spelling strategies When you are online. Taking charge of your spelling in everything you write will make you a more conﬁdent and competent speller. or papers. If you spell a word correctly. employers. teachers. you rely on your spell-check to catch your mistakes. Tell your parents. but there will be many beneﬁts. spell-check tools usually make changes automatically. practice proper pronunciation. spell-check tools aren’t all that reliable. for example). so quickly that you may not even notice the change has been made. letters. don’t be shy. if you are unsure of how to spell a word. practice really does make perfect! . or at least your very important papers or letters! Having another person’s eyes review your material may help pinpoint spelling errors that you never knew you were making. Then. it goes without saying that you should read all of the lessons in this book and spend the time to complete the practice exercises. you can look it up in the dictionary immediately.dictionary.
how to become a better speller 13 PRACTICE How many words can you create from these letters? 1. RNEIGW 2. LSYFHA 3. ERSUSI 4. SNIGEB 5. OTSRHF .
If you don’t know what all of the words mean, take this opportunity to look them up in your dictionary. 1. There are 21 possible words. erg reign gen rein gin rig grew ring grin weir ire wen new wig 2. There are 22 possible words. ash ﬂy ashy half fay has fays hay ﬂash hays ﬂashy las ﬂay lash ﬂays 3. There are 25 possible words. ire ruse ires ruses issue sir issuer sire res sires rise sirs rises sis rue sue rues
win wine wing winger wire wren wring lay lays say shay shy slay sly
suer suers sues sure use user users uses
how to become a better speller
4. There are 25 possible words. beg binge begin binges begins bins begs gen being gibe beings gibes bes gin big gins bin 5. There are 23 possible words. for froths fort host forth hot forts hots fro oft frosh ors frost rho froth rot ins nib nibs sign sin sine sing singe
rots short shot soft sort sot tor
Memory is the mother of all wisdom.
—AESCHYLUS (525–456 B.C.) GREEK PLAYWRIGHT
In this lesson, you will learn about mnemonics—memory aids to help you become a better speller.
TALK ABOUT A tricky word! Mnemonic might be a hard word to spell, but it
is a simple concept. Meaning memory aid, mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember spelling rules, or how to spell particularly difﬁcult words. They are typically phrases or rhymes that are used to make memorization easier. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes, tunes, or acronyms. You may recall the acronym Roy G. Biv, the grade school mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. Quite a few mnemonics apply to spelling. Here are some of the most common ones: • i before e, except after c. This clever rhyme is one of the best-known mnemonics. It means that in most words that have the letters i and e grouped together, the i will come before the e,
ﬂea. you will not confuse the principal of a school with the word principle.) If you remember that the principal of your school is your pal. If you remember the mnemonic. you hear the long e but not the a. see Lesson 12. meaning rule of action or conduct. the word separate is misspelled as seperate. but not the i. . and true. For more on vowel combinations. only the ﬁrst vowel is pronounced and the second one is silent. In ﬂea. and in foe you hear the long o but not the e. When two vowels go walking refers to a two-vowel combination in a word. refers to the ss in the word dessert. you’ll remember that the word ear is in the word that means to listen to. For more on ie and ei combinations. (Homonyms will be explained later. Remember the rat to remember the correct spelling! • The principal is my pal. including exceptions to the rule. This is an easy way to differentiate the words hear and here. For example.18 spelling strategies except in words where there is a c immediately before this combination. abstain. you hear the long a in abstain. see Lesson 11. So often. • You hear with your ear. in the word niece. • When two vowels go walking. the ﬁrst one does the talking. This mnemonic will help you distinguish between a pair of frequently confused homonyms. Let’s break down the rhyme to fully understand it. arid land) with dessert (the sweet ending to a meal). and in the word receipt. foe. Sugars then. • There is a rat in separate. the e comes before the i because the combination is preceded by a c. This one will help you avoid confusing desert (the sandy. the i comes before the e. For example. so don’t worry if you’re not sure what they are. In the case of our examples. The ﬁrst one does the talking means that in the two-vowel combinations. • Desserts have two sugars.
She almost ﬁanted / fainted when walking down the hall. therefore. The babysitter was afraid / afriad of the two pit bulls. (If you can’t even remember your mnemonic. 10. Julia was confused when she was called to the principal’s / principle’s ofﬁce. . PRACTICE Using the mnemonics that we reviewed in this chapter. Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. 6. 1. Grace asked her mother to make tiramisu for her birthday dinner dessert / desert. We were instructed to cut against the grain / grian.mnemonics 19 You can devise mnemonics for any spelling rules or words you ﬁnd particularly difﬁcult. Ashley was admired by her teachers because of her good moral principals / principles. rhythmic patterns. Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. useful. Pete and Rory have been freinds / friends since they were seven years old. The recipe required me to whip the eggs separately / seperately from the other ingredients. it won’t help you to remember your spelling!) • • • • Use rhymes. Angela went back for a second piece / peice of pizza. Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. 7. Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. I didn’t here / hear the doorbell when it rang. 2. 4. or tunes. 5. choose the correctly spelled version of the italicized words in the following sentences. 9. 3. 8.
9. 7. Grace asked her mother to make tiramisu for her birthday dinner dessert. 6. Julia was confused when she was called to the principal’s ofﬁce. 5. She almost fainted when walking down the hall. 8. 3. Ashley was admired by her teachers because of her good moral principles. The recipe required me to whip the eggs separately from the other ingredients. We were instructed to cut against the grain. Angela went back for a second piece of pizza. I didn’t hear the doorbell when it rang. Pete and Rory have been friends since they were seven years old. 4. The babysitter was afraid of the two pit bulls. . 10. 2.20 spelling strategies ANSWERS 1.
you may erroneously translate the way you pronounce the word to the way you spell it. by failing to remember the -g at the end of the words you mispronounce. many people tend to drop the ﬁnal g sound when they say words ending in -ing. you may ﬁnd yourself dropping them when you write. This habit can cause you to make some pretty silly errors. frigerator instead of refrigerator. If you get in the habit of dropping syllables or letters from words when you speak. turn to a dictionary. If you run the ﬁrst two syllables together rather than enunciating properly.L E S S O N 3 pronunciation Take care that you never spell a word wrong. For example. Similarly. Always before you write a word. SLOPPY PRONUNCIATION IS one of the fastest routes to sloppy spelling. and. It produces great praise to a lady to spell well. —THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743–1826) THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO HIS DAUGHTER MARTHA Sounding out words can help you remember how to spell them. you might write innermural when the correct spelling is intramural. if you do not remember. . Learn how proper pronunciation and sounding out words can improve your spelling. Or. Another sloppy pronunciation that may result in sloppy spelling is saying inneresting instead of articulating interesting. consider how it is spelled.
Practicing correct pronunciation will help you to avoid sloppy spelling errors. When you speak, pay attention to what you are saying. Make an effort to enunciate properly and speak your words in the exact way they are meant to be pronounced. You will be amazed at how changing the way you pronounce your words can strengthen your spelling. Once you begin to enunciate more clearly, you will ﬁnd that it becomes a habit. It’s helpful to practice by sounding out every letter of certain words, in order to remember how to spell them. Sometimes exaggerating the pronunciation can help you remember the spelling. Even if you enunciate well, many words can throw you off because they are not spelled as they are pronounced. If you didn’t know how to spell the word restaurant, for example, based on pronunciation, you might think it should be written as resterant. Here is a list of words that are commonly misspelled either because they are often mispronounced or because their pronunciation is quite different from the way they are spelled. across again allege always bargain basically biscuit business candidate clothes colonel congratulations consistent desperate disastrous environment equipment extraordinary familiar February gauge generally jewelry library lightning maneuver minuscule mischievous narrator opportunity outrageous practically preferred privilege recognize restaurant schedule tyranny undoubtedly valuable
TIP: Two vowels written together often have the sound of a single vowel. This can lead to spelling errors. If you are familiar with a word through speaking, but not through writing or reading it, and you don’t know how to spell it, you may be thrown off by a vowel combination. This is one reason why using your dictionary to look up any words that you don’t know how to spell is a good habit to acquire.
USING THE DICTIONARY
You are probably familiar with the dictionary as a source for deﬁnitions. Chances are, you don’t use the dictionary’s pronunciation guides as frequently. If that is the case, then you might not be familiar with accent and diacritical marks. Not to worry! With a little instruction, you can become a pro at using your dictionary. First, let’s take a look at some of the basic features of a dictionary. For starters, all of the words in the dictionary are listed in alphabetical order. The two words at the top of each page are guide words, indicating the ﬁrst and last words on the page. Looking at the guide words will let you easily locate the particular word you want to review. Each word in a dictionary is written two ways: as it is correctly spelled (the entry word) and according to its pronunciation. The correct spelling entry needs little explanation. The second way the word is written can be confusing, however. When the entry is written according to its pronunciation, each sound in the word is marked with a symbol. Most consonants are readily recognizable, with the actual letters representing the sounds. But vowels can have multiple pronunciations, so they are marked differently. The marks for the vowel sounds are called diacritical marks. The beginning of your dictionary will usually give a key to these marks. Diacritical marks may vary from dictionary to dictionary, so you should take a look at the guide of any new dictionary that you use to make sure you know what each mark means.
TIP: What is a syllable? Using the dictionary, we can find the following definition: Syllable: syl-la-ble—noun
1. An uninterrupted segment of speech consisting of a center of relatively great sonority with or without one or more accompanying sounds of relatively less sonority. 2. One or more written letters or characters representing more or less exactly such an element of speech. 3. The slightest portion or amount of speech or writing.
In other words, syllables are the individual spoken units of a word.
The phonetically spelled words are broken out into syllables and the accented syllables are marked as such. Accents are important because each word of two or more syllables has one syllable that is given more emphasis than
the others. In the dictionary, that emphasis is shown by an accent mark (’). Some words have more than one syllable that is accented, with one heavier than the other. The heavier accent is called the primary accent and the other is the secondary accent. Here is what accented words would look like in a dictionary: one accent: meet’ ing play’ er two accents: in’ for ma’ tion
GENERAL PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
The following pronunciation guide will show you how the main sounds in the English language are pronounced. ˘ a a ¯ a ar ə b ch d ˘ e e ¯ ər f g h ˘ i îr i ¯ j a as in apple a as in ace a as in star ar as in care a as in about, e as in the, i as in pencil, o as in bishop, u as in supply b as in baby ch as in chicken d as in dog e as in bet e as in complete, y as in hungry er as in butter, ir as in bird, or as in doctor, ur as in urge f as in fast, ph as in phone g as in good h as in hat i as in him ier as in pier, ear as in fear i as in ice j as in job
k l m n o ˘ o ¯ ô oi û p r s t th th u ˘ u ¯ ü yû v w z zh
k as in kid, c as in cookie l as in lie, le as in beetle m as in man n as in fun o as in mop o as in toe o as in torn, a as in warm, aw as in awkward oi as in noise, oy as in boy oo as in foot, u as in put p as in pin r as in real s as in mess, c as in city t as in tiny th as in the th as in thin u as in run, o as in honey u as in uniform oo as in boot u as in cure, cute v as in visit w as in why z as in zombie si as in vision, ge as in garage
ow ou as in out
TIP: A good dictionary will include more than just definitions. When looking for a dictionary, make sure it includes the phonetic spelling of each word and a full pronunciation key at the beginning of the dictionary. The pronunciation key should include all of the pronunciation symbols used in the dictionary to represent the words phonetically. Once you have found a dictionary that meets your needs, take some time to review the pronunciation key and learn the symbols. You will then be well equipped to improve your spelling through improved pronunciation.
you could exaggerate the pronunciation of Connecticut as three words: connect and i and cut. For example. con-science. Similarly. If you are reading a newspaper article or a website and you notice a word that you are unfamiliar with or have never had occasion to spell. Once you have each of the syllables down. This word is frequently misspelled because it is not pronounced the way it is spelled. Exaggerating these idiosyncrasies can make the correct spelling stick in your mind. . Say each syllable slowly. sound it out. if you were to read the word tranquility you would break it down into four syllables like this: tran-quil-i-ty. Take the word conscience. as they are spelled: con and science. To remember how to spell it. thinking about how the sound of the word and its spelling are related. pronouncing each as individual words. Here is the way this type of sounding out would work. when you put the syllables together. saying each one aloud as you read it. The ﬁrst is to sound out tricky words when you read them. with silent letters and letter combinations that can mislead even the best spellers. The second technique for sounding words out is to exaggerate the way a word is spelled. or some part of the word. string them together and say the whole word. or the way it sounds. This technique is similar to the mnemonics that you learned about in Lesson 2. committing the spelling of each to memory. This will help you remember the second c in the word. Then. The English language has hundreds of words that are not spelled the way they sound. you could break the word into its two syllables. Break the word into syllables.26 spelling strategies SOUNDING WORDS OUT There are two ways in which sounding words out can beneﬁt you in your quest to become a better speller. you will be able to spell the whole word.
pronunciation 27 PRACTICE Break the following words into syllables and circle the syllable with the primary accent. pillow 10. multiple 9. children 6. elucidate 3. gratitude 8. horticulture 15. sofa 5. mire 17. banana 16. computer 11. anger 2. fortitude . generous 4. surreptitious 13. decline 12. malignant 14. energy 7. 1.
clandestine 20. light (one syllable) . gen’-er-ous 4. so’-fa 5. grat’-i-tude 8. en’-er-gy 7. cabinet 19.28 spelling strategies 18. ma-lig’-nant 14. hor’-ti-cul-ture 15. e-lu’-ci-date 3. cab’-i-net 19. de-cline’ 12. an’-ger 2. clan-des’-tine 20. sur-rep-ti’-tious 13. chil’-dren 6. com-pu’-ter 11. pil’-low 10. light ANSWERS 1. mire (one syllable) 17. for’-ti-tude 18. ba-na’-na 16. mul’-ti-ple 9.
stop and look the word up in your dictionary. Be aware of what you are trying to say and then make sure that the words you choose convey the right meaning.L E S S O N 4 word meanings For a large class of cases—though not for all—in which we employ the word meaning it can be defined thus: the meaning of a word is its use in the language. —LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN (1889–1951) AUSTRIAN PHILOSOPHER THIS MAY SEEM obvious. This exercise will help you to learn and to know what words mean. . If you strive to use the right words in all of your writing. not only marring your image in the eyes of the reader but also failing to convey exactly what it is you mean to say. When you’re not entirely sure of the meaning of a word. You may ﬁnd yourself writing the wrong word in an important essay or letter. but you think it is probably correct in a particular situation. It is easy to get into the habit of more-or-less knowing what a word means and then using it. This type of lackadaisical word usage can get you into trouble. Make sure the word is correct. but when you write a word. you will not ﬁnd yourself in that position. you should know what it means. however. even those that you thought you already knew. whether it is accurate and appropriate or not. You simply need to think about the words you use and be sure that you know their meanings before using them.
The homonyms covered in Lesson 24 and the confusing words covered in Lesson 26 will be easier to distinguish once you know their meanings. if you don’t know what a word means. . Precede is a verb that means to come before. admit. It is also a conjunction that means other than. take the time to look it up in your dictionary. or regard as true.30 spelling strategies Knowing the meaning of your words is particularly important for homonyms—words that are spelled differently but pronounced alike. so you can better understand how small differences in spelling can add up to large differences in meaning. Do you know the differences? Let’s take a look at what each word means. loose is pronounced with an s sound. or compliment when you want to say complement. Remember. Being aware of the meaning of words will help you to avoid embarrassing mistakes. Loose is an adjective that means the opposite of tight or contained. Lose is pronounced with a z sound instead of an s sound. they have similar spellings but very different meanings. As you can see by comparing the meaning of the two words in each set. For example: lose / loose accept / except precede / proceed These word pairs have only subtle sound and spelling differences but they have very different meanings. Proceed is a verb that means to go forward. Thinking about the meaning of the words you are writing will also help you with frequently confused similar words and word forms. such as through accident or theft. If you can attach meaning to a word. It can save you from writing their when you really mean there. Except is a preposition that means excluding. so that there is little or no prospect of recovery. Lose is a verb that means to come to be without something. Accept is a verb that means to receive. you may ﬁnd it easier to remember how to spell it.
It can be a word on the list of difficult or tricky words that you’ve created or it can be a word that you heard or read that day. You will often be able to deduce the meaning of an unfamiliar word by recognizing the root. First. homonyms. PRACTICE Use your dictionary to look up the deﬁnitions of the italicized words and then choose the word that best ﬁts the sentence. lists can help you learn what words mean. 6. TIP: If you are determined to expand your vocabulary and enhance your knowledge of what various words mean. Resolve to look up the definition of at least one word every day. Spend time learning the word parts and testing yourself with your word list. and you will never misuse them again. . After Ryan took the pack of gum from the store without paying for it. devote a month to the pursuit. they will expand your vocabulary and improve your spelling. and sufﬁxes (covered in Lessons 5. he was burdened by a guilty conscience / conscious. Although this thought may bring back bad memories. 2. Second. Reviewing the meaning of common word roots. and look up their deﬁnitions in the dictionary. you will fully understand what the words on your list mean. All of these activities will do two things. develop a master word list of confusing words. and 7) will add to your knowledge. Soon. Jorge and Kyle went to Mexico last year and plan to go their / there again this winter. However you come across it. they will make looking words up in your dictionary a habit. 1. and other words that give you trouble. Read the pronunciation and the definitions.word meanings 31 You might recall spending lots of time in grade school reviewing list after list of vocabulary words in preparation for your weekly spelling test. Write them out on ﬂash cards and test yourself whenever you have free time. Write out the word and its meaning on a flashcard and then test yourself later. look it up. Using the suggestions laid out in Lesson 1. or at a designated time each day or every week. preﬁxes.
We loved to listen to Seamus’s Irish assent / accent. It takes a while to adapt / adopt to daylight saving time. 12. . Everyone passed the exam accept / except for Gavin. If you reach a weight loss plateau. Ava walks passed / past the grocery store on her way to school. 4. 10. 7. 13. Mrs. you should vary / very your exercise routine. Without the key. they couldn’t access / assess their safety deposit box. 8.32 spelling strategies 3. Abbie took the story seriously. 6. 5. 15. They had to transmit / submit the message via fax. but I thought it was meant as simile / satire. We donated all of the precedes / proceeds of the event to charity. Lucy’s shoe was so loose / lose it fell off when she walked quickly. 9. Crandall planned a party that was sure to excite / incite all of the kids. 14. Children are considered minors / miners until they turn 18. 11. The king’s rein / reign was one of the high points in the country’s history.
7. Without the key. Lucy’s shoe was so loose it fell off when she walked quickly. they couldn’t access their safety deposit box. After Ryan took the pack of gum from the store without paying for it. 11. 13. 6. 3. 15. Mrs. Crandall planned a party that was sure to excite all of the kids. 12. Children are considered minors until they turn 18. Everyone passed the exam except for Gavin. you should vary your exercise routine. Jorge and Kyle went to Mexico last year and plan to go there again this winter. Ava walks past the grocery store on her way to school. The king’s reign was one of the high points in the country’s history. They had to transmit the message via fax. It takes a while to adapt to daylight saving time. We loved to listen to Seamus’s Irish accent. We donated all of the proceeds of the event to charity. 5. 8. 4. . 2. 10. but I thought it was meant as satire.word meanings 33 ANSWERS 1. he was burdened by a guilty conscience. If you reach a weight loss plateau. 9. 14. Abbie took the story seriously.
. and sufﬁxes—as well as letter combinations and verb conjugations. Once words are formed.S E C T I O N 2 word parts and forms AT THEIR MOST basic. prepositions. Words can be nouns. learning the meaning of the roots. The way words are formed is far from random. adverbs. These roots are common among many different words. preﬁxes. Words have roots to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added to form the words that we use in daily life. can help you to more easily remember how to spell. or interjections. they are categorized by the part of speech they represent. conjunctions. The lessons in this section will help you to understand word parts—the roots. pronouns. however. verbs. along with the meaning of the many preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. words are made up of letters: vowels and consonants that combine in a speciﬁc order to create a word. adjectives.
and tricycle by adding the preﬁxes bi (two). It is the base from which another word is made and it is the part of a word that holds the most meaning. meaning people. the root. CHARACTER IN MY BIG FAT GREEK WEDDING A key to better spelling is to understand the meaning of words. Every word either is a root or has a root. Roots combine with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (which are covered in Lessons 6 and 7) to make words. Knowing what the root means will enable you to understand the meaning of a word and spell it more accurately and conﬁdently. A ROOT WORD is the most basic form of a word. Let’s look at an example.L E S S O N 5 roots Give me a word. In this lesson. and I show you that the root of that word is Greek. Similarly. Most roots come from ancient Greek and Latin words (such as dem. any word. . tricycle means three wheels and motorcycle means motorized wheels. you can see that bicycle can be broken down into its parts to mean two wheels. which means circle or wheel is used to form the words bicycle. and tri (three). we’ll explain the most basic part of words. and many have become quite common in the English language. by looking at the root and the preﬁxes. In the case of our examples. motor (motor). motorcycle. —GUS PORTOKALOS. for example). The root cycl. A key to understanding the meaning of words is to understand the meanings of their parts.
This list is provided to help you become familiar with the common roots. drive struggle. amic amphi andro. which means believe. it is a long list. cred. whenever you have free time. amicable amphibian androgynous. andry Meaning hear. contend other walk love all sides male Example acoustic active. for example. One way to tackle word roots is to pick 10 to 20 roots to review each week. then you have words. TIP: Although some roots are words unto themselves—for example. Learning some of the most common roots will provide you with a foundation on which to build that knowledge. You wouldn’t say that you cred in ghosts. polyandry . and use it in your speech. circumambulate amiable. Now you can take the root. such as in. “Seeing that ghost was incredible!” COMMON WORD ROOTS The following table lists many of the most common word roots. You simply need to start to recognize the most common roots and then you can begin to build upon that knowledge. because cred doesn’t stand on its own. When you add a prefix or suffix.38 word parts and forms It is important to understand roots and become familiar with them in order to fully understand how to spell well. do. Let’s look. at the root cred. Don’t be intimidated by the list! Yes. agent agony. alter ego amble. You’ll be amazed at how quickly word roots start to make sense and become familiar to you. agonist alter ambul ami. even if you do. hearing act. Create ﬂash cards based on the roots you’ve chosen and test yourself throughout the week. ag agon. finite and vast are both words and roots—most roots cannot stand on their own as words. antagonist alternate. But you don’t need to learn every root listed here. Root aco(u) act.and -ible to make incredible. along with their meanings and examples of words with those roots.
dominate orthodox. incision. cise cogn corp cosm cred crypt culp dem dent derm dic. incognito corpse. scissors recognize. synchronize excise. bonus bibliography. speak house. go color time cut know. epidemic dentist. chief cause yield. monochrome chronicle. sound by oneself war good book life short take. aque arch aud auto bell bene. excuse recede. cuse ced. belligerent benefit. opinion lead self equal Example anniversary. paradox conduct. cryptic culpable. enni aqua. leader to hear. indicate. credit. audience autobiography. perennial aquatic. corporal cosmic. deduce. seduction egotist.roots 39 Root ann. duct ego equ Meaning year water first. cep capit. dict dom dox duc. archaic audible. capture capital. captain causal. brevity accept. bibliophile biography. seize head. bon biblio bio brev cap. domestic. master belief. equidistant . think body universe. epidermis dictate. edict. proceed chromatic. cosmopolitan credible. ceed chrom chron cis. culprit democracy. dentifrice dermatology. biology abbreviate. equate. aqueduct archangel. capt caus. credo cryptogram. order believe hidden guilt people tooth skin say. egomania equity. autodidact antebellum. chief.
trust end. purpose to flow strong brother birth. line liter loc locut. fidelity definite. progress autograph. light in weight line letter place to speak. gress gram. gender. isotope eject. loqu. lumin macro magn mal man Meaning make. carry to lift. influx enforce. jur. hemoglobin holistic. idio iso ject jud. reject adjudicate. luminary macrocosm magnify. fidel fin. malcontent manufacture. hydrant idiom. gonad digest. gest grad. fort frater gen. word. junct lat. telegram aggregate. lieve lign. literal local. illiterate.40 word parts and forms Root fac fid. gestate. factory confidence. relieve align. hologram dehydrate. idiosyncratic isometric. analogy illuminate. colloquy logic. gradual. grade. race carry. logue. just jug. gon ger. to join bear. infinite affluence. lexicon. correlate. flux for. elevator. group blood whole water personal equal throw judge. location locution. law a link. hemo hol. justice conjunction. logy. speech speech. gesture biodegrade. conjugate collate. late. produce step write society. delineate. to shine large large bad hand Example benefactor. magnificent malady. fluid. finite flu. lation lev. legislation alleviate. lexico luc. manuscript . fraternity congenital. judge. fortress fraternal. lineage literature. holo hydr. inject. loquy log. lucent. hydro idi. graph greg hema. study of light. do faith. gregarious hematology.
neurosis nocturnal. miss mob. plosive plentiful. vision peace equal father emotion. empathic. mesoderm microscope. mariner maternal. mort morph mut neg neo neuro noct. mobile. primate. mutate negate. mission immovable. philanthropy planar. explode. acquire. structure change to deny new nerve night eye. maternity amidst. option pacify. plet port pot prim. nox opt. podiatrist pendulum. mutability. pod pend phil. neglect. weigh love. misogyny permit. optic pac par. plod. pedometer. microcosm minority. pathy ped. transport. admonition moribund. patricide pathetic. plos plen. report potent. full carry power first to ask Example marine. pathic. minute misanthrope. omnipotent. mortify metamorphosis. mid micro min mis mit. fondness for flat make a loud noise to fill. prin quest. suffering foot hang. renege neologism. plantation. mov mon mor. plethora. inquisition . paternity. meso. minuscule. amorphous mutant. submission. plane applaud. suspend philosophy. promote premonition. principal question. compare paternal. pare pater path. mortician. neonate neurology. sympathy pedal.roots 41 Root mar mater medi. pacifist parity. quir. plaus. quisit Meaning sea mother in the middle of small small hate send move warn death form. mediocre. replenish portable. mot. equinox optics. philia plan plaud. potentate primary. pendant.
stat. balance hold earth god. tangible. insoluble sonar. tang temper. salv scent. old age feel. spic spir. assimilate. ascent schizophrenic scientific scissors manuscript. specific. script sec. knowledge look. spect. suspicious aspire. to stay. free sound wisdom. expire. absolute. scend schizo. unison philosophy. polytheism. atheist topic. obstruct tactile. section sequence. temporary tentative. struct tact. senator. terrain theology. proper break. conspire assistant. utopia . schiz sci sciss scrib. region abrupt. consecutive similar. temporize. salvage. solv son soph spec. senility sensible.42 word parts and forms Root qui. sentient sequence. instruct. reg rupt salu. breath. tempor. consistent. sever safety. acquiesce. regal. quit. station destructive. disrupt. stent stru. ensue sit old. acquit rectify. quit rect. proscribe dissect. interrupt salubrious. sequ sed. sect secut. position build touch time. tenuous subterranean. tenable. simile dissolve. topology. spire stant. session senior. resonate. secu simil solute. deity place Example quiet. sess sen. sequel. split know cut write cut follow. salutary ascend. consequence sedentary. sent sequ. tent terr theo top Meaning rest to rule or guide. temp ten. see to breathe. be aware follow same release. senil sens. health climb division. spirit to stand. loosen. sophisticate aspect.
van. vent ver. devour xenophobe. zo. desire. hold d. large c. vert vit. lead . vow vol vor. tropy uro vac. zoon Meaning rub. verify introvert. vociferous volition. convene veracious. go truth turn life. to call or summon will. vast val ven. wear down to turn. to be worthy come. wish eat. validate intervention. verdict. to live voice.roots 43 Root rib. xenogamy zoo. volunteer voracious. to carry b. to bear. survive. vorous. tribe. carnivorous. vertigo vital. vacuum. vocalize. irreversible. tropical urologist devastate. macro Meaning a. viv voc. vivify avow. trope. Root 1. zodiac. protozoon PRACTICE Match the root with the correct meaning. trop 3. living Example tribulation. tropic. desolate to be strong. valor. attrition entropy. lat 2. path 4. metazoan. vanity valiant. vour xeno zoa. trit trop. veri ver. swallow foreign life. trite. a change or turn urine empty. zoo.
year j. a change or turn g. lucent 18. sed 10. ann 8. synchronize 16. rectify 13. duc 6. antebellum . dominate 19. emotion. suffering Identify the root in the following words: 11. desolate f. plantation 15. ﬂuid 20.44 word parts and forms 5. vac 7. consecutive 14. amicable 17. sit h. man e. empty. to turn. epidermis 12. hand i. ten 9.
to carry 2. year 8.roots 45 ANSWERS 1. lead 6. plan 15. j. f. to turn. sit 10. desolate 7. ami 17. to bear. a. empty. hold 9. derm 12. chron 16. dom 19. e. large 5. h. rect 13. i. h. ﬂu 20. suffering 4. d. sec 14. g. luc 18. emotion. b. bell . a change or turn 3. hand 11.
a prefix appears at the beginning of a word. A preﬁx is another word part. it is added in front of the root to create a word.means before and the root. which we’ll cover in Lesson 7. In other words. IN LESSON 5.L E S S O N 6 prefixes The beginning is the most important part of the work. They combine with roots and suffixes to form words. Sufﬁxes. are added after the root. you can figure out that prefix means attach before. And that is exactly what you do with a prefix: You attach it before the root. you will enhance or change its meaning. By adding a preﬁx to a word or root. preﬁxes have ﬁxed meanings that remain the same no matter to which word they are attached. Although you cannot tell the meaning of a word from the prefix alone.C. by combining the meanings. In fact. Like roots. we looked at roots and how they are the building blocks of words. the prefix can help you get an idea of what the word is about. you can look at the prefix of prefix to determine the meaning: pre. So. —PLATO (428/427–348/347 B. This lesson will explain what they are and how to understand their meanings. means fix or attach. fix. .) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND FOUNDER OF THE ACADEMY IN ATHENS Prefixes are another important word part.
Read the following sentence: When Tyler became the team captain. and then string the individual meanings together to get to the full meaning of the word. and to make incapable of performing a certain action. The former is the case with disable and unable. This preﬁx can be found in the words omnipresent. The preﬁx omni-. COMMON PREFIXES This list of preﬁxes covers the most common preﬁxes. there is a distinct difference. What does omnipotent mean? You know that the preﬁx means all so you already know that the word means all something. take a peek into your dictionary.48 word parts and forms Let’s look at another one. which means all present. or means. especially to impair the physical abilities of. means all. such as dis-. however. you will become better equipped to choose the correct one to use in any situation. They are not always interchangeable. Review this list just as you did the list of roots in Lesson 5. Break the word into its parts. let’s apply your knowledge of this preﬁx to another word. for example. . il-. their meanings. and omnivore. you can correctly deduce that omnipotent means all powerful. on the other hand. TIP: Many prefixes have similar or the same meanings. While their meanings are similar. not able. This exercise is one that you can repeat with any new word you encounter. and lacking the mental or physical capability or efficiency. and un-. Unable. As you grow familiar with the meanings and nuances of prefixes. and some examples of words using each preﬁx. is an adjective that means lacking the necessary power. Going back to what you learned in Lesson 5. Now. determine the meanings of those parts. or refer to the lists in this book. authority. If you‘re still unsure. which means someone that eats all foods. incapable. can you ﬁnd the root? Since the root is pot. and incompetent. he started to act as if he was omnipotent. Disable is a verb that means to deprive of capability or effectiveness. which means powerful. because their subtle differences will either change the meaning of a word or simply make it wrong.
recent not exceeding many. nonconformist overabundance. prepare proceed. antihistamine binoculars. within between within into. again half. neophyte nonchalant. much after before before again back. progress review. abscond antecedent. opposite of good. away before against two around with. wrong new. together opposite against down. deplete decimal. illegal induct. exhume hyperbole. away from ten not. hyperactive hypocrite. retroactive semiannual.prefixes 49 Prefix aabanteantibicircumco-. hypodermic illogic. repent retrograde. misanthrope neonatal. partly Example atypical. to decimate disengaged. polygamy postmortem. inculcate intermittent. intramural introvert. disloyal euphoric. counterclockwise contraband. away from above below not. controversy to debark. interplay intranet. bicycle circumference. antemeridian antipathy. override polytechnic. concountercontrdedecdiseuexhyperhypoilininterintraintromisneononoverpolypostpreproreretrosemi- Meaning not. semiconductor . conference. opposite in. within bad. amorphous abnormal. well out of. introduction misspell. circumspect to coexist. euphemism extract. postwar preview. to contribute counterpart. without from.
sublimate superficial. synonym transmit. over with. unilateral biweekly. Prefix monounibiditriquadquartpentaquinthexsexseptoctnondeccentmillkilomegaMeaning one one two two three four fourth five five six six seven eight nine ten hundred thousand thousand million Example monotype. Here is a list of numerical preﬁxes that you will routinely come across. quintuplets hexagon. triangle unable. transfer triad. biannual divide. sextillion septet. centipede millennium kilobyte megabyte. decade century. septennial octopus.50 word parts and forms Prefix subsupersyntranstriun- Meaning under above. superscript synthesis. pentameter quintet. together across three not Example substrate. megaton . hexameter sextuplets. unacceptable NUMERICAL PREFIXES Several preﬁxes refer to numbers. thinking about them as a group may help you to remember them better. trilogy quadrangle quarter pentagon. octave nonagon. monologue universal. nonagenarian decimal. diverge trinity.
3. people have been giving her ﬁve sets of every gift! 5. They were able to see the play during the review / preview period.prefixes 51 PRACTICE In each of the following sentences. 9. 2. . 8. 7. the time before the start of the Civil War. Smith gave birth to her quintuplets / sextuplets. 10. Brady wished he could make more friends. but their gym teacher separated them. choose the word that uses the correct preﬁx. 1. 6. Andrew was unheartened / disheartened to learn that he was rejected from his ﬁrst-choice college. but he was just a natural introvert / intervert. The pretest / protest was difﬁcult for all the students in the class because they hadn’t yet learned algebra. Casey and Carolyn wanted to play on the same intermural / intramural team. The meteorologist called for intermittent / intramittent rain showers. two weeks before it opened. Ever since Mrs. He felt constant pain in his arm after hypoextending / hyperextending his elbow. so she opened her thesaurus and looked for synonyms / antonyms. They were reading about the antebellum / antibellum period in the South. She needed to ﬁnd another word with the same meaning as important. 4.
9. They were able to see the play during the preview period.52 word parts and forms ANSWERS 1. but their gym teacher separated them. 8. The meteorologist called for intermittent rain showers. 10. She needed to ﬁnd another word with the same meaning as important. Brady wished he could make more friends. 4. two weeks before it opened. . Ever since Mrs. Andrew was disheartened to learn that he was rejected from his ﬁrst-choice college. so she opened her thesaurus and looked for synonyms. 6. 2. 7. Casey and Carolyn wanted to play on the same intramural team. people have been giving her ﬁve sets of every gift! 5. He felt constant pain in his arm after hyperextending his elbow. but he was just a natural introvert. the time before the start of the Civil War. Smith gave birth to her quintuplets. They were reading about the antebellum period in the South. 3. The pretest was difﬁcult for all the students in the class because they hadn’t yet learned algebra.
L E S S O N 7 suffixes Learning isn’t a means to an end. have been added to beauty to create the new word. instead of the beginning. you will learn the origins of suffixes and how to understand and identify them. suffixes are added to roots to create new words. we’ve covered both of those topics elsewhere (see Lessons 20 and 21 for plurals and Lessons 9 and 10 for conjugations) so this lesson will focus on suffix endings that change a word from one part of speech to another. A part of speech is how a word is used rather than what a word is: for example. for instance. unlike preﬁxes. except that it is added to the end of a word to form a new one. a word might be used as a noun in one sentence but as a verb in another. However. In this lesson. suffixes include plural endings and conjugation endings. it is an end in itself. —ROBERT A. A SUFFIX IS similar to a preﬁx. If you look at the word beautifully. Technically. in this book. you can see that two sufﬁxes. There are other differences as well. more than one sufﬁx can be added to a word. For example. . -ful and -ly. HEINLEIN (1907–1988) AMERICAN NOVELIST AND SCIENCE-FICTION WRITER Like prefixes.
For more on when and how to change a ﬁnal y. pretty quietly Common Endings -s. many words ending in a silent e will drop the -e before adding -ed and -ing. -ant. wanted. becomes delayed and delaying. supply becomes supplied and supplying. -es. See Lesson 23 for more on keeping and dropping a ﬁnal e. frantic. beautiful. element plays. do not make any change when adding -ing. theses. wilderness. for example. a clause. -ent verb names an action -s. goes. The word delay. Love becomes loved and loving. thing. -ible. -ic. or a sentence -ly Some words change when certain sufﬁxes are added to them. Many of those words. on the other hand. identify. clueless. -ness. carpenter. -ify. an adjective. -ed. Words that end in a vowel and -y. advantage. another adverb. -er. miscreant. -ing. add both -ed and -ing without making any changes. however. Words ending in a consonant and -y change the -y to an -i before adding -ed. -ful. -y adverb modifies a verb. -less. embolden tolerable. see Lesson 22. contemptible. waiting. -en adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun -able. Part of Speech noun Job names a person.54 word parts and forms TIP: Not all parts of speech can take all endings. This chart will show which endings can be added to the different parts of speech. place. For instance. For example. or idea Examples roads. -es. -age. . as in the word love.
ﬂex + ing = ﬂexing. If a sufﬁx begins with consonant. Some examples include good + ness = goodness. it usually can be added to a word that ends in a consonant or a silent e with no change to the word or the sufﬁx. take a little time to commit them to memory. Examples of words that take this rule include excel (accent is on the second syllable) + ent = excellent. quick + ly = quickly. For example. Remember that this rule applies only to sufﬁxes that begin with vowels. like fear + less = fearless. There are six main rules that you will need to learn to ensure that you use sufﬁxes properly. It is less confusing than it appears. ninth. duly. 2. for example follow + er = follower. change the -y to an -i before adding the ending. happy + ness = happiness and marry + age = marriage. and submit (accent is on the second syllable) + ing = submitting. Some notable exceptions to this rule include argument. If the word ends in a vowel plus -y. begin (accent is on the second syllable) + ing = beginning. If a word ends in a silent e and the sufﬁx begins with a vowel. love + ly = lovely. though. Since there are far fewer exceptions than words that follow the rule. and wisdom. Examples of doubling the ﬁnal consonant include tip + ing = tipping. wholly. truly. If a one-syllable word ends in a consonant-plus-vowel combination. move + able = movable and fortune + ate = fortunate. 1. 4. 5. double the ﬁnal consonant when adding a sufﬁx that begins with a vowel. judgment. drop the -e before adding the ending. pay + ment = payment and destroy + er = destroyer. double the ﬁnal consonant when adding a sufﬁx that begins with a vowel. If a word ends with a consonant followed by a y. Also. If a polysyllabic word ends in a consonant-plus-vowel-plus-consonant combination and the accent is on the ﬁnal syllable. 3. and set + ing = setting. You do not need to double the ﬁnal consonants when adding a sufﬁx that begins with a consonant. For example. Phew! That’s a long rule. Let’s look at them one at a time. rot + en = rotten.suffixes 55 Don’t let the required changes confuse you. keep the ﬁnal y. On the other hand. The rules for adding sufﬁxes are actually fairly straightforward and consistent. . this rule does not apply to words with -w or -x as their ﬁnal consonant. awful.
feminist calamity.56 word parts and forms 6. marriage rehearsal. amity. library suicide. miscreant. voter demolition. does. state. orphanage. veracity -ance. persecution criticism. Some examples are beat + ing = beating. rank action or process of or related to. -or -ion. latency dissident. or performs act or process. connected with killer. pesticide democracy. anarchist. foreigner. feminism. -ian Meaning action or process. house. quality of one that is. adjective. dalliance agency. -tion -ism -ist -ity one that causes action. or verb endings. killing action or practice. doctrine one who does quality. dominion. state of -ancy. and read + ing = reading. degree . COMMON SUFFIXES This list covers the most common sufﬁxes. supremacy builder. state. NOUN ENDINGS Suffix -age -al -an. -ency quality or state -ant. homicide. dignitary. -ence action or process. The sufﬁxes are categorized by their type: whether they are noun. comfort + able = comfortable. This rule means that these other combinations take suffixes without requiring any change to the word or the suffix. historian adolescence. vacancy. practice. sensor. do not double the final consonant when adding an ending. and some examples of words using each preﬁx. imperialism cellist. reversal guardian. If a word ends in any other combination of vowels and consonants. state. or condition act. or process. disposal. their meanings. state thing belonging to. a person specializing in Example drainage. -ent -ary -cide -cy -er. legitimacy. Review this list just as you did the list of roots in Lesson 5 and the list of preﬁxes in Lesson 6. student adversary.
come to be to make. hopeful chronic. degree doctrine. condition. metamorphosis censure. sleepless adventurous. culpable educational. theology candor. emanate. historical. rectify synchronize. office. tending to VERB ENDINGS Suffix -ate -en -ify. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to tending to. object state. independent peaceful. fragile Spanish. lacking. incessant.suffixes 57 -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y action or process. social human. result. tending to Example flammable. strengthen. sanctify. activity process or action act or process. -fy -ize Meaning to make. simian important. selfish cooperative. science. -ian -ant. or function state or condition. legislature. exposure laundry. realize . form into cause to be or become. sensitive endless. wishful. -ical having the quality of. fearless. senile. bookish. relating to characterized by. detonate. frighten beautify. -ible Meaning capable or worthy of. succor. valor diagnosis. colonize. supportive. fantastic futile. theory condition. sympathy. anarchy Suffix -able. -ial. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. to cause to be cause to be or have. unable to act full of. tolerate quicken. cursory -al. bellicose sleepy. bring about Example violate. amusement happiness. quickness biology. capable of having the quality of performing or tending toward without. discernible. kindness. quality. relating to -an. scenic. related to performing or being full of. activity ADJECTIVE ENDINGS entertainment. agrarian. -ose -y one who is or does. hungry. generous.
respectible 3. drawing 2. transmiting 12. comfortting 4. 1. breezey 15. walkking 14. happily 11. paiment 7. Use your dictionary to learn any of the words that you do not know. employable 8. referral 6. pitiful 5. teacher drawwing respectable comforrting pityful referal payment emploiable argument petted happyly transmitting annoiance walking breezzy teachher draing respectabel comforting pittiful referel payyment emploable argumment peteed hapily transsmiting anoyance wallking breezy teacheer .58 word parts and forms PRACTICE Select the correctly spelled word from each set of three. peted 10. arguement 9. annoyance 13.
breezy 15. respectable 3.suffixes 59 ANSWERS 1. employable 8. comforting 4. teacher . happily 11. transmitting 12. argument 9. referral 6. petted 10. annoyance 13. payment 7. drawing 2. walking 14. pitiful 5.
Some compound words. there are thousands of compound words in the English language. even though they become one idea. This lesson will explain how to create compound words. new buzzwords appear every day that combine two separate words to create new meaning—for instance. Sometimes. though. for example. combining words requires a hyphen or it requires the words to remain separate. A soft ball. You might think there is little or no difference between words written as two separate words or as a single. or as separate words with one meaning. There are rules about when a compound word should be written as one word. Conversely. SOMETIMES IT MAY seem that we can join any two words by simply adding one to the other. It is certainly true that new words can be created by adding one to the other. however. is any ball that is soft. are more readily accepted than others. that explains why we park our car on the driveway and drive our car on the parkway. After all. But .L E S S O N 8 —ANONYMOUS compound words English is a funny language. Putting two words together is often as simple as adding one word to the other. as a hyphenated word. there are some words that should be written as compound words but that are often mistakenly written as two separate words. website. but in fact the difference in meaning can be signiﬁcant. compound word.
over time. while some absolutely are not. This form includes words like self-conscious. and mailroom are all closed-form compound words. If you are writing an essay for a class. redhead. up-to-date dictionary. and overthe-counter (when used as an adjective). some words are accepted when written in any of the three forms. You might want to look ahead to that lesson while reviewing this one.62 word parts and forms the word softball has a more specialized meaning: it is the ball used in the game of softball. some words begin as open-form compounds and. However. TIP: Since compound words have been known to change over time. blue collar. instead of as two separate words. For example. Moreover (which is a compound word!). In the closed form. paperback. Hyphenated words are covered in Lesson 17. in order to learn about hyphens. The third form of compound words is the open form. The second form is the hyphenated form. There are technically three forms of compound words. two words are joined together to create one word. First. you should ask! . the two words work together as one unit. laptop. childlike. for example. The ﬁrst form—what you probably think of when you hear the term compound word—is the closed form. the hyphenated form will become the more accepted and standard form. post ofﬁce. This is the category that people most often fail to think of as compound words. become written as hyphenated compound words and. which may consist of more than two words. As a word begins to be written more and more as a hyphenated word. Which one is correct? It depends on where it is being written and the style guidelines that govern it. You can also rely on style and usage guides to explain the most current forms for compound words. sister-in-law. while others write web-site and still others write website. compound words morph in their forms because of accepted usage. and middle class are in this category. some usage guides write Web site. the best way to be sure you are spelling a word correctly is to look it up in a good. ﬁnally. as closed-form compound words. you might want to ask your teacher to tell you the accepted form for the word in question. Words such as real estate. Generally speaking. let’s take a closer look at compound words. The bottom line is that when you are unsure of how the recipient of your work would like a word written. To further confuse matters. For example.
You will ﬁnd more information on confusing words in Lesson 27. In most cases. you will keep the spelling of the individual words intact. Such words cause confusion because they have slightly different meanings when written as one closed-form compound word versus two distinct. afterlife afternoon airfield airplane airport airtime allover alongside another anybody anyhow anymore anyone anyplace anytime anyway anywhere around babysitter backache backbone backbreaker backdrop backfire . and anyway. COMMONLY CONFUSED COMPOUND WORDS As with most word types in the English language. individual words. then they should always stay separate. That is the key for compound words. and any way. You may wish to read through the list and note any words that you do not know. LIST OF CLOSED-FORM COMPOUND WORDS Here is a list of closed-form compound words. Two individual words in succession can be combined into one compound word if the combination creates one idea or item. there are some that are particularly tricky and confusing.compound words 63 When creating closed-form compound words. there is a simple rule to keep in mind. But what about hyphens? In certain speciﬁc instances. hyphens are used to create compound words. Other situations in which hyphens are used to join words are covered in Lesson 17. It is by no means a complete list. Words like alright and all right are often confused. as with a word like ladybug. and look them up in your dictionary. light-blue umbrella. A compound adjective that appears before the noun is hyphenated: for example. when creating the closed-form compound word. but it will give you an idea of the range of words that are considered compound words. The same is true of maybe and may be. If the two words do not create one idea or item.
64 word parts and forms background backhand backlog backpack backside backslap backspace backspin backstage backtrack backward backyard ballroom baseball basketball because become bedroom bellbottom blackball blackberries blackbird blackboard blackjack blacklist blackmail blackout blacksmith blacktop bluefish bodywork boldface bookcase bookend bookkeeper bookmark bookmobile bookshelf bookstore bookworm bowtie brainchild butterball butterflies buttermilk bypass cannot cardboard cardstock carefree caretaker carfare cargo carhop carload carpetbagger carpool carport carryall carsick cartwheel catwalk caveman clockwise coffeemaker commonplace cornmeal courtyard crossover crosswalk daybook daybreak daydream daylight daytime deadline dishwasher dishwater dogwood doorstep doorstop downbeat drawbridge driveway earthquake eggshell elsewhere everything eyeballs eyesight fireball firebomb firecracker firefighter fireflies firehouse fireproof fireworks fisherman fishpond fishtail football .
compound words 65 footnote footprints forbear forbid forearm forefather forefinger foregone foreground forehand forehead foreleg foreman foresee foreshadow forethought foretold forewarn forget forgive forklift format fortnight glassmaking goodnight grandchild grandchildren granddaughter grandfather grandmaster grandmother grandnieces grandparent grandson grandstand grasshopper graveyard gumball hamburger handcuff headquarters herein herself highway himself homebound homemade hometown honeybee honeycomb honeydew honeymoon honeysuckle hookup horseback household housekeeper houseplant however inside intake itself jailbait jellybean jellyfish jetliner keyboard keyhole keynote keypad keystroke keyway keyword lifeblood lifeboat lifeguard lifelike lifeline lifelong lifesaver lifetime lifework limelight limestone lukewarm mainland matchbox meantime meanwhile moonbeam moonlight moonlit moonwalk moreover motorcycle nearby newborn newscaster newsletter newsman newspaper newsprint .
66 word parts and forms newsreel newsstand newsworthy nightfall nobody noisemaker northeast notebook notepad nowhere oneself overabundance overboard overcoat overflow overland pacemaker pancake passbook passkey passport paycheck peacemaker peppermint pickup pinstripe plaything popcorn racquetball railroad rainbow rainwater rattlesnake repairman riverbank sandstone saucepan scapegoat scarecrow schoolhouse schoolwork seashore setback shortbread sidekick sidewalk silversmith skateboard snowdrift softball somebody someday somehow someone someplace something sometimes somewhat somewhere southwest spearmint spokesperson standby stopwatch storeroom subway sunbathe sundown sunflower sunglasses sunroof supercharge superego superfine superhero superhuman superman supermarket supernatural superpower superscript supersensitive supersonic superstar superstructure supertanker superwoman tabletop tadpole tailbone takeover taxicab taxpayer teacup teamwork teapot teenager textbook therefore .
compound words 67 throwaway throwback thunderbird thunderstorm timesaving timeshare today together toolbox toothpaste toothpick touchdown township turnkey turnoff underachieve underage underbelly underbid undercharge underclothes undercover undercurrent undercut underdog underestimate underexpose underfoot underground upbeat upbringing upcoming update upend upgrade upheaval upheld uphill uphold upkeep upland uplift uplink upload upon uppercase upperclassman uppercut uppermost upright uprising uproar uproot upscale upshot upside upstage upstairs upstanding upstart upstate upstream uptake uptight uptown upturn upward upwind washcloth washout washroom washstand wastepaper watchdog watchmaker watchtower watercolor waterfall waterfront waterline watermark watermelon waterproof waterscape watershed waterside waterspout watertight waterway weatherman weekend whatever wheelbarrow whitecap whitefish whitewall whitewash widespread without woodshop .
When I saw Tom’s new lap top / laptop I thought. The police targeted a radius of four blocks for a crime crackdown / crack down. 9. 1. Maddie led the sightseers / sight seers on a mountain hike. 6. No one likes to ride with Olivia because she drives like she has a lead foot / leadfoot. The southern exposure and large windows make this a very hothouse / hot house. The plane will not leave until we are all onboard / on board. 3. 7. . I plan to move in. I’d like to ﬁnd a way to avoid being bed ridden / bedridden because of my terrible back ache / backache. 2. PRACTICE Select the correct word or words to complete each sentence. “Wow! What a supercomputer / super computer!” 4. Do you know the secret catchphrase / catch phrase? 8. 5.68 word parts and forms TIP: Pay attention to the material in Lessons 6 and 7 on prefixes and suffixes. I like to keep my household / house hold tidy and organized. The rules outlined in those chapters will give you a better understanding of how to form compound words. If Julia’s roommate / room mate decides to move out. 10.
2. Maddie led the sightseers on a mountain hike. 6. . 3. Do you know the secret catchphrase? 8. 10. I’d like to ﬁnd a way to avoid being bedridden because of my terrible backache.compound words 69 ANSWERS 1. When I saw Tom’s new laptop I thought. The plane will not leave until we are all on board. No one likes to ride with Olivia because she drives like she has a lead foot. If Julia’s roommate decides to move out. I like to keep my household tidy and organized. 7. 5. The southern exposure and large windows make this a very hot house. “Wow! What a super computer!” 4. 9. I plan to move in. The police targeted a radius of four blocks for a crime crackdown.
If our language didn’t have verbs. action. verbs allow us to communicate clearly about the past. VERBS ARE EXTREMELY important in the English language. For regular verbs. the present. and the future. or occurrence. however. regular verbs —CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN (1860–1935) AMERICAN SOCIOLOGIST AND AUTHOR This lesson will explain the various verb tenses and show you how to conjugate verbs properly. The rules for conjugating verbs can be confusing. The tenses can be subdivided into three categories: simple. and perfect. or the future. Deﬁned as the part of speech that expresses existence. We could point to objects and say their names. . what we are thinking. Most of the confusion. or where we will be going. what we are doing. we wouldn’t be able to say where we have been. which are covered in Lesson 10. surrounds what we call irregular verbs. but we wouldn’t be able to express any action. The following chart gives an example of the categories and tenses of the verb to hike. Once you begin to understand the various tenses and forms. the rules are more straightforward. the past. Every verb in the English language has three basic tenses that help us to understand when something is going to happen or has happened: in the present. you will see some spelling patterns emerge that will reduce your confusion.L E S S O N 9 Life is a verb. progressive.
Past Tense The past tense indicates action that has already happened (action that occurred in the past). the past tense. . Endings are covered in greater detail in Lessons 7. minus the word to. To bathe and to imagine are two examples of the inﬁnitive form.72 word parts and forms Simple Present Past Future hike hiked will hike Progressive am/is/are hiking was/were hiking will be hiking Perfect have/has hiked had hiked will have hiked We’ll work through each of the tenses to describe how verbs are conjugated. This tense is fairly easy. and 24. grill becomes grilled and sway becomes swayed. The basic form of a verb is known as the inﬁnitive form. minus the word to. and the future tense. For example. Some verbs change forms when taking the past tense. Present Tense The present tense indicates present action (action that is happening now) or action that happens on a regular basis. bathe is the present-tense form of to bathe and imagine is the present-tense form of to imagine. 23. and adding -d or -ed. So. The present-tense form is the inﬁnitive of the verb. and for repel the ﬁnal consonant is doubled before adding -ed to make repelled. Imply. Henry called when he arrived at Connor’s house. The past tense is formed by taking the inﬁnitive form of the verb. I walk four miles three times a week. drops the ﬁnal y and adds -ied to make implied. for example. SIMPLE The simple category is comprised of the present tense. 22.
For example. for example. When adding endings such as -ing or -ed. When a base word of more than one syllable ends in a consonantplus-vowel-plus-consonant combination and the accent is on the final syllable. 4.regular verbs 73 TIP: Here are some tips to keep in mind when adding endings (suffixes) to verbs. If a base word ends in a silent e and the ending begins with a vowel. . you would double the final consonant to make spanning and spanned. double the final consonant when adding an ending that begins with a vowel. 6. keep the final y. You would double the final consonant when adding endings to prefer to make preferring and preferred. do not double the final consonant when adding an ending. When a one-syllable base word ends in a consonant-plus-vowelplus-consonant combination. When a base word ends in any other combination of vowels and consonants. For example. you would drop the silent e before adding the ending -ing to make striving. plays. If an ending begins with a consonant. played. For example. When base words end in a consonant plus -y combination. ail does not change when you add the ending -ment to make ailment. 1. you would not double the final consonant when adding endings to the word ring. 2. would become sillier and silliest. An example of this type of word is span. for instance. With the word strive. 3. 5. you would keep the final y when adding endings to the word play. If the base word ends in a vowelplus-y combination. The word silly. In this case play would become playing. change the -y to an -i when adding endings. it can usually be attached to the base word that ends in a consonant or a silent e with no change to the base word or the ending. drop the silent e when adding the ending. This tip may sound a little confusing! An example of a multiple-syllable word ending in the consonantplus-vowel-plus-consonant combination is prefer. double the final consonant when adding an ending that begins with a vowel.
for example. Brady will ski with us this week. but will). The past progressive is formed by combining was or were with the -ing form of the verb. to indicate an action that is ongoing. the past progressive tense. or are with the -ing form of the verb. The present progressive is formed by combining am. Present Progressive Tense The present progressive tense indicates action that is in progress (action that is happening). It is important to note that you must drop a ﬁnal -e before adding -ing to form the present participle (a present participle is used with the verb to be. . The future tense is formed by combining will with the present tense of the verb. Abbie was ordering a milk shake. PROGRESSIVE The progressive category is comprised of the present progressive tense. They are watching “American Idol. shine becomes is shining). is.74 word parts and forms Future Tense The future tense indicates future action (action that hasn’t happened yet. and the future progressive tense. Pa st Progressive Tense The past progressive tense indicates action that was occurring at some speciﬁc time in the past.” Keep the rules for adding endings to words in mind when forming the progressive tenses.
run becomes ran (not runned) and drink becomes drank (not drinked).regular verbs 75 Future Progressive Tense The future progressive tense indicates action that is continuous or will occur in the future. stop becomes stopped. This is the case with regular verbs. The future progressive is formed by combining will be with the -ing form of the verb. however. Keep the rules for adding endings to verbs in mind when forming this tense! . the past perfect tense. Claire will be playing lacrosse this spring. Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense indicates that the action started some time in the past and is still going on. and wash becomes washed. and the future perfect tense. For example. this is not always the case. PERFECT The perfect category is comprised of the present perfect tense. With irregular verbs. some verbs double the final consonant or drop a final y or e when endings like -d and -ed are added. The present perfect is formed by combining the helping verb have or has with the past-participle form of the verb. Irregular verbs are covered in Lesson 10. For example. TIP: The past-participle form of a verb is usually the simple past form of the verb: verb + -ed. talk becomes talked. Hannah has cleaned her room all day. Remember.
Snow tomorrow. All of our vegetables ________________ by the end of October. (to study: present tense) 3. the past perfect is formed by combining the helping verb had with the past participle form of the verb. The future perfect tense is formed by combining the helping verbs will have. or will have been with the past-participle form of the verb. (to prey: past tense) 4. My dad _______________ me off at school today. Helping verbs let you know when the action of a verb takes place. PRACTICE Write the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. Ethan will have attended soccer camp before the start of the fall season. (to harvest: future perfect tense) 5. Much like the present-perfect form. Future Perfect Tense The future perfect tense indicates action that will occur and ﬁnish in the future before another action begins. Katie had returned her books to the library before Ashley asked to borrow them. (to ski: future progressive tense) . I usually ______________ for two hours every night. (to drop: past tense) 2. 1.76 word parts and forms Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense indicates action that occurred some time in the past before another action began. The lion ______________ on smaller animals. Tyler __________________ at Mt. would have.
to close Present Past Future 8. to plan Present Past Future 11.regular verbs 77 Conjugate each verb by writing the correct tense forms in the charts. 6. to tap Present Past Future 7. to reply Present Past Future 9. to hope Present Past Future 10. to concern Present Past Future Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ .
78 word parts and forms 12. Tyler will be skiing at Mt. to tap Simple Progressive Perfect Present tap am/is/are tapping have/has tapped Past tapped was/were tapping had tapped Future will tap will be tapping will have tapped . 6. Snow tomorrow. to stare Present Past Future 14. 3. My dad dropped me off at school today. The lion preyed on smaller animals. to employ Present Past Future Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ Simple _______________ _______________ _______________ Progressive _______________ _______________ _______________ Perfect _______________ _______________ _______________ ANSWERS 1. 2. I usually study for two hours every night. 5. 4. to refer Present Past Future 15. All of our vegetables will be harvested by the end of October. to type Present Past Future 13.
to type Present Past Future 13. to close Present Past Future 8. to concern Present Past Future 12. to reply Present Past Future 9. to plan Present Past Future 11. to stare Present Past Future Simple stare stared will stare Progressive am/is/are staring was/were staring will be staring Perfect have/has stared had stared will have stared Simple type typed will type Progressive am/is/are typing was/were typing will be typing Perfect have/has typed had typed will have typed Simple concern concerned will concern Progressive am/is/are concerning was/were concerning will be concerning Perfect have/has concerned had concerned will have concerned Simple plan planned will plan Progressive am/is/are planning was/were planning will be planning Perfect have/has planned had planned will have planned Simple hope hoped will hope Progressive am/is/are hoping was/were hoping will be hoping Perfect have/has hoped had hoped will have hoped Simple reply replied will reply Progressive am/is/are replying was/were replying will be replying Perfect have/has replied had replied will have replied Simple close closed will close Progressive am/is/are closing was/were closing will be closing Perfect have/has closed had closed will have closed .regular verbs 79 7. to hope Present Past Future 10.
80 word parts and forms 14. to refer Present Past Future 15. to employ Present Past Future Simple employ employed will employ Progressive am/is/are employing was/were employing will be employing Perfect have/has employed had employed will have employed Simple refer referred will refer Progressive am/is/are referring was/were referring will be referring Perfect have/has referred had referred will have referred .
He who controls the past. Unfortunately. controls the future. The . regular verbs have a variety of tenses. NOW THAT YOU understand the various verb tenses and how regular verbs are conjugated. Irregular verbs are words that don’t follow a predictable pattern. Don’t let yourself be intimidated by the number of verbs that are irregular. In this lesson. you will learn what irregular verbs are and how you can best remember the correct ways to form them.L E S S O N 10 ENGLISH AUTHOR irregular verbs He who controls the present. let’s look at the irregular verbs. which comprise the majority of verbs in the English language. that is not the case. there are many irregular verbs in the English language. however. —GEORGE ORWELL (1903–1950) As you learned in Lesson 9. like adding -ed to form the past tense. you can add -ed to the end of the word with little or no change (aside from some words that require you to double the ﬁnal consonant or only add -d to words already ending in -e). controls the past. The same is true of irregular verbs. The only way to learn the conjugation of these verbs into tenses is to memorize them. for people who like to follow rules closely. With irregular verbs. With regular verbs. COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS The following chart shows the conjugation of most common irregular verbs.
The chart groups the irregular verbs together based on the patterns they follow when forming the past tense and the past participle. or with which you are not familiar. Highlight those words and either add them to your spelling list or create ﬂash cards based on them. VERBS WITH NO CHANGE Base bet bid broadcast burst cast cost cut forecast hit hurt let proofread put quit shut slit split spread thrust upset Past Tense bet bid broadcast burst cast cost cut forecast hit hurt let proofread put quit shut slit split spread thrust upset Past Participle bet bid broadcast burst cast cost cut forecast hit hurt let proofread put quit shut slit split spread thrust upset . take note of words whose spelling does not make sense to you. for many people. In fact.82 word parts and forms more you look at the list. the more you’ll realize that you are already very familiar with many of these words and their spellings. As you read through the list. this list will simply serve as a reminder of how the verbs are spelled.
irregular verbs 83 VERBS WITH THE SAME PAST TENSE AND PAST PARTICIPLE Base bend bind bleed breed bring build buy catch cling creep dig flee fling foretell grind hang hold keep lead lend mean mislay shoot slide smell speed spin string stick sting sweep Past Tense bent bound bled bred brought built bought caught clung crept dug fled flung foretold ground hung held kept led lent meant mislaid shot slid smelled sped spun strung stuck stung swept Past Participle bent bound bled bred brought built bought caught clung crept dug fled flung foretold ground hung held kept led lent meant mislaid shot slid smelled sped spun strung stuck stung swept .
84 word parts and forms weep win wind wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung VERBS WITH THE SAME BASE AND PAST PARTICIPLE Base become come run Past Tense became came ran Past Participle become come run VERBS WITH A PAST PARTICIPLE THAT ENDS IN -N OR -EN Base arise awake beat bite draw fall forsake freeze get hide know mistake overtake strew strive swear undertake wear withdraw write Past Tense arose awoke beat bit drew fell forsook froze got hid knew mistook overtook strewed strove swore undertook wore withdrew wrote Past Participle arisen awoken beaten bitten drawn fallen forsaken frozen gotten hidden known mistaken overtaken strewn striven sworn undertaken worn withdrawn written .
irregular verbs 85 VERBS WITH MORE THAN ONE ACCEPTABLE PAST TENSE AND/OR PAST PARTICIPLE FORM Base bear dream knit lean leap learn prove rid saw sew shave shear show sneak spell spill spit spoil stink strike swell weave Past Tense bore dreamed or dreamt knit or knitted leaned or leant leaped or leapt learned or leant proved rid or ridded sawed sewed shaved sheared showed sneaked or snuck spelled or spelt spilled or spilt spat or spit spoiled or spoilt stank or stunk struck swelled wove or weaved Past Participle borne or born dreamed or dreamt knit or knitted leaned or leant leaped or leapt learned or learnt proved or proven rid or ridded sawed or sawn sewn or sewed shaved or shaven sheared or shorn showed or shown sneaked or snuck spelled or spelt spilled or spilt spat or spit spoiled or spoilt stunk struck or stricken swelled or swollen woven or weaved .
(second person singular) .86 word parts and forms VERBS WITH AN I THAT BECOMES AN A IN THE PAST TENSE AND A U IN THE PAST PARTICIPLE Base drink ring sing shrink sink swim Past Tense drank rang sang shrank sank swam VERBS WITH NO PATTERN Base do go lie light slay undergo Past Tense did went lay lit slew underwent Past Participle done gone lain lighted slain undergone Past Participle drunk rung sung shrunk sunk swum TIP: Watch out for the verb to be. you would say: I was hungry. (first person singular) We were hungry. We had been hungry. It is the only verb in the English language with an infinitive that differs from the present tense form. I had been hungry. is. or are. So you would say: I am hungry. (third person plural) The past tense and past participle forms are even trickier. You had been hungry. The past tense of to be is was or were. (first person singular) We are hungry. (third person singular) They are hungry. (first person plural) You are hungry. (first person plural) You were hungry. (second person) He (or she) is hungry. The infinitive is to be while the present tense is am. The past participle form is been. which is conjugated unlike any other verb. For these forms.
9.irregular verbs 87 He (or she) was hungry. Kelsey won ﬁrst place in the spelling bee. 8. . They had blewn up all the balloons. (third person plural) To be is the most common verb in the English language. They had been hungry. 3. 11. 7. She lent her sister nine dollars. as necessary. Everyone was happy when Lisa brang cookies to practice. 10. He (or she) had been hungry. He took the time to thank his grandmother for the gift she gived him. They spent an hour cleaning up after everyone leaved. 5. Marisol feeled sick to her stomach so she went home early. 4. PRACTICE Correct the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences. Owen betted on the winner of the Kentucky Derby. Lucy wondered who tored the pages out of her journal. She was forbidded from going out after dark. But because it is confusing to conjugate. 1. 12. I was afraid that the milk had spoilt from sitting on the counter this morning. (third person singular) They were hungry. 2. Memorizing the tenses of to be will help you improve not only your spelling but your grammar as well. it is often misused. Brandon heared every word his mother said. 6.
(won is correct) 9. They drank all of the lemonade in the pitcher. 8. 7. 14. . 6. Brandon heard every word his mother said. 2. He took the time to thank his grandmother for the gift she gave him. She was forbidden from going out after dark. (spoilt would also be acceptable) 3. Tara asked her friends to tell her who throwed out her lunch tray. 13. ANSWERS 1. I was afraid that the milk had spoiled from sitting on the counter this morning. Lucy wondered who tore the pages out of her journal. They drank all of the lemonade in the pitcher. 5. Tara asked her friends to tell her who threw out her lunch tray.88 word parts and forms 13. Marisol felt sick to her stomach so she went home early. Owen bet on the winner of the Kentucky Derby. She lent her sister nine dollars. (lent is correct) 4. 15. 11. They had blown up all the balloons. 12. 10. 15. The telephone rang all afternoon. Kelsey won ﬁrst place in the spelling bee. Everyone was happy when Lisa brought cookies to practice. The telephone ringed all afternoon. They spent an hour cleaning up after everyone left. (drank is correct) 14.
a consonant is a sound that is made by blocking the passage of air. In Lesson 14. In this lesson. . i. vowels are extremely important for forming words. sufﬁce it to say that without both vowels and consonants. A vowel is deﬁned as a sound that is produced without blocking the passage of air from the throat. LUCIAN POET AND PLAYWRIGHT Without vowels. our words wouldn’t make many sounds. e. In fact. and u. o. In contrast. you’ll learn about the long and short sounds that vowels make. we wouldn’t have words. along with the schwa and how to handle two-vowel combinations. It is the property of the imagination: it is the property of the language itself. That’s because vowels are necessary for pronunciation. they are so important that the consonant y is sometimes used as a vowel. —DEREK WALCOTT (1930– ) ST. Although there are far fewer vowels than there are consonants. you’ll learn more about consonants and how they affect pronunciation. For now.L E S S O N 11 vowels The English language is nobody’s special property. THE ALPHABET CONTAINS ﬁve vowels: a.
i. A short a spends less time being sounded than a long a. and shy don’t contain one of the five vowels but they do contain a y that is making the sound of a vowel. the sound is a long a and in the second pair. So. Although y is not officially a vowel. (Remember. hymn. u. o. makes one sound in the words game and late and another sound in the words cat and lack. you’ll notice that the vowels make different sounds. it is a short a.) Short Vowels acid rat felt set bit wig hog monster rug tumble Long Vowels game tame scene flight pine hone muse unify . as limph). be sure to look out for y appearing in words without any other vowels. for example. We use the terms short and long to describe the length of time the vowel sounds spend in the throat. you may have been taught the phrase a. they work extra hard and make two types of sounds: short and long. Think about the ﬁve vowels and the sounds they make. for example. the y makes the sound of a vowel. In those cases. the words why. my.90 word parts and forms TIP: When you were learning vowels in school. it is sometimes enlisted to serve as one. long vowels also make the same sound as the name of the vowel. The following list gives some examples of words with long and short vowels. In the ﬁrst pair of words. The letter y will undoubtedly be there making the sound of a vowel and that can throw you off (spelling lymph. VOWEL SOUNDS Since there are only a handful of vowels. The letter a. you might say that it is technically a vowel in those cases. For example. sylph. and sometimes y. lymph. If you pronounce words slowly. e.
Instead. Because all vowels can make the schwa sound. you cannot rely on pronunciation to guide you with spelling words that contain the schwa. In words with two-vowel combinations. plain and simple. about. you would know to spell the word using the ai combination. Knowing how to spell sufﬁxes containing the schwa will help you to spell words that contain them correctly. burr. i. or u sound: chaise train sustain . If you know that a particular word has a vowel combination. As you can see from that list of words. butter. for example. Words that contain the schwa include fir. but not the i. bishop. the. adult. you can rely on your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to guide you. In some instances. pencil. Here are a few examples of words with two-vowel combinations that contain either a long a. o. we touched on a mnemonic that is helpful for learning vowel combinations: • When two vowels go walking. calendar. The schwa is deﬁned as an unstressed and toneless vowel sound.vowels 91 THE SCHWA The schwa is a vowel sound that is neither short nor long. VOWEL COMBINATIONS In Lesson 2. you will need to memorize the words. supply. The dictionary shows it as an upside-down e. you would pronounce the word brain. while the second one will remain silent. it can be made by any of the vowels. most words that contain the schwa sound—like many words in the English language—require you to memorize. it is the root of many spelling errors. Since all the vowels can make the same schwa sound. and all the vowels can represent it. e. Following the rule. but you aren’t sure which vowel comes ﬁrst and which one comes second. Still. like this: ɘ. the ﬁrst vowel usually will be pronounced with a long vowel sound. this rule can be useful. major. This handy mnemonic helps you to remember which letter to write ﬁrst in two-vowel combinations. and by hearing that the long a is pronounced. the ﬁrst one does the talking. the schwa makes a kind of uh sound.
jiuce / juice 3. concael / conceal 5. nuisance / niusance 4. refrian / refrain 7. pryde / pride . previal / prevail 6.92 word parts and forms bean peek die roast moat woe cue suit ruin PRACTICE Choose the correct spelling of each of the following words: 1. mountian / mountain 11. certian / certain 9. draery / dreary 10. piasley / paisley 2. menial / menail 8.
lynx / linx 14. myth / mith 18.vowels 93 12. foundation / fuondation 22. tryed / tried 16. shy / shi 13. wicker / wycker 15. duaghter / daughter 24. dynamic / dinamic 17. cript / crypt 19. caution / cuation . whine / whyne 21. sygh / sigh 20. awthority / authority 23. biosterous / boisterous 25.
sigh 20. wicker 15. menial 8. paisley 2. mountain 11. shy 13. juice 3. lynx 14. foundation 22. boisterous 25. refrain 7. conceal 5.94 word parts and forms ANSWERS 1. whine 21. nuisance 4. authority 23. tried 16. crypt 19. pride 12. daughter 24. myth 18. dynamic 17. prevail 6. certain 9. dreary 10. caution .
some exceptions to the rule. of course. This lesson will explain when to use ie and when to use ei. —BLAISE PASCAL (1623–1662) FRENCH PHILOSOPHER. beige. This mnemonic covers the rule fairly well. . In most words that have the letters i and e grouped together to produce a long e sound. there is a clever mnemonic that outlines how and when to use the vowel combinations of ie and ei: • i before e. the e comes before the i because the combination is preceded by a c. and meanings differently arranged have a different effect.L E S S O N 12 using ie and ei Words differently arranged have a different meaning. Other examples are reign. This holds true except for words having a c immediately before this combination. AND PHYSICIST The vowel combination of i and e is a cause of frequent spelling errors. the order is reversed. the i will come before the e. in the words piece and lien. For example. AS WE COVERED in Lesson 2. In words where the i and e combination produce the sound -ay (as in neighbor or weigh from the mnemonic). and vein. let’s review the basic rule. There are. rein. except after c or when sounding like -ay as in neighbor or weigh. the i comes before the e. which we will cover in this lesson. MATHEMATICIAN. In the words conceit and receive. But ﬁrst.
there is a mnemonic that can help you to remember the exceptions. E I C T R E P 3. PRACTICE Unscramble the words below to ﬁnd the answer to the puzzle. Luckily.96 word parts and forms Now. because if you try to spell them according to the ie / ei rules. There are a few words that do not follow this rule at all. you will end up spelling them incorrectly. In this case. E B E G I 7. C E C I V N O E 8. G H E H I T 6. N R I E G 5. N C E E I 4. either. U R L I S E E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ . Ava waited for the bus with her ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ . 1. All of the words in that sentence—except for the—are exceptions to the rule. That sentence might just be strange enough to stick in your head and to help you remember the exceptions! If not. Ryan. you will have to memorize the words. the exceptions. O R I E F N G 2. the mnemonic is a silly sentence: Neither leisure foreigner seized the weird heights.
E I C T R E P 3. niece 4. U R L I S E E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ F O R E I G N R E C E I P T ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ N I E C E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ R E I G N ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ H E I G H T ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ B E I G E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ C O N C E I V E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ L E I S U R E ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ . O R I E F N G 2. Ryan. leisure N E I G H B O R Ava waited for the bus with her ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ . N R I E G 5. 1. receipt 3. beige 7.using ie and ei 97 ANSWERS 1. conceive 8. foreign 2. E B E G I 7. reign 5. N C E E I 4. height 6. C E C I V N O E 8. G H E H I T 6.
2. Words like train and abstain use the ai combination. fountain. the combination is always ai and not ia. you are in luck with the rules for this vowel combination. and captain use the ai combination.L E S S O N 13 using ia and ai Language is the most imperfect and expensive means yet discovered for communicating thought. The rules for using ai and ia are simple: There are two situations when you should use ai and two when you should use ia. if you are tired of rules that seem complicated or full of exceptions. In fact. Remember the mnemonic covered in Lesson 2: When two vowels go walking. But there is an easy way to remember when to use ai and when to use ia. the combination of ai or ia can be confusing. This lesson will show you when to use each of these combinations. MUCH AS WITH the ie / ei vowel combinations. With words that have the long a sound. when the vowel combination makes the uh sound. If you reverse the correct order of the vowel combinations. . you will end up with an incorrectly spelled word. You should use ai 1. —WILLIAM JAMES (1842–1910) AMERICAN PHILOSOPHER AND PSYCHOLOGIST Another tricky vowel combination that tends to cause spelling errors is ai / ia. the ﬁrst one does the talking. when the vowel combination makes a long a sound. Words like villain.
you could set yourself up to spell them incorrectly as well. you will use the ia vowel combination. regardless of pronunciation. Listen to how it sounds. when each vowel is pronounced separately.100 word parts and forms You should use ia 1. The word controversial illustrates this rule. say each word out loud. Here is a list of common words that use the two vowel combinations. when you add the -al ending to certain words. If you are unfamiliar with any words on the list. you change the y to an i and add -al: controversial. In those cases. When adding the sufﬁx. 2. As you read through the list. and auxiliary use the ia combination. If you pronounce words with the ai and ia combinations incorrectly. ai Words abstain Britain captain certain chaise ia Words alleviate artificial auxiliary congenial controversial . you must ﬁrst change the -y to an -i and then add -al. When a word ends in -y and you need to add the sufﬁx -al. As you can see. they appear in the order ia because the i is taking the place of a y. Pay attention to how words are pronounced and you will be more likely to use ai and ia correctly. TIP: Lesson 22 covers the final y—when to keep it and when to change it to i—in greater detail. look them up in your dictionary and write out their meanings so you will know the words in the future. Controversial is formed from the word controversy and the sufﬁx -al. and note whether it includes the ai or the ia combination. you need to think about pronunciation in order to determine proper spelling in most situations. Even though the two vowels are not pronounced separately. alleviate. Words like median. Jump ahead to that lesson if you would like more information on the final y.
Unfortunately. had all been ﬁlled. ANSWERS The incorrectly spelled words are familiar. where they had entertained hopes of working. median. Zoe and Rory decided that they would look for jobs immediately after the school year ended. Most students spent a substantial amount of time looking for work before the end of the school year. By the time Zoe and Rory began their search. Circle the words that are spelled incorrectly. they were not familair with the local job market. the vowel combination ai is used between consonants and is usually pronounced as a long a. judicial. only menial jobs with a low medain starting hourly rate were left.using ia and ai 101 ai Words contain curtain detain entertain fountain mountain paisley refrain restrain sustain train villain ia Words familiar guardian immediate Indian judicial Martian median menial pronunciation substantial PRACTICE The following paragraph contains several boldfaced words that contain the ai or the ia vowel combinations. The positions in the judicail area. .
A soft c can be mistaken for an s and a hard c for a k. Six of those consonants can make more than one sound.L E S S O N 14 consonants Language is not only the vehicle of thought. With consonants. in Lesson 11. it is a great and efficient instrument in thinking. —SIR HUMPHREY DAVY (1778–1829) CORNISH CHEMIST AND INVENTOR Although most consonants have only one pronunciation. you learned about pronunciation. carton. IN LESSON 3. There are a few exceptions to this generalization. while there is some variation based on letter combinations. even when their pronunciation throws you off. the pronunciation is fairly consistent and straightforward. . what the various sounds are. general. the letters c and g can each be pronounced two different ways. let’s review the basics. But before we get into the anomalies of consonants. In this lesson you will learn about consonant pronunciation. For example. and how to remember the correct spelling of tricky words. soft or hard: center. and almost all of them make the same sound all the time. on the other hand. Then. you learned about vowels and the various ways they can be pronounced. Proper pronunciation is a key to learning how to spell words correctly. This characteristic can lead to faulty spelling. garden. Let’s take a look at what the soft and hard pronunciation means. Our alphabet contains 21 consonants. there are six that can be pronounced two or more ways.
there are some words. agree how jump aloud money nail paid quick.) . you can feel the different positions when you speak.104 word parts and forms however: c. xylophone. q. q. C can sound like s. To further complicate the issue. trees item violin welcome. consonant sounds are created by blocking the ﬂow of air from the throat using the lips or tongue. lips. Try reading parts of this lesson aloud. such as accent and succinct. and x—that do not make their own unique sounds. exist zip Of the 21 consonants. case dog effort agent. x. or it can sound like k. other letters can make the same sounds. and tongue to move in certain predictable ways. Six mouth positions are used to produce consonants. In pronunciation. and y. b c d f g h j l m n p q r s t v w x z boy place. unique record. paying attention to how your tongue or lips move with each letter and sound. both of which are also made by other letters. as in coward and cry. (The few words in the dictionary in which q is not followed by u are mostly words that have been borrowed from other languages. TIP: Here is a quick refresher on the sounds that each consonant makes. super sound. there are only three—c. The letter q is another anomaly. the letter q is almost invariably followed by the letter u. that is. awe ax. The letter c can make two different sounds. g. You will notice that each letter requires your mouth. s. In English. where c makes both sounds. as in nice and advice.
consonants 105 The English q + u combination can be pronounced either as kw. 1. Lastly. When it follows the letter e at the beginning of a word it usually makes a gs sound. it will almost always be hard. Two rules will help you to determine whether to pronounce these letters with a soft or a hard sound. i. the letter x can represent three different sounds. 3. as in exact. it will almost always be soft. Soft c (sounds like s) central circle cymbal circus cent Soft g (sounds like j) genius giant gym gentleman generous Hard c (sounds like k) case cousin current cloud carton rectify recluse Hard g (sounds like guh) gamble gone gumption guess girl ragtime program . it will almost always be hard. or y. When it appears at the beginning of a word. In all other cases. SOFT AND HARD C AND G The letters c and g can be pronounced in two distinct ways: soft or hard. or u. A soft c is pronounced like an s and a hard c is pronounced like a k. When the letter c or g is followed by an e. When the letter c or g is followed by an a. or as k. A soft g is pronounced like a j and a hard g is pronounced with a guh sound. as in queen. as in box or taxi. Let’s look at some examples for each case. 2. o. When the letter c or g is followed by a consonant. as in unique. it usually sounds like a z. x makes a ks sound. as in xylophone.
They were not prepared for the pop kwiz / quiz. My grandfather works ceaselessly / seacelessly even thought he’s more than 80 years old. He bought a new pair of hedge clippers / klippers. Ms. In jeneral / general. The family liked to see the giraffes / jiraffes at the zoo. Her New Year’s resolution was to join / goin the gim / gym. 11. 2.106 word parts and forms PRACTICE Choose the correctly spelled italicized word in each of the following sentences. I didn’t think that movie made any cense / sense! 13. 12. That little car sure is xippy / zippy! 15. Harry became an actor because he loved to be the senter / center of attention. . 5. You can save money at the grocery store if you use koupons / coupons. Ceveral / Several kids were at the party last night. 1. The Smiths had a large eat-in kitchen / citchen. 3. We learned about how dinosaurs came to be extinct / ekstinct. Cooper is an account egsecutive / executive at the ad agency. 9. I need an access / axess code to get into my e-mail ackount / account. 6. 8. 14. 10. 7. she was pleased with the results. 4.
In general. 7. Her New Year’s resolution was to join the gym. Ms. 12. He bought a new pair of hedge clippers. Harry became an actor because he loved to be the center of attention. You can save money at the grocery store if you use coupons. 11. The family liked to see the giraffes at the zoo. I didn’t think that movie made any sense! 13. I need an access code to get into my e-mail account. They were not prepared for the pop quiz. We learned about how dinosaurs came to be extinct.consonants 107 ANSWERS 1. Several kids were at the party last night. 2. she was pleased with the results. 14. That little car sure is zippy! 15. 6. 9. . 3. My grandfather works ceaselessly even though he’s more than 80 years old. 4. The Smiths had a large eat-in kitchen. 8. 5. Cooper is an account executive at the ad agency. 10.
Let’s take a look at the most common digraphs and trigraphs. The best way to learn how to spell words with tricky combinations is to memorize them. There are no hardand-fast rules for the combinations. The sound that each makes is noted in parentheses. or for injury and sorrow and ruin. however. they express them. —TRYON EDWARDS (1809–1894) AMERICAN THEOLOGIAN In this lesson you’ll learn about consonant combinations and silent consonants. DIGRAPHS AND TRIGRAPHS Many consonant combinations—called digraphs and trigraphs— are pronounced as one sound. for instruction and comfort and blessing. Digraphs are two-letter combinations and trigraphs are three-letter combinations pronounced as one sound. they start them on an endless flight.L E S S O N 15 consonant combinations Words are both better and worse than thoughts. . which have fewer rules than those you learned about in Lesson 14. There are ways to make the memorization easier. and add to them. CONSONANT COMBINATIONS CAN BE very confusing. they give them power for good or evil.
110 word parts and forms Digraphs bb bt cc ch ck ff gg gh gh gh gn kn ll mb mm ng nk nn ph qu sh ss th tt wh wh wr (b) (t) (k) (ch) (k) (f) (guh) (w) (g) (f) (n) (n) (l) (m) (m) (ng) (nk) (n) (f) (k) (sh) (s) (th) (t) (h) (hw) (r) ebb debt accurate which speck stuff egg bough ghost cough gnome know mall thumb clammy thing wink winner phone clique shift class thin letter who when wrong Trigraphs dge tch (j) (ch) pledge latch .
Here is a list of the most common consonant blends. A word like plumbing is often incorrectly spelled plumming for that very reason. keep the original sounds of each letter. You can familiarize yourself with the most common consonant combinations by committing them to memory. Learning which combination makes a particular sound will help you to remember the correct spelling of the words that contain the tricky combinations. for instance. Another set of combinations. can be tough to remember because the b is completely silent. CONSONANT BLENDS In the previous set of consonant combinations. called consonant blends. the blended sound that each makes is noted in parentheses. Use the preceding list as a guide to memorize the combinations. In fact. the two (or three) letters created one new sound. bl br cl cr dr fl fr gl gr nd pl pr sk sl (bl) (br) (kl) (kr) (dr) (fl) (fr) (gl) (gr) (nd) (pl) (pr) (sk) (sl) blend break clean credit drive flower friend glue green second place proud sketch sleep sm sn sp st sw tr tw scr shr spl spr squ str thr (sm) (sn) (sp) (st) (sw) (tr) (tw) (skr) (shr) (spl) (spr) (skw) (str) (thr) smart snail sport stamp swing trick twist scratch shred splay spring square straight through . some of these combinations create sounds that are quite different from the way they look. Consonant combinations such as sh and th are easier to remember because there are no other letters or combinations that produce those sounds.consonant combinations 111 As you can see. some of the combinations are pretty strange! The combination mb.
Since there are few tips and rules to deﬁne when silent consonants are used in words. the sound of each letter blends with the other(s). Most of these silent consonants do not follow consistent rules. Practice this list of words using ﬂash cards or by creating mnemonics to learn the tricky words. but over the years. aisle although answer autumn blight calf castle cupboard debt doubt feign ghost gnat gnaw handsome high honor indict island kneel knight knowledge light mortgage neighbor psalm pseudonym psychology raspberry reign rhetorical rhyme subtle through Wednesday would wrestle write wrong yacht . which can make it difﬁcult to spell the words that contain them. it’s best to memorize those words.112 word parts and forms As you can see from the list. Each of the silent consonants is set in boldface. Sneaky silent consonants call for you to employ some memory tricks. This should make it easier for you to remember consonant blends than the other consonant combinations. as if the two (or three) letters were sliding together. SILENT CONSONANTS Sometimes a consonant appears in a combination but makes no sound. the compound words clapboard and cupboard were both probably originally pronounced as they are spelled. For example. the pronunciation changed so that they are both pronounced with a silent p. Some words contain silent letters because their pronunciation has morphed over years of usage. Here is a list of common words that contain silent consonants.
A S T K 10. C D R W O 6. E N D L B 13. H A M E N D S O 8. T H M B U . S H S P L A 4.consonant combinations 113 PRACTICE Unscramble the following words that contain consonant combinations. A S I E L 7. T A S M P 12. G A S H N 9. 1. L A I N S D 15. F N A L K 2. T H G H R U O 5. Q A R E U S 14. W I T R E 11. G H T D O U R 3.
stamp 12. aisle 7. task 10. write 11. handsome 8. thumb .114 word parts and forms ANSWERS 1. crowd 6. splash 4. ﬂank 2. square 14. island 15. through 5. blend 13. drought 3. gnash 9.
you may be drastically changing the meaning of the word. . Proper placement of the punctuation marks that are used in words is essential.S E C T I O N 3 punctuation WHEN YOU THINK of punctuation marks. It is not used to form the plural of words. commas. colons. Hyphens: A hyphen can join two or more words together or it can divide them. you might think only of the marks used in sentences—for instance. If you misplace an apostrophe or a hyphen. Hyphens are also used for writing out ranges of numbers. But there are punctuation marks that are used in words as well. and periods. Apostrophes: The apostrophe is used to show possession and contraction.
There are only two uses for apostrophes: to make a contraction and to show possession. an apostrophe takes the place of one or more dropped letters. This last part is the key point for you to learn: In a contraction. THE POOR APOSTROPHE. CONTRACTIONS The word contract (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable: conTRACT) means to press together or to shorten. often showing up where it simply isn’t needed. Contractions are words formed by pressing two words together. It is one of the most commonly misused punctuation marks. . dropping one or more letters. —DOUG LARSON (1902–1981) ENGLISH GOLD MEDALIST AT THE 1924 PARIS OLYMPICS In this lesson. you will learn the two uses for apostrophes—to make contractions and to show possession—and when and how to use them properly.L E S S O N 16 apostrophes If the English language made any sense. and putting an apostrophe in the place of the omitted letter(s). Never use an apostrophe to form the plural of a word. a catastrophe would be an apostrophe with fur.
In this case.118 punctuation For example. the words can and not can be written as the contraction can’t. It’s is a contraction of the words it is or it has. CONTRACTIONS OF COMMON PRONOUNS am/are/is I you he she it they we I’m you’re he’s she’s it’s they’re we’re will I’ll you’ll he’ll she’ll it’ll they’ll we’ll have/has I’ve you’ve he’s she’s it’s they’ve we’ve had/would I’d you’d he’d she’d it’d they’d we’d TIP: Never confuse it’s with its. Contractions are freely used in speech and in informal writing. An apostrophe is used in place of the dropped letters. Remember to use the apostrophe with the word it only when you can add the word is or has: it is or it has = it’s. as in didn’t (did not) and they’ve (they have). Its is the possessive form of the word it. but are discouraged in formal writing. . TIP: A contraction is a word that has been shortened by dropping some of the letters. the apostrophe takes the place of the dropped letters n and o.
The possessive is generally formed by adding an apostrophe and an s to the end of a word. Singular noun: add ’s Alanna’s orange kite Alaska’s state bird the book’s cover Singular noun ending in -ss: add ’s the waitress’s ﬁrst shift the hostess’s home Plural noun ending in -s: add ’ the lawyers’ bills the Smiths’ new house Irregular plural noun not ending in -s: add ’s the children’s toys the women’s clothing . place.apostrophes 119 CONTRACTIONS OF HELPING VERBS is are was were has had + + + + + + not not not not not not not = = = = = = = isn’t aren’t wasn’t weren’t haven’t hasn’t hadn’t might can do did could would + + + + + + not = not = not = not = not = not = not = mightn’t can’t don’t didn’t couldn’t shouldn’t wouldn’t have + should + POSSESSIVES A possessive noun indicates ownership of something by that person. or thing. Note the following rules (and exceptions!) for correctly signifying possession.
its for Connor! 3. 9. 1. 10. Its too bad that the stuffed teddy bear has lost its fuzz. even though were science ﬁction fans. . 8. Barbara. Dont eat that cake. 6. Take off your boots if youve been outside in the snow. We thought the movies plot was too confusing. 4. and Allison’s trip Separate possession: add ’s to the end of both names Suzette’s and Veronica’s clothes Jane’s and Lisa’s sons PRACTICE Place apostrophes where they belong in the following sentences. Couldnt we go to Jodis party this Friday? 7. 2. 5. Were heading out to the beach for the afternoon.120 punctuation Compound noun: add ’s to the end of the ﬁnal word my mother-in-law’s house the maid of honor’s gown Joint possession: add ’s to the end of the ﬁnal name Jennifer and David’s car Amy. Jeremy thinks that Im keeping secrets. One of her blouses buttons is missing. Be sure to check that the bikes tires are inﬂated properly. Claires best friends name is Lauren.
10. Take off your boots if you’ve been outside in the snow. 4. Couldn’t we go to Jodi’s party this Friday? 7. Don’t eat that cake. We’re heading out to the beach for the afternoon. it’s for Connor! 3. 9. Claire’s best friend’s name is Lauren. . even though we’re science ﬁction fans. Be sure to check that the bike’s tires are inﬂated properly. 2. 6. We thought the movie’s plot was too confusing. It’s too bad that the stuffed teddy bear has lost its fuzz. 5. One of her blouse’s buttons is missing. Jeremy thinks that I’m keeping secrets.apostrophes 121 ANSWERS 1. 8.
there are instances when you will need to use a hyphen to add a preﬁx. Here are a few quick rules that can help you remember when to use hyphens. and to attach preﬁxes to other words. editor-in-chief.L E S S O N 17 hyphens Think like a wise man but communicate in the language of the people. however. but not when the adjective follows the noun: the hotel was ﬁrst rate . mother-in-law. You should always use a hyphen: • when words are used together to describe family relationships or job titles: sister-in-law. especially if the phrase will act as an adjective. un-American. sergeant-at-arms • when joining a prefix to a capitalized word: post-World War II. well-built house. ﬁve-star restaurant. Joining two or more words. Mid-Atlantic • when forming an adjective that appears before a noun: ﬁrst-rate hotel. Keep in mind that although most preﬁxes are joined directly to words without the need for hyphens. YOU CAN USE HYPHENS in many ways: to divide a word at the end of a line. —WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS (1865–1939) IRISH POET AND DRAMATIST This lesson will show you how to use hyphens to divide or join words so you can be sure to convey the correct meaning to your audience. often calls for the use of a hyphen. to join numbers and some compound words.
words must be divided either at a syllable break or between double consonants: ap-pear-ance. The depth of her depression was unfathomable / un-fathomable to her friends. Indo-European • to link certain preﬁxes. self-employed • to link the sufﬁx -elect to base words: president-elect. Chinese-American. three-fourths • to write out the numbers from 21 to 99: twenty-one to ninety-nine • to combine numbers with nouns: ﬁfty-cent ride. re-frig-er-a-tor) TIP: All words have one or more syllables. You can hyphenate important at either of the two syllable breaks: im-portant or impor-tant. . all-encompassing. if you wanted to describe a set of buttons as looking like shells. For example. PRACTICE Choose the correct word or phrase to complete each sentence. The word has three syllables: im-por-tant. 2. or individual spoken units. sim-pli-fy. tap your finger or clap your hands for each spoken unit of the word. 1. Her father-in-law / father in law lives in Florida. You can also use hyphens to form compound words whose spelling would otherwise appear awkward. great-grandfather. let’s take the word important. For example. the new word would have an awkward three ls in a row: shelllike. chairman-elect • to write out fractions: one-half. The hyphen makes the word easier to read and understand. or self-. To determine where the syllable breaks are in a word that you need to hyphenate at the end of a line. such as vice-. ex-husband. ex-. one-third. Tap as you say each syllable: im (tap) por (tap) tant (tap). one-year term • to divide words at the end of a line of writing (here. you might say they were shell-like.124 punctuation • to form ethnic designations: African-American. to base words: vice-chancellor. Without the hyphen. great-. all-.
Write out the numbers listed below. 1 4 8. 5. 3. I am still on good terms with my ex-supervisor. Rhonda’s brother was a well-known restaurateur. 4. balloon 14. The depth of her depression was unfathomable to her friends.hyphens 125 3. baggage ANSWERS 1. Her father-in-law lives in Florida.455 10. I am still on good terms with my exsupervisor / ex-supervisor. Cindy is proud of her Japanese-American heritage. 11. giggle 13. 3. 12 7. 9 6. using hyphens when necessary. Rhonda’s brother was a well-known / well known restaurateur. friendly 12. 543 9. nine-twelfths . 2. alphabet 15. 12 Add hyphens as you would if these words appeared at the end of a line of writing (separate the words by syllables). 6. 4. 5. Cindy is proud of her Japanese-American / JapaneseAmerican heritage.
gig-gle 13. bal-loon 14. al-pha-bet 15. bag-gage . friend-ly 12.126 punctuation 7. ﬁve hundred forty-three 9. twelve 11. three thousand four hundred ﬁfty-ﬁve 10. one-fourth 8.
Examples of proper nouns are Jennifer Aniston (instead of person). All proper nouns are capitalized to signify their importance. When writing about a person. or an initial . places. like person..).. and the ﬁrst word in a direct quotation. Esq.. you may often need to include a title (Mr. JR. PROPER NOUNS Unlike common nouns—general terms for people. proper adjectives. Ms. Other words that must be capitalized are proper nouns. Target (instead of store).. Memorial Hospital (instead of hospital).). THE MOST COMMON use of capitalization is for the ﬁrst word in a sentence. This lesson explains the rules for capitalizing words. certain words in titles. we capitalize other words only for very specific reasons. Thanksgiving (instead of holiday). —WILLIAM STRUNK. or things. and Rex (instead of cat). Sr. hospital. store. (1869–1946) AMERICAN AUTHOR AND ENGLISH PROFESSOR In addition to capitalizing words at the beginning of sentences. an abbreviation that follows the name (Jr. cat—proper nouns are very speciﬁc.L E S S O N 18 capitalization Write with nouns and verbs. holiday. Dr.
and west (the cardinal directions) and winter. providing more information about the person. and prepositions (to. Julia L. Cohen. personal pronouns.128 punctuation (M. beyond. verbs. place. or. spring. when the direction refers to a specific part of the country (as in the Northeast). and so on) are not capitalized. So. always requires capitalization. summer. Brian Gibbs. French toast. or thing being described. TITLES Many of the words in the title of a work such as a book. and fall (the four seasons) except when they are the first word of a sentence. play. Greek olives. PROPER ADJECTIVES A proper adjective is a proper noun acting like an adjective. south. for example. and. or movie are capitalized. Here are some examples of capitalization in titles. Articles (such as. and yet). of course. or April showers. The ﬁrst word. and key words. an. and the). or when the words are part of a title (as in Winter Ball). All three of these items should always be capitalized. nor. but. conjunctions (for. Books Newspapers Magazines Short Stories Paintings Songs Movies The Little Prince The New York Times Runner’s World “The Lottery” The Girl with the Pearl Earring “Mary Had a Little Lamb” Nick and Norah’s Inﬁnite Playlist . Walker). Proper adjectives are always capitalized. do all nouns. TIP: Watch out for common overcapitalization errors! Do not capitalize north. too. under. so. a. east. Aidan H.
play basketball. maeve. John said. 7.” PRACTICE Which words should be capitalized in the following sentences? 1. when the quotation is continued after an interrupter (such as he said or she replied).” John continued. “Now. ﬁnk law ﬁrm. 6. it has been a year since louise lost her job at the carter. allison and matt enjoyed watching their daughter. albany is the capital of new york state. works of art. seven pounds is will smith’s new movie. 5. . “The new routing software has made my job so much easier. april showers bring may ﬂowers. 2. however. Emily won tickets to see the new york yankees in the world series. aircraft.” The ﬁrst word after a quotation mark is not capitalized. and ships are underlined or italicized. movies. 4. 3. For example: At the meeting. QUOTATIONS The ﬁrst word in a direct quotation (a person’s exact spoken words) is always capitalized.capitalization 129 TIP: Titles of books. “our department runs much more smoothly and efﬁciently. most of the kids wanted to eat hamburgers instead of the italian subs. Titles of short stories and songs (works that are often published within other works) are enclosed within quotation marks.
2. 9. Fink law ﬁrm. 4. 9. ANSWERS 1. row your boat. Albany is the capital of New York State. Emily won tickets to see the New York Yankees in the World Series. 5. Most of the kids wanted to eat hamburgers instead of the Italian subs. 3.” 10. Barack Obama is our 44th president. It has been a year since Louise lost her job at the Carter. row. Row Your Boat. barack obama is our 44th president.” 10. Allison and Matt enjoyed watching their daughter. . 6. Seven Pounds is Will Smith’s new movie. Maeve. 7. April showers bring May ﬂowers.130 punctuation 8. the piano teacher started the lesson with “row. play basketball. The piano teacher started the lesson with “Row. Row. john’s mother was very curious about his facebook page. 8. John’s mother was very curious about his Facebook page.
L E S S O N 19 ENGLISH AUTHOR abbreviations and acronyms Do not accustom yourself to use big words for little matters. such as radar for radio detecting and ranging. is pronounced association. minute. Unlike abbreviations. AN ABBREVIATION IS a shortened form of a word or phrase. —SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709–1784) Reviewing the lists in this lesson will help you to understand the proper use of the most common abbreviations and acronyms in your writing. agency. such as SPAC for Saratoga Performing Arts Center. For example. and second An acronym is formed from the ﬁrst letters of a name. It can also be formed by combining the ﬁrst letters of parts of a series of words. it is pronounced exactly the same as the full word. is pronounced doctor and the abbreviation Assn. Most abbreviations are followed by periods except in these cases: • • • • two-letter postal code abbreviations for states initials representing a company. acronyms are not followed by periods. the abbreviation Dr. or other business letters in acronyms the words hour. And they are usually .
E.. = before the common era A. P. = circa (approximate date) hr... Review the following lists to improve your knowledge of abbreviations and acronyms. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS Clock and Calendar days of the week: Sun. Nov.m.M. Mar... = before Christ B. = second mo. Aug. Fri..m.. you would say radar. Tues. = ante meridiem (before noon) = post meridiem (after noon) (a.D..132 punctuation pronounced the way they look. Jul.C. = anno Domini B.C. Learning the most common abbreviations and acronyms will help you understand how they are created. Oct. Apr. and p. A. For instance..M.. = hour min. May (no abbreviation). In general.. = minute sec. Thurs. are exception to the no-period-for-acronyms rule) CST = Central Standard Time DST = Daylight Saving Time EST = Eastern Standard Time MST = Mountain Standard Time PST = Paciﬁc Standard Time c. not radio detecting and ranging. Sept.... Sat. = month yr. Dec.. Feb. Wed. Jun. Mon. and what is and is not a correct abbreviation or acronym. = year .. words are abbreviated by maintaining the key letters that make the new word recognizable as a shortened version of the full one. months of the year: Jan.
A. = suite Ter. = university Personal Titles Capt. = boulevard Cir. = court Dr. = division Ft. = apartment Ave.abbreviations and acronyms 133 Directions and Addresses Apt. = United States of America Acad. = association Corp. = corporation Dept. = circle Ct.S. = terrace Tpk. = drive (note that this is the same abbreviation as for doctor) Ln. = captain Col. = street Ste. = academy Assn. = department Div. = corporal . = avenue Blvd. = colonel Cpl. = road St. = turnpike E = east N = north S = south W = west U. = lane Rd. = fort Univ.
A.D.D. = junior Sr. = doctor of law M.A.A.D.A.S. = missus Ms. = licensed practical nurse R. = bachelor of science D. = governor Mr. = doctor L.A.S. = doctor of philosophy . = registered nurse Esq.P. = mister Mrs.134 punctuation Gen. = master of arts M. = doctor of education J. = doctor of medicine M. = senior Academic Degrees B. = esquire Gov.N.B. = monsignor Sr.D. = professor Msgr.N. = sergeant Dr. = miz Prof. = sister Jr.B. = bachelor of arts B. = bachelor of business administration B. = doctor of arts Ed. = master of science Ph. = lieutenant Sgt. = general Lt. = master of business administration M.
b.abbreviations and acronyms 135 Miscellaneous Others AKA = also known as ASAP = as soon as possible (sometimes pronounced ay-say) ATM = automated teller machine ID = identiﬁcation IQ = intelligence quotient MC = master of ceremonies (sometimes written out as emcee) PIN = personal identiﬁcation number P. d. . Eqe. a. a. Bas c. Esquire. Esq. When Kim Jones.S. 1. her name was engraved on the door. c. BoA b. 2. b. Eqr. = postscript RSVP = respondez s’il vous plaît (French for please reply) SPF = sun protection factor TBA = to be announced TBD = to be determined PRACTICE Select the correct abbreviation or acronym to replace the underlined words in each sentence. B.A. d. Esr. Mary-Louise was working toward her Bachelor of Arts degree.a. started at the law ﬁrm.
b. Th. a. Can we schedule the meeting for Thursday? a. Sep. b. PhD d. Monsignor Kelly was not available for Veronica’s wedding. a. c. Mon. d. a. Tpk. Msg.D. Thurs. La. 8. d. Trk. His new address was 1 Sycamore Lane. a. c. c. b. His old address was 22 Whitehall Turnpike. b. Thy. Allison’s father had a Doctor of Philosophy degree in English. a. Spt. tpke. Mnr. 7. Thur. c. 4. b. Ln. Msgr. ln. Sept. Tnpk. Le. d. c.136 punctuation 3. 6. d. b. PHD. Ph. School will start again in September. c. 5. Sptr. DPh . d.
Tpk. d. 3. b. d. b. b. Lewis’ birth was listed as circa 1890. 10. Ph. 2. c. a. ASAP. B. Mr. c. 10. a. c. a. c. cir. c.D. ASAP ANSWERS 1. Sept. c. c. 5.S. 7. C. a. Msgr. c. d. Ln. 4. ca. 9.A.P. Kelsey was trying to complete her report as soon as possible. asap c. Thurs.abbreviations and acronyms 137 9. Esq. A. ASAP .A. 6. d. 8.
of course. Many rules govern how endings can be added to words and. Some words require that letters be dropped when adding endings. there are many exceptions to those rules.S E C T I O N 4 word endings ENDINGS ARE ADDED to words to make them plural or to change their form. some require that letters be added. and some require major changes. and when to double a ﬁnal consonant. when to keep a ﬁnal e and when to drop it. The lessons in this section will cover how to form regular and irregular plurals. when to keep a ﬁnal y and when to change it to an i. .
000 dogs. WHEN WE TALK about plurals. The rules for regular plurals are very straightforward. —MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA (1547–1616) SPANISH NOVELIST. A plural can mean two dogs (the plural of dog) or 1. you need to use the plural form of the word. There are two types of plurals in the English language: regular plurals and irregular plurals. they are covered in Lesson 21. The key is that the plural form indicates more than one dog. make up the majority of all plurals. AND PLAYWRIGHT Many words have regular plurals: you only have to add -s or -es to make them plural. POET. we’ll review the rules for regular plurals which. fortunately. Irregular plurals. and naturalized by custom. Here. In fact. you can simply add -s to all words except for those that require -es and those that are irregular. we are referring to nouns that show more than one thing. MOST WORDS Most words only require you to add -s to the end. Regular plurals are words that require only the addition of -s or -es at the end to make them plural.L E S S O N 20 regular plurals By such innovations are languages enriched. on the other hand. When you write about more than one of something. follow more complicated rules. This lesson will outline the rules for regular plurals. . when the words are adopted by the multitude.
You’ll notice that all the letters and letter combinations have similar. When -es is added. hissing-type sounds. duo. the sound of it would be lost. if the word ends in a consonant followed by an o. Second. For example. and rodeo become cameos. Thus. duos. simply add -s. -z. The reason -es is added to words ending in these letters or letter combinations is that it makes them easier to pronounce. torpedoes. however. tornado. and potato become tornadoes. if the ending is a vowel followed by an o. and potatoes. and—as usual—some exceptions. it would be difﬁcult to hear an -s at the end of the word wax. tax + es = taxes watch + es = watches guess + es = guesses mash + es = mashes WORDS THAT END IN -o There are two rules for words that end in -o. First. -sh Add -es to words that end in -s. it becomes noticeable.142 word endings WORDS THAT END IN -s. Here are a few examples. -z. -ch. There are a few exceptions to the rule for making plural forms of words that end in -o. The same is true for words that end in -ch or -sh. The following words end in a consonant followed by an o but take only an -s: albino–albinos alto–altos armadillo–armadillos banjo–banjos bronco–broncos logo–logos memo–memos piano–pianos silo–silos . -ch. -x. add -es. and rodeos. If you were to simply add an -s at the end of these words. -x. torpedo. or -sh. Thus cameo. The potentially awkward pronunciation is corrected by adding an -es to those words.
such as sheriff. Brieﬂy. Examples include: tray + s = trays day + s = days penny + es = pennies candy + es = candies WORDS THAT END IN -f OR -fe Most words that end in -f or -fe require a letter change. these words are made plural by adding -s when the word ends in a vowel + y. For these words. For example: knife + es = knives life + es = lives elf + es = elves wife + es = wives There are a few exceptions to this rule that you will need to look out for. you only need to add an -s to the end to make them plural: sheriffs. and changing the y to an i and adding -es when the word ends in a consonant + y. . and safes. The exceptions include words that end in a double f. All of those words retain their f and only require an -s to be added to the end: beliefs. gulf. chefs. roofs. cuff. roof. cuffs.regular plurals 143 solo–solos soprano–sopranos steno–stenos WORDS THAT END IN -y Words that end in -y are covered in greater detail in Lesson 22. and plaintiff. chief. chiefs. and plaintiffs. Change the f or fe to v and then add -es. and safe. Other exceptions that you will need to memorize include belief. chef. gulfs.
Other examples include: fathers-in-law mothers-in-law ex-husbands ex-wives sergeants-at-arms PRACTICE Write the plural form of the following words. 1. you would write sisters-in-law.144 word endings TIP: Hyphenated words are easier to pluralize than you might think. just add an -s to the word that is being pluralized. daughter-in-law 11. earmuff 8. tomato 2. rich 9. rash . lunch 3. not sister-in-laws. sweater 7. wolf 4. if you are referring to more than one sister-inlaw. For example. pantry 6. ankle 5. To make a hyphenated word plural. thief 10.
lunches 3. navies 13.regular plurals 145 12. umbrella ANSWERS 1. pantries 6. politician 14. wolves 4. umbrellas . buffaloes 15. riches 9. sweaters 7. rashes 12. ankles 5. earmuffs 8. politicians 14. buffalo 15. thieves 10. daughters-in-law 11. navy 13. tomatoes 2.
the English language is ﬁlled with exceptions to the rules. —BENJAMIN LEE WHORF (1897–1941) AMERICAN LINGUIST Some words cannot be made plural by adding -s or -es to the end. since the rules are not as straightforward as for regular plurals. you will need to spend some time memorizing the irregular plurals. A number of words do not follow the rules outlined in Lesson 20 for pluralizing words. AS YOU WILL HAVE noticed by now. Plurals are no different. This lesson will introduce you to irregular plurals and show you some tips to help you remember them. . Many of the words with irregular plurals have come into the English language from Latin or Greek. Language is not simply a reporting device for experience but a defining framework for it. However. you can ﬁnd some patterns that will help you to remember how to pluralize these words.L E S S O N 21 irregular plurals We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native language. Such words are considered irregular plurals. Because of this.
Add an -x beau → beaux tableau → tableaux Words That Require an Addition of or Change to -en child man → → children men ox woman → → oxen women .148 word endings Here are several of the plurals that don’t follow the -es and -s rules. Change to -ices appendix apex → → appendices apices index matrix → → indices matrices Words That End in -eau. grouped according to the patterns in the way their plurals are formed. Change to -i alumnus focus locus → → → alumni foci loci nucleus thesaurus → → nuclei thesauri Words That End in -ex or -ix. Words That End in -um or -on. Change to -a curriculum datum medium → → → curricula data media stratum criterion phenomenon → → → strata criteria phenomena Words That End in -is. Change to -es analysis axis basis hypothesis → → → → analyses axes bases hypotheses oasis parenthesis thesis → → → oases parentheses theses Words That End in -us.
dwarves fungi. syllabuses symposia. buffaloes cacti. In addition to the irregular plurals that can be nicely grouped according to their patterns. there are some words that you will simply have to memorize because their plurals don’t seem to make much sense. zeroes . hippopotamuses hoofs. indexes radii. antennas appendices. the plural of human is humans—not humen! Take care not to group the word human together with man and woman as far as forming the plural is concerned. alga apparatus die foot genus goose louse mouse → → → → → → → → algae apparatuses dice feet genera geese lice mice nebula person that tooth this vertebra vita → → → → → → → nebulae people those teeth these vertebrae vitae Some words can be pluralized in two different ways. Here is a list of the most common of those irregular plurals. These include: Singular antenna appendix buffalo cactus dwarf fungus hippopotamus hoof index radius syllabus symposium zero Plural antennae. cactuses dwarfs. funguses hippopotami.irregular plurals 149 TIP: Note that although the plural of man is men and the plural of woman is women. hooves indices. radiuses syllabi. appendixes buffalos. symposiums zeros.
ellipsis 2. woman 4. index 7. ovum 6. bacterium 3. there are also some words where you don’t need to do anything to make them plural: the plural form of many animal names. buffalo . is the same as the singular form. vertebra 8. 1. you would correctly report that you saw several moose! PRACTICE Write the plural form of the following words. deer 9. alumnus 5. These words include: bison deer ﬁsh moose series sheep species While you might be tempted to report that you came across several meese in your travels.150 word endings While there are some words that can be pluralized in different ways. and a few other words.
irregular plurals 151 10. hoof 11. paralysis 15. hoofs or hooves 11. women 4. geese 13. ova 6. paralyses 15. ellipses 2. matrices or matrixes . matrix ANSWERS 1. deer 9. phenomena 14. phenomenon 14. bacteria 3. vertebrae 8. buffaloes or buffalos 10. alumni 5. oasis 12. oases 12. indices or indexes 7. goose 13.
Let’s take a look at some examples. The rules for adding endings to words that end in y are: • If the ﬁnal y follows a consonant. with the sole exception of -ing. IN LESSON 7. regardless of the ending toy + ed = toyed. where you’ll learn which situations require you to change a ﬁnal y to an i and which situations do not. In general. toy + ing = toying These rules apply to all endings. . change it to an i when adding any ending except -ing ﬂy + er = ﬂier. With the -ing ending you always keep the ﬁnal y. you learned about the rules for adding sufﬁxes to words. it does not change. it was not covered in depth.L E S S O N 22 final y Change your language and change your thoughts. the rules that apply to the ﬁnal y are fairly easy and consistent. While the concept of changing a ﬁnal y to an i was introduced. —KARL ALBRECHT (1920– ) GERMAN ENTREPRENEUR This lesson covers how to add suffixes to words that end in -y. ﬂy + ing = ﬂying • If the ﬁnal y follows a vowel. We’ll do so in this lesson.
enjoying. praying. prays delay = delayed.154 word endings Change the y to i when adding -ed party = partied weary = wearied worry = worried try = tried Change the y to i when adding -er early = earlier fly = flier sorry = sorrier pretty = prettier hungry = hungrier Change the y to i when adding -es party = parties marry = marries try = tries fly = flies Change the y to i when adding -ness pretty = prettiness hearty = heartiness silly = silliness crazy = craziness Remember to keep the final y when adding -ing fly = flying party = partying weary = wearying worry = worrying try = trying marry = marrying When the final y is preceded by a vowel. delaying. delays . employs pray = prayed. do not change it to i enjoy = enjoyed. enjoys employ = employed. employing.
likely + er = 12. drowsy + ness = 9. funny + er = 10. study + ing = 3. spy + ing = 15. sully + ed = 5. say + ing = 8. 1. destroy + ed = 7. catchy + ness = .final y 155 PRACTICE Complete the words below by deciding when to change the ﬁnal y to i. queasy + ness = 11. comply + s = 4. holy + ness = 2. carry + ing = 6. decay + s = 13. tidy + er = 14.
spying 15. destroyed 7. drowsiness 9. funnier 10.156 word endings ANSWERS 1. carrying 6. decays 13. holiness 2. saying 8. tidier 14. queasiness 11. likelier 12. studying 3. sullied 5. complies 4. catchiness .
L E S S O N 23 final e Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow. AS YOU PROBABLY have gathered by now. keep the ﬁnal e. The basic rule of thumb is that you drop the ﬁnal e when adding an ending that begins with a vowel. (1809–1894) AMERICAN POET AND PHYSICIAN This lesson focuses on the specific instances when you should drop the final e and when you should keep it when adding a suffix. —OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. wise + -ly = wisely peace + -ful = peaceful coarse + -ness = coarseness . If the sufﬁx begins with a vowel. drop the e when adding the sufﬁx. there are some words that require you to drop the ﬁnal e and some that require you to keep it when adding a sufﬁx. SR. and you keep the ﬁnal e when adding an ending that begins with a consonant. type + -ist = typist drive + -able = drivable fortune + -ate = fortunate 2. If the sufﬁx begins with a consonant. Here are the rules to remember: 1.
For example. As with most spelling rules. Again. When you add -ed or -ing to parade. As in our preceding example. Many times. because the plural ending. and notice (+-able = noticeable). however.158 word endings Let’s start with a simple example. or u. the ﬁrst two endings are straightforward: you drop the ﬁnal e to make argued and arguing. If you look back at Lesson 14. you drop the ﬁnal e before adding either of them to the word. hoe + -ing = hoeing (not hoing). Some common examples are: acknowledge + -ment = acknowledgment argue + -ment = argument awe + -ful = awful due + -ly = duly judge + -ment = judgment . and -s. such as binge (+ = -ing = bingeing) seem to ignore the rule entirely: g followed by i would normally have a soft sound in any case. even though the ending begins with a vowel. in order to maintain the soft sound of those letters. -ing. Other words. there are exceptions pertaining to the ﬁnal e. you must ﬁrst drop the ﬁnal e to make paraded and parading. Since both endings begin with a vowel. 2. Remember to drop the ﬁnal e when an ending begins with a vowel and to keep the ﬁnal e when the ending begins with a consonant (s). -able . the consonant makes a hard sound. -able. o. people will keep the ﬁnal e. Another example is the word argue and the endings -ed. To keep the soft sound. is a consonant. is a little trickier. Keep the ﬁnal e when it follows a soft c or g. outrage (+ -ous = outrageous). you keep the ﬁnal e. you will recall that when c or g are followed by a. Both of these exceptions make sense when you keep punctuation in mind. s. 1. writing argueable when the correct spelling is arguable. the word parade. The third ending. the ﬁnal e is kept to preserve the correct pronunciation of the word. you must keep the ﬁnal e in words such as courage (+ -ous = courageous). A silent e at the end of a word is always dropped when adding a sufﬁx that begins with a consonant. To create the plural form. There are two situations when you keep the ﬁnal e when adding an ending that begins with a vowel. making the word parades. to make the word argues. The combination of the word and those two endings is fairly straightforward and unlikely to cause you many problems. Also keep the ﬁnal e to show that a preceding vowel should be long.
1. 14. 12. 6. 7. Hannah had a lot of valuable / valueable jewelry. 2. Andy’s mother prided herself on being an excellent typist / typeist. 15. Jackson wished the others wouldn’t be so judgemental / judgmental.final e 159 nine + -th = ninth true + -ly = truly whole + -ly = wholly wise + -dom = wisdom PRACTICE Choose the correctly spelled word in each of the following sentences. Steve wasn’t very good at gaugeing / gauging worth. The call was not traceable / tracable. 9. They were desperately / desperatly looking for answers. 5. They didn’t notice that the ﬂames were singing / singeing the stockings hung on the mantel. 4. Her voice had a certain hoarsness / hoarseness that others found annoying. All of the dancers were quite graceful / gracful. . 13. Jenny encourageed / encouraged her sister to go to college. They were baking / bakeing cookies for the bake sale. 11. 3. They told the salesperson they were only browseing / browsing. 10. That was a surpriseing / surprising turn of events! 8. They went straight to accounts receivable / receiveable. Emily took advantage of every opportunity / opportuneity she was offered.
They were baking cookies for the bake sale. Her voice had a certain hoarseness that others found annoying. 13. Jenny encouraged her sister to go to college. 14. Hannah had a lot of valuable jewelry. 10. 9. They told the salesperson they were only browsing.160 word endings ANSWERS 1. 3. They didn’t notice that the ﬂames were singeing the stockings hung on the mantel. That was a surprising turn of events! 8. 7. Steve wasn’t very good at gauging worth. 11. 15. . The call was not traceable. Andy’s mother prided herself on being an excellent typist. Emily took advantage of every opportunity she was offered. 12. All of the dancers were quite graceful. 5. They were desperately looking for answers. Jackson wished the others wouldn’t be so judgmental. 2. 6. 4. They went straight to accounts receivable.
of long generations of humanity. tastes. When adding a sufﬁx to a word that ends in a consonant. there are many rules that govern the changes that words require when sufﬁxes are added to them. but is something arising out of the work. you double that consonant if • the ending begins with a vowel: run + ing = running. there are three simple yet key rules that govern the doubling of consonants before a sufﬁx. we’ll learn about words that require you to double their ﬁnal consonants when adding an ending. you may see no logical reason why ﬁnal consonants are sometimes doubled and sometimes not. close to the ground. Then there are rules about words that end in y and e. or of dictionary makers. —NOAH WEBSTER (1758–1843) AMERICAN LEXICOGRAPHER This lesson will cover the last of the special situations where a word must undergo changes before an ending can be added to it. There are rules that tell you which types of sufﬁxes can be added to which types of words. and has its basis broad and low. log + ed = logged • the last syllable of the word is accented and that syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel: begin + ing = beginning . ties. Now. joys. needs. affections.L E S S O N 24 doubling final consonants Language is not an abstract construction of the learned. But in fact. AS YOU ARE no doubt beginning to realize. At ﬁrst glance.
planner begin = beginning. But you can master its spelling by remembering the consonant-doubling rules you have just learned. and pick out those that begin with vowels. submitter grin = grinned. incurring kid = kidded. runny slam = slammed. planning. The word occur already contains a double consonant pair— cc—so people may be reluctant to double the final r. begging. runner. TIP: Many people have trouble with the word occur. Here are some examples of words that meet the doubling requirements for ﬁnal consonants when you add an ending that begins with a vowel. setter transmit = transmitted. kidder plan = planned. beginner set = setting. nagging incur = incurred. slamming. occurred. grinner . submitting. Occur becomes occurring. slammer nag = nagged. beggar submit = submitted. submittal. run = running. kidding. transmitting. grinning. and occurrence. transmittal beg = begged. The final consonant in occur is doubled because the last syllable in the word is accented and that syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel.162 word endings (words of only one syllable are accented by deﬁnition and therefore follow the same rule: stop + er = stopper) You might want to refer back to Lesson 7 for a list of common sufﬁxes. Don’t be afraid to have two sets of double consonants in a word if it fits the requirements for doubling the final consonant.
shower. drawing few = fewer show = showing. taxable wax = waxed. showed glow = glowed. Some words that seem to fit the requirements actually don’t double the final consonant.doubling final consonants 163 When adding a sufﬁx that begins with a vowel to a word that ends in a consonant. glower tax = taxed. you do not double that consonant if • the accent is on the ﬁrst syllable: cover + ed = covered • the ﬁnal consonant is preceded by another consonant rather than by a single vowel: part + ing = parting • the ﬁnal consonant is preceded by more than one vowel: sleep + er = sleeper TIP: There are a few exceptions to the rules for doubling final consonants. most words that end in -w or -x do not double their final consonant: draw = drawer. look _____ _____ _____ No ____ ____ ____ . Two exceptions are bus + es = buses and chagrin + ed = chagrined In addition. mop 3. meet 2. taxing. waxing PRACTICE Mark the words yes or no with a checkmark depending on whether or not they meet the requirements for doubling the ﬁnal consonant before adding an ending that begins with a vowel. Yes 1. glowing.
ramp 13. read 20. relax 19.164 word endings Yes 4. drink 6. walk 11. stop 16. eat 15. pump 10. shovel 18. discover 8. clap 9. tip 12. ram _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ No ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ . think 14. jump 17. seal 5. bet 7.
bet 7. stop 16. jump 17.doubling final consonants 165 ANSWERS Yes 1. look 4. ram ✔ ✔ (consonant is preceded by two vowels) ✔ (consonant is preceded by two vowels) ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ ✔ (accent is not on last syllable) ✔ ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ (consonant is preceded by two vowels) ✔ ✔ (consonant is preceded by another consonant) ✔ (accent is not on last syllable) ✔ (ends in x) ✔ (consonant is preceded by two vowels) ✔ No ✔ (consonant is preceded by two vowels) . walk 11. ramp 13. seal 5. read 20. clap 9. relax 19. eat 15. meet 2. pump 10. discover 8. drink 6. tip 12. shovel 18. mop 3. think 14.
for which the general rules you have learned do not apply. and there are business. the English language is ﬁlled with confusing and tricky words. words that are spelled alike but sound differently. Then there are actual foreign words. technological.S E C T I O N 5 special situations JUST AS SPELLING RULES are ﬁlled with exceptions. There are words that sound alike but are spelled differently. . and words that are so frequently spelled or used incorrectly that their correct spelling and usage may even seem foreign to you. Don’t worry: this ﬁnal section will clarify all of these special situations. and literary terms that can make your head spin. legal.
HOMONYM. words with the same pronunciation but different spellings. This lesson will set you straight on such words. They sound and look so similar that you may wonder whether they all mean the same thing. The ﬁrst type of homonym. in your exuberance and bounding energy you say you’re going to add to that. The words that fall into each category are often the root of spelling mishaps.L E S S O N 25 homonyms Life is tons of discipline. and words that are spelled alike but pronounced differently. Examples of homophones include deer and dear. . Your first discipline is your vocabulary. HOMOGRAPH. HOMOPHONE. let’s take a look at the three terms. what they mean. —ROBERT FROST (1874–1963) AMERICAN POET The English language is filled with words that sound alike but are spelled differently. the words have different meanings. then your grammar and your punctuation. allowed and aloud. These terms can be confusing. but they are related. are called homophones. and bare and bear. And your delight is in that power. The short answer is not exactly. Homonyms are pairs (of even larger groups) of words that have different meanings but either are pronounced alike but spelled differently or are spelled alike but pronounced differently. Then. Then you add rhyme and meter. In both cases. and how they relate. Before we get into how to avoid those mishaps.
For the purpose of this book. for example. Frequently made errors can become habits.170 special situations The second type of homonyms. most errors with homonyms come from carelessness. we’ll look at the most common homonyms. the ones that you are most likely to use in your day-today life. meaning to lead). meaning behavior) and conduct (accent on the second syllable. Pausing to think about the meaning of the word you are using will help you choose the correct one! COMMON HOMONYMS We could fill an entire book just with the homonym pairs that exist in the English language. you’re ready to learn how to avoid misusing them. though. If you are writing a sentence containing the word their. Homophone Pair ad add allowed aloud Definition short for advertisement to calculate the total permitted spoken . meaning gift) and present (accent on the second syllable. Now that you know what homonyms. words with the same spelling but (usually) different pronunciation are called homographs. take a moment to make sure that you don’t mean there. saw (which is both the past tense of see and an implement for cutting wood) and part (which can mean a portion of a whole or to leave each other). for example. you can avoid most errors. Examples of homographs include present (with the accent on the ﬁrst syllable. In general. you can avoid them by learning the proper usage of homonym pairs. as well as by carefully proofreading your work. and homographs are. TIP: As you become more familiar with homonyms. pay special attention to how you use them. Homographs that are pronounced alike include. homophones. The list is divided into homophones and homographs. The following list includes some common homonym pairs and a very brief deﬁnition or explanation of each word. meaning to introduce) and conduct (with the accent on the ﬁrst syllable. By paying attention to the words you use and what they mean.
advisor beloved forest animal with antlers to cease living substance that creates color double fight between two people.homonyms 171 Homophone Pair bare bear beat beet board bored bough bow brake break by buy capital capitol cell sell cent sent cite sight site coarse course complement compliment council counsel dear deer die dye dual duel fair fare Definition to show to withstand to hit root vegetable a piece of wood uninterested tree branch to bend at the waist device that stops a vehicle to split apart near or beside to acquire something by payment seat of government government building small room. as in a jail to trade for money coin (one-hundredth of a dollar) past tense of send to refer to vision location rough path to complete to praise group of leaders attorney. using weapons considering all sides payment for travel or admission .
172 special situations Homophone Pair feat feet find fined flour flower foreword forward gait gate grate great heal heel hear here knew new loan lone overdo overdue pain pane pair pear passed past peace piece peal peel pedal peddle peer pier Definition accomplishment certain body parts locate to pay a penalty (past tense) baking ingredient plant introduction to a book toward the front the way one walks or runs a door in a fence to shred excellent to cure the back of the foot to listen to in this place past tense of know having just come to be something lent single to do too much late payment ache panel of glass two fruit moved beyond time before the present opposite of war small part of ring outer shell of fruit device operated by the foot to sell equal landing place for ships .
as language part of a play past participle of see fly painful not moving writing paper hindmost appendage on an animal story group working together filled with belonging to them that place contraction of they are having a large ego blood vessel to change extremely area of the body above the hips to misuse not strong seven-day period state of atmosphere conjunction that introduces alternatives .homonyms 173 Homophone Pair plain plane principal principle rain reign rein right rite wright write scene seen soar sore stationary stationery tail tale team teem their there they’re vain vein vary very waist waste weak week weather whether Definition humble flying machine person in charge standard state of weather to rule rope used for steering a horse correct ritual one who makes something to compose.
an arid. type of fish 2. to bend at the waist 2. to reside 2. to shut 1. to create. to examine and understand the meanings of written words 2. place of residence 1. substance used in pencils 1. past tense of read . to generate 2. a white bird 2.174 special situations Homophone Pair which witch who’s whose Definition what one? person with magic powers contraction of who is belonging to someone Homograph address bass bow close conflict desert does dove lead live minute produce read Brief Definitions 1. directions for delivery 2. a questioning verb 2. stringed instrument 1. barren place 1. not prerecorded 1. one-sixtieth of an hour 2. fruits and vegetables 1. more than one female deer 1. to leave 2. past tense of dive 1. flexible wood used for shooting arrows 1. to disagree 2. to be near 2. at the front position 2. very small 1. disagreement 1.
. I bought monogrammed stationary / stationery to send my thank-you notes. 5. I liked to watch the birds soar / sore through the sky. 6. injury PRACTICE Choose the correct italicized word to complete each sentence. a watery fluid released from the eyes 2. to wrap around or coil 2. 4. 7. The weather is supposed to be fair / fare and sunny this weekend.homonyms 175 Homograph record separate tear well wind wound Brief Definitions 1. Brandon was selling candy bars to raise money for his baseball team / teem. wrapped around 2. We weren’t allowed to take any access / excess baggage on the ﬂight. 3. 9. 10. to write or document something 2. an interjection used to introduce a thought 2. to be in satisfactory health 1. 2. Henry had the write / right answers to all the multiple choice questions. 8. Alice planned to great / grate cheese for the pizza. air velocity or movement 1. It isn’t always easy to adapt / adopt to life’s big changes. The bag compliments / complements that outﬁt nicely. to rip 1. list of achievements 1. 1. to keep apart 1. disconnected 2. The new shopping mall is being built on this site / cite.
2. It isn’t always easy to adapt to life’s big changes. The bag complements that outﬁt nicely. I bought monogrammed stationery to send my thank-you notes. The weather is supposed to be fair and sunny this weekend. 9. Henry had the right answers to all the multiple choice questions. 6. We weren’t allowed to take any excess baggage on the ﬂight. 10.176 special situations ANSWERS 1. I liked to watch the birds soar through the sky. 3. The new shopping mall is being built on this site. 7. Brandon was selling candy bars to raise money for his baseball team. 5. 8. . 4. Alice planned to grate cheese for the pizza.
1. and millennium often have their double letters erroneously written as single letters. have one of four characteristics in common. The words absence. committee. occurrence. For instance. When c and s both appear in the same word. double-letter combinations are used where they shouldn’t be. Confusion between c and s. and discipline are often . misuse of -able / -ible. Many of the most commonly misspelled words. how would we know? —STEVEN WRIGHT (1955– ) AMERICAN COMEDIAN Certain words are frequently misspelled by even the best spellers. descend. These characteristics are double-letter combination.L E S S O N 26 frequently misspelled words If a word in the dictionary were misspelled. leading people to use the wrong letter. and review a list of the most commonly misspelled words. Many words with double letters are misspelled with single letters. license. and misuse of -ance and -ence. however. In this lesson. PEOPLE MISSPELL WORDS for a host of reasons. The word harass is often written as harrass. 2. Double-letter combination. they often cause confusion. for example. you’ll see why some of these words are misspelled. confusion between c and s. the words accommodate. Other times. possess. and fulﬁll as fullﬁll.
178 special situations misspelled. Then. The sufﬁx -ible. go back through the checked words to see whether you can ﬁnd any patterns. Do you have a hard time with certain vowel combinations? Are there particular sufﬁxes that give you trouble? If you notice any patterns that emerge. Since these sufﬁxes are pronounced alike. and correspondence. is added to roots that cannot stand alone. abundance. COMMONLY MISSPELLED WORDS The following list contains 150 commonly misspelled words. persistence. be alert to those words whose spelling surprises you. 3. 4. and the e in -ence in the words independence. you can’t rely on pronunciation to tell you whether to use -ance or -ence. it can be difﬁcult to remember which words are spelled with -able and which with -ible. Pay special attention to these words and add them to your master list of words that you need to practice and learn. Misuse of -ance / -ence. What you can do is determine which words ending in -ance or -ence you have trouble with. Keep in mind that -able is most often added to words that can stand alone such as regrettable. or noticeable. and then exaggerate the a or e sound in the endings. you would stress the a in -ance in the words resemblance. Here again. For example. coincidence. such as eligible or susceptible. and acquaintance. If you have trouble with words that contain both c and s. Misuse of -able / -ible. absence abundance accidentally accommodate acknowledgment acquaintance aggravate alibi alleged ambiguous analysis annual argument awkward basically boundary bulletin calendar canceled cannot cemetery coincidence collectible committee . spend some extra time on the lessons that apply to them. manageable. they are all spelled correctly in the list. you might want to create a mnemonic for those words. As you read through this list. maintenance. One way to use this list effectively is to read through it and check off the words that you thought were spelled differently. on the other hand.
frequently misspelled words 179 comparative completely condemn congratulations conscientious consistent convenient correspondence deceive definitely dependent depot descend desperate development dilemma discrepancy eighth eligible embarrass equivalent euphoria existence exuberance feasible February fifth forcibly forfeit formerly fourth fulfill grateful grievance guarantee guidance harass hindrance ideally implement independence indispensable inoculate insufficient interference interrupt jealousy jewelry judgment leisure liaison length lenient lieutenant lightning loophole losing maintenance maneuver mathematics millennium minuscule miscellaneous misspell negotiable ninth occasionally occurred omission opportunity outrageous pamphlet parallel perceive permanent perseverance personnel possess potato precede preferred prejudice prevalent privilege procedure proceed prominent pronunciation quandary questionnaire receipt receive recommend reference referred regardless relevant religious remembrance .
L R Y J E E W 10. R P O E C E D 8. I I B L V S E 2. 1. A M C M O D A C O T E 11. L I S A O N I . R A D E P S E T E 3.180 special situations reservoir responsible restaurant rhythm ridiculous roommate scary scissors secretary separate souvenir specifically sufficient supersede temperament temperature truly twelfth ubiquitous unanimous usually usurp vacuum vengeance visible Wednesday wherever PRACTICE Unscramble the letters to create correctly spelled words from the list in this lesson. B A S C E E N 9. T H R F O U 4. T A R S Y E R C E 6. R E V C E E I 5. H R Y H T M 7.
inoculate . fourth 4. absence 9.frequently misspelled words 181 12. desperate 3. accommodate 11. receive 5. U G N A E T E R A 15. N O I U C T E L A ANSWERS 1. liaison 12. L L P A L A R E 13. guarantee 15. visible 2. jewelry 10. formerly 14. proceed 8. O R M F E R Y L 14. rhythm 7. secretary 6. parallel 13.
mean two very different things. As you can see. Man approaches it through forests of symbols. are spelled similarly. THERE ARE MANY commonly confused words which. except means to exclude. the words have two very different meanings. —CHARLES BAUDELAIRE (1821–1867) There are hundreds of word pairs that either sound similar. So. Accept means to recognize or to receive willingly. The words accept and except. disinterested and uninterested (deﬁned in the list that follows). if you use accept when you mean except. Some words are confusing because different preﬁxes give them different meanings. Many of these confusing words sound similar but are quite different in meaning. causing them to be confused or misused. you are not conveying your message accurately. for example. which sound almost alike. .L E S S O N 27 FRENCH POET commonly confused words Nature is a temple in which living columns sometimes emit confused words. This lesson outlines the most commonly confused words and provides you with tips for using the correct words in your writing. mean entirely different things and are not at all interchangeable. although they are not homonyms. For example. or have similar meanings. have similarities that cause them to be mistaken for one another. which observe him with familiar glances.
to pretend result. so be sure that you understand the material covered there before moving on. with the exception of means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to influence. you must know its meaning. to receive willingly excluding. to make happen wealthy flowing out completely prepared previously indirect reference to something fantasy that may be confused with reality . The tips included in that lesson are relevant to this lesson. LIST OF COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS The following list contains some of the most commonly confused word pairs. make note of any words that you misuse frequently. for example. look it up in the dictionary or refer to the list of commonly confused words in this lesson. If you use words incorrectly on a college application. you could ruin your chances of being accepted. Word Pair accept except access excess adapt adopt affect effect affluent effluent all ready already allusion illusion Brief Definition to recognize. As you read through the list. The importance of word meanings was covered in Lesson 4.184 special situations In fact. along with a very brief deﬁnition of each word. your writing suffers whenever you misuse words. TIP: Pay attention to the meaning of every word you use in your writing and in your speaking. If you are unsure whether or not the word you are using is correct. but. In order to ensure that you are using the correct word.
commonly confused words 185 Word Pair among between assure ensure insure beside besides continual continuous decent descent device devise disinterested uninterested elicit illicit eminent imminent explicit implicit farther further imply infer lay lie loose lose may be maybe persecute prosecute Brief Definition in the middle of several in an interval separating two to make someone feel confident to make certain to guarantee against loss or harm at the side of in addition to constantly uninterrupted well mannered decline. additional to hint. or product no strong opinion either way having no interest in to draw out illegal well-known pending openly or fully expressed hinted at indirectly at or to a greater distance. to place something (also past tense of lie. to suggest to assume. to deduce to set down. fall apparatus or machinery to develop or create an idea. system. beyond to advance. meaning to recline) to recline (also to tell a falsehood) not tight unable to find is a possibility perhaps to mistreat to take legal action .
wealthy 6. to mistreat 3. to hint. them PRACTICE Unscramble the letters to ﬁnd the words that match each deﬁnition. her. 1. to adjust OSOLE SECPUTREE Y LA CILTIIL F U E LAF N T CSEXES SREENU PYILM CDEETN AAP T D . illegal 5. she. extra 7. to make certain 8. to suggest 9. well-mannered 10. not tight 2. they substitute for him. to set down 4.186 special situations Word Pair personal personnel precede proceed proceeds than then who whom Brief Definition individual employees to go before to continue profits in contrast to next in time substitute for he.
persecute 3. excess 7. loose 2. lay 4. decent 10. illicit 5. ensure 8. afﬂuent 6. imply 9.commonly confused words 187 ANSWERS 1. adapt .
Understanding these terms will help you understand the message that the author is trying to convey. magazines. your spelling of these terms will be important. chances are you will come across ﬁnancial. but that doesn’t mean you can’t pay attention to some of the terms that are used in the business world. When you are called upon to write essays on current events or business-related issues. YOU MAY BE a long way off from your ﬁrst job. or other business terms. Business. legal. AND PHILOSOPHER This lesson covers a sampling of work-related terms and provides instruction on how to familiarize yourself with them. If you become familiar with them now. legal. or websites to learn about current events. .L E S S O N 28 business. If you read newspapers. —JEAN ROSTAND (1894–1977) FRENCH WRITER. books. and technological terms are to be found in newspapers and magazine articles as well as in the workplace. magazines. Another beneﬁt of learning work-related words is that they will help you to keep up on current events. and technological terms I prefer the honest jargon of reality to the outright lies of books. you will be at an advantage when you ﬁnally do enter the workforce. legal. You can improve your spelling of work-related terms by learning the words listed in this lesson and by reading business journals. BIOLOGIST.
and technological terms.com Bloomberg. INTERNET RESOURCES Here is a list of some work-related websites that you can visit to familiarize yourself with business.bloomberg. listening to music. Barron’s Online: www.com The Wall Street Journal Online: www. adjudicate: to make a judicial decision 3. legal. application: a software program that lets you complete a task on your computer.org CNN: www.com New York Times Online: www.internet.barrons.witi. Business books are especially helpful because they often include glossaries to augment their content. such as word processing.bizjournals. you will undoubtedly ﬁnd links to others.com: www. As you work your way through these sites.com Fast Company Magazine Online: www. or viewing a web page . Learning the proper spelling of these terms can be helpful to you as you further your education and when you eventually embark on a career. you will begin to notice these terms in the material that you read.com Internet.nytimes.190 special situations and websites. Use this guide and your dictionary to increase your knowledge of workrelated terms.cnn. jargon.com: www. read their articles. 1. or buzzwords. acquisition: something that is acquired or gained 2.com WORK-RELATED TERMS The following list is a small sample of work-related terms. and look at any resources or glossaries they offer.wsj. Visit those sites as well. Business magazines and websites usually feature timely topics and use current terms. Each of the 50 words in the list is accompanied by a brief deﬁnition.com Business Journals: www. If you follow the suggestions outlined in this lesson.fastcompany.com Women in Technology International: www.
often used in reference to economic matters 24. vacation days. often used in reference to economic matters 29. equity: ownership 26. often used in reference to workers and Fair Labor Standards Act regulations 27. debt: money owed by a person or a business 20. globalization: the state of extending to all parts of the globe. digital: description of any electronic device that uses numbers to calculate information 23. corporation: a company that is legally treated as an individual 17. compatible: able to work together. exempt: not subject to rules. ﬁscal: ﬁnancial 28. bandwidth: the capacity for sending information through an Internet connection 6. legal. the exchange of goods. and technological terms 191 4. employer: business or individual for whom an employee works 25.business. browser: the program that enables users to look at ﬁles on the Web 11. including health insurance. consumer: individual who uses goods or services 15. consortium: an association of two or more individuals or companies operating collectively 14. implement: to put into effect . and sick days 8. balance: the difference between money available and money owed 5. beneﬁts: anything offered by an employer in addition to salary. bankrupt: the legal state of being unable to pay one’s debts 7. diversity: a state consisting of a variety of different elements. content: substantive information 16. commercial: relating to commerce. often used to describe software or computer devices 13. branding: a marketing term for the deﬁnition of a company for advertising purposes 10. credit: money due to a person or a business 18. deposition: witness testimony given under oath during the trial preparation process 22. department: a smaller division within a company 21. database: an organizational system using tables that helps a computer quickly retrieve pieces of information 19. items offered for sale 12. blogosphere: a collective term for the community of blogs and bloggers 9.
usually undesirably 31. revenue: the amount of money that an individual or company receives during a set period of time 45. spreadsheet: a bookkeeping program that displays data in rows and columns. previous job and educational experience 44. litigious: inclined to engage in lawsuits 36. or any individual document created by such a program 47.192 special situations 30. procedure: a way of doing something 41. references: a group of people presented by a potential employee to an employer who can report on the potential employee’s strengths and weaknesses 43. a rule 40. salary: the amount of money that a job pays. policy: a course of action. usually ﬁgured as an annual amount 46. interview: a formal meeting set up between an employer and a potential employee seeking to be hired for a job 33. outsource: to contract jobs to outside workers 39. jargon: the specialized vocabulary of an industry or group 34. upload: to copy to an outside source from a computer or network location 50. liability: a ﬁnancial obligation such as a debt 35. insurance: a coverage plan in which an individual pays a regular fee in exchange for future services 32. sustainable: capable of being continued with minimal long-term environmental effects 48. transparent: open about operating procedures 49. incur: to come into or to acquire. virtual: carried on through a computer . resume: a printed overview of an employee’s. product: a thing being created or manufactured 42. network: a group of two or more computers linked together 38. or potential employee’s. multimedia: media and content that use a combination of different forms 37.
harass 3. For each term. revenew 7. forcast 2. collussion 11. arbitage 5. beniﬁciary 6. Correct 1. If you don’t know what a word in the list means. mark whether the spelling is correct or incorrect. exemt 9. ﬁnancial 14. equaty 12.business. and technological terms 193 PRACTICE The following list of terms includes words from this lesson as well as workrelated terms that were not covered here. take this opportunity to look it up in the dictionary. acquisition 10. subsidy 13. Some of the terms are spelled correctly and some are not. ﬁscall 8. comerrcial ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Incorrect ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ . legal. consumer 4.
aplication 20. correct 19. correct . correct 16. salary 18. incorrect—arbitrage 5. correct 3. incorrect—commercial 15. incorrect—beneﬁciary 6. correct 18. incorrect—exempt 9. nepotism 16. correct 10. incorrect—revenue 7. incorrect—implement 17. globalization ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Incorrect ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ANSWERS 1. correct 13. correct 14. incorrect—forecast 2. correct 4. incorrect—collusion 11. incorrect—application 20.194 special situations Correct 15. impliment 17. incorrect—equity 12. incorrect—ﬁscal 8. bankrupt 19.
you’ll learn why literary terms are important and how they are used outside of the classroom. Perhaps you learned the terms and promptly forgot them when you moved on to the next lesson. you have probably encountered many literary terms such as genre. a recent Google search on the word returned more than 18. ﬁgurative language. This literary term is commonly used in areas that have little to do with literature. and to understand it fully when someone else uses it. In fact. allowing you to convey more nuanced meaning with every sentence. and determines what we can think about. All the terms you learned in your English classes have meanings beyond the realm of literature and language. . but unfortunate. Using such terms well—and spelling them correctly—will enhance your writing.L E S S O N 29 literary terms Language shapes the way we think. this is common.7 million hits! Being familiar with a common term such as irony. and anthropomorphism. metaphor. with its roots as a literary device. —BENJAMIN LEE WHORF (1897–1941) AMERICAN LINGUIST In this lesson. will greatly improve your ability to use the word correctly. IN YOUR ENGLISH classes. Are you wondering how you could possibly use literary terms in your everyday life? Consider how frequently you read the word irony in articles and essays and on websites and blogs.
Let’s take a look at another example. An article in The New York Times during the 2008 presidential election described then-Senator Obama as grounding his lofty rhetoric in the more prosaic language of white-working-class discontent. Clearly, the article was not discussing literary theory or the merits of a particular short story but was simply using the literary term rhetoric to address a timely issue. The selective and proper use of literary terms can enhance your writing. This will beneﬁt you greatly as you write essays for school, craft personal statements for college applications, and deal with correspondence when you enter the working world. You can easily expand your knowledge of literary terms by reading study guides for popular literary ﬁction, journals dedicated to literary theory, or anthologies that include study guides or lessons. Many of your English textbooks and anthologies have glossaries that can be wonderful resources for learning literary terms. Book reviews in your local newspaper or your favorite magazines will also yield some new words. And, of course, the Internet is full of websites geared toward literature, language, and critical theory.
Here is a list of websites that you can visit to familiarize yourself with literary terms. As you work your way through these sites, you will undoubtedly ﬁnd links to others. Visit those sites as well, read their articles, and look at any resources or glossaries they offer. Gale Glossary of Terms: www.gale.cengage.com/free_resources/ glossary Glossary of Literary Terms: www.uncp.edu/home/canada/ work/allam/general/glossary.htm Glossary of Rhetorical Terms: www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/ rhetoric.html Virtual Salt Glossary of Literary Terms: www.virtualsalt.com/ litterms.htm Wordwizard: http:/ /www.wordwizard.com
COMMON LITERARY TERMS
The following table includes 23 commonly used literary terms, their meanings, and some sticky spelling situations that you should watch out for. Use this list as a starting point for developing your own list of high-impact literary terms.
Literary Term anecdote archetype
Meaning a short account of an interesting or humorous incident an original model or type after which other similar things are patterned the crucial moment in a story not literal to hint at what will happen later intentional exaggeration to explain the meaning of use of words to express something different from the literal meaning actual meaning figure of speech combining two contradictory terms
Watch Out! begins with anec, not anic begins with arche, not archa ends with x begins with figura, not figure one word; not forshadow ends with e, not y ends with pret, not pert spelled as it sounds ends with al, not el no hypen includes nif, not naf spelled as it sounds begins with pro, not pra spelled as it sounds don’t forget the h only one t
climax figurative foreshadow hyperbole interpret irony literal oxymoron
personification giving an inanimate object or animal humanlike properties plot protagonist pun rhetoric satire course of events in a story main character in a story play on words style of speaking literary style in which important topics are made to look ridiculous through the use of humor environment or location in which a story takes place
Literary Term simile summarize theme tone travesty trite
Meaning figure of speech that compares two unlike things to highlight the most important details main idea of a story feeling of a story debased or inferior imitation worn out from overuse
Watch Out! ends with e, not y double m spelled as it sounds spelled as it sounds only one v spelled as it sounds
Find these 15 literary terms in the puzzle: theme, irony, rhetoric, trite, climax, foreshadow, archetype, satire, travesty, literal, pun, setting, oxymoron, hyperbole, simile. (The words may appear vertically, horizontally, diagonally, backward, or forward.)
A F J L F Y T S E A R T S S
E H K O L O E H D W A C R I
M O R P I A R C H T Y P E M
T L X R
X L K A H E T T B A R W D C
B R X C Y R Y A J U D V T C
B H P T U A B S M N G O G M
U E U R D L H Y X M H N W L
M T R I R G J V W C R T B E
S O R T B H F J S T T I N G
A R L E K B P F W D L F V R
T I C F J U
I C K N N J
H N E T L L E D R Z L F I O
R M I S R S T C I O L T A I D Y E T R E
G H O O X Y
M X O I
R O O R N T
ANSWERS A F J L F Y T S E V E H K O L O E H D S M O R P I A R C H E T Y P E M E R H E T L L E D E R Z L F I H Y N O T L X R X L K A H E T T B E A R W D C B R X C Y R Y A J L U D V T C B H P T U A B S M O N G O G M U E U R D L H Y X B M H N W L M T R I R G J V W R C R T B E S O R T B H F J S E T T I N G A R L E K B P F W P D L F V R T I C F J U I C K N N J
R M I S R S E T C I O L T A I D H Y E T R E
G H O O X Y
Y H M X O I
A W R T S S A C R I
R O O R N T
many words have been adopted into the English language directly from other languages without any changes. Although many of our words are derived from Latin. English is ofﬁcially considered a Germanic language because of its grammatical structure. we’ll look at foreign words that have made their way into the English language. a group of languages that is collectively known as the Romance languages. AS YOU LEARNED in Lesson 5. French. French. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749–1832) In this lesson. Latin forms the basis of many languages spoken in the Americas and Europe.L E S S O N 30 GERMAN WRITER foreign words Those who know nothing of foreign languages know nothing of their own. or Italian. There are also many English words that come from Greek or other languages. The Romance languages include Spanish. Culinary terms . Romanian. Usually. If you’ve ever taken Spanish. however. you know that Romance and Germanic languages have many similarities. Although all English words were originally derived from other sources. Portuguese. Italian. often these are words used in writing about history or politics—and cooking. and Catalan. we have taken these words because there are no English words that carry the exact same meaning. a large percentage of English words derive from Latin roots.
such as paella, salsa, cabernet, chutney, croissant, and antipasto come to us unchanged from foreign languages. Don’t shy away from using foreign words in your writing for fear of spelling them incorrectly. If you choose a few select words to learn, you can use them with great impact. That is one reason why words from other languages have found their way into English: they make an impact that an English word simply cannot.
TIP: No need to learn the whole language of foreign words that confuse you. Just practice, practice, practice—and commit the spelling of your chosen words to memory. You may benefit from creating mnemonics (described in Lesson 2) for the foreign words that you want to learn to spell. Make your mnemonics personal so they hold meaning; this will make the words easier to remember.
COMMONLY USED FOREIGN WORDS
The following table includes 24 commonly used foreign words, their meanings, and some sticky spelling situations that you should watch out for. Use this list as a starting point for developing your own list of high-impact foreign words. Word aficionado Meaning person who likes, knows about, and is devoted to a particular activity or thing advance group, especially in the visual, literary, or musical arts, whose works are characterized chiefly by unorthodox and experimental methods showing excessive concern for material goods phrase or saying that has been overused and, as a result, has little significance Watch Out! only one f; tricky cio combination hyphenated compound; no u in garde
blasé bourgeois cliché
boring as the result of overexposure accent on the e tricky second syllable: geois accent on the e
Word connoisseur debut déjà vu
Meaning one who knows a lot about a certain subject first appearance feeling or sensation that one has been in the exact same situation before distinctive flair or style person who starts his or her own business person or thing that is typical of or represents the features of a whole class false front or face an accomplished, completed deed or act awkward or crude; lacking in social grace or sensitivity misunderstanding or disagreement of a complicated or bitter nature a naïve, innocent young woman or girl, most often in a dramatic production policy opposing government control of economic matters except in the case of maintaining peace and the concept of property feeling of mental unease or discomfort innocent, simple, lacking knowledge of the world statement having no connection to the previous statement or idea out of fashion
Watch Out! double n and double s; ends with eur, not ure silent t two words; accents on e and a starts with an e, not an a ends with eur, not ure ends with e, not y
élan entrepreneur epitome
façade fait accompli gauche imbroglio ingénue
accent (cedilla) on the c two words; first is not fet vowel combination is au, not ow don’t forget the g starts with i, not e
malaise naïve non sequitur passé
tricky second syllable: laise vowel combination is aï, not ai two words, second ends with ur, not our double s; accent on the e
Word rendezvous spiel vendetta
Meaning meeting talk given for the purpose of luring an audience or selling a product grudge or feud characterized by acts of retaliation
Watch Out! one word; don’t forget the z begins with sp; no h double t
Identify the foreign words that are spelled correctly in each of the following pairs. Since only some of these have appeared in this lesson, you may want to consult your dictionary for this exercise. Look up the words you don’t know, and pay attention to the spelling—and, while you’re at it, the meaning. 1. entrapruneur 2. stanza 3. shpiel 4. amigo 5. coux 6. oeuvre 7. vinyette 8. ingénue 9. epitome 10. passay 11. au gratin 12. dilettante entrepreneur stonza spiel amego coup ouver vignette engénue apitomee passé eau graden dillatante
13. callamary 14. laissay-faire 15. ciao
calamari laissez-faire chiao
1. entrepreneur 2. stanza 3. spiel 4. amigo 5. coup 6. oeuvre 7. vignette 8. ingénue 9. epitome 10. passé 11. au gratin 12. dilettante 13. calamari 14. laissez-faire 15. ciao
laughable 2. The posttest that follows includes 30 questions based on the spelling lessons in this book. Check your work when you’re done by looking at the answers on pages 209–210. it’s time to ﬁnd out what you’ve learned and how your spelling has improved. using hyphens to divide it by its syllables.P O S T T E S T NOW THAT YOU HAVE COMPLETED the 30 spelling lessons. changing 3. You may want to write the answers on a separate sheet of paper so that you can take this test as many times as you’d like. story __________________ __________________ __________________ . Write out each word. 1.
That was Lucy’s / Lucys coat. 15. 13. 17. 10. The two restaurants / restaurant’s were across the street from each other. My uncle’s ofﬁce is on the ﬁrst ﬂoor of the Legislative / legislative ofﬁce building. Bailey had two / too invitations to the prom. 6. would not 8. They couldn’t here / hear the movie well from their seats in the balcony. 11. we are 7. The personal / personnel ofﬁce is at the rear of the building. February __________________ __________________ Write out the correct contractions of the following sets of words. 14. 19. 12. . He had been laying / lying on the hammock all afternoon. The tight bandage aggrivated / aggravated her ankle. he will 9. Sarah was often asking whether or not she was prettier / prettyer than other girls. they are __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. 18. 16. egocentric 5. 20. but now it is mine. I think I don’t like the consistency / consistancy of this cake. Brady was trying to ﬁnd an anecdote / anicdote to include in his speech.208 posttest 4.
(Lesson 27) .posttest 209 21. wouldn’t (Lesson 16) 8. buffalo __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ ANSWERS 1. they’re (Lesson 16) 10. laugh-a-ble (Lesson 3) 2. even though it is dark out! 22. moose 27. (Lesson 11) 12. Correctly spell the plural form of each of the following words. alumnus 28. we’re (Lesson 16) 7. The new teacher spent the evening reviewing the many curricula / curriculums that were available to her. occupant 24. nominee 25. (Lesson 27) 13. he’ll (Lesson 16) 9. Feb-ru-a-ry (Lesson 3) 6. He had been lying on the hammock all afternoon. The personnel ofﬁce is at the rear of the building. e-go-cen-tric (Lesson 3) 5. Their / They’re still running laps. (Lesson 27) 11. stor-y (Lesson 3) 4. engine 30. roof 26. chang-ing (Lesson 3) 3. man 29. The tight bandage aggravated her ankle. 23. Brady was trying to ﬁnd an anecdote to include in his speech.
(Lesson 16) 20. (Lesson 18) 15. (Lesson 21) 23. The new teacher spent the evening reviewing the many curricula that were available to her. (Lesson 11) 21. They’re still running laps. (Lesson 20) 17. buffalos (Lesson 20) . even though it is dark out! (Lesson 25) 22. alumni (Lesson 21) 28. moose (Lesson 21) 27. (Lesson 25) 18. Sarah was often asking whether or not she was prettier than other girls. My uncle’s ofﬁce is on the ﬁrst ﬂoor of the legislative ofﬁce building. but now it is mine. (Lesson 22) 16.210 posttest 14. engines (Lesson 20) 30. That was Lucy’s coat. nominees (Lesson 20) 25. (Lesson 25) 19. They couldn’t hear the movie well from their seats in the balcony. occupants (Lesson 20) 24. roofs (Lesson 20) 26. Bailey had two invitations to the prom. I think I don’t like the consistency of this cake. men (Lesson 21) 29. The two restaurants were across the street from each other.
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