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A Bunter 'Original fr:om.
Ham~n
'\\'bether}\o U wanrte make a ChristlEas h:ee,,3 wlDep.leU}! deeoradons,
picture fmm~ at_tatising puzzle or s:ooply this book wi)] show you how. Step by~$tep~~strudioll:;; andliae dmwUiJgs 'eI}JJain.how W make basK: shapes 'Out of paperand then showhow these shapes can be used all kinds ~lfa~altmg \'tays. Toys,.bngrn;~s"
m
sculptures" J ewellery; paper chams and Iotis of other tl1irHgscanaH be 'rons~rootedeasily and :liml:!1y. II~you need are some sheets of paper A and ,~pair of scissors and you·U.bave t~m:'lS'1f fmrl
Eric Kenneway
Illustrated by Alan .Rogets
CONTENTS
7 A key to symI:IoIs used in the cIIagnuns Mak:_ing Shapes: Bade Designs 9
Preface
8'
shape 10 Making a square from a.rectangle 12 Making an equilatem) tria.ngle 13 Making a diamoi!ld 14 Malting a cross .15 Making an eightsided figure 17 Making a sixteensided figure 19 Making an eightpointed star 2(J Ma:kffig a sixteenpcsned star 21 Making a smsidedHgure 22 Making a fWelvcsidedHgure 24 Making ,asixpointed star 25 Making a fivepointed star 26 Malting six hexagons 29 Making: lots of squares 31 Developing basic shapes 34 'Frame' shapes, 36 lEightpointed star 36 2 Sixpointed star )7_
Makin,g a square from paper of any irreguEar
Joining Shapes: Patterns and. DecoratIons Frieze 40 Simple paper chains 42 Paper chains, and garlands 45 Flower chains 49' Simple repeat. paUerns 50 Alternating repeatpenems 51
39
Radial flower patterns Threedimensional,star
Standing Christmas, tree
52 53
54
Joining shapes to make solids 56 1 Container 56 2 Jewel and necklace 58
), Pyramid 6() Shapes into scu1pr.ure
Twenty ..piece baI!I.
'Woven' ball
64
61'
67
woul(fresult. Foldio,g paper aodcuttingoutshapes in this way 'can be a.constant source, of surprise and wonderment. From the fonowing pages you willieam ways, of making many basic shapes  squares, triangles; diaMonds~ stan and. polygonsand also discover ideas for combining shapes in flat patterns
created something
If you cutthl"O'1!Jgbthe several layers of a foMedsheet and then open it up" you will probably find that
q)uitediffureotfrom what you ~ned
you bave
of paper
and threedimensionaJ. decorations.
'Changing shapes: Toys and Puzzles
71
Spjnmng dice Tangrams
Deminoes
72
a lot of paper. FOT yOUl' fim. artempts you might choose 'to
The main things you will. need are a pair of seissors and quite
74
73
Paper baUpuzzie 81 Box cube ,87 Frame, egg and diamond puzzle
91
shops ,and toy shops. These are ideal for most projects. For' ,he more complicated desi,gns, which have many layers of paper, try 'Usingeeloured tissue papers., Some eonstractions, wbere one shape. slots into another, 's.hould be made from thin
make SUTethat it is an old magazine and no longer needed by its owner. W'hen you have bad some practice you wil1I surely want to make your shapes from. papers wbiCb, are a. hil. more special. Packets of coloured pape.r 'squares. sometimes gumm.ed on the reverse side,. can be found irnmanystationeqr
make your shapes from the pages of an old magazine; if so,
card. rather than. paper.

S.bapesmade by fOlding and cutting will. inevitably show unwanted creases which appear as, a result of rh.eir metbodof oomstruct:ion ..These creases can be removed by having a
grownup run. ov.e:r me unfolded shape with a cool iron. As wen as using shapes to make patterns and decorations. you can use them as puzzles or toys .. Do oot imagine that the
possibilities are limited to 'What is described in tbis book.
varie.ty of shapes and patterns tbat can be created.
Experuneil't and disoover fur yourseJf some oftheinfinire
RK.
.A key tosymhols used in, the diagrams
The fo,lfowin8 SYD1lJ}x_'Ils, are used throlllgnout tbis book: direction .I)f the fo1d. 2 When the fold line (s aeeempansed by a hollowbeaded arrow, yuU, should fOld the paper away from you.
Making' Sha,pes: Basic Desig,Is
1 A broken
I~ne means, 'Fofd' . The arrow shows tile
3
4 A .pa,If :f:sc, i,SSOIl, ~ns, where to eat, and the s~ discarded.,
Q,
A looped arrow means, 'Tum the paper over'. ~Cut'. A~eavy brok. en Uneshows part of th:e_papeT" should be.."'." . ~_ 1
n~~=i~~~ ...j t_=~:zz:mi~
LeI Us start by making a squarf\ a basic shape which wesball use to male many otlirer shapes. A square can be made from
any Scrap of paper .B$ follows: 1 Make 3.I;O'ldin your paper.
y.0l!J QOW have ,ii straight fo1ded edge.. Fold part of this edge back: on itself. 3 Y'OIll now ha.ve a second folded edgea.t rig]u·.a:ng]es to the nrst edge . .Fold these two eases togeth~r.
2
5 ..... l!ike tills .. TIIml over. ~, Cur paralle~ to I~ horizontal straighl edge. jutaJbove it (J Dlfold the ~per • discardling the part shown as a shaded! area ..
."
4. Fold the diagoDa~edge back on. itself" . . 101
7
Yon should have a perfect sqaare,
u
Making a square frern a recbmgle
Instead of a very oddshaped piece of paper, youare more, likely to have a rleC~ng!e''nom. which to start. It is a simple matter to make a square from this. 1 Fold the side of the rectangle to the lfottGm ~ge.
;
2
Fold the bottom right comer to the top, making sure that the crease line starts from the bottom left corner.
Use a square of paper., 1 Foldthe top ledgero the bottom edge.
/
...

..' ~
,.'
.
2
3
Cut along the edge. Unfold.
3 4
Cut along the ledge. Discard th.eshaded area and unfold. The completed eQui!la:teral triangle.
The square.
12
13
Maldng
3. diamond
·Use' a 2 x 1 rectangle ofpaiper (hal f of a large square ~oietwu smaller squares joined together). 1 Fold in halffrom right to lett, 2 Fokl top to bottom, . \
Use a square of paper. i FoId~n half from bottom 101 top.
3
roW the oottom left oonlerliiliP to the top, mak:~ng sure that the crease tine"searts atthe bottom rigM come.r .. . I 4 Cut alm!lgthe edge ..Discard ~he suaded area aJ)d unfotd ..
2
Fold in halffmm. left
to
right.
I
J..
~
X
.
'/'
j'
/
/.
3 Fold the upper layer diagonally in .half. TUImover and do the samebebiind. 4 Cut at right angles to the top edge, Dicsca:rdthe shaded area and unfold. *
5 The diamond. If you use 3. square folded in half, instead of a 2 x I rectangk!~ yOI!ll. wiD make N'O diamonds rogether.
14
5 The,cross..
Making an eightsided figure
Use 3. square of paper. 1 Fold in half froratop to bottom ..
_.__.
.... _

2 Fold In haJIfrom :right to left. 3 lFo.ldthe upper layer di~go~aI!lyin bali. Turnover and do the same behind ..
I.
I
/
16
17
4 Fold the vertical edges .(l'WO layers) to the diagonal edge at left. TUFII over and fOJdth.e :remam~~g vertical edge !o the dmgonal,ed:ge.
M8ki.ngasiXteen~sided figure Use a square of paper. Start by foiG]ng s!eps 1~5 of tile eighfsidoo figure (page 17). 1 U nfOldthe upper 1aye[. 2 Fo1d the long edges of the 'kite' shape, to the centre crease line ill tum, letting the huiddien edges .kick. our from underneath. . .
I
5 6
Cut along the ,edge. Discard the, 'SHaded area ,and un fuM. The eighttsided fig,u.re..
3 ... too.
lite UUs. Fold theseed,ges to the centre crease·6ne
18
4 5
.out along the edge ..Discard the, shaded area and untold., The sixkensided figure. 19
MakiQg an eightpointed star Use a square of paper. Start by foMing steps 15 oftbe
eightsided figure (page 17). 1 Fold tbe two .. djacent ledgeS o<f the uppe,rmns1t flap a together, crease and uIIIfold.
Making a sixteenpointed ,star" Use a square of paper.. S ral1·1by foidjng ~teps 14 of the sixteensided figure (page m9). 1 Fold the two adjacent edges of the ufpennostOaps.
together in tum, make: creases and U!nio~d.
Cat .alongthe erease min.e you .ha¥e just made. Discard the shaded area and unfold: :3 The eightpointed star,
2
2 Cut. ah:mg the crease lines you. ha vejust made. Discatrd the shaded area and t1nfo~d. 3 The sixteeIl:"'poin~erl star.
20
2,1
Makhlg a sixsided figure
Use a square of paper. Firsl fold two opposite comers 2 Making sure that the creases start from the centre of the folded edge" bring (he two :srdy points fur'w'ald to lie across each other.
together •.make a.crease and unfold. 1 Fold the other two comers together and leave folded.
3
Carefully puEI thepoiats
,apart so
that the angle where the
4 Fold the top point down as far as it ~iU' go, crease and ret! LiUI. . d the .:5 'Cut along the crease .liirneyou lia.ve just made. D~" .' shaded area and open up'.
edges of the two flaps .meet (point X) is~" line with th.e vertical centre crease ..Now crease Hmdy and turn over.
.., __.: ~_s. .c'
,~._.
_£;,~;~
,6
22
The sixsided ,figure.
23
MaklBg atwehesided figure
l!se .a square ef paper. Start: by tl'oldl[~g steps. 1.41 the of sn:~sldoo figure (page 22). 1 Fold in rna!f frQmnrighm to left. 2 Cut along the edge ..Discard the shaded area and open up.
MakIng
a sixpointed star
Use a squar,e of~pe[ .. Stan by folding steps 13 of lhe six~sided figure (page 22). .' 1 Foldtae top'po~nt down as far as it will go .. 2 Fold one (If the diageeal edges. of the 'central triangle to the borironlal edge. 3 FcdtJ.the other diagonal ,edge of the centrajtriaaglete the Iw.rizoTl!tal edge. .
4 Fokl~n half by takinglhe rlighl Stde behind, S Cut .aiong the edge. Discard. the shaded area and. unfold. 6 The sixpointed star.
25
Use a square of paper. Start by oornpletingsteps 1.,3 of the stx,~,sicredfigure (page 22). 1 Unfo1d'theuppe:rmos{ flap. 2 Fokl the bonom edge to the dIagonal edge. Make a crease and open liar aga~n. 3 Now uPQSiUontbe, man.gul3T flap SOl tltitt its lower edge lies aiJo.ng the creasemade in the pr"CvioQSstep.
S
4 6
Fhl(1t1ie fl!apin half. F,aldd1e left point aCl"OMtberoided Bring tbeDap back~othe left.
'edge.
21
area and open
7. Cut from a peintabeut halfway downtbe right edge to where, sever:aJfoMededges mee! at left. D.iJscardthe sbaded
UI)i. .
a square of tMnpaperJoot ~oo sma~t Start by fQlding r~1M"l!! 13 of the sixsided. figure .~ge 22). but ,ikm't tum it
P'uI out
Fold the uppermost ftap in flaff from. nigh~tomet't. the "conceaL'ed Hap3l1d. fold it in haLf sOOiliuly"
.'
_'
3 Fotd the boUum.point to the top. 4 Fold the tOPPQ~nt of the uppermost. layer to the bottom edge.,
,8
The five,.point:ed star,
.~ Fi:od8lece.ntre of the oogesAB. BC and CD. CUltstraiglu lines between these poinss, Discard the shadedarea and unfo~d.
Use a square of thin paper, not too smaU..Mark the centre (:teaSeS by fo.lding the, OPPOSite edges together in tum and opening up. Then mark. the quarterRne creases by folding each edge to the centre in tum and ,opening up. 1 Fold me tope:d,geto th.e lowest crease. . .
11
..
f 
_,_,_
tr
.1

,~
_.
I
I~
I
!
I??
t
2
I
!\~.
,
I
6
The six hexagons.
rri •
I .1' 1
I
I
~ .,~
\3
.
, ,
, I
.
j
•
J
I
2
3
.. ..like this ..Tum OVCI". Fold the .Iower crease tome upper crease. 31
4
Po ld the left crease to the centre . .
I
I 1
.,.;
I
4
Fold d!~ag,omlallyin half ... . , . and ill haU again .. Cut m two ..Unfold.
~
II
I
,
!
I I
_l
J
I
,
9'
5
'/~. _ i"
"."".<. I ~
/
./
/
~'
/
I' ,
'III
At •••••••.•..
1
I
';1
",.
IIt;ta1 ~ ..... V. '....V4~~,_~
0.~...·•· .!7?'_•".•.•... ~
33
5 6
.. '..like this. Turn o:ver. Fold the left crease to the::righl crease,
32
10 With one CUl you h:ave made lots of little squares. some of w.hich may sti.Dbe joi~ed at the corners.
AU of the shapes. cfu:scri~bed on the prervious pages can be deve.loped byrn_aking extra ,cuts UIthe 'Various folded papen~ or by alte.ring the direcooll: of the cuts. Fore_uunple: . I If you make a curved CIUt like this instead of a straight cur, the paper shouM. l!JI.nfoldill~o 3.ftowetshape.
,:_ .3 H' you follow _thems:! cut ~Uh. a _~l'iI~
para~lel cut like this, the paper sib.ouldUnfold mto i'Wo' s1mIillar hlipa one ~ "boUow'andorne ·sofid·.
2 If you combine stqlg.ht cuts with. a.rvedcuts like OrWi,~tbe paper should unfold into combined. flower and leaf desig;n$.
r1
+
I: I:
I
I~
,
I
4 If,. after making theinl oot~ you. make further cu~ ll~e
thls the reswt should be a pedora~ed shape. y.cmmay.1ike to embellish the basic shape bya~lbe discarded pieces 2roWld it.
35
photos.
1
By cuUing ~n~o mal1Y oftl1e~olded paper ~ua:res described above you: Cilfll8cmeve, a'fier unfo~4iJ1g. ,squares with pattemed windows w.hich make attractive decorations lin U.e~r Own .right or can be used as kaIl!],e;sfor YOU[ drnw~ng:s 'lIT
3 4
Fold eaeh of tli1ecentre po~ntsback. as fur as it wiI go, The completed eigJ:Jt~po,intoo star frame ..
VOl)[
the eight sided figure (page 17). 1 Unfuld the, lOp and botl:Qm. flaps. 2 Cut about one.third O'f rhe way along the existing crease ~inefrom the; ~QP.Open up, thepapef.
Sil:hI~1fm will need a square of paper. First. complete steps 14 of
2 sa~ slill" '.' ..' '.' Y 0111 w.i1 need ..a squar'c ofpape:r. Fisst .complete step 1of the twe~.ves.ided figul\e (page 24). 1 Foldthelup nap to tee rilght. 2 Cut about onediilid of tlle,way up from :the ooUom oftbe
eentre crease. Open Up' the paper .
36
/
37
3 Ford each ofth.e OOIltI;e hps back.as_as .f The completed sixpomnted Slar franse,
it will. go'•

38
and forwards, you can make a square (olrecI3ugJe) of many .Iayers. If you draw a shape on the topmost layer, then out around your dra.wing rhrough all tbe layers of paper 3JId final1}, open it up. youwill have made a long pattern which can beused as a frieze, Oli pa,rt:ofa frieze, to decorate your bedroom wall, When cutting, you may cut into the folded edge, of course) but you. must not ,cut~t completely away. You wi••need a strip ofpaper. 1 Fold lhepaper concertina fashion, It is best to fold rile strip in half~ then into quarters, then into eighths" etc, so' that each layer is made a.similar size,
By taking
a strip of paper
and pleatjng il backwards
2 3
Draw and cut Qut y'Our design,. Open up the paper. One section of the completed frieze.
41
will appeal', Glue or staple several! sediorlstogether
Here istb.esimplesf and quickest way of making a paper chain for a, party ~ecoratio:n. It looks festive even when made from newspaper. You will need a long strip of paper. 1 Fold the,sttipof paperjn ,half. longer chain.
3
Stretch Ihepaper by pulling at,both ends and this shape
to
makea
~ fA paper cham of HlQ[~' complex (iesigOC81n be made by using a somewhat wider strip' Uf p~per and foldiillgit ~n half twice. Y'ouwiU needoa~ong :strip of ~[. t lFoJdthe paper in _nalf.
take the euts too close mOle opposi,te edge,. Open up the
paper,
2
Make alternative
cuts
in the top and bottom edges; do nQt_
42
43
chains and garlands
Shape~' (pages (938) can be made from 3 2 x lrectang~e. folded ~nhalf so that the shape consists of two layers; joinedat one edge . Cut away the centre of such shapes and they can be linked together to make paper chains. If you ~mke .•you. can join the ends of the chain to make aringer g,adand. Here is a way of making doubleIayer,ed eightsided shapes to be used as a paper chain .. You will need severn. 2 x 1 rectangles of paper. These can be made by ,cutting squares of paper in ha.lf 1 Take one re,etangie and fold the two shorter edges
tog,ether.
Many ,of the sha~s described in'Making
I
II
I
2
Now fOld in halfhom top 'to boUom.
2 3
the paper.
Fold the paper in half agaiin. Make alternate cuts in the top and bottom ed!g~. OpenUlp
11
4 Pull on ,either end to, make this peflomied ,shape. Add. moresedions to mOe a cham. 44
3
4 Fold the tov flap dfagonaUy in half. Tum over and do ~he :same behind.
Fold~nha]ffrom rigl\J,t
tQ
Left.
3
"
)<
I'
.
.
",'/
4
7 One link: comp]ete(l. Make a ~:od 8
7
SFQld the vertica1 edges.at fii:ght. [two layers) to the diagonal edge. Thn1lover 'and do tbe same wf~hthe rlemain~nglayer.. 6 .Cut alengtllle edge.Then make a pW'al!le~ulm, remuve the c
centre of
the paper
..~
U!p.
layen: through. the centre ?~.~ first link.
of .lls '. . Make more links and )Om them kt form a chain like this ..
QDe
and weave
.....
Cha:~ns of paper. shapes made in a simiiJarway to that described 0111 paiges 4547 'CtI!n stapled or taped~ogetheI to be make rings or ga!f~amlds.Eight hollowedout crosses have been joined fO make, this, design.
Flower chains
Flower shapes can be glued klgetner to mak~ paper chains era kind sometimes known as "honeyoom.b" designs. You will need many squa:res of paper. Tak.e eac~ square and complete steps 14.pa.ges 17 to ~8. 1 On each f;o[(~edshape cuta fuU, cuned line as shown. Open up the. paper. .' . ... .' 2: You hav,e.made some eigh,t~pe,taned ilowershapes . •.Place a
dab of glue on fouT aile"'"'" petals (:rkod X) of "".••.•.. •. ... ~s. :".pe.
I~'
3
Take a seeorsd sbape and place itl1leatly on. the firfS't. Dab glue on tbefour alternate petals (marked X) of ~ shape.
Tate a third. shape and g~iUe ~U~otlrrIefirst two as shown ~pstep 2. _ then a.fourth. and glue it as shown in step 3. Coatinueadding sharpes, g!1uing them together in attemateways until you have
made a chain of many 'flowers.
4'puU
gentJ.yat eSither end andlh.e flowers wiin. partly open
48
liketlWl.
Shnple repeat patterns
Use the cuteut sIIapes wJrlch you ha vealready learnt. to make patterns. Th~ simplest ki'Ad of pattern .~ one in which sUnilar shapes are repeated by being placed ,ooge toedge. 1 Eight crosses (page 15) are placed rogethe[ in tvrolnes .. You can len1arge1J:his pattent by placing more crosses above, below and a;ongside those aJiready arranged., It .islDi!lponant to notice thal,Dy placing shapes edge to edge mike this, you It~sabit more inter'esting *0 choose two d~fferel!1ll kinds of shape (let uscall them ~mape and shape B ) and tealternare A them  placing first. shape .Aand then shape D~n a line; then IbeneathU1ie first, starting wilh sha.pe B
fonnil\@. asecond~w.e
create new unexpected shapes in the areas be~tweenthe outoets, Notice the .!littlesquares' that are formed. between the
crosses here,~for eJl:ample.
centiaued in any directiionto cover as big a space as you want,. as carn themple repeat paUtms. AH of' lhese~pattems can be made with ve.ry snsall cu.t:cmt shapes andgjued b) a suriace:, y.ou oouJd derom!e tile cover of an. exercise book. or sctapOOok.in this way. With a pa1tte:rn of
andthen shape A andse on. Place crosses. and sixsided shapeswgdher in this way. (N alice that lin tms case it is lozenge Shapes whicR. appear between the eatouts.] Of eeurse, tmspaUern can be
largershepes you could make a w~friezefor)'our
bedroom.
2~jght
50
sixsided figwres (page 22) are pi.aredrogether
in
a
similar way. Noticetha!,t little squares again appear l:Jetween the cut4)ut s.hapes  this t::imestanding on t11ei:r eerners.
51
Radial Dower patterns
Basic shapes can be pllacoo one ontol))' of ano~he:r to make more (1Qmp~e!x.shapes. Note, that each. shape shou~d ha¥c its centre lying OIn thesame point Try jo,ining star s1:l:3Jtpes.~ different size and varlous of matching coIouB.r:o make a ftll~e~r desIgn. like this .. A stem can be .eut from a scrap of paper and diamond sharpesused as the basis ferpetals. The shapes describedfn '~king Shapes' (page$ 938) can be joined together to ghrel~em the appearan.ce of. ~eatef solidify. Hang them by a.thread so that they twld gently .~~ ~ air presenting a. changing appearance to anybQdyw,21tdling them. Th.e~o:noYling theeedimensional star is just ,an.example of what ~ou cap do. Try ltwith tlrhe.r sharpes: as welt. You win need; ffl"Q .e~E{hi.,·,}(}intedstars (pa,ge 20)
glue
1 IF thestarsisr balf. old
!
~
I
l~
I
I ~
2
3 52
too two surfaces
Pbee them with die folded edges !ogether like trus,. Glue together. Compkted.
53
St:tmdiDg C.luistmas tree
You may like to' try making standmg objec~ in a. sim liar w.ay.
You wUI need:
twO'
sheers of paper
I
pen,ciJ scissors and glue Ford the two sheets of paper in haH :t::romright to left.
j
Separate the two, Christmas tree ,sbapes and. glue t:hem together in the same way as tbe star on page 53. If you repeat this process with two more sheets of paper and gl.uet~e two structures back te back. YOIIiI.win have a stronger tree wilh four
J
sets of "branches' instead of thiree ..
~
I
l
I
~r
I ~'.; .•.• :.• i. _ __......,
.3 Cut along
2
Draw .haU of a Christmas ttJee centred the outfi:l)e and discard
Om!
the folded edge . the:s:haded area.
~
__.",.
4
The tree oompleted.
T~ decorating it with a little threev •
dimensional
star and siInibdy made h.an~g
ornaments,
55
.JoiniDg shapes to Blake solids
1 Colllllint!l'
You win need: throe:e equilateral paper aiang.les (page 13)
glrlf: .
I Take one triafilg~eand fold the top point to the eentre of the bottom edge,
2 Fold 1m: bottom mmers across the central trianglem turn, mate. ~reases and open up. Repeat st~ 12 with the remarnmg two papertriiangles ..
I .. ..Hke mils:. Here is .3. useful basic shape which can be folded .in 5e'¥eral ways to make raised or' solid fomts. To mate a ,container. take the top left triangubu" area to the right so that the: comers marked A are eae on top .of the olher.
and glue ..
3
Overlap the oorne.r~n.gJiJlar areas of two trianglq toget'be:r; tben gJue the thlrdtriangJe in position ,. . .
iQIne
.s
6
Bring Ore riigiltbiangular
Bring the le,fttrian.gWv area down and glllle ..Turn over.
57
area down and glue.
56
1
The oom~p]etoocontainer.
3
A jewel completed ..
1 Je~l oM NecUau
U !!Q.b:ri~h.Uy oolotil~p.1I'per ermetsl foU If yo~ can. Stan ooJIfp~tI!ng the basie shape, ,assbow.n on page 51~butfor fold. go to stef.ll below., . I FQl'd the top left tria~gie d'own to the right so that cornersmarked A are one On top of t:he other, and glue.
the . the
by
2
the flars.
Feld the two botfo!ll cemer t.r~a.ng]es p in tum and g]uelo u
4 Stringseveral jewels together wilch.neede and thread makea. necklace.
10
58
.59
complete step m of the Jewel (page 58}. 1 Fold the two trial1'gular fla~. up to closethe
J .Pyramid Start by C(mlpiel~ngth~ basic .shape as s,hown on page 57; then
. hole and gfue
can use basic shapes as un.i~sfor bllliiding InCO standing
.( .. H~'IMI
which can be developed in ~nteresti.ng ways .. B ujid
together.
inte a simple tower, for example  0. join shapes at irregular intervals to make more urn~o;;ua~onstructions. c You wi IIIneed ~Q~Sof squaT'es of thin card. I Start by c utti,ll1g slits in.to the sides oil your squares (you m.ay be able to cut: several sqUlares toged'l.er). MakJe sure that your CUIS are regulaily p~a.cooa I the ce:nHe or each side ..
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Tate, one square and slot a squne in.to each of its, four side
0:0. . .
eu1S. This makes afton base futb:uitfding,
61
3" _ . ., ., lil.e t'hfus.E!ighteen Iittle squares werel)Jsed t:o make
t~~sstructure . Use it asa starUng point fur developing i,ntoa 'joiinmg shapes other than squares  and oombining sets oft:wo PIece of scu]pmre of your OWIll design. different shapes, or shapes Mtb siJ.iu in both their 'sides and.
oomer:s. Here are some uamples.,
Try maklng sculptures by joia.ng squares wbldt baveslits rut ~n.'o their eoraers Instead of their sides. You can also try
Shapes which do not, ha¥e sides at 9lr'lo each other win not DVe. 9IJ' slits either. So you. win Hnd tbatsculptures made from these shapes \Vi U not d.evelop into straightliipanddown lowen,as bappens when squares are used, bul into .F!lte:rest~ ingcurved patterns. 63
Twenty·piece ball
Some modem Yo
UI
lampshades arc madte in gl.ue
<1
simi taT way to this ..
wi] I need:
Memy sixsided figures (as shlOwn on page 22)
OODlpEete it. standing structure which has n~ illangular sides with litde flaps betwOOll .. 'f~ke five more pteces and repeat steps t3 to mate another sd1lar structure. The~ wiU fonn the top and bottom of the ball. . ..to
1 Take one otyour Mentypieces aJndfo1d every othero~e of to the centre. Make firm creases, then let the .mitt1e triangular Haps so fonnedstand at rigbtangles to the ma~n area. Do th.e same with.fOIl:lT more pieces ..
its comers
5 Now make a chain by ~ui~g the rema;iJning~~n. piece.s toget1tecr ·HI.~ine. Note that dre Mstt~ .pi~s are Jomed as 2 Join two PIeces by glilling the; together,
3
pieces (fo:IlQ,wjng the shOWlll in step 3 ~but tbalUlek!urth
.' ~ andbonom sectIOns] n .p!ace.
ple£e; IS (I~ffereD1~
glilter
sides of two HaP'S
Glue thetwo ends uf (Re c.haintogetiher.,
Sin1li~dy glue a thi~fdpiece to the flrs,t two. Add two more direction of thearrcw in the d~gram) with. the fiftll piece glued also to the first piece. . .
'Then glue the top ;!'
placed,
65
I
'Woven'balll
You will need mots of t x 4 strips of paper (aoout 2cm x8cm is a ceaveniene sire). 1 Fold the ends of one strip eo the top and botro.fn edges as shown.
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2 Fold the paper 0:0 a line; between: the cornen ,of' the two tlaps~ make a crease and open up ... .
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3 . . . lite thiis,. Do t!he same with
tw.o[HQTe
The rompletedrweQtypiece
ball,
. Uyou do not waUl to preparerwenty sixsided figures. try 3. simpler ornament using only Si:X;'Of eigf:npieces. If you have succee~e~ in makingyour :twenty~pi"ece LiaU, you can go on to Olakes~m~]aro.rname~nsby assembl'i'ng UD!~tsof another shape. 66
67
4 Bring the f~lded edge of one s~P to theeenttal crease of anotber. Umo](i!.bEl' Hap and glue in position.
Bring the folded edge of the first strip to the crease of the strip ..This will have the effect,of raising the strips, so that form a shallow 'dish' where ley eross. Um'Oh~toe lap
. g'l:ueitttopositioll.
?, . .Now ~ng. the foMed ,edge of the. Uilid strip to ~e ,crease of the seccnd stnp ..UnfoJd the tra~an.d glue il!'w pos~illiOJ]I.. 
7 Th1S threecomered strlllCtllre willfonm one corner of your final model. Prepare two more strips by 'OOff!Iple,ting.
steps 13 ...
8 ... and jo.in.Ihem to one of the a:~s in the gmJe way as shown in steps 46.. This oompletes. a. second eomer ..Prepare more strips and join them s:inl.illailyto other arms of the growing strucmre ,.graduelly btli]di~g it up'" " •
Changing Shapes: 'Toys and· Puzzles
9' ... until the baUisco:mpkted. 11OOlil8~SlSof tw7enty sfmibr comers in each. of wbicihthr,eefolded edges meet. Notice the pentagonal (fi:v~H,k~ed) indows which. COlver the surfaee of w thebaU.
Try makiinga sim~;n baUfromn 1 X 5 strips (,about .2cm. x lOem) and you wi]] find it has SI£nrn.e windows of 8. different shape ..
10
Spinnm,g dice If you. f rid that you 'cannot p~ay your favQurireboardgal:t!le because t~e die has been lost, !ry making a sumtitnte d~e ~[I
the lonow~l!lg way.
jnoa,
Vcr; small shapes, of the sort described jn'Making S~apes' (pages 938) ~ can b~ ~s~ ,~O deeora te a set of ~()m~noes~
made from card, whruch wiU appeal to a younger brothe r or
You wil!lneed: pape,r
ma.t.chstick pencil
·re i w1tn a nwnber of spots ateither marked
J~re alleoometradlHi0Ha~
dorrni~oes in which pieces are
end. Some ends are
leftbbnk.
I Make asixsided iIlgu.reas sh()~ on.page 22 and dividethe surface by drawing lines aerossftosn oomer to eorner. Fill i~
the llrUmbers
1.6, ()iO:~ .In 'each area,
2 Here are domiaoes made from 2 x i rectangles of card with coloured shapes glued to each end. Y ~u wil. n~ed twentyeight pieces to make III set, dJeooraJed~1]th combinettO'ns, of six diiff.ereIl:~ shapes, pm~ the bJaI!lb.
indicases the face fl:Umoof.
72
2 Push the matchstick halfway through the centre poine and the dlrce is cmnp,letoo. Spin it on a flat surfaee , . . ~ .: . .. and whichev.er edge ends up 1yirng OIi1 the surfaee
This is a traditiona~ puzzle· wbich can be enjoyed again and again ..A set is made up ofsevengeemetrleat shapes ~ two big
triangles,tw"o t~Ule triangJes, a .m.ediumtdangJe. a squarea:nd
3 Cut along. the tlnesyou tangram pieces ..
have drawn to make theseven
a parallelograai. With these sevenshapes H~s possible to make a surprising nmnber of different desigJI1s'j. a few ofwhicffil tangram set,
a.re shown On the following pages.  but firs,t ~et us .make a
You will need: papCCTabout 10em. square pen.:cil
scissor»
1 Fold opposite edges of your square: ofpapes together in. tumand open up. 1'11Ienfo~d each of the edges in turn t.othe. eentre creases and open up. Your paper (snow covenxl wj ill a pattern of sizteen Jirtfe :squares,. edge
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You know that these p~eces can be ~l!1.aced ogethel edge to ~ to form a square. Can you anan;g; them all ee lorm a triaRgle or a rectangle o.r a paf.iilldogra~.
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2 Draw the Iines as shown. You wiU see that~e~pt. for one instance, the lines nm from comer to corner of the little squares.
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15
2 a triangje
You result, Now various
may have, 'found othet'WllYS
of reaching the same . ' try arranging yOW" set of tangram pieces to :repre8ellt kinds of buildings.
Here is: m a low buHding with a sloping, roof
2 a bigb.e[ building 3 aparalfelogram'
'77
3 a Chin.ese pagoda
2 afish
3 a duck. ...
Perhaps yousllu!ceeded in making SOMeether .kind ofbuild.YOI!.I. can make ..
mg. Now see .how many kinds of animal
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4 ...
and a swan
Paper ball pllZZle
1. Use fairly stiff paper. such. as drawing paper. and cut out three discs, each with aradius ofaoo'llt Scm.
2 Draw a horjZQn.ta~~n,e through the centre of each. disc. Draw another line, t~hrougb the centreillt.righ~t angles to the first.
81
3 .Find theeerare of each of the four md!ia] lines.
5 Second dist::cutlhe horizontal! line fmmth.e outer edge to the two haIlw,a.y marks. Cut the vertieal .lime betw,eentne ha.lfway marks"
4 Cut each ohhe three; discs in a. diffeu!nt way . F~rshlisc; cut aJlong each line from the· outer edge to the balfw'ay mark,
6 Third diSC: CU( a~ong ooth horizontal betweentbe halfway marks.
8Bd
vertical tines
82
83
7
The three discs are now ready for assemhting. Ughtly fuld the top and bottom edges of the first disc towards each ot>het; try not to make a hea V'j crease,
Un the other side,•.open up the folds" smooth ou~tthe creases and arrange so' that the two discs clOSS each other right angles. 1:0 Lightly fold the near top edges back on. tbernselves,. Do the same behind. "
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at
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t8 Push the fold.~dpart of the first disc thnmgh the centre slit. of the second disc as far a'S it wi~1g().. U Now slip the t1ri~d. disc on to the other two; the folded flaps win pass througb the, crossed slits of the third disc. PMn dowmas tar as it will go.
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85
12
Open up thefolds aad smooth "the creases.
Box cube You win need; two .tqu.are.sof roloured paper (gwnmedis best)
SdSSOTS
glue (if paper is ungummed) 1
2
Fold one of the SqWFeS in half from top to boUom. Fold ill harf from ~eft to light.
11 2
13 You now haJv~a paper ball whic;h you: can present to YOIIIIT me.Rd's as a dtaUenge" See if tibey can find out bow to take it apart .. (Thjs. can be doae, of coarse, by fo11owing the, pn::vitmS steps ir! reverse, but if you have smootned out your creases well they may not realise that you.pul it together by fl.)1diing You may ~ike to make several QftheSie bans. decorate them. with colours and string theQl tQg.edle:r 10 .make a room
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eestaiaparts.)
decoration.
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N ow fold from top to bottom.; crease finnly and unfuld. Fold froQl left. to rig;ht;.crea:.se fi rm ~y:and unrfold. Ma~e sure that one of the open edges of the square, is nearest you I([Jot (Ule of the fulded edges) and cut along the crease, from the bQUO:Jnto the eemre, U:n.fo~d.
,6 7
Out a1long the 'oentre· creases to make four little squares. Take one of these squares ~ tum it plain. fie uncoloUired Or IIl1lJgmnrued) side up and ovedap two of its quarters, so that. ~ineBe meets 1ine AD. GlUI! in. place.
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N ow place one of your structmesin the other. Make sure the slit corners of one are placed against. the folded .."C',...",rd."_ of the other. G !!!Ie in place". 11 One box.Isoompl:eted. '
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12 Witb Y(lU[:seoond original sq1l3Ie of paper ~makeanother box. to provide a lid. When the two are firued together ynu • should have. . . 13 •.. a. perfect cube.
You now have a structure with three sides, Make three YOU;[ remaining little. squares. 9 Overlil!(p two so that four sides of a box are raised. Glue in place. Do the same with the other pair.
u] ore of these with
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8
89
14 Deccrate [allthe susfaces by ;stick~ngon cusoutpietures, paper shapes~ and you win have a container ~or buttons and pins, or paperoJips and rubber bands~ which migbt look well em a grown~!IlP's dres.singtable o!1'Qfficedesk.
{lir gummed
Frame, egg ami diamond. puzzle
You wi II.need: one she:elof,dr:awing pape,r (abo.~# scissors
pendl
mem x
25cm)
ruler
Fold the opposiee edges of 'the paper together lin turn; crease fi.rm1y and. open up .. 1 Cut along tlTIl.ecrease lines to divide the paper intothree pans marked A, II and C. 2 Piece A is shown folded In half with the, shorter edges t:oge:ri1Ier. old in half again from right to left, F
magazine; divide it into squares equal in size to ones:i:d.e of your cube; stick each square on to a
15
<1
CUlt. out
a prct:urenom
11
separate
baby brother or
cube and you win have a simple picturepuzde for a
sister to plWl~ogether,.
To make the p~zzle i~teTestiingYO!lil. will need to cut out sU differemlt pictures in dlisway. Divide each picture into six !little sq aares  one for every surface of each ,cure., .2
B
A
91
'*
3 Dra)V lines 1. Scm from the opeD edges. Cut along these lines; discard theshaded area an~ open up. You have an open rectaegte or frnme. Pl!lt~hi.s,aside IDr tbe moment,
7 You have an oval Or egg shape., Put this aside, with your frame for the moment.
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8 Piece C of your origina~ paper is sbownfolded in. balIwiilb. the .shorter edges ~oge(he:r. Fold in half .again from right to At top right. dlmW.3 nne O.75c01from the vertiqd fo1ded edge. Cut. OOWJ1thisfQT a distaaoe of at least 3cm.;. then. cut the 9 5 Piece 1Bof your orig;nal paper is shQwnIolded
left
the shorter edges together. Fold in halfagein
intiilal:fwith from right to
diagonal lines. Discard the shaded area and p~rtiany openwp.
left, 6 Cut a curvedliee as shown: At top' right., (;U~ a. slit kmtR length. Discard the shaded area and open. ~p.
c
B
5
95