# Puzzle: DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT

Each letter represents a distinct digit. What is the mapping
Solution (not necessarily unique):
c1 c2 c3 c4 c5
carries
D O N A L D
G E R A L D
---------------R O B E R T
Steps:
1. T is even ( D + D)
2. D >= 5 <=> c5 == 1
D <= 4 <=> c5 == 0
3. L >= 5 <=> c4 == 1
L <= 4 <=> c4 == 0
4. A >= 5 <=> c3 == 1
A <= 4 <=> c3 == 0
5. c5 == 1 <=> R is odd
c5 == 0 <=> R is even ( L + L)
R not 0 (because R and L cannot both be 0)
6. c4 == 1 <=> E is odd
c4 == 0 <=> E is even ( A + A)
E not 0 (because E and A cannot both be 0)
7. c2 == 0 <=> E == 0
c2 == 1 <=> E == 9 and c3 + N + R > 9
8. c1 + D + G <= 9 (no carry)
R <= D
R <= G
9. By (6) and (7), E must odd and hence 9.
By (7) it is either 0 or 9, but if it is 0, then it is even
and by (6) it cannot be even and 0.
==> c4 = 1, E = 9, c2 = 1
O is the last variable to be solved for - it can be anything
10. By (9): E == 9, c2 == 1
==> c1 = 1
11. By (9) and (8),
==> D + G <= 8
12. By (9): c4 == 1
==> L >= 5
13. By (9): c4 == 1, E == 9
==> A = 4 (A cannot be 9 because E is already 9)
==> c3 = 0
14. Three instance of R and of D. Make assumption.
Aside: simplified version of this puzzle gives clue "R is odd".
14a. R is odd ==> c5 == 1, D >= 5

Alternate branches not explored. 7. Assume two possible values for R from (17). . N >= 3. assume R == 7. 6. 9 ==> L = 8 21. B = 3 20. By (12): L >= 5. By (18). c5=1 15. Two assumptions (14) and (19) that led to a consistent solution. c5 == 1 : T == 0 <=> D == 5 T == 2 <=> D == 6 T == 4 <=> D == 7 : unavailable: (13): D == 4 T == 6 <=> D == 8 T == 8 <=> D == 9 : unavailable: (9): E == 9 c5 == 0 (not possibilities with the additional clue): T == 2 <=> D == 1 T == 4 <=> D == 2 : unavailable: (13): D == 4 T == 6 <=> D == 3 T == 8 <=> D == 4 : unavailable: (13): D == 4 Iterate through the possbilities: ==> D=5. First. c3 + N + R == B with carry c2 By (9): c2 == 1 By (13): c3 == 0 mod10(N + R) == 1 rem10(N + R) == B 19. By (14): D == 5 and (10): c1 == 1 ==> R == c1 + D + G == 1 + 5 + G ==> R == G + 6 16. R == R == R == R == 6 7 8 9 <=> <=> <=> <=> G G G G == == == == 0 1 2 3 17. T=0. By unavailable values: ==> O = 2 Done. and hence G == 1. Unavailable values: By (14): 0 By (9): 9 R == 7 <=> G == 1 R == 8 <=> G == 2 (invalidated by additional clue that "R is odd") 18. Unavailable values: 5.Choices sorted for this additional information. By (15). N == 3 <=> B == 0 : unavailable value (14) N == 4 unavailable value (13) N == 5 unavailable value (14) N == 6 <=> B == 3 N == 7 unavailable value (19) (value assumed here for R) N == 8 <=> B == 5 : unavailable value (14) N == 9 unavailable value (9) ==> N = 6.

1 c5: 14). 0 or 9 9). 1 c2: 9). 9 G: 19). 0 c1: 10).====================================================== Adding restrictions (sorted by variable): A: 13). not 0 19). 4 B: 19). 5 E: 7). 8 N: 19). 2 R: 5). 0 c4: 9). 1 c3: 13). 1 L: 12). >= 5 20). 7 T: 14). 3 D: 14). 1 ====================================================== Final assignment: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T G O B A D N R L E A B D E G L N O R T 4 3 5 9 1 8 6 2 7 0 . 6 O: 21).