An electromagnetic waves with frequencies that ranges from approximately 1 GHz to 300 GHz or more. And its wavelengths fall between 1cm and 60 cm. Offers tremendous bandwidth for communications and at least temporarily resolve the problem of spectrum crowding. (available for new radio services as well as for wide-bandwidth signals such as TV, multiplexed signals, or computer data.)

and heating. . space communications. Used primarily for telephone communications. radar. Other microwave applications include cable TV. The allocation of the RF spectrum is handled by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States. and satellite communications. radio astronomy.The RF spectrum below UHF is mostly already fully occupied leaving little or no room for the growth of new radio services.

Use of SSB signals ± only one sideband is used which cuts the spectrum usage in half Limiting the deviation of FM signals± helps to control the bandwidth Improved receiver selectivity ± phase-shift keying. data communications new modulation technique Multiplexing ± help put more signals in into a single channel .

expensive vacuum tubes are used for power amplification Line-of-sight transmission differences Excessive signal reflection and absorption . capacitors.More difficult to analyze Different measurement techniques Resistors. and inductors act like LCR circuits Conventional semiconductors do not work owing to internal capacitances and long transit time Special.

filters and even reactive components. it is constructed by using printed circuit boards (PCB¶s) or IC manufacturing techniques. Balanced transmission line is not used for microwaves because of radiation losses. Coaxial cable is not used because of its high attenuation. In microwave frequencies. . Can be used as tuned circuits.It is a means of carrying electromagnetic energy from one place to another.

Microstrip is a flat conductor separated from a large conducting ground plane by an insulating dielectric. .

Stripline is a flat conductor sandwiched between two ground planes. but it will not radiate as microstrip does. Both stripline and microstrip are widely used to form the tuned circuits used in microwave receiver front ends and in the low-power amplifier sections of transmitters . It is more difficult to make.

transmission line for . passing all frequencies above its cut-of frequency and rejecting those below it. The preferred microwaves.A hollow metal pipe with a circular or rectangular cross section used for carrying microwave signals from one place to another. Acts like a high-pass filter.

3 common methods: Probe: at an E-field maximum Loop: at an H-field maximum Hole: at an E-field maximum .

iFor a rectangular waveguide. it is 300/2a.The cutoff frequency fco of a waveguide depends upon its physical size. where a is the wide dimension of the waveguide in meters. 300 f co ! 2a .

the angles decrease and the path between the sides shortens. .High Frequency Medium Frequency Low Frequency Cut-off Frequency As the operating frequency gets lower.

.The microwave signal carried by a waveguide is made up of electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields that bounce off the walls of the waveguide as they propagate along its length.

A transverse electric (TE) mode is one where the electric field is transverse or perpendicular to the direction of propagation.The modes of a waveguide describe the various patterns of electric and magnetic fields that are possible. A transverse magnetic (TM) mode is one where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. .

. and special pieces are used for right-angle bends and 90° twists.Waveguides are available in standard lengths and sizes.

000.Half-wavelength sections of waveguides with shorted or closed ends are known as resonant cavities since they "ring" or oscillate at the frequency determined by their dimensions. They have a Q of up to 30. Cavity resonators are metallic chambers of various shapes and sizes that are used as parallel-tuned circuits and filters. .

Point-contact diode ± perhaps the oldest microwave semiconductor device Schottky or hot-carrier diodes ± has a metal semiconductor junction .

.Point-contact and Schottky or hotcarrier diodes are widely used as mixers in microwave equipment as they have low capacitance and inductance. Varactor diodes are widely used as microwave frequency multipliers. Multiplication factors of 2 and 3 are common with power levels up to 20 Wand efficiencies up to 80 percent.

stripline or resonant cavity. simple low power oscillators with frequencies up to 50 GHz are easily implemented. A Gunn diode is a microwave semiconductor device used to generate microwave energy.Step-recovery or snap-off diodes are also widely used as frequency multipliers with multiplication factors up to 10. and efficiencies approaching 80 percent. When combined with a microstrip. power ratings up to 50 W. .

Both IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes are GaAs devices operated with high reverse bias to produce avalanche breakdown. Both are used in microwave oscillators. Tunnel diode is another negative resistance diode. It is used to produce low-power microwave oscillators. .

A klystron is a microwave vacuum tube using cavity resonators to produce velocity modulation of the electron beam and produce amplification. .

A single-cavity reflex klystron is used as a microwave oscillator. .Klystrons are available which produce from a few to many thousands of watts. Klystrons are being gradually replaced by Gunn diodes and traveling-wave tubes.

In a magnetron. a strong magnetic field creates circular paths of electron flow to excite cavities into oscillation.A magnetron is a diode vacuum tube used as a microwave oscillator in radar and microwave ovens to produce powers up to the megawatt range. .

.A traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a microwave power amplifier with very wide bandwidth. A microwave signal applied to a helix around the TWT produces velocity and density modulation of the electron beam over a long distance which induces a higher-power signal in the helix.

which is essentially a rectangular waveguide with a flared end. A sectoral horn flares in only one dimension. A pyramidal horn flares in both waveguide dimensions.The most commonly used microwave antenna is the horn. . A conical horn flares in a circular guide.

Horn antennas are directional and produce a beam width in the 10° to 60° range with a gain in the 10-to 20-dB range. The gain and directivity of a horn is a direct function of its various dimensions. depending upon dimensions. The length of a typical horn is computed by the following formula : 300 P! f .

The horizontal beam width of a pyramidal horn may be computed with the simple expression: 80 B! w/P Its gain can be computed by: 4TKA G! P2 .

The parabolic reflector usually has a diameter that is no less than 10 wavelengths at the operating frequency.A parabolic or dish-shaped reflector is used with most microwave antennas to focus the RF energy into a narrow beam and increase gain. .

its gain and beam width can be computed by the following formulas: ¨D¸ G ! 6© ¹ 2 ©P¹ ª º 58 B! D/P .14piR2. Given an area A=3.The gain and directivity of a parabolic reflector antenna is directly proportional to its diameter.

The latter is known as Cassegrain feed. It is fed with coax and is backed up with a reflector. .Parabolic reflector antennas are fed by placing a horn antenna at the focal point or by placing the horn at the center of the reflector and placing a small reflector at the focal point. A helical antenna is made up of six to eight turns of heavy wire or tubing to form a coil or helix.

. The polarization may be right-hand or left-hand depending upon the direction in which the helix is wound.to 20-dB range and a beam width in the 12° to 45° range. Helical antennas produce circular polarization where the electric and magnetic fields rotate.Helical antennas are used at UHF and microwave frequencies and have a gain in the 12.

Helical antennas can receive either vertically or horizontally polarized signals but can only receive a circularly polarized signal of the same direction. . A popular omnidirectional microwave antenna is the bicone.

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