Mazlin Ghazali and Mohd. Peter Davis email@example.com
Copyright June 2003 - September 2004
TESSELLATION PLANNING Fly over the country and you will see rows and rows of houses. Is there another way to lay out buildings? We present here a new method of subdividing land for housing that, we believe, produces better social, environmental and aesthetic outcomes, but in a way that uses land more efficiently. It was conceived as a practical and economic substitute to the terrace house, but it can also be seen to be an alternative to row housing and the linear approach to planning.
Honeycomb housing: Creating communities in harmony with nature; designing homes in a naturally efficient way
Conventional row housing and the linear approach to planning Dwellings can be arranged on individual plots of land as detached units or linked to each other. Detached or linked they line up along streets to form row housing. In a row house, owners of individual plots of landed property maintain sole occupancy rights. Orthogonal grids have been used as the fundamental tool for subdividing land. Linear roads provide roads to individually owned plots of land. Roads and gridlines may be distorted by design or necessity but retains their linear nature.
Gridlines and the linear approach
Terrace housing Terrace housing has been long been considered the densest form of landed property development possible. Not only in Malaysia but all over the world. Here in Malaysia it is the terrace house that predominates. The typical lot varies from 16’ x 50’ to 24’ x 100’, but the most common lots now are between 20’ x 65’ and 22’ x 70’. The ubiquitous terrace house plan has been designed and redesigned many times but always within the same restrictive framework without much scope for innovation. The layout also has become stereotyped. In the typical housing estate, the terrace houses are lined up along grid-lines with 40’ service roads in front with much smaller back lanes and side lanes. Communal areas for schools, civic and religions building as well as open areas for children playgrounds and parks are also provided. Despite the infrastructure provided, the design of many housing estates does really meet the practical needs of the average resident. Apart from the aesthetic boredom of rows and rows of houses, among the drawbacks of the terrace house layout is the lack of public security and a genuine sense of community. 1
Current alternatives to terrace housing Trying to improve the monotony of housing in rows, planners have devised various strategies: Strata-title development Groups of houses share ownership of the communal facilities allowing greater freedom in designing the access routes and common facilities allowing high densities. The Desa Park Homes development is an example of this type of approach. It is able to achieve as good densities as a conventional terrace house layout. However, strata- titles are not considered as valuable as land titles.
Organic Layouts Following the trend from more developed countries, local planners have devised ”organic” layouts where winding roads and occasional cul-de-sacs break the boredom of the iron grid, but density is sacrificed. A Guthrie development at Bukit Jelutong is an example of this trend. But the houses there cost RM500,000 or more. ClusteredLayouts Similarly the cluster approach can produce interesting outcomes but, in most cases, loses out on efficiency. The circular clustering of houses at Brondby near Copenhagen in Denmark shows a wide expanse of green area between the clusters.
De sa Par k
Honeycomb housing Using the tessellation method of planning, all the houses are built around small parks with large shade trees in hexagonal cul-desacs, which efficiently interlock to form townships similar to a bees’ honeycomb.
Tessellation In mathematics, to tessellate means to cover a plane with a pattern without gaps or overlap. For centuries artists and craftsmen have used tessellations as a tool to create visual effects on surfaces. Tiling is the most common form of tessellation. Regular tessellations occur when the tiles are regular polygons and they are the simplest form The Muslim craftsmen in Spain in the 15th century created beautifully complex visual effects by tessellating a small simple basic tile pattern. Intricate and complex designs can be built-up from basic tile patterns in a simple way by this process. We apply this creative mathematical technique to town–planning. In Honeycomb housing, the creative power of tessellation is applied to town planning, where the colours are not merely decorative but represent functional space.
Segments of the tile A small triangular tile, the mother-tile, is the basic building block that creates the honeycomb layout. It contains three requisite elements of a township layout: road House & garden Public area We call these colored segments, daughter-tiles. The mother-tiles and close variations of it tessellate according to simple rules to form what seems a complex and intricate pattern. When tessellating, daughter-tiles meet and link up with similar ones in adjoining tiles. The same colored daughter tiles form conjoined-tiles. It is the complex shapes of these interlocking daughter tiles that we see: not the simplicity of the triangular grid. Conjoined house/garden tiles form the basis of new house types. Linked Honeycomb houses ideally join back to back and are accessed from different cul-de-sacs. This is the case of the duplex and triplex. But they can also link side to side at the same time, as in the case of the quadruplex and sextuplex.
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Designing the courtyard tile A courtyard tile containing the planning elements necessary to form a small community is created by tessellating the mother-tiles to form a hexagon. Communal space is created in the middle, surrounded by the houses. The road accesses the individual units internally and creates an extremely efficient circulation system. Through design, we have created a spatial boundary, a central area that can become the communal focus, and a sense of entry into this place. The design is such that there is a clear, common perception of the cluster as a ‘homezone’, a UK term denoting the smallest neighbourhood.
Designing bigger neighbourhoods When the courtyard tile is tessellated, the roads are linked to create a bigger neighbourhood without loss of efficiency. Opportunities to link dwelling units into multi-unit blocks exist along the tile boundaries.
Social aspect of Honeycomb housing Using the tessellation method of planning, houses are built around a small park with large shady trees in a cul-de-sac: this communal garden, easily accessible to all, acts as a social focus for a small, friendly neighbourhood and is a defensible space designed to naturally reduce crime. The short winding roads reduce traffic speed so that urban areas become safe and pleasant for children and pedestrians, encouraging outdoor social interaction and the development of a community. Cars versus pedestrians Planners have long realized the negative effect of fast moving traffic to neighbourhoods.
Radburn in New Jersey, built over 70 years ago in the US, is the prototype for the separation of pedestrians from traffic. Delft in the Netherlands, built in the 1960’s, is one of the first examples where the roads are designed with trafficcalming features to slow down vehicles.2 In Honeycomb Housing the network of roads comprises looping cul-desacs and short connecting roads leading to distributor roads. This road pattern slows down traffic naturally rendering it safe for pedestrians. The short connecting road with no access to houses provides space for visitors’ parking.e-sacs and short connecting roads leading to distributor roads
Defensible Space The issue of public security in residential areas is a hot current topic. The concept of Defensible Space3 with hierarchy of private space, semi-private space and public space, after 30 years, is already widely accepted. Residents must be allowed to exercise influence over the environment just outside their homes: visitors should know when they are entering a semiprivate domain. Environmental design can assist in providing natural surveillance of the external spaces. The Honeycomb layout can be seen as a technique to design townships where every house lies in a cul-de-sac which naturally produces defensible spaces. Furthermore it completely eliminates back-lanes from where 70% of break-ins in Malaysia originate.4
Creating Communities The outdoor space between buildings is an important arena for social interaction. Social contact and spontaneous interaction are important building blocks towards creating a sense of community. The creation of a safe, pleasant and shady area of suitable size, just outside the home, is a basic feature of Honeycomb housing. The central courtyard becomes the social focus of the neighbourhood. In this location it is accessible to all to enjoy, the very young, the old and the disabled. Sociologists find that individuals relate better to small groups rather than large In Honeycomb housing the neighbourhood contains only 5 to 40 units defined clearly by the single access road and the communal courtyards. It is easier to recognize each other, to get acquainted, to form informal social groups and to initiate collective action.
Play areas for small children Play is an important arena for learning. In the growing up process, the child becomes more and more independent of the parent, exploring first the spaces around the mother and progressing to other rooms in the house, the front yard and so on. The opportunity for exploring new environment is best presented in small discreet steps so that children can explore them at their own pace. 5 The growing up process of the kampong childhood that Lat,s cartoons vividly describe is now just a memory for city dwellers. The problem with the typical Malaysian situation is that the process of exploring new territory independent of the parent stops at the front gate. Beyond that is not considered safe. When he is finally old enough to go out unaccompanied by an adult it is too big a transition. The space outside the home, easily overseen by parents should be made conducive to play and the growing up process. Play areas with football fields some minutes away from the home do not serve this function.
The Environmental aspect of Honeycomb housing Tessellation planning makes undulating land suitable for high-density landed property development with less cut and fill. Big trees in the cul-desacs provide cooling shade; they also serve as source of food and habitat for small birds and animals. Sloping sites To build long rows of terrace houses cheaply require hills to be cut and streams to be filled. Honeycomb link units have compact footprints that allow more level changes to be placed between the block. In this respect their shape is very much like big detached houses, and it is evident from existing that the typical developer flattens large expanses of land for his terrace houses, but lets the bungalows go up and down to better suit the original contours.
Bringing nature into townships The road shoulder with its cables and pipes are not suitable for trees: but big shady species can thrive in the small communal gardens of fhoneycomb Housing. The clearing of trees to create concrete jungles are the main contribution to the heatisland effect. Maximizing the tree canopy area is the strategy used in Honeycomb housing to minimise the heat island effect. With the profusion of big trees, small trees and shrubs, we can start thinking of landscaping not only in terms of beautifying the environment but as a source of food and habitat for small animals. Linking the small islands of green via the footpath landscaping and the private gardens will encourage biological diversity. Wildlife technology to be developed further by UPM will introduce suitable species of butterflies, birds and small mammals to make the Honeycomb Township its home.6
Aesthetic Aspect Tessellation planning allows new townships to break free from the mental grid-lock that produces rigid rows of housing without any cost penalty. To most architects, designing yet another terrace house is a boring chore. Honeycomb housing with its novel house types represents a new refreshing challenge for architects. They lead to new house types with wider, more articulated frontages; where linked units like the duplex and triplex give the impression of being detached units viewed from the entrance of each house. The quadruplex and sextuplex give the impression of being semi-detached units. These new forms give architects more room for creativity.
A strong sense of location The home is often the family’s biggest investment: its resale value is affected most by its location. A home in a private and exclusive location, set in mature and lush landscape, and within a nice friendly neighbourhood will fetch higher resale values. Hierarchy of roads It is very easy to get totally lost when looking for a house in the typical Malaysian township.
Make one wrong turn and it is easy to compound this error with other mistakes which takes you further and further away from where we actually want to go.
Using the tessellation method, we can adopt a strategy to make it easy for people to navigate the streets and not to have to worry about getting lost.
Hierarchy of roads In the example shown, there is one main entrance road which leads to a circular road which dominates the 50 acre site. Jalan 1 leads to Lekok 2 and Lingkaran 3. These are the distribution roads. The houses are in the cul-de-sacs which are accessed from these main roads. Along Lingkaran 3 branch out Desa 1/3, Desa 2/3, Desa 3/3 and so on. From Lekok 2 we can get to Lekok1/2. The fact that the smaller roads do not connect to other small roads means that if we make a wrong turn into one of them, we go out the way we came. Miss a turning on the circular road, and we just have to keep going until we get back to the junction again. Errors are not compounded. The system is self correcting.
Apartments Tessellation planning can also be applied to the layout of apartments, where the units cluster around the central lobby of each block and the blocks, in turn, are arrayed around a central courtyard which contains the driveway, car parks and a central garden.
The Economic Aspect of Honeycomb housing The terrace house can be seen as a row of houses surrounded by roads. In contrast, Honeycomb houses surround the road. It is easy to understand intuitively that roads accessing internally are more efficient than roads accessing units from the external boundary. This accounts for the efficiency of cul-desacs.
Given a fixed area and number of houses to access, the shorter the cul-de-sac, the less the area taken up by the road. A square cul-de-sac neighbourhood has less road area than a long rectangular one. The circular one by itself would be the most efficient. However, as we have seen from the example from Brondby, Denmark, the circle does not tessellate. The hexagonal neighbourhoods interlock each other without gap or overlap.
The second consideration is the length of the distribution roads that encircle a precinct. The perimeter of an hexagonal precinct is 7% shorter than the perimeter of a square one. The third factor is the shape of the individual lot and its effect on the Buildable footprint after taking into setback requirements. In the example shown, the truncated triangle shape of 6000 square feet yields a higher plinth area compared to a typical 60 feet x 100 feet site. Notice how the improvement in plinth area accompanies a considerable aesthetic improvement. From narrow frontage to wide
REDUCING ROADS AND IMPROVING LAND-USE EFFICIENCY The basic neighbourhood comprising 5 and 16 units of quadriplexes and duplexes is compared with a terrace house arrangement of an equivalent 5 and16 units of terrace houses. It is demonstrated in the table below that the honeycomb layout is more land-use efficient. A similar comparison between 2 and 8 units of detached units of terrace and Honeycomb layouts respectively comes to the same conclusion. Comparisons of private and public green areas, and of potential tree canopy areas also yielded interesting results.
TERRACE HOUSING Showing 288 houses Low-medium cost d/s 1200sf, 18’ frontage 3 bedrooms
HONEYCOMB HOUSING Showing 258 houses Low-medium cost d/s 1200sf 3 Bedrooms
Proof of concept They gave out questionnaires Presenting our ideas to various people in the housing industry, we after a 15 minute explanation at our booth,. find that most warm to our ideas. From 116 respondents 79% However, doubts are often agreed that they expressed as to whether others in ‘liked to live in a tessellation the industry or consumers can housing scheme’. From 69 accept this radically new concept. members of the Housing Furthermore, many also are Developers who responded to a skeptical about our claims on the questionnaire given out after a improvement in land-use efficiency, 60 minute presentation, 78% and expect such ‘complicated’ agreed to the statement that layouts to be more expensive. ‘tessellation layouts are Certainly, we agree that our claims desirable’. on the cost savings are counter intuitive. Consumer and industry surveys Reaction to Honeycomb housing has been tested through surveys. UPM undertook a targeted consumer survey at an exhibition of houses for sale. Another survey on attendees of a seminar on ‘Lightweight Steel for Residential Construction’ yielded similar results.
Mathematical model Distances and areas of a Tessellation Layout and an equivalent Terrace Layout were expressed in terms of variables x, y, etc. Using formulae from the Pythagoras Theorem and the Solution to Quadratic Equations, a mathematical model of the two alternatives was built up. We then track how land-use efficiency and density vary as a range of buildable footprint areas of the two alternatives are input. We were able to prove that Tessellation layouts reduce the total area of roads, thereby resulting in more saleable land, and lowering infrastructural cost. We also showed that densities can be improved.
Quadratic Equations: Ax2+Bx+C Pythagoras Theorem: C2=A2+B2
Land-use efficiency and density By varying the inputs we can see the result on the outputs and capture this on a graph. We can show that within practical limits, the sextuplex in a honeycomb layout is always more land-use efficient and dense than the terrace house Infrastructure By going through the same process with the length of service mains we found big reductions in the quantity of roads and drains. We found some increase in the cost of sewerage but overall, there is a substantial reduction in Infrastructure costs.
IT aspect and prototype software The industry-standard method of designing housing layout is largely an intuitive process. The design and drawing of a housing layout is required before a feasibility study can be done and the first solution is very unlikely to be satisfactory. The search for an optimal solution involves a lot of hard work with multiple iterations between layout drawings and feasibility studies and is often not fully done. By contrast, the tessellation method of planning involves geometrical manipulation that can be captured by mathematical formulae and a set of algorithms that can be programmed.
Proposed systematic computer-aided process Thus, a key feature of the tessellation method of planning is the fact that it makes possible an application software that can rapidly produce a feasibility model that can handle what-if questions to reach an optimal layout proposal. A further capability is the almost automatic production of a drawing of that layout. There is no similar software in the market that provides these capabilities based on the conventional method of design. The application software described may become a compelling alternative to the current slow and laborious intuitive method.
Using the mathematical model and employing a set of algorithms, and partly funded by Malaysian Venture Capital Bhd, we have produced: • A prototype of software that can rapidly produce a feasibility model that is able to handle what-if questions to reach an optimal layout proposal without drawing a layout plan first. Density and percentage sellable land are calculated based on the mathematical model. • AUTOCAD add-on tools that simplify and speed-up the drawing of tessellation layout. Our near term objective is to be able to produce a preliminary feasibility study during an hourlong consultation, followed by a detailed tessellation housing layout 6 hours later.
400 ACRE PLOT 9 PUNCAK ALAM
Projects From case studies and using the feasibility planner, we are able to show developers that they are able to improve their sales revenue from the increase in sellable land and units, and reduce their costs by cutting down the amount of roads and drains to be constructed. We are already working as consultants on real sites to realize the first tessellation developments. . Puncak Alam We are working on the layout of a 400 acre mixed development site north of Shah Alam. The proposal includes low and low medium cost apartments, medium to high medium cost attached housing, industrial and commercial properties and the full range of amenities that make up a township.
Universiti Industri Selangor This is a prototype tessellation layout applied to student housing in Berjuntai Bestari, Selangor. Five storey walk-up apartments for 5000 students are laid out on a hexagonal and pentagonal grid creating the cul-de-sac courtyards. The construction work is already 80% complete and CF is expected by February 2005 before the students move in.
Grobina We are working on an 8 acre site in Durian Tunggal, Melaka for medium cost housing.
Research and Development Tessellation Planning can be seen to be an invention and we have taken steps to apply for patents in Malaysia and Australia. The breakthrough came over a year ago after eight years of working on the concept of generic designs for housing. Since then, we have not only worked hard on rapidly commercializing the invention, but have also spent considerable resources in exploring the more long term possibilities. An important feature is the collaboration between UPM and Arkitek M. Ghazali. Peter Davis, Visiting Scientist at the Institute of Advanced Technology is working on finding solutions to the problems of rapid urbanization in developing countries.
The successful urbanization of the Malaysian population has become an inspiration to other developing countries. In just two generations the rural society has been transformed into a predominantly urban society providing vastly improved incomes, health, nutrition, housing and education. However there have been negative side effects to rapid urbanization. But these side effects are not inevitable. Our current work can help improve the urbanization process in Malaysia and other developing countries. Apart from R&D work in the core field of tessellation planning, further research in complementary fields like thermal comfort technology, wild-life technology, and building systems are already under way.
The combination of these mature and emerging technologies have strong appeal as evidenced by data from the surveys mentioned above. The response to the question on the desirability of “thermal comfort honeycomb housing” from all three surveys have been almost unanimous!
The next step We believe that there are commercially feasible technological solutions that can improve the homes and townships we live in. We want to spread our new ideas to as many people as possible so that these ideas can be put into practice. We will be offering to license our proprietary knowledge to town-planners at very low fees. When our software becomes a reality, they will be made available at affordable prices.
TESSELLATION PLANNING AND HONEYCOMB HOUSING Mazlin Ghazali and Mohd. Peter Davis Copyright June 2003 - September 2004
REFERENCES. 1. Encyclopedia of Malaysia Vol 5 Architecture, Chen Voon Fee ed. 2. Jan Gehl “Life Between Buildings” (1971) 3. Oscar Newman “Defensible Space” (1972). 4. M Y Abas & I N Sugianto “Break Ins Malaysian Houses” Silpakorn Architectural Discourse 2004 5. John & Elizabeth Newson “Four Years Old in an Urban Community (1968) 6. Thermal Comfort Honeycomb Housing for Hot Climates by Mohd Peter Davis et al presented at the Commonwealth Association of Planners Conference, 7th July, 2004 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY All drawings and illustrations are the copyright of Arkitek M. Ghazali except: • Housing in Ireland, Mexico and Denmark from “The Earth from the Air” by Yann Arthus- Bertrand 2003 • Illustrations on page 11 from “Defensible Space” by Oscar Newman 1972 • Cartoons on page 13 from “Kampong Boy – Then and Now” by Lat 2002 • TESSELLATION PLANNING is the subject of patent applications lodged in Australia in January, 2004 and in Malaysia in July,2004 • “HONEYCOMB” and “TESSELLAR” are trademarks • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Credits Tessellar Sdn Bhd Michael James Durack, Centre for Thermal Comfort Studies Nor Azian Nordin
Arkitek M. Ghazali Mohd. Erwan Othman, Teo Ling Ling, How Peak Yen, Mohd. Hairi Jamaluddin, Erwan Sulaiman, Norhaslinda Mohd. Nor, Ong Lay Poh
We thank MALAYSIAN VENTURE CAPITAL BHD, BLUESCOPE MALAYSIA SDN BHD and ROXUL ASIA SDN BHD for their financial support