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Saudi Aramco Manual-construction+Safety

Saudi Aramco Manual-construction+Safety

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Published by: bobjuan84 on Feb 29, 2012
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11/02/2013

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Sections

  • I. Administration
  • 1.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM
  • 1.1 Loss Prevention Policy Implementation
  • 1.1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements
  • 1.1.2 Operating Standards and Instructions
  • 1.1.3 Personal Protection
  • 1.1.4 Inspection
  • 1.1.5 Education and Training
  • 1.1.6 Motivation and Recognition
  • 1.1.7 Job Placement
  • 1.1.8 Response to Accidental Occurrences
  • 1.1.9 Contractor Safety
  • 1.1.10 Off-The-Job Safety
  • 1.1.11 Traffic Safety
  • 1.1.12 Accountability
  • 1.1.13 Compliance Reviews
  • 1.2 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors
  • 1.2.1 Non-Compliance
  • 1.2.2 Assistance
  • 1.2.3 Standards and Instructions
  • 1.3 Contractor's Loss Prevention Program
  • 1.3.1 Written Program
  • 1.3.2 Hazard Identification Plan
  • 1.3.3 Safety Supervisor
  • 1.3.4 Safety Discussion
  • 2.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES
  • 2.1 Loss Prevention Program
  • 2.2 Program Management Services
  • 2.3 Program Maintenance Services
  • 3.0 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  • 3.1 Reports Required by Saudi Aramco
  • 3.2 Accident Investigation
  • 3.2.1 Responsibilities for Investigation
  • 3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative
  • 3.2.1.2 Project Manager
  • 3.3 Cases to be Investigated
  • 3.4 Accident Investigation Guidelines
  • 3.5 Accident Analysis
  • 3.5.1 Classification
  • 4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY
  • 4.1 Contractor Senior Management
  • 4.2 Design Engineer
  • 4.3 Contractor's Safety Officer
  • 4.4 Construction Manager/Superintendent
  • 4.5 Site Safety Supervisor
  • 4.6 Equipment Manager/Supervisor
  • 4.7 Engineer/Supervisor
  • 4.8 Foreman
  • 4.9 Worker
  • 5.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
  • 5.1 Action to be Taken
  • 5.2 Contact After Office Hours
  • 5.3 Help in an Emergency
  • 6.0 SAFETY TRAINING
  • 6.1 Safety Training for Supervisors
  • 6.2 Safety Training for Workmen
  • 6.2.1 Integrated Practices
  • 6.2.3 Use of Persuasion
  • 6.2.4 Course Requirements
  • 6.3 Scope of Training
  • 6.3.1 Safety Training Topics For Supervisors
  • 7.0 SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING
  • 7.1 Initial Planning
  • 7.1.1 Hazard Identification Plan
  • 7.1.2 Loss Prevention Program
  • 7.1.3 Protection of Employees and Equipment
  • 7.1.4 Transportation
  • 7.1.5 Lifting Equipment
  • 7.1.6 Demolition
  • 7.1.7 Excavations
  • 7.1.8 Scaffolding
  • 7.2 Site Layout
  • 7.2.1 Site Accommodation
  • 7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads
  • 7.2.3 Project Sign
  • 7.2.4 Safe Means of Access and Egress
  • 7.2.5 Parking Facilities
  • 7.2.6 Drainage
  • 7.2.8 Sand
  • 7.2.9 Fire Prevention
  • 7.2.10 Site Illumination
  • 7.3 Storage Areas
  • 7.4 Welfare Facilities
  • 7.5 Good Housekeeping
  • 7.6 Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards
  • 8.0 FIRST AID
  • 8.1 Provision of First Aid Facilities
  • 8.2 First Aid Attendants
  • 8.3 First Aid Facilities At Work Site
  • 8.4 Labor And Workmen Law
  • 9.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • 9.1 Head Protection
  • 9.2 Eye and Face Protection
  • 9.2.1 Eye Protection from Impact
  • 9.2.2 Eye Protection from Radiant Energies
  • 9.2.3 Face Protection
  • 9.3 Hand Protection
  • 9.4 Foot Protection
  • 9.5 Hearing Protection
  • 9.5.1 Ear Plugs
  • 9.5.2 Ear Muffs
  • 9.6 Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices
  • 10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS
  • 10.1 Selection of Equipment
  • 10.1.1 Requirements For Use
  • 10.1.2 Misuse
  • 10.1.3 Hazardous Substances
  • 10.1.4 Contaminants
  • 10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices
  • 10.2.1 Air Purifying Respirators
  • 10.2.1.1 Gas Masks
  • 10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators
  • 10.2.1.3 Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators)
  • 10.2.2 Supplied Air Respirators
  • 10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators
  • 10.2.2.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators
  • 10.2.2.3 Air Supplied Suits
  • 10.2.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
  • 10.3 Training
  • 10.4 Safety Precautions
  • 10.4.1 Air Compressors
  • 11.0 FIRE PREVENTION
  • 11.1 Before the Job Starts
  • 11.2 Layout
  • 11.3 Equipment Protection
  • 11.4 Control of Ignition Sources
  • 11.5.1 Storage
  • 11.5.3 Ventilation
  • 11.6 Combustible Materials
  • 11.7 Housekeeping
  • 11.8 Emergency Equipment
  • 11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher
  • 11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher
  • 11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher
  • 11.8.4 Pressurized Water
  • 11.9 Reporting a Fire
  • 11.10 End-of-Shift Checks
  • 12.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
  • 12.1 Equipment
  • 12.1.1 Remote Control Unit
  • 12.2 Safe Operation
  • 12.3 Radio Phrases
  • 12.4 Phonetic Alphabet
  • 12.5 International Communications Union Agreement
  • 12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits
  • 12.5.2 Secrecy Act
  • 12.5.3 Penalties
  • 12.6 Message Priorities for Company Operations
  • 12.7 Distress Messages
  • 12.7.1 MAYDAY
  • 12.7.2 Urgency Signal
  • 12.7.3 Priority Traffic
  • 13.0 TRANSPORTATION
  • 13.1 Driver Requirements
  • 13.2 Driver's Responsibilities
  • 13.4 Vehicle Condition
  • 13.5 Driver Training
  • 13.6 Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices
  • 13.7 Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident
  • 13.7.1 Emergencies
  • 13.7.2 Remain at Scene
  • 13.8 Passenger Seating and Seat Belts
  • 13.9 Desert Driving
  • 13.9.1 Stay With Vehicle
  • 13.9.2 Sand Tires
  • 13.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas
  • 13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities
  • 13.11.1 Seat Belts
  • 13.11.2 Traffic Regulations
  • 14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION
  • 14.1 General Operating Responsibilities
  • 14.1.1 Captain/Pilot
  • 14.1.2 Camp Supervisors
  • 14.2 Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)
  • 14.3 Transportation of Dangerous Goods
  • 14.4 Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters
  • 14.5 General Precautions for Helicopters
  • 14.5.1 Life Vests
  • II. General And Civil
  • 1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM
  • 1.1 Definitions
  • 1.1.1 Restricted Areas
  • 1.1.2 Issuer (Operation Supervisors)
  • 1.1.3 Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen)
  • 1.1.4 Work Permit
  • 1.2 Issuance and Approval
  • 1.2.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances
  • 1.3 Precautions
  • 1.3.1 Checklist
  • 1.3.2 Clear Area
  • 1.4 Handling of Issued Work Permit
  • 1.5 Closing Out and Filing the Permit
  • 1.6 Certification
  • 1.7 12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure
  • 1.8 Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts
  • 2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING
  • 2.1 Before Work Starts
  • 2.2 Work Permit
  • 2.2.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables
  • 2.3 Underground Obstructions
  • 2.4 General Precautions
  • 2.4.1 Shoring Protective Systems
  • 2.4.2 Personnel Protection
  • 2.4.3 Inspection
  • 2.4.4 Clearance
  • 2.4.5 Mechanical Excavator
  • 2.4.6 Walkways
  • 2.5 Access and Egress
  • 2.6 Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials
  • 2.6.1.1 Hazardous Atmospheres
  • 2.6.1.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment
  • 2.6.2 Exhaust Gases
  • 2.7 Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting
  • 2.8 Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks
  • 2.9 Backfilling
  • 3.0 DEMOLITION
  • 3.1 Before Work Starts
  • 3.1.1 Responsible Supervisor
  • 3.1.2 Original Drawings
  • 3.1.3 Disconnections
  • 3.1.4 Adjacent Structures and Public Areas
  • 3.1.5 Barricades/Signs
  • 3.2 Method of Demolition
  • 3.3 Stability During Demolition
  • 3.4 Working Place Clearance
  • 3.4.1 Access
  • 3.4.2 Glass Removal
  • 3.5 Structural Steel Removal
  • 3.6 Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention)
  • 3.6.1 Welding and Hot Cutting
  • 3.6.2 Cold Cutting
  • 3.6.3 Steaming and Ventilation
  • 3.7 Protective Clothing and Equipment
  • 3.8 Mechanical Equipment Guards
  • 4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS
  • 4.1 Types of Asbestos
  • 4.2 Health Risks
  • 4.3 Before Work Starts
  • 4.3.1 Air Sampling
  • 4.3.2 Job Details
  • 4.3.3 Chest X-rays
  • 4.4 Storage and Transportation
  • 4.5 Work Area
  • 4.6 Handling and Use
  • 4.6.1 Wetting/Ventilation
  • 4.6.2 Cutting
  • 4.6.3 Protective Equipment
  • 4.7 Protective Clothing
  • 4.7.1 Types
  • 4.7.2 Contamination
  • 4.7.3 Review
  • 4.8 Respiratory Equipment
  • 4.8.1 Type
  • 4.8.2 Use
  • 4.8.3 Care
  • 4.9 Washing and Changing Facilities
  • 4.10 Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing
  • 4.11 Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment
  • 5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING
  • 5.1 Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use
  • 5.1.1 Gases
  • 5.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders
  • 5.1.3 Storage Of Cylinders
  • 5.1.4 Handling of Cylinders
  • 5.1.5 Inspecting Equipment
  • 5.1.6 Faults
  • 5.1.7 Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds
  • 5.2 Electric Arc Welding
  • 5.2.1 Voltage
  • 5.2.2 Welding Connections
  • 5.3 Protective Measures
  • 5.4 Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums
  • 5.5 Confined Spaces
  • 5.6 Personnel Protection
  • 5.7 Health Hazards
  • 5.7.1 Radiant Energy
  • 5.7.2 Respiratory Effects
  • 6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
  • 7.0 PILING OPERATIONS
  • 7.1 Before Work Starts
  • 7.1.1 Cranes
  • 7.1.2 Pile Gates
  • 7.1.3 Inspection
  • 7.1.4 Wedges
  • 7.1.5 Timber Block
  • 7.1.6 Ground Support
  • 7.2 Driving Piles
  • 7.2.1 Pitching
  • 7.2.2 Driving
  • 7.3 Pile Extraction
  • 7.4 General Precautions
  • 8.0 ROADWORKS
  • 8.1 General
  • 9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING
  • 9.1 Working Places, General
  • 9.1.1 Falls
  • 9.1.2 Access and Egress
  • 9.1.3 Lighting
  • 9.1.4 Prevention of Falls
  • 9.1.5 Ramps
  • 9.1.6 Falling Material
  • 9.1.7 Hot Surfaces
  • 9.1.8 Slipping and Tripping
  • 9.1.9 Roof Work
  • 9.1.10 Insecure Structures
  • 9.1.11 Work Over Water
  • 9.2 Ladders and Stepladders
  • 9.2.1 Selection
  • 9.2.2 Condition
  • 9.2.3 Position
  • 9.2.4 Use
  • 9.2.5 Stepladders
  • 9.2.6 General
  • 9.3 Scaffolding Components
  • 9.4.3 Runners
  • 9.4.4 Bearers
  • 9.4.5 Board Bearers
  • 9.4.6 Bracing
  • 9.4.7 Ties
  • 9.4.8 Platform Units
  • 9.4.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards
  • 9.4.10 Access
  • 9.4.11 Scaffold Ladders
  • 9.4.12 Workmanship
  • 9.4.13 Inspections
  • 9.5 Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding
  • 9.6 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
  • 9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold
  • 9.6.2 Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
  • 9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions
  • 9.6.2.2 Platform
  • 9.6.2.3 Limitations
  • 9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold
  • 9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions
  • 9.6.3.2 Platform
  • 9.6.3.3 Limitations
  • 9.6.3.4 Bearers
  • 9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
  • 9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions
  • 9.6.4.2 Platform
  • 9.6.4.3 Limitations
  • 9.6.4.4 Bearers
  • 9.7 Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds
  • 9.7.1 General Requirements
  • 9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions
  • 9.7.3 Runners and Bearers
  • 9.7.4 Bracing
  • 9.7.5 Ties
  • 9.7.6 Platform
  • 9.7.7 Access
  • 9.7.8 Limitations
  • 9.8 Mobile Tower Scaffolds
  • 9.8.1 Foundations
  • 9.8.2 Operation
  • 9.8.3 Limitations
  • 9.9 Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels
  • 9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds
  • 9.10 Special Scaffolds
  • 9.11 Scaffold Terminology
  • 10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS
  • 10.1 Hand Tools, General
  • 10.1.1 Quality
  • 10.1.2 Cleanliness
  • 10.1.3 Repair and Storage
  • 10.1.4 Selection
  • 10.1.5 Electrical Risks
  • 10.2 Individual Hand Tools, Precautions
  • 10.2.1 Screwdrivers
  • 10.2.2 Hammer
  • 10.2.3 Chisels
  • 10.2.4 Picks and Shovels
  • 10.2.5 Spanners and Wrenches
  • 10.2.6 Pipe Wrenches
  • 10.2.7 Pliers
  • 10.2.8 Jacks
  • 10.2.9 Hacksaws
  • 10.2.10 Hand saws
  • 10.3 Power Tools, General
  • 10.3.1 Quality
  • 10.3.2 Repair and Storage
  • 10.4 Pneumatic Tools
  • 10.4.1 General
  • 10.4.2 Individual Tools, Precautions
  • 10.4.2.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers
  • 10.4.2.2 Rock Drill
  • 10.4.2.3 Grinding Machine
  • 10.5 Cartridge Operated Tools
  • 10.5.1 General
  • 10.5.2 Storage
  • 10.5.3 Selection and Training of Personnel
  • 10.5.4 Personal Protective Equipment
  • 10.5.5 Issue and Returns
  • 10.5.6 Work Permits
  • 10.5.7 Use
  • 10.5.8 Maintenance and Repair
  • 10.6 Electrically Operated Tools
  • 10.6.1 General
  • 10.6.2 Maintenance and Storage
  • 10.6.3 Personal Protective Equipment
  • 10.6.4 Individual Tools, Precautions
  • 10.6.4.1 Grinders
  • 10.6.4.2 Drills
  • 10.6.4.3 Saws
  • 11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS
  • 11.1 Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials
  • 11.1.1 Flammable Materials
  • 11.1.2 Flash Point (Definition)
  • 11.1.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition)
  • 11.1.4 Fire Precautions
  • 11.2 Health Hazards Associated With Paints
  • 11.2.1 Toxic Materials
  • 11.2.2 Dermatitic Materials
  • 11.2.3 Prevention of Health Hazards
  • 11.3 Ventilation in Confined Spaces
  • 11.4 Surface Preparation
  • 11.4.1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning
  • 11.4.2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning
  • 11.4.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning
  • 11.4.4 Chemical Cleaning
  • 11.4.5 General Safety in Surface Preparation
  • 11.5 Personal Protective Equipment
  • 11.6 Paint Application
  • 11.6.1 Paint Materials
  • 11.6.2 General Safety In Paint Application
  • 11.7 Scaffolding and Ladders
  • 11.8 Tarring Operations
  • 11.9 General Safety for Paints and Coatings
  • 12.1 General
  • 12.2 Reinforcing Steel
  • 12.3 Bulk Concrete Handling
  • 12.4 Concrete Placement
  • 12.4.1 Concrete Mixers
  • 12.4.2 Guardrails
  • 12.4.3 Bull Floats
  • 12.4.4 Powered Concrete Trowels
  • 12.4.5 Concrete Buggies
  • 12.4.6 Pumpcrete Systems
  • 12.4.7 Concrete Buckets
  • 12.4.8 Discharging on Slope
  • 12.4.9 Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter
  • 12.4.10 Pneumatic Hose
  • 12.5 Vertical Shoring
  • 12.5.1 General Requirements
  • 12.5.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring
  • 12.6 Forms and Shoring
  • 12.6.1 General Provisions
  • 12.6.2 Vertical Slip Forms
  • 12.6.3 Tube and Coupler Shoring
  • 12.6.4 Single Post Shores
  • III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials
  • 1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT
  • 1.1 Competent Person
  • 1.2 Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)
  • 1.3 Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications
  • 1.4 Special Crane Operating Procedures
  • 1.5 Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations
  • 1.6 Overhead Power Lines
  • 2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING)
  • 2.1. Safe Working Load (SWL)
  • 2.2. Chain Slings
  • 2.2.1 Grades
  • 2.2.2 Repairs
  • 2.3 Wire Rope Slings
  • 2.4 Synthetic Webbing Slings
  • 2.4.1 Removal from Service
  • 2.4.2 Repaired Slings
  • 2.5 Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings
  • 2.6 Care of Slings
  • 2.7 Hooks
  • 2.8 Spreader Bars
  • 2.9 Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings
  • 2.10 Shackles
  • 2.11 Rigger
  • 3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
  • 3.1 Operators
  • 3.1.1 Qualifications
  • 3.1.2 Licensing Requirements
  • 3.2 Machinery Guards
  • 3.2.1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings
  • 3.3 General Requirements
  • 3.4 Compressors
  • 3.5 Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants
  • 3.6 Dumpers and Dump Trucks
  • 3.7 Excavators
  • 3.8 Fork Lift Trucks
  • 3.9 Generators
  • 3.10 Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders
  • 3.11 Woodworking Machinery
  • 4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING
  • 4.1 Planning
  • 4.2 Machine Transport
  • 4.2.1 Dumpers
  • 4.2.2 Tractors and Trailers
  • 4.2.3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails
  • 4.2.4 Concrete Pumps
  • 4.3 Site Stores
  • 4.4 Manual Handling
  • IV. Electrical And Radiation
  • 1.0 ELECTRICITY
  • 1.1 Voltage
  • 1.2 Temporary Installations
  • 1.3 Hand Tools and Lighting
  • 1.4 Work on Live Equipment
  • 1.5 Overhead and Underground Cables
  • 1.6 Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution
  • 1.6.1 Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations
  • 1.6.2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment
  • 1.6.3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid
  • 1.6.4 Night Work
  • 1.6.5 Work Near/Over Water
  • 1.6.6 Hydraulic Fluids
  • 1.6.7 Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks)
  • 1.6.8 Material Handling
  • 1.6.8.1 Unloading
  • 1.6.8.2 Pole Hauling
  • 1.6.8.3 Storage
  • 1.6.8.4 Framing
  • 1.6.8.5 Attaching the Load
  • 1.6.9 Grounding for Protection of Workers
  • 1.6.9.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing
  • 1.6.9.3 Grounding Distance
  • 1.6.9.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes
  • 1.6.9.5 Grounding Electrode
  • 1.6.10 Overhead Lines
  • 1.6.10.1 Metal Tower Construction
  • 1.6.10.2 Stringing/Removing De-energized Conductors
  • 1.6.10.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines
  • 1.6.11 Underground Lines
  • 1.6.11.1 Work in Manholes
  • 1.6.11.2 Trenching and Excavating
  • 1.6.12 Construction in Energized Substations
  • 1.6.12.1 Barricades and Barriers
  • 1.6.12.2 Control Panels
  • 1.6.12.3 Mechanized Equipment
  • 1.6.12.4 Substation Fences
  • 1.7 Electric Shock
  • 2.0 IONIZING RADIATION
  • 2.1 Methods of Protection Against Radiation
  • 2.1.1 Distance
  • 2.1.2 Time
  • 2.1.3 Shielding
  • 2.2 Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits
  • 2.2.1 Radiation Workers
  • 2.2.2 Non-Radiation Workers
  • 2.2.3 Exposure Limits
  • 2.3 Responsibilities for Safe Handling
  • 2.3.1 Contractor
  • 2.3.2 Competent Person
  • 2.3.3. Radiographer
  • 2.4 Shipping and Transportation
  • 2.5 Storage Areas
  • V. Chemicals And Operations
  • 1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES
  • 1.1 General
  • 1.2 Storage
  • 1.3 Handling of Cylinders
  • 1.4 Leakage
  • 1.5 Transportation
  • 1.6 Operation
  • 1.7 Action in Case of Fire
  • 1.8 Bulk Installations
  • 1.9 First Aid
  • 2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS
  • 2.1.1 General Instruction Manual
  • 2.1.2 Producing Instruction Manual
  • 2.1.3 Refinery Instruction Manual
  • 2.1.4 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
  • 2.2 Work Permit System
  • 2.3 Operation of Plant Equipment
  • 2.4 Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations
  • 2.5 Commissioning
  • 2.6 Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan
  • 2.6.1 Gas Release Emergency Procedures
  • 3.0 PRESSURE TESTING
  • 3.1 Preparation
  • 3.1.1 SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing)
  • 3.1.2 Supports
  • 3.1.3 Vents and Drains
  • 3.1.4 Valves
  • 3.1.5 Pipings And Joints
  • 3.1.6 Vacuums
  • 3.2 General Requirements
  • 3.3 Test Liquid
  • 4.0 CHEMICALS
  • 4.1 Hazard Identification System
  • 4.2 Health Hazards
  • 4.2.1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard
  • 4.2.2 Skin Hazards
  • 4.2.3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals
  • 4.3 Emergency Treatment
  • 4.3.1 Artificial Respiration
  • 4.3.2 First Aid
  • 4.3.3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains
  • 4.4 Fire Hazards
  • 4.5 Reactivity Hazards
  • 4.6 Transportation, Storage and Disposal
  • 4.6.1 Transportation
  • 4.6.2 Storage
  • 4.6.3 Containers
  • 4.6.4 Disposal
  • 4.7.1 Introduction
  • 4.7.2 Precautions
  • VI. Marine
  • 1.0 COFFERDAMS
  • 1.1 Design
  • 1.2 Before Work Starts
  • 1.3 Construction
  • 1.4 Potential Hazards
  • 1.4.1 Structural Collapse
  • 1.4.2 Overhead Loads
  • 1.4.3 Dislodgment of Struts and Wales
  • 1.5 Inspection
  • 1.6 Leaks
  • 2.0 MARINE OPERATIONS
  • 2.1 Other Publications
  • 2.2 General
  • 2.3 Behavior on Floating Craft
  • 2.4 Preparation for Transportation by Sea
  • 2.5 Tide and Sea Effects
  • 2.6 Care of Tools and Equipment
  • 2.7 Housekeeping
  • 3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS
  • 3.1 Employment of Qualified Divers
  • 3.2 Diving Equipment
  • 3.2.1 Compressors
  • 3.2.2 Reserve Air Supply
  • 3.2.3 Bail-Out Equipment
  • 3.2.4 Maintenance
  • 3.3 Safeguards
  • 3.4 Physical Fitness
  • 3.5 Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities
  • 3.5.1 Sports Divers
  • 3.5.2 Commercial Divers
  • 3.5.3 Coordinator, Diving Emergencies
  • 3.5.4 Diving Medical Team
  • 3.5.5 Marine Department
  • 3.6 Personnel Transfer at Sea
  • Appendix A
  • INDEX TO APPENDIX A
  • A.2 CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF COMPETITION
  • A.3 SAUDI ARAMCO SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
  • 1. Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D'
  • 2. Deviations From Safety Rules
  • 3. Failure To Comply
  • 4. Saudi Aramco Assistance
  • 5. Loss Prevention Program
  • 6. Work Permits
  • 7. Welding And Cutting Equipment
  • 8. Personal Protective Equipment
  • 9. Tools And Portable Power Tools
  • 11. Ladders
  • 12. Scaffolding
  • 13. Electrical Installations And Equipment
  • 14. Cranes And Rigging Equipment
  • 15. Mechanical Equipment
  • 16. Saudi Aramco Plant Operations
  • 17. Transportation
  • 18. Injury And Damage Reporting
  • 19. Excavations
  • 20. Work Over Or Adjacent To Water
  • 21. Fire Prevention
  • 22. Formwork
  • 23. Ionizing Radiation
  • 24. First-Aid Facilities
  • 26. Explosives
  • 27. Sandblasting
  • A.4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP)
  • HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN:
  • II. List Potential Hazards
  • III. Hazard Classification
  • IV. Corrective Action
  • B.1 SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES
  • B.2 EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE
  • B.2.1 General Provisions
  • B.2.2 Definitions
  • B.2.3 Plan Development Action Items
  • C.1 FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS STORE YARD
  • D.1 CRANE SAFETY HANDBOOK
  • IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE - GI 151.006
  • GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS (GI) MASTER INDEX
  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • LIST OF TABLES
  • Appendix K: Forms
  • PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT:

SAUDI ARAMCO CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANUAL PREFACE

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia February, 1993 The purpose of the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual (CSM) is to prevent injury, loss of life, and damage to assets. This is the fourth revision of the CSM. Since its 1974 introduction, the Construction Safety Manual has provided safety criteria for all construction work performed by Saudi Aramco and its contractors. Many of the requirements in this manual detail the need for Saudi Aramco services or equipment. Where references indicate that certain equipment (fall protection, safety shoes, etc.) should be provided or services rendered (bio-monitoring, etc.), the intent is that contractors must provide equivalent equipment or services (as approved by Saudi Aramco) from their own resources. The construction industry functions in a dynamically changing work environment in which updating of equipment and standards is a continuous process resulting from changes in operating variables, regulatory requirements, and safety practices. Although this manual has been updated to reflect the latest Saudi Aramco and construction industry practices, as time goes on there may be a need to consider new procedures, standards, or operating conditions. Such new developments, including potential conflicts with existing provisions, should be referred to the Loss Prevention Department for resolution. The Loss Prevention Department will issue interim revisions or updates where appropriate. Good loss prevention is an integral part of good project management. For our projects and maintenance programs to proceed safely, all Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel involved in construction activities, whether management or line employees, need to understand and follow the provisions in this Manual. Only with the active commitment of everyone can we ensure that Saudi Aramco maintains the safest possible work environment.

Senior Vice President, Engineering and Project Management

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Table of Contents

Page 1

I. Administration.................................................................................30
1.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM......................................31 1.1 Loss Prevention Policy Implementation.................................................................31 1.1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements .......................................31 1.1.2 Operating Standards and Instructions.....................................................31 1.1.3 Personal Protection.....................................................................................31 1.1.4 Inspection ....................................................................................................31 1.1.5 Education and Training..............................................................................32 1.1.6 Motivation and Recognition .....................................................................32 1.1.7 Job Placement ..............................................................................................32 1.1.8 Response to Accidental Occurrences......................................................32 1.1.9 Contractor Safety ........................................................................................32 1.1.10 Off-The-Job Safety......................................................................................32 1.1.11 Traffic Safety................................................................................................32 1.1.12 Accountability.............................................................................................33 1.1.13 Compliance Reviews ...................................................................................33 1.2 Saudi Aramco Loss Preve ntion Requirements For Contractors.......................33 1.2.1 Non-Compliance..........................................................................................33 1.2.2 Assistance....................................................................................................33 1.2.3 Standards and Instructions .......................................................................34 1.3 Contractor's Loss Prevention Program.................................................................34 1.3.1 Written Program..........................................................................................34 1.3.2 Hazard Identification Plan..........................................................................35 1.3.3 Safety Supervisor........................................................................................35 1.3.4 Safety Discussion .......................................................................................35 2.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES ....................................36 2.1 Loss Prevention Program.........................................................................................36 2.2 Program Management Services ..............................................................................37 2.3 Program Maintenance Services ..............................................................................38 3.0 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING..............................................39 3.1 Reports Required by Saudi Aramco........................................................................39 3.2 Accident Investigation ...............................................................................................40 3.2.1 Responsibilities for Investigation.............................................................40 3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative............................................40 3.2.1.2 Project Manager..........................................................................40 3.3 Cases to be Investigated.............................................................................................41 3.4 Accident Investigation Guidelines...........................................................................41 3.5 Accident Analysis ....................................................................................................41 3.5.1 Classification................................................................................................41 4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY...............................................................................................45 4.1 Contractor Senior Management..............................................................................45 4.2 Design Engineer.........................................................................................................45 4.3 Contractor's Safety Officer......................................................................................45 4.4 Construction Manager/Superintendent.................................................................46 4.5 Site Safety Supervisor ...............................................................................................47 4.6 Equipment Manager/Supervisor ..............................................................................47 4.7 Engineer/Supervisor..................................................................................................47

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

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4.8 4.9

Foreman........................................................................................................................47 Worker.........................................................................................................................48

5.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .........................................................................................................49 5.1 Action to be Taken......................................................................................................49 5.2 Contact After Office Hours ......................................................................................49 5.3 Help in an Emergency................................................................................................49 6.0 SAFETY TRAINING...........................................................................................................................51 6.1 Safety Training for Supervisors..............................................................................51 6.2 Safety Training for Workmen.................................................................................51 6.2.1 Integrated Practices ....................................................................................51 6.2.2 Specialized Training....................................................................................52 6.2.3 Use of Persuasion .......................................................................................52 6.2.4 Course Requirements..................................................................................52 6.3 Scope of Training .......................................................................................................53 6.3.1 Safety Training Topics For Supervisors..................................................54 6.3.2 Induction Safety Topics For Workmen ...................................................55 7.0 SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING.....................................................................................57 7.1 Initial Planning ...........................................................................................................57 7.1.1 Hazard Identification Plan..........................................................................57 7.1.2 Loss Prevention Program...........................................................................58 7.1.3 Protection of Employees and Equipment.................................................58 7.1.4 Transportation.............................................................................................58 7.1.5 Lifting Equipment........................................................................................58 7.1.6 Demolition ....................................................................................................58 7.1.7 Excavations ..................................................................................................58 7.1.8 Scaffolding ...................................................................................................58 7.2 Site Layout...................................................................................................................59 7.2.1 Site Accommodation...................................................................................59 7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads ...........................................................................59 7.2.3 Project Sign ..................................................................................................59 7.2.4 Safe Means of Access and Egress ...........................................................60 7.2.5 Parking Facilities..........................................................................................60 7.2.6 Drainage........................................................................................................60 7.2.7 Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths..............................................................................................................60 7.2.8 Sand...............................................................................................................60 7.2.9 Fire Prevention.............................................................................................60 7.2.10 Site Illumination...........................................................................................60 7.3 Storage Areas .............................................................................................................60 7.4 Welfare Facilities.......................................................................................................61 7.5 Good Housekeeping....................................................................................................61 7.6 Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards ................................................62 8.0 FIRST AID ...........................................................................................................................................65 8.1 Provision of First Aid Facilities...............................................................................65 8.2 First Aid Attendants...................................................................................................66 8.3 First Aid Facilities At Work Site............................................................................67 8.4 Labor And Workmen Law.........................................................................................69

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 3

9.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.....................................................................................71 9.1 Head Protection...........................................................................................................72 9.2 Eye and Face Protection.............................................................................................72 9.2.1 Eye Protection from Impact........................................................................73 9.2.2 Eye Protection from Radiant Energies......................................................73 9.2.3 Face Protection............................................................................................73 9.3 Hand Protection ..........................................................................................................73 9.4 Foot Protection............................................................................................................73 9.5 Hearing Protection.....................................................................................................74 9.5.1 Ear Plugs.......................................................................................................74 9.5.2 Ear Muffs ......................................................................................................74 9.6 Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices .......................................................................74 10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS .........................................................................................................81 10.1 Selection of Equipment ..............................................................................................81 10.1.1 Requirements For Use................................................................................82 10.1.2 Misuse ..........................................................................................................82 10.1.3 Hazardous Substances ...............................................................................83 10.1.4 Contaminants ...............................................................................................83 10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices................................................................................83 10.2.1 Air Purifying Respirators ...........................................................................83 10.2.1.1 Gas Masks ....................................................................................83 10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators .................................................84 10.2.1.3 Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators)....................84 10.2.2 Supplied Air Respirators ............................................................................84 10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators ....................................................................84 10.2.2.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators ..................................................85 10.2.2.3 Air Supplied Suits .......................................................................85 10.2.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA).........................................85 10.3 Training .......................................................................................................................86 10.4 Safety Precautions .....................................................................................................86 10.4.1 Air Compressors..........................................................................................86 FIRE PREVENTION.......................................................................................................................89 11.1 Before the Job Starts .................................................................................................89 11.2 Layout ...........................................................................................................................90 11.3 Equipment Protection.................................................................................................90 11.4 Control of Ignition Sources ......................................................................................91 11.5 Flammable Liquids 91 11.5.1 Storage..........................................................................................................91 11.5.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids.................................................................92 11.5.3 Ventilation ....................................................................................................92 11.6 Combustible Materials ..............................................................................................92 11.7 Housekeeping..............................................................................................................92 11.8 Emergency Equipment ...............................................................................................92 11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher...................................................................93 11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher...........................................................93 11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher...............................................................93 11.8.4 Pressurized Water.......................................................................................93 11.9 Reporting a Fire..........................................................................................................94 11.10 End-of-Shift Checks...................................................................................................94

11.0

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 4

12.0

RADIO COMMUNICATIONS .....................................................................................................96 12.1 Equipment.....................................................................................................................97 12.1.1 Remote Control Unit ...................................................................................97 12.2 Safe Operation ............................................................................................................97 12.3 Radio Phrases .............................................................................................................97 12.4 Phonetic Alphabet.......................................................................................................98 12.5 International Communications Union Agreement ...............................................99 12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits ................................................................................100 12.5.2 Secrecy Act..................................................................................................100 12.5.3 Penalties........................................................................................................100 12.6 Message Priorities for Company Operations .......................................................100 12.7 Distress Messages .....................................................................................................102 12.7.1 MAYDAY.....................................................................................................102 12.7.2 Urgency Signal............................................................................................103 12.7.3 Priority Traffic ..............................................................................................104

13.0 TRANSPORTATION ......................................................................................................................105 13.1 Driver Requirements .................................................................................................105 13.2 Driver's Responsibilities ..........................................................................................105 13.3 Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco.........................................................................................................................107 13.4 Vehicle Condition.......................................................................................................107 13.5 Driver Training ..........................................................................................................109 13.6 Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices ..................................................................109 13.7 Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident...........................110 13.7.1 Emergencies .................................................................................................110 13.7.2 Remain at Scene...........................................................................................110 13.8 Passenger Seating and Seat Belts ..........................................................................111 13.9 Desert Driving ............................................................................................................111 13.9.1 Stay With Vehicle........................................................................................111 13.9.2 Sand Tires.....................................................................................................111 13.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas................................................................112 13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities ..................112 13.11.1 Seat Belts ......................................................................................................112 13.11.2 Traffic Regulations......................................................................................112 14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION...............................................................................................................113 14.1 General Operating Responsibilities .......................................................................113 14.1.1 Captain/Pilot.................................................................................................113 14.1.2 Camp Supervisors .......................................................................................113 14.2 Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)......................114 14.3 Transportation of Dangerous Goods .......................................................................115 14.4 Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters .............................................115 14.5 General Precautions for Helicopters......................................................................115 14.5.1 Life Vests ......................................................................................................115

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 5

II. General And Civil...........................................................................116
1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM................................................................................................................117 1.1 Definitions ...................................................................................................................117 1.1.1 Restricted Areas ..........................................................................................117 1.1.2 Issuer (Operation Supervisors).................................................................118 1.1.3 Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen)..............................................................118 1.1.4 Work Permit..................................................................................................118 1.2 Issuance and Approval ...............................................................................................118 1.2.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances ............................................119 1.3 Precautions..................................................................................................................119 1.3.1 Checklist.......................................................................................................119 1.3.2 Clear Area.....................................................................................................119 1.3.3 Work Stoppage............................................................................................110 1.4 Handling of Issued Work Permit............................................................................119 1.5 Closing Out and Filing the Permit..........................................................................120 1.6 Certification ................................................................................................................120 1.7 12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure ....................................................................120 1.8 Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts............................................................................120 2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING.........................................................................125 2.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................128 2.2 Work Permit...............................................................................................................128 2.2.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables................................................128 2.3 Underground Obstructions.......................................................................................129 2.4 General Precautions ..................................................................................................129 2.4.1 Shoring Protective Systems .......................................................................129 2.4.2 Personnel Protection...................................................................................129 2.4.3 Inspection.....................................................................................................130 2.4.4 Clearance ......................................................................................................130 2.4.5 Mechanical Excavator.................................................................................130 2.4.6 Walkways.....................................................................................................130 2.5 Access and Egress......................................................................................................130 2.6 Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials .................................................................130 2.6.1 Ventilation 101 2.6.1.1 Hazardous Atmospheres............................................................131 2.6.1.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment..................................................131 2.6.2 Exhaust Gases ..............................................................................................131 2.6.3 Organic Lead................................................................................................131 2.7 Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting......................................................132 2.8 Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks .................................................................................132 2.9 Backfilling...................................................................................................................132 2.10 Borrow Pits..................................................................................................................133 3.0 DEMOLITION .....................................................................................................................................153 3.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................154 3.1.1 Responsible Supervisor.............................................................................154 3.1.2 Original Drawings........................................................................................154 3.1.3 Disconnections............................................................................................154 3.1.4 Adjacent Structures and Public Areas.....................................................154 3.1.5 Barricades/Signs..........................................................................................154

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 6

3.2

3.3 3.4

3.5 3.6

3.7 3.8

Method of Demolition.................................................................................................154 3.2.1 Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (ASKAREL).................................................................................155 3.2.2 Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials .......................................................................................................155 Stability During Demolition.....................................................................................155 Working Place Clearance........................................................................................155 3.4.1 Access ..........................................................................................................155 3.4.2 Glass Removal..............................................................................................155 Structural Steel Removal..........................................................................................155 Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention)......................................156 3.6.1 Welding and Hot Cutting...........................................................................156 3.6.2 Cold Cutting.................................................................................................156 3.6.3 Steaming and Ventilation ...........................................................................156 3.6.4 Residue Cleaning.........................................................................................166 Protective Clothing and Equipment.........................................................................156 Mechanical Equipment Guards ................................................................................157

4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS.................................................................................................158 4.1 Types of Asbestos .......................................................................................................158 4.2 Health Risks................................................................................................................158 4.3 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................159 4.3.1 Air Sampling.................................................................................................159 4.3.2 Job Details ....................................................................................................159 4.3.3 Chest X-rays ................................................................................................159 4.4 Storage and Transportation......................................................................................159 4.5 Work Area...................................................................................................................160 4.6 Handling and Use........................................................................................................160 4.6.1 Wetting/Ventilation ....................................................................................160 4.6.2 Cutting ..........................................................................................................160 4.6.3 Protective Equipment..................................................................................160 4.7 Protective Clothing ....................................................................................................160 4.7.1 Types ............................................................................................................160 4.7.2 Contamination..............................................................................................161 4.7.3 Review...........................................................................................................161 4.8 Respiratory Equipment..............................................................................................161 4.8.1 Type ..............................................................................................................161 4.8.2 Use.................................................................................................................161 4.8.3 Care................................................................................................................161 4.9 Washing and Changing Facilities...........................................................................161 4.10 Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing..................................................162 4.11 Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment ..........................................................162 5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING.........................................................................................163 5.1 Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use...............................................163 5.1.1 Gases .............................................................................................................163 5.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders .........................................................................164 5.1.3 Storage Of Cylinders..................................................................................164 5.1.4 Handling of Cylinders.................................................................................165 5.1.5 Inspecting Equipment.................................................................................166 5.1.6 Faults.............................................................................................................167 5.1.7 Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds...............................................................169

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 7

5.2

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

Electric Arc Welding.................................................................................................169 5.2.1 Voltage..........................................................................................................169 5.2.2 Welding Connections.................................................................................169 Protective Measures ..................................................................................................171 Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums .............................................173 Confined Spaces..........................................................................................................173 Personnel Protection.................................................................................................173 Health Hazards ............................................................................................................174 5.7.1 Radiant Energy ............................................................................................174 5.7.2 Respiratory Effects......................................................................................174

6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS ...............................................................................................................176 7.0 PILING OPERATIONS......................................................................................................................177 7.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................177 7.1.1 Cranes ...........................................................................................................178 7.1.2 Pile Gates ......................................................................................................178 7.1.3 Inspection.....................................................................................................178 7.1.4 Wedges .........................................................................................................178 7.1.5 Timber Block................................................................................................178 7.1.6 Ground Support ...........................................................................................179 7.2 Driving Piles ...............................................................................................................179 7.2.1 Pitching.........................................................................................................179 7.2.2 Driving ..........................................................................................................179 7.3 Pile Extraction.............................................................................................................179 7.4 General Precautions ..................................................................................................180 8.0 ROADWORKS ...................................................................................................................................181 8.1 General .........................................................................................................................181 8.2 Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance Traffic Controls........................................................................................................................182 9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING..........................................................183 9.1 Working Places, General .........................................................................................184 9.1.1 Falls ...............................................................................................................184 9.1.2 Access and Egress......................................................................................184 9.1.3 Lighting.........................................................................................................184 9.1.4 Prevention of Falls ......................................................................................184 9.1.5 Ramps............................................................................................................184 9.1.6 Falling Material............................................................................................185 9.1.7 Hot Surfaces.................................................................................................185 9.1.8 Slipping and Tripping.................................................................................185 9.1.9 Roof Work....................................................................................................185 9.1.10 Insecure Structures .....................................................................................185 9.1.11 Work Over Water........................................................................................186 9.2 Ladders and Stepladders ...........................................................................................186 9.2.1 Selection .......................................................................................................186 9.2.2 Condition......................................................................................................187 9.2.3 Position.........................................................................................................187 9.2.4 Use.................................................................................................................188 9.2.5 Stepladders...................................................................................................190 9.2.6 General..........................................................................................................190

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

Page 8

9.3 9.4

9.5 9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9 9.10 9.11

Scaffolding Components............................................................................................191 Requirements Common to All Scaffoldi ng ............................................................195 9.4.1 Foundations .................................................................................................195 9.4.2 Posts ..............................................................................................................195 9.4.3 Runners.........................................................................................................197 9.4.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................................197 9.4.5 Board Bearers...............................................................................................197 9.4.6 Bracing..........................................................................................................198 9.4.7 Ties ................................................................................................................198 9.4.8 Platform Units ..............................................................................................199 9.4.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards............................................................200 9.4.10 Access ..........................................................................................................200 9.4.11 Scaffold Ladders..........................................................................................200 9.4.11.1 Portable Straight and Extension Ladders.................................200 9.4.11.2 Vertical Ladder.............................................................................200 9.4.12 Workmanship...............................................................................................202 9.4.13 Inspections...................................................................................................202 Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding .............................................202 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ......................................................................................204 9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold ........................................................................204 9.6.2 Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds..................................................204 9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................204 9.6.2.2 Platform.........................................................................................204 9.6.2.3 Limitations....................................................................................205 9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold ..............................................205 9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions............................................205 9.6.3.2 Platform.........................................................................................205 9.6.3.3 Limitations....................................................................................205 9.6.3.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................206 9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ...............................................206 9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................206 9.6.4.2 Platform.........................................................................................206 9.6.4.3 Limitations....................................................................................206 9.6.4.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................206 Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds ................................................................................207 9.7.1 General Requirements .................................................................................207 9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................................207 9.7.3 Runners and Bearers...................................................................................207 9.7.4 Bracing..........................................................................................................207 9.7.5 Ties ................................................................................................................207 9.7.6 Platform.........................................................................................................208 9.7.7 Access ..........................................................................................................208 9.7.8 Limitations....................................................................................................208 Mobile Tower Scaffolds .............................................................................................208 9.8.1 Foundations .................................................................................................208 9.8.2 Operation......................................................................................................208 9.8.3 Limitations....................................................................................................209 Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels .............................................................................209 9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds.........................................................................................209 Special Scaffolds .........................................................................................................210 Scaffold Terminology.................................................................................................210

February 1993 - Table Of Contents

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..222 10.............................1................. General..............................3 Chisels ................................231 10.............4..........235 10...........................................................4..........................................3................................232 10...........................5..............4.................221 10.................................................................................................232 10........................................1.........3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition).....250 11...................................224 10.................3 Grinding Machine.................226 10.....2 Hammer..........................................................224 10...............................................................................................................2................................5 Issue and Returns .......................................2....222 10.................225 10. Precautions ...............................................................................................1............................223 10......................237 10...........................................................222 10......................2...................................2.............................3 Power Tools........................4.....................................................222 10.......2..........5..................1 General.................................................................................5 Spanners and Wrenches ..................4...............2 Cleanliness .........................236 10....2.........................6 Work Permits.................7 Use.......................3 Selection and Training of Personnel.......250 11........................2................................................231 10......................236 10.........................................5...........................1..1 Flammable Materials .............237 10............ Precautions...1 General.......2....................................5 Electrical Risks ..............................232 10....251 February 1993 ............222 10...................5 Cartridge Operated Tools ...223 10...4 Fire Precautions................................................225 10..............................................................6........................2 Maintenance and Storage..............................10 Hand saws .......................................4 Pneumatic Tools ................................................1...236 10.224 10....................................................................................1....................................................................................................................225 10...6...5......2 Storage..........................................6.....................................................................235 10.225 10............4.............5..................................................1 Quality......6 Pipe Wrenches.............222 10..........2........................................................................1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers..4 Picks and Shovels ......250 11..........................................................0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS........................................................5.........................4............6.....2 Rock Drill ...................5......2 Repair and Storage.........224 10......1 Hand Tools...........................................................6.........................................................4 Selection ......................................................................................................................................225 10.....5.......250 11................ Precautions ..........222 10...................................2 Individual Hand Tools.........................6..............................224 10............3 Repair and Storage...........................................2 Drills .........222 10..7 Pliers ...............................3.....................................................1........... General......Table Of Contents Page 10 ..........................1.....8 Maintenance and Repair .....................................................................................................................................4..........236 10....1 Screwdrivers.............1.2.............................................................................................................................2.....1 Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials.....231 10....................9 Hacksaws.........234 10.........4 Radial Saws ..................226 10...................................250 11..................................2 Flash Point (Definition).............................................................................................1 Grinders.......3 Personal Protective Equipment .....2......................0 PAINTS AND COATINGS .......................1 Quality....................231 10....................8 Jacks ...3 Saws ...................................224 10.......223 10.....................................223 10....1 General.............................................................................................................................................................................................2....223 10.............................................6...............................232 10.......................................6 Electrically Operated Tools ..................................................................2 Individual Tools.................237 11........................................................4 Individual Tools.................................................................6...................10....................................................................................................4 Personal Protective Equipment ..................4..........

................................................................................................................3 Prevention of Health Hazards.......................................................................................................................................................259 12.................................263 12.......................................................................................4.......................... Truck Spotter...6...........................................................10 Pneumatic Hose....................1 Toxic Materials .....Table Of Contents Page 11 ......5 Concrete Buggies ..........259 General Safety for Paints and Coatings...........9 Back-Up Man....5.......................265 12..............................4..............................................262 12.................................263 12..2 11............................262 12..............................................256 Paint Application .4 11...............................................259 Tarring Operations......258 Scaffolding and Ladders ......................................................................................................................... CONCRETE FORMS........................4 Chemical Cleaning........................4..............6...................................6.....................4........................2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning...................................................................................263 12..................3 Bull Floats....................................262 12......4.........252 Ventilation in Confined Spaces.......................5 11......................2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring........................1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning...................0 CONCRETE...........................................................1 Paint Materials .4 Concrete Placement...............................5.................................259 12.............263 12.........................................................253 11...7 Concrete Buckets ......2 Guardrails ............251 11.........2 General Safety In Paint Application ........258 11.....4..............................................................................................................3 11...............................................2.........................................263 12..............................................4...263 12..6..3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning ...............................................254 11...........4 Single Post Shores ...............8 Discharging on Slope ..........................................................................2 Vertical Slip Forms .264 12......264 12..........................266 February 1993 ........................................................................................................................2..6.......................4.............................................................3 Bulk Concrete Handling ..........................................254 11...............................4..............262 12....................................................1 Concrete Mixers.......255 11................................2 Dermatitic Materials ................................264 12.............8 11.......263 12........................265 12.............................................................................................4...255 Personal Protective Equipment.....................................263 12................................................................251 11......4.....2......252 Surface Preparation.....262 12.......4 Powered Concrete Trowels ........................................................................263 12............................................4...........................6 11.....................................1 General ..........................................................6............1 General Provisions ..................................................................................6 Pumpcrete Systems .............................................................................................................6 Forms and Shoring...........................262 12............ AND SHORING.......2 Reinforcing Steel ....254 11..258 11........................................................262 12..3 Tube and Coupler Shoring..........................................5 General Safety in Surface Preparation.......................5 Vertical Shoring............4.............................................................11......7 11..............................................1 General Requirements .4.................9 Health Hazards Associated With Paints ......................4................................................................................252 11.................

..........................276 2........................................................................................................................279 2.........4................1...268 1.............. Chain Slings.................................................................278 2....3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails ......................300 4....................... Scrapers.1 Grades .. Mechanical Equipment And Materials.......................2...........277 2.....................................................................................10 Graders...................................277 2.................................................299 4...............277 2......................................................300 February 1993 .................................................................280 2.....6 Overhead Power Lines................................................270 1...2 Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)................................................................................1 Planning ................................................276 2...............................299 4.....................4................................................289 3..................................287 3.................3 Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications .............................................................................................269 1...........................................1 Removal from Service .................................294 3..............................................................6 Care of Slings ............................276 2.......10 Shackles............................1 Dumpers...................................................................................298 4............................267 1.270 1........................0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT..................................0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT...........................9 Generators ..........................................7 Hooks.......................................................................7 Excavators .......2 Licensing Requirements ....281 3...11 Rigger....................281 2..........................................275 2...6 Dumpers and Dump Trucks ................288 3........................................9 Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings ............................................................................................2........................................................................298 4......................................................300 4........................................4 Concrete Pumps.........................................................................................................................................................................................................295 3..............................................................................4 Special Crane Operating Procedures ........275 2.............................................Table Of Contents Page 12 ...............1............................288 3.....................2 Repairs ........................................280 2..........................................................................................................................................2 Tractors and Trailers.............................................................................................276 2.1 Competent Person ......................................................................................................................................2..............1 Operators ..................................................... Loaders And Miniloaders ....................296 4............................................................................................289 3.....................................293 3........0 MATERIALS HANDLING..........................................................................................................4 Compressors .............2 Machine Transport....................2.............................................................3 Wire Rope Slings.......1 Qualifications.....................................4 Synthetic Webbing Slings....269 1.............8 Fork Lift Trucks ....................270 1...........2........2 Machinery Guards ..........................................1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings ..........................................2........................................................................................................................................8 Spreader Bars ...................2 Repaired Slings..........5 Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations .........................................................5 Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings ..............................................................................................................2........1....... Safe Working Load (SWL)............0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING).....................................290 3................III.....270 2...............2...................................................................................................292 3..........................................288 3............................3 General Requirements .................................300 4.................279 2.............289 3...........291 3......5 Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants .............296 3............................................................................3 Site Stores . Dozers...........................................11 Woodworking Machinery................................................................................................................................................

.................................301 February 1993 ..............4 Manual Handling ...4.....................................Table Of Contents Page 13 ....................

........1 Voltage...........................6......6..6...........................312 1............311 1............................2..............................2 Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits .............................6...........................6.......326 2.................6 Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution.......................6........................326 2.........................3 Storage........................................................................321 1................................................6.....10...............1...................1 Distance....IV...................................................................................9............................6.6......321 1....6........320 1..........................3 Grounding Distance....................322 2.........6.......................................................................................3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid..............11 Underground Lines ...........4 Framing .....2 Time.........5 Attaching the Load.........313 1................................................................310 1....4 Night Work...........6.................................................................................................................................3 Shielding......................................................................................................................305 1.......12........315 1........6......................2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment....326 2..........1 Metal Tower Construction.....................................6 Hydraulic Fluids ....................314 1.......1 Methods of Protection Against Radiation ........................................................6..................321 1.....1 Isolation and Voltage Testing.............314 1....................................................9......6....6..............6.........10......314 1....6................4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes ...........2.....................3 Hand Tools and Lighting ..................................................................................4 Work on Live Equipment.325 2.............................6.........11.....................................................2 Applying and Removing Grounds..........................6..2 Control Panels ..................12 Construction in Energized Substations .............................6................6..............325 2....................8.................................................................1 Initial Inspections...2 Pole Hauling.....................1.......................................9 Grounding for Protection of Workers ...................1..............4 Substation Fences.12..6..325 2..........................0 ELECTRICITY................6....................................313 1...............................................6..........................8.......3 Mechanized Equipment.........2 Stringing/Remo ving De-energized Conductors...................................9.......312 1.313 1...9...............................307 1........................ or Determinations......321 1........321 1.......2 Non-Radiation Workers ..........................................11................................................................9...........1 Work in Manholes ..............314 1.......307 1...........6.................................................5 Overhead and Underground Cables.................................6....8 Material Handling...314 1.................................8........315 1..................308 1..........................................3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines .....10..... Electrical And Radiation ..........................311 1......313 1...............6...5 Work Near/Over Water..6..................... Tests.....................................309 1..318 1.......312 1........314 1.......6.............................................................................................................313 1.................12......317 1..........................................6.8.........................1 Radiation Workers ..........................9..............................................................................0 IONIZING RADIATION .................7 Electric Shock.........319 1.................................................................Table Of Contents Page 14 ............................................................1 Barricades and Barriers...............................................10 Overhead Lines.......................325 2....2 Trenching and Excavating ..................313 1.....7 Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks).........................8.......................................314 1.306 1..........................................12...............................................................2 Temporary Installations ....................313 1....................................314 1.........................................6 Grounding Cables And Clamps....................................................320 1...............................................326 February 1993 ...............6...1 Unloading............5 Grounding Electrode.............312 1.................................................................................

...................3...........1 Contractor........327 2..........5 2..........................327 Shipping and Transportation..................3 2....................................................................................................................2....................................................................................3...... Radiographer.2 Competent Person..................3.......................Table Of Contents Page 15 .......................................3..327 2.....................................2...4 2...................................................................326 Responsibilities for Safe Handling ................328 February 1993 ....................................328 Storage Areas ......................................................3 Exposure Limits.............................................................327 2.

...........348 4...............................................3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals ..............................348 4........340 3.......330 1...................................................339 2.............................................................................................338 2.............................................................3 Emergency Treatment .......5 Commissioning .........................................................................................333 1................................1...........2........................................................................................3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains..................................342 3.............................................1...............................................2...........2 Producing Instruction Manual.......................................0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES................................................................................................................8 Bulk Installations........4 Leakage...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing).......................................338 2...................343 3...........................3 Test Liquid...........................332 1....................................................................1 Gas Release Emergency Procedures..4 Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations......................5 Pipings And Joints .................................................................................5 Transportation ....9 First Aid...........0 PRESSURE TESTING.. Storage and Disposal .......................................................................1..........339 2...0 PLANT OPERATIONS......332 1..........................................3 Vents and Drains.............343 3.................................................................................................................4 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards .................................................338 2.338 2..............................................................................338 2.......2 Health Hazards .......................................................339 2...1...............1............................................................................................................................................343 3.....................................................................................................349 4............................................................1.......331 1....1 Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards ...............................336 1.................3 Operation of Plant Equipment ............3 Refinery Instruction Manual..........1 General .......................................7 Action in Case of Fire...........0 CHEMICALS ....337 2........................346 4...................................351 February 1993 ...............6 Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................335 1.............337 2....................................................3............................................................4 Valves..........2 First Aid .......................Table Of Contents Page 16 ................................338 2.......1 General Instruction Manual.....................................................3.................336 2................................................1...................................1 Artificial Respiration..................349 4...................344 4...................4 Fire Hazards ..................1....6 Vacuums .......................................351 4...............331 1..............................343 3............................................................349 4.....................................................2.........................................................2 Work Permit System..........342 3........................................................................5 Reactivity Hazards .................1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard .......................3 Handling of Cylinders.......................... Chemicals And Operations ..2 General Requirements .............2 Storage ..............................347 4..........................................6 Transportation................................1..........................2 Skin Hazards...3.....341 3.....6 Operation ............................................................1........343 3.................................................................................................................349 4...............................................349 4.......334 1................................................................6.................................342 3................351 4....................................349 4.....................................1 Hazard Identification System.......................................334 1..................2 Supports ...........V...1 Preparation..........................

....................6...4 Disposal.....7........................................6...........6................1 Transportation.................................355 February 1993 ..............................................................................................................................................................354 4...................354 4..............................................351 4.....................................2 Storage......6.............7 4......Table Of Contents Page 17 ........................................................3 Containers .................................352 4..................................................................7....352 Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead (Organic Lead Compounds)....2 Precautions......4..........................352 4..........................1 Introduction ..................................................................

.........................................................................................................................5 Marine Department .................................365 2...........................................................................................................367 3................5 Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities..............................................................4 Preparation for Transportation by Sea.....370 3...1 Employment of Qualified Divers .............3 Safeguards ...........................................................................4.........................375 3..............................................361 1.........................4 Physical Fitness.............................................................364 2........................................1 Compressors ..........................................................................................6 Care of Tools and Equipment..................363 2.........................374 3.........2.........................Table Of Contents Page 18 ...............................361 1..........................................................6 Leaks ..................1 Sports Divers ...................................4..........................................................................................VI....3 Behavior on Floating Craft ..................................................3 Dis lodgment of Struts and Wales.....................................5....................................2 Reserve Air Supply ......364 2...................................................................................................................................376 3..............................................................4 Potential Hazards ...................................2..........361 1....7 Housekeeping.......................................................................................................2 Diving Equipment..................................................365 3..4 Maintenance .........0 DIVING OPERATIONS ...........................................................363 2...........362 2.............................................................................................................. Diving Emergencies ......................360 1......359 1................5...0 MARINE OPERATIONS ....5................................4.........................................................................................................................360 1...................................376 February 1993 ...5 Inspection......................... Marine..........2 Commercial Divers..........................................375 3.........................360 1...............................2 Before Work Starts .......2.................................................2...............................361 1.....................................5........................................2 Overhead Loads ..............................................6 Personnel Transfer at Sea............360 1.............................................................368 3........................369 3............................................................................................................................................................375 3....375 3...365 2...............................................1 Design...............................................................................................5............................368 3........3 Bail-Out Equipment.................1 Structural Collapse......................................................................................................364 2.....................................361 1....3 Coordinator............5 Tide and Sea Effects ......0 COFFERDAMS ................4 Diving Medical Team...................................................................................................................................375 3....................369 3......367 3...................................................................................369 3........................3 Construction.................1 Other Publications ...............2 General .............................................................................................................

.......................Table Of Contents Page 19 .395 II........................ Handling..................................................................................... Hazard Classification ................................................................................387 4.............................................................. ......................................................................................... Deviations From Safety Rules ................................. Saudi Aramco Plant Operations ...........................................381 A..................382 A...................395 I............ Health and Environmental Requirements .....388 9...................... Transportation ................................................................................... Corrective Action.................. Welding And Cutting Equipment...................391 22......................................... Personal Protective Equipment.............................................................................................389 15................................................393 27..... Cranes And Rigging Equipment.........................................................................................387 3.......389 12..................................... Cartridge Operated Tools ...................... Excavations.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................387 1.................................................................................................................. Saudi Aramco Assistance.........................394 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN:................................380 A......391 24............................................391 20...................................................391 23...... Scaffolding ............................................................................................................................390 17......................................................Appendix A.....................................................................................................395 IV................................................................................................... Formwork................................... Compliance With Safety Rules ............ Work Permits .................................396 February 1993 ..................................................................................................391 25..........................................390 18...1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM.... Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials And Waste ....................................................................................................................388 6..........................395 III.................387 2.................2 CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION.........................389 14.........................388 10...............................................................................................................387 5................................................389 16..392 26..............393 A...................................... Ladders .....................389 13.....379 11................................... Failure To Comply...................................................................................................................................388 7......... Explosives ..................................... First-Aid Facilities ................................................................................................ List Potential Hazards...........................................3 Saudi Aramco Safety...........4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP) .............................................................................. Conduct Hazards Identification Review........ Sandblasting ...390 19...................Schedule 'D' .. Mechanical Equipment............................................. Loss Prevention Program........................................................391 21....................... Ionizing Radiation .................................................................... Electrical Installations And Equipment.... Tools And Portable Power Tools.................. Work Over Or Adjacent To Water........................................................ Injury And Damage Reporting ..............................388 8............................. Fire Prevention ................. RULES OF COMPETITION .......379 INDEX TO APPENDIX A.........................

.....................401 B...........2 EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE...................................2..............................................................1 General Provisions................3 Plan Development Action Items ..Table Of Contents Page 20 .398 B.........1 SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES..................................................................................................2 Definitions ...............................................2..............Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response ....................................................................407 February 1993 ....................400 B.........399 B...........401 B....................2....................

...................................Table Of Contents Page 21 .................1 Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard....Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard..........427 C............428 February 1993 .......

.............................................................................Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook ................433 February 1993 ...........432 D......Table Of Contents Page 22 ..1 Crane Safety Handbook ................................

......................................Table Of Contents Page 23 .................Appendix E: Suggestion Form ..434 February 1993 .....

.........Table Of Contents Page 24 ..Appendix F: Distribution Form.......436 February 1993 ...........................................

..........................438 Implementing The Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code .........................439 February 1993 ......................006......................GI 151..................Appendix G: Sanitary Code ...Table Of Contents Page 25 ..........

................441 February 1993 .................................................Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index ............................................440 General Instructions (GI) Master Index..Table Of Contents Page 26 ...................

.............................................................................446 February 1993 .........Table Of Contents Page 27 .......................................................................Appendix I: List Of Figures .....................445 List Of Figures ...........................

...........Appendix J: List Of Tables .................................................................................................................................................Table Of Contents Page 28 ...........................................450 February 1993 ....449 List Of Tables......

......454 Injury Summary..........................................451 Preliminary Accident Report...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Appendix K: Forms ...................................................................................................459 Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration Form................................460 February 1993 ...............................................................................................................458 Emergency Reporting Instructions........................................................456 Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log .......................................................453 Contractor Monthly Safety Report..................................................................457 Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control ....................................................................................................Table Of Contents Page 29 ..................................455 Lift Plan For Cranes .....................................................................

Administration Page 30 .Construction Safety Manual: I. Administration February 1993 .I.

modification. The design. including the Company's E ngineering Standards.1 Loss Prevention Policy Implementation 1.1.1. When conformity with any of these requirements is not practicable or cost effective. 1.g. Loss in production and property resulting from accidental occurrences can be minimized through good management. construction. Reviews for compliance with this policy will be performed on a selective basis.Construction Safety Manual: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program Page 31 . Compliance with safety standards and instructions will be consistently enforced for both Saudi Aramco operations personnel and contractors alike. periodic environmental monitoring and biosurveillance will be used to help to protect all employees against exposure to safety and health hazards (e. will comply with Saudi Arab Government and Company loss prevention requirements applicable to the design. 1. When conformity with any of these requirements is impractical or not cost effective. H2S. Saudi Aramco will provide and maintain a safe and healthful work environment and protect the public against foreseeable hazards resulting from operations. an amendment to such a requirement will be considered.1. radiation.) which cannot be eliminated. operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment and construction as practiced by Saudi Aramco and/or contractors.2 Operating Standards and Instructions Risks that cannot be eliminated through design are controlled by operating standards and instructions. will meet Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco safety requirements as covered in this manual and in relevant General Instructions. Loss prevention is one aspect of this loss control philosophy and is the direct responsibility of line management. which is as essential and equally important as production objectives.4 Inspection Inspections to detect and correct unsafe practices and conditions will be conducted periodically by Saudi Aramco and/or contractor. All management functions. 1. including business line and associated management. maintenance and construction of facilities and/or equipment. a waiver will be sought from the Chief Engineer. etc.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM Saudi Aramco is committed to prevention of accidents to minimize loss of life or bodily injury to its employees and damage to its physical assets. 1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements The application of the best petroleum industry loss control practices minimizes risk to personnel and property.1. In fulfilling this commitment. February 1993 .3 Personal Protection Personal protective equipment. operation.1..

encourages employee participation in loss prevention programs. Proponents will register each contractor employing 50 or more persons in the Saudi Aramco Contractor Safety Competition. supervise and manage assigned tasks without mishap.1.2 of this manual. February 1993 . 1. seat belt use) shall be vigorously practiced to provide the means for all employees to protect themselves and their families from harm during off-duty hours.8 Response to Accidental Occurrences Site specific effective emergency response plans must be established as per the guidelines of Appendix B. a reporting and investigation system to determine the cause of the accident. A vehicle operator will be held accountable for the vehicle assigned to him and he must ensure that it is always operated in a safe and lawful manner.1.7 Job Placement Employees must only be assigned tasks that are consistent with their physical capacities and job skills.3.6 Motivation and Recognition Good communications.g.1.) 1.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program Page 32 .1.Figures A.1. this enable employees to work without endangering themselves or others.1.1. a viable suggestion system and the recognition of good safety performance.1. 1.1.1.9 Contractor Safety Saudi Aramco proponent departments will monitor all construction activity to ensure that services are performed in conformity with Saudi Aramco loss prevention policies. and the adoption of corrective actions to avoid a recurrence.11 Traffic Safety Operators of Company vehicles must receive defensive driving training and driver evaluations and be in possession of a current Saudi Arab government driver's license.2 and A. These should include measures to contain or control an emergency or disaster when an accident occurs to minimize the loss of resources.5 Education and Training All employees shall be provided with ongoing safety education and training as well as helping to develop those skills that are required to perform. (See Appendix A . principles and practices and do not imperil any person or property. 1. 1. A.10 Off-The-Job Safety Off-the-job safety training (e. 1.

Any deviation from the requirements of Schedule 'D' must be signed in writing by the Company representative.1. After receipt of such notice. The safe practices specified in Schedule 'D' shall be followed by all contractors during the performance of all work under each contract with Saudi Aramco. or damage (or loss) of any property during the contractor's performance of the work under the contract.4).12 Accountability All employees shall be held accountable for personal and functional safety performance. the contractor shall immediately take corrective action.2.2 Assistance The contractor may request advice on establishing feasible and effective safety practices for the job.1.Figure A. of any violation of the requirements of Schedule 'D' and provide corrective action to rectify the situation.1 Non-Compliance The Company representative will notify the contractor. An important factor in an employee's overall job performance evaluation will be how well the employee meets his safety responsibilities. compliance reviews will be conducted by teams that include people with related expertise to determine compliance with this policy. The requirements in Schedule 'D' are the minimum acceptable to Saudi Aramco. The company representative will assist the contractor's representative by providing guidance on good safety practices. 1. The contractor shall also take any additional measures which the Company representative may determine to be reasonable and necessary to protect against the injury (or death) of any person.1. 1.13 Compliance Reviews On a selective basis. and applying his experience and judgment in helping to improve the contractor's overall job safety. the company representative may issue an order stopping all or part of the work until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. additional costs or damages. in writing.1. the team members must be detached from the operation being reviewed.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program Page 33 . The contractor will not be eligible to use any part of the lost time incurred as a result of such stop orders as the subject of a claim for extension of time. 1. Such notices when delivered to the contractor's representative at the site of the work shall be deemed sufficient notice to the contractor under Schedule 'D'. 1. In order to ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the review. If the contractor fails to take corrective action promptly.2. Compliance with the provisions of Schedule 'D' by subcontractors shall be the responsibility of the contractor.2 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements for contractors are contained in Schedule 'D' of contracts (See Appendix A . pointing out unsafe conditions. February 1993 .

I. 28. 2. 24.1. the contractor shall submit a written job-specific loss prevention program to the Saudi Aramco company representative. 17. 1. 1.3 Contractor's Loss Prevention Program The contractor shall develop and implement a loss prevention program that will conform with Saudi Aramco loss prevention policies and procedures.1. 3.1 Written Program Prior to the commencement of contractual activity. 22. The Contractor's written loss prevention program shall address the following: 1. Where no standard or instruction is available to cover a particular item.O. The term. 4. 11. the contractor shall request that Saudi Aramco specify the standard of work or equipment required. 16./J. 19.3. 25. 27. 21.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program Page 34 . 23. 8. 14. Title page (B.2. 26. 7. 13. 20. 10. 15. 5. 9. 12. 6. The latter is required to forward a copy of the program to the Loss Prevention Department. "Approved Standards" in Schedule 'D' refers to standards which are approved by Saudi Aramco.3 Standards and Instructions All work and equipment must conform to Saudi Aramco Standards and General Instructions. 18.) Project title and brief scope of work Organization chart Vicinity map and key plan Hazard identification plan Traffic plan Safety polity and assignment of responsibilities • Prime and sub contractors Desert driving • Search and rescue procedures Safety inspections Safety reports and records Contractor camp sanitation and safety Work permit Welding and cutting equipment Personal protective equipment Tools and portable power tools Ladders Cartridge operated tools Electrical installation and equipment Scaffolding Cranes and rigging equipment Mechanical equipment Transportation Saudi Aramco plant operations Injury and damage reporting Excavation Fire prevention Form work First-aid facilities • Medical evacuation procedures February 1993 .

40.3 Safety Supervisor The contractor shall designate one or more full-time safety supervisor(s) to coordinate and monitor the loss prevention program. The names and addresses of the Saudi Aramco approved safety supervisors shall be included with the written program. Once this has been completed. February 1993 . 36.2 Dust control Job site inspections General safety rules Emergency evacuation procedures Hazardous material and waste management Security procedures Ionizing radiation Demobilization plan Work over or adjacent to water Explosives Abrasive blasting & painting/coating Lock out and tag system Hazard Identification Plan As part of the Contractor Loss Prevention Program. 31.3.3. 37. Prior to the start of construction. 34. and review and update procedures to prevent accidents. 35.1. 32. (See Appendix A .3 and A. the contractor shall develop a detailed Hazard Identification Plan based on the initial hazard identification data supplied by Saudi Aramco Project Management Team. the contractor shall conduct a hazard identification tour with the Company representative and the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representative.3.Figures A.4.) 1.4 Safety Discussion The contractor shall ensure that every craft and crew supervisor holds a weekly ten-minute safety meeting with his men to discuss hazards on the job.29.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Policy And Program Page 35 . 1. the contractor will prepare and submit a Hazard Identification Plan. 33. 30. 1. These weekly meetings shall be documented and such documentation shall be maintained and made available for review at the Contractor's on-site office. 38. 39.

2.2 Providing input to the Board of Engineers in the development of Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. position papers and standards. 2.1.5 Serving on special committees and task forces such as the Radiation Protection Committee.4 Administering safety-related training programs for local area operations management and personnel in an effort to enhance the safety awareness of operations personnel and proper acceptance of responsibilities. US. 2. 2.6 Directing in-depth program reviews of area operations involving procedures and facilities with follow-up on implementation of recommendations resulting from these reviews. and local area management.1 Loss Prevention Program Loss Prevention superintendents ensure that a range of loss prevention engineering services are provided to organizations within their assigned areas through such activities as: 2. 2. and providing personnel to develop or assist in the development of General Instructions. The area divisions are in turn provided support from the central Planning and Technical Services Division consisting of Technical Services Unit.1.1. February 1993 .1.1. 2. Companies.1.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES A full complement of loss prevention services is provided by the area Loss Prevention divisions. 2.3 Managing major safety reviews and incident investigations with Saudi Arab Government officials. Support Services Unit and a Planning and Program Group.Construction Safety Manual: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services Page 36 .1 Directing the review of new plant design in the assigned area of operation to ensure conformity of facilities to loss prevention engineering standards.

7 Interfacing with Government Affairs to provide input on safety related is sues to non-Saudi Aramco projects and providing monitoring of these projects to assure conformity.2. 2. ensuring consistency with Company and business line policies.2. 2.2 Program Management Services Superintendents and their subordinates provide department heads with program management services such as: 2.6 Coordinating response to government concerns about fire and safety issues. principles and practices.2. 2. recommending revisions to Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. 2. and developing new hazard control standards as required.2.1.5 Initiating and administering safety management training.3 Providing project review.2 Monitoring and evaluating loss prevention systems through the Compliance Review Program.2.1 Assisting with the development of formal loss prevention programs.4 Analyzing.2. February 1993 . 2.2. 2.2. interpreting and reporting accident statistical data.2. waiver and other technical consulting services.7 Serving on special accident investigation committees. and providing consultative services in their implementation.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services Page 37 . 2.

2. and consulting services in their application from a loss prevention standpoint.7 Advising on proper selection and use of personal protective equipment and evaluating its effectiveness. conducting accident investigations and recommending corrective measures.3 Program Maintenance Services Superintendents and their subordinates provide program maintenance services such as: 2.3.4 Initiating and administering supervisory and highly specialized safety training beyond the capability of operating management or training specialists. February 1993 .2 Conducting loss prevention policy.3.3.3. principles and practices.3. 2. including the development of containment and mitigation methods for liquid chemical spills or vapor releases.3 Identifying and assessing processes.3. 2.2.3. 2.3.5 Administering work permit and certain other safe work procedures. procedures. 2. program and procedural surveys and inspections.6 Acting as Saudi Aramco's representative to the Saudi Arab Government on local safety issues.0 Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Services Page 38 .8 Monitoring and providing input on other activities as required to ensure proper response to accidental occurrences.1 Providing technical interpretation of standards. operations and other risks (or hazards) and recommending solutions. 2.2. 2.

003 (see Figure I. Saudi Aramco may convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance with the requirements of GI 6. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6.026) For accidents involving Contractor employee fatalities. means that a system for the retrieval of information must be set up and statistical records must be kept of injury. death and property damage. however. ANALYSIS AND REPORTING Much is learned through experience.Construction Safety Manual: Accident Investigation. a preliminary written report shall be submitted within 24 hours followed by a detailed written report submitted within three days to the Company Representative. In addition. in any amount. or damage to Saudi Aramco equipment or property.1 Reports Required by Saudi Aramco Reports are required by Saudi Aramco as per Schedule 'D' of the contract.1).001 and GI 6. February 1993 .000 to contractor's plant or equipment Damage. The contractor is responsible for reporting accidents to Saudi Aramco and in some cases to the Saudi Arab Government as required.3.001 GI 6. information can be collated and analyzed to show accident patterns.003 Notification Requirements for Incidents (Including Fires) Guide for Committees Investigating Major Incidents or Engineering Reviews of Other Incidents Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Lifting/Elevating and Mobile Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures GI 6. to Saudi Aramco's equipment or property Fires Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7. The contractor can then emphasize those areas in which safety education and training is needed most. With such a system operational. A thorough investigation and analysis of an accident can help to prevent future accidents.029 GI 7. To learn by experience. Contractor shall ensure that an immediate report is made to the Company Representative in the case of all: • • • • • • Fatal injuries Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time Damage over SR 10. This section covers these reporting requirements and the principles behind accident investigation and analysis.026 3. serious injury to two or more Contractor employees.0 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION. Analysis And Reporting Page 39 .

2. To recommend what corrective action should be taken.0 Accident Investigation. 3. however. Responsibilities for Investigation 3.2.2 Project Manager The project manager shall review all accident reports to ensure that all the necessary corrective action has been taken and that he has addressed any items that may require action on his part.2 Accident Investigation The point of an accident investigation is to prevent recurrence of similar accidents.003. a detailed account of the circumstances. (See Figure I.2). witnesses' statements and descriptive photographs are required. the contractor must keep a record of all injuries and damages on a form approved by the Company (Figure I. To determine the point at which "unplanned" events took over from the "planned" sequence of events. A copy of this record shall be sent to the proponent department and to the contractor's project management. a current record showing all: • • • • • • Work injuries Fires Incidents of property damage over SR 10.026) The record shall be available for inspection at all times and shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco on request. 3.1 To find the causes so that similar accidents may be prevented.3. in a format approved by the Company Representative. 3.Contractor shall maintain. The preliminary accident report must be completed and submitted within 24 hours to the Saudi Aramco Company representative with a copy to the Loss Prevention Department. to determine facts rather than to find faults. The main reasons for conducting an accident investigation are: 1.2. A final report on the incident shall be submitted within three days detailing any additional information and corrective action needed.) A final written report shall be prepared and submitted to the Company as per the provisions of GI 6.1. 3. In addition to the reports required above.000 Motor vehicle accident Incidents involving damage to Saudi Aramco equipment and property Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.1. 2.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative The supervisor and/or safety representative shall carry out an immediate investigation of any accident which occurs within his area of responsibility. Analysis And Reporting Page 40 . In the case of serious accidents. Monthly summary reports are required in addition to the individual reports.2. February 1993 .

4 Accident Investigation Guidelines The scene of an accident must be left undisturbed until Government Affairs. In some cases the accident site must be rendered safe so as not to contribute to further accidents. Finding the explanation of any irregularities.0 Accident Investigation. February 1993 . Industrial Security. 9. 3. Making a scaled drawing of the accident scene and supplement that with supporting photographs. Recommending items of corrective action and methods of implementing them to prevent the recurrence of the incident. Questioning the injured man as soon as possible. to assist local police in their investigation. 5. These records help to illustrate accident trends. Analysis And Reporting Page 41 . not what they think happened. 3. the Loss Prevention Department and the safety supervisor have conducted their investigation. 8. Questioning the witnesses separately as to what they actually saw. Unless the real cause is known. 6.3. From the information obtained. Every contractor should go through the following classifications and their breakdowns to determine which of these (if any) apply to the incidents in which they were involved. establishing the reason why the "unplanned" events took over from those that were "planned". Questioning the man in charge and finding out what was planned. The near-miss incident is equally important from the point of view of prevention and should also be thoroughly investigated. This information is supplemental to the findings and reporting requirements of the preceding "Accident Investigation" sections. this helps the Loss Prevention Department (Saudi Aramco) evaluate their safety program and modify or upgrade it as needed. 7.5 Accident Analysis 3.3 Cases to be Investigated Incidents that result in property damage or serious injuries to personnel and hospitalization of two or more employees must be fully investigated and reported. 3.1 Classification Contractors can use nine main classifications to analyze industrial accidents. However precautions shall be taken to keep the accident scene intact as much as is possible. the hazard cannot be controlled in the future. 2. Finding out the injured man's job or the normal configuration and function of the damaged equipment or plant.3. 4. In turn. The investigation should include. but not be limited to the following: 1. Studying the equipment or plant layout and noting any signs of misuse.5.

The nine classifications with their individual breakdowns are: 1. Analysis And Reporting Page 42 . Into water 1a. Striking Against Objects Protruding nails Scaffold tubes and fittings Stepping or kneeling on objects 8. trenches. etc. Hazardous Atmospheres Hydrogen Sulfide Others 4. Transportation Road Site 2. Equipment Moving Parts Equipment in motion Hot surfaces 6.0 Accident Investigation. Falls (Of Persons from Heights) To the ground or another level From scaffolding From ladders Into holes. Falls (Of Persons on the Level) To the ground Against objects 5. etc. Lifting Appliances Cranes Hoists and winches Pull-lifts. Hand Tools Cartridge hammers Power tools Non-power tools 7. pulleys. Piling frames A-frames Excavations 9. Struck by Objects Falling objects Foreign bodies in eyes Flying objects February 1993 . wheels.3. Handling Objects From lifting From pulling or pushing Handling materials Electric shock 3.

FIGURE I. Analysis And Reporting Page 43 .3.1: PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT Detailed Report Required Within 3 Days Accident Location: Company: Date Of Accident: Personnel Injured: Control No_________________ Time Of Accident: Badge Number: Type Of Injuries: Property Damage And Estimated Cost Damage: Description Of Accident: Witness Statement(s) What Caused The Accident: What Corrective Action Has Been Taken Signed:_______________________________________________________Badge No:________________________ Date Of Report:________________________________________________ Name (Printed):_____________________________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________ Job Title:_________________________________ February 1993 .0 Accident Investigation.

Analysis And Reporting Page 44 . Incidents Or Property Damage (Over SR 10. Work Injuries: 2. Fires: 3. (B) Attendance: (C) Instructor(s): Prepared By:_____________________________ Contractor Safety Officer:________________________________ Signed By:__________________________________ Saudi Aramco Representative:____________________________ Date:___________________________ February 1993 .2: CONTRACTOR MONTHLY S AFETY REPORT PROJECT TITLE:________________________________ LOCATION:_________________________________ CONTRACTOR:________________________________________________________________________________ BUDGET ITEM No:.:________________JOB No:_______ 1.000): 4. 4.FIGURE I. Motor Vehicle Accidents: 5.0 Accident Investigation._________________________________ CONTRACT No. Incidents Involving Damage To Saudi Aramco Equipment: 6. 5. 2. Heavy Equipment & Manlift Accidents: 7. Crane. 3. Safety Meeting: (A) Topics Discussed: 1.3.

3 Contractor's Safety Officer 1. Make sure that in tendering.0 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY The Saudi Aramco proponent must ensure the company's safety and accident prevention policies are clearly understood by all employees and contractor personnel. Institute proper system for investigation. The main responsibilities of various members of a construction team are cited in the following: 4.4. Initiate the company's policy for the control of injury. The duties and responsibilities of employees. Initiate analysis to discover accident trends and promote action to prevent recurrence. at planning stages and throughout the contract. 5. Provision and use of protective clothing and equipment. 4. Follow established process hazard analysis techniques to evaluate and correct hazards during the design process. 3. 8. Advise management on the following: • • • • • • Ways to prevent injury to personnel. Reprimand any supervisor for failing to discharge satisfactorily the responsibility allocated to him.4. Changes in safety requirements. Ways to improve existing work methods. subcontractors and any other individual contractors who may be working on the same site. Legal and contractual requirements affecting safety. and be aware that their safety record will be taken into account during performance appraisals. February 1993 . All employees should satisfactorily discharge the responsibilities of their job. (See Appendix A. 7. Potential hazards on site before work starts and on the safety organization and fire precautions required. health and welfare. 4. supervisors. 2. damage and fire. Set a personal example. reporting and estimating the cost of injury. and management must be stated in writing by the company's management. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the relevant parts of Saudi Arab Government Workmen's Regulations.Construction Safety Manual: Responsibilities For Safety Page 45 . allowance is made for suitable and sufficient equipment to enable the jobs to be done with minimum risk. Ensure that a formal Hazard Identification Plan is prepared in order to identify and correct hazards which may be encountered during construction. Ensure that all supervisors are qualified and that they receive adequate and appropriate training.2 Design Engineer Design for safety. taking into consideration those risks that might arise during construction or in the operation of plant or equipment. 9. 10. property damage and fire loss.) 6. and ensure they are observed by his company. Coordinate safety activities between Saudi Aramco. 4. Administer the policy himself or appoint a senior member of staff to do so.1 Contractor Senior Management 1. damage to plant and/or equipment and fires.

4. damage and loss control. and indicate precautions to be adopted. outline potential hazards at each stage. Determine the following at the planning stage: • • • • • • • 5. open forum discussions and by implementing safety training. 8. 6. Determine the cause of any accident (or dangerous occurrence). 8. etc. Basic precautions for dealing with fire hazards. 4. 7.0 Responsibilities For Safety Page 46 . Attend job progress meetings where safety is an item on the agenda. Assess accident trends and review overall safety performance. The most appropriate order and method of performing the job. presentations. Assist with training employees at all levels. 3. sub-contractors.4. Supervise the recording and analysis of information on injuries. Ensure that tenders adequately allow for sound working methods and reasonable welfare facilities. 9. Provide written instructions to establish work methods. 6. and welfare and first aid facilities are adequate and properly maintained. and recommend means of preventing recurrence of such an incident. and other contractors. February 1993 . Any hazards identified under the hazard identification procedure described in Appendix A. Report on job safety performance. Foster within the company an understanding that injury prevention and damage control are an integral part of business and operational efficiency. 9.2. Storage areas. Create safety awareness by promoting safety meetings. 7. Keep up-to-date with recommended codes of practice and safety literature. Facilities for welfare. 4. 2. and ensure that they are observed. Set a personal example on site by wearing appropriate protective clothing and equipment at all times. Understand the company's safety policy and the responsibility allocated to each grade of supervision. that health and safety requirements are being observed. Work permit procedures and requirements.4. Check over work methods and precautions with supervision before work starts. damage and production loss. Carry out site surveys to see that only safe work methods are in operation. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and relevant Saudi Arab Government Workmen's Regulations. 5. 3.4 Construction Manager/Superintende nt 1. Ensure that all accidents are reported to Saudi Aramco in accordance with Section 3. Circulate information applicable to each level of employees. first aid and sanitation. Take part in discussions on injury. explain the sequence of operations. Allocation of responsibilities for Saudi Aramco. access.

2. 3. fires. inspections and maintenance are carried out when due. 9. 4. 4. 5. 6. property damage and crane/heavy equipment accidents which have occurred at the site. Incorporate safety procedures in routine tasks and see that they are obeyed. 7 8. Check that equipment and tools (both power and hand tools) are maintained in good operating condition. Inspect the work site daily to report and correct unsafe methods and conditions. 13. 11.4. Be familiar with work permit procedures.7 Engineer/Supervisor 1. Make sure that suitable personal protective equipment is available and that it is used. 5. 3. used and maintained correctly.8 Foreman 1. Organize sites so that work is carried out to the required standard with minimum risk to men.0 Responsibilities For Safety Page 47 . Cooperate with the safety engineer and the fire department. Keep a permanent record of all injuries. February 1993 . Ensure that all equipment purchased or hired is safe. 4. 2. 4. is guarded and equipped with safety devices and has been subjected to all necessary tests.6 Equipment Manager/Supervisor 1. Plan and provide for good housekeeping. Conduct weekly safety meetings with subordinates. Check that periodic tests. 4. 3. Make certain that operators and attendants are employed only on equipment for which they have been thoroughly trained. Set a personal example. equipment and materials. 12. Be familiar with those parts of Schedule 'D' applicable to the work on which subordinate workers are engaged. Set a personal example. Attend promptly to all equipment defects and advise site management of the need for any dangerous equipment to be taken out of service until properly repaired. Release supervisors and men when necessary for safety and fire training.4. Keep a record of every weekly safety meeting on site complete with subject discussed and a list of attendees. by acting on their recommendations. Position equipment effectively and ensure that electricity supply is installed. Give precise instructions on responsibilities for correct work methods. Understand the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the company's loss prevention policy. 3. 14. 2. Coordinate with sub-contractors and other contractors on site to avoid any confusion about areas of responsibility. 4. They should also know how to summon assistance in case of emergency and nominate others to act in your absence. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D'. 2.5 Site Safety Supervisor (If different from contractor's safety officer) 1. Make sure that all men know how to obtain and administer first aid properly and efficiently to all injured persons. motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

6. 4. by action or initiative. near misses or hazardous conditions to immediate supervisor. unsafe conditions and defects in equipment to immediate superiors.9 Worker 1. equipment and welfare facilities. Report any accidents. 8. 5. 4. Report accidents. 2. February 1993 .4. Use protective clothing and equipment provided. 5. 9. Read the Company safety rules and take note of special safety precautions in restricted areas. 7. . eliminate hazards. Document and coordinate the safety inspection activities and findings with the job site safety supervisor. 3. Ensure that new employees are properly instructed in precautions to be taken before they are allowed to start work. 7. Conduct daily work site inspections to identify and correct any existing unsafe conditions. Keep tools in good condition.4.0 Responsibilities For Safety Page 48 . such as horseplay or the taking of unnecessary risks. Use the correct tools and equipment for the job. 6. Do nothing to endanger self or work mates. Commend men who. Obey all posted warning signs. Set a personal example. Correct unsafe acts. Refrain from horseplay and abuse of safety devices.

By radio: Radio an operations group that has a telephone in the Saudi Aramco system and ask them to dial 110 when the Main Gate or Security Control Center cannot be contacted directly. operating supervisor. 5. February 1993 .5. etc. All managers and supervisors are exp ected to become familiar with the emergency procedures of the plants and areas in which any of their staff are working. 5.1 Action to be Taken In an emergency.2 Contact After Office Hours The contractor's supervisor shall give his home address and telephone number (and that of his replacement) to the company representative so that he may be contacted after hours in case of emergency involving the contractor's job or equipment. etc.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Saudi Aramco departments and organizations have established disaster and emergency response plans that are documented in general instructions (GIs). or on hearing the "Stop Work Alarm". 5. Construction site-specific written emergency procedures shall be prepared by the Contractor and submitted as part of the Contractor's loss prevention program plan.) help may be obtained by contacting the nearest Saudi Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center. 4.3 Help in an Emergency 5. fire. terminal instruction manuals (TIMs). These telephone numbers are to be kept current and posted at the job-site. October 1989 5. A roll call is taken and every man is accounted for. 2. All men are evacuated to a pre-determined assembly point. Details of the written procedures may be obtained from the Saudi Aramco representative.1 In the event of an emergency situation (serious personal injury. department operating instruction manuals (OIMs).Emergency Procedures Page 49 . No one is permitted to return to work until notification has been received from operations or from the company representative that it is safe to do so. By telephone: Dial the emergency telephone number 110.Construction Safety . All equipment is shut down. This may be done: 1. critical damage to operating equipment. General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department publication: Guidelines For Preparing Emergency Response Plans. Refer to the specific procedures established in each Company operating area. 3.3. 2. every supervisor shall ensure the following: 1. and refinery instruction manuals (RIMs). or loss prevention engineer. All work is stopped at once.

February 1993 .3. ensure that you clearly identify yourself by giving: • • • • • Your exact location Nature of emergency Service required and repeat the message Your name Your badge number Stay on the telephone until you are told to hang up. 5. or Saudi Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center. By messenger: Send a messenger to the nearest telephone. or messenger.2 When transmitting a message by telephone.5.0 Emergency Procedures Page 50 . radio. post a lookout to direct the ambulance.3. If possible. fire truck or helicopter to the right location. radio.

3.2. 6. It is expected that those who have attended recognized training establishments will have received the necessary safety instructions. 6.1 Integrated Practices Safe working practices must be integrated into training for specific skills. 6. Induction training should teach new workers to identify common on-site hazards and how to guard against them.3.Loss Prevention Program 6.1 Safety Training for Supervisors 6.2 Safety Training for Workmen Accident prevention training for workmen should incorporate the items listed in 6.2. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.6. Health and Environmental Requirements .2 Specialized Training Before their training is complete. 6.1.0 SAFETY TRAINING Good safety training is important to employees who are learning a new trade but it is also necessary to keep supervisors and skilled operators up-to-date with current safety technology and practices.Safety Training Page 51 .2.2 The course for supervisors should include legal requirements. new employees and new entrants to industry are more susceptible to accidents. Safe working practices are learned when employees understand how an accident was caused. An outline of such a course is given in 6.1. Contractor's must provide safety orientation and training for new employees.1 of this section. Measures can then be taken to prevent a recurrence. It should also cover the main requirements of the February 1993 .Construction Safety Manual .1 The immediate job of preventing accidents falls upon the supervisor not because it has been arbitrarily assigned to him. People who are trained to do their jobs correctly can also be expected to do them safely. but because accident prevention and production control are closely associated supervisory functions. company and administrative policies and safety aspects of the work likely to be undertaken by the supervisors. The most direct way to develop the desired attitudes and to impart the necessary information about safety to supervisors is to give them safety training.

They are displayed where workmen spend some time when not working and specific posters are displayed where most appropriate (e.3. It is commonly applied by the use of posters which graphically indicate bad habits. The most effective posters are those that help to reinforce safety training. Site supervision.2.. 6. however.4 Course Requirements An induction safety course for workmen should be aimed at specific hazards which they could encounter at a specific job site. February 1993 .g.company's accident prevention policy and instruct newcomers specifically in those areas which affect them personally (e. if it is company policy that safety helmets and protective footwear should always be worn.6. A suggested outline of such a course is given in 6. 6.2. advice. must ensure that correct job methods are being utilized and workmen are periodically reminded to be aware of hazards in the work place. Only a few posters are displayed simultaneously. They are changed at frequent intervals. Posters can stimulate thought on accident prevention.3 Use of Persuasion The training providing skill and information should be supplemented by the techniques of persuasion. Posters can be useful provided that: • • • • • They are designed with due regard for the industry and its type of operation.0 Safety Training Page 52 . then this should be made clear and they should be told how and where to obtain them). They are mounted on properly designed and maintained bulletin boards..g. ladder hazards in ladder storeroom). Suitable induction courses together with job training containing an integrated safety content will go a long way towards achieving safe working conditions.2. Persuasion has an important function and should not be overlooked in any comprehensive program. but they are no substitute for organized training. pin-point the advantages of a safe working environment and give detailed information. or instruction on special safety points to remember.

but interest starts to lag unless an effective safety training program is in place. Good job safety instruction not only produces more skilled workers. A limited training effort. (See 6.3. Frequent follow-ups and attention by the supervisor to correct work practices also help to create understanding and to eliminate resentment.6. The program material and presentation should cover the safety subject and be interesting enough to hold the trainee's attention.3 Scope of Training Safety training needs to be ongoing if it is to accomplish optimum results.) February 1993 .6. but also impresses upon them the high value that the employer places on job safety. such as an occasional safety meeting. which is a source of some undesirable work attitudes.0 Safety Training Page 53 . may prompt supervisors to do a better job for a short time.1.

Electricity Appreciation of electrical hazards Power tools Arc welding Low voltage system Lighting and power system on sites Grounding/Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) 11. Personal Protective Equipment Eye. objectives 4. Oxygen and Acetylene Equipment Cylinder storage and maintenance Condition and maintenance of valves. regulators. Health Medical examination Hazard to health on site Sanitation and welfare Protective clothing First Aid/CPR 10. and gauges Condition and maintenance of hoses and fittings Pressures 12.0 Safety Training Page 54 .6. Policy and Administration Effect of incentive on accident prevention Human relations Consultation Safety Officer: duties. Site Inspection The role of management Hazard Identification Procedure Records results Follow-up procedures Feedback 7.3. Human Behavior Motivating agencies Individual behavior Environmental effects Techniques of persuasion 1. face. Equipment Accidents related to moving parts of machinery Appreciation of principles of guarding Importance of regular maintenance February 1993 . Safety and the Supervisor Safety and efficient production go together Accidents affect morale and public relations and 5. aims. supervision operations Methods of achieving safe operations Accident and injury causes 6. feet and legs Respiratory protective equipment Protection against ionizing radiation 8. hands. Site Tidiness Site organization Relationship of site housekeeping to accident occurrence Site access Equipment storage Material stacking Materials handling 9. The Law and Safety Statutory requirement Appropriate regulations Duties of employer and employee Schedule 'D' (Contractual Safety Requirements) 3. Principles of Accident Prevention Attitudes of management.1 Safety Training Topics For Supervisors 2.6.

6.single and multi-legged Safe working loads (SWLs) Safety hooks and eyebolts Cause of failure Maintenance and examination 16. Communications Effective methods of communication (particular interest to non-English speaking workers) Method and preparation of reports Safety committees Safety meeting February 1993 . and Scaffolding Hazards connected with the use of ladders Maintenance and inspection Type of scaffold Overloading Work on roofs Fragile material Openings in walls and floors 14. Working Places. Cranes and other Lifting Machines Licensing. Ladders. Fire Prevention and Control Principle causes determining fire Understanding fire chemistry Fire fighting equipment Fire fighting training 19. Transportation Transport to and from site Hazard connected with site transport Competent drivers Dumpers Tipping trucks Movement near excavations 15. Lifting Tackle Slings . Excavations Method of shoring Precautions while shoring Precautions at edge of excavations Removal of shoring Sheet steel piling Use of safety belts and nets 17. certification and training required for operation of cranes Slinging methods Signaling Access to crane(s) Maintenance and examination Ground conditions Hazards and accident prevention methods connected with the use of different types of cranes/heavy equipment Crane Lift Plan for all lifts 18.13.0 Safety Training Page 55 .

6. Simple precautions that can be taken by workmen on site. Health • • • Site welfare facilities Potential health hazards First Aid/CPR 5. Precautions Against the Above Hazards • 3.2 Induction Safety Topics For Workmen 1. Personal Protective Equipment • • • What is available How to obtain it Correct use and care 4.6.3. February 1993 .0 Safety Training Page 56 . Duties of the Company • • • • Brief outline of the responsibilities of the Company by law Details of Company's accident prevention policy Saudi Aramco Safety and Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors (Schedule 'D') Saudi Arab Labor Law 6. Employee's Duties • • Brief outline of responsibilities of employee under law Explanation of how new employees fit into the Company's plan for accident prevention. Hazard Identification Procedure Hazards on site: • Machinery • Transport • Flammables on site (hydrocarbon) • Fire • Falls • Electricity • Site housekeeping • Handling materials 2.

scaffolding and work in restricted areas requiring work permits. protection of employees and equipment.000 SAES -P-123 SAES -B-007C Appendix C: Street And Road Closure And Excavations. Mobile and Auxiliary Fire-Fighting Equipment Typical Construction Materials Store Yard.0 SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING This section outlines the procedure to be followed prior to and during a contract. both at the planning stage and throughout the contract. Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. Accident prevention is a real factor in the economic success of all contracts.Construction Safety Manual: Site Planning And Housekeeping Page 57 . excavation. so that the contractor will be able to eliminate or reduce accidents. Similarly.1 Initial Planning Prior to the start of any contract. an analysis is made by the contractor to ensure that construction will be conducted in a safe manner. Reinstatement And Traffic Controls Lighting. Among other factors that must be considered at the initial planning stage are: results of a Hazard Identification Plan.7. 7. loss prevention program. Illumination Requirements Portable. It cannot claim to cover every type of contract that is likely to occur. accident prevention is analyzed. February 1993 . Health and Environmental Requirements (See Appendix A) National Fire Protection Association: NFPA 80-A Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures NFPA 231 . transportation.1 Hazard Identification Plan The contractor shall conduct a Hazard Identification tour with the Company and Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representatives to identify potential hazards prior to construction start-up. but it does provide a detailed logical process to serve as a guide in deciding upon a plan of action. lifting equipment. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Standards: GI 1021.1.Appendix 'C' Protection of Outdoor Storage 7.

7.1.2

Loss Prevention Program A loss prevention program required in Schedule 'D' for specific job-related activities part of proposed construction work will be developed and coordinated by the contractor's safety supervisor. Part of this program will be a ten-minute safety discussion with the workmen, at least once a week, on the hazards at the site and the procedures to be followed to prevent personal injury and minimize property damage.

7.1.3

Protection of Employees and Equipment Schedule 'D' details the requirements to be followed by the contractor to reduce losses. It places the responsibility for the protection of men and equipment on the contractor and outlines general minimum acceptable standards.

7.1.4

Transportation The contractor must provide transportation to and from the site for his employees. Saudi Aramco requires that employees must be transported only in the passenger compartment of vehicles. (See Section I.13.) The provision of buses for larger sites will have to be considered. Inspection and maintenance of vehicles and the selection and training of drivers are other major considerations.

7.1.5

Lifting Equipment Cranes, hoists and lifting equipment should be considered well ahead of actual requirements both from the point of view of economical use and the safety of personnel and equipment. Lift plans shall be submitted as required. (See Section III.1 and III.2.)

7.1.6

Demolition Some contracts in existing plant areas may require demolition before new work can begin. Only minor demolition should be done by construction personnel. Specialist contractors should be employed for the demolition of larger structures. (See Section II.3.)

7.1.7

Excavations Timber for shoring, steel sheet piles, etc. should be present on site prior to starting excavation work. All excavation work will be closely supervised by experienced staff. (See Section II.2.)

7.1.8

Scaffolding For all work carried out above ground level where no permanent work place is available, temporary work places in the form of scaffolding must be provided. An adequate supply of scaffold material must be on site. There must be sufficient experienced men capable of erecting and dismantling the scaffolding properly. Ladders, built to an acceptable standard, must be supplied and readily available for access to elevated work areas. (See Section II.9.)

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7.2

Site Layout
The site layout must be planned before any work is started. This will assist in making the job easier and more efficient, thus increasing productivity and profit. Items to be considered under site layout include the following: 7.2.1 Site Accommodation This includes shacks, storage huts, compounds, racking areas, lock-up boxes, office buildings, etc. 7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads To be kept clear and unobstructed at all times. 7.2.3 Project Sign Erect project sign at the main entrance to the construction site and other sites, i.e., office, laydown yard, fabrication yard, etc., as designated by the Company representative. The sign shall be a minimum of four feet in height, and eight feet in width. The printing on the sign shall be black and white and shall be in both Arabic and English. The Arabic text will be above, or to the right of the English text. The sign shall list: • • • • • PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION PROJECT TITLE BUDGET ITEM NUMBER (BI NO.) PRIME CONTRACTOR NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER HOUR EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS FOR COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE AND CONTRACTOR

The sign shall be erected within two weeks after the contractor has started work on site. Contractor shall also erect and maintain sufficient signs on or near the site to direct delivery vehicles and visitors to the work site. Example of Job Site Sign: SAUDI ARAMCO/CENTRAL AREA PROJECTS SAUDI ARAMCO BUILT GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS BOYS SECONDARY - DAMMAM BI (2510) (ERC. 1990) CONTRACTOR: NAME PO. BOX LOCATION TELEPHONE NUMBER SAUDI ARAMCO REPRESENTATIVE TEL. - OFFICE/TEL. - HOME

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7.2.4

Safe Means of Access and Egress To be provided on site wherever employees are likely to go; these must be kept clear and unobstructed at all times.

7.2.5

Parking Facilities To be provided in clearly defined areas on site.

7.2.6

Drainage The site should have good drainage and be graded in such a way that water does not pool up during construction.

7.2.7

Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths Pathways for workmen must be clearly marked and distinct from vehicular travel routes on site.

7.2.8

Sand In sand dune areas that might lie adjacent to or around a construction site, consideration should be given to the movement or build up of sand.

7.2.9

Fire Prevention Suitable fire extinguishers must be readily available on site. The area around fire extinguishers or hydrants must be kept clear so that they are readily accessible in case of emergency. They must be regularly inspected and maintained. Site personnel must be trained in the use of fire fighting equipment. (See Section I.11).

7.2.10

Site Illumination Adequate lighting must be provided in all areas of the job site in accordance with SAES-P-123. The National Electric Code a National Fire Protection Association standards nd should be consulted for specific areas. Grounding requirements will be per NFPA. In hazardous areas (e.g., tank farms and indoor fuel areas), NFPA 30, 37, 58 and 70 will be enforced.

7.3

Storage Areas
Note: See Appendix C. Fire Protection Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard; and Figure III.13 (Typical Construction Materials Store Yard). 7.3.1 Storage areas must be adequate for all material and equipment to be stored.

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7.3.2 They should not be within 15 meters (50 feet) of permanent or temporary structures. 7.3.3 Storage areas should be clearly marked. 7.3.4 They should have directional signs to facilitate speedy delivery.

7.4

Welfare Facilities
Adequate welfare facilities must be provided. The following are minimum requirements: 7.4.1 Canteen or eating area adequate for total work force must be provided. This area shall be clean of refuse and meet Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements. 7.4.2 Rest area must be provided. 7.4.3 Adequate toilet and washing facilities must be provided. Toilets shall be provided in places where they may be easily accessible at the rate of one toilet for every fifteen workmen or less. These shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. 7.4.4 An adequate supply of drinking water must be available. Common drinking cups or dips are prohibited. 7.4.5 First aid facilities must be supplied and arrangements made for medical care and for emergency situations. 7.4.6 Where necessary, safe smoking areas m be provided, with the concurrence of ust the responsible area Loss Prevention office.

7.5

Good Housekeeping
The required standard of housekeeping must be established on site and all personnel informed of this standard. Trash, debris and refuse should be collected daily. All employees shall clean their respective work areas daily before quitting.

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Covered containers, drums, etc., should be provided at various, clearly marked locations throughout the work site. The containers should be emptied daily at approved rubbish dumps.

7.6

Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards
(See Appendix C) 7.6.1 The contractor's engineer shall establish the perimeter of the site by agreement with the proponent department. He may consult the Loss Prevention Department for assistance. 7.6.2 The perimeter fence for construction sites and materials storage yards shall be properly grounded and of sound construction and design appropriate for the intended protection of the area. The Saudi Aramco Industrial Security organization should be consulted for details. 7.6.3 The fence shall be frequently inspected by a representative of the contractor's engineer. 7.6.4 Any access paths through the proposed site shall be rerouted outside the perimeter. Loss Prevention Department is to be consulted on any such rerouting. 7.6.5 Where a fence crosses existing roads, red and white, blue and white, or black and reflective yellow (or white) flags shall be fastened to the fence. If access is blocked, a dead-end sign will be erected on the approach to the fence with the distance of the obstruction marked below the sign. However, if there is a temporary by-pass, a "DIVERSION AHEAD" sign shall be erected on the approach to the fence and diversion arrows showing the route shall be displayed on the fence in black and yellow (or white) reflective material. 7.6.6 A suitable number of soundly constructed access gates shall be provided. The number of access gates will be kept to a minimum on main thoroughfares (See NFPA 231 Appendix 'C'). A minimum of two fifteen-foot wide gates are required. 7.6.7 Standard Saudi Arab Government stop signs will be fixed to the inside of the vehicle access gates.

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7.6.8 Temporary signs should be erected to route traffic in the safest manner to, from, and within the site. Temporary signs shall not be placed on public highways and roads (reference Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations). 7.6.9 While not in use all power driven construction equipment must have the ignition locked and key removed. If there is no lock for the cab and access can be readily made into the engine compartment, then the machine must be made immobile by disconnecting the battery or by any other means especially if the equipment is left outside the perimeter. This must be carried out before leaving the equipment unattended. 7.6.10 Crane booms, bulldozer blades, and front end loader buckets on all construction equipment should be lowered when the equipment is left overnight. For a crane boom where this is not possible, the boom will be locked off in such a manner that it cannot be dropped or blown over by the wind. 7.6.11 Job site electrical power must be de-energized at night unless required for specific lighting facilities or used by a night watchman. 7.6.12 The project will provide its own barricades. Barricades will only be supplied by the area Industrial Security Departments on a short term emergency basis. 7.6.13 Any excavation or obstruction of any kind likely to create a hazard to vehicular traffic at night will be adequately lit and a sign posted. (See GI 1021.000.) 7.6.14 If large pools of water are formed which cannot be adequately drained, these shall be separately fenced or barricaded if they constitute a safety hazard.

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7.6.15 There shall be no indiscriminate dumping of excavation spoil or building materials. Fire hydrants, manholes and electrical conduits will be kept clear at all times. The contractor's engineer shall designate sites for dumping. 7.6.16 All manhole covers will be replaced or the manhole properly barricaded. 7.6.17 Guy ropes will be clearly marked day and night as will any rope used as a barricade. 7.6.18 Refuse must be disposed of at a job site approved for such purposes and the contractor must have permission to use the site. Approved disposal sites can be those of Saudi Aramco or local municipalities. It is forbidden for contractors to dump refuse in any unauthorized area. 7.6.19 Clock stations can be requested from Industrial Security provided sufficient notice is given to ensure their availability. 7.6.20 The Saudi Aramco Project Representative shall notify the Loss Prevention Department representative and also the area Industrial Security Department about the time and place for the pre-construction meeting and also the first weekly site meeting which these departments should plan to attend. 7.6.21 It is the responsibility of the Company representative to initiate road closure requirements on work activity to ensure that all construction/maintenance adheres to the conditions of GI 1021.000 (See Appendix D) and that a notice of intent is placed in the company "Highlights and Notices" publication before work start-up.

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8.0

FIRST AID

First aid is the immediate help that is provided at the site to an injured or seriously ill person before professional medical help can be obtained. It is the responsibility of all contractors to ensure that proper first aid is available to their employees on all job sites. Provisions shall be made prior to start-up of the project for prompt medical attention in case of medical emergencies. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1321.015 GI 150.002 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements Injury and Damage Reporting First Aid Facilities Request for Air Medical Evacuation First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas

8.1

Provision of First Aid Facilities
Every contractor shall provide first aid facilities on all sites for his employees. The first aid facility shall be kept in a sanitary condition at all times. Minimum requirements shall include the following: a telephone; desk; hot and cold water; wash basin; examining table; air conditioning; adequate lighting; and dust tight medical supply cabinet. 8.1.1 First aid supplies shall be kept readily available in a cabinet designated for those supplies only. (See 8.3 for a recommended list of cabinet contents.) 8.1.2 This cabinet shall be placed under the charge of a first aid attendant, who shall ensure the cabinet is well stocked at all times. 8.1.3 A suitable type of stretcher must be available on all sites.

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8.1.4 Contractors shall post notices indicating the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 8.1.5 Contractors on pipeline and power line work or who are working in remote areas shall ensure that one vehicle is equipped with a well-stocked first aid kit for each crew, and that at least one man in every crew is trained in first aid. The vehicle shall be marked to indicate that it carries a first aid kit. (See GI 150.002. First Aid Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas.) 8.1.6 A site register shall be maintained by all contractors listing all injuries treated. (See Figure I.3 Example.) The name of the person who is in charge of the first aid cabinet. The hospital to which any injured person who requires hospital treatment is to be sent. The telephone number of the doctor or first aid attendant employed by the contractor. The emergency telephone number to be called for assistance.

8.2

First Aid Attendants
8.2.1 When more than 50 persons are emp loyed within a radius of 15 kilometers, first aid facilities run by a nurse familiar with first aid cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requirements and exclusively assigned to medical duties. 8.2.2 Those persons in charge of first aid supplies on smaller sites with less than 50 workers should be trained in first aid procedures. 8.2.3 The contractor shall provide, or make arrangements to provide, a dedicated emergency vehicle (ambulance), properly supplied and marked, to transport injured personnel to the nearest designated health care facility. Each ambulance shall be equipped, as a minimum, with the following supplies: • • • • • Stretcher and blankets Portable oxygen Splints for bone fractures Bandages/rubber tourniquet Sterile wash water

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Article II The employer shall assign one or more persons to be responsible for administering first aid to the injured at all times during working hours. 12. 2534 July 26. 404 Based on Articles 245 of Labor Law Article I An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall provide at the work site a first aid cabinet containing bandages.0 First Aid Page 67 . 14.2. A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile large-size hand dressings. A pair of scissors with blunt ends. February 1993 . A sufficient number of not less than 12 sterile. a separate cabinet shall be provided for every group consisting of more than ten workmen. 8. A sufficient number of stretchers for moving injured persons. 3. No. in width. a wooden Carr splint for the forearm. Two 10-gram shakers of sulfa powder for sterilization of wounds. A medium-sized Thomas' thigh splint. 100 grams of aromatic ammonia solution in a glass bottle with a glass stopper. 2. 13. If work is carried out in scattered locations which are more than 300 meters apart. 16. A minimum of ten 70 x 70 bandages for burns. A minimum of safety pins.4 Medical Evacuation Capabilities Saudi Aramco has the ability to provide air medical evacuations (Medevac) for both onshore and offshore medical emergencies with helicopters or fixed wing aircraft. 1974) Decision No.8. 1 cm. 15. and disinfectants as follows: 1. Not less than 100 grams of Mercurochrome in aqueous solution. 6. in width. A minimum of 6 triangle bandages. Such supply shall not be less than 200 grams of cotton wool in small 25-gram packages and two 500-gram packages. 5. Not less than 4 yards of adhesive tape in rolls.015 and shall be incorporated in the Contractor's Loss Prevention Program plan. provided that the person-in-charge shall be one of the establishment's employees who will either be trained in first-aid procedures in accordance with a program to be agreed upon with the Saudi Red Crescent Society. and other types of ready-to-use splints. or who holds a certificate from a hospital attesting that he has practiced first-aid and is qualified to administer it. 10. 7. a wooden posterior leg splint. 8. 11. 17. in width.3 First Aid Facilities At Work Site (Originally Published in Umm al-Qura. a wooden palm splint. 9. A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 11 cm. A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile medium-size hand dressings. small-size finger dressings. A sufficient supply of absorbent cotton wool for packing and firming up splints. The procedures to initiate a Medevac are covered in GI 1321. 4. medicines.8. Ointment for burns containing a disinfectant and an analgesic. a wooden elbow splint. A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 7 cm.

Article III An employer who employs 50 or more laborers shall provide at the work site a first aid room which meets the following standards: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) It shall meet all sanitary specifications. Article V The first aid cabinet shall be of hard wood or sheet metal. measuring 85 cm. in length. An adequate number of stretchers shall be available for moving the injured to the first aid room. Article VII The Director General of the Department of Labor Inspection shall be charged with implementing this decision. in depth. the said room shall not be more than 300 meters from the farthest work site. It shall be conveniently located and readily accessible to injured persons and stretcher-bearers.0 First Aid Page 68 . Article IV Supplies of any item in the first aid cabinets and rooms shall be replenished whenever they fall below the levels specified herein. All first aid cabinets shall be conveniently located in clean place above floor level and shall always be ready for use and easily accessible at all times. provided that they are in proportion to the number of workmen. Article VI An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall assign an appropriate number of his workmen to receive first aid training in accordance with Article II.8. They shall be painted white and shall be provided with one lock and more than one key. A licensed nurse shall be on duty at all times during working hours under the supervision of a physician. February 1993 . Where quick means of transporting for the injured are not available. and to fix the number of stretchers and the number of workmen to be trained. in width. to stipulate special first aid procedures to implement the above articles. He is authorized to increase the contents of the first aid cabinets or rooms in those industries and trades requiring such an increase. First aid materials and supplies shall be no less than those specified under Article I. Signs shall be posted in conspicuous places at the various work sites to indicate the location of the cabinet and the name of the workmen in charge of first aid. to determine the placing (if he deems it necessary) of first aid cabinets for any group comprising less than ten workmen. and 30 cm. The cabinets shall bear the Red Crescent insignia and the words "First Aid Cabinet". 45 cm.

If the number of his workmen in a single location or town. the expenses shall be taken from the Social Insurance Funds. provided that this minimum shall not be less than three times a week.0 First Aid Page 69 . the stages of his treatment. exceeds fifty. In case operations are performed. and the periods of his absence from work. the employer shall assign a physician to examine and treat the workmen at the place to be provided by the employer for this purpose. in order to provide the workmen with first aid. a description of the cases of his illness. he shall employ a nurse who shall be familiar with first-aid services and shall be exclusively assigned to rendering such services. shall be determined pursuant to the decision to be made by the Minister of Labor in agreement with the Minister of Health. if the number of workmen is less than fifty. and the employer shall provide them with the medicines necessary for their treatment. the number of workmen exceeds a hundred. However.4 Labor And Workmen Law Saudi Labor And Workmen Law Chapter 7 Protection An Social Services Labor And Workmen Law Articles 134-6 Article 134 The employer shall provide first-aid services for the workmen in accordance with the standards to be determined by the Minister of Labor in collaboration with the Minister of Health. If in the cases mentioned above. and of the names of the hospitals which he has designated for that purpose. as well as in cases of incurable diseases. as well as the party who will assume such costs. Article 136 Every employer shall prepare for each workman a medical file showing the result of the medical examination performed on the workman upon his employment. he shall inform the Office of the names of the physicians and specialists whom he has selected to treat his workmen. provided that mention shall be made in the file of the kinds of ordinary and occupational diseases and labor injuries. the employer shall. or within a radius of fifteen kilometers. or to the rules laid down in the Social Insurance Law. Article 135 Every employer who employs more than fifty workmen shall inform the appropriate Labor Office of the name of the physician who he has selected to treat his workmen. medicines and hospitalizations in government or charitable hospitals. In case he employs more than an hundred workmen. in addition.8. he must notify the appropriate Labor Office of the minimum number of days fixed for the examination of workmen. the employer must provide the workmen with a medical aid cabinet which shall be maintained in a good condition and shall contain the bandages. and antiseptics to be determined by the Minister of Labor in agreement with the Minister of Health. provide them with all other means of treatment in cases requiring treatment by specialists.8. In both cases. or performance of surgical other operations. The costs of treatment. medicines. The aforementioned services shall be free of charge whether during work hours or otherwise. February 1993 .

First Aid Page 70 . Name Of Injured Badge Numbe r Craft Date Of Accident Carry Over Yes/No Days Lost This Month Nature O f Injury And Part Of Body Affected Brief Description Of Accident State What. Where.:________________________Month & Year:____________________ Contractor:__________________________________File No. How.3: INJURY S UMMARY Injury Summary (Page ___of___) Project:__________________________________Proje ct No. Why Total Lost Time Injuries This Month: Total Days Lost: Total Man-hours Worked This Month: Report Prepared By:________________________________ Signature:_________________________________ Title And Telephone:__________________________________________________________________ February 1993 .:_________________________ Injury No.FIGURE I.

(See Table I.1. Health and Environmental Requirements OSHA: Code Of Federal Regulations 1910.Protective Headgear For Industrial Workers .005 Personal Flotation Devices For Work Over.1-89 Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection ANSI Z 89. Should it prove impractical to eliminate the hazard. steps should be taken to eliminate the hazard by engineering controls.) INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT When a hazardous situation is recognized. steps must be taken to select the proper type of equipment and ensure that the supervisor instructs his employees in the use and care of that equipment.9.Requirements February 1993 . in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer and Saudi Aramco.020 GI 7.Construction Safety Manual . When it has been decided that personal protective equipment is required. then personal protective equipment must be used that meets the requirements of ANSI or equivalent standards.1-86 Personnel Protection .Fire Prevention Page 71 .003 GI 8.027 GI 8. On Or Near Water Personnel Work Platform Operations Prescription Safety Glasses Breathing Apparatus Protective (Safety) Footwear Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -A-105 SAES -H-102 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. 1915 and 1926 ASTM D120.E1 -87 Standard Specifications For Rubber Insulating Gloves ANSI Z 41-83 Personnel Protection .002 GI 8.Protective Footwear Noise Safety Requirements For Painting ANSI Z 87.

are prohibited from all Saudi Aramco work areas. high impact. and a chin strap. 9. or subjection to extreme heat. etc. 9.1 Employees working in areas where there is danger of head injury from impact. shall be protected by protective helmets as per ANSI referenced standards or equivalent.1. or whenever there are overhead hazards.6 A safety helmet should be worn by all persons at all times when on a construction job site. Holes should not be drilled into helmet to facilitate use of such equipment as this can seriously impair both the mechanical strength and the electrical resistance of the helmet.0 Fire Prevention Page 72 . Each helmet consists of a shell. 9. They must be selected. a suspension cradle.1.4 Safety hats or helmets shall not be painted.1. from falling or flying objects.1 Head Protection Safety hats or helmets are rigid headgear made of materials designed to protect the head from impact.9.5 The complete helmet should be cleaned regularly with soap and water.1. The type of protection selected will depend on the hazard. therefore.3 Ancillary equipment such as ear muffs. is of prime importance in an industrial environment.1. 9. Helmets should be scrapped following any penetration. 9. flying particles.2 Eye and Face Protection Protection of the eyes and face from injury by physical or chemical agents or light radiation. and used with regard to both the type of hazard and the optical condition of February 1993 .11. electric shock. It is therefore essential that it be properly adjusted to the wearer's head so there is a gap of at least one and a half inches between the top of the suspension cradle and the helmet shell. in an operating plant area. can be obtained to fit on helmet shells. but it should be borne in mind that all eye protection and most face protection devices must be considered as optical instruments. fitted. 9. Metal hard hats do not afford proper impact or electrical protection and. 9.2 The suspension cradle gives a helmet its impact distribution qualities. etc. or from electrical shock and burns. welders shields.1.

9. and other abuses to which the footwear may be subjected. sprays of hazardous liquids. Gloves should not be used near moving machinery as they can be caught and trap the hand before it can be withdrawn from the glove. Cushion fitting goggles. Designed in two shapes. Safety footwear is available in many styles.2. Spectacles used for protection against frontal impact. fire. and hot solutions. they afford limited protection against side impact and should not be worn while driving if they interfere with peripheral vision. with special soles to resist oil. caustic.2 Eye Protection from Radiant Energies In addition to damage from physical and chemical agents.4 Foot Protection Foot protection used must be manufactured to the referenced ANSI standard Z41-83 (or its equivalent). 9.11. Chipping goggles. abrasion. safety spectacles and chemical goggles shall be worn under the face shield. etc. Flexible fitting goggles. slipping. Comfort is particularly important for the wearer. Four basic types of protection are: 1.2. 9. A flexible frame surrounding the lens gives protection against flying objects. 9.) The wearing of contact lenses is not recommended in areas where eye protection is required. (See Figure I. heat. February 1993 . general wear and tear. 2. splashes of molten metal. 5. acid.9A.2. wear.3 Hand Protection The kind of gloves used depends primarily upon the material or equipment being handled and can be resistant against one or more of the following: heat. the eyes are vulnerable to the effects of radiant energy such as that produced during welding. (See Figures I. one for individuals who do not wear spectacles and one to fit over prescription spectacles. Where required. 9.1 Eye Protection from Impact Factors to be considered in selecting impact resistant eye protection include the degree of protection required and the comfort provided as required by ANSI or equivalent requirements. 3.9 and I. When fitted with side shields. A rigid plastic frame surrounding the lens and a separate cushioned fitting surface on the facing contact area gives protection against flying objects. so safety footwear must fit properly.).5. 4.3 Face Protection Face shields protect the face and neck from flying particles. Chemical goggles.0 Fire Prevention Page 73 . cold. sharp edges.the user. Visible and non-visible bands of the light spectrum can produce harmful effects upon the eyes and special attention must be paid to the selection of eye protection from these hazards. oil. Separate rigid plastic eyecups with lens.

Liquid or grease filled cushions between the shell and the head are more effective than plastic or foam-filled types.1 Ear Plugs Ear plugs are placed into the canal of the outer ear. should consideration be given to providing hearing protection to individual workmen. hearing protection devices shall be provided and used. the plug type and the cup (or muff) type. 9. Head size and shape can also affect their performance. shape.5.0 Fire Prevention Page 74 . Noise. Whenever it is infeasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of exposure to within the limits of SAES -A-105. 9. Only after engineering and mechanical methods of reducing noise levels have been explored. The use of hearing protection devices shall be properly evaluated to ensure that the selected devices give the necessary noise attenuation and protection. wax. size. The two most commonly used ones are the full body safety harness and the safety belt. The effectiveness of ear muffs varies considerably due to differences in manufacturer.6 Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices There are several types of fall restraining devices used throughout the construction industry. and type of suspension.5. plastic. Noise can be defined as "any unwanted sound". 9. Fashion type safety "toe" shoes with canvas. foam or Swedish wool. Disposable types are preferred as they give good protection and are very sanitary.Approved safety footwear are sturdy work shoes with leather uppers and/or leather composition with steel toe caps. shell mass. The proper individual fitting of both types of hearing protection is critical as any sound leakage can seriously impair efficiency of these devices. but they would present material leakage problems. Materials used for these plugs are rubber.5 Hearing Protection Increasing attention is being paid to the problem of excessive noise in industry.2 Ear Muffs Ear muffs cover the external ear to provide an acoustic barrier. five day work week may endanger a person's hearing. where fall restraining and arresting protection is February 1993 .) Hearing loss will result from over-exposure to excessive noise levels. 9. Soles and heels are "non"-slip type. There are two types of hearing protection available. Medical authorities state that continual exposure to noise levels above 90 dBA for an eight hour day. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise shall not exceed the requirements of SAES -A-105. seal material. (See reference SAES -A-105.11. Noise. The intensity of noise is commonly expressed in terms of decibels (dBA) and measured by a sound level meter. The safe period of exposure to a noise level is inversely proportional to the level of the noise. Harnesses are used for above ground work. nylon and/or other soft composition uppers or soles are not considered safety shoes and are not approved by Saudi Aramco.

6.) The maximum length of standard lanyards shall be limited to provide for a fall of no greater than 1.6.) 9.6. including type.6. and must be thoroughly inspected both on issue and at the start of each shift. February 1993 . Exceptions shall require the review and concurrence of the Loss Prevention Department.400 pounds).3 No fall restraining or arresting device is any stronger than the point of attachment. (Refer to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.450 kilograms (5. Appendix C 1991. All fall arresting/restraining devices and hardware shall be manufactured to ANSI or equivalent standards and fully described in the Hazard Identification Plan (HIP).82 meters (6 feet) except in the case of mechanical fall arresting devices which have been reviewed and received concurrence by the Loss Prevention Department.6 During all operations conducted from a personnel platform (man basket) at any height above ground level.2 Special attention should be given to achieve a snug fit of the safety harness as it is easy for a man to slip through sound but badly adjusted equipment and fall.required.6.5 Fall protection devices shall be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 2450 kilograms (5400 pounds). all users should be carefully instructed in the importance of a firm anchorage.400 pounds).0 Fire Prevention Page 75 . 9.82 meters (6 feet) or for potential falls of six feet or greater. (See Figure I. 9.66. Therefore.6. Safety belts should not be used as part of the fall arrest system.6. The lanyard shall have a minimum breaking strength of 2. model and manufacturer. 9.11. 9.4 Fall restraining/arresting devices must be stored in clean and dry conditions away from sunlight. Safety belts are used to restrain the wearer at his place of work. 9.1 Full body harnesses are required when working in areas with no guard rails at heights above 1.450 kilograms (5. fall protection devices (lanyards) shall be secured to an anchorage point or a structural member located on the basket which can support a minimum dead weight of 2.

chemical cartridge 7. 9. 8. 8. Lanyard 1. etc. Respirable air fed hood with filter 6. Safety glasses with side shields (1A=Clear. 8. 10C. 10D.82m (6FD). Breathing quality air shall be supplied to the worker through the use of an air fed hood or self contained breathing apparatus.82 m above ground without the protection of a guard rail system. 10D. Table II. 15A 1A &B. Respiratory protection shall be used anytime workers could inhale air contaminants exceeding permissible exposure limits (PEL). 9. 8.11. 10 C/D. 10B. 8. local hazards. 9. Standard safety belt 13. 10 C/D. 8. 15A 1. Safety foot wear (9A=shoes. Goggles. 9. 8. Safety hat helmet 9. & 14 A/B. conditions. One piece coverall (15A=Standard. 10C. 9B=boots) 10./E. 10E=Heat resistant) 11.7 1. Typical Job Classifications Abrasive blast cleaner Boiler maker Carpenter Electrician Iron worker . 9. 8. Gloves. 10D. Face shield 3. The Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene office in your area should be contacted for further details. or B 1. Table II. 10B= Rubber molded. 4. 15A 1.0 Fire Prevention Page 76 . 15A. 15A See Section II. 15B Key To Personal Protective Equipment 1. 9. 12/13 & 14 A/B. 8. (14A=Standard. 10C. 15A 1. 14B=Shock Absorbing) 15.TABLE I. 9. 2. 9. 15A 1. Respirator. Any worker 1. Many job classifications may require additional personal protective equipment depending on the work location. February 1993 . 10C.structural Lineman Mason Material Control Man Mechanic/Machinist Painter Pipe fitter Plumber Rigger Roof worker Scaffold erector Sheet metal worker Welder Basic Personal Protective Equipment To Be Worn (see key below) See Section II. Respirator dust 8. 10C/A. 8. 8. or in a confined space. 10D= Leather. shall wear a full body harness and standard lanyard. 9. Ear protection (11A=Ear plugs. 11B=Ear muffs) 12.1: BASIC PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT The table below is a list of basic personal protective equipment. 13 & 14 A/B. 15B=Fire Resistant) Notes: All personal protective equipment shall meet ANSI/OSHA or their equivalent requirements. safety impact (3A=Clear. 15A 1.7 1. 15B 1. type of job. 9. 15A 1. 8. 15A 1. 12/13 & 14 A/B. 8. 15A 1. 8. Full body harness 14. 9. 10C. 9. 9. 10C. 15A 1. 9. 10C. 15A 1. (10A= Rubber coated. 8. 12/13.11. 1B=Shaded) 2. 3B=Shaded) 4. 10C = General purpose. and when an oxygen deficient atmosphere could be encountered. 10C/A. 9. Welding hood and skull guard (Lens shaded to suit work) 5.11.

C. cutting burning Electric arc welding Chemical handling Chipping Furnace operations Grinding (light) Grinding (heavy) Laboratory Machining Molten metals Spot welding Hazards Sparks. E. molten metal Flying particles Flying particles Chemical splash.FIGURE I. FACE S HIELDS AND HELMETS TYPICAL EYE PROTECTION APPLICATIONS Operation Acetylene-welding. B. fumes Flying particles Glare. E. glare. acid burns.4: PROTECTIVE GOGGLES . splash Flying particles. E. intense rays. molten metal. S PECTACLES .0 Fire Prevention Page 77 . G February 1993 . B. E (A or B tinted + C) A. glass breakage Flying particles Heat. G D. F. G D. C. B. G G. flying particles Splash. G C. H (Severe +C) A. B. H (A or B +C) A. E. sparks Protection D. heat. C. harmful rays. molten metal. flying particles Sparks. F I G. F A. C. D.11. sparks.

3/8-inch diameter electrodes Atomic hydrogen welding Carbon-arc welding Soldering Torch brazing Light oxy fuel gas cutting. 5/32inch diameter electrodes Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-.0 Fire Prevention Page 78 . up to 1/8-inch Gas welding (medium).11. over 1/2-inch Air-carbon arc cutting Comfort Shade number 10 11 12 12 14 10-14 14 2 3 or 4 3 or 4 4 or 5 5 or 6 4 or 5 5 or 6 6 or 8 12 February 1993 . 1/8-. 1/8-inch to 1/2 inch Gas welding (heavy). over 6 inches Gas welding (light). 1/4-inch diameter electrodes Shielded metal-arc welding 5/16-. 1/8-.4A: PROTECTIO N AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY Protection against radiant energy requires the selection and use of the proper shades of welding filter lens or plate. 5/32-inch diameter electrodes Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-. 7/32-. 1 inch to 6 inches Heavy oxy fuel gas cutting. Shades more dense than those listed may be used to suit the individual's needs. 1/8-.FIGURE I. 3/32-. up to 1 inch Medium oxy fuel gas cutting. The table below shall be used as a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers of filter lenses or plates used in welding. FILTER LENS S HADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY Welding Operation Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-. 5/32-inch diameter electrodes Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc welding (ferrous) 1/16-. 3/32-. 3/32-.

0 Fire Prevention Page 79 .11.FIGURE I.5: S PECIALIZED HAND PROTECTORS February 1993 .

0 Fire Prevention Page 80 .11.6: TYPICAL S ELF-POWERED PLATFORM FOR BUILDING MAINTENANCE February 1993 .FIGURE I.

10.1980 Practices for Respiratory Protection US. Each user must receive instructions on the proper use and limitations of the device. it is necessary to develop an orderly m ethod for determining the appropriate device to be employed. Health and Environmental Requirements .Oil By-Products Protection Program (Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization. .0 BREATHING APPARATUS Where industrial processes create hazardous atmospheric contaminants. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6. In those cases where engineering control measures are not possible. Bureau of Mines: Respiratory Protection (See 30 CFR Part II) 10. the first consideration should always be the application of engineering measures to control the contaminants. Saudi Arabia) Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. Dhahran. Personnel shall not be placed in a hazardous environment for which the respirator is not designed.0 Fire Prevention Page 81 . as well as demonstrations and practice in how to fit and wear it.11.021 GI 8. Persons should not be assigned tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been predetermined by medical examination that the worker is physically able to perform the work and use the breathing apparatus properly.2. As each type is suitable for certain applications. February 1993 . such as a location where there is a lack of sufficient oxygen. affected personnel must be supplied with personal respiratory protective equipment.Personal Protective Equipment American National Standards: ANSI Z88.003 TM-3 Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning Air Supplied Breathing Apparatus Technical Memorandum And Attachment .1 Selection of Equipment A wide variety of respiratory protective equipment is available.

Using incorrect cartridges or filters for the type contaminant and the concentration encountered. This attitude can be changed by education and training. dentures and facial bone structure can affect the fit of the respirator. Always keep the respirator clean and well-maintained. chemical properties. He should not permit respiratory equipment to be used for protection against hazards for which it was not designed. including its physical properties. e. 10. Beards.11. The state of health of the personnel or users involved. not realizing that failure to wear it may endanger their lives. The functional and physical characteristics of the respiratory protective devices. c. Using defective or improperly inspected equipment. any worker refusing to wear the necessary respiratory equipment will not be allowed to work without it. However.0 Fire Prevention Page 82 . and its concentration. February 1993 .1. Do not hesitate to consult your supervisor if there are any questions concerning your personal respiratory protection.Consider the following factors when selecting a suitable respiratory protective device: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The nature of the hazardous operation or process. always make sure that the mask fits properly. The use of approved respirators only.2 Misuse Workers sometimes consider respiratory equipment a nuisance. as the risk of injury or death is very real when safety precautions are ignored.1. physiological effects on the body. Finally. Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators in oxygen deficient atmospheres. Common misuses of respiratory protection equipment include: a. d. 10. The contractor must know the specific hazards for which a given type of respiratory equipment is approved. Be sure to wear the right respirator for the hazard. The location of the hazard with respect to a source of uncontaminated respirable air. Using equipment without having received adequate on training on it. follow manufacturer's specifications for proper cartridge use and established safety procedures. Proper fit is important to prevent contaminants from leaking in. The type of air contaminant. respirators only work if you use them correctly.1 Requirements For Use As with all personal protective equipment. Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators when toxic levels are above the respirator-rated capacity. that there is a tight seal and no air leakage. Never alter or modify the respiratory equipment. The period of time for which respiratory protection must be provided. b. For face mask respirators.

not more than 10 parts per million (ppm) Carbon dioxide.0 Fire Prevention Page 83 .11. Oil mist.) Respirable air shall be controlled to the following conditions at all times: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Oxygen. Carbon monoxide. 10.1 February 1993 . the following: • • • • • • • • Asbestos Creosol (cresylic acid) Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Tetraethyl lead and its compounds Mercury and its compounds Nitroglycerine Organic phosphate insecticides Solvents 10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices Respiratory protective devices can be classified as follows: 1 2 3 Air purifying respirators Supplied air respirators Self-contained breathing devices Air Purifying Respirators 10.76 mg/l Particulates. not more than 5 mg/m3 @ NTP Water vapor.g. the digestive tract and the skin include.2. at a minimum.10% vol. Hazardous substances which can enter the body through the respiratory system. not more than 0.1 Gas Masks The gas mask type of respirator consists of a face piece and filter. No one chemical agent has been found that will remove all gaseous contaminants. (See GI 8. so the canister must be carefully chosen to fit the 10. not more than 0.1. 1) and referred to as Grade 'D' breathing air. Respirable air quality must meet this standard. Air cooling devices (e. but are not limited to.2.10. not less than 19-23% vol. The air delivered to the user must be less than 100o F (38o C) and supplied at 6 standard cubic feet per minute (6 SCFM).1. ingested via the digestive tract and absorbed into the skin causing systemic injury to the human body. none The above standards are based on Compressed Air Gas Association (Table No.3 Hazardous Substances Protection is required against those hazardous substances which can be inhaled into the respiratory system.003.1. vortex tubes) may be necessary.4 Contaminants Air supplied to respiratory equipment must be free from contaminants.

Canister gas masks with full face pieces are effective against higher concentrations of contaminants.2. the adaptation of the face piece to faces of various sizes and shapes.11. Equipping the respirator with a small cylinder of compressed air to provide an emergency air supply qualifies the respirator for use in immediately hazardous atmospheres. Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators) A particulate filter respirator protects against the inhalation of nonvolatile particles.3 Supplied Air Respirators A supplied air respirator permits the user to breathe respirable air while working in a hazardous atmosphere. For example. but cartridge respirators are for use only in atmospheres not immediately dangerous to life or health. It is critical that the cartridge be matched to the specific application.2. and good protection (when properly selected.2. An area where the chemical cartridge respirator works very well is in spray painting. A canister designed for a specific gas will give longer protection than a canister designed for a multitude of gases and vapors. welding.1 Air Line Respirators The air line respirator (see Figure I. 10. There are two basic types of air line respirators: 1 2 the continuous flow. adequately supplied with respirable air.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators Chemical cartridge respirators consist of a face piece (usually half mask) connected directly to one or two small containers of filters/chemicals.specific need.0 Fire Prevention Page 84 .1. The major items to be considered are: 1 2 3 10.2. insecticide spraying. and their toxicity. metalizing and prolonged production work in hazardous areas. they do not provide protection against oxygen deficiency.2 The resistance to breathing offered by the filtering element.8) is suitable for respiratory protection in atmospheres not immediately hazardous to life.1. The chemicals used are similar to those found in gas mask canisters. usage under diverse conditions. the pressure demand flow. it is often used for spray painting. However. Important advantages are simplicity of design. 10. 10. February 1993 . It is particularly suited to some types of jobs because it is light and may be worn for long periods of time without appreciable discomfort. and used for the purposes for which they were designed and approved).2. the fineness of the particles to be filtered out.

This equipment must be used only by welltrained and qualified personnel. This equipment typically consists of a high pressure cylinder of air. whereas the demand flow type must always be used with a tight-fitting face piece.2.2. The pressure demand flow air line respirators are normally used when air must be conserved. full face piece. a set amount of air is continuously fed to the face piece. A person who wears glasses or who has a beard cannot wear this type of breathing apparatus as a proper seal cannot be obtained between the mask and face. Consideration must be given for the clearance of safety equipment through manholes and other accessways. as may be the case when the supply is from a cylinder of compressed air. a regulator.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators Abrasive blasting respirators are used to protect personnel engaged in sand or other abrasive blasting operations. (See Figure I.11. The amount is regulated by an air control valve of special inlet design which is not susceptible to accidental changes of the setting even when jarred. They contain a regulator at the lower end of the breathing tube. For these conditions. February 1993 . self contained breathing apparatus shall be used. in addition to being acutely poisonous and immediately hazardous to life. a cylinder valve. The requirements for this type of respirator are the same as those for an air line respirator of the continuous flow type with the addition that mechanical protection from abrasive particles is needed for the head and neck.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) When entry into a hazardous atmosphere is necessary. The need to have the mask properly fitted before use is important. a face piece and tube with an exhalation valve. This permits air to flow under slight preset positive pressure to the face piece only when the wearer breathes. 2 10.9.3 Air Supplied Suits The most extreme condition requiring respiratory equipment is rescue or emergency repair work done in atmospheres which are extremely corrosive to the skin and mucus membranes.) 10.The continuous flow respirator may be assembled to a half mask.2.0 Fire Prevention Page 85 . 10.2.2. full suits of impervious clothing with respirable air supplies are available. A slight positive pressure on the inside of the mask is always maintained to prevent inward leakage of the contaminated outside atmospheric air. 1 In the continuous air line respirator. or hood.

10.3 Training In many cases.1. Filter outlet temperature to operator's mask/hood is 100o F maximum. The local Loss Prevention Division and the Industrial Hygiene Unit will assist contractors in the selection and use of respiratory protective equipment.supply rate is 6 CFM for hoods without vortex tube and 25 CFM for hoods with vortex tube. Under such conditions. an exception from this requirement is made in an emergency situation where use of such equipment is necessary to escape from a hazardous condition. A rescue man with a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCAB) is required when equipment is used in immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmospheres.4.0 Fire Prevention Page 86 . Fit testing of mask/hood prior to each use. the following safety precautions are required: 1 Breathing air compressors shall have: • Pressure Relief Valve • High temperature alarm • Periodic carbon monoxide (CO) testing to ensure it meets the CGA Grade 'D' limit • Breathing air tested to meet requirements. (See manufacturers' specifications. The air. Air Compressors • • • Air compressors shall operate at 245o F and 150 psig maximum. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10.) Proper training of employees in the use of this equipment.SCBAs must be used in lieu of airline respirators when the distance from the source of fresh air supplied via the air line hose is greater than 91 meters (300 ft) per ANSI Z88.4 Safety Precautions When air supplied respirators are used. respirators are used in emergency situations where there is heightened physical demands on the body. 10. Proper cleaning and inspection program for equipment.4. Employees determined by a medical evaluation to be physically fit to use equipment. it is essential that the potential users have been thoroughly trained and are medically fit (per TM 3 or equivalent) to cope with the increased level of physical activity and stress.) Intake air filters to compressors and outlet filters to operator mask/hood are required. Air supplied respirator's maximum intake temperature and pressure are 140o F (60o C) and 125 psig respectively. However. (See section 10.11.1 February 1993 . Written standard operating procedures for using the equipment. Life lines shall always be attached to the safety belt worn by employees using a respirator.2-1980. due to stress and excitement.

0 Fire Prevention Page 87 .FIGURE I.11.7: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION February 1993 .

11.8: CLEARANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR S AFETY EQ UIPMENT February 1993 .FIGURE I.0 Fire Prevention Page 88 .

1 Before the Job Starts Construction within a petroleum industry complex requires careful planning since plants and support facilities being constructed are frequently next to those already in operation.Fire Extinguishers National Safety Council Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations NFPA: National Fire Codes NFPA 231-Appendix C. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.102 Fire Fighting Dispatching Procedure Refinery Instruction Manual: No.0 FIRE PREVENTION This section covers measures to prevent fires and protect against all their possible harmful effects. 2. Health and Environmental Requirements . types of work permits required and type/quantity of equipment required on-site. in order to avoid injury to personnel and loss of time and materials. and Auxiliary Fire Fighting Equipment Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.806 Fire Watch Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -B-7A SAES -B-7C Fire Water System and Design Portable.000-1 Work Permit System Fire and Safety Watch Inspection/Maintenance .11. "Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard" 11. work permit schedules.711 GI 1781. because of a large amount of fuel present at both locations.Fire Protection Equipment Fire Reports Abqaiq Plants Operations Instruction Manual: No. 1.11. The factors which must be considered before the job starts include site preparation. February 1993 .001-1 GI 1787. An accident at a construction site can have serious effects on a nearby oil or gas facility and vice-versa.0 Fire Prevention Page 89 .100 GI 2. Mobile. Protection of Outdoor Storage.

4 Storage of flammable and explosive materials in the plant site should be restricted to minimum quantities necessary for an uninterrupted cycle of operations. storage of flammable and combustible materials. Overall requirements for site planning are in Section 7.2 Layout Good layout helps ensure the project can be carried out efficiently. housekeeping.As part of this process.2.0 Fire Prevention Page 90 . dust. The following principles of project layout and organization can help minimize fire risks: 11.11. staff training. 11. Examples are computer (and other electronic instrumentation and control gear) and large pumps and compressors. etc.2. control of ignition sources. 11. Consideration should also be given to protecting it against fire. paint spray.2. the contractor must take into account the potential hazards that can be encountered on site. 11.3 Be sure to provide adequate emergency access and egress. such as welding and spray painting.1 Avoid congestion around machinery and equipment where there is a high level of activity and traffic.2. which could be caused by storing it near combustible material and against water or other fire fighting agents that might be used to put out a fire. (See Appendix C attachment). secondary storage site outside the plant area where possible. 11. 11. and end-ofshift checks.3 Equipment Protection Some items of plant equipment need special handling and care after they arrive on site and until they are commissioned. These subjects are addressed in the Hazards Identification Procedure prior to construction start-up in Appendix A of this manual. should be isolated from flammable and explosive materials or specially protected. This section focuses on means of avoiding and controlling fires. use a larger.2 Operations having a high fire risk. protection of machinery and equipment. February 1993 . Such equipment should be covered and protected against possible damage that could result from its exposure to normal construction activity.

5 Flammable Liquids Flammable liquids are those that can produce a flammable mixture in air at ambient temperature.0 Fire Prevention Page 91 . No other materials should be stored with flammable liquids.1 Storage All flammable liquids must be kept in securely capped metal containers or steel drums on which the contents are clearly marked. 11. 11.4. Care in handling flammable fluids is of prime importance.11.11. 11.4. 11.4. asphalt kettles.4 Beware of indirect sources of ignition: hot welding slag dropped from a height for example.5 Open fires and/or open burning of materials are strictly prohibited. Gasoline.3 Welding equipment. acetone.4 Control of Ignition Sources Compliance with work permit procedures and conditions protects against possible ignition of oil or gas from process operations. and fuels used in the job itself. spirits and other volatile liquids with flash points below 32o C (90o F) should be kept in strong metal lockers located in well-ventilated. 11. 11.4.6 Proper bonding and grounding techniques shall be used for any operation where static electricity could become an ignition source.5. 11. lubricants. non-combustible huts or sheds.1 Electrical equipment should be checked regularly for defects. February 1993 .4. posted with a warning sign "Danger: Flammable Area" and must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) away from the nearest building or storage area for combustibles.4. or sparks from a fire under an asphalt kettle are familiar examples of this. Drums containing flammable fluids shall be provided with proper bung vents. In Saudi Aramco. heating appliances and other open flames or hot surfaces s hould be segregated from combustible materials. Authorization must be obtained from Saudi Aramco Fire Protection Department.2 Smoking is permitted only in designated areas. this is defined as a fluid (liquid or gas) having a flash point of 55o C (130o F) or lower. 11. Flammable storage areas must be securely locked (or fenced). The contractor must also take steps to prevent ignition of construction materials.

Engines must be stopped before refueling takes place. Exhaust pipes should be kept away from combustible materials.Flammable gases in cylinders (acetylene. easily accessible fire extinguishers on the job site (Schedule 'D').8 Emergency Equipment The Fire Protection Department area offices can assist in training Saudi Aramco employees in the proper use of fire fighting equipment. Good housekeeping on the site can eliminate many of the situations where a fire can start.) shall be stored separately. Use non-combustible absorbents to remove spills or leaks of oil. provides a good starting point for a fire. preferably under an open. lubricating oil and grease. scaffold planks. Waste should be removed at regular intervals and always at the end of a working day. Therefore.3 Ventilation Gasoline and diesel powered equipment should only be used in well-ventilated areas. The contractor should consult February 1993 .) Transfer operations should be carried out with funnels and there should be no open flames within 15 meters (50 feet) of the operation unless conditions warrant greater clearance. form lumber. electrical insulation.11. Any metal container holding flammable liquid must be a FM (or UL) approved type of safety container.) shall be segregated from other materials. etc. well-ventilated sun shade. chlorine. and other highly combustible wastes. wood shavings.6 Combustible Materials Although the main material used in the construction of plants for the petroleum industry is non-combustible steel or concrete. (See GI 1781. 11.0 Fire Prevention Page 92 .5. 11.) Each contractor has a contractual obligation to provide and maintain adequate. Metal bins with closefitting lids should be provided for oily rags. Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment. tires and other rubber goods.001.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids (Reference NFPA 30) In handling. Screw tops and stoppers should be replaced immediately.5. Contents of ash trays should not be mixed with other waste. propane. solvents) mentioned above. 11. in addition to the flammable liquids (fuels. and diesel fuel.7 Housekeeping Rubbish. (Plastic containers are prohibited. accumulated at a job site. Containers are to be grounded and bonded during transfer operations. paints. 11. nitrous oxide. Oxidizing gases (oxygen. etc. the following precautions should be observed: 1 2 Transportation must always be in (closed) metal containers. on a construction site many materials are potential fuel for a fire: packing material. 3 4 5 11. daily site clean up of combustible materials is required to reduce fire hazards.

but is usually found only within petroleum operating areas. and so forth and are usually very easily controlled by de-energizing the circuits that supply the power.8. a petroleum liquid. because the gas displaces oxygen from the immediate environment. The advantage of using CO2 in this particular instance is that it leaves no residue in the mechanisms of the electrical equipment and.8.with the local Fire Protection Unit for advice on selection of such equipment.2. a water tanker and portable water extinguishers will have to be supplied in order to take care of any Class "A" fires. are a necessity. the contractor is responsible for supplying hoses and nozzles.8. 11.5 liters (2-1/2 gallon) size.11. and "C" fires. These fires take place in motors.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher Water extinguishers should be available around sites where there will be Class "A" material.8. "B". February 1993 .0 Fire Prevention Page 93 . or packing crates.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher The carbon dioxide (CO2) type extinguisher is normally used for controlling electrical fires.6 kilograms (30 pounds) sizes.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher A dry chemical type extinguisher is normally used in controlling Class "B" fires in flammable liquids. such as wood. On construction sites within Saudi Aramco facilities a pressurized system of fire water hydrants and hoses will normally be available. 11. 11.1 CAUTION A CO2 extinguisher should never be used in enclosed areas where people are present. switch-gear. they can be fought with water. therefore. The typical portable water extinguisher comes in a 9. so this type of extinguisher will have limited use. Charged water hoses. ready for use. A dry chemical extinguisher normally comes in portable 9 kilograms (20 pounds) and 13. A larger wheeled extinguisher of 68 kilograms (150 pounds) and above is available. Some dry chemical extinguishers today have a powder which is good in controlling Class "A". This multipurpose ABC powder gives this particular fire extinguisher a good chance of controlling any type of fire involving a wood. paper. waste material. or electrical equipment. Contractor personnel should be aware of the fire fighting equipment available on site and be familiar with its use.4 Pressurized Water Where a pressurized water system is available on site.8. 11. There are three types of fire extinguishers normally found on construction sites: water. If there is no permanent system installed at a particular location. carbon dioxide and dry chemical types. Since most fires at construction sites involve Class "A" materials. 11. does not further contribute to the damage. When the oxygen level in the environment is reduced sufficiently to put out a fire. the oxygen level is also incapable of supporting human life.

Switch off electrical equipment at the mains.11. The emergency telephone number used for reporting a fire or any emergency that requires Saudi Aramco assistance is 110.9 Reporting a Fire Every fire.10 End-of-Shift Checks A routine inspection shall be made at the end of the working day to see that everything is left in a safe condition. The contractor must ensure that this number is posted at all telephones and that instructions are placed indicating how to report the emergency correctly.11. and to ensure the contractor has re-established his fire fighting capability by recharging extinguishers or replacing equipment. including those extinguished by contractor personnel. 11. The following itemized checklist shall be followed: • • • • • Clean-up and removal of rubbish and waste materials. should be reported to the Saudi Aramco representative. The Fire Protection Unit will inspect the area. hot equipment. Make a special check of smoking areas. to offer suggestions for preventing a recurrence. Cover valuable equipment to protect it against dirt and against the effects of water that might be used in an emergency. February 1993 . Return flammable liquids and gas cylinders to designated storage areas.0 Fire Prevention Page 94 . welding areas. Separate circuits should be provided for security lights and other equipment that has to be left turned on. etc. to be sure there is no possibility of delayed ignition resulting in a fire.

access is unobstructed and extinguisher is clearly visible. Check seals are unbroken and up to date inspection tag is fitted. If in doubt. indicate extinguisher is serviceable.9: KNOW YOUR FIRE EXTINGUISHER MAINTENANCE: Maintenance should comprise of a monthly check by proponent organization . contact your local fire control unit.Check extinguisher is in correct location. Check for signs of leakage. where fitted. Check contents gauges. or physical damage. corrosion. February 1993 .Fire Prevention Page 95 .FIGURE I.

It is more feasible to develop a radio communications network instead. Standard procedures must be followed in these radio operations.500 GI 80. offices. outlying plants and allied facilities.Ras Tanura Destruction Of Obsolete/Damaged.002 GI 1602. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 70.Dhahran Area Disaster Control .002 GI 1602.003 GI 1603.002 February 1993 . 85.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS In a widespread area such as that covered by Saudi Aramco operations.001 No.Plants and Pipelines Department . Message Switch And Facsimile Terminals See also OIMs. 554.001 Disaster Contingency Plan . The continuous development of the Saudi Aramco radio communications system has enabled us to convey messages to the most remote corner of the Company's operational area.001 GI 1602.500 GI 1600.Construction Safety Manual: Radio Communications Page 96 . it is not cost effective to lay down telephone lines and establish subsidiary installations for communication.12.Safaniya (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual) Disaster Control Plan .001 Disaster Control Plan . 525.003 GI 1601. No. RIMs.Abqaiq Producing and Udhailiyah Producing Divisions (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual) Disaster Control Plan . 554.Refinery and Terminal .Qurayyah Seawater Treatment Plant No. This network is extensively used by many employees in their day-today business. Unneeded Communication Equipment Radio Asset Control And Accountability Program (RACAP) Residential Telephone Service Business Telephone Service Inside Aramco Communities And Facilities Business Telephone Service Outside Aramco Communities And Facilities Data Circuits.001 No.Udhailiyah Area Disaster Control Plan . and TIMs. This section is mainly concerned with the two-way radio network which is installed in vehicles.

fire.Radio Telephone Procedure Guide: Communications Department .2 Safe Operation Adjustment of equipment must always be carried out by authorized personnel. property. 12. Radio equipment must be shut down within 91 meters (100 yards) of any blasting operations or where electric detonators are used or stored.Dhahran 12.3 Radio Phrases AFFIRMATIVE: This means Yes BREAK: The work BREAK means the message will continue. and the frequency switch. The unit controls used by operating personnel are the volume control. radio waves can cause ignition of electric blasting caps. DISASTER: When used on Company communications systems. All operators must stop transmitting unless involved in the disaster and should standby unless told to transmit by Disaster Control or the Disaster Control Post. but due to the length of the message the operator will break the circuit to allow the reception of EMERGENCY messages.1.. DISASTER DRILL: This is an exercise for training personnel to handle disaster situations.0 Radio Communications Page 97 . and the portable hand radio set. or a combination of the three. 12. 12.12. DISASTER warns all operators that a sudden misfortune has occurred. HOW DO YOU READ?: This means that the operator is trying to determine if the message is being received well. causing either loss of life.1 Remote Control Unit The remote control units located in offices are used to control radio equipment at some other location. the stationary radio set with remote control. February 1993 .1 Equipment There are a minimum of three types of radio sets used in the Saudi Aramco network today: the mobile radio set. Water Damaged Equipment: Vehicle drivers and maintenance personnel are requested to exercise great caution when washing vehicles containing radio equipment. the correct message is . All other controls must be set by technical personnel.. Unauthorized tampering with equipment can result in electric shock or equipment malfunction leading to circuit interference. Under certain circumstances. CORRECTION: This means that An error has been made. hand set switch.

an operator intends to make clear "ABQAIQ". "B" as in "BRAVO". OUT: An operator using the word OUT at the end of a transmission indicates that he is finished with the communications circuit and any other station may begin its call. OVER: This means that the transmission of a message has ended. He will spell it out like this: "A" as in "ALPHA". it is advantageous to utilize the Phonetic Alphabet. SAY EVERY WORD TWICE: This phrase is used when the operator is having trouble understanding. STANDBY: Any or all operators told to STANDBY shall cease further use of the communications circuit until further notice. "I" as in "INDIA". If a message is to be repeated. READ BACK: This means that the operator wants to make sure that his message has been correctly understood. For example. TRAFFIC: The information or signals transmitted over a communications systems. PRIORITY TRAFFIC: This is a message having preferential rating over the routine. OVER AND OUT: Do not use this phrase. Use the phonetic alphabet which is listed which follows: February 1993 . 12. and wants each word said twice. so on.12. but one station is waiting for the other to transmit. "Q" as in "QUEBEC". ROGER: This means that the operator has received and understood the message and accepts responsibility to carry out any instructions therein. the operator shall instruct the station to "say again your message". SAY AGAIN: Do not use the word "repeat". RESUME TRAFFIC: All stations are free to transmit routine messages. VERIFY: Check with originator and make certain the message is correct.MAYDAY: This is an international radio distress signal which is primarily intended for ships and aircraft requiring assistance to save human lives or property. NEGATIVE: This means No. some letters of the alphabet are likely to be confused with others: as "B" with "P" and "D" with "T". SPEAK SLOWLY: This phrase is used mostly in cases where technical difficulties are causing the circuit to cut in and out. The expression "I have priority traffic" means the operator has listened to the messages being transmitted and has determined that his message is of greater urgency. A standardized international phonetic alphabet for radio operators is in use to clear up such ambiguities. and.0 Radio Communications Page 98 . Whenever a word is not properly understood by the receiver. URGENT TRAFFIC: A message requiring the attention of all operators.4 Phonetic Alphabet In a radio message.

PHONETIC ALPHABET Letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Word ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOX-TROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKEY X-RAY YANKEE ZULU Pronunciation AL fah BRAH vo CHAR lee DELL ta ECK oh FOKS trot GOLF hoh TELL IN dee ah JEW lee ETT KEY loh LEE mah MIKE No VEM ber OSS car Pah PAH keh BECH ROW me oh See AIR rah TANG go YOU nee form VIC tor WISS key ECKS ray YANG key ZOO loo 12. Any violation or infringement of any communication system or network shall be reported to the violator's administration by the control organization. safety. All stations must be established and operated in such a manner as not to result in harmful interference to associated members or members of recognized private operating organizations. stations. NOTE: All stations are forbidden to carry out the following: unnecessary transmissions.12.5 International Communications Union Agreement All Company communications systems and networks come under the regulations of the International Communications Union Agreement.0 Radio Communications Page 99 . or false (or deceptive) distress. telephone and radio. or inspectors detecting them. The Saudi Arab government is a signatory of the Communications Agreement and a member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). February 1993 . Use of profane or obscene language is a violation of the International Agreement. Regulations which shall be binding on all members include the operating of telegraph. or identification signals. the transmissions of superfluous signals.

0 Radio Communications Page 100 ." * Supervisors should be especially alert for violations of this kind and use maximum disciplinary action toward violators. 12. 12. It is forbidden to disclose or divulge any information intercepted over the Company communications systems.1 Monitoring of Circuits Most voice transmissions are transmitted by radio waves and can easily be monitored by outside agencies. of information of any nature obtained by the interception of radio or telephone communications.6 Message Priorities for Company Operations 1 2 3 4 5 6 MAYDAY PAN/DISASTER DISASTER DRILL SAFETY SIGNAL (Number 3 Priority .2 Secrecy Act All member nations of the ITU bind themselves to the Secrecy Act which states: "They will take the necessary measures to prohibit and prevent: * The unauthorized interception of radio communications not intended for public use.Tampering with equipment is highly dangerous because of the high voltage involved.International Frequencies) PRIORITY TRAFFIC ROUTINE February 1993 . or any use whatever.5. 12.5. Adjustments to equipment are only to be made by competent and authorized personnel. The divulgence of the contents. Tampering can also cause off frequency operation and other technical problems which are violations of the ITU Agreement. without authorization. 12.5. publication.3 Penalties All persons operating the communications systems will be held responsible for any improper operation and will be held subject to disciplinary action.12. simple disclosure of the existence.

Within Company operations DISASTER has the same priority as the word PAN for those operating on international circuits or frequencies. All persons operating radio equipment must be thoroughly acquainted with this type of priority message. oil operations or other extreme operating situation. PAN/DISASTER. 12. when spoken three times and followed by the words: "This is (the call sign or station identification)". Messages of this nature carry priority over all messages except MAYDAY. At the beginning of such a drill. The SAFETY SIGNAL is used February 1993 . except those having MAYDAY.6. indicates that a ship.0 Radio Communications Page 101 . 3 Priority .6.6. URGENCY. all stations shall stop transmitting and listen to the message.12.6. Company DISASTER) This message is usually directed to a particular station. radio stations will announce "A DISASTER DRILL is being conducted". International Search and Rescue Monitor Stations shall 'fix' the bearings of the signal and alert ships and aircraft in the area to assist with the rescue. or DISASTER messages. When the message is heard. The nature of distress may be such that the operator may not be able to complete the message or repeat. 12. or other identification of the mobile station)".2 URGENCY SIGNAL (International PAN.1 MAYDAY (Broadcast to all stations) When MAYDAY is spoken three times and followed by the words: "this is (the call station. 12.12.International Frequencies This need only be understood by those operating on international circuits or frequencies. indicates that the station has a critical emergency concerning injury. The difference between DISASTER and DISASTER DRILL must be thoroughly understood. station identification. The French pronunciation of SECURITE will be spoken three times and followed by the station identification. aircraft. Company operators use the word DISASTER.4 SAFETY SIGNAL No. When a DISASTER DRILL is in progress. or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance to save human life or property. followed by the name of the area. The message has absolute priority over all other messages. all stations whether mobile or fixed must standby.3 DISASTER DRILL At various times the Company conducts training exercises which are associated with familiarization and indoctrination programs.

1 MAYDAY 1 Distress Signal The distress signal is MAYDAY. February 1993 . the receiving station assumes control and becomes fully responsible. The station in the immediate vicinity shall acknowledge receipt by transmitting the following message: "(Give name of station in distress. By virtue of acknowledging the MAYDAY message. the receiving stations can determine if they are in the immediate vicinity. your Mayday Message. MAYDAY followed by the name of station or station call letters repeated three times.7. Give the kind of assistance required. repeat three times) . It may use any means at its disposal to carry out the rescue operation.when a station is going to broadcast a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings. 12. Complete message with any other information which can be of assistance to rescue operations.5 PRIORITY TRAFFIC Repairs to facilities involved in disasters should be classified as PRIORITY TRAFFIC. 2 Stations Receiving Message From the location given. Give the nature of the distress.This is the (name of station). second.0 Radio Communications Page 102 .7 Distress Messages (Forms and Examples) 12." This station assumes the full responsibility of a control station for all further radio transmissions and all other stations remain off the air unless directed to transmit by the control station.12. 12.6. MAYDAY.6 ROUTINE All messages except those classified above should be ROUTINE. 12. All stations shall cease transmission. first. Give location.6. Roger.

3 Procedures All persons operating Company communications equipment shall be familiar with the word DISASTER. shall be alert for the urgency signal which is PAN. If the stations receiving the message can be of any assistance. Dhahran. under Disaster Procedure. When it is heard. February 1993 .This is (control station identification. or aircraft. operating on international circuits or frequencies. 12. repeated three times followed by the station call letter or identification. 2 Response All stations shall cease transmitting and listen to the message that follows.0 Radio Communications Page 103 . the control station shall transmit the following message: "To all stations.12. Ras Tanura. All stations resume normal traffic. The procedures are outlined in the General Instruction Manual.2 Urgency Signal This signal indicates that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a person. they shall acknowledge and render all assistance possible. otherwise." The message should be repeated at intervals in order to assure that all stations standing by receive the message. they shall cease transmitting until the DISASTER is over. The Company equivalent to urgency signal is DISASTER. to all stations.7. 1 Signal Radio operators. to all stations . they shall cease transmission until the urgency traffic has been cleared.3 End of Mayday Distress When the distress traffic has ceased or when silence is no longer necessary on a circuit or frequency which has been used for distress traffic. IMPORTANT: The transmission of MAYDAY messages for the purpose of training is not permitted under any circumstances. ship. 4 Return to Normal When the disaster has ended. Abqaiq. the responsible parties outlined in the General Instruction shall clear the radio circuits for normal traffic. repeated three times) distress traffic has ended with (station in distress identification).

3 Priority Traffic Repairs to facilities involved in disasters would be classified as priority traffic and the priority would depend on the situation.7.12. February 1993 .0 Radio Communications Page 104 .12.

Health and Environmental Requirements . February 1993 . 13. responsibility.215 GI 150.2.1 It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure that his vehicle is safe to operate. It is Saudi Arab Government law and a Company rule. and vehicle maintenance expected of all contractor.030 GI 1321.2 Driver's Responsibilities 13.Construction Safety Manual: Transportation Page 105 . It is the responsibility of the driver's supervisor.2 It is the responsibility of each driver to take his vehicle to the proper facility for servicing and repairs when they are required or scheduled.1 Driver Requirements All contractors must employ only qualified personnel as drivers of motor vehicles. In addition.025 GI 6. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. service organization and Saudi Aramco drivers.Transportation. All drivers are expected to drive in a defensive manner and maintain control of their vehicles at all times. that each person driving a motor vehicle must possess and have on his person a valid Saudi Arab Government driver's license. it sets the standards for driver performance.13. foreman.0 TRANSPORTATION This section outlines the procedures and responsibilities for preventing motor vehicle accidents in Saudi Aramco's jurisdiction.015 Transporting Explosives in Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits . 13.002 GI 6.Remote Areas Control of Remote Area Travel and Search/Rescue Procedures Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Traffic and Vehicle Safety Request for Air Medical Evacuation Driving in Saudi Arabia: A Saudi Aramco guide to safer driving and desert travel. or superintendent to verify the driver's credentials prior to his employment.2.029 GI 6. 13. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1183.

8 The driver and all passengers of a Company vehicle shall wear seat belts at all times while the vehicle is in motion.2.6 Sand tires present a hazard if used on vehicles which are operated at excessive speed especially when they are not properly inflated.2.10 Passengers shall not be transported in the rear of pickups or on truck beds.11 Drivers should not transport more passengers than the number of seat belts provided in the vehicle.2. 13.4 The driver is responsible for transporting materials properly and ensuring that a load does not exceed the manufacturer's design load capacity. 13. 13.2. shall not be used.13. beyond normal wear and tear. Conversely. 13.2.2.2. immediately. Also such loads must be equipped with visible brake and tail lights at their rear end points. Loads extending beyond the front or rear shall be marked with a red flag. Proper inflation pressures are posted at the Department's tire shops.5 Tires which have breaks in the casing. February 1993 .2.9 Drivers have full authority to refuse to transport any passenger who refuses to use seat belts. Materials should not extend over the sides of the truck.13. 13. passengers may refuse to ride with a driver who refuses to wear his seat belt. All loads must be properly secured and tied down.0 Transportation Page 106 . 13. 13. 13. or with exposed fabric. The driver's supervisor shall authorize all passengers in the vehicle. It is the driver's responsibility to ensure that Saudi Aramco Transportation Department tire inflation standards are maintained.7 Drivers shall not transport unauthorized persons in Company vehicles.2. He must report any damage.3 The driver of the vehicle is fully responsible and accountable for the mechanical and physical condition of the vehicle.

13.3 Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco Each driver shall become familiar with. 13. the Saudi Arab Government Traffic Regulations.) 70 km/hr for vehicles with sand tires. An English translation of these regulations is available from the Loss Prevention Department. It is the responsibility of the driver to bring the vehicle in for scheduled maintenance. (See GI 6.030. no vehicle may be driven at a speed greater than the following: 1.. The driver must not exceed the posted speed limit. accessways or fire hydrants. To drive safely. This is the maximum speed allowed in a certain area. February 1993 . 13. Parked vehicles shall not obstruct other vehicles. The vehicle number.2. current inspection stickers and license plate (front and back) must be in place.13. The driver is responsible for inspecting a vehicle before operating it to determine if the following items have been provided and are in satisfactory condition: Vehicle Inspection Checklist: 1. company name. 2. roadways.4 Vehicle Condition It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure his vehicle is safe to operate. rain or sand storm. Every driver is expected to reduce his vehicle's speed under hazardous weather or road conditions.) 13. 100 kilometers per hour for light motor vehicles outside city limits.3.3 All vehicles shall be parked correctly and/or in designated parking areas. (See GI 6.3. and abide by.1 Where there is no sign post indicating the maximum speed limit.12 All drivers shall be familiar with what the Company considers unsafe driving practices and avoid them at all times.2 Drivers shall comply with all Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco traffic signs. speed must be reduced below the allowable speed limit at night.3.0 Transportation Page 107 . or during fog.13.030. 13.

3. Two reflective warning triangles should be in each vehicle. The trailer should have safety coupling chains. Make sure that the inside and outside rear view mirrors are clean. springs and/or shock absorbers. The glass must be in good condition. turn signals. tail lights. 5. secured and undamaged. The automatic transmission must be in good operating condition and should shift into the parking position correctly. 15. The windows must open and close properly. they must be also be in good working order. Inspect the rear window wiper. All brakes (foot and hand brakes) must be in good working order. tail lights and rear license plate lights.0 Transportation Page 108 . If the vehicle is fitted with a trailer. if fitted. 8. Test the exhaust system by starting up the engine of the vehicle. 11. The windshield washer should work properly and there should be water in the washer container. 12. 10. When fog lights (front & rear) and clearance lights have been provided. 7. If the treads show any signs of wear like bare patches. Seat belts are mandatory for all vehicle occupants. Make sure the wheels are not buckled or out of alignment and wheel lug nuts are in place and secure on the rim. Tires should have no breaks in the tire casing or exposed fabric and must be inflated to correct air pressure as specified by the Transportation Department. There should be no excessive movement of the steering wheel and no signs of damage. this could indicate defective steering. The tail pipe emissions should be released February 1993 . Check the foot and hand brake mechanism for correct operation. and operate properly. stop lights.2. Check to see if the tail pipe extends at least three inches from the body of the vehicle. the coupling must be intact and working correctly. listening for sounds and spotting any leaks associated with it. Check the wheels for rim damage. All lights (high and low beam headlights. dash lights. 16. 9. The speedometer should be in good working order. adjusted.13. Check that the windshield wiper blades are in good condition. Springs and shock absorbers must be in good condition with no alignment or control problems. and the rear license plate light) must be in working order. 14. turn signal lights. rear brake lights. 13. Steering knobs and loose coverings are prohibited. 6. 4. Windows and windshield must be clean and free of cracks or damage.

Details about the courses are available from the On-the-Job Training Unit.) on rear window shelf. especially in hot weather. A properly inflated spare tire with a jack and tire wrench must be provided. etc.6 Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices The Industrial Security Organization issues "Unsafe Driving Practice Warning" notices.6. All vehicle occupants must wear seat belts. • • • • • NOTE: Radiator coolant Oil Brake fluid Transmission oil (checked with engine running) Distilled water for the battery The driver should check the radiator coolant level only when the engine is cool. thereby causing any adverse health affects to any of them. Note all damage on the vehicle.1 Saudi Aramco drivers who commit traffic offenses are given penalty points. The vehicle's horn must be operational. Each driver must conduct a vehicle inspection whenever taking charge of a vehicle and periodically thereafter (at least once a month) to ensure that all systems are operating properly and there is no damage. 17. You could be charged with a hit and run accident unless you have a police vehicle release for major damage. 18. Fluid should be added to the level mark on the overflow expansion tank only if provided. The tire wrench should be the correct size to fit the wheel nuts of the vehicle. process the proper reports and have the damage repaired. and back up reports for minor parking lot "dings and scratches". Do not place materials (hard hats. Drivers can receive a moving violation for not adhering to this regulation.) February 1993 . 20. Passengers will be carried only in the passenger compartment of a vehicle.13. Drivers shall insist that all passengers wear seat belts before starting the vehicle.0 Transportation Page 109 .030. Loose materials are to be kept out of the driving compartment.from a point where they do not directly come into contact with the driver of the vehicle or its occupants. 13. 13. Repeat offenders may receive disciplinary action. Check the following fluids for leaks and proper levels. 19. (See GI 6. 13.5 Driver Training The Company conducts driver training courses for Saudi Aramco employees.

The Saudi Aramco Government Affairs Representative will advise you of this release.6.2 Contractors driving on Saudi Aramco facilities or in the communities are required to abide by all Saudi Aramco and Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations. or by sending a message with a passing driver. 13.029 must then be followed.13.7. Other procedures in GI 6. If a damaged vehicle is blocking traffic or is stopped on the highway. reflective triangles must be used to warn approaching traffic of the vehicle's presence.0 Transportation Page 110 .13. including counseling and revocation of driving privileges within Saudi Aramco. For emergencies occurring off Saudi Aramco facilities.7.1 Emergencies In the event of serious injury. For repeat offenders. the emergency telephone number 110 should be used.2 Remain at Scene A driver shall not leave the scene of an accident or move his vehicle after an accident unless he needs to take an injured person to a hospital. When reporting any accident.029 must then be followed. This will allow both the Main Gate/Security Control Center and Medical Controller to be informed and they will ensure that the proper unit will respond to assist. Offenders will be referred to proponent organizations for appropriate action. a Main Gate/Security Control Center telephone number can be used (see above).7 Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident All motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) shall be reported to the closest main gate or security control center. fire or hazardous road block caused by an accident on Saudi Aramco facilities. radio. This must be done by telephone. contract may be reviewed for cancellation. The Main Gate/Security Control Center telephone numbers are: Dhahran: Ras Tanura: Abqaiq: Udhailiyah: Yanbu: Mubarraz: Abu Ali: Berri: Other procedures as detailed in GI 6. This is a Saudi Arab Government law and the Traffic Department investigating officer is the only one delegated the authority to release vehicles involved. make sure the message is understood before hanging up. 13. 874-2055 673-5231 572-5291 577-8114 321-4284 577-2344 678-2228 678-7226 February 1993 . 13.

He has sufficient food and drinking water to sustain him until rescue. oil.1/2 Ton Pickup. should he be stranded. any person who drives in the desert shall ensure that: 1.8 Passenger Seating and Seat Belts Passengers shall be transported only in passenger compartments of cars.00x16 11.00x16 9. 4x4.00x16 9.00x16 February 1993 . 1 Ton Welder's Truck. 13. Stay With Vehicle A person lost or stranded in the desert must stay with the vehicle as it provides shelter and to make it easier for searchers to locate him. His immediate supervisor knows his destination and route. In particular.3/4 Ton Utility. 4x4. and water. Crewcab. It is recommended that the driver have a copy with him in the vehicle. 4x4. Driver shall pass the off-the-road vehicle test conducted by Saudi Aramco Driver Training Unit before being permitted the use of 4-wheel drive vehicles. 4x4. 6.0 Transportation Page 111 . His vehicle is in good condition with adequate fuel. He is familiar with survival and rescue techniques and procedures. 13." the Saudi Aramco guide on safe driving tips and desert travel. 1 Ton Utility. 4x4. trucks and buses. 4x4 Pickup. 4x4.00x16 11. where seat belts are only required for drivers. and spares for emergency use. Seat belts shall be worn by the driver and passengers in all vehicles except buses with more than 14 seats.3/4 Ton Pickup.00x15 9. equipment.2 Sand Tires Sand tires are hazardous to use when they are not properly inflated.1 Carryall. The number of passengers being transported in the passenger compartment of a vehicle must not exceed the manufacturer's specifications.9.00x16 11. when they are driven at high speeds or when the roads are wet. Copies may be obtained from any Loss Prevention area office. His vehicle has tools. 2.13.13. 1 Ton 9.9. 5. 3.00x16 11. Crewcab. 4x4. 1 Ton Stake Truck. It is the driver's responsibility to ensure the following requirements are met for sand tires: VEHICLE TYPE TIRE S IZE RECOMMENDED TIRE PRESSURE MIN MAX 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 13. 4.9 Desert Driving All persons who drive in the desert should study "Driving In Saudi Arabia.

refinery and terminal areas) shall be inspected by the Saudi Aramco Transportation Department. Unless the vehicle speedometer has been corrected to account for the oversize tires. the driver should remember that he is traveling approximately 10-15% faster than the speedometer reading.0 Transportation Page 112 . File form 7575 (Restricted Area Access Sticker Request). a window sticker is issued for the vehicle. This sticker is valid for three months after which the vehicle must be inspected again.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas Vehicles requiring admittance to a restricted area (e. hydrocarbon facilities. February 1993 . 13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities All contractor. 13. 13. service organization and company operated vehicles must be constructed to comply with the Saudi Arabian Traffic Regulations.13.Maximum speed for sand tires (on hard dry road): • • 70 KPH at maximum sand tire pressure 20 KPH at minimum sand tire pressure Since sand tires have a larger diameter than standard tires.2 Traffic Regulations All posted speed limits shall never be exceeded and all local traffic signs shall be obeyed.g. it will not be permitted entry into any restricted area until all deficiencies have been corrected. If the vehicle fails inspection. 13. speedometer readings will not be accurate.11. Upon successful completion of the inspection. Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) and Saudi Aramco rules for the safe operation of motor vehicles while driving within any Saudi Aramco community.11.1 Seat Belts All vehicles shall be equipped with seat belts for each passenger seat in accordance with Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO).

Although some of the safety standards imposed will seem to restrict use.1.00 Transportation of Dangerous Articles Onboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft Aircraft Guidelines For Crew Managers And Aviation Remote Airfield Operations Personnel (February 1988) IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (33Rd Edition.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION This section will deal with both passenger and cargo transportation for which Saudi Aramco aircraft are used. these regulations were designed not only with the safety of the passengers and aircraft cargo in mind.2 Camp Supervisors All camp supervisors in remote areas will familiarize themselves with all the relevant instructions on the movement of aircraft to and from their areas as detailed in the "Saudi Aramco Aviation Department Policy and Guidelines for Camp Managers".1 Captain/Pilot The Captain/Pilot is in command of the aircraft at all times and is responsible for the safety of his passengers and cargo.1 General Operating Responsibilities 14."Carriage By Aircraft" 14. Complete cooperation and understanding between pilots and camp supervisors is essential for the safe and efficient operation of all inbound and outbound aircraft. February 1993 . but also for the safety of the aircraft and the crew. 1992) US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 175 . 14. He is the sole judge and will make all decisions in determining if the weather is acceptable for flight or if landing and take off conditions are within Company minimum standards. It is to the mutual advantage of the user department and the pilots of the Aviation Department that rules of Aviation Safety be reviewed and applied to all operations in remote areas.1.Construction Safety Manual: Aircraft Operation Page 113 . No one is allowed to "pressure" the pilot into carrying more weight than the pilot states is acceptable. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1310.14. The Captain/Pilot is authorized to follow any course of action which he judges requires immediate decision or action in the interests of safety.

The Company complies with US DOT. 14. 14.5 Seat belts must be fastened during all flights. 14.2. 14.2.14.2 Passengers should never approach fixed-wing aircraft for boarding from the front.3 A flight crew member or designated safety observer should monitor passenger movement while they are boarding or leaving an aircraft. termination of service.0 Aircraft Operation Page 114 . ICAO and KSA President of Civil Aviation (PCA) regulations. Do not unfasten the seat belt until the aircraft has come to a complete stop and you are instructed to do so. 14.7 Ear protection is supplied by Saudi Aramco where appropriate.2.9 Other areas of briefing may include the use and handling of special material or equipment which must be declared and will be shipped only at the Captain's discretion. 14.6 Passengers will comply with all flight crew or flight attendant instructions.4 Smoking is prohibited on all Saudi Aramco aircraft and on all ramp and apron areas.2.2.2.2. 14.8 All Saudi Aramco aircraft carry US registration. and they must keep well clear of props and engines at all times.2.2 Passenger Briefing/Instructions. FAA.14. Failure to comply with these regulations and instructions could endanger the lives and property of others and could be refused future use of the Saudi Aramco aircraft.1 The pilot shall either orally brief his passengers or direct their attention to the aircraft safety instructions. 14. General (All Aircraft Types) 14. February 1993 . or prosecution.2.

14. All shippers and passengers intending to transport dangerous goods on Saudi Aramco aircraft are required to be familiar with and comply with the IATA Regulations. a helicopter may fly overland up to 30 minutes after sunset if warranted by extenuating circumstances. Any questions on Dangerous Goods Transport should be addressed to Central Area Loss Prevention Department. A helicopter is required to be at its final destination no later than 30 minutes before sunset. Only the vests provided in the helicopter should be used. When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions. the pilot and passengers will stay with the aircraft. Life vest must be worn on all over-water flights. or the Terminal Supervisor of the nearest Saudi Aramco airfield terminal. 14. Carry long objects below waist level. the float gear is capable of supporting the helicopter.4 Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters Normal hours of single-engine helicopter operations are from sunrise to 30 minutes before sunset. The Captain will direct rescue/survival activities. Operations may also authorize short flights to continue until sunset if rescue facilities are immediately available. The Aviation Department will conduct a day and night search for the disabled aircraft.5 General Precautions for Helicopters No loose clothing should be worn which may entangle on any aircraft surface or impede egress or flotation in any way.2.10 In the event of forced landing. By permission from the area supervisor. Further requirements are contained in GI 1310. Hold onto your headgear when approaching aircraft. personnel shall exercise special caution to keep clear of the main and stabilizing rotors. February 1993 .5. Never walk around the rear of the helicopter. All persons shall approach the helicopter from the front in full view of the pilot.3 Transportation of Dangerous Goods Saudi Aramco complies with the provisions of ICAO regulations as published in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations.0 Aircraft Operation Page 115 . 14.00.1 Life Vests In the event of a forced landing at sea. 14.14. 14. Aviation Safety Officers.

Construction Safety Manual: II.II. General And Civil February 1993 . General And Civil Page 116 .

Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags Power Distribution Instruction: No.1 Restricted Areas Restricted areas are those areas or activities which have been designated by department managers as requiring the work permit system. gasoline service stations. piped. flammable liquids or gases.1 Definitions 1.0 Hold Orders.708 GI 2. The Saudi Aramco work permit procedure is important in maintaining a safe work environment and is a requirement for all Saudi Aramco jobs in restricted areas. gas plants. confined space entry. or oxidizing agents are handled. stored. February 1993 . 11. specified locations on marine vessels. 3. loading piers.711 GI 6. Saudi Aramco's restricted areas are potentially hazardous. 10. pump stations.012 Work Permit System Gas Testing Procedures Fire & Safety Watch Isolation.Construction Safety Manual: Work Permit System Page 117 . tank farms. Clearances and Permission to Test 1. These include (but are not limited to) all areas where hydrocarbons. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.1. hydrocarbon pipelines. and critical non-hydrocarbon operations. areas where explosives and industrial X-ray or radioactive materials are used or stored.0 Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations No. oil wells.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM The Work Permit System incorporates procedures commonly used in industrial facilities to ensure that necessary communication takes place and hazards are controlled. The following are examples of restricted areas: petroleum processing plants. or processed in significant quantities. and material supply storage areas.0 Power Distribution Operations No. work areas under or near power lines.100 GI 2. However. knowledgeable people using proper procedures can perform work tasks efficiently and safely.1.

All work in restricted areas must have at least one of the listed work permits. craftsmen.1. Form 924-2 (red) This form is required when using spark or flame producing equipment and for vehicle entry into a restricted area. or others who have been certified by their division or department head to sign and receive work permits in the case of Company employees and by sponsoring organization heads in the case of contractors. reviewed the hazards applicable to the particular job. 1. Form 924-3 (blue) This form is for work that will not produce sufficient energy to ignite flammable atmospheres/materials.2 Issuer (Operation Supervisors) Operation supervisors are those supervisors who are certified by their division or department head to issue and approve work permits in restricted areas under their supervision. 1. February 1993 . the work should be reviewed by an engineer and appropriate authorization is necessary. addition. Form 924-4 (green) This form is required for tank cleaning.4 Work Permit There are four work permits: 1 Release of Hazardous Liquids or Gases.3 Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen) Authorized craftsmen are the craft supervisors. work in sewers or excavations of 4 feet or deeper. and is satisfied that the work can be done safely. 3 Cold Work. If the work contemplated involves any change.2 Issuance and Approval The authorized receiver (authorized craftsman) must request a work permit from a certified issuer (operation supervisor) before doing any work in a restricted area.1. tank inspection. Work must be performed according to the instructions and precautions specified in the work permit.1.1. 2 Hot Work. Form 924-1 (yellow) This form is required when opening lines or vessels that may release hazardous or toxic materials.0 Work Permit System Page 118 . 1. The issuer will grant the work permit after he has visited the site with the receiver.1. or deletion in the facility. 4 Confined Space Entry.

1 Checklist Each permit contains a checklist of precautions against common hazards. (See GI 2. The following instructions apply to PDD clearances: PDD 3. provided certain precautions are taken. Usually clearance receivers are PDD employees. Non-PDD employees and contractors should request PDD Electric System operators for assistance. check for flammable gases in the area and see that proper precautions have been specified on the permit before it is signed.Both the issuer and the receiver must hold valid work permit certificates issued by Saudi Aramco. Clearances and Permission to Test 1.3.1. 1. It is the duty of both the issuer and the receiver to review the job. Exceptions in excess of 16 hours may be granted in special cases. February 1993 .100 for details. The receiver has the responsibility to stop the work and advise the issuer or supervisor any time he feels the safety of the job does not meet the conditions of the work permit.3.0: PDD 10. 1. These clearances are issued by PDD dispatchers in addition to any work permits that are required. issues clearances to enable work to be accomplished on high voltage electrical apparatus that has been de-energized and isolated from the power system in an approved manner.2.3 Precautions 1.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances Power Distribution Department (PDD). anticipate what hazards might arise. the issuer or local supervisor may stop the work and cancel the permit. 1.2 Clear Area One specific precaution applying to all work is to clear the area of people not required for the job to avoid their being exposed to unnecessary hazards. If people enter an area where they could be exposed to undue danger.3. the work should be stopped until they are cleared from the area. but it may be extended for one additional shift with proper approval.0: Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations Power Distribution Operations Hold Orders.3 Work Stoppage If conditions change or become unsafe during the course of work.0: PDD 11.) The receiver of the work permit must keep the permit posted at the job location at all times. 1. Such a list cannot include precautions against all hazards.0 Work Permit System Page 119 .4 Handling of Issued Work Permit A work permit is valid for only one shift.

he shall give the permit to a responsible senior crew member to keep until he returns. The purpose for the Lockout System is to render controllers inoperative. water. Work permit issuers and operations supervisors shall ensure that hold tags and lock outs are used and so noted on the work permit.The receiver of a work permit must keep a copy in his possession or within view of the job site for the duration of the job. hydrocarbon. etc.100) given at the end of the course. disconnect switches.1. valves. 1. Contact the local Loss Prevention office for work permit certification information.2 1. i. where the operation of the control device could be hazardous to personnel working on the system. Hold tags and locks are primarily intended to protect the individual doing the work from being injured by an inadvertent start-up.0 Work Permit System Page 120 . If the receiver leaves the job site. on any systems (electrical. receiver and the senior crew member must sign the work permit transferring the work permit to the senior crew member.8. etc.7 12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure (See below) 1.4 February 1993 .. he must attend the work permit Receivers Course conducted by the Loss Prevention Department and pass a test on work permit System (GI 2. must be kept by each superintendent or organization head. so that it may be presented upon request.3 1.8. The superintendent of the construction organization will assure Saudi Aramco by his signature that his employee knows both the general instruction and his job. and it is so stated when the work permit is issued.5 Closing Out and Filing the Permit When the job is completed or at the end of the shift.). with their names and the dates issued. The work permit will be filed and kept by the issuing department for three months. The use of hold tags/lock outs shall be strictly enforced. Records of current certificate holders.8. 1. each work permit must be closed out by both issuer and receiver.8 Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts 1. 1. circuit breakers. acid.6 Certification In order for a person to be a certified receiver of work permits. 1. steam.e. The issuer.012 outline the use of tagging and lockout for controllers which are to be held inoperative or for work clearance.1 Instructions contained in GI 6. The only exception shall be when the distance and remoteness make signing impractical.8.

and/or gas release.hot. cold. barricades. J-W Sniffer gas test and/or H S gas test and/or oxygen analysis test must be made before 2 issuing work permit.1. Proper lockouts. Work permits should be issued for the specific period of time required to complete the job. To extend time work permit beyond one shift.TWELVE RULES ON WORK PERMIT PROCEDURE 1) 2) Issuer and receiver must inspect job site together before signing the work permit. hold tags. Job description and equipment used must be clearly stated on the work permit. the permit must be withdrawn immediately and all work stopped without questions.0 Work Permit System Page 121 . Issuer and receiver must inspect the job site and sign off the work permit. drum. the oncoming shift issuer must inspect job site. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) February 1993 . issue permits for a single pump. Special precautions such as requirements for fire watch. Issuer and receiver must both have in their possession a valid work permit certification card (issuer and receiver respectively). The work permit must remain on the job site in a conspicuously visible place while work is going on. The work permit must be closed out after a job is completed. vessel or confined space entry. life lines. write in extended time and sign permit. etc. All tick boxes must be correctly filled in and gas readings indicated. Issue the correct permits for the job . Two or more permits may be required for the job. Scott air packs. and/or chains with padlocks). must be written on the permit. If an emergency develops. etc. Be specific. and blinds must be used where applicable (multiple clips with lock.

012 . Locks belonging to contractor personnel must have one key only and should be compatible with the Saudi Aramco system.LOCK OUT AND TAG Workers may be injured while working on equipment when the controls have not been locked and tagged in the off position. People do make mistakes and start equipment on which maintenance men are working.0 Work Permit System Page 122 . When more than one man is going to work on a system or on a number of pieces of equipment within the system. locks under stock number 08-323-261.1. February 1993 . tags under stock number 39-378419. Clips may be ordered under stock number 21-350-487. Each supervisor of operations and maintenance should know the rules in GI 6.Isolation. Teach your men the lockout procedure and insist they follow it. work should not proceed until a suitable clip is found. Tags are useful to tell who is working on the equipment and who authorized the shutdown. Lock Out and Use of Hold Tags. vibrations and ineffective mechanisms can cause controls to move or valves to open. Protection is simple: lock the control in the off position and prevent an accident. the multiple lockout clip enables each man to lock out the circuit or machine control. Note: Contractors are required to establish a lock out and TAG system compatible with the Saudi Aramco system as part of the contractor Loss Prevention Program plan requirements of Schedule 'D'. Saudi Aramco has special rules requiring the use of locks on switches and controls when it would be unsafe to work on an energized or operating system. Contractors will establish their own lock issuing procedure complete with logging and a numbering system. If your man can't get his lock on the clip.

1.FIGURE II.1: HOLD TAG February 1993 .0 Work Permit System Page 123 .

2: LOCKOUT CLIP (TYPICAL) February 1993 .1.FIGURE II.0 Work Permit System Page 124 .

and soil composition. walls.5 meters (15 feet). February 1993 .000 Street and Road Closure. Excavation Reinstatement and Traffic Controls (See Appendix D) Work Permit System GI 2.Construction Safety Manual .100 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard: SAES -A-111 Borrow Pit Requirements OSHA Safety And Health Standards: 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P Excavations DEFINITIONS: 1. In general. but the width of a trench is not greater than 4. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1021. including its sides. Excavation Any man-made cavity or depression in the earth's surface. or faces. by persons being struck by excavating equipment. Trenching And Shoring Page 125 . TRENCHING AND SHORING Accidents due to cave-in can occur for excavations which are not shored or otherwise supported. Even rock that looks solid from a cursory inspection can collapse without warning. depth. the depth is greater than the width. 3. The sides of an excavation may need to be suitably shored. Other types of excavation accidents are caused by contact with underground pipes and cables. formed by earth removal and producing unsupported earth conditions by reason of the excavation.2.Excavations.0 EXCAVATIONS. by falls of equipment and persons. benched or sloped back to a safe angle of repose. and by hazardous atmospheres. 2. Accepted Engineering and Construction Practices Plans for excavations and protective system methods shall be submitted to Loss Prevention before work start up. Trench Excavation A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground.

shields and other means to protect workers. The soil has been previously disturbed. The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic. pile driving.5 ton per square foot (tc) (144kPa) or greater are classified as Type A. exposure to the elements and superimposed loads. from materials that could fall or roll into the excavation onto the workers or from collapse of adjacent structures. and C in decreasing order of stability. timber or mechanical systems that support the sides of an excavation. no soil is Type A if one or more of the following conditions are true: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The soil is fissured. Protective systems include supports. Benching A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal steps. There is no single angle of repose. designed to prevent cave-ins. 7. 8. sandy clay. February 1993 . The soil is part of a sloped. sloping and benching. Soil classification must be identified to select safe sloping and benching methods.) 9. Type A: Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1. or similar effects. B. (The safe angle required varies with different types of soil. Soil Classification System A method of categorizing soil and rock deposits as types A. 6. Cemented soils such as caliche and hardpan are also considered Type A. Protective Systems Methods used to protect employees from cave-ins. silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. Trenching And Shoring Page 126 . layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater. silty clay.0 Excavations. However.4. Soil type is determined by analysis of the soil's properties and how it performs under exposure to the elements and superimposed loads. Examples of cohesive soils are: clay. Shoring Hydraulic. Hydraulic Shoring A pre-engineered support system of aluminum hydraulic cylinders (cross-braces) used with vertical rods (uprights) or horizontal rods designed specifically to support side walls of an excavation to prevent cave-in. with a vertical rise between steps. Sloping A method of excavating in which the sides of an excavation are laid back to a safe angle to prevent cave-ins.2. 5. clay loam and in some cases.

(iii) Previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed as Type C soil. (ii) Granular soils including gravel. silt. (ii) Granular cohesionless soils including angular gravel (similar to crushed rock). Type B: Soils classified as Type B are: (i) Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less than 1. (iv) Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength or cementation requirements for Type A.2. 10.(v) The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a less stable material. (vi) Material that is part of a sloped. and loamy sand. (iii) Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping. Type C: Soils classified as Type C are: (i) Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0. layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope less steep than four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) but only if the material would otherwise be classified as Type B. Trenching And Shoring Page 127 . (v) Material in a sloped layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V). in some cases. silt loam. (iv) Submerged rock that is not stable.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less. (Plans for trench boxes are to be submitted to Loss Prevention. but is fissured or subject to vibration.0 Excavations. and in the process.) February 1993 . protects employees inside the structure. Trench Boxes: A structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by cave-ins. (v) Dry rock that is not stable.5 tsf (144 kPa). sandy loam and. silty clay loam and sandy loam clay.

) 9. Adjacent roads and footpaths.) 6. 2. Consideration of these factors will indicate the safety measures which must be implemented to proceed with the job and whether the sides of the excavation can be sloped and benched to a safe angle or whether other protective systems will be required. February 1993 . Utilities and the Communications Foreman. Stability of adjacent structures. including residential areas and roadways. railroads.2.1 Before Work Starts In order to begin excavation work with minimum risk to men.2.2 Work Permit Work permits must be obtained from the appropriate operations supervisor before excavation work is started in any Saudi Aramco facility. 2.2. Subsequently.) 3. It is important to provide adequate and suitable protective systems for use whenever excavation work is to be carried out to a depth of 1.).0 Excavations. shielding. Excavation plan submitted to Loss Prevention. Weather and soil moisture conditions. plant and equipment and to enable the work to proceed without interruption. (See GI 2. A Confined Space Entry Work Permit is a second work permit and is required for trenches deeper than 1. Nature of the ground including the proximity of made-up ground. such as timber shoring. sloping. benching. Contractors may contact the Saudi Telephone Cable Locator Division on telephone no. Sources of soil vibrations (highway traffic. proponents should urge their contractors to inquire about the location of such cables prior to excavation. etc. Ministry of Telegraph Post and Telephone. Excavation work to a depth of less than 1. Outside of clearly defined responsibility areas.) 4. and other utilities. Contractor letters may be addressed to the Director. sheet piling and freezing must be designed in accordance with Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements. Oil and Gas Dispatch Unit or their delegated representatives. and in any place where the presence of underground/utility obstructions is known or suspected.) 2.) 7. electric cables. Method of excavation. machinery. Dammam Area Communications. 843-3247 during normal Government working hours or telephone no.) Size and purpose of the excavation. Trenching And Shoring Page 128 .) 8. the following factors must be considered well before the job starts: 1. Position of underground obstructions such as pipes.) 5. hydraulic and pneumatic systems.2 meters (4 feet). Excavation plans must be submitted to Loss Prevention before work start up.) All protective shoring systems and configurations. 906 at any hour. they may be required to submit a written application to the Saudi Telephone Cable Locator Division providing a site plan of the proposed excavation and stating when it will be done.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables To avoid disruptions of service and unnecessary costs which result from the accidental cutting of Government telephone cables by contractors working on Saudi Aramco projects.100 for work permit requirements.5 meters (5 feet) may also require protective systems.5 meters (5 feet) or more. Dammam. work permits shall be obtained from the Superintendent. especially high water table.

Saudi Aramco proponent inquiries may be addressed to the Contractor Liaison Division of Government Affairs. equipment. Materials used shall be in good serviceable condition.4. B. such as steel sheet piling. mechanical excavators shall not be used until all such obstructions have been exposed by hand digging.4 General Precautions 2.1 Shoring Protective Systems As soon as an excavation reaches a depth of 1.2 Personnel Protection Portable trench boxes or sliding trench shields may be used for the protection of personnel in lieu of a shoring system or sloping.) Shoring systems shall be designed by a qualified person and meet accepted engineering requirements.4. Plans for sloping and benching systems shall be sent to Loss Prevention for review. 2. or water. Trenching And Shoring Page 129 . Shoring may be of timber or any other suitable material.3) or the choice and design of other protective systems shall be based on evaluation of pertinent factors such as: type of soil (Type A. 2. Where such trench boxes are used. overlying material. or other sources. The determination of the angle of slopes. Excavations shall not be sloped at an angle greater than one and one-half horizontal to one vertical (340 measured from the horizontal). and timbers shall be sound. loading imposed by structures. Trench boxes shall be designed. vessels. sun. suitable shoring shall be installed or the sides sloped back to a safe angle. or C).0 Excavations. II. benches.4. (See Figures II. and of p roper dimensions. blasting. Contractor Liaison/GAO). possible variations in water content of the material while the excavation is open.3 Underground Obstructions Whenever the presence of underground pipes.2. February 1993 . Shields shall be installed in a manner to restrict lateral or other movement of the shield and be capable of withstanding any sudden application of lateral loads. traffic.5. the design shall be approved by Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Department.5 meters (5 feet). Mechanical excavators shall not be used within 3 meters (10 feet) of any such obstruction.2 meters (4 feet) or soil banks are greater than 1. and vibrations from equipment. II. free from large or loose knots. 2. or structures is known or suspected. cables. constructed and maintained to provide protection equal to or greater than the sheeting or shoring required. depth of cut. anticipated changes in materials from exposure to air. (See Figure II. telephone 874-1461 (Corporate Advisor.3. Pneumatic breakers shall only be used where necessary to break concrete or other hard surfaces. or stored material.

1 Ventilation Where there is reason to suspect oxygen deficiency or the presence of a hazardous atmosphere in an excavation. gas tests must be carried out by a qualified person. or other appropriate precautions shall be taken before men enter.4 Clearance In order to provide a safe footing at the edge. 2.6.Shields shall be extended above the excavation to protect employees working inside the shields and when entering or exiting the areas protected by shields.7). mechanical ventilation shall be used.4. 2. oxygen and flammable gas tests are to be conducted before entering hazardous excavations in Restricted Areas (as mentioned in GI 2. 2. or members of the public are required or permitted to cross over an excavation. a clear space at least 0. 2. shall be inspected every day by a competent person to ensure that there is no danger of collapse and all observations shall be noted in the site safety log book. Employees shall not be allowed inside the shielded areas whenever shields are being installed.5 Access and Egress Safe means of getting into and out of an excavation shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 7. and extend at least 0.2.6 Walkways Where employees. Ladders shall be securely fixed. including the shoring. Note: Toxic. Trenching And Shoring Page 130 .4.) 2. Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in Section 9.6 meter (2 feet) wide shall be maintained on all sides.100).6 Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials 2. (See Figure II. and to prevent spoil falling into an excavation.3 Inspection All parts of an excavation. Where necessary.0 Excavations. 2.5 Mechanical Excavator Men shall not be permitted to work underneath loads or in places where they could be struck by any part of a mechanical excavator.9 meter (3 feet) above the stepping-off point. removed or moved (see Figure II.4.5 meters (25 feet). a close planked bridge or walkway with standard guard rails shall be provided and kept clear of excavated materials or other tripping hazards.8: Guide to Safe Distance Back From Top Of Slope For Storage of Materials / Equipment Placing. equipment. No sidewalk shall be undermined unless properly shored. February 1993 .2. be placed at an angle of 75o .4.

such as breathing apparatus.2.No hot work permitted 0.6. or confined spaces.5 LEL . special precautions must be taken to ensure that exhaust gases are discharged so as not to be a hazard to men working in the excavation. identification and isolation of sources from fuel lines.6. This equipment shall be attended by a standby man outside the trench when in use.100 (Work Permit System) as shown below: • • • • Above 0.6. Gas tests shall verify that the oxygen level is 20-21%. and H2S is 0 ppm.1.Breathing apparatus must be used Above 0. Trenching And Shoring Page 131 . (ii) Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes. Subsequent testing is required to monitor the area during the work so appropriate precautions can be taken as necessary. The lifeline shall be separate from any line used to handle materials. shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheric conditions exist or may develop during work in an excavation. combustible gases 0.5 LEL . 2. shall wear a harness with a lifeline attached to it. Corrective measurers may include use of air movers.No entry permitted • When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels. and shall be individually attended at all times while the employee wearing the lifeline is in the excavation. open tanks or other measures to return the breathing atmosphere to normal readings. use the guidelines given in GI 2. 2. • Precautions shall be taken to prevent employee exposure to an atmosphere containing a concentration of any flammable gas above its lower explosive limit (LEL).2.0 Excavations.05 LEL to 0. or a basket stretcher. For an atmosphere with a concentration of any flammable gas below its lower explosive limit (LEL). a work permit shall be issued. or other similar deep and confined footing excavations. sewers.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment (i) Emergency rescue equipment.100. testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe. For elevated levels of gases tested follow requirements of GI 2.0 LEL.2 Exhaust Gases Where an internal combustion engine is used in an excavation.1. February 1993 . a safety harness and line. Mechanical devices shall be available to lift incapacitated employees from excavations.1 Hazardous Atmospheres Prior to entry into excavations greater than four feet deep.0 LEL .

shored.8 Roads. Traffic is strictly prohibited in borrow pit areas. trucks. Excavation work on public highways will have to be cleared in advance with Government Affairs and any special measures that they might specify must be implemented (See Section II. industrial plants. 2. substantial stop logs or barricades shall be installed. streets.0 Excavations. warning personnel to stay out of borrow pits. 2.2. etc. the side of the excavation shall be sheet-piled.. materials. Removal of trench supports shall progress together with the backfill from the bottom of the trench. whether in a Restricted Area or not. 2. soil banks or other heavy objects on a level above and near an excavation. Streets. In unstable soil. and Sidewalks Excavation work in roads. Another layer of backfill shall be positioned in the trench to the next layer of braces to be removed.10. and sidewalks shall not be undertaken without the prior approval of the relevant authorities (See Section II.2 February 1993 .8. 2. asbestos or any other hazardous chemical is known or suspected. 2. Roadworks). Work Permit System). Dust concentration. When mobile equipment is utilized or allowed adjacent to excavations. highways. and the surface shall be left in good condition as soon as is practicable.) shall be located at the distance noted in SAES -A-111. fixed warning lights shall be used to mark the limits of the work. and security fencing associated with borrow pit operations shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Safe Operating Procedures. the grade should be away from the excavation.7 Edge Protection.9 Backfilling Backfilling and removal of trench supports shall be accomplished first by backfilling up to a level allowing for the removal of the lower braces.e. ropes shall be used to pull out the jacks or braces from above after employees have cleared the trench. Trenching And Shoring Page 132 . and braced as necessary to resist the extra pressure due to such superimposed loads. Signs in Arabic and English shall be posted in roped-off areas.3 Organic Lead Where the presence of buried organic lead (TEL) sludge. 2. residential.6. Markers and Fixed Lighting Whenever it is necessary to place or operate power shovels. If men or vehicles are in the vicinity after dark. If possible. derricks. noise levels.10. excavation work shall not be started (or continued) until the Industrial Hygiene Service and Loss Prevention Departments have identified the hazard and specified the precautions to be taken and a new work permit has been issued.1. All excavations shall be backfilled and consolidated.2.1 A separate traffic flow plan is required to keep pedestrian traffic away from vehicle traffic areas.10 Borrow Pits Location of borrow pit boundaries (i. sub-stations.

2. II.1 m) require Loss Prevention review. (See Figures II.13.10.14.1 m) in depth.9.16. II. II.12.10.2.11. Situations that are not covered require specific designs for specific applications and will be subject to Loss Prevention review. It is not intended that the aluminum hydraulic specifications apply to every situation that may be experienced in the field.0 Excavations. Trenching And Shoring Page 133 . II.1m) in depth. Trench depths exceeding 20 feet (6.) 2. Loss Prevention requirements must be used when timber shoring protective systems are designed.3 Hydraulic Shoring For Trenches Hydraulic shoring is provided as a method of protection against cave-ins in trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6. (See Figures II.) February 1993 . and II. These data were developed to apply to the situations that are most commonly experienced in current trenching practice.15 and II.4 Timber Shoring For Trenches Timber shoring is provided as a method of protection from cave-ins in trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.10.

A short term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H : 1V (63O) is allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feet (3.TABLE II. 3. Trenching And Shoring Page 134 . Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal.1: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE S LOPES SOIL OR ROCK TYPE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES (H:V) [1] FOR EXCAVATIONS LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP [3] VERTICAL 3/4 : 1 1:1 1-1/2 : 1 (90O) (53O) (45O) (34O) STABLE ROCK TYPE A [2] TYPE B TYPE C NOTES: 1. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) or less in depth.2. Angles have been rounded off.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4 H : 1V (53O). Slope Configurations (All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio) 2.0 Excavations. Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention. February 1993 .

FIGURE II. Trenching And Shoring Page 135 .3: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE A S OIL February 1993 .2.0 Excavations.

Trenching And Shoring Page 136 .FIGURE II.2.0 Excavations.3A February 1993 .

3B February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 137 .2.FIGURE II.0 Excavations.

0 Excavations.FIGURE II. Trenching And Shoring Page 138 .4: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE B S OIL February 1993 .2.

4A February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 139 .0 Excavations.FIGURE II.2.

5: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE C S OILS February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 140 .0 Excavations.2.FIGURE II.

6: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED S OILS February 1993 .FIGURE II. Trenching And Shoring Page 141 .2.0 Excavations.

2.0 Excavations.FIGURE II.6A: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED S OILS February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 142 .

7: EXAMPLES OF TRENCH SHIELDS February 1993 .2.0 Excavations. Trenching And Shoring Page 143 .FIGURE II.

FIGURE II.0 Excavations.2. Trenching And Shoring Page 144 .8: GUIDE TO S AFE DISTANCE BACK FROM TOP OF S LOPE FOR S TORAGE OF MATERIALS OR PLACING EQUIPMENT February 1993 .

9: EXAMPLES OF S CREW TRENCH J ACKS February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 145 .0 Excavations.FIGURE II.2.

2. Trenching And Shoring Page 146 .0 Excavations.FIGURE II.10: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING TYPICAL INSTALLATIONS February 1993 .

FIGURE II. Trenching And Shoring Page 147 .5 Maximum Vertical Spacing 4 4 4 Up to 8 Over 8 up to 12 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Over 12 up to 15 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Loss Prevention Review February 1993 .2.11: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING Vertical Shores for Soil Type A Hydraulic Cylinders Width Of Trench Depth of Trench Feet Over 5 up to 10 Over 10 up to 15 Over 15 up to 20 Over 20 Vertical Shores for Soil Type B Maximum Horizontal Spacing 8 8 7 Maximum Vertical Spacing 4 4 4 Up to 8 Over 8 up to 12 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Over 12 up to 15 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Loss Prevention Review Hydraulic Cylinders Width Of Trench Depth of Trench Feet Over 5 up to 10 Over 10 up to 15 Over 15 up to 20 Over 20 Maximum Horizontal Spacing 8 6.0 Excavations.5 5.

0 Excavations. Trenching And Shoring Page 148 .2.FIGURE II.12: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING WALER S YSTEMS FOR S OIL TYPE B February 1993 .

0 Excavations.13: EXAMPLE OF TIMBER S HORING PROTECTIVE S YSTEMS February 1993 .2. Trenching And Shoring Page 149 .FIGURE II.

2.MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS * February 1993 . Trenching And Shoring Page 150 . 14: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING .0 Excavations.FIGURE II.

MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS * February 1993 .2.FIGURE II.15: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING .0 Excavations. Trenching And Shoring Page 151 .

FIGURE II. Trenching And Shoring Page 152 .MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS * February 1993 .0 Excavations.16: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING .2.

10. and ancillary pipe work associated with the oil industry.0 DEMOLITION Numerous factors must be taken into account before the method of demolition is decided.711 GI 6.185 Precautions for Working in Leaded Product Tanks American National Standards Institute: ANSI A 10.001 GI 402.001 GI 150.1-89 Safety Requirements for Working in Tanks and Confined Spaces American Petroleum Institute: API 2217-84 API 2015-91 Guidelines for Confined Space Work in Petroleum Industry Safe Entry And Cleaning Of Petroleum Storage Tanks February 1993 . its previous use. Many problems are peculiar to the demolition of tanks. the state of preservation.2-80 Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection ANSI Z 117.012 GI 8. many serious accidents have resulted when due consideration was not given to the cleaning and gas-freeing of this equipment before work began.100 GI 2. vessels.Construction Safety Manual: Demolition Page 153 . These factors must be known before any planning can begin. Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags Safety Requirements For Scaffolds Asbestos Regulation Operational Chemical Cleaning of Boilers Refinery Instruction Manual: No.3.6-83 Safety Requirements for Demolition ANSI Z 88. For instance. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.001 Work Permit System Fire and Safety Watch Isolation. the method of construction. Of prime importance are the age of the structure. and the surrounding environment.

3 Disconnections All utility services such as electricity.5 Barricades/Signs Barricades must be erected around the work area.1. pedestrian walkways.3.2 Original Drawings The original drawings of the structure to be demolished should be obtained. Any portion of the job which contains asbestos insulation should be cleared under the general procedures (See Section II. There are. cases where such a method is impractical or uneconomical and where other methods have to be considered. Preventive Medicine Services Division. February 1993 . An examination of them should be made to ascertain whether any major changes from the original construction have been made and where utility connections may be found. Loss Prevention and all contractors involved. shall be protected from demolition debris that can likely cause hazards to the general public. Section 1. and liaison with other contractors working in the general area and with operators and construction or maintenance engineers.1 Before Work Starts The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan as a part of his loss prevention program to the Company Representative.) 3. 3.4 Adjacent Structures and Publ ic Areas Adjacent structures. ensuring that work permit requirements are met. The man appointed should be experienced in demolition operations.1. bracing must be installed to insure stability of adjacent structures.2.4). His duties will include the direct supervision of the work force. however.0 Demolition Page 154 .1. public buildings. vessels. outlet.1. and water must be shut off and the main supplies disconnected outside the line of the demolition work. 3. Tanks. and overflow points. It should be remembered that the safest and most efficient method is to start at the top and dismantle in the reverse order of construction. 3. etc. and paperwork must be completely disconnected from inlet. parking lots. All such programs must be reviewed and concurred with by the Loss Prevention Department before start-up.3. a competent supervisor must be appointed in writing as the person responsible for all work on site.Demolition in Progress" in Arabic and English must be erected at each approach to the barricade.2 Method of Demolition The method of demolition to be used should be decided upon in consultation with the Saudi Aramco representative.3. (See Chapter I.1. The re-use of salvage materials should be considered prior to this decision. Signs bearing the words "Danger . gas. and Industrial Hygiene Services. shall be contacted.1 Responsible Supervisor Before any demolition work is started. Also. 3. 3.

Work places and the areas around ladders and stairways must be kept clear of material and debris. 3.004. 3.1 Lateral support should not be removed from more than one story of wall at any time before starting to demolish it. should be completely removed prior to structural demo lition. doors.3 Stability During Demolition As work progresses.2. When a wall from which support has been removed must be left standing at anytime. etc. including overnight and off-shift work hours. partitions.1 Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (ASKAREL) Before equipment containing or suspected of containing PCB(s) is removed in demolition work. adequate bracing (guying) must be provided to prevent collapse and to guard against wind pressures.5 Structural Steel Removal All steel construction should be demolished column length by column length and tier by tier.2. Proper personnel protective equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. notify Loss Prevention and Industrial Hygiene Services to ensure safe procedures are followed. Members being cut or dismantled should be chained or lashed in place to prevent uncontrolled swinging or dropping.2 Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials Before demolition of buildings with asbestos and insulation.) 3.0 Demolition Page 155 .4 Working Place Clearance 3.4.3. All glass in windows. (See GI 355. or the timber must be stacked where it will not be a source of danger. unsupported walls.001.1 Access A safe means of access to and egress from all working places must be provided.) 3.3.4.2 Glass Removal Nails in timber must be removed or bent over. the Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial Hygiene Unit shall be notified to ensure safe procedures are used. February 1993 . Proper personnel protection equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. continuing inspections must be made to detect hazards arising through weakened or overloaded floors. Immediate steps shall be taken by bracing or by other means to prevent the premature collapse of the whole or any part of the structure. 3.3. or loose material. 3. (See Chapter 4 and GI 150. A structural member being removed must not be under any stress other than its own weight.

3 Steaming and Ventilation In the case of vessels and tanks up to about 22.2 Cold Cutting The use of cold cutting techniques for the dismantling of tanks.0 Demolition Page 156 . Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention) 3. With materials less volatile. however. When hot cutting is planned. vessel. the advice of the area Fire Chief and the Loss Prevention Department should be sought. can substantially reduce the risk of explosion.6.4 Residue Cleaning With volatile materials. therefore.3. 3. 3.712 liters (6000 gallons) capacity. 3. February 1993 . Although this is often more costly and laborious.6. use of such methods as in 3. and pipe work. or pipe work which has contained explosive or flammable material shall be subjected to welding or hot cutting operation until all steps have been taken to remove the substance and any vapors.1 Welding and Hot Cutting No tank. steaming cannot be relied on to volatilize all residues unless very large quantities of steam are available. however. essential that any residues are removed before work starts.6.6. with larger tanks the problems are somewhat different. Safety belts or harnesses (with lifelines where required) shall be used by men working in isolated or dangerous locations where there is the possibility of them falling and where other preventive measures are impractical. the main danger lies in the hot cutting setting fire to any residues in the tank.3 above will rapidly reduce vapor concentrations. vessels.7 Protective Clothing and Equipment All demolition workers should be provided with and make use of the following protective equipment: 1 2 3 4 5 Safety helmet Goggles Heavy duty gloves Appropriate respiratory equipment (whenever necessary to prevent inhalation of dust and fumes) Safety boots with steel toe caps and preferably with penetrant resistant soles. there are times when it is the only safe method which can be used. It is. It is. 3. Because of the high capacity of a large tank. both vapors and residues can usually be removed by steaming out.6 Tanks.6.3. relatively easy to eliminate explosive concentrations of vapor within the tank by forced ventilation using a blower or eductor system approved for hazardous locations.

0 Demolition Page 157 .3.3. February 1993 .8 Mechanical Equipment Guards Mechanical equipment such as cranes and bulldozers should be equipped with wire mesh guards over windows and with solid protection over the driving position so that there is no danger of the operator being struck by flying debris.

amosite. Asbestos materials have been widely used in the construction industry and may be present in a number of manufactured products such as cement sheeting. it has been extensively used in chemical plants. asbestos fibers can February 1993 . fire resistant boards.Construction Safety Manual: Asbestos And Other Fibers Page 158 . The most important factors in the development of the disease are the amount of dust to which the individual is exposed. and. These two main groups were the most widely used asbestos minerals. which includes chrysotile (white asbestos). as would be the case with boiler or hotpipe lagging. duration of exposure. 2) Amphibole group. Because crocidolite has high resistance to acids. However.100 GI 8. The use of asbestos is restricted.Cement 4. Blue asbestos can usually be recognized by its dark lavender blue color. All forms of asbestos are capable of causing asbestosis. At present. Of the asbestos products manufactured blue asbestos has the higher health risk. which includes crocidolite (blue asbestos) and amosite (brown asbestos).4. For the purpose of these regulations. may change the characteristic blue color of crocidolite to a white or fawn color. fibrous anthophyllite has also been used in industry in a few applications.001 Work Permit System Breathing Apparatus Asbestos Regulations American National Standards: ASTM C460-88 Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Asbestos . blocks. The majority of asbestos products has been made of white asbestos.003 GI 150. Chrysotile was commonly used as the reinforcing material in asbestos-cement products. Since prolonged exposure to heat. however. 4. molded insulation. but some products contain blue asbestos (crocidolite). etc. ropes. breathing asbestos dust can cause asbestosis (scarring of the lung). INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.1 Types of Asbestos These exist in two main rock-forming mineral groups: 1) Serpentine group. fibrous anthophyllite or any mixture containing any of these minerals. Due to the superior heat resistance of amosite it has been used principally for the manufacture of fire-resistant insulation boards.2 Health Risks Over a period of time. In addition. and the personal susceptibility of the individual to the asbestos fiber. which may go undetected for years after exposure. chrysotile. under GI 150. its presence could be masked by other materials. the Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Unit must approve the use of asbestos materials. gaskets.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS Asbestos is the generic name given to a number of naturally occurring inorganic fibrous silicate minerals.001. asbestos is defined as any of the minerals crocidolite.

in writing. asbestos products shall not be used in new construction. 4.Contains Asbestos". the anticipated duration of the operation.3. warts. causing small tumors. only that amount of asbestos material that is immediately required for the operation shall be moved to the work area. or corns.4 Storage and Transportation All asbestos materials removed from or used on a job shall be stored in an approved container at all times.1 Air Sampling Where the contractor knows that some part of an operation requires the use or removal of asbestos materials.3.3.2 Job Details The contractor shall then inform the Industrial Hygiene Services of details of the work involved. Detailed records shall be kept by the contractor of all persons employed in the process. 4.penetrate the skin. the number of persons employed. Preventive Medicine Services Division. For new construction. February 1993 .4.) Unless approved of in advance by the Industrial Hygiene Unit. when removing or using asbestos materials. he must notify.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers Page 159 . They may not be cured unless every minute fiber is removed. 4. the type of asbestos being used. Bulk samples may be sent for the analysis and identification of asbestos to either Industrial Hygiene Services or to the Laboratories Department. 4. These asbestos tumors are usually found on the palms or fingers. (See Administration I. the Industrial Hygiene Services will take random samples of air at the point of operation during the working period. These records shall be available to Saudi Aramco upon request. When informed. All such containers that contain asbestos shall be clearly marked in English and Arabic: "Caution: Health Hazard . Approved containers shall be used during the transportation of asbestos materials. The maximum allowable concentration of airborne asbestos dust shall not exceed 0. the Industrial Hygiene Services. Preventive Medicine Services Division for review and concurrence prior to job start-up.3 Chest X-rays It is the contractor's duty to ensure that each man employed on asbestos work be given a chest X-ray prior to commencement of the job and thereafter at two-year intervals. and the type of equipment being used to work the asbestos material.4.2 asbestos fibers longer than five microns in length per cc of air on a time-weighted average (TWA) exposure for an eight-hour work day.3. 4.3 Before Work Starts The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan to Loss Prevention Department and to the Industrial Hygiene Service. Section 1.

Before removing asbestos cement mortar.6. removing.3 Protective Equipment Protective equipment shall be required for all instances where asbestos is used regardless of ventilation. wetting.6 Handling and Use 4. mixing.1 Wetting/Ventilation The handling. and spraying of asbestos materials shall be done in a wet state so as to prevent the emission of harmful fibers in excess of allowable concentration.4. or similar material containing asbestos from bags. plaster. Work practices for using or removing asbestos are given in Section 4. cutting. 4. cartons. applying.6.5 Work Area The work area shall be clearly defined and where feasible roped off and notices displayed warning persons of the presence of asbestos dust. head covering. 4. or shipping containers.7 Protective Clothing 4.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers Page 160 . 4. foot protection.001.7. February 1993 . 4. These signs shall be posted at readily visible locations near work areas and these notices shall read in both English and Arabic: Caution: ASBESTOS HEALTH HAZARD Respirator and protective overalls must be worn when entering this area.1 Types The contractor shall provide approved disposable overalls.4.2 Cutting Shearing or punching shall be used in preference to sawing or drilling of asbestos. the material shall be wetted or enclosed. coating.6. Only persons directly concerned with the operation shall be permitted inside the area. and gloves to prevent any airborne asbestos fibers from coming into contact with the body. etc. Signs shall be posted at all approaches to the work area. it shall be done in a separate cordoned off area with an approved exhaust and dust collection system. Where it is necessary to cut or saw materials containing asbestos using hand or power tools. or the operation shall be carried out under total exhaust ventilation. grouting. GI 150.

3 Review The Loss Prevention Department and Industrial Hygiene Services shall review the types and applications of contractor's protective clothing for its' acceptability to Saudi Aramco. 4. Also.7.8. disinfected and stored at the end of each work period and before use by other persons.2 Contamination At the end of each shift. an approved filter type dust respirator will be adequate protection. Asbestos-contaminated clothes shall be packed and carried in sealed impermeable bags or containers and disposed of in accordance to Section 6. Employees shall be careful to prevent contamination of street clothes from work clothes. etc. stripping. dusty jobs (e.7. GI 150. contaminated personal protective equipment shall be collected and disposed of in accordance to GI 150. it is the contractor's responsibility to make sure that each worker be supplied with equipment that provides the level of protection required and of the proper fit.9 Washing and Changing Facilities The contractor shall provide showering/washing facilities for all employees engaged in asbestos work.g. 4. 4.001.4.001.The contractor shall provide a sufficient amount of clothing to each employee working with asbestos to ensure that a complete change of clean protective clothing is available for the start of each shift. 4. the contractor shall supply a respirator approved by Industrial Hygiene Services and Loss Prevention Department to each employee. demolition.8 Respiratory Equipment Where there is an unavoidable emission of asbestos dust. however. February 1993 .8.3 Care All respiratory equipment shall be thoroughly checked.) involving asbestos materials require air-supplied positive pressure respiratory equipment. 4. Under no conditions shall contaminated clothing be worn from the work site. cleaned.2 Use All employees shall be properly trained in the use of respiratory equipment before being engaged in any work with asbestos. 4.8.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers Page 161 . 4.1 Type In normal circumstances. delogging.

10 Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing All waste asbestos materials and disposal clothing shall be disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or containers. 4. The contractor shall provide suitable changing accommodations.The contractor must ensure that employees use these facilities before leaving the job site at the end of each shift.001. GI 150. equipment. The bags and containers shall be handled and disposed of in accordance to Section 6. GI 150. disposal facilities for protective clothing worn during asbestos work and separate accommodations for street clothing not worn during working hours. 4. and adjacent areas are kept free from asbestos dust and waste as provided in Section 5.0 Asbestos And Other Fibers Page 162 .11 Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment The contractor shall ensure that all machinery. All bags and containers shall be marked in both English and Arabic: "Caution: Health Hazard . February 1993 .Contains Asbestos".4.001. work areas.

screens. and provided with personal protection equipment. Health and Environmental Requirements .1. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. February 1993 . Welding goggles. and brazing and electric arc welding operations. forced ventilation and similar equipment shall be provided to all workers and to trainees in the immediate area. hazards can arise.1 NFPA 70 Safety In Welding and Cutting Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection National Electrical Code Safe Handling of Compressed Gases 5. 5. Cutting.Construction Safety Manual: Welding.0 WELDING. well-lit. helmets. Welding/cutting are safe operations if carried out in the correct manner.1 Gases Oxygen (O2) is odorless. AND BRAZING This section outlines the principles involved and the precautions to be taken in gas welding.Oxygen and Acetylene Equipment and Electric Arc Welding Equipment American National Standards: ANSI Z49. And Brazing Page 163 .100 GI 355.081 Work Permit System Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders Performance Qualifying Tests Of Welders And Welding Operations Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES W-4 SAES W-5 Welding Alloy Steels Field Stress Relieving Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual: Section 6 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.5. CUTTING.1 ANSI Z87.1 Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use Personnel working with welding equipment shall be trained. grease and oil must never be used near oxygen as this could cause fire. Where equipment is defective or there is no well-arranged. therefore. It can promote rapid combustion. cutting. competent. or properly ventilated working place.020 GI 401.

Flammable substances such as oil and volatile liquids or corrosive substances should not be stored in the same area. at least 6.1. acetylene is dissolved in acetone to prevent internal explosion. Cutting.6 meters (5 feet) high partition. February 1993 . It is combustible when mixed with air over a wide range (2. they should not be stored near sources of heat such as radiators.) 5. And Brazing Page 164 . Acetylene (C2H2) has a distinct odor often likened to that of garlic or sour apples. Accordingly. A jet of oxygen must never be permitted to strike an oily surface. and used in the vertical position to prevent the liquid acetone from escaping and damaging the valves and other equipment. or contact with water. All storage areas shall have Arabic and English "No Smoking Permitted" signs prominently displayed.2 Cylinders shall not be stored at temperatures exceeding 54o C (130o F). (See GI 355.6 meters (20 feet) apart or separated by a fire proof.Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves. dry.3. Valve caps shall be kept in place when cylinders are not in use.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders Color coding can be of great help but also a potential source of danger as there is no internationally recognized standard color code. Flammable substances shall not be stored within 50 feet of cylinder storage areas. furnaces. extremes of weather. greasy clothes or enter fuel. All cylinders should be chained or otherwise secured in an upright position. cylinders stored in the open should be protected from ground contact.020. Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders.020-4. for Saudi Aramco color coding requirements.1 Cylinders should be stored in a safe. it is essential that acetylene cylinders be stored.81%).1. or near highly flammable substances like gasoline. oil or other storage tanks.1. therefore. handled. Acetylene becomes unstable at pressures above 103 kPa (15 psig) which means it may explode. Oxygen cylinders and flammable gas cylinders shall be stored separately. Acetylene burned with oxygen can produce a higher flame temperature than any other commercial gas. well-ventilated place prepared and reserved for that purpose.5% . 5.3 Storage Of Cylinders 5.5.0 Welding. Inside the cylinder. 1. Warning: Regulated Acetylene pressures must never be allowed to exceed 103 kPa (15 psig) or it may explode.3. piped (except in approved cylinder manifolds) or utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psi gauge pressure. 5. Under no conditions shall acetylene be generated. To prevent rusting. Refer to GI 355.

4.1.0 Welding. 5.4 All cylinder storage rooms shall be ventilated sufficiently so that explosive concentrations of gas cannot accumulate. February 1993 .1. regulators and hoses should be detached from the cylinders.1 above. All electrical installations shall meet the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) for hazardous areas.4. Smoking or any other source of ignition shall be prohibited near storage areas. Cutting.1 Cylinders should never be lifted by their valves since the valves are not designed to take such stress.2 All valves must be fully closed before a cylinder is moved.1. in protective enclosures or sun shelters. 5.3. All wiring shall be in conduit and electric switches shall be located outside the room.3. abuse. Unless a trolley or special carrier is used. And Brazing Page 165 . for moving.5.4 Handling of Cylinders Serious accidents may result from the misuse. When the cylinder is not in use. the valve shall be protected with the valve cap.1.3 Cylinder storage should be planned so that cylinders will be used in the order in which they are received from the supplier. 5.1. and appropriately marked "No Smoking" as in Section 5. Empty and full cylinders must be stored separately with empty cylinders plainly marked as such. to avoid confusion.3. or mishandling of cylinders.1. 5.Cylinders shall be stored out of the direct rays of the sun. Empty cylinders should be segregated according to the type of gas they have held. 5.

or as a support. dirt.4 Cylinders in transit on vehicles shall have valve caps in place and be firmly secured to prevent movement.5 Inspecting Equipment All equipment should be examined immediately before use and regularly maintained.1. Do not lift a cylinder with an electromagnet. Depleted cylinders shall be returned to the supplier with the valves closed and the valve protection caps in place. 5. or Loss Prevention Department should be consulted. Loading and unloading shall take place carefully. Cylinders. All welding operations shall be conducted in well ventilated areas. Cylinders and valves should be kept clean. should be treated as a possible hazard and handled with great care as they still contain some gas.5 When in doubt as to the proper handling of a compressed gas cylinder or its contents.1. February 1993 .4.0 Welding.1 Only soapy water should be used to check for leaks.1. even those marked empty.5.3 If cylinders are to be lifted by a crane. grease or oil.5. Cutting. used as rollers. Where a trolley is to be used for slinging.1. Presence of a leak is often indicated by a hissing sound or unusual changes in the torch flame. Cylinders shall be secured to avoid any violent contact. 5. specially designed bottle holders with lifting eyes should be used. Cylinders shall not be dropped. dragged. the supplier of the gas.4. 5. its base should be strong enough to take the weight of the cylinders.1.5. thrown. 5. Chain and wire rope slings can allow cylinders to slip. And Brazing Page 166 .4. No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used. Valve sockets shall be kept free of grit. the Bottled Gas Coordinator (Central Area Storehouse Department).

Equipment should be fitted with the correct pressure regulators and a regular check should be made to ensure that the regulator is working properly. A friction lighter shall be used for this purpose.7 Cylinders in use should be kept upright on a custom-built stand fitted with a bracket to accommodate the hoses and equipment or otherwise secured. The torch nozzle should be kept closed. even extinguished ones.5. All connections should be made by clips or crimps. February 1993 . Cutting. 5.1.1. Torches shall never be sat down while lit. The metal cap should be kept in place to protect the valve when the cylinder is not connected for use.4 Means of torch ignition should be readily available.5.6 It is dangerous to let the torch flame come into contact with gas cylinders or for the lighted torch itself to be left unattended. 5. And Brazing Page 167 .5. but some can lead to very dangerous conditions. The hoses used for acetylene and for oxy gen shall not be interchangeable. 5.1. 5.1. Only approved materials shall be used for acetylene systems. particularly unalloyed copper or silver.1. 5.6 Faults It is not uncommon for minor "explosions" to occur during welding or cutting. Joint fittings or lines made of copper should not be used and acetylene should not be allowed to come into contact with copper pipe work or tubing.0 Welding.2 Hoses should be used for one type of gas only and color coded for identification.5.1.5. "Empty" drums which have contained low flash point liquids are known to have become lethal bombs when a hot welding torch was laid down on them. 5. on old drums. They should be examined before use for any signs of splitting which might give rise to leakage. It is equally dangerous to rest blowpipes.1.5. Most are more frightening than harmful.3 Connections and check valves should be regularly examined.5 Acetylene can form explosive compounds in contact with certain metals or alloys. An acetylene cylinder valve wrench shall be available at all times for the cylinder in use.5.5.

oxygen first Check cylinder pressures Check and adjust regulator settings Cool torch and check nozzle orifice for obstruction Re-light A flashback is very dangerous.0 Welding. Usually this mixing of gases occurs when the hoses have been disconnected from regulators or torches or when a new hose is being used for the first time. Preventive action: • • • • • • • Use flashback flame arrestors for regulator and torch Ensure all connections are tight Ensure cylinder valves are open and torch valves closed Set regulators to the required pressures Purge each hose separately and consecutively by opening the torch valve and allowing gas to flow for sufficient time to ensure only pure gas remains in the hoses Close the valve for each gas as the purge is completed This purge should be carried out only in the open or in extremely well-ventilated areas Corrective action: • Close both torch valves February 1993 . Sometimes it is due to loose connections. And Brazing Page 168 . Usually one of the hoses will have burst and possibly ignited. Cutting.There are four general groupings of these faults: 1 Snapout can occur during use when: • • • Both regulators are set at an incorrect pressure Torch nozzle obstructed Nozzle held too close to the work Corrective action: • • • • • • 2 Completely shut both torch valves Check regulator setting Check cylinder pressures Check nozzles Re-light Ensure adequate gas flow Backfire can occur on lighting up when: • • Regulators not set to correct pressure Light applied before flow of gas mixture properly established Corrective action: • • • • • 3 Close both torch valves.5. Flashback is caused by gases being mixed in the hose(s).

a 60-80V supply will usually suffice. Adapters shall not be used to permit the interchange of hose.0 Welding.• • • 5.). DC should be used for welding operations in any situation where the effect of electric shock is likely to be extreme.5. needs to be somewhat higher so that means of stabilizing and regulating the arc current can be introduced into the circuit. 5.2 Electric Arc Welding Arc welding is a process for joining metals by heating with an electric arc. the electrode lead and the work lead.2 Weldi ng Connections In each welding circuit there are three main connections: 1) the welding lead. For arc welding.7 Close both cylinder valves Extinguish hose if alight Repair equipment and hoses Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in English and Arabic letters at least 1-inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it. when in use.1. Using AC. And Brazing Page 169 . an 80-85V supply will suffice although some of the latest techniques need an open circuit voltage of up to 100V between electrode and work. 5.1 Voltage The voltage across the welding arc is normally within the range 20-40V.1 February 1993 . 3) the welding ground. Using DC.2.2. a peak voltage of 141V. and accessible locations.2. Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold. They shall not be located within enclosed spaces. 2) the welding return.2. 5. including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold. When not in use. For these reasons. Manifold hose connections. The voltage supplied. however. shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. It should be remembered that a nominal 100V supply has. two welding leads. manifold and header hose connections shall be capped. etc. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and oil. 5. well ventilated. which will damage the manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves. are required. Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall be placed in safe. such as in damp and confined spaces (tanks. in fact. boilers. Cutting.

damaged cable shall not be used. February 1993 . Bolts are unsatisfactory for stranded conductors. Welding grounds and returns should be securely attached to the work by cable lugs. standard plug and socket couplings shall be used. If joints become necessary.The welding lead is the conductor carrying the welding current from the point of supply to the electrode holder. 5.0 Welding. The current involved could be as high as 300 amperes on a hand welding operation. The frames of all fixed arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current. And Brazing Page 170 . cables should be additionally protected by stringing overhead or by using cable covers. It is recommended that the welding ground be bonded to the ground of the main supply system by a separate substantial conductor. standard plug and socket coupling shall be used. Cutting. since the strands can loosen under the bolt head and become detached (see Manufacturers Grounding Specifications for Electrically Powered Equipment and Engine Powered Equipment). or by bolts for strip conductors. They should be regularly examined for cuts or abrasions to the insulation. by clamps in the case of stranded conductors.2.2. Holders should be unplugged when not in use. 5. because all the current fed to the arc has to be conducted back to the supply point. The ground should be of low impedance so that there can be no rise in the potential of the work and so that sufficient fault current passes quickly enough to cut off the supply if necessary. spent stubs. 5.2. The welding return should be used to ground the metal case of the welding machine.3 A continuous welding ground is essential and indispensable for conductors since electric currents as low as 50 milliamperes can be fatal.2.5.2. 5. Where feasible.4 Welding cable insulation needs to be abrasion resistant to withstand normal treatment over rough ground and the wear inflicted by foot and vehicular traffic. Splices are not allowed in welding cables. This high current capacity is essential. Its conductivity should at least equal that of the welding lead.2.2.2. If joints become necessary.5 Electrode holders shall be constructed to accommodate all sizes of electrodes and with an ejector for hot.2 The welding return is the conductor carrying the current back from the work to the point of supply.

for example. However. Other sources of safety hazards related to cables and connections are: cracked insulation is an obvious source of hazard producing shorts to ground eventually leading to increase of conductor resistance.1 The need for the operator to take safety precautions and preventive measures during the operation of welding machines to ensure that no safety-related incident occurs cannot be overemphasized. Ground Fault Interrupters are required. it will quickly drain the unit's battery.6 A shield should be fitted between electrode holder and handle to prevent live elements from being touched. 1. The handle itself shall be made of non-flammable insulating material and be free from joints or holes. and loss of point-of-use welder capacity is a set of welder leads in poor condition. Under normal circumstances.2. Placards must be placed on the welding machine. significant hazard of electrocution to personnel exists. 5.2.2. where power output exceeds 5 KV. A major source of safety hazards. 3.5. Maintain welding and ground cables and connections in good condition. and removal of these covers and panels will reduce the cooling of the engine and generator. Cutting.7 Auxiliary Power Outlets Most welding machines are furnished with an alternator which produces 3 KVA of 115 and 230 volts. it may not return to its 'off' position without assistance. As a safety factor. 2. covers and panels in place when operating the machine: the arc welding machine is designed to operate with all its doors. resulting in overheating and premature failure of the unit. The following is a list of precautions and operating considerations to take into account when operating a 400 amp arc welding machine. With noload voltages approaching 100+ volts. dust or sand.2.0 Welding. Ensure that the engine protection push button 'pops out' when the engine is switched off. covers and panels in place. • February 1993 .3 Protective Measures 5. poor and inconsistent welding performance. if the unit becomes clogged with dirt. 5. If the button remains depressed. The resulting failure to start will delay your work while a new battery is fitted. Keep all doors. all power hand tools which are not double insulated should be grounded to the welder frame. or a recharge cycle is completed. this button will 'pop out' once the engine is switched off. a 'jump start' arranged. especially in wet areas or when working on metal structures.5. All users are strongly encouraged to read the equipment's operating manual to ensure reliable and safe operation. And Brazing Page 171 . They ensure the optimum flow of cooling air. or of the wrong size for the length of cable being run.3.

it should be covered with fireproof material. When welding is in progress. Gas cylinders should be protected from falling sparks. If it cannot be removed. All completed work should be marked "HOT". Inadequate or weak cable connections can also introduce sparking hazards. because of the buildup of resistance from the extra length of the leads. potential shorts to ground. Dry chemical fire extinguishers should be kept available while work is in progress. This can damage the control. Wherever possible. 5.3. Cutting.• combining sets of low capacity cables to reach a distant welding site can greatly reduce the effective welding power available to the welding machine.3.4 When welding or cutting material that is supported by a crane.3 Operators of arc welding equipment must always switch off the current to the electrode holder and remove the electrode whenever it is to be set down and is not actually in use. Cable sizes and lengths must be as recommended by the manufacturer.5. 5. February 1993 .2 Sparks and molten or hot metal coming from the work area can easily set fire to combustible materials near or below the working area. Larger-capacity cables must be used to reach distant sites. Grounding cables shall only be connected to the work. not to the crane or rigging. all combustible material should be removed from the work area. the full length of cable must be stretched out on the ground.3.3. and extra resistance which reduces effective welding machine capacity. a shield or an effective screen should be provided to protect the suspension ropes or chains. as follows (for 400 amp machine): Combined length of electrode and work cable up to 150 feet 150-200 feet 200-250 feet Minimum Cable Size 2/0 3/0 4/0 4. 5. 5.5 Forced ventilation shall be arranged wherever work is to be carried out in a confined area. Suitable metal bins shall be provided for spent electrode stubs as they are usually hot when discarded and can easily cause a fire. And Brazing Page 172 . 5. Leaving the cable coiled on the machine alters the current flow and disrupts the welding process. Do not adjust the 'current control' while welding is in progress.0 Welding.

6 Personnel Protection 5.6.4 February 1993 . Work Permit System. Contact area Loss Prevention for guidance and information. 5. They should be fitted with opaque side pieces. vessel or drum be identified. It is essential that past contents of the tank. (See General And Civil II.5 Confined Spaces It is vital that forced ventilation be maintained in confined spaces at all times.1. prohibited. welding hoods. Note: The use of oxygen for blowing out containers and small tanks is forbidden.) Welding and cutting on drums is strictly controlled and. 5. Vessels and Drums Careful tests should be made to establish that the tank. And Brazing Page 173 . and goggles are necessary to protect eyes and face against heat and the effect of the intense light emitted by welding operations. The responsible supervisor should make a check before permitting any work to begin. Where work in confined spaces has to take place over several days. These goggles should also be worn under the regular welding hoods.1. If there is any doubt or if the tank is known to have had any kind of flammable or explosive content.6. Extreme care should be taken in considering methods of tank welding and cutting as these jobs are hazardous operations unless correct safety measures are taken. Screens should be designed and placed so as not to restrict the flow of air for ventilation purposes. resulting in a build up of gas.0 Welding.5. 5. Work Permit System. (See General And Civil II. in most cases. ) 5. Screens should be made from fire resistant materials or should be suitably treated with a fire resistant compound.6.5.3 Electric welding operations must be effectively screened to prevent nearby personnel from being affected by harmful radiation.4 Welding and Cutting: Tanks. No gas cylinders should ever be allowed into such an area.1 Helmets. Air line respirators may be needed for men working inside such places.6. it should be cleaned and purged thoroughly prior to welding or cutting. the hoses and equipment shall be taken outside overnight in case of any leakage that could occur. 5.2 Goggles are required to protect the eyes of the welder from pieces of flying slag chips during electric arc welding. Cutting. The hoses and equipment used inside must be in excellent condition. vessel or drum is free from explosive flammable vapors or substances.

2. Arc Welding2. 5. Arc-eye or flash burn is a well known condition in welding operations and is due to the eyes being exposed to ultraviolet rays. Gas Welding5. Cutting. flying sparks. protective sleeves of similar materials should be worn. This condition is a superficial burn on the outer layer of the eye.7 Health Hazards Apart from the obvious hazards of physical burns.1 Radiant Energy The process of welding produces radiant energy in the form of visible light. Welding protective lens shall be tempered glass. Lens shall be distinctively marked to identify approved lens shade. sparks.7. is the material most generally worn. when working in confined areas.7. The condition is. When gloves are not long enough. suitably reinforced at points of maximum wear. The risk of exposure is lessened by wearing protective clothing. 5. and generally no permanent damage is caused. however. The effects normally wear off within two days. and distance. 5. 5. Torch Brazing3.0 Welding. however.Gloves are necessary protection to the hands against heat. And Brazing Page 174 .2 Respiratory Effects The risk of being gassed in normal welding operations is slight. extremely painful and can easily be avoided by the use of eye protective lens or shields. a forced ventilation system should be in operation to remove any build up of hazardous gases. and radiation. health hazards in welding operations fall into two classes: hazards from radiant energy and hazards from dusts and fumes.1 Oxy-acetylene welding operations can cause the oxygen and nitrogen of the air to unite to form nitrogen oxides. The risk of this energy harming the operator or other personnel can be minimized by the proper use of protective clothing and shielding. Lens Shade Guide: 1. Leather.7. and falling metal. In well ventilated areas this 10 to 14 3 to 6 4 to 8 February 1993 .6. Gloves should be long enough to protect wrists and forearms. molten metal.5. Exposure of the skin to infrared and ultraviolet rays can result in irritation and burning. Pant cuffs shall never be worn inside of the safety boot. shielding. and infrared rays.5 Safety boots and leggings are essential to provide effective protection against heat. ultraviolet rays.

material which has been degreased or on material which has been painted with lead. Although welding cannot be regarded in general as an extremely hazardous occupation.2 All welding operations produce quantities of ozone. and safe practices for dealing with them must be established.5. the amount of nitrogen oxides breathed can rapidly reach toxic levels. It is essential that each operation be analyzed before work starts and that the control measures are correctly applied.2. a highly toxic gas. Cutting. the amount produced is small and providing adequate ventilation is used. These problems must be recognized before the job starts. exposure to concentrated fumes may be irritating and in some cases dangerous. the real effects take place some 6 to 24 hours after exposure. In oxy -acetylene and electric arc welding. galvanized material. the risk is negligible. copper-bearing. There are many other dangers which can arise when welding or cutting under specific conditions or on particular metals. however. Significant and sometimes dangerous amounts of ozone can be formed when inert gas shielded welding is being carried out.7. or chromate-containing paint. And Brazing Page 175 .does not cause any problems.0 Welding. Hazardous operations include: welding on manganese steel. February 1993 . in confined areas or where the welder is working very close to the job. 5. The main problem with this gas is that the welder does not appear to be affected at the time.

002 GI 610. storage. etc.215 GI 1310. and Use of Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents in Construction and Demolition Explosive Materials Code Work Permit System Requisitioning. the responsibilities falling upon supervisory staff are considerable. Health and Environmental Requirements American National Standards: ANSI A10. Storage. whether large or small quantities are handled. All blasting operations in Saudi Aramco are strictly controlled and the use of explosive materials by contractors is prohibited without prior written approval by Company representatives.001 GI 1183.100 GI 355.00 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.6. Storing and Issuing Explosives Blasting Near Existing Facilities Use Of Explosives In Construction Special Regulations for the Use of Explosives in Seismic Operations Transporting Explosives on Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles Transportation Of Dangerous Articles Aboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft NFPA 495-90 National Safety Council Industrial Data Sheets: I-644-90 I-730-86 Treatment Of Extraneous Electricity In Electric Blasting Ammonium Nitrate / Fuel Oil Mixtures As Blasting Agents February 1993 . Blasting Services Unit for all blasting requirements. The acquisition and use of explosive materials in Saudi Arabia are strictly controlled by the Saudi Arab Government. transporting. accident.015 GI 475. whose requirements must be adhered to at all times. For contractor In-Kingdom blasting operations.Construction Safety Manual: Explosive Materials Page 176 . fire. Project Support Services Division.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS The use of explosive materials within construction is extensive and.7-89 Safety Requirements for Transportation. Receiving. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. handling and use of explosive materials. as well as the emergency procedures to be adopted in the case of misfire. Those responsible must consider the acquisition. Handling.001 GI 475. contact the Resources Planning Department.

February 1993 .7. Piling equipment can vary from a simp le air-operated hand-held hammer to a large complex rig. • • The nature and purpose of the operation.030. unguarded machinery. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. Piling operations fall into two categories: driving load-bearing piles. GI 7. Health and Environmental Requirements .026. GI 7. driving sheet piles. Pile Driving.Excavations Crane Safety Handbook (Page 99) National Safety Council Data Sheet: Special Hazard Bulletin X128. the following factors should be considered before work starts. timber or any combination of the three. Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection And Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment 7. and.1 Before Work Starts In order that piling operations may be undertaken with the minimum risk to men and equipment.100.0 PILING OPERATIONS Piling operations attract many of the problems associated with other types of construction work: access. Heavy equipment and the stress and vibration imposed upon that equipment give rise to hazards peculiar to piling operations. and Similar Sources ASME Standard: Section I Section VII Power Boilers Pressure Vessels Work Permit System Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Crane and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Inspection. GI 7.029. as well as the standard and maintenance of equipment. Piles may be of steel. Soil investigation reports of the area. which may be driven vertically or raked. concrete. housekeeping.025. The standard of supervision should be high. Property Damage from Blasting.Construction Safety Manual: Piling Operations Page 177 . GI 7. etc.

1.1.7. which should be checked with the various departments through the Saudi Aramco Construction Engineer. Softwood wedges are likely to split and must not be used. Equipment of adequate capacity to perform the operation should be assembled. In all such cases.. the hammer will be suspended from the crane at a greater radius than the boom angle indicator will show. February 1993 . then. counterbalances.1. Where piling operations are within a restricted area. etc.8 meters (6 feet) high. experienced in piling operations. precisely located by careful hand digging. the proper Work Permits should be obtained before any work is undertaken.2 Pile Gates Sufficient timber or steel must be available for the construction of pile gates. (See GI 7. Proper ladder access must be provided to the pile gates. Guards shall be provided across the top of the head block to prevent the cable from jumping out of the sheaves. 7. and where they are over 1. 7. Outriggers. handrails or rigger's belts must be provided. All equipment must be carefully inspected before being used with particular attention to the following. is essential for piling work.030. shall be provided to maintain stability of the pile driver rig.3 Inspection Air compressors or steam boilers must be carefully examined and all hoses and couplings checked both for leaks and general condition. Where cranes are to be used for driving raking piles with a drop hammer or driving piles below the level of the crane using extended leaders.1 Cranes Cranes used for both lifting and piling operations should be of an adequate size and capacity to perform the work safely. Competent supervision. 7. 7.1.4 Wedges An adequate supply of hardwood wedges should be obtained for adjusting piles while pitching. All steam and air hoses should be fitted with a regulator valve and a quick acting shut-off valve for emergency. under competent supervision.1.0 Piliing Operations Page 178 . the distance of the hammer from the center point of the crane must be calculated and this distance used to ascertain the safe working load.• Location and nature of any underground services in the area.) 7.5 Timber Block Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block.

7. the pile.2 Driving Piles 7. or electric operated extractor should be used.2. Where hollow section or concrete piles are lifted with chains or wire slings.2. February 1993 . so that the emergency shutdown does not depend on verbal communication. Particular attention should be paid to the extractor wedges and the condition of the gripping faces. no attempt should be made to clear it from the leaders by lifting or booming up.2 Driving Workmen should stand clear of the operation while driving is in progress. The pile head should be cut off and the debris cleared from the leaders. 7. A system of signals must be arranged between the foreman.0 Piliing Operations Page 179 . The foreman must be present and so positioned that he can be seen by the crane or winch operator and the man standing by the valve.Fixed leads shall be provided with ladder and adequate attachment points so that the loft worker may engage his safety belt lanyard to the leads. If loft platforms are provided. which should not be smooth. must be provided for the topman when pitching sheet piles.1 Pitching Piles should only be lifted and positioned in the pile gate or onto the leaders or rig with sound lifting gear adequate for the purpose. The topman must wear stout gloves when pitching. When driving raking piles. A steam.6 Ground Support The ground upon which the crane or rig will stand should be firm and level. Under no circumstances should any man touch the hammer until all valves are closed. Quick release shackles should be examined before each use. Steam/air hose leading to the hammer or jet pipe and all hoses shall be securely attached with 1/4" chain or cable to prevent whip lash. they shall be protected with standard guardrails.1. Adequate access. air. Digger mats or a hard-core standing should be provided if the ground is likely to subside under the high ground loading imposed by driving or extracting piles.3 Pile Extraction No attempt should be made to extract piles which have been hammer-driven by lifting or booming up with a crane. such as a cradle or a properly secured ladder. the winch or crane operator. and the valve operator. 7. 7. 7. leaders. timber or burlap packing should be placed between the lifting gear and the pile. and machine must all be in the same line. Where the head of a pile becomes distorted through driving. Workmen must not walk under piles that are suspended from extractors. The emergency shut-off valve and the crane or winch controls must be manned at all times during driving.

1 Men handling piles or working on piling operations should always wear safety helmets.3 All other equipment should be inspected daily for defects. In addition to these special hazards.2 At the start of each shift.7.5 Piling operations are a construction process with special hazards. February 1993 .4. 7. men are exposed to the hazards commonly associated with all types of construction work.4 General Precautions 7.4 Piling operations should never be undertaken except under competent supervision and with a crew experienced in this class of work. and precautions against these general hazards must not be neglected.4. Crane operators shall have a valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate (See GI 7. etc.030).4. hammers and extractors should be carefully checked for loose bolts. safety glasses.4. and be equipped with ear protection. preferably of the muff type. safety shoes.4. 7. 7.7.0 Piliing Operations Page 180 . stout gloves. 7.

1. They must be promptly removed when work is complete.0 ROADWORKS A contractor engaged in roadwork is not only responsible for the safety of his own men. 8. Excavation. 8.3 Activities which produce dust shall be kept to a minimum.. 8. street.2 To avoid creating a traffic hazard.1. from the Maintenance Department during normal working hours. etc. Failure to do this can have disastrous results.4 Permanent road signs and striping shall be restored before the roadway is returned to service. Road closure plans must be submitted to Loss Prevention before roads are closed.8.1. lights.Construction Safety Manual: Roadworks Page 181 . warning devices must not be put in place until they are needed. Consequently. 8. at night and in all weather conditions.1.100 8. etc.1 Saudi Aramco organizations can obtain barriers.5 The surface of any highway. during the day. 8. the marking of construction sites and the safe and efficient diversion and control of traffic must be properly planned and executed. Contractors shall provide their own barriers. and Maintenance of Traffic Controls (Appendix D) Work Permit System GI 2. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1021. he also has an obligation to protect the public from potential construction hazards.1.6 Should there be any doubt as to the type of marking and protection required for roadwork in any location.1 General 8.000 Street and Road Construction. lights. the Loss Prevention engineer for the area should be consulted. or sidewalk shall be level and in good condition before any barriers and markers are removed.1. February 1993 .

8.8.000. 8. shall be posted at least 50 meters (165 feet) from the work site at the entrance barricade and another flagman at the exit barricade. 8.1. 8.9 meters (3 feet) wide and equipped with standard guardrails.8 During darkness.6 meter (2 feet) and 0. Flagmen shall be stationed in an illuminated area.1.0 Roadworks Page 182 .2 Street and Road Construction. Excavations. equipped with a safety vest and a red flag. It shall be the duty of the flagmen to control the flow of traffic in a safe manner.1. flagmen shall wear light-reflecting vests and gloves. and Maintenance Traffic Controls See Appendix D (GI 1021. At night. the work area will be marked by lights spaced 10 meters (30 feet) apart. February 1993 . Warning lights used in oil operations. covered over. industrial.1. excavation work in residential areas shall be entirely enclosed.9 meter (3 feet) above grade.000). and use reflective signs or flags.7 A flagman. then a third man shall be positioned where he can see and be seen by the other two men in order to signal them to start or stop traffic. or company housing areas shall be weather proof and positioned 0. Traffic control signals shall be in accordance with GI 1021.9 In addition to the foregoing. or roped-off.10 Excavations in sidewalks or areas of expected pedestrian traffic shall be provided with close-planked walkways or bridges 0.8. Both flagmen shall be in sight of each other. If conditions do not permit this.

Inc.28. American National Standards Institute: Uniform Building Code ANSI A10. unless they are specifically designed to be used together.001.1990 Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A14.020. Similarly. ladders. and Scaffolding Page 183 ./ANSI A14. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.Ladders. On or Near Water Safety Requirements For Scaffolding (formerly 1009. Where scaffold manufacturers products meet other scaffold standards that are equivalent to or higher than ANSI requirements.Construction Safety Manual: Working Places.1a. Health and Environmental Requirements . LADDERS. Where work cannot safely be done on the ground or from part of a building or permanent structure.100.Fixed-Safety Requirements Work Permit System Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over.3 .0 WORKING PLACES.8 . AND SCAFFOLDING Every contractor and every employer of workmen has a legal and contractual responsibility to ensure that each place at which his men work is safe and that it remains safe so long as men work there. On or Near Water. Scaffold products from different manufacturers shall not be mixed on a scaffold.1982. Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards: GI 2.9. then those products can be used. GI 6.1984 Ladders .1988 Scaffolding-Safety Requirements ANSI A14.006) Lighting Utilization February 1993 . each supervisor is responsible for ensuring that every man working under his direction or control has a safe working place and a safe means of getting to and from every working place.1 . scaffolds. or other means of support shall be provided and properly maintained.Portable Wood Safety Requirements ANSI A14.2 .1985 Ladders . Scaffolding. GI 8. Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS The Standards used for guidance in this section of the Construction Safety Manual are those of the American National Standards Institute. Ladders. (ANSI) and US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910. SAES -P-123.

90 National Electrical Code (NEC) 9.1 Working Places. every working place shall be safe and of adequate dimensions.1. a guardrail system (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards shall be provided.28. 9. tools. or materials could fall 1.ANSI A92. Code of Federal Regulations.1.2. Holes and gaps shall be guarded or securely covered. 9. Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in 9. Job-Made Ladders NFPA 70 .1990 Vehicle . shall be provided with a guardrail system and toeboards (permanent or temporary) at all edges from which men. February 1993 . its slope shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal. the ramp shall be fitted with stepping cleats at 0. etc.3 meter (1 foot) intervals. other means of preventing falls. such as safety belts. and Scaffolding Page 184 ..0 Working Places. 9. Ladders.5 and 9. General 9.2 .1 Falls Within Saudi Aramco.9. For further information.6.3 Lighting Every working place and every means of getting to and from a working place shall be provided with adequate lighting which shall be properly maintained. (See SAES -P-123) 9. which men use in the course of their work or for a permanent or temporary access. or materials could fall 1. walkways. CFR Part 1910. Should the provision of these safeguards be impracticable. Safety Requirements for Scaffolding National Safety Council Data Sheets: Data Sheet 568. (9.1. Stairs (permanent or temporary) shall have all treads properly secured and shall be fitted with handrails throughout their length and conform to the Uniform Building Code. tools.4 Prevention of Falls Permanent decking.8 meters (6 feet) or more. see Personal Protective Equipment. Section I. footbridges.6.5 Ramps Where the slope of a ramp exceeds 1 vertical to 4 horizontal. shall be used. Where men. 29.1.8 meters (6 feet) or more. When a ramp is to be used by the general public.Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices US. Handrails shall be provided.1. etc.9.2 Access and Egress A safe means of getting to and from a working place shall be provided and used.6) of this Manual. parts of a structure.

1. adequate protection in the form of crawling boards. If work being done is likely to reduce the stability of an existing structure or building. and other debris must be cleared up immediately. and falling. and Scaffolding Page 185 . or other fixings where necessary. work on. All walls shall be left in a stable condition at the end of each shift by bracing support jacks. stays. protective coverings shall be erected or No. Unstable structures shall not be left unsupported over night.0 Working Places. 1/2 inch mesh or equivalent. unless such wall was originally designed to do so and is in a safe condition to be self-supporting. Ladders. or other suitable covering must be provided to prevent men and materials falling from or through the roof. Temporary guardrails shall be placed to prevent workers from falling. No wall sector which is more than one story in height. taking wind force and storm conditions into consideration. 9. workers shall be equipped with safety belts that are securely anchored to the structure. bracing or other means of support shall be used.1. 9. Oil spills. shall be permitted to stand alone without lateral bracing. mud.1.9. shall be securely fixed between the toeboard and midrail to prevent falling objects.10 Insecure Structures Unstable or weak structures shall be supported by guys. or where men have to cross. tripping. or work from fragile roofs or surfaces. 9. February 1993 .7 Hot Surfaces Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent men coming into contact with any hot surface. Men shall not be permitted to walk or work on steel work or other surfaces on which paint or cement wash is still wet.1.6 Falling Material Where there is danger of men being struck by falling material. During storms or high winds.9. If roof work is accomplished on pitched roofs with a slope greater than 1:4.1. workers shall not be working on a roof or scaffold that is exposed to the weather.9 Roof Work Where work is done on or from the roof of a building or structure. 9. timbers and/or guywired. roof ladders.8 Slipping and Tripping Contractors are responsible for maintaining good housekeeping to prevent slipping. supports. scrap. 18 gauge wire.

. over or near water.2. position and use. where necessary.11. 9.1 Where men work on. Ladders shall comply with the referenced ANSI or equivalent codes. 9. fencing or other suitable barriers shall be provided for the protection of the worker.3 Aluminum ladders shall not be used where there is a likelihood of contact with materials harmful to aluminum.2 Metal ladders.3 Approved rescue equipment that meets the requirements of GI 6. February 1993 .1. fencing or other suitable barriers is impracticable. first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 9. such as caustic liquids.020 in the form of life rings with life lines. condition.0 Working Places.1. Men shall be thoroughly trained in the use of all protective and rescue equipment. a guardrail system and toeboards.11.11 Work Over Water 9. or if for any reason men are outside the protection of these safeguards.2.2.1.1. suitable life vests shall be worn and a safety belt or harness securely fixed to a dropline. and ladders which are wet shall not be used near electrical equipment with exposed live conductors.9. etc. etc. wet cement.1 A ladder must be of the proper length for the job to be done.2 Ladders and Stepladders The safety of a ladder depends on four important factors: selection.1.1 Selection 9. a suitably equipped rescue boat shall be readily available. ladders with metal reinforced side rails. 9. 9.11. and properly maintained.2 Wherever the provision of a guardrail system and toeboards. damp lime.2. If it is to be used for access or as a working place. Ladders. and Scaffolding Page 186 . it shall ris e to a height of 36 inches to 42 inches above the landing place or above the highest rung to be reached by the feet of the man using the ladder.1.1. 9.9. Such ladders shall have a warning notice attached to guard against use near electrical equipment.

shall not be used as a means of support.4 Metal reinforcing shall be on the underside of the rungs and where reinforcing is on only one side of the side rails. 9. or filler blocks used on the side rails between the cleats. blocks.3 Position 9.0 Working Places.2. Side rails must be securely tied off to prevent movement.2. 9.e. runways or scaffolds.2.5 Both side rails of a ladder shall be evenly supported at the upper resting place. missing. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms. that too shall be on the underside. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced 30.2. 9. Ladders. other measures must be taken to prevent movement by securing at the base. broken. Cleats shall be inset by 2.25 centimeters (7/8 inch). or with other faulty equipment shall be tagged and removed from service. loose.1 The side rails of a ladder shall be equally supported on a firm level surface.9. and Scaffolding Page 187 . using side guys.1 Each ladder shall be examined before use.2.3.2.2. or stationing a man at the base.3 Whenever possible. ladders shall be set at an angle of 75o to horizontal ground (i.9.3. barrels. It must be understood. Boxes.2 Condition 9.2. 9.3. that a man stationed at the base will be unable to control a ladder more than 6 meters (20 feet) in length. 9.3.2. Those with split or broken side rails.3. 9.. however. Rungs or cleats shall not be used to support planks. one meter out to four meters up).2. decayed or damaged rungs or cleats.5 centimeters (1 foot) between centers. Where secure fixing is impracticable. etc.2 Rungs shall be properly mortised into side rails. The area at the base of a ladder must be kept clear.2 Ladders shall not be supported on their rungs or cleats.2. February 1993 .

2 Before mounting a ladder.22 meters (4 feet) overlap 10.3.2. and overlap should be as follows (examples): 9.3.4 Use 9.2. oil or mud.2. There should be no obstruction in the way of a man's foot. 9. February 1993 .97 meters (32 to 36 feet) = 1. Ladders. the rail extensions at the top of the ladder. Where long ladders are used. shut. They shall always step through.9.9 Where ladders have to be suspended.75 to 10. or be secured in the open position with a man on guard or properly barricaded.6 Where there is a possibility of a ladder being struck by moving vehicles or equipment. Here the rung or cleat should be level with the platform.52 meters (5 feet) overlap Splicing or lashing ladders together shall not be permitted. If a ladder is erected close to a doorway. particularly at the landing platform. a man should be placed on guard or a space at the base should be securely fenced off.0 Working Places. personnel shall check their shoes for freedom from grease. the minimum overlap depends on the extension ladder length.3. and Scaffolding Page 188 . 9. Holes in decking through which ladders pass shall only be enough to permit passage of the man using the ladder.2.63 meters (36 to 48 feet) = 1. not around.3. 9.2.7 Ladder landing places shall be provided at least every 9 meters (30 feet) of height and shall be fitted with a guardrail system and toeboards.2. they shall also be lashed at the center to prevent lateral movement.2.97 to 14.4. both side rails shall be lashed top and bottom so as to provide equal support. 9.4.9.8 A ladder should always be placed so that there is space behind each rung or cleat for a proper foothold. 9. the door should either be locked.1 Where an extension ladder is used fully extended.

5.4.08 by 10. 5. Only one person shall be on a ladder at a time. Single cleat ladders shall not exceed 4.08 by 10.4. Wood cleats shall have the following minimum dimensions when made of woods that meet ANSI requirements for ladders: February 1993 . Tools may be carried in pockets or on special belts provided there is no risk of injury and movement is not impaired. Double cleat ladders on Saudi Aramco construction sites shall not exceed 4. Ladders. 9.4. When ascending or descending personnel shall face the ladder and keep both hands on the ladder.5 meters (15 feet) in length between supports (base and top landing).9. If the work to be done requires the use of both hands.5 meters (12 to 15 feet) in length.2.1 centimeters (15 inches) but not more than 50.4 Men ascending or descending ladders shall not carry tools and materials in their hands. Personnel shall not run up or down or slide down a ladder at any time.8 centimeters (20 inches) between rails at the top.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side and middle rails of double cleat ladders up to 3.9. and Scaffolding Page 189 . A guardrail system and toeboards shall be erected on the exposed sides of the platforms.5 A man working on or from a ladder must always have a secured handhold and both feet on the same rung or cleat.0 Working Places. The width of single cleat ladders shall be at least 38. a double cleat ladder shall be installed. a safety belt is required. or if the length required exceeds this maximum length.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side rails of single cleat ladders up to 4.6 meters (12 feet) in length. or if simu ltaneous two-way traffic is expected. 5. If ladders are to connect different landings.6 Job-made ladders shall be constructed for intended use. offset with a platform between each ladder.2.6 by 4.5 meters (15 feet) in length.08 by 15.2. securely fixed to a dropline (life line).5 meters (15 feet) long.2. 9. If a ladder is to provide the only means of access or exit from a working area for 25 or more employees.24 centimeters (2 by 6 inches) lumber for double cleat ladders from 3. Materials shall be raised or lowered using a handline after being securely tied or placed in a basket. two or more separate ladders shall be used.4.3 Single rung and single cleat ladder should be used by only one man at a time. 9.

1 Ladders and stepladders shall be maintained in good condition at all times. 30.75 in.5 Stepladders Generally.5.) WIDTH 7. climb or sit on the stepladder top.2.9 cm (.2. 9. they should be placed at right angles to the work with either the front or back facing the work.9. 9.) THICKNESS 1.2. Ladders. stepladders shall be spread to their fullest extent limited by manufacturer's braces when in use.62 cm (3 in) 9.0 Working Places. the foregoing remarks on selection. Joints shall be tight.8 cm (20 inches) Over 50. and movable parts shall operate freely without binding or undue play.1 To ensure stability.2.2.75 in) 1.6 General 9. and Scaffolding Page 190 . The cleats shall be secured to each rail with three 10d common wire nails or other fasteners of equivalent strength. condition and use of ladders apply equally to stepladders. Whenever possible.48 centimeters (12 inches) between centers. February 1993 .7 Metal ladders shall not be used for work on electrical systems unless the ladders are specifically designed for that application.6.52 cm (3.5. The following requirements also apply: 9.9 cm (. pail shelf.2.75 in.2 Do not stand.20 cm (30 in. Cleats shall be inset into the edges of the side rails one-half inch.2 Ladders and stepladders must not be painted. braces or back section.LENGTH OF CLEAT Up to and including 50.8 cm (20 in. or filler blocks shall be used on the rails between the cleats. 9. 9.4.) and up to and including 76.6. 9.) Cleats may be made of species of any other group of wood provided equal or greater strength is maintained. all hardware and fittings shall be securely attached.2. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced.

9. clamps.8 centimeters (1-29/32 inches) in diameter and nominal wall thickness 0.) shall be of a metal type approved to ANSI or equivalent requirements. A tube shall not deviate from a straight line by more than 1/600 of its length measured at the center of the tube length. damp lime. Tubes must meet ANSI or equivalent requirements and must be free from cracks and surface flaws. 9.4 centimeter (5/32 inch) and is referred to as two-inch nominal diameter tubing.3.3 Scaffolding Components 9. The ends shall be cut square and cleanly. the front end should be kept high enough to clear men's heads and special care shall be taken at corners and blind spots. 9.3. wet cement and sea water.9.2 Tubing Ordinary scaffold tubing is 4. it must not be used in the same structure.4 Fittings All fittings (couplers. and Scaffolding Page 191 .6.2. February 1993 . Ladders. It is mild steel and normally supplied in lengths of 6.3. Scaffolds shall be stored to prevent damage and to permit easy access for use.1 All scaffold structures shall be erected with metal components approved per ANSI requirements or equivalent. the difference in the elastic modulus of the two materials results in greater deflection in aluminum tubing for the same loading conditions.2 Aluminum tubing shall not be used where there is likelihood of contact with materials harmful to aluminum such as caustic liquids.1 Although the aluminum tubing is dimensionally interchangeable with steel tubing.3 Aluminum Tubing 9. laminations. 9. 9.9.3. etc. Scaffold erection plans (drawings) shall be submitted to Loss Prevention Department for review prior to men being allowed to work on the scaffold. They shall be examined regularly and care must be taken to ensure that moving parts are sound and well lubricated and that threads are not stripped.0 Working Places.3.3 Where a ladder is carried by one man. excessive rust and other defects.3.4 meters (21 feet).3.3.

6. End-to-End Coupler: Also known as a Sleeve Coupler. the grain shall not cross from face-toface within a distance of less than 30. Standard Coupler: Also known as a Right Angle or 90o Coupler. Ladders. 9.3. Adjustable Coupler: Used for connecting two tubes together at any angle through 360o . On the face of the plank.0 Working Places. the plank must not be twisted by more than 1.5 Typical Scaffold Fittings (Figures II. 5 centimeters (2 inches) thick by 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. On the face of the plank. without fixed banding or the end bolted through.1 Planks shall be of rough timber and graded as scaffold planks without defects (2" x 9"). A load bearing coupler used for connecting two tubes together at right angles. the ends shall not be split up more than 30.9.9.2 February 1993 .3.64 centimeters (1/4 inch) thick providing a flat bearing surface for load distribution from posts. From end-to-end.2.22) Base Plate: A 15 centimeter (6 inch) by 15 centimeter (6 inch) steel plate greater than 0. Screwjacks: Used for compensating variations in ground levels. It forms a solid anchorage to which a scaffold can be tied. not more than half the depth shall be knot wood.6 Planks 9.3 centimeters (1/2 inch).3.6.3. On the edge of the plank. and shall conform to the following specifications: 1 2 All planking shall be Scaffold Grade to ANSI requirements.5 centimeters (1 foot). On the edge of the plank.17 . Used for connecting two tubes end-to-end. Reveal Pin: Inserted into the end of a tube and adjusted to form a rigid horizontal or vertical member between two opposing surfaces. and Scaffolding Page 192 . 3 4 5 6 7 9. Scaffold planks shall meet the loading requirements of Table II. not more than one third the width in any one place shall be knot wood. It has an integral spigot and fixing holes for use with sills.5 centimeters (1 foot).II. Not to be used where a load bearing standard coupler is required.

4 Planks should be stacked on a suitable foundation.8 Platform units rated for one person capacity shall be designed and constructed to carry 113. plank) shall be capable of supporting without failure one or more 91 kg (200 lb) person with 22.3. measures should be taken to tie or bond succeeding layers.) placed at 0. 9.6 kg (250 lb.9.3.e.. or as sills for scaffolding.6. 9.3.6.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the span. and Scaffolding Page 193 . but the parts affected may be cut off to produce shorter planks with the ends banded or bolted through.6. including decay.3 Planks which are split. prior to each use.3. February 1993 .Planks shall not be painted or treated in any way that would conceal defects.6. 9. Planks shall be inspected for defects.7 The design working load of each platform unit (i. Where the height of a stack exceeds 20 planks. 9.0 Working Places.6 Scaffold planks shall not be used for shuttering for concrete. 9.9 Platform units rated for two persons shall be designed and constructed to carry a working load of 227 kg (500 lb.5 Planks should not be stood on end unattended.7 kg (50 lb. 9.3. 9.6.3. decayed or warped shall not be used. shoring for trenches. Ladders.6.3.) : 113.6.6 kg (250 lb.) of equipment.) at the center of the span.

and Scaffolding Page 194 .) : 113.6.3.7 to 9.3. shall be designed and constructed to carry a uniformly distributed load as an alternate to the person loading of 9.6. Ladders. 25. 9.7 to 9.3.10.9.11 The design loads in sections 9.3.2: WOOD SCAFFOLD PLANK LOADING CHART Permissible Span (ft) Douglas Fir or Southern Pine 2 in x 10 in Nominal or Loading Condition One worker or medium-duty Two workers or heavy-duty Three workers REFERENCE: ANSI A10.6. Uniformly distributed loads and person loading are not cumulative and the most restrictive loading shall be used for platform design.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the span.6.3. Greater uniformly distributed loads shall be specially designed.0 Working Places.3.8-1988 1-1/2 in x 9-1/4 in Actual 10 ft 8 ft 5 ft Spruce Rough Sawn 1-7/8 in x 9-7/8 in or 2 in x 9 in 8 ft 7 ft 5 ft February 1993 . 50 and 75 pounds per square foot respectively. 9.13 Light. medium and heavy duty scaffold (i.6 kg (250 lb./ft 2 respectively).6. 9.9. TABLE II.10 Platform units rated for three persons shall designed and constructed to carry a working load of 341 kg (750 lb. where applicable.3.3.10 are not to be added to uniformly distributed loads for light.6.6. but are shown as alternates..e.6.12 Each platform. medium and heavy duty uniformly distributed load requirements shall be 25. and at the center of the span. 50 and 75 lb.) placed at 0.

0 Working Places.FIGURE II.9.18: ADJUSTABLE COUPLER February 1993 .17: S TANDARD COUPLER FIGURE II. and Scaffolding Page 195 . Ladders.

the ground or floor on which a scaffold is going to stand must be carefully examined.1 Foundations 9.1. including components.4.2 Timber sills at least 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 3. asphalt pavement.4.4.5 If used to compensate for variations in ground level. barrels.4. wooden floors. A sill shall extend under at least two posts.4. and slippery surfaces.2 The inner row of posts shall be placed as close as possible to the face of the building or structure. and Scaffolding Page 196 .4.e. small timber pads may be used in place of sills and nailed to prevent the base plates sliding off. Sand or madeup ground may need compacting to ensure there are no cavities.1.64 centimeter (1/4 inch) thick.3 Where scaffolding is erected on a solid bearing such as rock or concrete. To avoid projections. etc.1 A sound base is essential.) 9. the posts may be up February 1993 . 9. All posts shall be vertical. 9.1. (See manufacturer's specifications. 9. the screwjack shall not be adjusted to more than two-thirds of the total length of the thread. roofs. joints in adjacent posts should not occur in the same lift. therefore.1.9.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) thick (not scaffold planks) will be required to spread the load on sand..2.4. 9. shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 4 times the maximum intended load.4. may need shoring from underneath.4. The base plate shall be of a type approved for supporting scaffolding posts.2. Ladders.1.2 Posts 9. and other loose or unsuitable material shall not be used for the construction or support of scaffolding. i. 9.9.4 Concrete blocks. Scaffolds. Joints in posts should be staggered.4 Requirements Common to All Scaffolding 9.0 Working Places.1 Posts shall be pitched on 15 centimeters (6 inches) by 15 centimeters (6 inch) steel base plates and at least 0. Such bases as floors. made up ground.

These bearers must remain in position as they are a structural part of the scaffold. 9. Runners should be secured end-to-end by sleeve couplers.4.1 Runners shall be securely fixed to posts with standard couplers and shall be horizontal. provided that.5 Board Bearers Board bearers shall be installed between bearers to accommodate differences in plank lengths. Ladders. and the working platform shall be fully decked out. The outer row of posts shall be positioned from the inner row of posts depending on the load requirements of the scaffold. where there is room to do so.e. 9. When coupled directly to the runners. the coupler must be kept as close to the posts as possible.3. i. not by joint pins.4.4. 9.0 Working Places.4 Bearers Bearers should be installed between posts and securely fixed to the posts bearing on the runner coupler and secured with standard couplers.4.9. February 1993 . Joints in runners should be staggered.to 41 centimeters (16 inches) away from the wall or structure as necessary.. These may be removed when no longer required to support platform units.3 Runners 9. 9. and Scaffolding Page 197 . joints in adjacent runners should not occur in the same bay. Board bearers shall be secured to the runners between bearers where necessary to support platform units (planks). the gap between the wall or structure and the inner posts shall be closed with planks on extended board bearers.4.2 Runners shall be vertically spaced no more than 2. 6 inches) to give adequate headroom along the platforms.3.0 meters (6 feet.

7 Ties 9.6.2 Where the foregoing is impracticable.25 and II. (See Figures II.6.6 Bracing 9.4. Only standard couplers or adjustable couplers may be used. 9.7.7.3 Temporary rakers (inclined load-bearing tube supports) brace the scaffold against the ground when setting out. 9. Joints in braces shall be made with end-to-end or parallel couplers.1 It is essential that all scaffolds. These braces should be fixed to the runners with standard couplers as close to the posts as possible. When bracing cannot be attached to the posts. as close as possible to the posts. (See Figures II. leveled and tied. be securely tied to the building or structure throughout their length and height to prevent movement of the scaffold either towards or away from the building or structure. Ladders.6.7 and 9.4.9. tubes may be securely wedged between opposing surfaces on the building or structure by the use of reveal pins and coupled to the tie tubes (Figure II. this bracing may be attached to the runners.8).9.4.4. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners upward to the next outer and inner runners. These rakers are replaced by permanent braces when the scaffold has been plumbed. Two-way ties or column box ties shall be evenly distributed over the February 1993 .1 Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically.4.0 Working Places. adjustable couplers may be used to fix the braces to the posts. and Scaffolding Page 198 . Rakers must be secured with proper couplers at the scaffold and coupled to a ground stake.) 9.4.23 and II.24.) 9. such bracing shall be duplicated at every fifth post.27).26. Where possible.4. Where reveal ties are used. On short but high runs. This should be done by connecting a tie tube to both runners or posts and coupling this to a two-way tie or column box tie assembly. with the exception of certain tower and mobile scaffolds (See 9. diagonal bracing shall be installed at an angle of 45 degrees from the base of the first outer post to the last outer post and shall alternate directions to the top of the scaffold.2 Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at approximately 45degree angle from near the base of the first outer post upward to the extreme top of the scaffold. they shall not exceed 50% of the total number of ties. Where such a fixing is impracticable.

9. February 1993 .) 9.0 Working Places.8.scaffold area.8. it is necessary to check frequently for tightness. All tie assembly connections shall be made with standard couplers.7.3 Ties shall occur at the top of the scaffold and at least every 7.9 meters (26 feet) vertically and 9. (See Table II. 9.4.4. 9. 9.5 Adequate space for men to pass in safety shall be provided and maintained wherever materials are placed on platform units or if any higher platform is erected thereon. each plank resting on at least three supports. materials.8.7 Platform units which have become slippery with oil or any other substance shall be cleaned. 9.3 Except on platform units adjacent to the surface of a cylindrical or spherical structure.5 centimeters (12 inches).8.4 Planks shall be secured in position to prevent displacement by high winds.2.4..) shall be closed planked with.4. fabricated decks. and Scaffolding Page 199 .9.1 All platform units (i.4.8.e.8. Ladders.1 meters (30 feet) horizontally and at each end of the scaffold. whenever practicable. Planks shall extend over their end supports by not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) and not more than 30. 9. or otherwise removed and replaced.2 Supports for scaffold planks shall be spaced with due regard to the nature of the platform and the load it will bear.8. planks shall be laid flush. etc. planks.4. 9. and projecting nails.4.8 Platform Units 9.4. To ensure the security of reveal ties.6 Platform units shall be kept free of unnecessary obstructions.4.

Guardrails. solidly decked platforms shall be provided.11 Scaffold Ladders Scaffold ladders provide the means of access and egress for scaffolds.8.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards 9. Toprails shall be no less than 0.9. 9. and side rails shall extend 36 to 42 inches above the landing for mounting and dismounting.1 Guardrail systems (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards shall be installed at all open sides and ends of all scaffolds and supports on no more than 3-meter (10-foot) centers from which men or materials could fall a distance of more than 1.8.9. They can generally be classified as follows: February 1993 . Where multiple ladders are required. 9.2 Landings: Safe landings shall be provided at the top of all ladders.4.4. 9.9. and Scaffolding Page 200 . Access must be provided to working platforms.9.4. Rings shall be eliminated above the landing level.14 meters (45 inches) above the working surface.91 meter (36 inches) and no more than 1. 9. Toeboards shall not be less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in height by 2.10 Access Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder tower or a cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the working platform and to minimize the risk of persons falling through gaps in the guardrail system or platform units. Ladders. Guardrail systems and toeboards shall be securely fixed to the inside of posts to withstand a lateral thrust of 200 pounds.4. 9.4.4.0 Working Places.9 All platform units shall be closed planked for the full width of the scaffold structure. intermediate rails and toeboards shall be erected on the outside edges and exposed sides of the platform. midrails shall be installed equidistant between the working surface and the toprail.8 Slopes in platform units shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal and stepping cleats at 0.3 meter (1 foot) intervals shall be provided.5 centimeters (1 inch) thick.4.8 meters (6 feet).

4. It consists of two or more sections which are arranged to permit length adjustment. the vertical toe clearances specified in the following sections.2 Vertical Ladder A vertical ladder is a type of fixed ladder which is permanently attached to the horizontal or vertical components of a scaffolding. The following clearance guidelines shall be used. etc. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered. horizontal obstructions (e. Ladders. It cannot support itself or be adjusted in length. beams.g.11.24) A straight ladder is a portable ladder that only consists of one section which determines its overall length.4. February 1993 . • General: Safe clearances shall be maintained to prevent workers from bumping into. or snagging onto. When unavoidable. 9. projecting objects while ascending or descending the ladder.11. the minimum clearance distance may be reduced to 24 inches if deflector plates are provided.0 Working Places.9. pipes.) are encountered. An extension ladder is a portable ladder that cannot support itself but can be adjusted in length. • Back Side Of Ladder: The perpendicular distance from the face of the rung on the climbing side to the nearest fixed object on the back side of the ladder shall not be less than 10 inches. • Side Clearance: The minimum clear distance to the nearest fixed object shall be 15 inches on each side of the centerline of single rung ladders. shall apply. • Climbing Side: Ladders shall have a minimum clear perpendicular distance of 30 inches from the rungs to the nearest projecting object on the climbing side. Portable straight and extension ladders shall have a firm base and be positioned with a slope of 1:4.1 Portable Straight and Extension Ladders (Figure II.9. The main criteria to consider in the use of a vertical ladder is clearance. Its overall length is the sum of the length of all its sections measured along the side rails. and Scaffolding Page 201 .

Vertical Clearance: The minimum vertical toe clearance from horizontal obstructions shall be 1 1/2 inches below and 4 1/2 inches above the top edge of the rung.

Multiple Ladders: When two or more separate ladders are used with a landing platform, the side-step distance shall be a minimum of 15 inches from the centerline of the upper ladder to the near side of the lower ladder.

9.4.12

Workmanship 9.4.12.1 Scaffolding shall be erected, altered, and dismantled by experienced men working under the direction of a competent supervisor. 9.4.12.2 Posts shall be set accurately in place and checked vertically by using a spirit level or by using vertical lines on the building or structure. 9.4.12.3 Scaffolding couplers should be tightened with proper scaffolding spanners. The use of an ordinary spanner or tool giving greater leverage could damage the screw threads and render the coupler unserviceable. 9.4.12.4 Scaffolding materials shall not be thrown or dropped from heights.

9.4.13

Inspections All scaffolds shall be inspected regularly by a competent Supervisor and after adjustments, modifications, adverse weather conditions, etc. Erected scaffolds and platforms should also be inspected continuously, by those using the scaffold, to insure that the scaffold has not been altered and is in a safe working condition.

9.5

Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding
Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding are composed wholly or partly of prefabricated sections. There are many types of fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding available which vary in design and methods of erection; however, the same basic principles set out in 9.4 apply and the following matters warrant particular attention. All scaffolds must be erected as per manufacturer's direction and limitations. A scaffold plan needs to be submitted to Loss Prevention Department for review. (See Figures II.28 to II.31)

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9.5.1 To be erected, altered and dismantled by experienced men, under the direction of a competent Supervisor. 9.5.2 Periodic inspections shall be made of all parts and accessories. Broken, bent, altered, excessively rusted or otherwise structurally damaged frames or accessories shall not be used. 9.5.3 All fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads. 9.5.4 Scaffold posts shall be pitched on steel base plates and on timber sills or pads as necessary. Screwjacks shall be used to compensate for variations in ground level. 9.5.5 Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross braces and longitudinal diagonal braces for securing vertical members together. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure. 9.5.6 The frames or posts shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to ensure proper vertical alignment of the legs. 9.5.7 The frames and posts shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent suitable means. 9.5.8 Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding over 38 meters (125 feet) in height shall be specially designed by a Professional Engineer. In Saudi Aramco, scaffold heights are limited to a maximum height of 12.2 meters (40 feet), unless a scaffold plan has been reviewed by the Area Loss Prevention Division representative prior to construction. Scaffolds above 12.2 meters (40 feet) should be constructed using scaffold contractors; however no scaffolds shall exceed 38.1 meters (125 feet) unless the design has been reviewed by an Area Loss Prevention D ivision representative, Consulting Services Department and approved by a qualified engineer. (See also GI 8.001, section 6.1.1.)

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9.6

Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
(Tube and Coupler Construction - Figure II.23) 9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold An independent tied scaffold (also commonly known as a double pole scaffold) consists of a double row of posts connected together longitudinally with runners and with bearers at right angles to the runners. Braces and ties are essential for stability. Independent tied scaffold is the most common form of tube and coupler scaffolding and is divided into three groups. In Saudi Aramco the height limitation of the tube and coupler scaffold shall not exceed 12.2 meters (40 feet) unless a scaffold plan proposing to use such a scaffold at a greater height has been reviewed by the Loss Prevention Department per the provisions of Section 9.5.8. 1 2 3 9.6.2 Light Duty: for painting, cleaning, etc. Medium Duty: when materials are deposited on the platforms. Heavy Duty: where the deposited material is of a more substantial nature.

Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (For general requirements, see 9.4 and 9.5) 9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions A light duty tube and coupler scaffold can have up to three working platforms in use at any one time, and the maximum distributed load on the platform shall be 1.2 kPa (25 lb./sq. ft) with posts 3.05 meters (10 feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6 feet) transversely.

TABLE II.3: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--LIGHT DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 25 p.s.f. 10 ft. 0 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 2 3 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.2.2

Additional Planked Levels 8 4 0

Maximum Height 125 ft. 125 ft. 91 ft. 0 in.

Platform The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers may

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be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two planks between the building and inner post. 9.6.2.3 Limitations Light duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 25 lb./ft 2. Light duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed or designed to a higher rating such as medium or heavy duty. 9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold (For general requirements, see 9.4) 9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions A medium duty tube and coupler scaffold may have up to two working platforms in use at any one time. The maximum distributed load on each platform shall not exceed 2.39 kPa (50 lb./sq. ft) with posts not more than 2.4 meters (8 feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6 feet) transversely. TABLE II.4: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--MEDIUM DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. 8 ft. 0 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 2 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.3.2

Additional Planked Levels 6 0

Maximum Height 125 ft 78 ft. 0 in.

Platform The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers may be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two planks between the building and inner post.

9.6.3.3

Limitations Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 50 lb./ft 2. Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these

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directions shall be specially designed or designed to a higher rating such as heavy duty. 9.6.3.4 Bearers Bearers on medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35 centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and of nominal wall thickness of 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch). 9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (For general requirements, see 9.5) 9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions A heavy duty tube and coupler scaffold has one working platform with a maximum distributed load of 3.6 kPa (75 lb./sq ft) on the platform. The posts shall be no more than 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches) apart longitudinally and 1.8 meters (6 feet transversely). TABLE II.5: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--HEAVY DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. 6 ft. 6 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.4.2

Additional Planked Levels 6

Maximum Height 125 ft.

Platform The platform between the posts shall be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks.

9.6.4.3

Limitations Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet). Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed.

9.6.4.4

Bearers Bearers on heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35 centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and be of nominal wall thickness 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch).

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9.7

Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds
A free-standing tower scaffold consists of four or more posts connected together longitudinally with runners and bearers at right angles to the runners, forming a square or rectangular tower (see Figure II.32). Alternatively, a free-standing tower scaffold may be constructed of a fabricated tubular frame or system scaffolding (see 9.5). A free-standing tower scaffold has a single working platform and is a common form of access scaffolding for painters and others who do work of a light nature and of short duration. 9.7.1 General Requirements For general requirements, see 9.4 and where a fabricated tubular frame or system scaffolding is to be used, see 9.5. 9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions A free-standing tower scaffold shall have only one working platform and the maximum distributed load shall not exceed the load rating which is determined by the platform unit type and the scaffold duty. The height from the base to working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension. In no case shall the minimum base dimension be less than 1.2 meters (4 feet). 9.7.3 Runners and Bearers The vertical spacing of runners and bearers shall be 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches). The lowest runners and bearers shall be as near to the base as possible. Runners and bearers shall be secured to the posts with standard couplers. 9.7.4 Bracing Sway bracing is necessary on all four elevations to the full height of the scaffold. Plan bracing is also required at the base, at the top, and at every third lift to prevent racking. 9.7.5 Ties Free-standing tower scaffolds more than 9.8 meters (32 feet) in height shall be adequately tied to a building or structure. Where tying to a building or structure is impracticable, one of the following methods of ensuring stability shall be used (see Figures II.33 to II.35): 1 2 3 Guy wires at a slope of approximately 45o connected to the working platform level of the tower. Bottom corners of the tower securely anchored. Outriggers extending to the ground.

The strength of the guy wires or of the anchorage used shall be calculated, having due regard to the horizontal wind forces and other known forces which may be applied to the tower. These calculations shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention Department.

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9.7.6

Platform The single working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold shall not project beyond the base area and the platform unit(s) shall be securely fixed in position.

9.7.7

Access Where the means of access to the working platform is outside the tower structure, due consideration must be given to the effect of such means of access on the stability of the scaffold. Where a sloping ladder would cause instability, a securely fixed vertical ladder may be used.

9.7.8

Limitations Free-standing tower scaffolds erected and used in accordance with these directions and with one working platform may be used up to a maximum height of 12 meters (40 feet) to the work platform. Free-standing tower scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed.

9.8

Mobile Tower Scaffolds
(Figure II.31) The requirements for free-standing tower scaffolds in 9.7 also apply to mobile tower scaffolds with the exception that wheels are used in place of base plates and sills. 9.8.1 Foundations Wheels or casters, not less than 12.7 centimeters (5 inches) in diameter, and fitted with brakes, which cannot be released accidentally, shall be securely fixed to the bases of the posts by lock pins or dowels. A mobile tower scaffold shall only be used and moved on surfaces sufficiently firm and level to ensure stability. Where the scaffold is to be used on a suspended floor, it shall be designed to apply loads no greater than the bearing capacity of the floor. Temporary foundations or track laid on soft or uneven ground to facilitate the erection and movement of the tower shall be constructed and anchored so that its bearing capacity is not exceeded due to imposed loading from the tower. The track shall be level and properly secured. 9.8.2 Operation A mobile tower scaffold shall be moved only by pushing or pulling at the base. Force must not be applied at a height greater than 1.4 meters (4 feet, 6 inches) above the base. No men, equipment or materials shall be on the working platform or elsewhere on the structure while it is in motion. Wheel brakes shall be applied at all times when men are on the stationary mobile tower scaffold.

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9.8.3

Limitations Mobile tower scaffolds, erected and used in accordance with these directions, supported on four wheels and with one working platform, may be used up to a maximum height of 12 meters (40 feet). Mobile tower scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed and properly secured (See 9.7.5).

9.9

Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels
Tube and coupler scaffolds for tanks and vessels shall be erected in accordance with 9.6. Secure tying to the structure is essential for stability. 9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds 9.9.1.1 Brackets and bracket straps shall be constructed, fixed and erected in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 9.9.1.2 It is essential that the brackets, straps and welds are of sufficient strength to support the weight of the scaffold, men, tools and materials. 9.9.1.3 The bracket straps shall be welded to the wall of the tank by a certified welder. The weld shall be a full 5 millimeters (3/16 inch) fillet. Prior to welding on any tank, approval is required from Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Department. 9.9.1.4 The weld shall be made with the same type of electrode as used for the main tank weld joints. Before the bracket is attached to the strap, the weld shall be inspected by a competent welding inspector or welding supervisor who will approve and accept the weld. 9.9.1.5 Brackets shall be inspected prior to each use and damaged or defective brackets shall be removed from service. Brackets shall be vertical and horizontal spacing shall not exceed 2.5 meters (8 feet) on centers. 9.9.1.6 A rigid guardrail system and toeboards shall be securely fixed to the uprights of the brackets (see Section 9.4.9). Alternatively, 3/8 inch diameter wire ropes may be used in place of toprails and midrails providing that they are securely fixed and kept taut by the use of turn buckles.

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9.9.1.7 Whenever men are working, the platform shall be fully decked. 9.9.1.8 Excessive storage or accumulation of materials or platform units (planks) shall not be permitted. 9.9.1.9 The scaffold shall be designed to support a minimum load of 1.2 kPa (25 lb./sq. ft). No more than two persons shall occupy any given 2.5 meters (8 feet) of bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 34 kg (75 lb.) in addition to person(s) occupying the area.

9.10

Special Scaffolds
Scaffolds to suit special applications and those required for unusual heights or for use in abnormal circumstances shall be of a special design, which has been reviewed by the Loss Prevention Department as per the provisions of section 9.5.8. Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices shall comply with ANSI A92.2-1990.

9.11

Scaffold Terminology
Where possible, the scaffold terminology used in this document is based on ANSI A10.81988: Scaffolding - Safety Requirements. A list of common ANSI scaffold terms is included, and in brackets are equivalent British Standard (BS 5973: 1990 scaffold terms, where an equivalent term exists. (1) Base Plate. A metal plate with a spigot or screwjack for distributing the load from a post or other load bearing tube. Bearer (Transom). A horizontal tube across runners to form the support for a platform or to connect the outer posts to the inner posts. Brace. A tube placed diagonally with respect to the vertical and horizontal members of a scaffold and fixed to them to give stability. Coupler. A device for locking together component parts of tube and coupler scaffold. Design Load. The maximum intended load; that is, the total of all loads including the worker(s), material and the equipment placed on the unit. Dropline. A vertical line from a fixed anchorage, which is independent of the work platform and its rigging, and to which the lanyard is affixed. Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffold. A system of tubular frames (panels) field erected with bracing members.

(2)

(3)

(4) (5)

(6)

(7)

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A horizontal scaffold tube that extends from post to post. Lanyard. to rest in or on part of the brickwork. fabricated planks. The manufacturer's recommended maximum load. Vertical scaffold tube that bears the weight of the structure.9. (14) Platform. A wood board or fabricated component that is a flooring member. A horizontal rail approximately midway between the toprail and platform of a guardrail system. (19) Runner (Ledger). Individual wood planks. A flexible line to secure the wearer of a body belt or harness to a dropline or a fixed anchor. (21) Scaffold Access. February 1993 .(8) Guardrail System. (9) (10) Load Ratings. (15) Platform Unit.0 Working Places. with no material storage other than the weight of tools. concrete or metal spreader used to distribute the load from a post or base plate to the ground. the putlog has a flattened end. A fabricated tube upon which the platform rests. attachable or built-in means of access to and from a scaffold or work unit. A temporary elevated or suspended work unit and its supporting structure used for supporting worker(s) or materials. A separate. Medium Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 50 lb. (22) Scaffold Deck 'Fabricated'. or both. A scaffold assembly supported by casters and moved along (d) (11) Mobile Scaffold. (13) Plank. that supports putlogs or bearers and that forms a tie between the posts./ft 2 such as for masonry work. An elevated work surface composed of one or more platform units./ft 2 such as for bricklayers with the weight of materials in addition to workers. (16) Post (Standard). The rail system consists of a toprail and midrail and their supports. Maximum loading for the following categories: (a) (b) (c) Heavy Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 75 lb. fabricated decks. A rail system erected along open sides and ends of platforms. A timber./ft 2 and is intended for workers only. (20) Scaffold. and Scaffolding Page 211 . A work unit equipped with end hooks that engage the scaffold bearer. Ladders. with storage of materials on the platform. (18) Rated Load. (17) Putlog (Truss). Special Duty: Scaffold designed and constructed to carry specific types of objects. manually. (23) Sill (Sole Plate). Light Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 25 lb. (12) Midrail. and fabricated platforms.

(24) Tie. ties and runners. (26) Toprail. bearers. A barrier secured along the sides and the ends of a platform unit to guard against the falling of material.0 Working Places. (25) Toeboard. braces. (27) Tube and Coupler Scaffold. and special couplers that serve to connect the uprights and join the various members.9. and Scaffolding Page 212 . The uppermost horizontal rail of a guardrail system. A scaffold system consisting of tubing that serves as posts . a base supporting the posts. February 1993 . A device used between scaffold components and the building or structure to enhance lateral stability. Ladders. tools and other loose objects.

and Scaffolding Page 213 .23: A TYPICAL INDEPENDENT TIED S CAFFOLD CONSTRUCTED USING TUBE AND COUPLER S CAFFOLDING February 1993 .FIGURE II.0 Working Places.9. Ladders.

and Scaffolding 214 Page .FIGURE II.Working Places. Ladders.24: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER S CAFFOLD February 1993 .

Ladders. and Scaffolding Page 215 .9.FIGURE II.25: PLAN VIEW OF TW O -WAY TIE February 1993 .0 Working Places.

and Scaffolding Page 216 .0 Working Places.9.28: A TYPICAL S YSTEM S CAFFOLD February 1993 .FIGURE II. Ladders.

and Scaffolding Page 217 .0 Working Places.29: A TYPICAL S YSTEM S CAFFOLD BEING ASSEMBLED February 1993 .FIGURE II. Ladders.9.

9. and Scaffolding Page 218 .31: A TYPICAL FABRICATED TUBULAR FRAME MANUALLY PROPELLED MOBILE S CAFFOLD February 1993 . Ladders.FIGURE II.0 Working Places.

Ladders.32: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER MOBILE ACCESS TOWER February 1993 .9.FIGURE II. and Scaffolding Page 219 .0 Working Places.

FIGURE II.33: CROSS TUBE ANCHOR February 1993 . Ladders. and Scaffolding Page 220 .0 Working Places.9.

Care. Health and Environmental Requirements .10. shovels. by proper maintenance. It is the contractor's duty to ensure that his workmen are properly instructed in the selection and use of the correct tool for the job. e. chisels. crowbars. And Protection Of Abrasive Wheels ANSI B15.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS Hand tools are those tools for which the hand provides the motive force. however. allow many jobs to be carried out more efficiently and with greater speed and accuracy.3-1985 Safety Requirements For Powder Actuated Fastening Systems ANSI A10. Part 1910.1-1988 Safety Code For The Use. Machinery And Machine Guarding American National Standards Institute: ANSI A10.9-1983 Safety Requirements For Concrete Construction and Masonry Work ANSI B7. Power tools.Construction Safety Manual: Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 221 . Subpart "0". Many accidents have occurred because unskilled and untrained labor have been allowed to operate power tools in an incorrect manner. wrenches. Poor quality tools increase the risk of accidents and also reduce the efficiency of work. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Instructions And Standards: Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety. and by adequate site supervision.1-1984 Safety Code For Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus NFPA .Cartridge Operated Tools United States Code of Federal Regulations 29. screwdrivers.g. saws.70-90 National Electrical Code (NEC) February 1993 . axes. hammers. picks. etc.. The correct use of power tools can only be achieved by the proper training of workmen. Tools constructed of good quality materials should always be used.

repaired. Screwdrivers should never be carried in the pockets of coveralls or other clothing.5 Electrical Risks All uninsulated metal tools are conductors of electricity.10.2 Individual Hand Tools. and before storage. and withdrawn from use. the screw will be drawn into the correct position without unnecessary force being applied. Insulation should be checked at regular intervals by a competent electrician.1. 10.2.1. Precautions 10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 222 . 10.1 Quality The contractor shall ensure that the finest quality tools shall be provided for all jobs where hand tools are used.3 Repair and Storage All hand tools shall be regularly inspected before and after use.4 Selection The majority of accidents are caused by using an incorrect tool for the job.1. only properly insulated and non-conductive tools should be used.1. the tool should be withdrawn from use for repair or disposal. If wear or damage is observed. 10. size. General 10. 10. 10.10. where necessary.1 Screwdrivers It is essential that a screwdriver has the correct size of tip to fit the slot of the screw. Screwdriver shanks are not designed to withstand the twisting strain applied by a pair of pliers or more grips in order to obtain additional leverage. It is essential that the correct type.1. Over-tightening of screws can lead to possible hand injury if the screwdriver slips. Proper racks and boxes shall be provided for the storage of hand tools. If the screwdriver fits the screw correctly. Where work takes place on or near electrical operations. lightly oiled as a protection against corrosion. A screwdriver can produce a serious wound.2 Cleanliness The contractor shall ensure that hand tools are regularly cleaned and. The contractor shall ensure that the storekeeper maintains a record of all tools issued. and weight of tool should be decided upon before any work is carried out. February 1993 . On no account should screwdriver handles be subjected to blows from a hammer or similar instrument.1 Hand Tools.

2 Hammer It is essential that the right kind of hammer be selected for the job. The chisel heads will mushroom in use.2. use box-end rather than adjustable wrenches. Hammer heads should be secured to wooden handles with proper wedges.4 Picks and Shovels Picks and shovels shall be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times. turned. a properly designed slugging wrench should be used. the chisel should be held by a second person using a pair of tongs. Re-sharpened cold chis els should be suitably hardened and tempered to maintain them in a safe working condition. the jaw teeth must be kept clean and sharp. If the chisel is to be struck. the head should be reground with a slight taper around the edge to prevent chipping and reduce the tendency to re-mushroom. On no account should ordinary wrenches be struck by a hammer when tightening nuts. pin. Pick head points should be kept sharp and heat-treated so that the metal wears down in use and does not splinter or chip off. 10.6 Pipe Wrenches Pipe wrenches must be large enough for the job.2.10. Spanner and wrench lengths are graded to provide sufficient leverage on the nuts for which they are designed. nor should they be used as a hammer.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 223 . Shovel blades should not be allowed to become blunt. split. Improvised extension to these tools is an unsafe practice and may cause the bolt tread to strip or cause shearing of the bolt. Wood chisels should also be maintained in a sharp condition so that minimum pressure is exerted when making a cut.3 Chisels Cutting edges should be kept sharp at all times. or jagged. and the original shape and angle should be maintained. When possible. Eye protection should be worn at all times when a cold chisel is used. February 1993 . Pipe wrenches should never be struck with a hammer. and spring should be kept free from damage. only a wooden or soft mallet should be used. 10. 10.2. The jaw should first be checked for any sign of opening out or splitting. As soon as mushrooming is observed.2. and the knurl.5 Spanners and Wrenches Only spanners and adjustable wrenches of the right size should be used. For heavy work of this nature. 10. Shafts of picks and shovels should be kept free from cracks and splinters.2. Hammer handles should be made from smooth timber or be m ade of an integral head and shaft of steel.10. On jobs where it is necessary to use a sledge hammer for striking the chisel.

8 Jacks Jacks should be marked with rated capacity and must be heavy enough and strong enough to raise and maintain the load. Once a load has been raised. When the saw is not in use. are manufactured of sound materials. and the load should be positioned on the center line of the jack. The blade should be set in a hacksaw frame so that the teeth are pointing in the forward direction. clean. 10. Extreme care should be taken when working under or near a raised load.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 224 . it must be shored or blocked. If wire is cut under tension. 10. then long handled pliers should be used. and lightly oiled. They should be placed on a firm and solid support.2. and sufficient tension should be applied to ensure blade is maintained rigid. Two-man saws should be operated by pulling only. February 1993 . They are meant only for gripping around objects and should not be used as a wrench. and the movable parts should be lightly lubricated. the blade should be protected by a slotted piece of timber or a sheath.7 Pliers Pliers should only be used when there are no other tools for the job. The teeth should be kept sharp. The cut should be wedged open to prevent the timber from pinching the blade.3. and care should be taken to select the correct saw. All pliers should be kept free from dirt and grit. The cut should be kept straight to avoid the blade buckling.2. General 10.1 Quality The contractor shall ensure that all portable power tools do not exceed 125 volts rating.2. 10. they must be fitted with insulated handles. 10.10.2.3 Power Tools. and are free from defects and properly grounded.9 Hacksaws The correct type of blade should be selected to suit the material to be cut.10.10 Hand saws Many kinds of woodworking hand saws are available. Where pliers are used for electrical work. Care should be taken when cutting soft metal with pliers to ensure the scrap portion does not fly off and cause injury. The jack should never be relied upon to hold the raised load in position by itself. All hand saws shall be regularly examined to ensure that the saw teeth are properly set so as to avoid binding in the timber which can cause the blade to buckle.

4. The contractor shall provide a schedule of systematic inspection and maintenance for all power tools.10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 225 . 10.4 Pneumatic Tools 10.4.4 During operation all air tools should be held firmly to prevent them spinning and jumping.10. 10. Rotating tools should be switched off and held until rotation has completely stopped before they are set down.2.3 Pneumatic tools require clean air to operate efficiently. or electricity.2 All compressed air hoses shall be of the correct size to fit the tool being used.4.3. dry conditions. Compressors shall not be permitted to operate in confined spaces without the provision of adequate exhaust ventilation. In every line feeding a power tool.4.4. Precautions 10.1 An air compressor shall always be under the supervision of a competent person.1. 10. Power for tools can be supplied by compressed air. The bit must be kept sharp.1 General 10.2 Individual Tools. All tools shall be returned to the storekeeper at the completion of each individual job.1. Power tools must not be left lying around the job site where they could be damaged. explosive cartridge. or wheels. The hose length shall be kept as short as possible and placed so as not to be subjected to damage.4. It should always be sited in such a place so as to have adequate ventilation. there shall be an adequate filter and lubricator.2 Repair and Storage All portable power tools shall be stored in clean. cutters.4.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers The tool bit retaining spring shall always be securely in position to prevent the bit from dropping out. blades. All portable power tools must be equipped with properly functioning "dead man" switches. 10. 10.1. Tools must be disconnected before changing bits. This pressure should be maintained during the stopping process to prevent injury to the operator's feet and hands. Any joint in the hoses shall be made with a proper coupler and secured by safety wire. February 1993 .1.

4. except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle. B7. (See Figure II.38. (See Figures II.) Cut type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute.2 Rock Drill It is extremely important that the operator maintains a firm grip with both hands and stands in a balanced position.2. Any defect may cause the wheel to disintegrate as it gains momentum. Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to exceed one-eighth inch from the surface of the wheel.9 for other personal protective equipment requirements. eye and foot protection shall be required when working with this type of equipment. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding. Only persons who have been instructed in the proper selection and fitting of grinding wheels should be allowed to install wheels on tools. and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. No grinding machine shall be used unless the maximum speed is clearly marked on the case. See I. shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods).0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 226 . except as follows: • When the work location makes it possible.36.) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels. shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of this paragraph.1-1988 Safety Code for the Use. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90o .3 Grinding Machine This tool is probably the most misused of all the power tools. Care should always be taken to ensure that the grinding wheel is free from defect before mounting. The proper size and type of wheel should be fitted to the tool so that the maximum permissible running speed of the spindle does not exceed the maximum periphery speed displayed on the grinding wheel. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel.10. (See Figure II.Ear. the angular exposure shall not exceed 125o .2.37.) Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable.37 and II. 10. a wheel equipped with safety flanges shall be used. used for external grinding. Care. February 1993 . Any other method of using the tool can cause serious bodily injury. In either case. All wheels shall be fitted with adequate guards in conformance with ANSI B7-1-1988. 10.4. the exposure shall begin not more than 65o above the horizontal plane of the spindle.

and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place. Materials should not be forced or jammed into the wheel. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180o .0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 227 . A grooved or damaged wheel must be replaced.10. shall be used. When safety guards are required. Grinding the materials on the sides of the wheel is an unsafe practice which can damage the wheel.40. Materials that require grinding shall be placed on the tool rest with moderate head-on pressure applied.) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. Only safety flanges of a type and design and properly assembled so as to ensure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage.) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment. When safety flanges are required. they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used. February 1993 . All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) except as follows: • • If the wheels are entirely within the work being ground while in use.39.• When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used. they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel. (See Figure II. (See Figure II.

10.FIGURE II.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 228 .36: ABRASIVE/GRINDING WHEEL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dimensions Nature of the Abrasive Abrasive Grain Size Grade Structure Bond Maximum Speed Color Stripe = Speed February 1993 .

10. Whenever the nature of the work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65o above the horizontal plane. February 1993 . the exposure shall not exceed 125o . 4. 3.37: GRINDER GUARDS 1. Work rests shall be kept adjusted to the wheel with a maximum gap of 1/8 inch.FIGURE II.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 229 . 2. Tongue guards shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/4 inch. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery should not exceed 90o.

38: BENCH GRINDER .0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 230 .MACHINE GUARDING February 1993 .FIGURE II.10.

all cartridges must be in their color coded boxes. a wall or partition) is required. No loose cartridges must be in the carrying cases.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 231 . Only one carton of each strength cartridge shall be open at any one time. However. February 1993 . must be capable of being locked and should be sited in a clear.2 Storage Safe and secure storage for cartridges and tools must be provided on the job site. All empty cartons. which identifies the particular model that the person is qualified to handle.10.1 General Cartridge operated tools have a great advantage in that they can be used in almost any situation without the inconvenience of trailing leads or hoses. must be removed at once. Tools must be stored in their carrying cases. Only authorized personnel must be allowed access to the store.5. clean.5 Cartridge Operated Tools 10. 10. Personnel for training must be selected with the following points in mind: 1 2 3 4 Must be over 18 years of age. or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency. etc. Warning to be posted where cartridges are stored: "DANGER . joiner/carpenter. e. but easily accessible location where constant supervision can be maintained. it is essential that these tools be operated only by properly trained personnel who are over 18 years of age. Cartridges and tools must not be stored together. The contractor shall ensure that each man required to operate such a tool will undergo a thorough training period and be certified by the tool vendor.3 Selection and Training of Personnel No person may operate. Should ideally be a tradesman.100. 10. Cartons of cartridges must not be stacked against the wall and ventilation spaces must be left around the cartons. Ventilation must be provided in the store. mason.NO SMOKING Cartridge Storage". Storage must be fire proof.g. Storemen may also need to be trained if they are required to clean and maintain the tools.. ANSI A10. plumber.5.5. maintain. issued by an accredited tool vendor or manufacturer's representative. and intermediate packing.3-1985 and the manufacturer's specifications and shall be subject to review and concurrence by the Loss Prevention Department. A storage unit providing positive physical separation of cartridges and tools (i. Must be physically fit and have full use of both hands and both eyes. electrician.e. Use of cartridge operated tools will be in accordance with Saudi Aramco GI 2.10. dry.

5. maintain or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that person is qualified to handle. 10. 10. Goggles must be of a satisfactory standard designed to withstand high speed impacts and/or. must be reported. Ear muffs will be available for use at any time and shall be used in confined spaces.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 232 . either of tools or cartridges.10. See Figure II. a Hot Work Permit must be obtained before work commences.100 Work Permits).5. Safety belts may be required in certain situations where the recoil from the tool could cause an operator to loose his balance. to Saudi Aramco project proponent.Training. The manufacturer's operating instructions must be followed at all times.7 Use No person may operate.5 Issue and Returns Contractors will ensure that a full register of the serial numbers of each tool is made and kept up to date. Where tools will be used in restricted areas (as defined in GI 2. Any loss.5. clean.5. A log inventory system of issuing and returning cartridges and tools against signatures must be initiated and maintained.4 Personal Protective Equipment Eye Protection shall be worn by the operator and his assistant whenever using the tools. must be given by a competent instructor. Only personnel in possession of a user certificate will be allowed to withdraw tools or cartridges from the store. 10. both theoretical and practical.6 Work Permits Work Permits will not normally be required for use on job sites. at once. Only the minimum number of cartridges required for that particular shift's operation should be issued at any one time.47: Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control. February 1993 . The training must follow the manufacturer's instructions as contained in the handbook of each particular model. 10. penetrations. Cartridges and tools must not be left on the job site at lunch break or at end of shift but must be returned to the store for safekeeping.

Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including. therefore. and. glazed tile. Any tool that is not in proper working order or that develops a defect during use.. A wrongly sized cartridge will cause a stoppage or misfire. Never leave the tool loaded when not in use. marble. and the material to be fixed onto be properly determined. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 February 1993 . shall be immediately withdrawn from service and not used until properly repaired. surface hardened steel. slate.Cartridges are manufactured in different calibers and strengths.27 short. and .10. cast iron. but not limited to. or attachment recommended by the manufacturer. glass blocks.g. Loaded tools shall not be left unattended. imperative that the correct size and strength of cartridge required for the tool. The following General Safety and Operating Rules are common to all types of tools: 1 As soon as the tool is removed from its carrying case. check to make sure that a cartridge is NOT LOADED. four strengths. guard. clean). load it where you are working. etc. There are three sizes: . Driving into soft or easily penetrable materials shall be avoided unless materials are backed by another material that will prevent the pin from passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other side. point it away from you and anyone else. . as follows: POWER LEVEL Low Low/Medium Medium/High Extra High NUMBER 3 4 5 6 COLOR CODE Green Yellow Red Purple/Black LETTER CODE L LM MH EX It is. Inspect the tool before use each day to ensure that it is complete. When loading a tool. Never try to operate the tool without the end of the barrel hard against the fixing surface. the fixing. Never walk around with a loaded tool. Careful inspection of all materials should be made before deciding on the use of a cartridge tool. in good condition (e. granite. terra cotta. hollow tile. All tools shall be used with the correct shield.27 long.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 233 .25 short. Tools shall not be loaded with a cartridge until just prior to the intended firing time. and that the safety devices are in proper working condition. Using a cartridge which is too powerful could cause a ricochet or a spalling or fracture of the material.

Do not leave cartridges loose on the job site or in the carrying case or carry them in your pockets. and must be at least four (4) inches (100 mm) away from the edge of concrete or brick work and one-half inch (12 mm) from the edge of steel. Ensure that the correct strength cartridge is used for the pin. ensure that it is clean and complete and that all cartridges are in their correct color coded box. If any defect is found.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 234 . The tool must be held at right angles to the job when firing. or into any existing hole in the material. check to make sure that the tool is NOT LOADED with a cartridge. or test firing use the weakest cartridge. knives. then the tool must be held firmly in the firing position for at least 30 seconds to allow for a possible "Hang Fire" in the cartridge. Before returning the tool to the stores. or the fastener may rebound or ricochet. Care must be taken to ensure that the operator has a secure and safe work area. as far as the manufacturer's instructions indicate.8 Maintenance and Repair Before any repair/maintenance work is carried out.. In the event of a misfire. Recoil from firing can throw an operator off balance. If the shot again fails.10. No person may operate. at least once every week and checked for defects and excessive wear before being cleaned and oiled. For the first. The removal of the misfired cartridge must be as per the manufacturer's instructions. especially when working from ladders or scaffolds. mortar joints. Tools must be dismantled. or even a bunch of keys.5. Safety belts should be used if necessary. February 1993 . the tool should be re-triggered without moving the tool from the work face.9 No pins shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory shot. Cartridges are of the 'Rim Fire' type and could explode accidentally if in receipt of a knock from a pin. the tool must be made serviceable before being issued for use. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 10. Do not use nails. fixing and material involved. to pry the cartridge loose. and a similar distance from any welded joint. Pins must not be fired into corner bricks. maintain or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that the person is qualified to handle. clean. Too strong a cartridge may result in over penetration. fixing. Care should be taken to ensure that the new fixing is at least two inches away from any previous hole. etc.

the hazards are as great as with faulty grounded tools. contact with electrified parts of the tool does not take place. Since there is no ground wire to carry this current away.1 All electrically operated hand tools shall be rated and used at a voltage not exceeding 125V to ground. can form a conductive path from inside the tool to the surface through the ventilation holes or cracks. All electrical tools are hazardous when used damp or wet. must be kept dry and should not be used without a ground fault circuit interrupter. under normal conditions. Plugs and sockets must meet the National Electrical Code requirement with respect to grounding and polarity.1.4 All tools shall be used with extension cords which are as short as possible. like all electric tools. condensation.Only manufacturer's authorized spare parts are to be used for repair/replacement. etc. a careful check shall be made by the supervisor to ensure that the supply voltage is within the range marked on the information plate on the tool.1. February 1993 .1. NO CARTRIDGES must be allowed in the repair/maintenance area.6 Electrically Operated Tools 10. damp locations. single phase. Double insulated tools. rain.10.6. 10. under wet conditions.3 All electrical power hand tools shall be of the double insulated type or properly grounded.2 Before any electrical tool is used. 10.6. high humidity. All extension cords shall be fitted with grounding pin and blades to fit the socket outlet on the distribution board.6.1 General 10. 10.. 10. 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites which are not a part of the permanent wiring system. the user can receive an electric shock. External metal parts of double insulated tools (drill chucks. Extension cords shall be of the three-wire conductor type. etc.6. carbon dust. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are required for all 120 volt.6. saw blades.) are insulated from the electrified parts inside the tool and. but with double insulated tools the moisture coupled with metal dust.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 235 . etc. However.1. Test firing of repaired tools must be done in a safe location away from work and store or office areas.

The inspection and maintenance of all tools shall be carried out at least once in every working week by a competent electrician. Taped joints shall not be permitted.6. Precautions 10.41.6. size. and length of run. dry place. February 1993 . and ear protection.5 Where it is necessary to make electrical splices. Factors to be considered for adequate overcurrent protection are: type of conductors. Is this a problem? Yes . circuit breaker. If there is any likelihood of harmful dust being emitted. (See Figure II.4 Individual Tools. the breaker size and receptacle should be reduced to 15 amp. or the conductors changed to a No. (3) the circuit breaker size. Also conductor insulation would be subject to heat damage causing electrical leakage and fire. Example: Consider electrical equipment being used on a construction site that may require 15 or 18 ampere (amp. 14 AWG or larger size for 100 feet of run length.There may be three problems: (1) the size of the conductors. All tools shall be stored in a clean. when required. This guard must not be removed.3 Personal Protective Equipment The contractor shall ensure that all operators are provided with eye. In order to prevent an employee from receiving an electric shock.6. 10 AWG so that the breaker can function at 20 amp. and a record of issue and receipt shall be maintained by the storekeeper.2 Maintenance and Storage A proper inspection and maintenance routine shall be established by the contractor for all electrical tools. receptacle (120 v) 40 feet from the electrical panel box. Construction plans call for three No.) capacity.Overcurrent protection shall be provided to extension cords in accordance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code Article 240.) 10. 10. No.1 Grinders All grinders shall be equipped with a protective guard which allows only the working part of the wheel to be exposed. 10. head. Leaving the circuit the way it is would allow considerable electrical leakage without tripping the circuit breaker. 12 AWG (wire size) copper conductors which run to a 20 amp. these shall be made with proper connector blocks or by plug and socket connectors. 10. dust respirators should be used.4. This circuit is protected by a 20 amp.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 236 .10.6. Heavy duty construction type extension cords are required for 20 ampere circuits. (2) the length of cable run and.1.6.

10.45) Radial saws must be provided with: • An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor.42.2 Drills Care should be taken not to drill too large a hole at one time.6. The maximum running speed of the spindle must not exceed the maximum periphery speed marked on the grinding wheel. All defective wheels must be destroyed. Portable table saws must be unplugged for repair. etc. Wheels should be checked for defects before mounting. Operators shall wear eye and hearing protection.4 Radial Saws (Figure II.) Fixed table saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch that has the capability of locking out in addition to having start/stop buttons at the operator's location.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 237 .44. antikick-back devices. Where a provision is made for a table saw riving knife to be fitted. If this is not done.43 and II.) Portable table saws shall be provided with adjustable guards. and the torque set up could twist the tool against the user's wrist. (See Figure II.6. or when not in use.3 Saws Hand operated circular saws shall be fitted with spring loaded guards which allow only the working part of the blade to be exposed. • February 1993 . the drill may bind on breakthrough.6. (See Figure II. Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of saw) designed to provide adequate holding power for all thicknesses of ripping stock.) 10. The sides of the lower. it shall be kept clean and properly adjusted to the work at all times. The work area shall be cleaned to prevent excessive build-up of sawdust and scrap wood. exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut. 10.4. maintenance. (See Figures II.Grinders shall be clearly marked with their maximum running speed. and push-type start/stop buttons within easy reach of the operator.4.40. Drilling of large holes should be done in stages by using small bore drills and gradually increasing the size as necessary. 10.4. Push sticks must be provided and used when necessary on all bench saws.

A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw rotation. each saw must be wired to an emergency electrical disconnect isolation switch capable of locking out the saw. Additionally.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 238 .10. In addition. A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting position. • • • February 1993 ." Start/stop buttons at the operator's position. a permanent label must be affixed to the rear of the guard. reading: "DANGER. DO NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END. in the case of fixed saws.• An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade beyond the distance necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations.

39: "RING TEST" February 1993 .10.FIGURE II.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 239 .

0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 240 .40: CORRECTLY MOUNTED GRINDING WHEEL February 1993 .10.FIGURE II.

0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 241 .FIGURE II.C. Table 310-60) 19735 February 1993 .41: WIRE CONVERSION CHART * Middle Ring American Wire Gauge * Outer Ring Allowance Ampacities Of Insulated Conductors Rate 0-2000 Volts.E. 60o To 90o ("THWN" 75o C Cable Temperature Ratings) * Inter Ring Metric or MM2 Note: Ambient Temperature Corrections Factors Must Be Applied As Per SAES -P-104 CMills = MM2 19735 Example 500 mcm AWS 500000 = 250MM2 (Reference N.10.

10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 242 .42: S ELF ADJUSTING GUARD February 1993 .FIGURE II.

43: TABLE S AWS • • • • • • Table saws must be provided with a hood that covers the saw at all times. All fixed table saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch capable of locking out the saw. February 1993 . Table must be secured in position. Guarded start/stop buttons shall be provided at the operator's position.FIGURE II.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 243 . Table saws used for ripping must be equipped with an anti-kickback device and spreader.10. The exposed part of the saw underneath the table must be guarded.

0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 244 .MACHINE GUARDING February 1993 .FIGURE II.10.44: TABLE S AWS .

The sides of the lower. DO NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END.FIGURE II. All fixed radial saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch capable of locking out the saw.Construction Safety Manual: Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 245 . An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade beyond the distance necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations. Saw stand shall be secured in position. • • • • • • • February 1993 . a permanent label must be affixed to the rear of the guard. reading: "DANGER.45: RADIAL S AWS Radial Saws must be provided with: • An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor. exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut. In addition. A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw rotation. A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting position. Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of the saw) designed to provide adequate holding power for all thicknesses of ripping stock." Guarded start/stop buttons shall be located at the operators position.

February 1993 . holders and backstops provided.FIGURE II. Working Environment: • Sufficient space to be provided around machine to allow work without risk of injury. Push Sticks: • Must be available for use on every hand-fed circular saw. • Floors to be level.46: THE WOODWORKING MACHINE REGULATIONS Circular saws are included under types specified as woodworking machines. Guards: • Cutters to be guarded to the greatest practicable extent. Duties Of Employed Persons: • Employees using woodworking machines must use and keep properly adjusted guards and other safety devices and use push sticks. • Guards to be of substantial construction. Training: • No person should be employed on a woodworking machine who has not been trained and instructed in its operation.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 246 . in good condition. free of loose material.10. • Adjusted to extend from top of riving knife to a point as close as practicable to the surface of the material being cut. and constantly in position while cutters are in motion. or to a point not more than 12 mm above the material being cut where squared stock is being hand held. Top Guard: • Guard to be strong and easily adjustable. jigs. and not slippery. Bottom Guard: • Blade below table to be guarded to the greatest extent practicable. properly secured and adjusted. and used to feed materiala) throughout any cut of 300 mm or less b) during the last 300 mm of any cut more than 300 mm in length Push sticks should also be used to remove cut material from between the saw blade and the fence.

10.February 1993 .0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 247 .

FIGURE II.47: CARTRIDGE/TOOL ISSUANCE CONTROL Date Issued Cartridge Quantity Returned Returned Used Unused Returned Unexploded Tool Issued (Type/MDL) Received By Cert No.10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 248 . Name/ Signature Issued By Remarks Warning: Above items can only be issued to workers with valid training certificate Storekeeper: February 1993 .

10.0 Hand Tools And Power Tools Page 249 .Safety Officer: February 1993 .

11. and insufficient air. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. For most paint solvents in the Saudi Aramco system.Construction Safety Manual: Paints And Coatings Page 250 .1.1 Flammable Materials In paint systems.1. all the solvents (except for the water based paints) present a fire hazard.1.100 GI 6. the flash point is less than the normal ambient temperatures in Saudi Arabia. Steel Structures Painting Manual.003 Work Permit System Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning Breathing Apparatus Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -A-105 SAES -B-067 SAES -H-102 Noise Safety Identification and Color Coding Safety Requirements for Painting Steel Structures Painting Council. 11.11.1 Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials 11. This section of the manual discusses these hazards and how to minimize them.021 GI 8. chemical burns.2 Flash Point (Definition) The flash point is defined as the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapor to ignite when exposed to an open flame. United States of America Code of Federal Regulations.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS In addition to the usual hazards associated with construction activities. 11. dust. The lower flammable (explosive) limit (LEL) is typically on the order of 1% to 2% by volume. a level readily obtained in February 1993 . In the Saudi Aramco paint system. workmen engaged in surface preparation and paint application can be exposed to the dangers of fire. explosion.1000 Air Contaminants. 29 CFR 1910. it is normally the organic solvent vapor that is flammable.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition) The lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits define the range of vapor/air concentrations that are potentially explosive. Volumes 1 and 2. toxic fumes. The danger of fire exists virtually always when solvents are in use.

2 Health Hazards Associated With Paints Many paint ingredients are harmful to humans.1. Solvents and solvent based paints shall not be applied to surfaces exceeding Saudi Arabia summer ambient temperatures. Also.g.0 Paints And Coatings Page 251 .. binders (epoxies. Fire extinguishers should be located at the work area and the area Loss Prevention representative/Fire Chief shall agree upon their suitability. No painting should be carried out within 75 feet of potential ignition sources. Flammable paints should be kept in a special building or in a sun shelter. 11. or sparking tools. dust from cleaning operations or application of the paint can generate toxic materials. 11. The use and storage of flammable paints and solvents shall be kept to restricted areas and these areas should be suitably marked with the appropriate warning signs. All electrical equipment such as switches. Other toxic materials in paints include pigments (lead). 11. panel boards. e. welding. Most solvents are toxic to some degree depending on exposure. electrical motors and associated equipment must be de-energized before spray painting to eliminate explosion hazards.4 Fire Precautions Solvents in paints constitute a significant fire and explosion hazard when in the presence of ignition sources. typically below 10% of the LEL. The degree of toxicity can be measured by the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) expressed as parts per February 1993 . flame-cutting. Work areas should be kept as clean as practicably possible. smoking areas. These toxic materials can enter the body through breathing.11.the area near opened solvent containers and near the nozzle of a spray painting gun in operation. ingestion or skin absorption. polyesters) and additives (organotin). Ventilation equipment should be used to maintain a maximum level of solvent concentration. some people are immediately sensitive to some ingredients and almost everyone will be affected to some degree if exposed for sufficient time. most people can withstand these materials over a short time and in small quantities. There are two major groups of irritants: toxic materials and dermatitic or skin irritating materials. However.1 Toxic Materials The most abundant toxic materials found in paints and coatings are solvents. All electrical lighting and equipment shall be explosion-proof when required in areas where solvent vapors are likely to be present. unless conditions warrant greater clearance.2.

0 Paints And Coatings Page 252 . The following precautions should minimize health hazards: • • Identify and seal all toxic and dermatitic materials when not in use. Tywag suits. paint removers.Breathing Apparatus). studied carefully. Personnel involved in painting shall wash thoroughly before eating and at the end of the day.) when handling dermatitic materials. Solvents have a tendency to dissolve and remove natural oils and fats from skin. and the paint curing/drying process. Certain binders such as epoxy resins may also irritate the skin. Use ventilation control or respirators when working with paint removers containing toxic solvents. gloves. February 1993 . acid and alkaline cleaners).million (ppm) or milligrams of particulate per cubic meter (mg/M3) of solvent in air over an exposure of 8 hours a day five days a week with no ill effects.g.2.g. Wear the appropriate personnel protective equipment for the work being carried out. Adequately ventilate all painting areas and provide National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). • • • • 11. and the required safety precautions implemented. A copy of the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be obtained for all materials used. if left untreated.2 Dermatitic Materials Dermatitic materials irritate the skin which. Other chemicals used in paint related work should be handled with care (e.2. 11. A high quality air supply is also required for life support (refer to GI 8. 11. All workmen spray painting shall wear chemical cartridge respirators or airline hoods depending upon the hazards of the paint. etc.3 Ventilation in Confined Spaces A supply of clean air is a necessity for all operations involving the application of coating materials. Minimize dust during surface preparation. and dispose of coating residue in accordance with the recommendations of the Environmental Engineering Division.3 Prevention of Health Hazards Many solvents and coatings contain hazardous ingredients.003 . Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)-approved or equivalent respiratory protection where necessary. Avoid touching any part of the body and wear protective equipment (e. can cause infections or ulceration. Process and Control Services Department.11.

alkali. Natural ventilation through open man ways. is rarely sufficient to keep local vapor concentrations to a safe level in terms of PELs or LELs. As a general rule. hammers.000 cu ft). Supplementary fans may be necessary to ensure good air circulation.Ventilation is a necessity when painting in confined areas because solvents tend to be heavier than air and migrate to lower levels. however. iron shot.4 Surface Preparation Equipment and materials that are used in surface preparation for paints and coatings can be hazardous if used carelessly. slag. The preparation of air used for life support involves the following factors: PEL's of nuisance and toxic dusts. TABLE II. Air required for breathing apparatus shall meet the requirements of GI 8. SAES -H-102. are used. sanders. Ventilating to 10% of the LEL considerably reduces the likelihood of fire or explosion.6. or solvents. Hand or power tool cleaning includes grinders. etc. Breathing Apparatus.003. acids or detergents. especially in small enclosures and always during spray painting.0 Paints And Coatings Page 253 . rotary wire brushes.11. gas and vapor content. etc. air temperature.000 BBL's or 56. Hence.6: VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONFINED SPACES Volume of Confined Area m3 16 80 160 800 1600 4000 + BBL 100 500 1000 5000 10000 25000 + Required Air Mover Capacity L/s 472 1180 2360 4720 7080 9440 cfm 1000 2500 5000 10000 15000 20000 11. and the discharge should be located near the bottom. Other types of blast cleaning use high pressure water or steam. this level will no doubt exceed the Permissible Exposure Limits for toxic materials. ref. chisels. The recommended ventilation requirements for various vessel capacities are shown in Table II. fume. supplied air respiratory protection is required in confined spaces. The fresh air inlet of the ventilation system should be located near the top of the confined space. grit. Ventilation requirements are proportionally greater for vessels with a capacity smaller than 1580 m3 (10. forced ventilation shall be used. There are several methods for preparing surfaces and these include: • • • Blast cleaning where abrasives in the form of sand. positioned to eliminate dead air spaces. impact tools. February 1993 . Chemical cleaning using paint removers.

slag or similar materials.1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning This section covers blast cleaning using abrasives in the form of sand. and also operated and maintained to the manufacturer's instructions. Noise. Where blast cleaning assistants could be exposed to silica sand dust or toxic contaminants. The breathing apparatus and air quality specification shall meet the standards referenced in GI 8. hose. Suitable respirators should be used if contaminant levels exceed Permissible Exposure Limits. 11. and where necessary. To prevent ignition of hydrocarbons in classified areas.11. A bonding system that bonds nozzle. ear protection should be provided to prevent long term hearing loss per SAES -A-105. including chest X-ray and pulmonary function tests with repeat tests at least every two years. and this bonding system shall be grounded to prevent a build up of static charges. zinc.) that are present. the appropriate precautions listed in GI 2.4. Work Permit System.g.003. Abrasive blast cleaning operators shall have pre-placement physical examinations.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning This section briefly covers the safety aspects of hand and power tools used for surface preparation. The abrasive blast cleaning operator shall wear an air supplied protective hood approved (NIOSH/MSHA or equivalent) for the type of abrasive material being used and any other toxic contaminants (lead. Tools should be correctly selected for the purpose. 11. Particular attention should be paid to eye protection to guard against flying particles. grit.4. etc. Extra caution should be exercised when using such equipment. workers handling abrasive supplies or clean up crews) within the range of rebound abrasive contaminants shall wear approved (NIOSH/MSHA or equivalent) dust-filter respirators for the specific airborne hazards.2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning Hydroblast cleaning uses a high pressure ambient temperature water jet and steam cleaning uses a high pressure and high temperature steam jet.4.7. Breathing Apparatus. Extreme care should be used if tools have the ability to create sparks.0 Paints And Coatings Page 254 . blasting equipment and the material being cleaned shall be provided. February 1993 . maintenance.11. then self-contained or air supplied breathing apparatus shall be worn by the assistant. Personnel (e.100. Ground continuity tests shall be conducted periodically to ensure proper grounding. must be followed. iron shot. These types of equipment are used for removing dirt or rust scales and the personal protective equipment requirements are shown in Table II.

0 Paints And Coatings Page 255 . and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chemical cleaning agents such as solvents shall not be used for cleaning personnel. toxic and dermatitic characteristics.1 and 11. Never point a cleaning gun or nozzle at anyone or any part of your body. Safety precautions regarding these solvents are included in sections 11. Extra caution should be taken on scaffoldings. and turpentine are used to dissolve and remove oil contaminants. Detergent cleaners are comparable to alkaline cleaners except they are generally used at low temperatures (60 to 100 degrees Celsius). 11. personal safety precautions must be taken to protect personnel from materials and conditions that present fire hazards or cause personnel to experience dermatitic or toxic effects (such as inhalation effects. Surfaces other than those receiving preparation should be protected from damage due to cleaning operations. emulsifying.11. or eye irritants). skin burns. alkalines. Hazards associated with solvents include their flammable. For all of the above chemical cleaners. mineral spirits.4. They function by wetting. When using chemical cleaners. acids and detergents) used to assist in the removal of surface contaminants such as light oils. they must have safe footing. The following solvents shall not be used for cleaning purposes due to the very toxic nature: benzene. They remove contaminants by chemical attack and are primarily used to remove metal scales such as rust.2. and are generally used at elevated temperatures.4. Acid cleaners are generally composed of strong acids. appropriate eye and body wash facilities shall be available in the immediate area to minimize the effects of chemical burns in the event of an accident. gasoline. Alkaline cleaners are composed of highly alkaline salts with wetting agents and/or soaps.4 Chemical Cleaning This section is concerned with four types of chemical cleaners (organic solvents. Where operators are using equipment such as blast cleaners or power tools. dispersing and solubilizing surface contaminants. carbon tetrachloride.11. greases and rust. February 1993 .5 General Safety in Surface Preparation Instruction and training of operators about correct use of the cleaning agents and equipment are essential. Solvents such as kerosene.

The amount and type of personal protection depends on the work being carried out and the location. overalls and hearing protections should be addressed to either the area Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene offices. Other protective details such as gloves. Adequate ventilation must be provided. All manufacturers recommendations on protective guards shall be implemented.Equipment such as blast guns and power tools must have automatic controls that shut off the flow of abrasive and propellant if for any reason the operator releases the control switch.7 gives a summary of essential personal protective equipment that must be worn by personnel carrying out specific duties.0 Paints And Coatings Page 256 . In addition. especially in confined areas.5 Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment is required for the majority of operations that involve surface preparation or paint application. Power tools should be properly grounded to prevent electric shock. Table II. a hard safety hat and safety spectacles. February 1993 . face shields. 11. Fire and explosion hazards always exist when using solvents. all personnel on Saudi Aramco industrial facilities and potentially hazardous areas must wear safety shoes.11.

5.10.11 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN (Confined space) See key Surface preparation Hand or power tool operations Abrasive blast cleaning Operator Other workmen in the vicinity Hydroblast and steam cleaning Chemical cleaning Paint application (spray) Epoxy and coal tar epoxy (SAPCS .11 3.11 1.11 1.10.7.9) Bituminous (SAPCS .11 6. and / or in confined spaces. 11A and 17) Chlorinated rubber (SAPCS .6. February 1993 .11 2.5.6 ft or more) if a guard rail system is not in place.10.4 and 6) Inorganic zinc (SAPCS -1A.11 2.4.10.8.11 1.10. The workman should always refer to the MSDS for complete details.7.10.2 and 3) Alkyd (SAPCS .2 and 3) Alkyd (SAPCS .5.9. 11A and 17) Chlorinated rubber (SAPCS .10.10.5.4.10.4.6.5.5.7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN OR USED DURING SURFACE PREPARATION AND PAINT APPLICATION TYPE OF WORK PERFORMED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN (Outside) See key 3.5.11 2.4.0 Paints And Coatings Page 257 .6.6.11 2.11 6.11 1.10.11 2.6.6.11 6.10.6.6.10.25) Note: 3.11 1.11 6.10.11 1.11 1.10.11 6.10.6.9.11 2.11 2.9.6.4.11 2.11 1.4.9.10.5.6.11 1.25) Paint application (brush) Epoxy and coal tar epoxy (SAPCS .6.10.10.10.10.10.TABLE II.1.9.11 3.10.5.10.11 2.11.82 m .6.6.11 6.11 1.5.1.10.10.10.6.11 4.10.11 3.6.5.9) Bituminous (SAPCS .10.10.5.11 4.10.11 4.4.8.10) Polyurethane (SAPCS .9.5.9.11 2.10.10.10) Polyurethane (SAPCS .4.4 and 6) Inorganic zinc (SAPCS -1A.8.11 Safety belts / harnesses shall be used when these operations are performed above ground levels (1.5.10.6.6.10.9.

In that. wherever practicable. 6. 7. chemical cartridge. SAMS No. 4. respirable air fed hood and filter. All pressurized equipment should be handled carefully. Some examples of these jobs are above ground and water operations. SAMS No. many pigments and some binders are toxic in addition to having potential dermatitic hazards. 5. 21-441-055 (MSA) / SAMS No. Operators and their assistants should know how to operate and de-energize the equipment in accordance to manufacturer's recommendations. 2. SAMS No.1 Paint Materials The majority of paint solvents. 21-434-249 Gloves. rubber. 10. The spray painting operation should be conducted from the upwind side of the object being coated.2 General Safety In Paint Application All personnel involved with the application of paint to surfaces should wear the appropriate personal protective equipment for the work being carried out at a given location. 21-432-XXX Gloves. 8. painting shall not be carried out near an ignition source.0 Paints And Coatings Page 258 . 21-444-934 Respirator. SAMS No. SAMS No. 11. February 1993 . 21-327-110 Gloves (leather and fabric). SAMS No.7: 1. No spray gun should be pointed at anyone or part of the user's body. 21-441-050 (American Optical) Safety Shoes. solvent based painting materials also present a fire and explosion hazards. etc. 11. SAMS No. safety impact. Spraying paint using air or airless systems can be very hazardous and should only be used by trained operators. SAMS No.6 Paint Application There are numerous hazards associated with paint application and this section is concerned with air and airless spraying. 21-370-800/810/820 Dust respirator. OSHA-approved. SAMS Nos. 9. 21-432-353 Helmets (hard hats). 21-432-630 Ear protection.6. use of special paints. 21-370-500 Face shield (1).Key to Table II. 21-426-121 Goggles. For some paint jobs personal protective equipment may have to exceed the requirements specified in Table II.7 due to the nature of the work being performed.11. SAMS No. 11.6. SAMS No. Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for information concerning the hazards associated with their use. Also. together with brush and roller painting. 3. 21-472-200 / 21-472-221 / 21-472-300 / 21-472-350 11. additional care should be taken to provide adequate ventilation in confined spaces.

buildings or similar structures. 11. leather gloves.8 Tarring Operations Tarring operations are commonly used in roof work. the following shall be provided for all personnel directly involved in tar operations: face shields. • • In addition to personal protective equipment (safety shoes. correctly erected equipment shall be used that meets industry standards (ANSI) or equivalent. The area around spray painting activity should be enclosed by hardboard fence or equivalent to protect outside personnel from paint over spray. February 1993 . and heat resistant aprons. Also. Lifting of hot asphalt in buckets is not allowed. Users and erectors of such equipment should be trained about its use and limitations. Only good condition. This section is provided to highlight areas of paints and coating operations not covered under an individual sub-heading.0 Paints And Coatings Page 259 . Prompt professional medical aid shall be available to any person receiving paint injuries. The heating operations shall be at ground level and at a minimum distance of 4. Precautions that are required for tar operations include: • • The heating of tar shall not be carried out on roof tops or in similar potentially hazardous locations. 11.9 General Safety for Paints and Coatings Safety precautions concerning various stages of paints and coatings are mentioned under their respective sub-headings of Section 11.7 Scaffolding and Ladders Details concerning the use and hazards associated with scaffolding and ladders are included in Section II. safety glasses and hard hats). Tar heating operations shall be carried out using approved fuel gas in the correct cylinders.9 of the Construction Safety Manual.5 m (15 feet) away from fuel gas cylinders. 11. respiration protection may be required in confined spaces. fire and toxicity. and hazards associated with this type of work include body burns. cotton overalls. The temperature of the asphalt shall be monitored with a temperature gauge and must not exceed 4500F at any time during the tarring operations. all guards recommended by the manufacturer shall be in place and the system shall be in good order and correctly grounded to prevent static build-up. The transferring of hot tar to its required location shall be carried out using the safest mode of transport available (preferably pumped).Before using airless spray equipment.11.

or the timing of the work shall be such that only the work crew doing the job is present at the site.e.The amount of paints and solvents stored at the site shall be restricted to a day's requirements. Personal Health . it must be checked to ensure it meets the quality requirements referenced in GI 8.11. Some equipment identified by color coding that may be required by painters include: Fire protection: red. Potable water: blue. sand blasting) shall be in good health and have medical examinations by professional medical staff at least every two years. * * * * * * * February 1993 . yellow and black. Paints and Solvents . the equipment shall be in good working order. they shall be re-tested every quarter to ensure that air quality remains satisfactory.003. Warning signs shall be posted in hazardous areas with suitable warnings of the potential dangers (i. Also.. Emergency stops: red. green. substandard products will be removed from Saudi Aramco facilities.The Saudi Aramco work permit system shall always be used where necessary for all aspects of paints and coatings (reference GI 2. * Breathing Air . Signs and Barricades .Before any equipment is used.* Colors . showers. orange and blue. operators and assistants shall be trained on the equipment's use and operation. or a lookout is posted around the site. Once compressors providing breathing air have conformed to the requirements of GI 8. Equipment . appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn that meets both the manufacturers requirements and those of Saudi Aramco. "No entry.Personnel involved with using paints. sand blasting in progress"). well marked safe area away from the work area and protected from the sun's heat.Before breathing air used for respiration purposes. Blast Cleaning . solvents and cleaning equipment (i. Colors reserved for safety use within Saudi Aramco are red.Depending on the work being carried out and its location. Personal Protective Equipment .100). Bulk storage of paints and solvents shall be in a designated. have an automatic shut-off system and all safety guards installed.0 Paints And Coatings Page 260 ..003.e. Danger signs: red. first aid): green.Abrasive blast cleaning equipment and abrasive materials shall be suitable for the work to be carried out.Areas where hazardous work is being carried out (such as abrasive blast cleaning and airless spraying) shall be suitably barricaded to keep personnel out of the hazardous area. Work Permits . Hazards (physical and radioactive): yellow/black. Personal protective equipment shall be in good condition.All color coding shall conform to the requirements in SAES -B-067: Safety Identification and Color-Coding. Emergency safety equipment and instructions (eye wash.

No one shall work alone in hazardous areas.11.* Assistants . An assistant shall always be available or the "buddy" system used.0 Paints And Coatings Page 261 . February 1993 .

12. piers. etc.4. 12. used where they may contact energized electrical conductors. columns. CONCRETE FORMS..3 Bulk Concrete Handling Bulk storage bins.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) or larger loading skips shall be equipped with a mechanical device to clear the skip of concrete. 12. placing and tying reinforcing steel in walls. 12. maintenance. and operations. 12. When work is to be accomplished outside a work platform. Concrete Forms And Shoring Page 262 . February 1993 . shall be constructed of non-conductive material.1 Concrete Mixers Concrete mixers equipped with 0.0 CONCRETE.2 Guardrails Mixers of 0. Wire mesh rolls: Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent dangerous recoiling action.4. a safety belt shall be worn that is securely fixed to a dropline or anchor. 12.3 Bull Floats Handles on bull floats. or insulated with a non-conductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection to a handle constructed of non-conductive material.1 General All equipment and materials used in concrete construction and masonry work shall meet the applicable requirements for design. construction.2 Reinforcing Steel Employees working more than 1.Construction Safety Manual: Concrete. and similar vertical form work structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent collapse and to guard against possible wind pressures.8 meters (6 feet) above any adjacent working surfaces.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) capacity or greater shall be equipped with protective guardrails installed on each side of the skip. testing. piers. Employees shall not be permitted to work above vertically protruding reinforcing steel unless it has been bent over or capped. columns. shall be provided with proper work platforms with a guardrail system.4. or silos shall have conical or tapered bottoms with mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material. inspection. AND SHORING 12.4 Concrete Placement 12. Guying: Reinforcing steel for walls. containers.

4.4 Powered Concrete Trowels Powered and rotating-type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the operator removes his hands from the equipment handles. 12.4. Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose shall be prohibited. Concrete Forms.5. 12. the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and the brakes set to prevent movement. Truck Spotter Back-up man.9 Back-Up Man. 12.4.4. 12. And Shoring Page 263 .7 Concrete Buckets Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatically operated gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed. ready-mix truck spotter shall be used to back ready-mix trucks.4.6 Pumpcrete Systems Pumpcrete or similar systems using discharge pipes shall be provided with pipe supports designed for 100 percent overload.5 Concrete Buggies Handles of buggies shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy. and vibrator crews shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cable ways. 12. these areas shall be strengthened.0 Concrete. shored to meet the intended loads.4.1 General Requirements When temporary storage of reinforcing rods. or equipment on top of form work becomes necessary. The rotating blades shall be guarded at the top and outer perimeter.8 Discharging on Slope When discharging on a slope. material. Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended to protect the hands.5 Vertical Shoring 12.12. Prevent aggregate and loose material from accumulating on the top and sides of the bucket.10 Pneumatic Hose Nozzleman applying a cement. Compressed air hose in such systems shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of sections when pressurized. and water mixture through a pneumatic hose shall be required to wear protective head and face equipment.12.4. sand. February 1993 . 12. 12.

6 Forms and Shoring 12. 12. and maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that may be imposed upon it during placement of concrete. and capable of carrying the maximum intended load. working decks. shall be available at the job site.0 Concrete.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer. All base plates. ext ension devices. Re-shoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after stripping. supported.6. All locking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order. Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to and immediately after the placement of concrete. Personnel not engaged in the pour operation shall stay clear of the pour area. or where such members are subjected to superimposed loads due to construction work done. the spacing between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown on the layout. Concrete Forms. and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original manufacture. Any shoring equipment that is found to be damaged or weakened shall be immediately reinforced or re-shored. 12. coupling pins shall align the frame or panel legs.12. February 1993 . erected. shoring. shore heads. Personnel shall not be allowed under or in close proximity of the form work during pour operations. When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout. Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the legs of the shoring frames. Drawings or plans showing the jack layout. or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form. braced.1 General Provisions Form work and shoring shall be designed. All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as specified in the shoring layout. and all locking devices shall be in the closed position.5. and scaffolding. form work.The sills for shoring shall be sound. rigid. pivoted cross braces shall have their center pivot in place. And Shoring Page 264 . A clear area shall be maintained at 1-1/2 times the highest point of the form work. Any equipment found to be damaged shall not be used for shoring.

3 Tube and Coupler Shoring Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if they are deformed. Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the jacking operation.Stripped forms and shoring shall be removed and stockpiled promptly after stripping. All vertical lift forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms completely encircling the area of placement with intermittent tie breaks to ensure that superimposed loads on the scaffold/work platforms cannot pull down the entire scaffold works. the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb. And Shoring Page 265 . Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the vertical loads are distributed equally and do not exceed the capacity of the jacks. broken. Imposition of any construction loads on the partially completed structure shall not be permitted unless such loading has been considered in the design and approved by the engineer-architect.0 Concrete. 12. cut. 12. wire ties. or structural grade aluminum.6. All base plates. Gray cast iron shall not be used. in all areas in which persons are required to work or pass. or other means taken to eliminate the hazard. During jacking operations.2 Vertical Slip Forms The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be specifically designed for the purpose. The material used for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as drop-forged steel. Such rods shall be adequately braced where not encased in concrete. When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring layout. the spacing between posts shall not exceed that shown on the layout. or have defective or missing threads on bolts. and all interlocking of tubular members and tightness of couplers shall be checked. Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift or concrete cure. extension devices. February 1993 .12. malleable iron. or other defects. or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material and shall be snug against the posts. Protruding nails. and other form accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled. shore heads. The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to provide protection in case of failure of the power supply of the lifting mechanism. Concrete Forms.6.

Adjustment of single post shores to raise form work shall not be made after concrete is in place Fabricated single post shores shall not be used if heavily rusted. the shoring shall be designed for such loading. When form work is at an angle. dented.4 Single Post Shores For stability. or otherwise structurally damaged. is rotted. has sections removed.12. or sloping. rewelded. cut. or when the surface shored is sloping. or having broken weldments or other defects. bent. single post shores shall be horizontally braced in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. or is otherwise structurally damaged. they shall not be used if timber is split. is rotted. bent.6. All base plates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form materials. And Shoring Page 266 . Such bracing shall be installed as the shores are being erected. or having broken weldments or other defects. Concrete Forms. Timber shall not be used if it is split. February 1993 . Adjusting devices shall not be used if heavily rusted. Whenever single post shores are used in more than one tier. cut. All timber and adjusting devices to be used for adjustable timber single post shores shall be inspected before erection. If they contain timber. the layout shall be designed and inspected by a structural engineer. All nails used to secure bracing or adjustable timber single post shores shall be driven home and the point of the nail bent over if possible.0 Concrete.12. dented. re-welded. Lay-out to be submitted to Saudi Aramco for approval. and diagonal bracing shall also be installed. has sections removed.

Mechanical Equipment And Materials February 1993 .III.III.Construction Safety Manual . Mechanical Equipm ent And Materials Page 267 .

GI 7.026.029. GI 7.Construction Safety Manual: Cranes And Lifting Equipment Page 268 .1. GI 7. Work Permit System Electrical Safety for Boom or Derrick Type Hoisting Equipment Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Marine and Offshore Cranes and Rigging Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Personnel Work Platform Operations Crane Lifts: Types and Procedures Inspection.702. and Mobile Aerial Baskets Refinery Instruction Manual: 1. GI 7. Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. Attachment No.025. III.029. Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection and Testing of Cranes.024. GI 6.100. Elevators. GI 7.028.Cranes and Rigging Equipment Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook Riggers Handbook American Petroleum Institute: API SPEC 2C API SPEC 2D Specification for Offshore Cranes Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes February 1993 . GI 7. 1.087. GI 2. Health and Environmental Requirements .0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT SAUDI ARAMCO INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS ALL REFERENCED STANDARDS ARE INCORPORATED INTO THIS SECTION. Powered Platforms.808.1 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.027. Precautions to be taken for Operating Cranes near Overhead Power Lines Operating Cranes Heavy Equipment Operator Licensing Information. GI 7.030.

ANSI 30. ANSI B30.5.3. etc. 5. Tower and Pillar Cranes Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Derricks Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks Side Boom Tractors Overhead Hoists Articulating Boom Cranes 1. training and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to safe crane operations and procedures (e.4.2 Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements) Before beginning any crane operation. the supervisor and operator should complete the preoperation checklist (Figure III. Crane radius Boom length Safe working limits of the crane (load chart) Weight of the load Ground and site conditions Placement of the crane Swing and tail clearances Necessary communication to be used February 1993 .16.g. ASME B30. 4. 6. ASME B30. 5. Procedure for Obtaining Crane and Heavy Equipment Operator's Licenses for Expatriate Employees (See Appendix F) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) ANSI A10.14. 8. by possession of a recognized pertinent degree or certificate of professional standing. ANSI B30.6. ANSI B30. A lift plan required as a part of this procedure must provide the following information: 1. 1. 3. 2. 7. Safety Requirements Overhead and Gantry Cranes Hammerhead Tower Cranes Portal. ANSI B30.).4. ANSI B30.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment Page 269 .1. or who by extensive knowledge.2. ASME B30.22. A competent person shall supervise all lifts. Rigger Technician.1). Crane and Rigging Specialist.8.Contractor Liaison Notice No.1 Competent Person A competent person is a person who.

(See TABLES III. and Facilities Inspection Unit. The absolute limit of approach varies according to the following table: Line Voltage Up to 250.) 1. Rigging sketch for critical or hazardous lifts Rated capacity of rigging components Sling angles Strain calculations Wind velocity Load moment indicator Other One competent person shall be placed in charge of the lift with the responsibility of explaining in detail. (See GI's 7. critical lifts. All lifts above ground level. Nos. Crane Lift Plan). 12. 13.2. 14.1 and III.000 volts Over 250. Abqaiq should be contacted and lift plans/work permits submitted. Rigging hardware 11. 16. 875-4347/874-1857) to operate specific mobile heavy equipment.027. as applied to the load and boom. Explanation of hand signals 10.6 Overhead Power Lines There is an area surrounding every power line that is referred to as the absolute limit of approach. The Heavy Haul Unit.9. Transportation Dept. (See GI 7. Communication. The outriggers must be fully extended prior to the lift. Wind forces are greater at height by as much as 35% or more. Contact the Vehicle & Heavy Equipment Training and Testing Unit (Tel.4 Special Crane Operating Procedures Heavy lifts. It is strictly forbidden to move any crane boom or load line or load into this are unless the line has been de-energized or insulated. side loads. down drafts. and 7. 15.1.030.025..5 Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Ope rations When wind velocities are above 32 km/h (20 mph).000 Absolute Limit Of Approach 20 feet (6 meters) 25 feet (7.) 1. Cranes shall have a valid Crane Safety inspection sticker issued by the Saudi Aramco Crane. 17. and the rubber tires must be off the ground (see Figure III.e.) 1.. There are no exceptions. and crane personnel work platform operations require special procedures outlined in the Saudi Aramco General Instructions.3 Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications A valid SAG heavy equipment license and Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Certificate are required for all contractor mobile crane operators.028.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment Page 270 . the duties of all involved in the lift before the actual lift commences. must account for wind force. etc.2.) 1. i. the rated load and boom lengths shall be reduced according to manufacturer specifications. (See GI 7.5 meters) February 1993 .

FOR DAMAGE HOOK SAFETY LATCH IN PLACE RECORD WEIGHT OF LOAD RECORD WEIGHT OF CRANE GEAR.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment Page 271 . ABOVE 20 m/h (32 km/h).1.FIGURE III. etc.1: PRE-LIFT OPERATION CHECKLIST • • • • OPERATOR: CURRENT SAUDI ARAB GOVERNMENT CRANE OPERATORS' LICENSE CURRENT SAUDI ARAMCO OPERATORS' CERTIFICATE OUTRIGGERS: FULLY EXTENDED LEVEL GROUND COMPACT SOIL HEAVY PAD SUPPORTS LOCKING PINS/LOCKS SET NO HYDRAULIC LEAKS NO DAMAGE GOOD CONDITION WHEELS OFF THE GROUND OPERATION: CURRENT CRANE SAFETY INSPECTION STICKER CLEAR 360o VISIBILITY NO SHADES/CURTAINS IN CAB LOAD CHARTS IN CAB CLEAR VISIBILITY WIND. NO GO BARRICADE CRANE CAB SWING AREA TAG LINES IN USE CLEAR OVERHEAD POWER LINES CLEAR AREA OF PERSONNEL 1-1/2 x BOOM LENGTHS NO LIFTS OVER WORKERS OR CRITICAL PROPERTY TRIAL LIFT. FLOAT LOAD ONE METER OFF GROUND TO CHECK BALANCE CLEAR VIEW OF SIGNAL MAN (RIGGER) DO NOT PULL LOADS WITH CRANE LOAD RADIUS INDICATOR MAN LIFT WORK PERMIT ANTI-TWO BLOCK OPERATIONAL LMI (LOAD MOMENT INDICATOR) OPERATIONAL RIGGING: CHECK ALL RIGGING FOR DAMAGE CHECK SLING LOAD CAPACITY CHECK BLOCK. NO GO DO NOT OPERATE DURING STORMS AND AT NIGHT LIGHTNING. HOOKS. ADD CRANE GEAR WEIGHT TO TOTAL WEIGHT February 1993 .

1. SKYLIGHTS AND COMPARTMENTS TURN OFF SWITCHES STOP ENGINE February 1993 . SIGNALS. WINDOWS.0 Cranes and Lifting Equpment Page 272 . MIRRORS.• • - LIFT PLAN APPROVED USE LOAD WEIGHT MEASURING DEVICE FOR UNKNOWN LOADS TRAVELING: BLOCK SECURED TIRES PROPERLY INFLATED AND IN GOOD CONDITION BRAKE LIGHTS. OVERHEAD AND SIDE RESTRICTIONS ESCORT VEHICLES REQUIRED WITH FLASHING BEACON LIGHTS SPEED TO BE MAINTAINED FOR SAFE LIMITS (SLOW AS POSSIBLE) PARKING: BOOM AND HOOK BLOCK(S) LOWERED TO TRAVEL POSITION APPLY SWING BRAKE AND POSITIVE SWING LOCK TIE DOWN HOOK BLOCK(S) RETRACT STABILIZERS RETRACT OUTRIGGERS EXTEND STABILIZERS AND LATCH ONTO FLOAT PADS WEIGHT OF CHASSIS OFF THE TIRES LET ENGINE IDLE 3-5 MINUTES REMOVE ALL FOREIGN MATERIAL FROM CAB(S) CLOSE ALL DOORS. HORN OPERATIONAL ROUTE PLAN CHECKED FOR FIRM GROUND.

Shackles. No. weight of component and sling angles). At all construction sites and operating plants. Load moment indicator: Yes:o No:o Type:_________________________________________ 16.FIGURE III. Crane capacity for jib configuration:____________ 12.028 for appropriate derating based on type of lift. Contractor:______________________ Date:__________________ Crane Operator:_______________________ Date:__________________________ Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ Reviewed by:_____________________ Date:_____________________________ (Competent Person) (Saudi Aramco Site Representative) Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ (Heavy Haul/Rig Move Unit. Ground and site conditions:______________________________________________ 13. 3. Transportation Dept. Involving personnel platforms (as per GI 7. 2.:_____________________________________________ 2.2: LIFT PLAN FOR CRANES 1. 10. Within safety zones of power lines.) 11. (Note: The sketch of the crane should include the following rigging information: size of each component. Operator Saudi Aramco certified: Yes:o No:o 4. Sketch and supplementary information for crane lift is required to be attached to this plan. Associated with offshore and marine sites and operations.: ______ ______ ______ _______ Others: __________________________________ _______ __________________________________ _______ Total (Gross Load Weight): _______ • • • 6. type of component.028 and 7. Operating radius ___________ft/m. Crane capacity at operating radius __________ (Note: Do not make lift if total load is greater than crane capacity shown in Item 10. safe working load (SWL) capacity.030). Abqaiq) Footnote: This form is to be filled out for the following lifts: 1. • • • • 7. Wind speed:__________mph (Maximum 20 mph) 14. 7. Description of load:___________________________________________________ 5. etc. February 1993.. 8. Work permit required: Yeso No:o 15.Cranes And Lifting Equipment Page 273 . component diameter. Contractor:__________________________________________________ J. Refer to GI 7. Boom Head: ______ _______ o o Headache Ball: ______ _______ Slings. Weight of load _______lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib headache ball ______ lbs/kgs Weight of hoist rope below boom tip______ lbs/kgs Weight of other rigging ______ lbs/kgs Total load weight _____ lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib _____ lbs/kgs (see jib chart) Weight of load block _____ lbs/kgs Weight of spreader bar _____ lbs/kgs Hoisting clearance ________ft/m. 9. 4.027. •Type of crane to be used ______________________ •Boom length (total) _______________________ft/m •Jib length ______________________________ft/m Stowed Erected N/A (lbs/kgs) o o o Jib: _______ o o o Extension: _______ Hookblock (Main): ______ _____ _____ _______ o o Aux. Crane Inspection Sticker valid: Yes:o No:o Date of expiry:________________________________________________________________ 3.0. length of slings. Lift quadrant zone ___________________ .

40 41-47 48-55 56-63 64+ M/Sec 0-0.71+ KM/H 0-1.064 .44 20.2 103.32-101.4 20.6-6.65-18.62-8.52 7.1.51-1.56-73.36-11.45 73.64 40.5 12. FORCE OF WIND IN POUNDS PER S QUARE FO O T MILES PER HOUR 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 FORCE PER SQUARE FOOT.68 51.9 1. relative to Beaufortwind Scale Numbers.11 5.2-37.72 62.53-28.0 Cranes And Lifting Equipment Page 274 .52-60.44 31.95 39.1 .20 32.80 14.87 17.4 19.51 0.62-32. 045 February 1993 .45 4.48 88.05 32.9 8.31-16.18 8.69-10.24-29.02 24.25 64.04-3.15 1.6 Reference: GROVE COLES CRANE SPECIFICATION BULLETIN NO.6 TABLE III.1: WIND S PEED (MILES PER HOUR ) VS .76+ Miles/H 0-1.84 1.15-3. POUNDS .53 2.24-13.4-72.014 .88-18.3-31.92 117.96-24.05 55.15 25.73 11.84-5.2-63.07 3.036 .05-11.1-46 47. in the major units.15-54.04 12.04-115.55-24.6 75.48-49.58-5. the internationally accepted reference for wind force: Beaufort Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description Calm Light Air Light Breeze Gentle Breeze Moderate Breeze Fresh Breeze Strong Breeze Near Gale Gale Strong Gale Storm Violent Storm Hurricane Knots 0-1 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-16 17-21 22-27 28-33 34.38-20.TABLE III.4 .004 .44-86.11 28.28-38.2: WIND SPEED DEFINITION The following table lists speed.

Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Slings Hooks Below the Hook Lifting Devices Manually Lever Operated Hoists Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook (See Appendix E) Saudi Aramco Riggers Handbook Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures 07-AIP-0I-P Inspection of Steel Wire Rope Slings 2. Riggers shall not use lifting gear unless the safe working load is clearly visible (see Figures III. Slings shall not be tagged with an safe working load in the field. February 1993 . Approval by the Inspection Department and subsequent review by the Loss Prevention Department is required. The safe working load of rigging equipment is the maximum load which the equipment should be subjected to. Personnel Work Platform Operations Inspection. ANSI B30. engraving. all new equipment should be subjected to a proof load test by the manufacturer and certified.21.027.5. either by tagging. Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings American National Standards: ANSI B30.029. Safe Working Load (SWL) Slings and other rigging equipment must be constructed according to a recognized standard. GI 7.9. Before use.2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING) Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 7.20.6). stamping.3 and III. or embossing.10.1. this load should never be exceeded.Construction Safety Manual: Slings And Lifting Gear Page 275 . ANSI B30. The safe working load and serial number shall be clearly marked on the sling and the lifting gear. ANSI B30. ANSI B30.

Damaged chains must be returned to the manufacturer for repair or destroyed. February 1993 .2. Homemade wire rope slings shall not be allowed at Saudi Aramco unless they meet all standards and pass inspection by CCFIU. and riggers should be trained to look for the safe working load marked on each sling. Communications and Facilities Inspection Unit [CCFIU] (see Figure III. It is essential that each wire rope sling is properly constructed and used. One broken wire at the fitting. Other grades are subject to approval by the Saudi Aramco Crane. etc. cracked welds.2 Repairs Modern chains are produced under closely controlled factory conditions using proper heat treatment and testing procedures.1 * * * 2. and excessive wear. On-site welding repairs cannot provide the necessary controlled conditions to safely repair a damaged chain.2. All attached fittings (hooks.3 Logger chains or chains used to secure truck loads shall not be used for rigging. They shall be forbidden to use any equipment unless the safe working load is clearly visible.2. rings. Hooks.2. 2.3.3.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 276 .2. 2.1 Grades Only alloy steel chain complying with ASTM A391 shall be used. shackles.2. and load tested by a recognized manufacturer. 2.3. 10 random broken wires in one lay.2 * Severe localized abrasion or scraping.1 Wire rope is the most common type of sling in use on construction sites. All wire rope slings shall be manufactured.2 Damaged slings shall be destroyed if there are: 2. Chain Slings 2. and eyebolts shall be equal to or exceed the safe working load of the chain. 4 broken wires in one strand of a rope lay. In particular. Each grade of chain should be clearly tagged by the manufacturer.3 Wire Rope Slings 2.. 2.) shall be as prescribed by the manufacturer.3.5). inspected.2. watch for bent links.2.

2.2. 2.3 and III.3.1 Name or trademark of manufacturer Rated capacity for each type of hitch Type of material Removal from Service Slings which have been damaged or are defective in any way shall be immediately removed from service.4 * 2.3. sharp edged objects. These slings must not be subjected to point loading.2.7). Bent or opened hooks.2.3. birdcaging.3. Evidence of heat damage.2. 2.3.3.4.2.6 * 2.2 Repaired Slings The use of repaired slings is prohibited.7 * 2.3 Each sling shall bear a permanent manufacturer's identification stating the safe working load (SWL) in tons and serial number. Synthetic web slings shall be marked with a stitched in label to show: (a) (b) (c) 2. Proof load test and documentation of testing is required from the manufacturer (see Figures III. and non-vertical lifting (see Figure III.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 277 . Their strength lies in the width of their bearing surface.4 Synthetic Webbing Slings These are manufactured from woven man-made fiber.4.2. crushing.5 * 2. or excessively worn. or any other damage causing distortion. deformed. End attachments are cracked. 2. Severe corrosion. cut up and destroyed.6).3 * Kinking.2. February 1993 .3.4 Wire rope clips (bulldog clips or crosby clips) shall not be used to make slings.

5 2.5.5.1.5.3 Slings shall be removed from service and destroyed when: 2.1 Each synthetic and natural fiber rope sling shall be permanently marked to show: 2. 2.5.5.5.4 2.1.1. kinks or hackles.3 * There are particles of broken filament or fibers inside the rope between strands.3.5.1 2.5.2.3.4 * There is other damage visible such as: melting or charring.3 2.1. February 1993 .0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 278 .1.5. 2. damaged fittings.5.3. badly abraded or seriously worn.3.5.2 * There is considerable filament or fiber breakage (a light fuzzing is acceptable) on the surface.5 Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings 2.5.1 * 2.2.2 All associated rigging hardware shall equal or exceed the safe working load rating of the rope sling. Name or trademark of manufacturer Manufacturer's code or stock number Rated loads for the types of hitches used Type of natural or synthetic material Date of manufacture 2. The fibers are cut. knots.2 2.

7 Hooks 2. away from extremes of heat. point loading shall not be permitted.7.11).6.2. the bend [bow] of the hook). the safe working load decreases.9).6. full details of periodic inspections (see Figure III. safe working load as stated in proof load certificate.2 Loads should be applied on the hook only in the part designed to take them (i.2. 2. or should be moused with wire and a shackle used or the hook should be designed so that the slings cannot be displaced (Figure III. 2. and especially dampness.13). and a Sling Inspection Report shall be completed and filed for review by the Crane Inspector to comply with GI 7.4 Contractors shall maintain a job site log of slings containing the following information: ID.9. and inspected. A shock load can increase the normal working load by as much as five times its value.6 Care of Slings The following points must be considered in the storage and handling of slings: 2. or the sling slipping on the load. February 1993 . chain and wire rope slings should be cleaned. The included angle should be no more than 900 and must never exceed 120o under any circumstances (see Figure III.6.6. 2. This can be caused by the sudden application of the crane brake. 2.1 Slings will undergo shock loading when a load is suddenly lifted or when the hoisting is abruptly stopped. Point loading can result in over stressing the hook causing it to open or break.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 279 . 2.029. number. Therefore.5 All rigging shall be inspected at least every six months per ANSI B30.7.2 As the angle between the legs of a multiple sling increases. the jerking of the load by poor operation. lightly lubricated. date in service. Slings must be stored in a location where they are not liable to suffer mechanical damage.e. cold. 2.3 Before storage.1 Hooks should be fitted with a safety catch on the hook opening.6.

2 Shouldered eyebolts can be used at slight angles.2.9. 2. but are unsafe at less than 45 degrees with the horizontal.4 The hook shall be removed from service for the following reasons: 1. manufacturer's name and serial number.).7. For such situations. 2.9 Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings Sometimes machinery or other equipment is delivered to the site with eyebolts attached as lifting points. 2.7.1 Standard eyebolts are the weakest and are dependable only for vertical lifts.8.9.8. the design and function of each of the three basic types of eyebolts should be known (see Figure III. and protected from physical damage. and inspected to ANSI B30.3 Hooks should be regularly inspected for signs of damage.8 Spreader Bars 2. February 1993 . If there are visible cracks If it is twisted 10o out of place If there is a 15% throat opening beyond the manufacturer's specification A thorough examination shall be carried out each year by a qualified inspector.9.2 Spreader bars shall be permanently identified with the safe working load.3 Safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) are bolted in place with a calibrated torque wrench and maintain maximum capacity at all angles.1 All spreader bars shall be manufactured. 2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 280 . 2.2.10. 2.20. tested. 2.8. 2. 3.3 Spreader bars shall be stored away from moisture. 2.

). and the various methods of loading. hand signals. mild steel bolts or similar items are not acceptable replacements for shackle pins (see Figure III. They should be tested by the manufacturer and marked with the safe working load. The man assigned must be wellacquainted with the capabilities of the crane being used.10 Shackles Shackles (clevis) are used for making connections in rigging.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 281 . 2. The pins are separate but matched parts of the shackles.11 Rigger The job of rigger requires thorough training. February 1993 .12. Rebar. the different functions of lifting gear. so care must be taken to use the correct pin for each shackle.2.2.

3: IDENTIFICATION TAGS February 1993 .FIGURE III.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 282 .2.

FIGURE III.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 283 .4: INSTALLING A WEDGE S OCKET ON A ROPE February 1993 .2.

FIGURE III.7: S YNTHETIC WEBBING S LINGS February 1993 .2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 284 .

FIGURE III.9: EYEBOLTS February 1993 .2.0 Slings And Lifting Gear Page 285 .8: S LING LOADING FIGURE III.

0 Slings And Lifting Gear 286 Page .12: WIRE ROPE S LING INSPECTION LO G Contractor:______________________________________ Location: __________________________ BI/JO Number: ___________________________________ Project Title: ______________________ Sling# Diameter Length SWL Date-In Service Date-OutService Inspector Signature (Date) February 1993 .FIGURE III.2.

030 GI 8.05 31-SAIP-8.Routine Test.003 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Inspection Procedures 17-SAIP-6.Construction Safety Manual: Mechanical Equipment Page 287 . Replacement or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves .02 31-SAIP-8. Change in Set Pressure. running equipment that is well maintained and carrying out the work for which it was designed. The only safe way of using mechanical equipment is to have properly trained operators. and Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment Breathing Apparatus Pressure Relief Valves . but it outlines some of the hazards likely to be encountered from specific items of equipment and their use.002 Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Inspection.New Installation.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT The widespread use of mechanical e quipment in the construction industry improves the quality and efficiency of the work but it can lead to situations which are potentially hazardous.3.01 20-SAIP-3.026 GI 7. This section cannot cover all the situations which could arise.01 31-SAIP-1.10 31-SAIP-8.15 31-SAIP-8. Quality Assurance and Regulation GI 447.16 31-SAIP-10.01 Diesel Electric Generating Set Welding Generator Pumps Compressor Vibrating Roller CAT Motor Grader Road Rollers Scraper Concrete Mixers February 1993 .025 GI 7. Inspection.003 GI 447. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 7.01 31-SAIP-1.

Operators shall be trained in the procedures and functions relevant to a specific piece of equipment.Mechanical Equipment AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS: ANSI-A 10.5. ANSI-B 56. February 1993 .1 Qualifications Only trained personnel shall operate any mechanical equipment. 3. they must be fully aware of the capabilities and limitations of the machine and have a knowledge of the day-to-day maintenance that it requires. Health and Environmental Requirements . It is recommended that contractors train and test all equipment operators and issue them with written authorization specifying the equipment which they are competent to operate.31-SAIP-12.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 288 .1-88 Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks Mobile and Locomotive Cranes 3.1-84 Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus ANSI-B 30.1.1 Operators 3.05 Schedule 'D': Diesel Fork Lift Truck Electric Fork Lift Truck Saudi Aramco Safety.2 Licensing Requirements Operators of mobile heavy equipment must be in possession of a Saudi Arab Government (SAG) license for that particular class of machinery and a Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Training Unit (see GI 7.3.1.1-86 Safety Code for Jacks ANSI B30.4-81 Safety Requirements For Personnel Hoists ANSI-B 15.04 31-SAIP-12.025).

governors) must be checked daily. This is particularly true with gears. 3.g.2. pulleys. or replacement of parts on moving machinery is permitted. water. adjustment.3 Maintenance schedules should be established for each piece of equipment and strictly followed. 3.1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings As safety equipment like tire cages.4 No repair. Safety equipment (e.3. all equipment must be stopped and deactivated so that it cannot be unintentionally started. Guards must be installed on equipment before it arrives on site and maintained in position at all times while the equipment is operating.3. 3. Other examples of equipment which must be guarded include cooling fans on compressors and generators. and revolving shafts. and hydraulic levels. racks and clips during tire check-out cannot fully protect employees working on or near the tire repair area.3. limit switches.3.3. and the cable drum on winches and concrete mixers.3. Guards removed for routine maintenance or for repair must be replaced before the equipment is returned to service. V-belt drives. the main drive shafts on pumps and dumpers. Before making any repairs. restraining bars.. fans. all required work permits must be obtained. 3. guards. February 1993 .2 All machinery should be inspected before being placed in service and at regular intervals thereafter.3 General Requirements 3.1 Before any mechanical equipment is used in a Saudi Aramco restricted area. the operator must check oil. Inflate tires inside a strong restraining device (tire cage) by increasing the tire pressure very slowly.5 At the start of each shift. All of these are present on most of the static equipment used on or around construction sites. fuel.3. 3.2 Machinery Guards All moving parts of machinery must be shielded by guards. that all gauges are operating and that the machine is functioning smoothly. always deflate the tire first before making repairs.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 289 . 3.

Park equipment clear of the roadway.4. 3.3.8 Unless otherwise instructed.6 Equipment traveling or working on the highway must have lights and reflectors. operators must dismount from machines while maintenance or repair work is being carried out. 3.4 Compressors Compressors are one of the most common pieces of equipment used in construction work. Never use compressed air to dust off clothing or machinery. cones. 3. and other hydraulic equipment must be lowered to the ground before the operator leaves the machine.3.3. parking brakes applied and the wheels chocked. There is a considerable difference in the quality of the air used for these two functions. goggles and full face shield must be worn.10 Where the operator of a mobile machine cannot see the area all around his machine. Horseplay with compressed air must be strictly forbidden. or other warning devices to alert approaching traffic. 3.9 Cabs fitted to equipment must give 360o visibility.3. February 1993 .0 Mechanical Equipment Page 290 . When compressed air is used in special cleaning/purging tasks. an attendant must be in a position to direct and assist the operator. Cabs must be kept clean and clear of such items as rubbish and loose tools. 3. The ignition key should be removed and/or battery cables disconnected to avoid start-up by unauthorized personnel.7 When vehicles are left unattended (even overnight).3.3. They can be used to supply air for portable power tools or to supply air to sustain men working with breathing apparatus in extremely hazardous atmospheres. Gasoline-driven equipment shall not be used inside a building or other confined space. scraper bowls. engines must be stopped.1 All employees on site must know the dangers of compressed air. use flashing lights. If this is not possible.11 All equipment must be located so that exhaust fumes will not affect workers in the area. Windows must be kept clean at all times and should be replaced if the glass becomes pitted.3. 3. cracked or broken. Blades.3. 3.

5 Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants A concrete mixer of some type will be used on almost every construction site.3 Men must not be allowed to work under or near the loading skip unless it is held in position by a safety chain or catch or positively blocked.1 All chains. and the air receiver must be periodically inspected. fuel.10. The air must be tested periodically to be certain it is safe to breathe (see Administration.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 291 .2 Compressors must be properly designed.5. The principles of good maintenance and properly trained operators apply equally whether it is only a small mixer for masonry work or a full batching plant with a large capacity cement silo.) 4.3.5.. a daily check should be made of the compressor's pressure relief valve.) 2. They must be equipped with an automatic high temperature alarm. and a power shovel. The operating manual for the particular type of compressor used should be strictly followed. 1. and the lifting mechanism must be in good order. 3. tested and maintained. 3. 3. 3.) 3. inspected.4.4 The mixer drum and the area around the machine must be thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day's operation.3.2 Safety chains and catches must be operative.4. 3. sand and aggregate bins. There must be a filter to remove oil mist.3 Before start up.) 3. Relief valves shall be installed in accordance with GI 447.002/3. oil and water levels and the air reservoir should be drained of trapped water.3.4 When compressors supply air for breathing: 1. and revolving shafts must be guarded.) The air intake must be located so that it does not draw in exhaust gas. February 1993 . gears.5. I.5.4. 3.

5.5. and the barricades should only be removed to allow access for vehicles delivering material.9 Lockout and tag system is required in batching plants to ensure the safety of repair and/or maintenance personnel. 3. 3. 3.5. Therefore it is essential that they be properly maintained.3.6 Dumpers and Dump Trucks Dumpers and dump trucks.3 When repairs or maintenance are being carried out on a hydraulically operated dump truck.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 292 . and the release mechanism should function smoothly. 3. It must be strictly forbidden for employees to ride in the skip or on the engine cover. they should be collected and disposed of at regular intervals during the day. Loose fitting clothes shall not be worn around moving machinery.5.3.6.6.6.5 Cement bags must not be allowed to accumulate in the mixer area. 3.1 The latch on dumper skips must be in good working order. Men must not be allowed to work inside the silo unless they are wearing a safety belt with a lifeline and an attendant is posted outside ready to assist in case of emergency.8 Personal protective equipment such as respirators. ear muffs. the dump body should be fully lowered.6 A hooped access ladder must be firmly attached to silos for access to the top manhole. and goggles shall be worn. 3.7 The approach to the sand and aggregate bins should be barricaded. often travel on the public highway.5. If it is necessary to have it February 1993 . This is a means to disable process/mechanical electrical 'control' equipment during repairs and maintenance.2 Dumpers are not designed to carry passengers. 3. commonly used for construction work. Lockout and tag system rules must be posted in a conspicuous location throughout the plant and workers must be thoroughly trained in the lockout/tag procedures. 3.

loaders. 3.2 Operators of excavators must possess a valid Saudi Arab Government license for the machine and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit. volume of earth to be hauled out and many other factors. February 1993 . Fixed position machines include. 3. The choice of equipment to be used is determined by the size of the project.4 All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. The permit must be counter-signed by the Power Distribution Department (PDD) and the area Utilities Services Department.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 293 .1 The excavation work permit may require that underground pipelines or cables be located by manual digging. All cab glass shall be safety glass or equivalent.5 Excavators with a swinging motion must have a clearance of at least 0. graders and trenching machines.6 meter (2 feet) from any fixed object. They are used in applications where large volumes of earth need to be moved over uneven ground.7.3 Outriggers must be fully extended when operating a mechanical excavator so fitted. face shovels. They are useful to perform specific excavation tasks at a single location. and 2) moving machines. but are not limited to. 3. bulldozers.) 3. but are not limited to. backhoes.6. they also help to level the ground over which they operate.7. (Also see General And Civil. 3. Do not rely on the hydraulic ram to support the raised body for an extended period. II.7. transport and deposit excavated material all in one cycle of operation. topography.7. Their loss of mobility is compensated by the fact that greater force can be applied at the excavation face. In this process. draglines and grabs.7 Excavators Excavations are carried out using very specialized equipment which roughly falls into two categories: 1) fixed position machines. Cracked or broken windshields or windows shall be replaced.3. "Moving" machines include. The "fixed" excavator loosens the soil and loads from a stationary position.4 An attendant must be appointed and be available at all times during excavation to assist and guide the operator. They remove. scrapers.7. 3.2 of this manual. it must be blocked.in the raised position. 3.

3 Special equipment fitted to the truck. 3. 3.8. however.8. 3. Operators of fork lift trucks must have a valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate.3.1 It is essential that drivers be fully trained and experienced. level ground. in addition to or in place of the forks. he should travel in reverse. must be designed for the specific machine.8. 3.8. They must be able to manipulate loads smoothly and efficiently.3. 3.7.6 If the load being carried obstructs the operator's forward view. 3. They are.8. sometimes used in materials handling yards and for placing loads where there are firm ground conditions.7 Do not excavate closer than 10 feet to the nearest pipeline or other equipment in place. the forks should be as low as possible to maintain stability.4 The truck shall be equipped with overhead protection.2 A specific course of instruction should be established for fork lift drivers.8.6 Booms on excavators must be latched before travel. 3. This type of equipment has a limited use in construction operations. February 1993 .8 Fork Lift Trucks Fork lift trucks are designed to operate on firm.5 When traveling with a load on the forks.7. 3. They should not be allowed to use the vehicles on site until they have taken the course.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 294 .

Clean up all combustible trash around the generator. Inspect all wiring for damage or improper splices/repairs. They must be closed at all times when the engine is running. belts.9. Electrically ground all generator sets (system and frame ground).7 Operators. Exhaust piping system shall be kept away from work areas and combustible materials. February 1993 .3.1 All pulleys. • • • • • • • • • • • Repair all fuel leaks. 3. Sheds constructed of combustible materials placed around generators and wooden base frames are prohibited.2 The side panels to the engine cover are designed to give access to the machinery for maintenance or repair. Conduct daily inspections of all generator sets using this guide.3.9. cross members. therefore a thorough inspection must be made. Clean up all fuel spills and place clean sand around area when required. There may be other potential fire hazards not listed. Stay well within limits of the truck body or cab. or other moving parts of the fork lift truck. 3. Fire extinguishers must be readily accessible. Check hose and pipe connections for wear and cracks. and fans must be totally enclosed or otherwise guarded.3 The machine must be properly grounded before each use. Generator sets shall be located at least 50 feet from buildings or materials that may catch fire. 3.9 Generators A competent electrician shall be available to ensure that electrical connections are properly made.9. The operator should be responsible only for the mechanical function of the machine. 3.8. One CO2 extinguisher for the generator and a dry chemical extinguisher for the engine drive is recommended. 3. helpers and other workers should never place any part of their bodies between the mast uprights.9. loaders.4 Fire Prevention Guide for Portable Generators The following is a typical check list of the major items to look for.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 295 .

1 The area around saws. and routers must be barricaded and only authorized and trained personnel allowed within the barricaded area. must be lowered to the ground before the driver leaves his unit. Dozers.10. This machinery is inherently dangerous since the hazardous parts. This equipment shall be equipped with rollover protection.2 Men must not be allowed to sit or lie in the area around the machine.11 Woodworking Machinery Only fully trained operators may be allowed to use woodworking machinery. the equipment must be blocked in position. essential that a banksman be appointed to warn the operator of hazards that cannot be seen from the operator's position. Before leaving his machine. Only that part of the blade necessary to carry out the work shall be exposed at any one time. Scrapers.5 If there is work to be done underneath such hydraulic equipment.4 Blades. blades. A valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit are required for each operator of such equipment.3. 3.10.11. the driver must walk around it to see that the area is clear. 3. 3. 3. planers.10. February 1993 . 3. therefore. 3.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 296 . a driver must shut off the engine and remove the ignition key.3. The wheels should be properly chocked. knives.10 Graders. 3. It is. cannot be fully enclosed. etc.3 The engine shall not be left running when the driver is not at the controls. scraper bowls.. etc.1 Before moving his machine.10. Loaders And Miniloaders Heavy earth moving equipment only allows the operator a limited view of the immediate area.10.

0 Mechanical Equipment Page 297 . (See General And Civil.11.11.2 The ground around such machinery must be kept clear of off-cuts and other tripping hazards. 3.3 Machinery should be securely anchored to prevent movement during use. II of this manual.) February 1993 .3.3.

1. February 1993 .1 Planning Successful mechanization of material handling requires that the correct machines be available and properly used. Ordering. Contact the Fire Prevention Group of Loss Prevention for i formation (see Figure III. 4.13 Typical Construction Materials Store Yard).13 Typical n Construction Materials Store Yard).013 GI 1131. However. The storage and movement of the various materials must be carefully arranged to make optimum use of the machines so that efficient service can be provided and ensure that all vehicle.3 Access ways must be wide enough to allow for the passage of fire trucks.1.2 Open storage areas should be planned to minimize the reversing and maneuvering of trucks especially into and out of confined areas. Because of the temporary nature of site work and the frequent change of the work place.0 MATERIALS HANDLING Materials handling forms a large part of construction work. there are many areas in which labor intensive. Issuing And Disposing Of Hazardous Materials Vehicle Loading Use of Trailer Brakes Use of Trailer Safety Chains GI 1130. Planning for materials handling operations begins as the production schedule is being drawn. inefficient. Ensure that the layout of storage areas provides for adequate access for necessary mechanical equipment. manual material handling work can be replaced by the use of machines. and frequently dangerous. Fire fighting equipment should be located throughout the area. Receiving.1 Selection of the storage area should be made with due consideration for drainage and protection from rain and sandstorms (see Figure III.921 4. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 355.001 Identifying.0 Materials Handling Page 298 . costly.4. it is not possible to mechanize material handling to the same extent as it would be in a more stable operation. crane and heavy equipment operators hold current Saudi Arab Government License and Saudi Aramco Certification where required.165 GI 1131. Storing.4. How construction materials are handled can have a considerable effect on the efficiency of production and on the safety record of the site.1. 4. 4.

4.13 Typical Construction Materials Store Yard).4 Cribbing timber. 4. 4. They range from simple equipment such as a dumper or a tractor and trailer to more sophisticated equipment such as a concrete pump or a large crane.3.8 On larger projects.4.9 Routinely. and distribution stage. whereas small jobs would probably need only one man assigned to this responsibility. insulation. the staffing of the storage areas can then be considered. Unfortunately they are also a common source of injuries and damage.6 All machinery. Flammable stores shall be kept separated.1. 4.7 The quantity of material on site at any one time must be restricted to a minimum stock. February 1993 .1.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 299 . the movement of materials could justify the employment of a loading and unloading gang. 4.1.2 Machine Transport A wide variety of mechanical equipment is available for transporting and distributing materials on and around a job site. and valves should be maintained fully assembled and securely closed.5 Protection should be provided for materials such as cement.1.1. Such a policy should greatly reduce losses due to pilferage or damage (see Figure III. or pallets should be used to ensure that all materials are stored off the ground.1. there should be a man appointed as a materials controller responsible for materials from the planning stage through to the final unloading. 4. racks.1 Dumpers Dumpers are one of the most commonly used pieces of construction equipment and have proved very useful in transporting concrete and other small loads around site. and other bulk material which could be damaged by moisture. storage.2. 4. on most sites. All machined surfaces must be covered and fully protected from exposure to the weather. Once these factors have been established. equipment.

etc. be established on site. should be separated and stored in an isolated flammable storage area (see Appendix C). the trailer can still be brought to a controlled stop by the tractor. Trailer and its load shall not exceed the towing capacity of the tractor and shall be fitted with an independent braking system if it is designed to carry more than 9. gears and pinch points shall be guarded. thorough consideration must be given to their use.2. it is essential that an indoor stores shed. They have the advantage of being able to move large amounts of concrete very speedily to the area where it is required. a proper towing eye with a shackle or pin must be provided. Because of the nature of the materials stored in such an area. 4. All hazardous material.072 kilograms (20. and loads must be securely tied down before being transported. Notices warning of the dangers associated with these materials should be posted in the hazard area. and skip release mechanism. Materials should be stored on shelving or with small items such as nuts and bolts. chemicals. The issuing and receiving of stores must be under the control of a responsible person. fuels. The equipment is designed for the movement of material only.0 Mechanical Equipment Page 300 . 4.4 Concrete Pumps Concrete pumps are used for the placement of concrete in difficult situations. 4. Dumpers must be regularly maintained with particular attention to brakes. such as paints. On/off switches shall be clearly marked and readily accessible. the main considerations must be security and fire prevention. Adequate fire fighting equipment must be readily available in the area. or aggregate on site.. Passengers must not be allowed to travel in the skip or anywhere else on the machine. The safe loads allowed on racks and the maximu m stack heights should be established.3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails Conveyor belts and monorails are occasionally used for transporting concrete. 4. They require a complete maintenance program. it is essential that safety chains or wire ropes be fitted between the tractor and trailer so that if the towing connection should break or become separated for some reason. under the control of a responsible person. in bins suitably marked with the contents. Trailers used for carrying pipes should be fitted with side stops. etc. If they are to be used for towing. All pulleys.3.2 Tractors and Trailers Tractors and trailers are useful for moving larger loads around the site. In addition to the normal precaution of good maintenance. placing concrete by this method can significantly reduce the number of dumpers employed or the crane usage time expended on a civil engineering contract.Dumper drivers must be properly trained and experienced and must hold a current Saudi Arab Government license. however. Because of the many problems associated with them. The operation of this equipment demands specialized knowledge of concrete technology. sand. rollers.000 pounds).3 Site Stores For small or valuable materials which cannot be conveniently stored in outside areas. February 1993 . steering.2.2.

4.4

Manual Handling
There are many areas of construction work where mechanization cannot take the place of sheer muscle, and it is in such areas that the majority of injuries occur. The inevitable results of lifting incorrectly are strained backs, slipped discs, sprains and strains, and a complexity of internal injuries. It is, therefore, essential that workers be trained in the correct methods of manual handling. Safe lifting can only be carried out by the proper use of the right muscles. Back and abdominal muscles are weak, while the leg and thigh muscles are strong. The spine has a natural and comfortable shape when a man is standing upright; however, if he bends, the spine arches and becomes weaker. If the spine can be kept in a straight position when lifting, the strain of the lift goes to the strong muscles of the leg and thigh and loads can be lifted safely, with much less physical effort. This is the basic principle of manual handling. 4.4.1 There are four significant points in a proper lift: 1. 2. Grip: A good grip makes maximum use of the palm of the hand, the ball of the thumb, and base of the fingers. Back: The back must be kept straight to maintain its most natural and strongest position. This means that the knees and ankles must be bent and the chin kept well into the chest. The body must be positioned as close to the load as possible so as to act as a counterweight. Feet: The feet should be apart the width of the hips with one foot slightly in front of the other so that a natural lead off is obtained. Arms: The arms must be kept as close as possible to the body.

3. 4. 4.4.2

The important factor in manual handling is that a man should know his capabilities and ask for assistance with loads beyond his capabilities. In dual lifting, partners should be approximately the same height and weight so that the load does not become unevenly distributed. 4.4.3 Loads, even when properly lifted, can slip. The man lifting must be prepared for such a possibility and wear the proper protective equipment. Safety footwear is mandatory to protect feet and gloves should be worn to protect hands from laceration or splinters and to give some protection if the fingers are trapped between the load and the other surfaces.

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FIGURE III.13: TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS S TORE YARD

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ATTACHMENT III.1: HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR LICENSING INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION All crane and other heavy equipment operators working on Saudi Aramco projects are required to have a valid heavy equipment operator Saudi Arab Government (SAG) license and a Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Certificate. This applies to Saudi Aramco employees as well as contractor employees. Saudi Arabs and non-Saudi citizens employed by Saudi Aramco or contractors working on Saudi Aramco projects may obtain their SAG license by following the established procedure. SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI) WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Application forms for SAG Heavy Equipment License are completed and processed at the Saudi Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran. (Saudi Aramco employees in all other areas apply to local Saudi Aramco License Unit). After completion of an eye examination and blood test, the applicant is scheduled for an operator competency test by the Heavy Equipment Operator Training/Testing Unit, Dhahran (Tel. 874-1857). Upon successful completion of the test, application forms are returned to the Saudi Aramco License Unit for processing through the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for SAG License issue. SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI) WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Employees with valid home country licenses need only apply through the Saudi Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran (Saudi Aramco employees in all other areas apply to their local Saudi Aramco License Unit). After completion of an eye examination and blood test, application forms are forwarded by the Saudi Aramco License Unit for processing to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for SAG License issue. A company test is not required. CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI) WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Application for SAG Heavy Equipment License is made directly to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam. Upon completion of the eye examination and blood test, the contractor company representative contacts the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Training/Testing Unit (Tel. 874-1857) for scheduling of the competency test. (Application form is to accompany contractor employee to the test site). After the successful completion of the competency test, the test sheet is attached to the application form. The application form is then taken to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue.

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CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI) WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Contractor employee with a valid home country license need only apply for SAG license to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue. A competency test is not required for SAG license. On receipt of the SAG license, the contractor company representative contacts the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Training and Testing Unit (Tel. 874-1857) for scheduling of the Saudi Aramco certification test.

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IV. Electrical And Radiation

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1.0 ELECTRICITY
The human senses (smell, taste, hearing, etc.) do not provide a warning of an electrical hazard. The great majority of electrical accidents result in burns. Fire and explosion from sparks in flammable atmospheres can and does lead to loss of life and serious damage to property. All electrical installations, no matter what voltages are used, should always be treated with great caution. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 6.012. Work Permit System Isolation, Lockout And Use of Hold Tags

Power Distribution Instruction: No. 10.0. No. 11.0. No. 50.0. Power Distribution System Operations Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test Safety Grounding

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Electrical Power Manual (SAES-P series) SAES -B-064 Onshore And Near Shore Pipeline Safety

Operations Instructions Manual: No. 1.111. NFPA 70: ANSI/IEEE C2-90 National Electrical Safety Code ANSI B30.5. 29 CFR 1926 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators And Conveyors US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA) Electrical Connections National Electrical Code

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1.1

Voltage
The severity of electric shock is not entirely dependent upon the voltage of the power source. The ratio of the voltage to resistance determines the current that will flow through the body and the resulting injury. In terms of a formula this ratio is: Current through the body = Voltage applied across the body Resistance of the body + contact resistance

The hazard is greater if working conditions are wet or if the worker perspires freely. This produces a combination of wet skin and body salt which provides low resistance to current flow.

1.2

Temporary Installations
Distribution of electricity on a construction site is different from a permanent installation. As construction work proceeds, the type of equipment in use changes. From excavation to completion, there is a constant need for convenient means of connecting equipment. This requires a variety of voltages, phases, and current in different places at different times. Load requirements will vary considerably. All temporary electrical systems shall conform to the National Electrical Code. 1.2.1 The contractor is responsible for the temporary electric supply system on a construction site and the safety measures associated with the National Electrical Code. 1.2.2 Cables on site are subject to rough treatment. Special care should be taken to ensure that the grounding conductor remains intact. If the conducting wire breaks, the supply will not be interrupted under a ground fault condition and the system will no longer be safe. Only UL, FM or other recognized testing lab approved extension cords bearing appropriate lab trademarks shall be used. Damaged or spliced cords are not acceptable to Saudi Aramco. 1.2.3 Special care shall be taken to ensure that the correct fuse or breaker ratings are strictly enforced and that the Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are installed properly on all circuits. 1.2.4 All installation work must be carried out by qualified, experienced electricians. Before connecting temporary electrical installations to existing installations, prior approval must be obtained from the Saudi Aramco proponent department.

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This is to ensure that no overloading of electrical devices will occur and system protection will not be compromised. 1.2.5 A competent person must be made directly responsible for the overall safety of the installation. Its general usage, its maintenance, and any alterations and extensions to the system should be under his control. He must be at the site whenever work is being done. Before any part of a newly installed electrical system or its equipment is energized, it must be thoroughly tested. Safety can be ensured by regular inspection and maintenance.

1.3

Hand Tools and Lighting
1.3.1 Many injuries, fires, and explosions have resulted when extension lights with defective cords or fittings have been used or when bulbs have been broken, exposing the live filament wire to an explosive atmosphere. All electrically operated tools shall be rated and used at a voltage not exceeding 125V. The use of 220V is prohibited. 1.3.2 Defective extension lights and electric hand tools shall be repaired or replaced. A defective electrical tool or cord can cause burns, falls as a result of sudden shocks, or even fatalities. 1.3.3 Portable electric tools, extension lights and cords should be inspected each time they are issued and returned. This should be part of a tool store procedure. Frequent random checks should be made where those tools, lights and plugs are being used on site. Portable hand lamps shall comply with the following: (1) (2) (3) Metal shell, paper-lined lamp holders shall not be used. Hand lamps shall be equipped with insulated handle. Substantial lamp guard shall be attached to the handle or holder. Metallic lamp guards shall be grounded. Three-wire power cords with grounding conductor shall be used.

1.3.4 Failure of electrical equipment, because of misuse, is a frequent cause of shock. Workers are prone to abuse extension cords by pulling them over sharp metal objects, hanging them across equipment, kicking them, or letting them be run over

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by industrial equipment. They often strain the cords during use, causing the plug and fixture to part and expose live wires. 1.3.5 Many accidents occur when lower volt equipment is plugged into higher volt systems. Before any portable tool or extension light is plugged in, the voltage required for the tool or light must be the same as the power source, and the plugs must be checked for damage. 1.3.6 The importance of grounding all portable tools and lights cannot be emphasized too strongly. All non-current carrying metal parts of any electrical equipment must be properly grounded. This will reduce the electrical shock hazard. 1.3.7 In hazardous areas, more stringent rules apply as to the type of equipment which may be used. Explosion proof light fittings for extension lights is one example. As with all work carried out on Saudi Aramco installations, Work Permits must be obtained and the type of equipment to be used discussed and agreed upon before the permit is issued. 1.3.8 General Precautions: Only qualified electricians should make repairs and carry out maintenance checks. All extension lights must be fitted with protective guards, so if accidentally dropped, the lamp remains intact. Up to a 120 volt maximum rated AC portable lighting system may be used for illuminating inside confined spaces and vessels, provided it is protected by an externally located ground fault circuit interrupter and also meets the provisions of GI 520.001 Section 5.5.5.1 and 520.001-4 (Supplement 4) - "Confined Space Entry Procedure" (Abqaiq Plants). 1.3.9 Ground fault circuit interrupters shall be used on all electrical circuits including portable power electrical supplies (see NFPA Handbook of the National Electric Safety Code, Section 305-b for GFCIs) on temporary wiring. 1.3.10 The National Electric Safety Code defines requirements for the construction and use of portable extension and electric cords in industrial service. This code shall be followed by construction groups.

1.4

Work on Live Equipment
1.4.1 Whenever workmen are required to work on energized equipment, the job must be planned thoroughly and the workmen should proceed with caution.

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1.5.1.1) High voltage or overhead lines are usually uninsulated.3 Before starting a job. there must be a thorough knowledge of the work involved. a check must be made before the work is started. power supplies may have already been installed below ground or overhead. High voltage can easily arc across a considerable distance. In addition to the man doing the job.4. If re-routing existing cables is necessary. the exact voltages should be known.4 Work platforms and equipment used near energized equipment shall be properly grounded. 1. Protective equipment must be used correctly. The work must be correctly planned before starting. Therefore. This is important as it determines the type of personal protection required for the work and the procedures established in the work permit.0 Electricity Page 310 . (See OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N.5 Overhead and Underground Cables On any construction site. and he must know how to isolate the equipment.4.4.) February 1993 . A foreman or supervisor should also be in attendance while this work is being carried out.1 Overhead Lines (Figure IV. personal protective equipment must be available. the advice of the supervisor or responsible person should be sought.Before any work on live equipment starts. 1. 1. route and depth of any underground cables and the recommended safe clearances. this should be done before the main contract starts. any kind of metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a hazardous situation. If there is any doubt. there must be another electrician standing by.2 Employees must never work alone on live equipment. 1.4.5 Work on live equipment can be as safe as work on isolated equipment if the following are observed: 1 2 3 4 There must be a thorough knowledge of the equipment and the job to be done. 1. Contact should be made with the appropriate Saudi Aramco department at the planning stage of the job to determine the work permit requirements. and all necessary work permits must be obtained. If there is any doubt about voltages.

or Determinations Existing conditions shall be determined before starting work. 1. Underground cables. due to the work.0 Electricity Page 311 . (Changes in ground level. operation or maintenance of above grade or below grade onshore pipelines. It should never be assumed that there is enough clearance.5. No mechanical excavations should be started before test trenches have been dug by hand and cable locations established. it should always be proved. The area must be barricaded until the damaged cable has been made safe. High voltage overhead lines have been mistaken for telephone cables.3 Underground Cables Normal depth of underground cables varies between 46 centimeters (18 inches) and 0. Tests. (See SAES -B-064. it should always be checked.5.6. Access below the powerlines shall be restricted by barriers to where the "goalposts" are located (see Figure IV. The need for caution in working with overhead lines cannot be over-emphasized. Protected by barriers and timber or wire "goal-posts". etc. heavy vehicles should not be allowed to pass over them.1. Exposed buried cables in open trenches should be properly supported and the area barricaded. by an inspection or a test.2 The Contractor Should Arrange for Power Lines to be: 1 2 3 Re-routed clear of all construction work or placed underground if possible. and certified as such by Saudi Aramco. can approach the live cable. 1.6 Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution The standards given in this section provide minimum requirements for safety and health during construction. grounded.1.) 1.1 Initial Inspections. Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi Aramco.5. Accidental damage to any cable exposed during excavation shall be immediately reported to Saudi Aramco. Made "dead".9 meter (3 feet). energized lines and February 1993 . so that no part of any mobile crane. Such conditions shall include. 1. exposed during excavation work should be assumed to be energized and not repositioned or moved until certified to be de-energized.2.1 Spacing Between Powerlines and Pipelines Special precautions are required during installation. It should never be assumed that a cable or line is "dead". earth moving equipment. but not be limited to. can mean that the "as built" depth is no longer correct).1). Unless cables have been laid very deep.

suitable protection such as buoyant work vests shall be worn. Electrical equipment and lines shall be considered energized until determined to be de-energized by testing and grounding. First-aid fundamentals including cardiopulmonary resuscitation. locked.6. a separate "clearance" shall be given to each crew by the Saudi Aramco Power Dispatcher.6. Night Work When working at night.equipment. Life rings.0 Electricity Page 312 . ropes and at least one skiff shall be provided. tagged. He shall release his clearance to Saudi Aramco. and tested. condition of poles. and a prominent tag and lock for each such independent crew shall be placed on the line or equipment by the designated crew leader. When more than one independent crew needs to work on the same line or equipment at the same time. and all circuits will be identified. Operating voltage of equipment and lines shall be determined before working on or near energized parts. 1. and Remote field crews shall have an employee certified in First-Aid. spotlights or portable lights for emergency lighting shall be provided as needed to perform the work safely.5 Work Near/Over Water When crews are engaged in work over or near water and when danger of drowning exists. the crew leader shall determine that all members in his crew are clear and that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed.6. Equipment shall be checked for potential and protective grounds shall be applied. February 1993 .6. Upon completion of work on de-energized lines or equipment. and the location of circuits and equipment. 1.1. Guards or barriers shall be erected as necessary near to adjacent energized lines.3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid The Contractor shall provide training or require that his employees are knowledgeable and proficient in the following: 1 2 3 1.2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment The procedures outlined in GI 2. including power and communication lines.4 Procedures involving emergency situations. 1.012 shall be followed.100 and GI 6.

or 75. and similar material. A-frame.6.6. cross arms.8.3 Storage No materials or equipment shall be stored under energized bus. February 1993 .6. aerial lifts.8. or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees.2 Pole Hauling During pole hauling operations. binders or stakes have broken. 1.6. illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole and haul truck brake lights shall not be obscured.0 Electricity Page 313 . 1. or All live-line tools shall be visually inspected and wiped clean before use each day. energized lines. 1.6. employees shall not work under a pole or a structure suspended by a crane. the load shall be thoroughly examined to ascertain if the load has shifted.4 Framing During framing operations.8. When hauling poles during the hours of darkness. Precautions shall be exercised to prevent blocking of roadways or endangering other traffic. or near energized equipment.6 Hydraulic Fluids All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of derrick trucks.1. poles. 1. Tools with any hazardous defect shall be removed from service.1 Unloading Prior to unloading steel.6. all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole.000 volts per foot of length for 5 minutes when the tool is made of fiberglass.6.7 Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks) Only live-line tool poles having a manufacturer's certification meeting the following requirements shall be used: 1 2 100. 1.8 Material Handling 1. or similar equipment unless the pole or structure is adequately supported. and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines and equipment shall be of the insulating type.8.000 volts per foot of length for 3 minutes when the tool is made of wood.1.

9 Grounding for Protection of Workers 1. Grounding cables shall first be disconnected from the line or equipment and then be disconnected from ground.9. or as close as practicable to.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing Equipment to be worked on when it is deenergized shall be isolated from the system and tested for voltage using test equipment rated for the system. such electrodes shall exhibit low resistance to ground.0 Electricity Page 314 . and then the equipment.1.8.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes Grounds may be temporarily removed with the permission of the Power Dispatcher. 1. 1.2 Applying and Removing Grounds (See Figure IV.9. 1.5 Groundi ng Electrode When grounding electrodes are utilized. This provis ion shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles.9.6.9.1.3 Grounding Distance If the work is to be performed at more than one location in a line section.6.6. thereby.2) Grounding cables shall be connected to ground first.6. Grounding cables shall be installed and removed using hot sticks or insulating gloves and protective apparel.6. Protective grounds shall be installed so that it is not possible for workers to come in contact with a grounded component and an ungrounded component simultaneously.6. 1.5 Attaching the Load The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. 1. Extreme caution shall be exercised while the equipment/line is not grounded. rapidly diminishing the electrical February 1993 . Non-conductive tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting equipment. and be grounded. Grounding cables shall be at. the line section must be grounded and short circuited at each end of the line section and the conductor to be worked on shall be grounded at each work location.6.9. the work location.

they shall not be climbed until made safe by guying. Tag lines shall be of a non-conductive type when used near energized lines.) When working in unstable material.6 Grounding Cables And Clamps Grounding cables and clamps shall be capable of conducting the anticipated fault current and shall have a minimum size of No. 2. Before installing or removing wire or cable.6. scaffolds. Unless using protective equipment suitable for the voltage involved.10. Ladders shall be provided for access to pad or pile-type footing excavations in excess of 1. gin poles.1 Metal Tower Construction When working in unstable material.hazard to personnel. provision shall be made for cleaning out auger-type footings without requiring an employee to enter the footing unless shoring is used to protect the employee. moving. unguarded pole holes are a hazard. precautions shall be taken to avoid contact with energized lines or equipment.2 meters (4 feet). Lifting equipment shall be bonded to an effective ground or it shall be considered energized and barricaded when utilized near energized equipment or lines. or removing poles using cranes. bracing. 2 AWG standard copper. employees standing on the ground shall avoid contacting equipment or machinery working adjacent to energized lines or equipment. or other mechanized equipment near energized lines or equipment. Pole holes shall not be left unattended or unguarded. 1. 1. or other adequate means. 1. or other elevated structures. Otherwise.1. (See Section II. And Shoring for depth and slope criteria.4.0 Electricity Page 315 .52 meters (5 feet) deep shall be either sloped to the angle of repose as required or shored if entry is required. Trenching. strains to which poles and structures will be subjected shall be considered and necessary action taken to prevent failure of supporting structures. insulated tools (or other operating equipment) must be used by personnel. Excavations.6. an inspection shall be made to determine that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected.6. Aframes. When setting. Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing. Even in desert areas.9.10 Overhead Lines Prior to climbing poles. February 1993 . the excavation for pad or pile-type footings in excess of 1. derricks. ladders.

Equipment and rigging shall be regularly inspected and maintained in safe operating condition. Adequate traffic control shall be maintained when crossing highways and railways with equipment. February 1993 . except where the use of such lines would create a greater hazard. erection shall be discontinued in the event of high wind or other adverse weather conditions which would make the work hazardous. When erecting towers using hoisting equipment adjacent to energized transmission lines. An employee shall be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines. The loadline shall not be detached from a tower section until the section is adequately secured. the location of use for such equipment shall be graded and leveled. Guy lines shall be used as necessary to maintain sections or parts of sections in position and to reduce the possibility of tipping. extraordinary caution shall be exercised to maintain the minimum clearance distances required.A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment adjacent to footing excavations. outriggers shall be used. If the lines are not de-energized. the lines shall be de-energized when practical. No one shall be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is being spotted for placement.1. Except during emergency restoration procedures. Erection shall be set on firm level foundations and when the cranes are so equipped. except as may be required to guide and secure the section being set. Where necessary to assure the stability of mobile equipment. No one shall be permitted under a tower which is in the process of erection or assembly. Tower assembly shall be carried out with a minimum exposure of employees to falling objects when working at two or more levels on a tower. Members and sections being assembled shall be adequately supported. Tag lines shall be utilized to maintain control of tower sections being raised and positioned.0 Electricity Page 316 .

tielines.1. the line being strung shall be grounded on either side of the crossover or and worked on as if energized. guard structures. and adequately supported.2 Stringing/Removing De-energized Conductors When stringing or removing de-energized conductors. Guard structure members shall be sound and of adequate dimension and strength. Where there is a possibility of the conductor accidentally contacting an energized circuit or receiving a dangerous induced voltage buildup. grounding devices and procedures to be followed. proper clearance authorization shall be secured and the line grounded on both sides of the crossover. Where practical the automatic re-closing feature of the circuit interrupting device shall be made inoperative. or the line being strung or removed shall be worked on as if energized. In addition. pulling lines. Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected regularly and replaced or repaired when damaged or when dependability is doubtful. and all load-bearing hardware and accessories. When the existing line has been de-energized. and hoists shall be of ample capacity to prevent loss of the lines.10. When crossing over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts.0 Electricity Page 317 . Conductors being strung in or removed shall be kept under positive control by the use of adequate tension reels.1.6. The manufacturer's load rating shall not be exceeded for stringing lines. the conductor being installed or removed shall be grounded. a briefing shall be held setting forth the plan of operation and specifying the type of equipment to be used. rope nets or guard structures shall be installed unless provision is made to isolate or insulate the workman or the energized conductor. or other means to prevent accidental contact with energized circuits. sock connections. Anchors. February 1993 . to further protect the employee from the hazards of the conductor. Prior to stringing operations. the provisions of the following paragraphs shall be complied with. crossover methods to be employed. and the clearance authorization required. riggings.

Reel handling equipment. When stringing adjacent to energized lines. sub-conductor. All pulling and tensioning equipment shall be isolated. Each pull shall be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls. sub-conductor. clipping and tying crews shall work between grounds at all times. While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) employees shall not be permitted directly under overhead operations. 1. it shall be determined whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will occur in the system. particularly during switching and ground fault conditions. A ground shall be installed between the tensioning reel setup and the first structure in order to ground each bare conductor.1. Stringing and clipping operations shall be discontinued during electrical storms. work from structures shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice on structures) makes the work hazardous. Reliable communications between the reel tender and pulling rig operator shall be provided. When working on bare conductors.6. Except during emergency restoration procedures. each bare conductor. including pulling and braking machines. shall have ample capacity.0 Electricity Page 318 . except on dead end structures. A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged. the tension stringing method or other methods which preclude unintentional contact between the lines being pulled and any employee shall be used. nor shall any employee be permitted on the crossarm.10. and overhead ground conductor shall be grounded at the first tower adjacent to both the tensioning and pulling setup and in increments February 1993 . and be leveled and aligned in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions. The grounds shall remain intact until the conductors are clipped in. or effectively grounded. operate smo othly.Conductor grips shall not be used on wire rope unless designed for this application. and overhead ground conductor during stringing operations.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines Prior to stringing parallel to an existing energized transmission line. insulated. During stringing operations.

1. 50.1. (See Power Distribution Instruction No.so that no point is more than 3. the grounds shall be placed and removed with a hot stick.6. it shall be promptly protected with a barrier.2 meters (10 feet) of working areas where conductors. When performing work from the structures. such as a manhole or an unvented vault. A ground shall be located at each side and within 3. GI 2. hand holes. and overhead ground conductors shall be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be necessary to complete work on the transmission line. clipping crews and all others working on conductors.) All conductors. It is recommended that splicing be carried out on either an insulated platform or on a conductive metallic grounding mat bonded to both grounds. The two ends to be spliced shall be bonded to each other. or overhead ground conductors shall be protected by individual grounds installed at every work location. When a grounding mat is used. it is recommended that the grounding mat be roped off and an insulated walkway provided for access to the mat. temporary cover. When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault. and overhead ground conductors shall be grounded at all dead-end or catch-off points. Except for moving type grounds. • • • • The grounds shall be left in place until conductor installation is completed. Work Permit System. or other suitable guard. • • Work on dead-end towers shall require grounding on all deenergized lines. or overhead ground conductors are being spliced at ground level.11 Underground Lines Warning signs shall be promptly placed when covers of manholes. shall be enforced. Before an employee enters a street opening. sub-conductors. or vaults are removed. provided that the line is not left open circuited at the isolated tower at which work is being completed. sub-conductors. February 1993 .218 kilometers (two miles) from a ground.100. Such grounds shall be removed at the last phase of aerial cleanup. sub-conductors.0 Electricity Page 319 . Conductors. Grounds may be removed as soon as the work is completed.

housekeeping.1. the work shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.11. efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work in accordance with GI 2. such as near a gasoline service station. February 1993 . This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate vicinity from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance. by testing or other means.1 1.2 Trenching and Excavating During excavation or trenching. the cable to be worked on shall be identified by electrical means unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance. Work Permit System. Before entering or using open flames in a manhole excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present.• No entry shall be permitted unless forced ventilation is provided or the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for oxygen deficiency and the presence of explosive gases or fumes. When multiple cables exist in an excavation. the cable shall be identified and verified by the proponent department.6.0 Electricity Page 320 . However.6. for the purpose of inspection. gas. water. in order to prevent the exposure of employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous underground facilities. • • 1. When working on buried cable or on cable in manholes. Work in Manholes While work is being performed in manholes.11. other than for emergencies. taking readings. the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids (See GI 2. a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service.100.100). telephone. Before cutting into a cable or opening a splice. metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening or by equivalent means. This requirement does not preclude a qualified employee. or similar work if such work can be performed safely.. etc. working alone. an employee shall be available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as required. etc.) they shall be protected as necessary to avoid damage. from entering for brief periods of time. Where unsafe conditions are detected. When underground facilities are exposed (electric. Provisions shall be made for an adequate continuous supply of air. refinery. GOSP. someone on the surface must be aware of this type of entry and know the expected duration of the task.

(See GI 2. Adequate bonding and grounding interconnections shall be maintained between temporary fence and permanent fence.6. or improper wiring.6. Extreme caution shall be exercised in the handling of busbars. 1. materials. transformers or breakers.12.0 Electricity Page 321 .100) When work is to be done in an energized substation. February 1993 . gin poles. shall be provided. Signs indicating the hazard shall be posted near the barricade or barrier.1.6. when the site is unattended. cranes. or the equipment shall be considered energized. 1. vibration. (See OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N. and other equipment in restricted or hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated employees. safety precautions shall be detailed in the work permit (See GI 2.4 Substation Fences When a substation fence must be expanded or removed for construction purposes. 1.6. a temporary fence affording similar protection.) Fenders shall not be required for low-boys used for transporting large electrical equipment. All mobile cranes and derricks shall be effectively grounded when being moved or operated in close proximity to energized lines or equipment.2 Control Panels Work on or adjacent to energized control panels shall be performed by designated employees.100). and equipment in the vicinity of energized facilities.12. 1.1 Barricades and Barriers Barricades or barriers shall be installed to prevent accidental contact with energized lines or equipment. authorization shall be obtained from the local power service dispatcher and a work permit shall be issued. tower steel.6.3 Mechanized Equipment Use of vehicles. Precaution shall be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or other protective devices due to jarring.12.1.12 Construction in Energized Substations When construction work is performed in an energized substation.12.

and an ambulance. In brief. a doctor. 1.1.0 Electricity Page 322 . dry blanket. except when work is in progress. Call for first aid assistance. If breathing has stopped. dry clothing. switch off the power supply. or properly insulated equipment. The Saudi Aramco emergency number is 110. the sequence for dealing with an electrical accident is: 1 If at all possible. 2 3 February 1993 .7 Electric Shock Speed is essential in dealing with any electrical accident. A copy of "The Treatment for Electric Shock" placard in Arabic and English should be prominently displayed so that everyone knows what to do in an emergency. rubber sheets. begin CPR and continue as necessary.All gates to all unattended substations shall be locked. release the victim from contact with the conductor by using dry gloves. dry wood. If this is not instantly possible. Employees will be trained in First Aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

0 Electricity Page 323 .FIGURE IV. Overhead lines should therefore be rerouted. Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi Aramco before work starts.1: TEMPORARY CROSSING FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Overhead power lines are usually uninsulated and any kind of metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a hazardous situation.1. "made dead" or protected by timber "goal posts" and barriers. High voltage can easily arc across considerable distance. February 1993 .

0 Electricity Page 324 .1.FIGURE IV.2 PROPER USE OF INSULATING TOOLS AND PROTECTIVE APPAREL Note: Grounding Cables Shall Be Isolated And Removed Using Insulating Tools And Protective Apparel February 1993 .

e. It is essential. and shielding are the usual methods of reducing radiation exposure.003-2. that is. and by far the most important. 2. time. The material tested does not retain any radioactivity when testing is completed. they can be harmful to the living cells of the body. they ionize gases.Construction Safety Manual: Ionizing Radiation Page 325 .1. they cannot be perceived by any of our five senses. are widely used in industry for non-destructive testing. testing of welds in pipes and pressure vessels. without damaging the material. even for low activity sources.2. such as x-rays generated by equipment or gamma rays emitted spontaneously by radioactive materials. the cumulative dose must remain at acceptable limits given in GI 150. they can be absorbed and scattered by matter.2 Time Time is a useful method of protection because high dose rates can be accepted over very short periods of time. the radiation produced by x-ray equipment or emitted by radioactive sources are the same. X-rays and gamma rays both have properties which should be understood.1. the radiation intensity decreases with the inverse square of the distance.1 Distance Distance is an effective method of protection because gamma and x-rays obey the inverse square law. However. dose rates at close distances can be extremely high.. therefore. they affect photographic emulsions. they travel in straight lines at the speed of light. For all practical purposes.0 IONIZING RADIATION Ionizing industrial radiation. Conversely. that unshielded sources are kept at a sufficient distance from personnel so as not to pose a health hazard to them. Even though they penetrate the body.003 00-AID-08 Ionizing Radiation Protection Radiation Safety Manual Saudi Aramco Forms: Saudi Aramco 2654 Personal Radiation Exposure Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings: AB-36895 Radiation Warning Sign 2. February 1993 .1 Methods of Protection Against Radiation Distance. 2. INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: 150.g.

2.3 Shielding To lessen harmful radiation. On the other hand. or are capable of being. to absorb unwanted radiation and facilitate handling. Radiographers must wear two personal dosimeters when working with radiation.003-2. February 1993 . pregnant.2. such as lead. In the use of x-ray equipment.2.003-2 for occupational or non-occupational people. Radiation workers are further categorized as Competent Persons or Radiographers.2.2. or tungsten.1. precautions against emitted radiation are necessary until the electric power is turned off and locked out.1 Radiation Workers A radiation worker is an occupationally exposed person or employee whose job involves routine use of ionizing radiation and who has reasonable chance of being exposed to radiation from a radioactive source. 2. but by training and experience are capable of supervising both routine operations and emergency situations involving radiation.3 Exposure Limits Radiation doses to workers should always be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). safety procedures and adequate equipment must be used at all times.0 Ionizing Radiation Page 326 . all employees and contractors are classified as either radiation workers or non-radiation workers according to their training and need to use radiation sources. Under no circumstances shall the doses exceed those limits given in GI 150.2 Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits In order to control human exposure to industrial radiation. Classification does not guarantee safety. 2.2 Non-Radiation Workers Non-radiation workers should not receive more than those dose limits given in GI 150. Special controls (see GI 150.2. Competent Persons do not normally use radiation sources. a direct-reading pocket dosimeter and an integrating permanent dosimeter (film badge or thermoluminiscent dosimeter [TLD]).003-2) are imposed on persons who are. are used to absorb emitted radiation. Radiographers are expected to safely use radiation sources in the course of their work and must be in possession of a valid "Saudi Aramco Permit to Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation" before they can work with a radioactive source. 2. materials of high density. No occupational exposure is allowed for persons less than 18 years of age. sealed sources are housed in shielded containers or bunkers. Consequently. depleted uranium. radioactive materials constantly emit radiation and cannot be switched off.

radiographers must ensure that all equipment is in safe working order. 2. storage. and transportation of industrial sealed sources and x-ray machines used on Saudi Aramco property.2 Competent Person Each radiographer will check at the beginning of each shift on the zeroing and recharging of dosimeters and on the condition of the equipment.3 Responsibilities for Safe Handling The Radiation Protection Committee (see GI 150. Radiation areas must contain radiation warning signs (see Figure IV. Also he must be familiar with all equipment and procedures so that the proper corrective action can be taken in any emergency situation involving radioactive equipment. Radiographer At the start of each shift.Over exposure shall be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent.0 Ionizing Radiation Page 327 .3. a rope or tape barrier shall be erected around the radiation area. A competent person familiar with all of Saudi Aramco radiation use requirements will make field audits to ensure compliance with Company instructions and standards. One radiation monitoring instrument must be available for each source in use.3.3. the radiographer must ensure that non-radiation workers are not subject to radiation levels that would exceed that which is permitted. All malfunctions must be reported to the supervisor or Competent Person immediately. 2. Personnel involved in performing non-destructive testing must be certified and hold a valid "Permit to Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation". February 1993 . In addition.2. 2. A weekly report on the condition of all equipment should be passed to the supervisor. the Occupational Medicine Services Unit.003) has full responsibility in all matters concerning the safe use. Equipment must be transported to the work site with safety locks in place. and the Loss Prevention Department.3) and be clearly displayed around the circumference of the radiation area. The radiographer must also make sure that he is wearing a valid TLD or film badge and a direct-reading pocket dosimeter which has been charged and zeroed. 2. Under no circumstance is equipment to be transported in an unassembled or open condition. He must report the results of these audits to the applicable department responsible for the operation.3. Upon arrival at the job site and prior to operating with any sealed source. Further guidance on industrial radiography is provided in GI 150.1 Contractor The contractor appoints competent persons to be responsible for the immediate supervision and the enforcement of instructions and standards. in populated work areas.0034 and 00.AIP-08. The area will be monitored with approved survey meter to ensure safe area for non-radiation workers is maintained.

The vehicle shall have radiation signs on the front and rear. Radiation signs must be fixed to the barriers of all storage areas.2. logged in or out. Additional information is available from Purchasing Services Division.4 Shipping and Transportation Government Permits are required for shipping radioactive materials into and out of Saudi Arabia.2. Sources may not be stored in the back of a truck whether or not they are under lock and key.3. Transporting radiation sources to work locations requires a locked container located out of the passenger compartment. (See Figure IV.5 Storage Areas Upon completion of work or at the end of each work period. February 1993 . All permanent or temporary storage areas (bunkers) must be approved of by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee. 2. every sealed source must be returned to a storage area approved by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee. Storage is usually within fenced area.0 Ionizing Radiation Page 328 .) • A log shall be maintained of radiation sources in storage.003. by source and responsible competent person in charge of source. Radiation readings must be taken at the perimeter of the storage area and the radiation level must be within the acceptable limits given in GI 150.

2.3: S TANDARD S IGN .0 Ionizing Radiation Page 329 .RADIATION February 1993 .FIGURE IV.

Chemicals And Operations Page 330 .V.Construction Safety Manual: V. Chemicals And Operations February 1993 .

10-81 Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices & Equipment Used in the Construction Industry NFPA 58-89 Liquefied Petroleum Gases. These gases can be highly dangerous. This could happen at some considerable distance from the source of leakage.7 Liquid Petroleum Gas American National Standards: NFPA 54-88 ANSI A10. At normal temperatures. In the liquid form. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 355.1 General These gases are colorless. Installation Safety Requirements: Refrigerated and Pressure Storage Vessels Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual: Part 1. LPG is a term applied to combinations of hydrocarbons known under various trade names and also widely known as propane and butane. an odorizing agent is added for the obvious reason of facilitating detection in the event of accidental escape of the gas.Construction Safety Manual: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 331 .0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are now being widely used n the construction industry. Storage and Handling Fuel Gas Code 1. The i precautions covered in this section are directed to those industrial operators who handle these gases. stores personnel and the actual operators using the gases. there is a high risk of February 1993 . and normally odorless. i. they are gaseous and can be changed into a liquid by the application of moderate pressure.e. The approximate ratios of gas volume to liquid volume are 275:1 for propane and 240:1 for butane. The gases form an explosive mixture with air.1. Any leakage will form a gas cloud which will settle at the lowest possible level. It may ignite if a flame or sparks are present. heavier than air.020 Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -D-5 SAES -B. if the container is exposed to heat or flame.057 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Equipment. Both gases are heavier than air at normal temperatures. and they react vigorously with oxidizing materials. relatively large quantities of LPG can be safely transported and stored in suitably designed containers. but for commercial usage..

The storage place should be detached from any other buildings and constructed of non-combustible material.4 All electrical fixtures should be of an explosion-proof type.2.3 Natural ventilation points should be positioned at both high and low levels.2 Storage 1.2. 1.2. should be stored under cover for protection against the elements.explosion.3 Handling of Cylinders 1.2. and piping shall be made of stainless steel. whether empty or full.1. 1.1 Cylinders must not be dropped or allowed to come into violent contact with each other. thus preventing the liquid from passing through the relief valve regulator and into the equipment. Water and dry chemical fire extinguishers shall be available.2 They must be stored and used in an upright position. connections.5 All gas valves.2 The building should be fenced-off and signs should be displayed both in Arabic and English: "No Smoking". It should preferably be a well-ventilated one-story building with all doors leading directly to the outside. LPG cylinders must be stored at least 6. 1.3.3.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 332 .1 Cylinders. fittings. 1. brass or copper.1 meters (20 feet) away from oxygen or oxidizers or must be separated from them by a fire wall rated at 30 minutes.2. To reduce the risk of explosion. 1. the cylinders must be equipped with relief valves or fusible plugs. February 1993 . 1. 1. rubber/plastic hoses are prohibited.

3.4. and pipings should be regularly inspected for damage or leakage. The main valve should be closed and the valve cap in position when the cylinder is not in use.5 Care should be taken that the valve assemblies are not damaged. Detection can be carried out by the following methods. if flammable gas meter is unavailable: 1 2 3 4 1. 1.3 They must not be placed in or near excavations or any low level area.4 They must be placed on level ground and secured to prevent accidental tipping over. Sound of escaping gas.1 Cylinders. 1. connections.6 Smoking is not permitted when handling cylinders.4.4. 1.3. February 1993 . clear of all buildings and people or any potential source of ignition.2 Small leaks may be confirmed by using soapy water.4 The cylinder must be placed with the leak uppermost.4.3.3.1. 1.1.4 Leakage 1. 1.3 A leaking cylinder must be immediately removed to an open space. 1.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 333 . valves. hoses. Localized condensation or frosting. Smelling Touching: Listening: Looking: Leaking cylinder may be colder than those around it.

1. and have valve caps in place. 1.1 In permanent or semi-permanent installations.2 The cylinder must be secured in an upright position.6.6 Once the burner has been lit.6.5. and other low lying areas. 1.6.2 The vehicle should have fire fighting and first aid equipment.4 The regulator capacity must be suitable for the equipment being used. 1. February 1993 .3 The regulator and other equipment is to be connected and a test made to ensure that all joints are gas tight. 1.5. away from excavation. a check is to be made to ensure that there is sufficient ventilation for the burner and that all combustible materials are removed from the work area. 1.6 Operation 1. be adequately secured to prevent movement.5 Transportation 1.4.5.6. 1.1.5 The supplier must be notified immediately. pits. it should burn with a steady blue flame with bluegreen base cones.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 334 . 1. 1.6. 1. the cylinder must be placed outside the building out of direct sunlight and the gas piped to appliances inside.6.5 Before lighting.1 Full or empty cylinders which are loaded on vehicles must be placed in an upright position.3 The vehicle must also display all the necessary warning notices.

8 Shut off valves shall be installed at the main tank supply and at the operating source.6. alerting the supplier that the cylinder was involved in a fire.7. February 1993 . 1. The cylinder should be approached from the opposite direction to the source of fire.7 All cylinders which have been involved in a fire must be returned immediately to the supplier.3 Cylinders which have been exposed to fire conditions must be adequately cooled with water before any attempt is made to remove them. cylinders are likely to explode immediately.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 335 .1. 1.7 A dry chemical fire extinguisher must be readily available at the work area.2 The action to be taken in such an instance is to evacuate the area immediately and call the Fire Protection Department.1 When cylinders are exposed to severe fire conditions and are engulfed in flames. 1.5 In the case of a small fire arising from gas leakage.1.7. 1. it is possible to extinguish the fire by immediately turning off the cylinder valve.7 Action in Case of Fire 1.7.7. water hoses played on those cylinders will prevent increased internal pressure and minimize the risk of explosion. In such condition.6 If a fire does not directly involve other cylinders in the vicinity. 1. 1. ignited jets of gas from these valves can extend as far as 6 meters (20 feet). "Hazards of Gas Cylinders") 1.4 If cylinders are equipped with automatic relief valves and the fire exposure is severe.6. 1. no attempt should be made to extinguish the fire.7. (See Loss Prevention Booklet.7.7.

8. If liquid has gone to the eyes.8 Bulk Installations Before any bulk storage installation is undertaken. No attempt should be made to give an unconscious person anything to drink. the LPG supplier should be consulted on the size of the tank required and the most suitable fittings for that particular installation. hard foundation away from drains.3 Only trained personnel are to install bulk tanks and equipment. culverts. Medical aid must be obtained as soon as possible.8.8. oxygen must be administered by a competent person. 1.1 Temporary tanks are to be installed above ground on a dry.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Page 336 .4 All pipeline systems must be tested to a safe working pressure after completion of the assembly. 1. 1. or hollows where it would be possible for any leaking gas to collect.5 Fire water protection shall be provided. All items used must be of approved design and comply with the appropriate standards. February 1993 . and not allowed to move about. 1.9 First Aid If LPG has been inhaled.8. If the person is breathing.2 Tanks should not be exposed to heat or direct rays of the sun and they must be adequately protected against accidental or unauthorized interference. including relief capacity. they must be thoroughly washed out with water. 1.8. kept warm and rested. If the affected person is not breathing. mouth-tomouth resuscitation should be applied.1. the affected person must be removed from the area. 1.1.

710 GI 441.Plant Operations Work Permit System Mechanical Completion & Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit Repair Procedures on Hydrocarbon Pipelines Safety Instruction Sheet 2. Failure to follow the operating rules can result in not only destruction of Saudi Aramco property but also death of construction and operating personnel.100 GI 2. however. Because of the large number of instructions which might be applicable to a specific job. Every plant area in Saudi Aramco operations has a specific set of operating instructions and the operating supervisor for that area has full responsibility for safety precautions. either inside or outside Restricted Areas. Any construction operation which could affect the safety of oil processing and movement must be planned and performed in accordance with the operating procedures of the area in which the job is located.Construction Safety Manual: Plant Operations Page 337 . The contractor must determine which of these apply to him and ensure that his supervisory staff is familiar with them. The following.014 SAES -A-005 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety.2. This type of disaster must be prevented.0 PLANT OPERATIONS The safe processing and movement of oil from underground to ship or transmission pipeline is the primary Saudi Aramco objective. will be helpful in locating applicable instructions and standards. A meeting of all concerned prior to starting a job shall be conducted and a Hazard Identification Plan shall be prepared for review by Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department. February 1993 . he also has authority to issue work permits and stop any work if it is not in accordance with proper procedures.1 Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards There are a number of additional instructions and standards which apply to construction operations. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. It is therefore necessary for anyone expecting to work in an area where oil or gas is handled to know the rules and regulations and obey them. This can be accomplished through discussions with operations management for the area and with the construction engineer. Health and Environmental Requirements . With this responsibility. it is not practical to list all of them.

or other devices in an operating area. The contractor must use all applicable engineering standards in the performance of his job. The work permit is a written permission to proceed with the work in accordance with the plans and the restrictions written on the form. The Saudi Aramco construction engineer is familiar with the Engineering Standards and will assist the contractor. 2. 2. the contractor personnel must call the operations supervisor to perform the service. Its design and use is similar to the Producing Instruction Manual except that it applies to refinery operations. To obtain this permit. switches. If the job involves work on equipment which is in service.) 2. a specific set of written procedures will have to be prepared and approved in advance by Operating and Safety personnel. 2.1. Failure to do so will result in immediate shutdown.4 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards These provide detailed instructions on how to do specific jobs and establish minimum standards to follow.1.2.1. Work Permit System.3 Operation of Plant Equipment It is expressly forbidden for any construction personnel to operate any valves.3 Refinery Instruction Manual This manual is designed for use in refinery operations. Without a proper permit. If the work dictates such action. provides the information needed to obtain such certificates and explains how to use them. Section II.0 Plant Operations Page 338 . The contractor would find it useful to know in advance what these procedures are and how they affect him. Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention personnel will advise and provide guidance on fire and safety problems.2 Producing Instruction Manual This manual is designed to provide producing operating personnel with instructions on operating practices and procedures for specific operations. (See Work Permit System.1 of this Manual. No deviations will be February 1993 . The contractor must strictly follow these procedures.2 Work Permit System Any contractor planning to do work in a restricted area must obtain a work permit from the operations supervisor for the area.1 General Instruction Manual This manual is one which provides general instructions applicable to all Saudi Aramco areas and operations. 2. push buttons. work will not be allowed in the area.1. The contractor will find most of the instructions applying to him in this manual.100. the contractor must have personnel with a valid certificate to receive work permits. GI. a delay for which the contractor will be responsible. 2.2.

make it safe.710.0 Plant Operations Page 339 . This is to assure that the plant is safe to operate in every respect. Close contractor 2. Mechanical Completion and Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit. The contractor should familiarize himself with this instruction before he starts work. the contractor should contact the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department for clarification and assistance. Saudi Aramco holds Disaster Drills to ensure the smooth functioning of its Disaster Plan. The operating personnel will initiate alarm procedures and direct activities in controlling the emergency. under any circumstances. The contractor is required to participate in these drills just as if it were an actual emergency. When the emergency alarm is sounded for any reason. If the emergency is the result of a construction operation.permitted without the prior approval of the operation supervisor. Saudi Aramco personnel are trained to handle the emergency. 2. and proceed in an orderly manner to the designated assembly point. Construction personnel should not. The Disaster Control Plan does not normally require the assistance of any construction personnel. If there is any question on the fire and safety aspects of this instruction. They will be checked out by Security and should assemble at a point outside the area and await further instructions from the Saudi Aramco Disaster Commander.4 Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations Shutting down a plant is the sole responsibility of operating personnel. Periodically.6 Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan It is necessary for all contractors to familiarize themselves with the Disaster Control Plan for the plant and area in which the job is located. supervision will be required in these types of jobs. 2. In certain emergency situations. be involved in any operational activity. February 1993 .2. This emergency activity must be done as requested. all contractor personnel will immediately shut down their job.5 Commissioning GI 2. construction personnel will notify operating personnel immediately. outlines the procedures and requirements for accepting new plants or additions to plants after they have been completed by the contractor. Each person working for the contractor must know exactly what to do when the emergency evacuation or stop work alarms are sounded and do it without delay. it may be necessary for the contractor to shut down the job and even move his equipment to permit access for operating and maintenance personnel.

2. Inform plant operation employees of the situation. Do not go and investigate.0 Plant Operations Page 340 . 4.6. Check the wind direction by looking at the windsock. 3. February 1993 .1 Gas Release Emergency Procedures If there is a reason to suspect a gas release in the area through which you are driving: 1. Get out of the vehicle and walk to a safe location generally in a crosswind direction away from the point of release. 2.2. leave this to operations. Immediately shut off the vehicle engine and do not try to restart it. 5.

Change in Set Pressure. or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves . Inspection.710 GI 432.New Installation.Construction Safety Manual: Pressure Testing Page 341 .100.11/90) February 1993 .102.3. Quality Assurance And Regulation GI 447. GI 2.11/90) Form Saudi Aramco 2642-1 Engineering (Pressure Test Information Sheet .003.0 PRESSURE TESTING It is essential that safe practices be observed during pressure testing.00 GI 434. due to the potential hazards associated with high pressure liquids and gases.Routine Test.000 GI 447. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -K-001 SAES -A-004 SAES -A-005 SAES -A-007 SAES -B-55 Refrigerant Piping Pressure Testing Safety Instruction Sheet Hydrostatic Testing Fluids And Lay-Up Procedures Plant Layout Construction Specification Manuals: Form Saudi Aramco 2642 Engineering (Pressure Test Report .002 Work Permit System Pressure Testing Safely Mechanical Completion And Performance Acceptance Of Plant/Unit Pipeline Hydrotest Water Disposal Pipeline Repair and Maintenance Pressure Relief Valves . GI 2.

3-90 Chemical Plant And Petroleum Refinery Piping ANSI B 31. All persons who will work on the pressure test must be informed of the potential hazards and the necessary safety precautions.1. Temporary supports and braces may be required. A work permit shall be issued prior to commencement of hydrostatic test operations. Anhydrous Ammonia.1 SAES -A-004 (Pressure Testing) The person in charge of hydrostatic testing should have read SAES -A-004 and GI 2.1 Preparation 3.1. Welded.0 Pressure Testing Page 342 .102. 3. Ninth Edition API-STD-620-90 Design and Construction of Large. supports and foundations designed for gas service shall not be overloaded by the extra weight of the test liquid. February 1993 . And Alcohols ANSI B 31. and fully understand the safety requirements and procedures involved with pressure testing.American Petroleum Institute Standards: API-STD-600-91 Steel Gate Valves . Eighth Edition American National Standards Institute: ANSI B 16.3.Flanged And Butt-Welding Ends.5-88 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings ANSI B 31.8-89 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards: Section VIII. vessels.4-89 Liquid Transportation Systems For Hydrocarbons. Low Pressure Storage Tanks. Liquid Petroleum Gas. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 3.2 Supports Piping.

3.6 Vacuums On vessels or tanks which could collapse if subjected to a vacuum.2 General Requirements 3.0 Pressure Testing Page 343 .4 Valves Where isolation valves are used to contain test pressures. After the strength test pressure has been reached and held for a specified interval.2. 3.1. February 1993 . in accordance with SAES -A-004.3 Vents and Drains Vents of adequate capacity shall be installed at high points.2.1 Do not approach system never previously tested.3 Any ancillary equipment not under test must be isolated by valves (subject to part 3.3.3. corroded piping or vessels.5 Pipings And Joints Prior to testing. provisions shall be made to ensure that no over-pressurizing can occur in equipment that is not being tested. Hazardous gases or vapors must be vented clear of any area where personnel are working or where there is any possible source of ignition. to vent air / gas from the item while it is being filled with the test liquid. 3. 3. 3. due to possible valve leak.1.1.1. Drains must be installed at a suitable location to allow removal of the test liquid. there must be sufficient vent relief capacity to assure that the vessel cannot be subjected to a vacuum by draining the test fluid or by sudden cooling.1. The actual pressure at which the system under test will be approached for close inspection shall be specified in the test procedure. 3. they must be of adequate rating for the pressure to be encountered. when necessary. adequate restraints shall be provided.2 Pressure relief valve(s) shall be used to prevent over pressuring of the equipment. the equipment may be approached. or vessels with welds never previously tested during the stepwise increase in pressure to the strength test pressure. If isolation valves are used in lieu of blinds.4) or blind flanged and vented or disconnected.2. investigations shall be carried out to verify whether or not temporary restraints are required to restrict the movement of pipings and joints during testing.

including the tightening of bolts.102.3 Test Liquid 3.11 Air shall not be used to displace test fluid from underwater equipment unless it has been determined that the equipment will not float. Pump discharge gauges must be visible to the pump operator for the duration of the test.3.2.2. 3. if specifically approved in the written test procedure.0 Pressure Testing Page 344 . 3.3. 3.4 Only calibrated test gauges shall be used and they should be mounted in the upright position. Alternatives must be approved by a deviation from standard or they may be used if they are specifically permitted by SAES -4-004. In tightness tests.1 Water is a normally the preferred test liquid. February 1993 .6 Lines should be drained and dried mechanically when the test liquid is corrosive or otherwise hazardous.9 A block valve is required on the line from the test pump to the equipment under test.3.8 A system under test shall be depressurized (with the exception of pressure due to a liquid head) before any work is done to stop leaks or repair weakness. 3.5 The equipment / vessel shall have adequate vacuum relief capacity to avoid damage or collapse.2.2.2 Salt water must not be used for testing any material subject to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of chloride ions (such as stainless steel type 304 or 18. 3. 3.3.2. bolts may be tightened without depressurizing.2. and time for personnel to check for leaks.2. when draining the test liquid. 3. see SAES -A-004 and GI 2. 3.8 CrNi).7 The pressure rise during a pressure test should be gradual and under control to allow time for material to strain.

0 Pressure Testing Page 345 .3. Testing with air or other gases under pressure can be hazardous due to the explosion potential. Pneumatic testing other than as specified in SAES -A-004 may be done only with the explicit permission of the Consulting Services Department.3 Pneumatic (gas) testing may be required as per SAES -A-004.4 Possible changes in pressure due to thermal expansion.5 Written procedures approved prior to testing shall be followed for the disposal of test mediums containing chemical additives for control of corrosion or bacteria.3. 3. as per the requirements of GI 432.3. February 1993 . 3. contraction or hydrostatic heads must be taken into account.000.3.3.

it must be safely disposed of or recycled.002 GI 355. storage and disposal. Caustic And A Dip Diluting Plant 20 . storage. GI 330. Receiving. or allow it to contact their skin. If the name of the chemical is known. Storing. GI 355. No. or use. The chemical must not be allowed to accidentally mix with other substances in transportation.001. And Issuing Hazardous Material Disposing Of Hazardous Materials Handling And Storing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) For disposal Requisitioning. 5.004 GI 355. materials which may be completely harmless in one application may be deadly in another. storage. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 150.003 GI 355. or heat. When dealing with a potentially harmful chemical. GI 355.87. handling. In the literature there are tables of hazardous chemical reactions.Safety Regulations LPG Plant. use.0 CHEMICALS There are thousands of chemicals in existence and hundreds of new ones are being developed for commercial use every year. it is difficult to find any that are absolutely harmless. and disposal of hundreds of chemicals. pressure. 10.Construction Safety Manual: Chemicals Page 346 . Cataloging. There are too many chemicals and too many possible combinations to deal with them individually here. of the thousands of chemicals in existence. Ordering And Tracking Of Hazardous Materials Receiving. While almost all of these chemicals are beneficial in some way. transport. The proper identification and labeling of chemicals is a very important safety precaution.001. When dealing with an unfamiliar chemical. they can be dangerous too.740. transportation. In addition. precautions should be taken to ensure that employees do not swallow it. In fact. It must not be subjected to undue shock. Storing and Issuing Explosives Deterioration And Disposal Of Explosives Refinery Instruction Manual: No.015. it is always wise to assume that it is hazardous. usage. the names of others with which it is likely to react dangerously can be found.4.015-1 Asbestos Regulation Bulk Deliveries of Oil Field Treatment Chemicals from Local Vendors Identifying. Salt Water Chlorination February 1993 . there are many sources of information on the identification. In the references listed. GI 355. When the chemical is no longer needed. inhale it. The exposure to hazards associated with a material depends largely on its proper identification.001.

Liquids. Irving Sax 4.Dr.4.2. and how it is disposed of or recycled. NFPA 49. NFPA 491M.Manufacturer's literature on chemicals approved by US. Saudi Aramco uses NFPA 704 Identification of Fire Hazard Materials.1 Hazard Identification System The hazardous nature of a material is related to the manner in which it is transported. Inhibitor. N. There is no single identification system which can briefly indicate the hazards for all these conditions.Air And Water Unit Operating Instruction Manual: No. 13. NFPA 325M. 5. Basic Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Gases. stored or used.No. Handling Procedure Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual Saudi Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) American National Standards: ANSI 288. the materials with which it may come in contact. February 1993 . Department of Labor Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials .0 Chemicals Page 347 . Sulfuric Acid Safety Regulations .244. and Volatile Solids Hazardous Chemical Data Manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions Standard System For The Identification of Fire Hazards of Materials Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) . NFPA 704.850. Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection American Petroleum Institute: API 2202-91 Dismantling And Disposing Of Steel From Tanks Which Have Contained Leaded Gasoline National Fire Protection Association Standards: NFPA 321.

as this seldom occurs in industry. it does not mean that the material is harmless if inhaled or swallowed. vapors. Exhaust ventilation. The degree of possible injurious health effects. and proper handling procedures must be used to keep the dust from entering the worker's breathing zone. Many of the materials in the Chemical Section. does the same thing. the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the vapor should be known and not exceeded. or a mixture of these. February 1993 . For industrial workers. blowers. Hydrogen sulfide. to some extent. use or disposal of the chemical.).4.1). some gases paralyze the sense of smell. swallowing.1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard Chemicals may be in the form of gases. It is important that the right kind of device for the particular hazard be obtained. (See Breathing Apparatus. The senses of sight or smell cannot be depended upon to warn of chemical hazards. to chemicals that on short exposure can cause severe injury or death. Therefore it is necessary to keep the worker from breathing the vapor by limiting the amount of vapor through careful handling or through the use of local exhaust ventilation.A. dusts.0 Chemicals Page 348 . In the case of a chemical spill.2. of the Saudi Aramco Material System Catalog are marked by the use of hazard identification labels. When handling a volatile liquid. It should be remembered that although a zero health hazard rating indicates that the material offers no hazards to fire fighters beyond that of ordinary combustible material subjected to fire. transportation. then respiratory protective devices are needed. a respiratory hazard may exist. Ordinary automotive gasoline. Class 26. The container may not be so marked. dust masks must be provided and their use enforced. it may not be possible to control the maximum allowable concentration. The least hazardous pathway is through swallowing the chemical. 4. The severity of the hazard ranges from nuisance chemicals that produce no injury. good mechanical ventilation must be provided or the work must be done outdoors. or skin contact.2 and V. Whenever dusty material is handled. The system is based on four different symbols or numbers arranged in a diamond pattern (see Figure V. at low concentrations. but it is indicated in the catalog description of the chemical. Furthermore. Some gases are harmful in concentrations which cannot be detected by their odor.) 4. If these methods fail. susceptibility of the materials to burning and to release of energy are rated by numbers (see Figures V. If the concentration of the chemical in the air exceeds the threshold limit value (TLV) or MAC.) Dust is a common hazard.2 Health Hazards Hazards to health arise from inhaling. A zero (0) rating indicates little or no hazard and a four (4) indicates a high degree of hazard. the most prominent means of entry of a hazardous chemical into the human body is through the respiratory tract by inhalation. Where exhaust ventilation is not available.2.which indicates the fire hazards associated with any chemical and also describes the hazards which might be encountered in storage. (Reference: Chemical Hazard Bulletins.10 of this Manual. fans. The next most important means of entry is through skin absorption. can very quickly paralyze the olfactory nerves so that harmful concentrations cannot be detected through smell. Section I.

3. aprons. 4. 4.2 First Aid In case of accidental swallowing of chemicals. 4. face shields. and a regular change of clothing will reduce harmful contact with chemicals. for poison information. The second step. commence cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Telephone 877-8056.3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains For skin hazards. in the case of materials which act rapidly on the human body. 4.3 Emergency Treatment 4.3.2 Skin Hazards Skin contact/exposure hazard may not be as dangerous to life as respiratory hazards. In the case of caustics or corrosives. Proper handling methods are the first step in protection. The third step is to provide eyewash fountains and safety showers. Field treatment should only consist of February 1993 . Saudi Aramco Emergency Medical Services.3. Thorough washing of the hands and face before meals. it is not wise to induce the patient to vomit. if there is no heartbeat. The main precaution is to ensure that employees know that the material is hazardous if swallowed.3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals In industry. but they are far more common.e. gloves. daily bathing. swallowing chemicals does not occur frequently.4. drinking a large amount of water. acids and caustics) is to provide a physical barrier in the form of goggles. Ventilation is also recommended. The type of personal protective equipment required depends on the hazardous characteristics of the chemical and the way it is used. drinking or eating.2. suits. the best treatment is thorough water washing under the emergency shower or eyewash fountain. such as corrosive chemicals (i. and that they must wash their hands free of harmful chemicals before smoking. etc.Fine droplets of liquid form whenever liquids are sprayed or splashed so suitable precautions must be taken to prevent the fine droplets of liquid from entering the worker's breathing zone. followed by medical treatment. given artificial respiration. 4.0 Chemicals Page 349 . suitable respiratory protection must be provided. Never store harmful chemicals in food containers or handle chemicals near food. if they have stopped breathing.1 Artificial Respiration Persons overcome by harmful gases and vapors must be taken out into the fresh air and.2. hoods. The hospital must be informed of the chemical injury or chemical swallowed and the person should be moved to the hospital immediately for medical treatment. Dermatitis resulting from contact with harmful chemicals is a common work injury. Personal cleanliness is important. If such methods are not adequate. is recommended. which flush the material from the eyes or skin. Call emergency assistance immediately by telephoning 110.

0 Chemicals Page 350 . the user must get under the shower or use the eyewash fountain to wash off as much of the chemical as possible. insulated or shaded from the sun or the line must be only a very short branch from a main water line that is used frequently enough to keep the water from overheating in the sun. At least fifteen minutes of thorough washing are required in the case of acid contact to skin or eyes. It is necessary to wash the eyes holding the eyelids open with the fingers for at least fifteen minutes to free the eyes of bases or caustics. In the case of materials that are immediately harmful to the eyes or skin. but all should be easily activated. and roll the eyes around under the shower or in the eye fountain to make sure that all acid is removed. 2 Caustic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are much more difficult to wash from the skin or eyes.4. This will be painful. Others have hinged gates which are pushed to activate the shower. These water flushing devices are required. The patient should then be taken to the hospital for treatment. In the case of acids. safety showers or eyewash fountains should be provided. The skin should be washed until the slippery feeling has gone and washing should be continued for at least 15 minutes. face shields. The eyes or skin must be washed for quite a long time to remove the chemical. Emergency showers shall be properly identified with signs and color background in accordance with SAES -B-55. CAUTION: There are two important points that workers must be taught about the correct use of emergency fountains and shower: 1 Before removing goggles. because working procedures and personal protective equipment may fail. but it is necessary to hold the eyelids open with the fingers. Some emergency showers or eyewash fountains are designed so that standing under or near them activates the water supply. February 1993 . but it is absolutely necessary. A person who is blinded by a chemical must immediately be taken to the shower or eyewash fountain. Emergency showers and eyewash fountains should be checked daily.flushing away the chemical. water will remove the acid quickly. painful as this may be. They should be within 6 meters (20 feet) of the exposure site and accessible in an unobstructed straight line from the work location. or other personal protective equipment. the water will become so hot during summer that it could scald the user. The piping must be buried. If the water piping to the shower or fountain is exposed to the sun. Strong alkalis of this type mixed with water feel slippery to the touch. It is a mistake to start for the hospital without first doing everything possible to flush out the harmful chemical.

which could allow the hazardous materials to come into contact with people who are unaware of the dangers.0 Chemicals Page 351 . Hazardous materials must not be allowed to accumulate. hazardous materials must be protected against shock. Storage and Disposal 4. 4. As a general precaution. Chemicals should not be allowed to mix with other chemicals unless it is known that no harmful reaction will occur. (See Fire Prevention. The proper fire extinguisher should be at the job site and readily available at all locations where a fire hazard is possible. 4.4.4. 4. 4.6 Transportation. must be available in case all effective fire prevention measures fail to prevent a fire.4. (CHBs) or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Ordinary sand is a good extinguishing agent for smothering small fires. undue heat from the sun or other sources.2 Smoking and the use of sparking devices near flammable liquids or finely divided combustible solids must be prohibited.5 Reactivity Hazards The manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions. damage to containers.11 of this Manual). The Saudi Aramco Chemical Engineering Response Team or Fire Protection Department also handles spills which occur during February 1993 .4. rough handling and shock should be avoided.4.1 Transportation During transportation. 4. The fire hazards of most common materials can be found in the references given in this section.6. usually not more than one day's supply. and theft. lists many of the chemicals which are likely to have dangerous reactions with other chemicals. accidental mixing with other materials. All flammable materials should be stored according to the specifications of their Chemical Hazard Bulletins.1 Only the necessary amount of hazardous materials should be brought into the work place.4 The use of fire fighting equipment. NFPA 491M.4 Fire Hazards 4. Slop liquids or trash should be cleared away immediately. Specific recommendations for the particular material may be obtained from the Area Loss Prevention Office.4. such as fire extinguishers or water streams. and any extra amounts should be cleared from the work area.3 Blocking off air to a burning object is often possible in acid dip tanks or rubbish containers where a cover can be provided and dropped down on the container to smother the flames. Section I.

and are to be disposed of in accordance with established Saudi Aramco procedure. 4.transportation. solid and semi-solid material. its hazardous classification rating and the quantity disposed of. Incompatible chemicals should not be stored together. undue heat. the concentration.4 Disposal (See GI 355.6. compressed gases. • • • • • • • • • • • Waste paints and related products Asbestos Resins Wood preservative products Insecticides and pesticides Flushing fluids / chemicals Compressed gases (acetylene. because of the quantity involved. or unplanned mixing. diesel oil) Corrosive liquids (acid) Cleaning fluids Explosives February 1993 .3 Containers Hazardous materials must be stored in containers that are safe for the transportation and use of the material. and/or the biological.004) Hazardous/toxic waste is liquid. Empty containers previously used to hold hazardous material must be washed free of the material or destroyed. which. Specific storage recommendations for hazardous materials contained in the Saudi Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) and manufacturer-provided Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be followed. 4. A list of hazardous materials shall be kept by the contractor indicating type and quantity of materials used in each case.003 and 355. and typical highly combustible or explosive solids. chemical or infectious characteristics. 4. labeled. Containers must be labeled with the appropriate hazardous materials label to indicate the actual contents. pose a hazard to human health and/or the environment if it is improperly managed. There are some cases where separating walls or specified distances are required. All safety factors must be observed when transferring material from one container to another and the receiving container must be labeled to correctly describe the contents.6. oxygen.2 Storage A vehicle transporting hazardous chemicals must be suitably The NFPA fire codes contain recommendations for safe storage of flammable liquids. The following are some examples of waste materials which are considered hazardous/toxic. chlorine) Flammable / combustible liquids (gasoline. physical.6.0 Chemicals Page 352 . Precautions must be taken to avoid shock.4.

(See Figure V.• • • • • Flammable solids Poisons and infectious chemicals Radioactive materials Magnetized materials Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB (electrical transformer oil) The disposal of hazardous material must be conducted by the contractor/user (c/u). February 1993 .2A. The latter is obligated to perform the following: Step 1: The hazardous material must be identified by composition or content. If this is not possible. Chemical Hazard Bulletins. the c/u should use the more conservative methods of disposal. MSDS.4. In cases where procedures overlap. CHBs. Hazard rating codes assigned to SAMS material indicate the degree of hazard. (CASD) Laboratories Dept. MHED (Materials Handling Engineering Division) at telephone number 872-7419 or from individual specialist units listed below: Specialist Unit Central Area Storehouse Dept. with no other conflicting or confusing words.) in addition to the Saudi Aramco procedures contained here. (FPD) Step 3: Telephone Number 872-7419 876-6725 873-8779 875-3131 877-8425 874-1402 874-3345 The hazardous waste material must be adequately sealed up in containers to prevent leakage and labeled to denote composition or content.) Obtain advice as needed from the Hazardous Materials Advisor. (I&EAD) Fire Protection Dept. The material will be provided to AM & RD in containers clearly marked "Hazardous Material" only. Step 2: The c/u must follow manufacturers or literature safety guidelines (Material Safety Data Sheets. (P&CSD) District Medical And Support Services (DM&SS) Industrial And Environmental Affairs Dept. etc. (LP) Loss Prevention Dept.0 Chemicals Page 353 . Step 4: Request a safety inspection of the material by the Hazardous Material Advisor. prior to arranging for disposal of the material the contractor/user should notify the AM&RD (Al Midra and Reclamation Division). (LPD) Process And Control Systems Dept.

inform the: a). To make it easier to detect spills of tetraethyl lead.Step 5: When a large quantity of hazardous material needs to be disposed of.) Step 7: Transport the hazardous material to Dhahran Reclamation Yard using own truck or request suitable vehicle from the Transportation Department by following their established procedure.4. it has been dyed a bright orange color. Chemical Storage Segment. Step 6: Follow the directives of the Hazardous Materials Advisor.7 Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead (Organic Lead Compounds) 4. b). MHED. storage and disposal of Polychlorinated Biyphenyls (PCBs).003. This compound is highly poisonous. 4. Reclamation Operations Section (ROS). Hazardous Materials Advisor. The hazard with tetraethyl lead is that. The best protection is to avoid any contact. Tetraethyl lead is very hazardous as its vapors can be inhaled. being a liquid it gives off vapors which can come into contact with the body by breathing or skin contact. Step 8: Contact Assistant Superintendent. AM&RD. or ingested through contaminated food or cigarettes.1 Introduction Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is an organic compound of metallic lead which is used to improve the octane rating of gasoline. AM & RD before a large volume of hazardous waste material is to be delivered. February 1993 . (See GI 355.004 for any deviation from this established procedure for the handling. absorbed through the skin.7. Note: See GI 355. 280 Reclamation Chemicals Storage And Handling Facility located near Abqaiq GOSP 3. Reclamation Operations Section.0 Chemicals Page 354 . Material Disposal Unit. This person may request that the material be delivered directly to Delivery Point Code (DPC).

Since tetraethyl lead is delivered dissolved in organic solvents.Tetraethyl lead. it is wise to determine whether leaded gasoline (TEL) sludge may be encountered. The workers must be medically certified and periodically examined before and during the course of the work.7. or sludges containing organic lead compounds. The Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Services and the Loss Prevention Department should be notified when work is to be done in TEL tanks or in areas with TEL contaminated equipment. before marking excavations in or around refineries or gasoline storage depots. or used. any overexposure to TEL should be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent department. trucks. and storage areas. Such tanks should be permanently marked on the manholes with a sign warning that the tank has contained leaded gasoline and must not be entered without special precautions. or stored. The sludge removed from leaded gasoline tanks is decontaminated by spreading and weathering prior to mixing with inert solids to reduce the total lead concentration to no more than 0. February 1993 . it also presents a fire hazard. Sludge pits where lead-bearing sludge from the leaded gasoline tanks has been buried must be marked with permanent warning signs. Wherever leaded gasoline is blended. Work in cleaning. 3. Wherever drums of the compound are transported. Using regular monitoring of TEL workers. the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial Hygiene Services. handled.2 Precautions Tanks that have once contained leaded gasoline (TEL) are considered dangerous thereafter even though they may have been used in other service for years. an inquiry should be made as to the tank's previous service and a work permit obtained. Likewise.4. stored.5% and transfer to a final burial site. In controlled disposal sites designated to receive organic-lead-containing materials. are likely to be found in the following places: 1. Before entering any tank. 2. or dismantling tanks which have contained leaded gasoline requires special training and special precautions. 4.0 Chemicals Page 355 . repairing. Leaking drums can contaminate ships' holds.

4.0 Chemicals Page 356 .FIGURE V.1: IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS BY HAZARD S IGNAL DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT February 1993 .

0 Chemicals Page 357 .2: EXPLANATION OF HAZARD RATING CODES February 1993 .FIGURE V.4.

FLAMMABILITY AND REACTIVITY February 1993 .4.FIGURE V.3: IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH HAZARD.0 Chemicals Page 358 .

Marine Page 359 .Construction Safety Manual: VI.VI. Marine February 1993 .

February 1993 . Cofferdams must satisfy two basic requirements: 1. Cofferdam construction ranges from simple dikes to complicated timber or steel structures. 1. Any deviations from the design encountered in the actual construction of the cofferdam must have the approval of a qualified engineer.2 meters (4 feet) in depth must be designed by a qualified engineer. although some leakage.Cofferdams Page 360 . 1. requiring pumping. They must be strong enough to withstand the forces caused by water. 2. Health and Environmental Requirements Excavations Work Over Water 1. Saudi Aramco Marine Department.1. They should be as watertight as practicable. The steel piling is generally braced by a system of horizontal wales and struts which are designed to resist external forces. soil conditions. Any unexpected soil or hydrographic conditions encountered during the construction must be reported immediately to the design engineer for evaluation and a possible mo dification of the structure. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards: Schedule 'D': Part 19 Part 20 Saudi Aramco Safety. The piles must be driven to design and penetration specifications and must encounter the pre-specified driving resistance.Construction Safety Manual . must always be expected.0 COFFERDAMS A cofferdam is an enclosure constructed to exclude water from a work area during construction. and floating debris.2 Before Work Starts Any cofferdam which is to be constructed in a navigable waterway or which would constitute an obstruction or hazard to the operation of small boats or pleasure crafts must be approved in advance by the Manager. All work m be accomplished by qualified craftsmen in ust accordance with accepted trade practices. The latter will be responsible for coordinating its approval with the approval of required Government agencies.3 Construction All cofferdam construction work must be performed in strict compliance with the design drawings and specifications. The most common type of cofferdam encountered in Saudi Aramco is constructed from steel sheet piling.1 Design All cofferdams in excess of 1.

1 Structural Collapse Cofferdam structures may collapse as a result of the imposition of unexpected structural loads or the failure of the soil inside the cofferdam structures as evidenced by an upward heave or "blow-out" of the bottom.4.4.1.3 Walkways.3.4 Potential Hazards The construction and the use of cofferdams have three primary hazards which merit special consideration. which could present a hazard to the workmen engaged in construction within the confines of the cofferdam. and throughout the area. This will eliminate overhead obstructions. 1. Such failures often occur with little or no warning.3.1. 1. equipment.0 Cofferdams Page 361 .5 Inspection 1. The use of locking devices on wedges will prevent their accidental removal and the resulting collapse of the structure. means shall be provided for controlled flooding of the work area. February 1993 .2 Emergency evacuation warning signals shall be provided and procedures developed.2 Overhead Loads Sump pumps.3.1 General inspection should be carried out daily or after any weather condition or incident which might affect the safety of the cofferdam. therefore a means of rapid exit from the enclosed cofferdam structures must be provided for all workmen engaged in work inside the structures. 1.5. These shall be provided with standard guardrails. 1.4.3 Dislodgment of Struts and Wales All internal supporting structures must be secured against accidental dislodgment.1 If overtopping of the cofferdam by high waters is possible. Notices shall be posted at the entrance to the job site. 1. 1. ramps or bridges on cofferdams shall have at least two exit points. and machinery shall be mounted on a cantilevered platform outside of a cofferdam. 1.

1.5. Serious leaks should be reported at once to the engineer in charge of operations.1.2 Where large leaks are encountered which cannot be sealed as described above or there is an indication that the piling has moved.3 Leaks can indicate a movement of the piles.0 Cofferdams Page 362 .4 Pump intake fastenings and the pumping sump should be carefully checked at the start of each shift.6.5. February 1993 . Minor leaks over a large area can be sealed by dropping light granular material into the water surrounding the cofferdam.5.1 Small leaks can be sealed by lead caulking in the clutches from the inside of the cofferdam. 1. The material will be sucked into the gap between the piles where it will form a seal. 1. the cofferdam area shall be immediately evacuated of all personnel and the problem brought to the attention of the design engineer for correction.1.6 Leaks 1.2 The security of all wedges should be carefully checked at the start of each shift.6. 1.

This is carried out through the Saudi Aramco Marine Department by using company-owned and/or contractors' crafts.502. GI 1194.001. at Sea.Marine Operations Page 363 . GI 1186. GI 1192. 2. GI 1192.020. Tanajib or West Pier SAG Regulations and Practice as Applied to All Types of Marine Craft at the Port of Ras Tanura Collision & Damage By or To Marine Equipment or Craft Operating Practices for Harbor Tugs.0 MARINE OPERATIONS This section.1 Other Publications US. is only concerned with the transportation of material. GI 1199.504. Including Safety Rules Marine Port Information and Regulations Navigation Warnings Requesting. and in Port. Tugs.Construction Safety Manual .001. GI 1192. On or Near Water Death or Injury Aboard Seagoing Vessels Marine Craft Fueling. GI 1198. equipment. Offshore Vessels and Launches. GI 1196. Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Barges Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Marine Oil Recovery and Storage Barge/Vessel. Coast Guard . GI 1186. Launches and Barges Whistle Signals for Use Between Tugs and Barges or Tugs and Self-Propelled Vessels When Berthing Rig/Barge Moving Safe Operation of Self-Propelled Jack-Up Barges GI 1187.002.003.257 International Maritime Organization . GI 1193. February 1993 .001.Safety of Life at Sea International Labor Office .502. Marine Operations.2. GI 1193. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions : GI 6.001.Accident Prevention on Board Ship. Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over.001. and personnel to off-shore job sites.001. GI 1185.001. Assigning and Dispatching Pollution Control Vessels.002.

) or cargoes with special characteristics (e. Information on weights and measurements must be included for any shipment that requires a manifest (Saudi Aramco Form 9063).1 Unexpected movements of the vessel even in good weather must be anticipated and guarded against. In addition. Tarpaulins or plastic coverings must be of adequate strength and well secured.1 Loose and movable parts of material and equipment must be properly secured against movement. or pilferage). sensitive to water. 2. Tank compartments being transported should be either empty or completely full.2. In particular they must not obstruct his view or movements.g.2. over or near the water.4. 2. They must travel in the passenger designated areas. Lashing must be adequate. explosives gases. the Marine Department carries the ultimate responsibility for the safe loading and distribution of cargo on the floating craft under its jurisdiction.2 The Marine Department must be informed in advance so that they may prepare for the transportation of any hazardous cargo (acids.2 General All safety precautions that are applicable onshore apply and must be enforced while offshore. Such material and equipment must always be prepared as if for very rough weather.3. Sea conditions can change rapidly. Personnel are expected to act in a responsible manner at all times.4. Work over water may be either offshore or on a site connected to the shore. including the wearing of personal safety equipment.4.2 Life vests must be available for all personnel.3 Behavior on Floating Craft Personnel embarked on floating craft must obey the instructions of the person in charge of the vessel. They should not enter or climb on top of the pilot house and machinery space are similarly out of bounds. delicate. life vests must be worn while working on. The hazards and the precautions for both situations are similar. 2.4 Preparation for Transportation by Sea 2.3 Although the actual loading may be performed by another department..3. 2. Even with no wind. Each person shall wear and know how to inflate a life vest (see Figure VI. February 1993 .0 Marine Operations Page 364 . etc.1). 2. a swell can produce violent movement. 2. Personnel should keep away from the ship's side and make use of handrails at all times.

and scrap must be properly disposed of. Doors and drawers should be kept closed. When not in use. 2. small hand tools should be secured by lanyards when working over or near water. housekeeping is even more important offshore than onshore.2. cigarette butts. especially when erecting stages and platforms. allowance must be made for wave action and the rise and fall of the tide.7. February 1993 .5 Tide and Sea Effects During pile driving and general offshore work.7 Housekeeping Because of the confined space frequently encountered in Marine Operations. and they may be impossible to recover. 2.6.1 Tools must not be scattered around.7.2. Proper disposal does not mean throwing the unwanted items overboard. 2.2 Electrical and radio equipment must not be left exposed. Fire hose and rope must be coiled or flaked down clear of passageways. papers. 2.3 Objects that are dropped from any height can cause injury or damage. 2. thus polluting the environment.6 Care of Tools and Equipment 2.2 Rags. Nuts. Any spilled grease or oil must be cleaned up.0 Marine Operations Page 365 . bolts. Trash cans and ashtrays should be used.6.6. they should be protected by being returned to their boxes or being covered. For this reason. Tidal predictions and weather forecasts are not completely accurate so a generous safety margin must be allowed.1 Protective coatings reduce the corrosive effects of salt water and salt-laden air on tools and equipment. 2. and threads should be covered with grease or a similar protective coating.

FIGURE VI.1: IF YOU WORK OVER, ON OR NEAR WATER

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3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS
Accidents involving divers and their equipment are generally serious, because diving operations are undertaken in an element unnatural to man. What would be considered to be a minor incident on land could cause crippling injury or even death in a diving operation. Due to the extreme hazards of this occupation, divers must rely on their training, experience, and initiative to avoid accidents. For this reason, the strictest compliance with regulations, standards, and instructions must be observed at all times in order that everything possible is done to minimize the possibility of an accident. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1197.001 Procedures and Safety Rules for Diving Operations (See Appendix G)

The US. Navy Diving Manual is to be used as the standard for all Saudi Aramco diving operations. US. Navy Diving Manual: NAVSHIPS 0994-001, March 1970 British Admiralty Diving Manual: B.R. 181, 1972 United Kingdom Statutory Instruments S.I. NO. 1229 Offshore Installations (Diving Operations) Regulations, 1981

Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual TM 6.1 Medical Diving Emergencies (Technical Memorandum - Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization {SAMSO})

3.1

Employment of Qualified Divers
All divers shall be at least twenty-one (21) years old. 3.1.1 Divers must be qualified and experienced in all aspects of underwater inspection, construction, repairs, and salvage works, including oxy-arc cutting, thermal lancing, and the use of pneumatic and hydraulic tools.

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3.1.2 Divers shall be fully conversant with the use and operation of US. Navy Decompression Tables, recompression chambers, and therapeutic decompression procedures. 3.1.3 Familiarity with the use of SCUBA, Hookah, and surface supplied helmets (Swindel, Aquadyne, Kirby-Morgan, etc.) and knowledge of their maintenance and repair is required. 3.1.4 Divers will be required to show evidence of their training and experience by providing certificates from a competent authority. 3.1.5 All divers must be fluent in both reading and writing the English language and be able to depict the results of an underwater inspection by the use of sketches. 3.1.6 Evidence of medical fitness in accordance with 3.4 must be produced at the prescribed intervals.

3.2

Diving Equipment
All equipment used in connection with diving and submarine operations shall be produced by a reputable manufacturer. They must be of good quality and constructed of sound material, in accordance with appropriate and accepted standards. Equipment should be able to operate efficiently in the prevailing high temperatures of the Arabian Gulf. 3.2.1 Compressors Compressors for supplying breathing air must be fitted with adequate filtration and purification devices. They must be able to provide the air at a rated pressure and capacity to cover the maximum depth required during the operation. 3.2.1.1 The air intake of compressors shall be remotely located with reference to any exhaust system in the area to prevent contaminants from entering the compressor intake. 3.2.1.2 All the safety devices and relief valves on high pressure compressors must be operating properly.

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3.2.1.3 Detergent lubricating oils or oils with viscosity less than SAE 30 must not be used. Care must be taken not to overfill. 3.2.1.4 Compressed air supplied for breathing shall be certified Compressed Gas Association grade D or better. 3.2.2 Reserve Air Supply A reserve supply of air must be provided, maintained, and immediately available in the event of a primary air supply failure, whether in the form of a standby compressor or high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks) on the surface. If the reserve is in the form of high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks), it should be of sufficient capacity to enable the diver or divers to reach the surface safely while carrying out any necessary decompression step on the way. Reserve supply for recompression chambers should be sufficient to allow required surface decompression to be carried out. 3.2.3 Bail-Out Equipment In case there might be a ruptured, cut, or irretrievably fouled hose, each diver should be equipped with "bail-out" equipment, either in the form of a "bail-out" cylinder, a diver's life vest, or a pneumo hose. 3.2.4 Maintenance All plant (including safety) and diving equipment must be regularly maintained. Correct records must be kept of this maintenance. 3.2.4.1 All SCUBA tanks, recompression chambers, volume tanks, high pressure cylinders, and storage vessels must be regularly checked and tested at the prescribed intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Saudi Aramco regulations. 3.2.4.2 As indicated in the Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual, air cylinders not in sea water use are to be inspected internally and hydrostatically tested, at intervals not to exceed five years. They should be appropriately stamped to denote this inspection. 3.2.4.3 Each item of plant and diving equipment should be regularly inspected by a competent person at periodic intervals, and after the equipment has been modified. The maximum period between inspections should be three months.

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3.2.4.4 All hoses used for carrying compressed air or other gases must be checked for wear and abrasion and subjected to test pressures at least once every three months. Hose, fittings and connections should be of the screw thread type and properly fitted to the hoses. Hoses used in oxygen breathing systems must be grease and oil free. 3.2.4.5 Any pressure gauge showin g an error of more than two and one half percent (2.5%) must be adjusted or replaced. 3.2.4.6 Communication systems must be checked for correct operation. Every wire must be checked for continuity and, if they are combined with the life line, for wear. 3.2.4.7 A supply of suitable protective clothing such as diving suits, coveralls, gloves, and hoods must be available at all times. Insulated gloves shall be provided to divers performing welding and burning operations. 3.2.4.8 Gas cylinders taken under water shall be hydrostatically tested, inspected and stamped every two years.

3.3

Safeguards
When divers are preparing to enter or leave the water, or are in the water, or diving operations are underway, the International Code Flag "A" ("I have a diver down, keep well clear of area and maintain a low speed.") must be flown. (See Figures VI.2 and VI.3.) Communications - A two-way voice communication system shall be used between: 1. Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member at the dive location. Two-way communication system shall be available at the dive location to obtain emergency assistance.

2.

In addition, special lights and day marks for "vessels engaged in surveying or underwater operations" should be shown in accordance with Maritime Regulations (Figure VI.3).

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3.3.1 Any person involved in an activity which could be a hazard to divers in the vicinity, such as those in charge of submarine blasting or masters of vessels about to move, start propulsion engines, or operate pumps, must be forewarned. 3.3.2 Adequate arrangements must be made to provide a safe means of access to and egress from the water. It must be kept in mind that a diver may be unconscious as a result of an accident. 3.3.3 Proper surface support and other facilities for the safe conduct of diving operations must be provided. 3.3.4 In all cases of emergency, the diving supervisor, the foreman diver, or the person in charge of a diver or divers must be the sole arbiter as to action to be taken. All personnel, whether connected with the diving operation or not, should take instructions from him. 3.3.5 Safe Operation of Divers 3.3.5.1 Bottom time and decompression time will be controlled by the diving supervisor or person in charge of diving. 3.3.5.2 On all work requiring four divers or more, a diving supervisor shall be present to facilitate coordination between divers and the surface. 3.3.5.3 All diving operations requiring more than two divers (using air for breathing) in water of a depth greater than 30 meters (100 feet), require the presence of a diving supervisor. 3.3.6 At all times when a diver is in the water, a stand-by diver must be on deck with a stand-by rig, fully dressed and ready to dive. 3.3.7 No diver working in water 9 meters (30 feet) or less shall be required to work longer than a twelve (12) hour shift without having a proper rest except for emergencies.

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3.3.8 Repetitive diving should not be done as a routine. If the task necessitates the use of "repeats", efforts should be made to obtain additional divers. When this is impracticable, the tables must be strictly adhered to in order to avoid decompression sickness, which could require therapeutic treatment and could endanger the health of divers and delay operations. 3.3.9 Therapeutic decomp ression must take precedence over all other operational requirements. 3.3.9.1 Divers must remain in the vicinity of a recompression chamber for a period of twelve (12) hours after the last dive. 3.3.9.2 In the case of therapeutic decompression the period in 3.3.9.1 shall be extended to twenty-four (24) hours. 3.3.9.3 In mild cases of decompression sickness which have been treated under Tables 1, 1A, 2, 2A and 5 (US. Navy Diving Manual), a diver can be returned to work at the discretion of the diving supervisor. After treatment for a case of "bends" under Tables 3, 4, 6 and 6A, a diver will not be permitted to dive again until he has been examined and passed as fit by a physician. 3.3.9.4 Each diver will maintain a personal logbook. Entries shall include but are not limited to the following: • • • • • • • • • • • Diver's name. Name and address of the employer of divers. Date. Name of the Diving Supervisor. Name of the vessel, barge, or installation from which the diving operation is carried out. Maximum depth reached on each occasion. Time he spent under water on each occasion. Type of equipment used by the diver. Work carried out by him on each occasion. Details of decompression sickness or other illness/injury suffered by the diver. Any other factor relevant to health.

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• •

Each daily entry will be signed by the diver and also by the diving supervisor. Divers must retain their logbooks for a period of not less than two years from the date of the last entry in the logbook.

3.3.10

Recompression Chamber A recompression chamber must be on site during all diving operations in excess of 18.5 meters (60 feet). Whenever a recompression chamber is not available, only "no decompression" dives are permitted. 3.3.10.1 The maximum rate of ascent is 18.5 meters (60 feet) per minute in the case of air decompression and 7.6 meters (25 feet) per minute in the case of oxygen decompression. 3.3.10.2 Only necessary articles are allowed in the recompression chamber. No tobacco or any ignition source, including electrical shall be allowed in the chamber. Smoking shall never be permitted in the chamber whether under pressure or not. 3.3.10.3 The chamber shall be kept clean and dry. 3.3.10.4 Personnel in a chamber under pressure shall ensure that both they and all loose materials are kept clear of all atmosphere inlet and exhaust openings. The exhaust, which is under pressure, is especially dangerous because it subjects anything near it to a high suction pull capable of causing extreme bodily harm .

3.3.11

SCUBA Special Care The use of SCUBA equipment in water over 18 meters (60 feet) in depth should be restricted. 3.3.11.1 SCUBA equipment shall not be used to depths greater than 45 meters (150 feet). 3.3.11.2 SCUBA equipment should never be used for dives requiring decompression.

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3.3.11.3 In open water, SCUBA divers shall always be attached to a clearly visible float by a life line. In no case shall SCUBA divers be allowed to swim free. 3.3.11.4 In enclosed or restricted water such as beneath structures, either a lifeline or the "buddy" system must be used. There will be no untethered solo diving. 3.3.11.5 When using SCUBA equipment, divers will always wear an inflatable life jacket of the approved type. 3.3.11.6 No SCUBA diving should be carried out during darkness.

3.4

Physical Fitness
All divers must be physically fit for diving and have a certificate to this effect issued by a qualified medical practitioner: one who has experience and knowledge of the medical requirements for diving. 3.4.1 The medical certificate should state "Fit for Diving" and be not more than twelve months old. 3.4.2 Doctors carrying out medicals for divers should be aware of the importance of the condition of heart, lungs, chest, ears, nose, throat, and teeth. An EKG and chest Xray are mandatory on an annual basis, while a long bone X -ray should be performed every three years. 3.4.3 For British divers, a current British Diving Fitness Register is acceptable and, likewise, any recognized fitness register for other nationalities. 3.4.4 All divers should be trained in First Aid/CPR, and on all diving operations, there should be an approved First Aid Kit suitable for use under hyperbaric conditions on site as recommended in the US. Navy Diving Manual.

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In the case of sports divers. 3. In commercial diving incidents.5.0 Diving Operations Page 375 . on call at either of the above numbers. Offshore emergency response procedures are given in Appendix B.3 Coordinator.m. Specific responsibilities are as follows: 3. He shall also inform the duty diving medical consultant who can be at the Saudi Aramco Preventive Medicine Services Division on 877-8916 (after work hours on 878-1697 or 878-0890).1 Sports Divers All divers must have an experienced person in charge with good knowledge of decompression sickness. 3. Nurses with special training will also be integrated in this group which shall constantly keep abreast with current practices. the coordinator may elect to proceed with treatment using the appropriate table without notifying the diving medical team in cases of minor decompression sickness.2 Commercial Divers The diving supervisor will immediately arrange recompression according to the appropriate table and report the incident to the coordinator manning the diving emergencies numbers. will receive the information on diving medical emergencies. he will direct them to the nearest available recompression chamber and alert its operator. In all type II bends and possible gas embolism cases.3. 3. He should state his exact location and follow the instructions given to him by the coordinator answering the number.5 Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities Every incident/accident involving diving personnel shall be reported on Saudi Aramco Form 3208 with the responsible supervisor submitting a follow-up report on Saudi Aramco Form 681. Diving Emergencies The coordinator. 7 days per week. the duty diving medical consultant shall be notified immediately.3. until 6 a. It will be comprised of a group of physicians with an interest and training in hyperbaric medicine who shall rotate as duty diving medical consultants. 7 days per week. The diving medical team will provide this service to the Marine Department.4 Diving Medical Team This will come under the jurisdiction of the director of Preventive Medicine Services and will be a multi-disciplinary group headed by the senior Occupational Medicine specialist. until 6 p. He shall send a monthly report of all incidents involving therapeutic decompression to the senior Occupational Medicine specialist.5.m. He has to know the following two diving emergencies numbers to call if requiring help: 678-1248 from 6 a.m. and 378-3691 from 6 p.5. February 1993 .5.m.

3. 3. On or Near Water.1. and manning of the recompression chambers.3. 3. maintenance.11 When transferring to or from any water craft or to or from one water craft to another.4 Supervisors or persons in charge of personnel in facilities. 4.1. Wearing of personal flotation devices are required as follows: 3. or the person in charge of the marine vessel. 3.5 Marine Department The Marine Department is responsible for the provision. Personal Flotation Devices. February 1993 . installations.6 Personnel Transfer at Sea The following is to be used as guidelines for the transfer of persons at sea from vessel to vessel or from vessel to platform (or structure). 3.1. Requirements. A. 3. or work activities shall be responsible for having their personnel follow the requirements regarding the wearing of personal flotation devices.0 Diving Operations Page 376 . Failure of an employee to heed the instructions given by the person in charge of the marine craft or aircraft shall require the passenger to be removed from the craft with disciplinary action to follow by the employee's department.17 At any time when deemed necessary by the boat skipper. 4.5.7 When working or riding on the deck of a marine vessel or craft during rough seas at the discretion of the person in charge of the vessel or craft. ship captains and aircraft pilots shall enforce the wearing of personal flotation devices in their vessels or aircraft.3 Marine craft skippers. ship captain.020 . supervisor.Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over. installation or craft.1.1.1. These references are pertinent items from Loss Prevention Department GI 6.

Saudi Arab and contractor vessel crews shall also be issued with proper working uniforms and personal protective equipment such as shoes.4. gloves.0 Diving Operations Page 377 . glasses and hard hats. no defect) personal flotation devices for each of their personnel. B. Contractors shall provide (fully functional. February 1993 . The proponent Saudi Aramco organization shall be responsible for ensuring that contractors comply with the applicable requirements of this GI 6.020. The Marine Department expects all Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel working around marine facilities to strictly adhere to Company safety rules and regulations. They shall also provide their personnel with the necessary instructions or training on the proper way of wearing personal flotation devices.2.3.

2: INTERNATIONAL CODE FLAG "A" February 1993 .FIGURE VI.0 Diving Operations Page 378 .3.

Construction Safety Manual: Appendix A Page 379 .Appendix A February 1993 .

Rules Of Competition. Contractor Safety Competition. February 1993 .). Contractor's Competition Job Safety Evaluation. Saudi Aramco Safety.I.P. Health and Environmental Requirements.Construction Safety Manual: Index to Appendix A Page 380 .INDEX TO APPENDIX A This Appendix contains the following information: * * * * * Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration Form. Hazard Identification Plan (H.

A.Construction Safety Manual: Safety Competition Site Registration Form Page 381 . Signed:________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Project Manager February 1993 . Number: Peak Number Of Employees: Contractor Site Representative: Saudi Aramco Site (PMT) Engineer: Project Mgmt. Code: Name Of Contractor's Safety Representative: Contractor's Site Phone Number: Site Location: Signed:____________________________________________________(Contractor's Representative) Job Title:__________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________________ Date:_______________________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Department:____________________________________________________ Proponent This form is to be completed and sent to the local Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Office with a copy to the designated senior Project Engineer. Department: Telephone Number: Telephone Number: Org. who is a member of the proponent Project Management Team (PMT).I.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM Date: ____________________________ To: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Name Of Contractor: Contractor's Address: Contractor's Phone Number: Job Description: Job Number: Starting Date: Estimated Completion Date: B.

a. A contractor shall have a minimum of three ratings within the six month period. b. Remedial steps shall be taken to rectify faults and improve the score rating. and they should distribute it to the appropriate contractor. scored and ranked separately.2 CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION. Contractor and related sub-contractor exceed 50 for the entire six month period. c.Construction Safety Manual: Contractor Safety Competition Rules Page 382 . d. An unscheduled site inspection will be carried out by the Loss Prevention Department once before the 25th day of every even month. If it is inconvenient for a member of the Project Management Team or contractor's personnel to accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection. The competition shall be run over a six-month period (January to June and July to December) and shall be assessed according to the requirements of Schedule 'D' of the contract documents. a. At the end of the competition. scored and ranked separately. 5. A contractor on a Budget Item (BI) who meets the following criteria shall be registered in the competition by the responsible Proponent (PMT). evaluated. b. 3. The Saudi Aramco Project Management Team shall receive a copy of the inspection sheet. Multiple contractors working on the same BI shall be entered.A. 4. (This also applies to consortium partners provided they meet requirements in 2 above. Representatives of Project Management and the contractor shall be invited to accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection.) February 1993 . The Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representative will report to the site office before he starts his inspection. the Loss Prevention representative will conduct the inspection alone .awarding appropriate scores. RULES OF COMPETITION CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION JOB SAFETY EVALUATION RULES OF COMPETITION 1. If during the inspection there is a difference of opinion over the points awarded. A contractor working on more than one BI shall have an entry in the competition for each BI. 2. Estimated completion time exceeds the competition time period. These scores shall be final. A contractor working on one BI at one location shall be evaluated. a copy of the six-month summary sheet will be provided to any contractor. then the Loss Prevention representative will make the final decision. A contractor working on the same BI at separate sites shall be evaluated by site but the final score will be averaged.

e. 9. Any contractor who experiences a job related fatality. Dhahran.g. 6. Exceptions to the above guidelines shall be reviewed by Project Management Team and Loss Prevention during initial registrations.A. 13. e. they will be dropped from the competition. 10. etc. 14. For those rare cases where there are multiple sites and multiple contractors on a BI. 7. will cease to be eligible for an award. 8. 11. then that section will OK from the possible percentage score.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules Page 383 . Should a contractor incur a second hazard report. each site under the BI will be scored separately but averaged with all sites for that BI by contractor. the original copy of the form SA-6710 shall be submitted to the superintendent. a penalty of 500 points shall be deducted from the total score. lost work day cases.. not later than the 25th day of each even month. then he will still be eligible to compete in the final assessment. Every hazard report Saudi Aramco Form 3744 issued and not corrected within 24 hours. SCORING: Where a section is inapplicable to a particular site. fires. Should it be found that the contractor has not entered into the required logs details which at a later date are determined to have occurred. etc. and fire resulting in SR 10. disqualification for the rest of the competition period shall result.. Should a registered contractor not retain an average of 50 or more employees for the entire competition period. 12. February 1993 . restricted duty. the first work day after the 25th is acceptable. or serious incident that results in the hospitalization of five or more employees. Room 113. Building 3121. Following each inspection by the Loss Prevention representative.g. Violations noted during an initial inspection which have not been corrected by the next general and/or follow-up inspection shall be deemed a repeat violation and a "0" score will be given for the entire section under consideration. no scaffolding. Should any contractor find he has completed the project before the end of the competition period due to meritorious performance or reasons beyond his control. In cases of holidays or rescheduled days off. cranes. then he would be deemed to have broken the rules and forfeit the right to be included in the awards for the duration of that competition for which he was eligible.000 worth of damage on any one of their sites within the competition period. Any item of concern not specifically covered on the Evaluation Form A-6710. e. accidents. Central Area Loss Prevention Division. shall be reflected in column #18 under Special Items.

and for the current competition rules.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules Page 384 . please contact your Area Loss Prevention Office. Points can be given from 0 to 100. Please Note: For more information on the Contractor Safety Competition. February 1993 . Any questions that may arise concerning this job safety evaluation may be submitted to the proponent department for resolution.65 66 .95 96 . Any contractor who persistently returns poor scores or violates the competition rules may be subject to corrective action by the proponent department.POINT ASSESSMENT: Points will be assessed based on the gravity/severity of violations encountered and will range from 0 to 100. depending on the judgment of the Loss Prevention Department representative. OVERALL PERFORMANCE RATING: Unsatisfactory= Fair= Good= Excellent= 0 .A.80 81 .100 Overall percentage performance will be calculated as follows: Points Scored x 100 = Contractor Rating: ___________ Points Possible Every endeavor will be made to provide an accurate assessment at each inspection.

FIGURE A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION J OB S AFETY EVALUATION February 1993 .2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules Page 385 .A.

FIGURE A.2 Contractor Safety Competition Rules Page 386 . February 1993 .A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION J OB S AFETY EVALUATION C ONTINUED.

CONTRACTOR may request copies of all applicable rules and regulations from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention Department. 3. applicable Saudi Arab Government Safety Regulations and all SAUDI ARAMCO Safety and Loss Prevention rules and regulations. Company Representative. Costs incurred by CONTRACTOR as a result of such WORK suspension shall be for CONTRACTOR's account and any resultant CONTRACTOR performance delays shall not be deemed excusable here-under.Construction Safety Manual: Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 387 . HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Compliance With Safety Rules . or such party or parties designated by him. Deviations From Safety Rules Any deviation by CONTRACTOR from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention rules and regulations must be approved in writing in advance by Company Representative. that rendition of such assistance by SAUDI ARAMCO will in no way relieve CONTRACTOR of its responsibilities as set forth in this Schedule 'D'. pointing out unsafe WORK Site conditions. Such corrective action shall. SAUDI ARAMCO shall notify CONTRACTOR in writing. Specifically. Saudi Aramco Assistance CONTRACTOR may request assistance from SAUDI ARAMCO with respect to the implementation of its Loss Prevention requirements. Company Representative may direct CONTRACTOR to suspend all or part of the WORK pursuant to Schedule "A" until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. CONTRACTOR shall comply with the provisions of the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual and SAUDI ARAMCO's publication entitled "Loss Prevention Requirements for Contractors". Paragraphs 5 through 27 of this Schedule (which supplement but do not limit the requirements of the Construction Safety Manual). and ensure that its employees.3 SAUDI ARAMCO SAFETY. It is understood. CONTRACTOR shall. however. unless provided otherwise in this Contract. upon being advised of its noncompliance. any additional measures which Company Representative may direct to protect against injury to or death of any person or damage to or loss of any property during CONTRACTOR's performance of the work. or cause to be taken. February 1993 . and such other related requirements.A. 4.Schedule 'D' CONTRACTOR shall at all times comply with. agents and subcontractors comply with. If CONTRACTOR fails to take such corrective action promptly. 2. immediately take all corrective action required to comply. specifications and standards as are made known to CONTRACTOR by SAUDI ARAMCO. CONTRACTOR shall maintain the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual and applicable SAUDI ARAMCO GIs at the WORK Site. and by applying his/their experience and judgment in order to assist CONTRACTOR in improving WORK safety. Failure To Comply Should CONTRACTOR fail to comply with the requirements of this Schedule 'D'. will assist CONTRACTOR by explaining good safety practices. CONTRACTOR shall also take. be taken at CONTRACTOR's expense. 1.

012 (Isolation. 7. for SAUDI ARAMCO's approval. as a minimum. It shall include a specific plan to hold a ten minute safety discussion organized and implemented by each craft or crew supervisor on at least one day in each working week. other applicable GIs and Operator Instruction Manuals (OIMs). Welding And Cutting Equipment All welding and c utting equipment shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. whether the WORK area is designated a Restricted Area. Tools And Portable Power Tools CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all tools provided by CONTRACTOR are of the best quality with proper safeguards and are suitable for the use intended. in advance.A. The Program shall be organized and implemented by each craft or crew supervisor. not later than fifteen (15) working days following the execution of this Contract. Saudi Aramco will reject tools which are found to be defective. Personal Protective Equipment CONTRACTOR shall. The name and address of the Safety Supervisor shall be submitted to Company Representative no later than the Program's submission: The Program shall outline specific essential measures to be taken by CONTRACTOR to prevent injuries to persons and damage to property and to ensure compliance with this Schedule 'D'. 8. 6.100 (Work Permits) and GI 6. CONTRACTOR shall appoint a qualified full-time Safety Supervisor approved by SAUDI ARAMCO. which by this reference is made part of this Contract.5. Electrical hand tools shall be properly grounded or be of the double insulated type. to coordinate the Program. 9. All work permit procedures shall be carried out by CONTRACTOR in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 2. Company Representative shall give guidance on Restricted Area locations. provide. Lockout and Use of Hold Tags).3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 388 . It shall be the CONTRACTOR's responsibility to ascertain. February 1993 . Work Permits CONTRACTOR shall obtain a work permit (SAUDI ARAMCO Form 924) each shift for any WORK to be carried out during such shift in any SAUDI ARAMCO specified "Restricted Area". CONTRACTOR shall ensure full implementation of the Program. Loss Prevention Program CONTRACTOR shall prepare and submit a Loss PREVENTION Program to Company Representative. All tools shall be free from defects and maintained in good condition. maintain and enforce the use of the items of personal protective equipment listed in SAUDI ARAMCO's Construction Safety Manual.

hooks. 15. 7. Mechanical Equipment CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all mechanical equipment provided is of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. Furthermore. adequate strength and free from defect and are properly inspected and maintained. platforms or temporary floors for all WORK which cannot be done safely from the ground. 7.025). sound material. All chains. including all working gear.030). shackles and other equipment used for raising or lowering on a lifting appliance shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. All mobile heavy equipment and crane operators must possess a valid Kingdom of Saudi Arabia heavy equipment operator's license and be certified by SAUDI ARAMCO to operate such equipment (GI 7. 14. 13. and all other plant or equipment for anchoring or fixing such appliances shall be of good mechanical construction. slings. Cartridge Operated Tools Cartridge operated tools shall be used only with the prior written approval of Company Representative.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 389 . February 1993 .A. Scaffolding CONTRACTOR shall provide and cause to be used scaffolding. Cranes And Rigging Equipment CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all lifting appliances and every part thereof. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only SAUDI ARAMCO approved tools shall be used and that they shall be maintained in good condition in compliance with the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual. Electrical Installations And Equipment All material and equipment used in temporary electrical installations shall be of SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all 120 volt single phase 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets which are not a part of the permanent wiring of any building or structure shall have ground fault circuit interrupters for personal protection.030). All cranes and lifting equipment must be inspected and certified by SAUDI ARAMCO before being permitted to operate on SAUDI ARAMCO property (GI. 12. 11. Ladders CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only metal or timber ladders of SAUDI ARAMCO approved type are provided and used for ingress to and egress from WORK places where other means of ingress and egress are not available. from a ladder or from a boatswain's chair.10. Certified riggers shall be provided (GI. All scaffolding shall be constructed of SAUDI ARAMCO approved metal components and erected to comply with the requirements of the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual.

7. a written report shall be submitted promptly to Company Representative. Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time. Transportation CONTRACTOR shall ensure that passengers shall travel only in vehicles that are provided with SAUDI ARAMCO approved passenger seats. to SAUDI ARAMCO's equipment or property. or operate any other piece of SAUDI ARAMCO plant without the prior approval of SAUDI ARAMCO and then only under the direct supervision of the supervising operator or plant foreman. CONTRACTOR shall maintain. Damage. Saudi Aramco Plant Operations CONTRACTOR shall ensure that CONTRACTOR's personnel and the personnel of its subcontractors do not open or close any valves or electrical switches. or damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment or property. Damage over SR 10. Fire.000 Motor vehicle collisions Incidents involving damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment and property Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.. Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI.000 to CONTRACTOR's plant or equipment. This requirement shall apply while traveling to and from the WORK Site and during travel on the WORK Site. Seat belts shall be installed and used in all vehicles carrying personnel (except in the case of buses where seat belts are mandatory only for the driver). Injury And Damage Reporting CONTRACTOR shall ensure that an immediate oral report is made to Company Representative in the case of all: • • • • • • Fatal injuries. a current record showing all: • • • • • • WORK injuries Fires Incidents of property damage over SR10.All moving parts of any equipment shall be securely guarded so as to prevent access to the moving parts by persons working on or passing through the WORK Site. 17.A. 16.003. In addition. February 1993 . For accidents involving CONTRACTOR employee fatalities. in any amount. 18. in a format approved by Company Representative. SAUDI ARAMCO may convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance with the requirements of GI 6.026) This record shall be available for inspection at all reasonable times and shall be submitted to SAUDI ARAMCO on request.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 390 .001 and GI 6.026). serious injury to five or more CONTRACTOR employees.

steel units shall be used. CONTRACTOR shall obtain prior written approval from Comp any Representative before any timber supporting structure is erected. When a CONTRACTOR employs 50 or more workmen at a WORK Site the CONTRACTOR shall provide a February 1993 . 23. 21. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all employees are made aware of the precautions to be taken. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that prior to any concrete being poured into any supported formwork structure. All CONTRACTOR's personnel shall be properly trained in the use of such equipment. Work Over Or Adjacent To Water Adequate lifesaving and rescue equipment shall be provided by CONTRACTOR on every seagoing vessel. 24.A. Where the WORK requires the use of ionizing radiation either by the CONTRACTOR or by some other organization approved by SAUDI ARAMCO.010 and OIM.020. the timber shall be of suitable quality and of adequate strength. 20. SAES -B-7C) and NFPA 231 A with respect to spacing of rows.19. and at every work station where WORK is being carried out over or adjacent to water. Ionizing Radiation CONTRACTOR shall ensure that radioactive sources shall be used in compliance with the "General Rules and Regulations for the Use and Handling of Radioactivity and Radioisotopes" as promulgated by the Saudi Arabian Atomic Energy Department and with prior written approval of SAUDI ARAMCO.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 391 .108 which are by this reference made part of this Contract. First-Aid Facilities The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain first-aid facilities at the WORK Site in accordance with Articles 134 and 135 of the Saudi Labor Laws. As far as practicable. Where the WORK requires a timber supporting structure. 1. Excavations CONTRACTOR shall ensure that any excavation work carried out during the course of the WORK is done according to the requirements of SAUDI ARAMCO GI 1021. Fire Prevention CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain in good working order adequate fire fighting equipment. approval is obtained from Company Representative. fire lanes and compatibility of materials. Life vests shall be worn by CONTRACTOR's personnel when working over water as prescribed in SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6. Formwork CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all formwork supports are constructed to SAUDI ARAMCO approved standards. which by this reference is made part of this Contract. Store yards shall be laid out in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO Standards (SAES -B-7A. 22.

3. handles hazardous materials. transformed or immobilized within the treatment zone to prevent migration to ground and/or surface waters. 25. especially liquids. in the course of performing his obligations under the Contract. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that in handling of hazardous materials. sludge.2 CONTRACTOR shall also provide SAUDI ARAMCO proof of an established land treatment/disposal program which is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the treatment/disposal zone are degraded. CONTRACTOR must provide SAUDI ARAMCO proof that the hazardous wastes have been properly disposed of at a licensed hazardous waste disposal facility. chemical.2 above. 25. 25. Handling.3 In addition to the requirements of sub-paragraph 25. where the CONTRACTOR is required to dispose of wastes determined to be hazardous. The procedure shall detail specific locations for the disposal of each type of waste (construction.1 Follow Saudi Arab Government regulations in disposing of hazardous waste materials. 25.qualified nurse and a dedicated emergency vehicle (ambulance).001. The CONTRACTOR shall submit this program to SAUDI ARAMCO for approval prior to the disposal of any hazardous material by the CONTRACTOR. properly supplied and marked.2 Subject to any specific requirements in Schedule "B".1 When a CONTRACTOR.A. February 1993 . the CONTRACTOR shall: 25. sanitary.3. the CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the handling of such materials is performed in accordance with currently accepted industry practices for the handling of such material. scrap and sewage) and shall also identify the steps to be taken to treat the wastes or otherwise prevent them from polluting the ground water or the sea or from becoming a public nuisance. Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials And Waste 25.3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 392 . SAUDI ARAMCO shall approve such procedure before disposal of any waste by CONTRACTOR. to transport injured personnel to the nearest health care facility. such material is properly containerized and labeled in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 355. CONTRACTOR shall include in its Loss Prevention Program its procedure for the disposal of solid and liquid wastes.

3 Contractor Safety And Loss Prevention Requirements Page 393 . 27. transportation and use of explosives. Contractor shall comply with the general rules and requirements for the handling and use of explosives issued by the Ministry of the Interior and all Saudi Aramco requirements per the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual for the storage. Explosives CONTRACTOR shall promptly advise Company Representative of any requirements for explosives and only use such explosives after the written approval of Company Representative.A.021 and Construction Safety Manual requirements on sandblasting. Sandblasting CONTRACTOR shall comply with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6. February 1993 .26.

B or C according to their degree of potential human impact considering severity and probability (i. new. or eliminating it altogether. from most severe and probable to least severe and probable) during the initial design phase.e.Construction Safety Manual: Hazard Identification Plan Page 394 .e. it is difficult for even the most experienced engineer and/or contractor to identify all the potential safety hazards that may be encountered unless a systematic potential-hazard review is conducted as a part of a Hazard Identification Plan (HIP). This allows for a change in the methodology or operating procedure in the direction of reducing the risk associated with the hazard to an acceptable level. modified or rebuilt plants or facilities).4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP) INTRODUCTION In reviewing the safety requirements for our design and construction activities (i. February 1993 .A. The hazards identified are classified as A. The attached Hazard Identification Plan (HIP) provides the method for conducting such a review.

February 1993 . Hazard areas identified on a location map and color coded. II.4 Hazard Identification Plan Page 395 . Hazard Classification Once the hazards are identified. engineering specifications. Hazardous materials identification/handling/storage. but less severe than Class "A". Conduct Hazards Identification Review. Potential hazards to the general public. I. • Class "A" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause permanent disability. ground condition. List Potential Hazards • • • • Each hazard will be classified A. Consideration will be given to the following potential hazards: • • • • • • III. or C. they are classified as Class A. equipment or material. • Class "B" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause serious injury or illness (resulting in temporary disability) or property damage that is disruptive. procedures.A.M. B. etc. Statement of corrective action to be taken.HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN: Brief description of work to be accomplished. Potential hazards that may be encountered from outside sources. regulations. Contractor will submit this list to Saudi Aramco representative. (To include on-site tour) Record hazards identified on location map. loss of life or body part and/or extensive loss of structure. Potential fire / electrical hazards. Incompatible interface with existing plants. B. • Class "C" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause minor (non-disabling) injury or illness or non-disruptive property damage.T. facilities. or C. and contractor personnel. Potential hazards to P.

No activity in area under power line until power lines have been disconnected and/or relocated. list KV rating Bridges. by-passes Micro wave / communication towers Houses Traffic flow Facilities close-by Aircraft flight path Trees. Following are examples of typical hazards that can be encountered: 1) Above Ground Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • 2) Overhead power lines. Corrective Action List all hazards identified in the HIP outline. "Overhead Power Lines" Corrective Action: • • Obtain work permit before starting any work under or near electrical power lines.A. houses Possible flood or wash out areas February 1993 . Example: "A" Hazards Overhead electrical power lines over building site • • Electrical power rating. schools. poles High cliffs / dangerous overhangs Fuel / chemical / pressure vessels and systems Ground Level Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • • • Electrical wires Roadways Ditches High water table Tie-downs Obstruction Unstable soil Fences/walls Traffic flow Guide wires Nearby buildings. and determine what corrective action should be taken.4 Hazard Identification Plan Page 396 .IV. (KV) Show power lines on location map. Corrective Action Example: "A" Hazard.

A.4 Hazard Identification Plan Page 397 . Underground Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • Buried utilities High water table Building foundations Underground water waste Unstable soil Chemical / trash dump area Voids in the earth (caves) Underground fuel / chemical / pressure systems and vessels 4) Interface Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • • • Existing emergency evacuation plans Emergency communication system Traffic flow Special personnel Protective equipment requirements Hazardous waste disposal Hazards from other outside operations Escape routes Evacuation alarms Access control Flammable liquid / chemical / pressure vessel storage Gas release into proposed area 5) Off-Shore Potential Hazards • • • High wind / sea conditions Night time operations Inclement weather conditions • Fog • Rain • Lightning Marine vessels and materials adrift Electrical hazards • • February 1993 .• • 3) Adverse weather conditions Hazards from nearby plants or operations. etc.

Construction Safety Manual .Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response February 1993 .Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 398 .

1 SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES This Appendix outlines Saudi Aramco search and rescue procedures for on.B. Included in this appendix are the following: • • • Control of Remote Area Travel And Search And Rescue Procedures (GI 6. February 1993 . Fire and Other Serious Emergency Response Procedures (Supplement No. Effective emergency planning requires that employees be familiar with emergency procedures before a crisis.and off-shore facilities. 1-503-1). Offshore Emergency Response.025). Any further questions on search and rescue procedures should be forwarded to your area Loss Prevention Department office or the Saudi Aramco contract proponent.Construction Safety Manual: Search And Resuce Procedures Page 399 . It is the responsibility of management to ensure that all employees are familiar with the proper response to fire and other serious emergencies.

501 OI 1.011 Overall Disaster Control Procedure . October 1989 Other references include: Saudi Aramco Corporate Loss Prevention Manual (CLPM) Mobil Oil Corporation .503-3 OI 1.500 Disaster Contingency Plan.Safaniya Producing Offshore Emergency Response Offshore Emergencies Only Safaniya Offshore Jack-Up Test Barge/Well Platform Disaster Control Plan Safaniya Offshore .527 OI 10. The following Operating Instructions Manuals (OIMs) give facility-specific emergency response guidance/procedures: Saudi Aramco Operating Instruction Manual (OIM): OI 1.Safaniya Producing Offshore Disaster Control Plan . Dhahran Area Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans.503-4 OI 1.B.Guidelines for Emergency Response and Disaster Contingency Planning for Saudi Aramco.503-1 OI 1.Offshore Casualty Evacuation Personnel Accountability Offshore Facilities Safety Zones and Safety of Navigation Around Offshore Installation Work Around Offshore Producing Facilities General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department publication: GI 70.501-3 OI 1.503 OI 1.3: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 400 .2 EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE It is the responsibility of every contractor employee to become familiar with emergency response procedures for both offshore and onshore operating facilities.Safaniya/Tanajib Area Tanajib Disaster Control Center Commander Safaniya Support Personnel Assignment Disaster Control Command Center .501-1 OI 1.Tanajib Personnel Assignment Onshore Control Unit .503-2 OI 1.Construction Safety Manual .502 OI 1.B.503-5 OI 1.501-2 OI 1. May 1991 February 1993 .

etc.3 and Figures) are extracted from the publication "Guidelines For Preparing Emergency Response Plans". Ensure that the emergency plan with the latest issue date is being used and it incorporates all amendments to date. residents. the environment or property at a facility or site and which can be brought under control using the resources and procedures for emergency response in place for the facility or site. loss of capital investment. 2.1 General Provisions 1. equipment. A facility/site emergency response organization's structure and responsibilities Development of credible emergency/disaster scenarios and their consequences Establishment of emergency control resources (human.2 Definitions 1. This can be accomplished by developing emergency response plans that address immediate concerns within the contractor's operations and which also interface. etc. as required. The disaster preparedness policy must be provided in the front of the plan. 4. the environment or property at a facility or site and which cannot be brought under control using the resources and procedures for emergency response in place for the facility or site.2. Whether an emergency becomes a disaster depends on the following: • • the type of facility.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 401 . Disaster: A disaster is an emergency which poses a more serious threat to the safety of workers.2. February 1993 . The emergency telephone numbers must be provided in the front of the plan. These are generally used by Saudi Aramco operations as a framework for plan development. The purpose of the emergency plan is to provide guidance on the following: • • • • 2. The following guidelines (B 3. Emergency: An emergency is an abnormal incident posing a threat to the safety of workers.B. It must have provision for any future amendments as addendum or reissues. B. 5. paying particular attention to the need for interfacing with local Saudi Aramco emergency planning procedures. the hazards of the facility operations. residents.The potential for emergencies and disasters exists at all construction sites and facilities and their associated costs can be devastating in terms of employee casualties. Contractor's plans will need to be tailored to their specific operations and resources and the nature of their work with Saudi Aramco. Contractors should refer to these guidelines for developing their own plans as appropriate.) and procedures Emergency response training and drills 3. with emergency response procedures developed by Saudi Aramco organizations. The emergency reporting instructions must be provided in the front of the plan. business interruption.1 and B 3. These events cannot be avoided but the contractor can reduce their frequency of occurrence and severity of damage with effective preparation/planning. B.

) During an offshore search and rescue (SAR) operation. this will become the SAR control center. residents. Disaster Command Post (DCP): A designated safe location near the emergency site from which the Incident Commander directs emergency control efforts. It is a centralized location for monitoring the facility response and also serves as a command center for coordinating all communications. the environment or property at a facility or site. This equipment provides the means for contact with the DCC and for field coordination. February 1993 . the DCP would be a safe location designated by the Incident Commander which should be equipped with a telephone. the DCP is a specially equipped vehicle outfitted with facility maps.• • • 3. including the allocation and distribution of information. Disaster Command Center (DCC): The location where the Emergency Manager and support staff assemble to respond to an emergency. and mutual aid capabilities of outside agencies. At some onshore facilities. Table Top Exercise: This is a disaster management simulation where key personnel face a hypothetical disaster situation developed by a skilled moderator. At offshore facilities. 5. at a minimum. (This will also remain an onshore centralized location for an offshore emergency response episode. 4. This type of planning also extends to developing emergency control strategies and instituting training and drills for all facility personnel.B. A designated helicopter pilot will report to SAR control center to act as a search coordinator. Weaknesses are identified by evaluating the results of the exercise and corrected by revising the plan. radio communication and personal protective/identification equipment. the proximity of neighboring communities or other facilities. rescue and medical treatment activities during the emergency episode. the capabilities of emergency personnel. He directs operations and coordinates fire fighting. 6. Emergency Planning: This involves the development of a specific plan which details actions to be taken by trained personnel during an emergency in an effort to efficiently control it and minimize its net negative impact on workers.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 402 . communication equipment and support information similar to a DCC. Staffing from pertinent technical and support groups assures accessibility to all required resources for an overall effective emergency response.

This is set up to develop an emergency plan using the broad expertise of its members. Planning Committee: A planning committee is a body comprising of members from key functional groups within the organization. This individual is required to process great depth of knowledge of emergency response and disaster control practices and procedures. including the senior fire officer. He can review and use Saudi Aramco approved emergency plans from other similar facilities or sites in the development or modification of his facility/site plan. and manpower organizational capabilities for his facility or site. 8. 9.) establish the Disaster Control Post (DCP) at a safe location near the emergency site February 1993 . but not always.7. Key Positions (a) Emergency Manager The Emergency Manager is responsible for the overall organization and strategy of the emergency response. He is usually. Emergency/Disaster Response Organization: The Emergency/Disaster Response Organization is a structured working group whose function is to control an emergency or disaster. His specific responsibilities are to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) assume control of the DCC implement the Emergency Plan receive updates on control measures taken by the Incident Commander assess the situation and direct actions to minimize damage and loss of life maintain contact with upper management declare the emergency "under control" and authorize the "all clear" signal (b) Incident Commander The Incident Commander is responsible for suppression and control tactics at the site. The structure of this group is typified in Figure B.1. coordinates logistical efforts and has the authority for the final decision in any emergency action. His specific responsibilities are to: (1. The Shift Superintendent usually fills this position and provides direction to all personnel at the scene.B. A. the senior management person at the facility.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 403 . Planning Coordinator: An individual who is qualified to develop an emergency plan to direct its development through a planning committee. The organization is basically compris ed of the following positions with their delegated responsibilities.

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) develop and implement control tactics approve use of all emergency related resources keep the Emergency Manager informed evaluate mutual aid needs. Emergency/Disaster Support Staff/Teams (a) Fire Protection/Rescue This function is usually performed by a combined team of facility/site fire protection personnel. hydrocarbon movement. and request assistance through the Emergency Manager coordinate mutual aid personnel and equipment determine the need for evacuation All normal plant functions and emergency support services report directly to one of the above positions according to their reporting relationships given in Figure B. The responsibilities of the senior fire officer are as follows: • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) • (1) (2) (3) Fire-Fighting provide initial evaluation to the Incident Commander deploy fire fighting personnel and equipment advise Incident Commander of the need for outside resources keep Incident Commander current on fire control status direct outside fire fighting organizations clean-up and restore fire protection equipment and supplies Rescue locate and rescue missing persons render essential first aid and life support remove victims to designated safe locations for medical treatment (b) Process This function is usually performed by an operations representative who is responsible for advising the Emergency Manager in the following areas: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) operations. B. They take directions from the Incident Commander through the appointed senior fire officer at the DCP.B.1. unit isolation and emergency shutdown activities special fire protection needs materials or process in the affected area actions taken affecting the process process equipment involved in the control of the incident February 1993 .3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 404 .

Incident Commander. and Process Coordinator advised of factors influencing emergency activities.(c) Maintenance This function is usually performed by a maintenance representative who is responsible to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) assemble maintenance manpower in the maintenance shops assist operators in isolating and shutting down units as directed repair of emergency equipment assist utilities personnel in bypassing or repairing critical utility components provide fuel for emergency vehicles and firewater pump engines transport foam and other emergency supplies (d) Engineering This function is usually performed by an operations engineering representative whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) provide mechanical and process related information keep the Emergency Manager.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 405 . assign an engineer to serve as an emergency events recorder prepare damage assessment reports collect and preserve evidence for the incident investigators perform post-incident engineering for repair work (3) (4) (5) (6) (e) Security This function is usually performed by the facility Security Supervisor whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) ensure integrity of the plant perimeter provide necessary staffing to control use of emergency gates prevent entry of unauthorized personnel direct the flow of traffic away from the disaster scene direct emergency resources to the appropriate staging area provide escorts for emergency vehicles when requested advise Incident Commander on security matters act as liaison between the Frontier Force. the Incident Commander and Government Affairs (f) Loss Prevention This function is usually performed by the Loss Prevention Advisor/Engineer whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) help evaluate hazardous situations and materials February 1993 .B.

potable water. and cost analysis aspects of the incident. purchasing.B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 406 . His responsibilities are as follows: (1) contact the on-call Area Representative who will provide safe and sanitary food.(2) recommend actions and equipment necessary to protect personnel direct Loss Prevention staff to perform gas testing or other emergency/disaster services and interface as needed with Industrial Hygiene assign Loss Prevention staff to record or log emergency/disaster activities for future use coordinate with services as necessary regarding safety equipment (3) (4) (5) (g) Services This function is usually performed by a staff engineer who coordinates support services and obtains a cost code from the area Finance representative to account for all financial. and field sanitation facilities on request of the Incident Commander purchasing and contracting requirements coordinating claims actions providing necessary accommodations for emergency response personnel (2) (3) (4) (h) Medical This function is usually performed by district medical personnel whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (i) establish a triage area at the scene provide on-site emergency medical care advise the Emergency Manager of the number of injured and any need for additional medical assistance notify appropriate hospitals and clinics of the anticipated number of casualties advise the Emergency Manager of special medical transportation needs keep records of victims and their treatment External Relations This function is usually performed by the area Government Affairs representative whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) establish and maintain communications with civil authorities communicate the incident status to government organizations as appropriate request approval from the Emergency Manager for any government inspections and/or investigations during the emergency February 1993 .

EARS. and other utilities and advise the Incident Commander on their status inform the Incident Commander and Maintenance of system failures evacuate personnel if instructed by the Incident Commander (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (k) Communications This function is usually performed by an operations employee who reports to the DCC to manage radio transmissions. Their responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) account for personnel by head count procedures report missing persons implement the facility emergency operating plan for a specific situation (i.e. etc. 2. isolation and shutdown unit(s) as instructed and stabilize units not involved) await further orders after the units have been shutdown and secured assign an operator to check firewater mains pressure and start fire pumps control the plant air systems. potential dangers which might require evacuation and recovery efforts (j) Operations/Utilities This function is usually filled by plant/site foremen who direct the activities of plant operators. or A planning committee/coordinator team must be established.3 Plan Development Action Items Task 1: Assign (or Establish) Planning Coordinator (or Team) 1.(4) inform community leaders of incident status.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 407 . B. A planning coordinator must be assigned. Task 2: Establish Scope and Objectives 3. operate special equipment such as DVD. (l) Environmental This function is usually performed by an assigned environmental specialist whose responsibilities include providing environmental monitoring services and spill containment/recovery advice to the Emergency Manager and Incident Commander.2. steam systems. A scope and written objectives must be developed for the site. February 1993 . and record all message traffic.B.. telephone lines.

sphere.2). Generally. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the explosion scenario are: • • • • boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of storage.) The following information is useful in identifying emergency/disaster situations (initiated on-site or off-site) within each generic scenario: • Fire Fires are generally caused as a result of ignition of a gas (or liquid) hydrocarbon leak under pressure. select the credible worst case emergency/disaster situation to represent that scenario (e. tank fires. etc. this occurs if the response is not quick to contain the fire to a manageable limit before it approaches a disaster level. bullet or process vessel runaway (exothermic) process chemical reaction gas explosion from a large volume release of refrigerated LPG unconfined vapor cloud e xplosion (UVCE) from a flammable vapor release February 1993 . pump fires. "Assess the Consequences of Scenarios".g.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 408 . explosions.) For each generic scenario. vapor releases. Similarly. liquid releases.g.Task 3: Identify Emergency/Disaster Scenarios 4.2 for scenario development): • • • Planning Coordinator/team to identify emergency/disaster situations. the largest tank fire) and fill out Part A (Description) and Part B (Possible Causes) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B.B. Group these situations into generic scenarios (e. (The "consequences" of Part E will be developed as part of Task 4. Develop emergency/disaster scenarios specific to the facility or site as follows. natural disasters. describe all scenarios on separate sheets and assign a rank order to each in Part E (Evaluation) based on likelihood of occurrence. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the fire scenario are: • • • • congested multiple process unit area fire flammable liquid tank storage area fire wharf loading and unloading area fire Explosion Flammable vapor releases are one of the most significant sources of explosions and the potential for casualties and property damage is high. All situations within this scenario can lead to disasters if fire spreads beyond the capabilities of the fire fighting systems/personnel in place. Unburned liquid hydrocarbon pools in the ground and fuel the fire to increase its intensity and spread. (Use Figure B.

Complete each scenario analysis sheet started in Task 3 by describing the incident size.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 409 . or refrigerated tank tank overfill LPG tanker accident resulting in containment failure high pressure gas pipeline rupture • Toxic Vapor Release (TVR) Toxic materials may or may not be flammable but could be in a high enough concentration to pose a health risk when released as a vapor. February 1993 . Another source of such information is the Saudi Aramco Risk Analysis Manual. Task 4: Assess the Consequences 5. flooding. duration and effect on operations. etc.B. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the TVR scenario are: • • • • rupture of pipeline or well blowout releasing H2S vapor rupture of storage container releasing chlorine/ammonia vapor rupture or leak of amine regenerator overhead accumulator piping/flange to release H2S vapor failure of H2S compressor seal releasing the vapor • Hazardous Materials Spill Hazardous materials are used as solvents.g. reagents.). The impact of natural disasters to cause other related process disasters should be recognized in the planning stage. A likely situation for a hazardous material spill is from the tanker vehicle transporting it to the facility or during its transfer from the tanker vehicle to its process usage or storage point.• Flammable Vapor Release (FVR) In the petroleum industry. Other examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the Hazardous Materials Release/spill scenario are: • • • TEL/TML gasoline antiknock compound liquid release rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing chlorine/ammonia liquid rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing sulfuric acid liquid • Natural Disaster Each facility or site is susceptible to natural disasters (e. and catalysts in various processes. Historical data on disasters at similar facilities or sites coupled with weather data can help in predicting the frequency of natural disasters for the area. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the FVR scenario are: • • • • failure of piping connection to pressurized storage sphere (or bullet). high winds. the possibility of release of flammable vapor poses a great risk.

(b) (c) 11. Task 6: Available/Needed Resources 10. The plan coordinator selects the scenario which represents the most likely event with the severest consequence(s) as the basis for developing the emergency response plan. additional manpower. Amount of advance warning. Assign a team member to develop the facility's response. This choice should be approved by Contractor management. and total duration).3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 410 . Impact (including severity of potential damage.2) after considering the following factors for each scenario: • • • • • • Size (including explosive potential. transportation.6. potential casualties. Ensure that these critical items are stored together at one easily accessible location (or the critical items store itself if accessible). The methods to identify. maximum vapor cloud volume). maximum spill volume and area. and establish available needed resources are as follows: (a) Develop an inventory list of critical supplies and equipment needed to control the emergency disaster scenarios in Tasks 3 and 4. assign a rank order in Part E based on consequences. effect on surrounding population. shelter. Develop and document the assigned response. toxic vapor cloud. medical support and cost accounting. 8. Growth spread of impact area resulting from the spread of a fire. estimate. Display the list of critical items on the entrance to the critical items store. Use the Disaster Control Tasks Checklist to determine all tasks required (see Figure B.3). maximum fire areas. emergency equipment. Task 5: Review Emergency Control Needs 7. Identify and list the entities responsible for supplying food.B. water. After the Scenario Analysis sheets have been completed for each scenario. Controllability of incident based on level of emergency/disaster training of personnel and adequacy of equipment available within a facility or site. or other undesirable product of the emergency/disaster episode. 9. February 1993 . Reaction (or response) time and effectiveness of facility resources to control incident. Enter an estimate of the magnitude of potential consequences in Part E (Evacuation) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B. external mutual aid. domino effect of sequential explosions.

stationery items. flashlights. and other radio communication/alarm equipment emergency power and lighting reference materials (e. Establish a Disaster Command Center (DCC). office equipment (e. Establish a Disaster Command Post (DCP) vehicle/safe location near the emergency site.) and emergency equipment (e.g. etc. Measure the response/travel time needed by all mutual aid entities to respond to an emergency/disaster at the site. maps. 16. etc. 19. Establish the needed time range for all outside resources to reach the site. Supply the DCC (and alternate) with: • • • telephone. develop an inventory of equipment and supplies that any mutual aid entity is expected to bring with them when they respond. Survey alternate outside sources to determine their ability to supply resources which may be in short supply.12.B. Establish a telephone and personnel list of 24-hour contacts at all mutual aid entities. spare batteries.g. fax. flip charts. If a mutual aid agreement has been established. (above) have been met List contingencies to cover failure of any of those entities indicated in item 11. battery powered megaphones. etc. Determine and document that the equipment and supplies provided through mutual aid are compatible with emergency/fire protection equipment at the site. 22. to supply the needed items. • 24. photographs. dictating machines. emergency response manuals.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 411 . 21. camera. call out lists. tapes. Compare required skills with available skills of construction/site personnel. Determine that the resource needs in item number 10. 17. drawings. List and detail all high cost items and their corresponding authorization levels.) 13. Consider the need to provide an alternate location for the DCC in case the original location is rendered unusable. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). 18. List emergency response skills required to control all scenarios selected in Tasks 3 and 4. February 1993 . 14. 15. 23.g. 20.

Establish an emergency/disaster response organization. Additionally. Ensure that the planned facility/site emergency response procedures are structured according to the logical progression of action items given in Figure B. Verify and document that all assigned individuals are aware of their responsibilities. 31. (Emergency telephone numbers or local 110 instructions should be posted near or on all telephones. vests). Ensure there are sufficient personnel to fill all assigned positions and alternates/substitutes identified and on standby to fill critical positions should it become necessary. manual pull box alarms. Reporting Emergencies: (1. Ensure that the DCP is set up with supplies similar to the DCC (except on offshore facilities where the DCP may only have a telephone. or public address systems. hat) 26.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 412 .5 (Emergency Reporting Instructions).) Report to senior operations person in control room using radios.) Suggested wording for reporting emergencies (or drills) is shown in Figure B. (a) February 1993 . badges. Task 8: Develop Emergency Response Procedures 32.) Determine how significant does an incident have to be to be reportable. ensure that the DCP also has the following: • • • • • self-contained breathing air megaphone binoculars safety/environmental monitoring equipment means of identification (vest.4.25. radio communication and personal protective/identification equipment). telephones. Ensure that each assigned position has a documented detailed description of its responsibilities.) (2. duties of the position reporting relationship reporting location 29. (3. Develop a physical method to identify each individual in the organization chart by position (ID.B. 28. Such a description must include: • • • 30. Task 7: Emergency Response Organization 27.

different dialing and radio frequencies) should be in the appendix of the plan. Non-essential plant personnel are to be evacuated to preassigned assembly areas at a safe distance from the incident scene. (4. and "all clear") and expected actions relating to each signal alarm must be established and followed. Mobilization Of Resources: 1. 2.e.e. Authority and criteria for sounding the different alarms must be clearly stated in the plan.) Initiate The Alarm: All emergency related signals (i.) Details of the telephone and radio systems (i. if needed. "stop-work". existing hazardous conditions and their likelihood to escalate. Plant personnel assigned to the emergency response organization are to proceed to their preassigned locations and await instructions from the Emergency Manager or Incident Commander.) Assess The Situation: The Incident Commander must follow-up on every emergency declared by reporting to the incident site to assess: • • • • (d. (c. equipment. contact external groups to mobilize their resources to the scene as developed in Task 6 (Available/Needed Resources). Medical and Fire Protection are to report to their preassigned locations and must commence any preauthorized emergency response related actions. Support groups such as Security. Actions are taken by facility/site personnel to mobilize the facility's internal resources (human. Supervisory or assigned personnel are to take head count and DCC is to organize search and rescue for any missing personnel.B. 3. (b.Also see section VII. as applicable. etc. February 1993 .A (Reporting Emergencies) of the plan (see Task 9: Write the Plan). "evacuation".) and. 4.) the emergency response actions taken or being taken additional actions and resources required to control the situation extent of damage to property and harm or negative impact to life.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 413 .

113 in Dhahran) will be established. The fire watch is set up by Fire Protection following consultation with the Emergency Manager. but is not limited to: • demands of caring for injured and homeless February 1993 . These actions are: 1.g. Investigate And Report Incident investigation of causes and reporting can be made according to prescribed procedures. GI. A telephone number with a pre-recorded message providing essential up-to-date information on the incident (e.DVD. on the emergency episode and others are to maintain a fire watch if there is danger of reignition. 3. (e) Suppression/Control Of Incident: A separate control procedure must be written for each generic incident scenario developed in Task 3 (Identify Emergency Scenarios). Emergency Alert and Response System . etc. telephone. 6.003 (Guide For Committees Investigating Major Incidents) are two sources which provide guidance for developing such procedures. Stand Down And Fire Watch The Emergency Manager gives the "stand down" order to emergency response personnel.001 (Notification Requirements For Incidents) and GI 6. 2.B. some personnel are released from duty. This procedure is based on facility operating instructions detailing the rapid and safe sequential shut down of process units/equipment involved or affected by the particular incident scenarios.g. Direct Voice Dispatch .5.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 414 . One in-plant radio channel is reserved as the main communication link between the Emergency Manager and Incident Commander. some are assigned to gather evidence.g. At least two methods of communication are necessary for external contacts (e. (f) Post Incident Actions: There are follow-up actions needed once an emergency is declared under control by the Emergency Manager. radio.). radio and telephone). Restore Operations This covers all post-emergency control actions which must be followed to restore normal operations at the facility.EARS. This includes. At this time. At least two methods of in-plant communication should be available (e.

February 1993 . Complete the emergency reporting form given in Figure B. Ensure that the plan has a Corporate Policy Statement on emergency/disaster preparedness. The plan manual must be reviewed and signed off by all outside mutual aid entities expected to respond to an emergency at this site. and is prepared in conformance with the format and instructions presented in the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans" manual. These improvements should be integrated into the Plan and all emergency response personnel should be retrained and drilled to ensure that they are familiar with and proficient in following upgraded procedures. 34. repairing damaged equipment to bring process equipment on-line collecting evidence for the reporting requirement determining secondary hazards that may have developed Revise The Plan All new information gained as a result of the incident should be analyzed to determine what improvements could be made to the facility's Emergency Response Plan.Write the Plan 35. Develop procedures for the (onshore/offshore as applicable): • • • • • • • • • • • • • following emergencies/disasters emergency unit shutdown individual equipment isolation process unit fire tank farm fire marine dock fire off-site pipeline leak personnel rescue medical emergencies toxic/flammable/corrosive gas leak evacuation from units and buildings process upsets breaches of security (including terrorism or sabotage) For more information refer to the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans" manual. 33.5 and follow the instructions contained therein to report such event(s).6.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 415 .B. Task 9 . A typical Emergency Response Plan will follow the outline given in Figure B. 36.• • • 4.

document and follow the emergency response training/drill items given below to ensure that all personnel expected to participate in emergency response are proficient in its theory and practice. February 1993 . 45. 44. 41.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 416 .Emergency Response Training and Drills 37. Provide for regular reviews (e. Hold and document critique sessions following all drills. Task 11 .B. documented tickler date) and update the plan at least once a year through the plan coordinator. simulations and/or actual incidents.Task 10 .g. Keep a record of all amendments and maintain it in the front of the plan document manual. 40. Establish a procedure to ensure that all suggestions from the critique sessions are incorporated into your manual. 42.Review and Revise the Plan 43. Develop. Keep a current list of all document manual holders and periodically forward them copies of any amendments. • • • • 38. table top exercise classroom training of personnel simulation of DCC operations during an emergency field simulations/drills of credible scenarios Ensure that alternates (or standby) personnel are also trained and drilled on emergency response Train and familiarize all personnel with the provisions of your emergency response manual. (a) (b) develop a document and drill schedule in your manual ensure that these include full scale disaster simulations 39.

1: TYPICAL EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION CHART February 1993 .B.FIGURE B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response 417 Page .

: _________ Type of Emergency: • ______Fire • ______Explosion • ______Flammable Gas • ______Toxic Gas • ______Hazardous Materials Spill • ______Natural Disaster A.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response 418 Page . D. Location/equipment-specific notes: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Reviewed by: _________________________________ Date: ____________ February 1993 .2: S CENARIO ANALYSIS S HEET FOR (LOCATION) Unit/Equipment: ____________________________________ Scenario No.FIGURE B. • • F. Description of the Scenario: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Possible Causes: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Expected Size or Duration: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Effect on Operations: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Evaluation and Ranking: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Likelihood: (1 = most likely) • No. E.B.____of____scenarios B. C.____of____scenarios Consequences: (1 = most severe) • No.

These resources must be: • • • • Known in advance.FIGURE B. Compatible with each other. Contact appropriate resource for weather data and other emergency/disaster information Evacuate all affected areas.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 419 . February 1993 . Used in an organized and controlled manner. 4.B. 2. Warning • • Alarm/communication systems to alert employees and local community of an emergency/disaster. Evacuation system testing and training. Evacuation • • • • Evacuation of persons from affected areas and non-essential workers from adjacent areas lowers the risk of casualties. Pre-impact Preparation If time permits. 3. "Evacuation" and "All-Clear" signals must be recognized by all affected population.3: EMERGENCY/DISASTER CONTROL TASKS CHECKLIST 1. Call for all available material reserves and resources. Control of access and exit points. Dead count requirements. and they must know how to proceed in each case. Available on demand. "Alert". Mobilization and Utilization of Human and Material Resources The effectiveness of an emergency response depends on the quality and supply of human and material resources. facility personnel must do the following to minimize negative impact of an emergency/disaster: • • • • Notify emergency response organization.

6.5. 10. Compatibility of facility communication equipment with that used by mutual aid organizations. Establish resources (qualified personnel and equipment) and procedures to locate victims . Search and Rescue • • Identify likely search and rescue situations from generic scenarios. Incident Suppression/Control • • Selective use of assembled resources.B. Transportation to move casualties to such facilities. Training and experience of emergency response team (especially Incident Commander). Coordination • Coordination of call-out personnel and staging of resources to ensure proper level of support is available where needed. 7. 11. Back-up communications equipment/system. 9. • • • Communication equipment/system in place. Continuing Assessment • Continuing assessment of the situation by knowledgeable observers to redirect emergency/disaster response actions as needed. Temporary hospital facilities and equipment. 8. February 1993 . Care for Casualties Factors to be addressed in the care. Communications Efficient and accurate communications are a necessary part of effective emergency response actions. Control and Authority • System of overall control and distribution of authority by chain of command. treatment and relocation of casualties are: • • • Access of medical personnel to site.and transport them to safety.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 420 .

17. February 1993 . Continuity of Operations • • Plan to continue operations unaffected by emergency/disaster by manpower reassignment.g. 13. Restore Normal Operations • Maintenance personnel should maintain a current status list of plant utilities and services lost during the emergency/disaster and the estimated time to restore them.) Determine and plan to provide additional resources needed to control these hazards. etc. Ensure that sufficient manpower/equipment is on standby to handle escalation of emergency/disaster to other units.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 421 . guarding property and patrolling dangerous areas. 15. Secondary Hazards • The plan should identify hazards created as a result of the emergency/disaster (e. structural damage to buildings. traffic and crowd control. isolated fires from explosions. Security Adequate security personnel/system be in place to: • • Control traffic. Control access to scene of emergency/disaster. System to provide shift relief to emergency/fire fighting crews and replenishment of fire fighting materials and other consumables. • 16. Emergency Teams and Equipment Recovery • • System to check and replace emergency equipment damaged during or immediately after the emergency/disaster. Call-out list for management personnel.B. 14.• • 12. Personnel responsible to contact outside agencies and/or mutual aid organizations. Outside Community Order Request Government Affairs representative to contact appropriate law enforcement authorities and community leaders to address the following: • Evacuation. downed electrical lines.

3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 422 . water. clothing. February 1993 . shelter and financial assistance as needed. Personnel Needs • Plan to provide emergency/disaster workers and other affected personnel with sanitary food.18.B.

REPORT THE EMERGENCY 3. INITIATE THE ALARM 2.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 423 .4: FLOW DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL OFFSHORE EMERGENCY RESPONSE EMERGENCY INCIDENT 1.B. POST-INCIDENT ACTIONS February 1993 . ASSESS THE SITUATION 4.FIGURE B. MOBILIZE RESOURCES 5. CONTROL THE INCIDENT 6.

FIGURE B.) of people hurt and requiring medical assistance. DO NOT HANG UP.) (north/south/east/west) There are ___________(no.B. 4.5: EMERGENCY REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS TELEPHONE: XXX-XXXX I have an emergency to report: I am calling from _____________________________________________________ My name is _________________________ My badge number is _______________ I see a _____________________________________at ________________________ (fire.xx (other for the facility) (if busy see below) After the message has been given successfully. gas leak. February 1993 . the reporting individual.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 424 . should return immediately to the emergency site to do whatever he can safely do to improve the emergency situation. 3. 1. if an operator. If the number is busy or unavailable. 2. ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE A RESPONSE THEN IF NECESSARY REPEAT THE ABOVE INFORMATION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS. etc. try the following in the order listed: telephone xxx-zzzz radio frequency xxx.

Stand Down And Fire Watch B. Scope B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 425 . I. Saudi Aramco b. Fire 4. External Resources a. Plant Personnel b. Suppression/Control of Incident 1. Plans. Restore Operations D. Functional Responsibilities VI. Emergency Equipment 2. Facility Maps. VII. Post-Incident Actions A. Investigate And Report C. Emergency Response Actions A. Internal Resources a. IV. Mobilization Of Resources 1. Communication Equipment 5. Other Site Specific Incidents VIII. V. Sections should be separated by dividers with extended tabs naming each section. Materials And Equipment Inventory 1. Title Page Reporting Emergencies Emergency Response Personnel Roster Table Of Contents Introduction A. Vapor Release 2. Definitions Emergency Response Organization A. Non-Saudi Aramco E. Appendices A. Reporting Emergencies B.FIGURE B. Revise The Plan IX. Fire Fighting Supplies 3. Hazardous Materials Release 6. Mutual Aid February 1993 .6: EMERGENCY PLAN . Assess The Situation D. Initiating The Alarm C. Chain Of Command B.B. Contractors 2. II. Natural Disaster 7. Drawings 4.S AMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS Suggested headings are shown below. When To Implement C. Toxic Vapor Release 3. II. Support Groups c. Explosion 5.

Non-Saudi Aramco B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response Page 426 .a.B. Exceptions To Generic Scenarios C. Operating Instruction Manuals (OIMs) And Other References February 1993 . Saudi Aramco b.

Construction Safety Manual .Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist Page 427 .Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard February 1993 .

1. 1. Sufficient clear space from combustible structures or other storage which could be an exposure hazard. between piles and buildings. PILING OF MATERIALS A. Available water supply of sufficient pressure and quantity. No danger of flooding. 1. Entire site should be fenced to control access. III. AISLES must be maintained between individual piles. Travel time to site. primary factor. to allow access to all sides of the piles. LOW HEIGHT and SMALL AREA are the ideal conditions. February 1993 .1 Fire Safety Checklist Page 428 . and between piles and the boundary line fence for the storage site. Enough clearance from storage site to highways or major roads. All-weather roads adequate to carry fire department apparatus. Two 15' gates.C. access to the seat of the fire with hose streams from the ground. C. F. II. (b) B.1 FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS STORE YARD (Based on NFPA 231-APPENDIX C) PROTECTION OF OUTDOOR STORAGE I. E.C. Kept clear at all times. 1. 2. FENCING SITE A. SELECTION OF A SITE A. Adequate fire department protection. Reasons for this are (a) stability of the pile under normal and fire conditions (containers maximum: 2 high). directly opposite each other (180o ) are required to permit ready access of fire apparatus to any part of the storage area regardless of wind direction and location of fire. B. Drainage from fuel spills should travel away from all storage. Run-off from fire fighting water should be considered. B. D.

(b) IV. Again. In addition to the above. 1. B. DRIVEWAYS of minimum 15 feet width are required to permit travel of fire apparatus to all parts of the storage area. Piles or "blocks" of small piles are arranged with combustibles and noncombustibles in alternate locations (a) This technique tends to isolate a fire. Normally this will be a Saudi Aramco system telephone.1. and alternate hazardous shops or stored goods with those structures housing less hazardous goods or activities.a reliable means of communication with the Saudi Aramco Fire Protection Department shall be provided. This checker board pattern of materials also helps reduce reliance on wind direction to control the spread of a fire. Aisles minimum of 10 feet wide. at all times. since they also act as firebreaks to limit the spread of fire. One approach is to have less hazardous shops and sheltered activities upwind. this will help counteract unfavorable winds. D. BUILDINGS A. February 1993 . 1. ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS is important to reduce the speed of the spread of fire.break space between buildings (50 feet minimum). ARRANGEMENT OF BUILDINGS should also consider the effects of wind on the spread of fire. Driveway and aisle widths should be increased to at least equal the height of piles of goods. C. WARNING: Prompt NOTIFICATION of the Fire Protection Department is mandatory and absolutely necessary to prevent out-of-control fires. 2. V. This space should remain c lear and free of combustible materials. 1. leave plenty of clear fire. 2.C1 Fire Safety Checklist Page 429 . FIRE PROTECTION A. allowing greater chance to contain it within the pile or "block" of origin. Generally less hazardous materials should be stored upwind and more hazardous materials downwind. Communications -. Buildings within storage yards should be at least 50 feet from the nearest storage pile. 1. more hazardous ones downwind.

) Materials . 1. The longer you wait to apply water on a small fire. It is for this reason that fire hydrants are not normally provided with hose or used by construction yard personnel. (b) 2. Standard Live Hose Reels shall be provided throughout the storage areas to allow fast application of firewater onto any location within the store yard. (Good mechanical strength. WARNING: 1. not at a constant rate. No temporary storage will be allowed to obstruct access for fire fighting. Details of Water Supply Connect to main with gate valve. housed. sufficient 2 -1/2" hose. suitably located. D. and maintained ready for use. shall be kept on the site. 6" diameter minimum. repairable. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout the storage area and the buildings located as to be quickly available for use at any point. These hoses are easily handled by one man and can deliver significant quantities of water. (a) Fire areas increase as an increasing multiple of time. etc. Depending on system pressure. the 2-1/2" hoses used by the Fire Protection Department can require 4 to 5 trained men to handle. Two inch steel (galvanized) lines shall be used to feed these hoses. okay for temporary yards.Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard B-7C requires type 509-G hydrants for protection of outdoor storage. Standard Fire Hydrants . and other equipment such as nozzles.) Size of loop piping. In areas where there is no Fire Protection Department within reasonable distance. hydrant wrenches. February 1993 . C.carbon steel pipe. The need to notify the Fire Protection Department and man these live hose reels as fast as possible cannot be over-emphasized. E. Provide a looped system valved to feed hydrants from either direction. Each hose reel will have a valve at the tie-in to the 6" loop. These 1 -1/4" diameter hoses allow one person to apply about 100 gallons/minute without difficulty. (Block valve(s) to isolate either 50% of the piping and hydrants. Hydrants and all fire fighting equipment shall be accessible for use at all times. the more you will be surprised at the size the fire has attained.C1 Fire Safety Checklist Page 430 . 2.B. Full coverage of the interiors of all buildings must also be provided.

GUARD SERVICE A. VII. All electrical equipment and installations to comply with National Electrical Code. at a safe distance from the storage yard. All essential features of this "Checklist" shall be clearly illustrated on a site drawing of the proposed yard. Employees' smoking areas shall be clearly designated and no smoking strictly enforced outside these "safe" areas. Means of communication necessary to summon assistance during emergency situations shall be provided. Two copies of this drawing (done accurately to scale) will be submitted and once approved. D. Motor vehicles shall be garaged and repaired outside the yard area. 2. Fuel handling shall comply with NFPA 30. YARD MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS A. in a noncombustible structure or unsheltered. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. C.VI. B. one signed copy shall be kept at the site for periodic review. February 1993 . fire extinguishers and the fire warning system shall be on site at all times when the yard is otherwise unoccupied. 1. Guards trained in the use of live fire hose reels. Supervised rounds are suggested to verify the entire property is periodically observed.C1 Fire Safety Checklist Page 431 . The site shall be kept free from accumulation of unnecessary combustible materials such as empty cartons or other packing or packaging materials. A site layout plan of the materials storage yards shall be submitted to the Loss Prevention Department Area Fire Prevention Engineer for review. Changes to the original storage yard layout must be reviewed and concurred by Loss Prevention Department.

Construction Safety Manual .Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook February 1993 .Appendix D: Crane Safety Handbook Page 432 .

Loss Prevention Department.Construction Safety Manual . E -1660. February 1993 . the crane safety handbook is bound under separate cover.1 CRANE SAFETY HANDBOOK Notice: For utility.Appendix D: Crane Safety Handbook Page 433 .D. Dhahran. Additional copies may be acquired by contacting the Support Services Unit. One copy will be distributed to each holder of the Construction Safety Manual.

Appendix E: Suggestion Form February 1993 .Appendix E: Suggestion Form Page 434 .Construction Safety Manual .

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE SAUDI ARAMCO CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANUAL MANAGER.Appendix E: Suggestion Form Page 435 . Saudi Arabia Please consider the following suggestion(s) relative to the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (Signature) ________________________________________ (Date) ________________________________________ (Address) ________________________________________ Contact Telephone Number ________________________________________ Contact FAX Number February 1993 . Loss Prevention Department Saudi Arabian American Oil Company E-1770 Dhahran.

Appendix F: Distribution Form Page 436 .Construction Safety Manual .Appendix F: Distribution Form February 1993 .

Address For Distribution Construction Safety Manual MANAGER Loss Prevention Department Saudi Arabian Oil Company E-1770 Dhahran. Saudi Arabia Please continue to send me changes or additions to the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual. My present address is: Name:__________________________________________________________________________ Company:_______________________________________________________________________ Address:________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ (Signature) ____________________________________ (Date) ________________________________________ Contact Telephone Number ________________________________________ Contact FAX Number February 1993 .Appendix F: Distribution Form Page 437 .

Construction Safety Manual: Appendix G: Sanitary Code Page 438 .Appendix G: Sanitary Code February 1993 .

Appendix G: Sanitary Code Page 439 .006 SASC-A-010 INDOOR AND OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES.IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE .GI 151. CAMPGROUNDS AND MARINAS CAMPS AND COMMUNAL LIVING FACILITIES FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS SWIMMING POOLS. INCLUDING BEACHES. WADING POOLS AND SPAS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT WASTE WATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS WATER SASC-C-010 SASC-F-010 SASC-P-010 SASC-R-010 SASC-S-010 SASC-W-010 February 1993 .

Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index February 1993 .Construction Safety Manual: Appendix H: GI Master Index Page 440 .

030 February 1993 .102 2.025 6. and Mobile Aerial Baskets 6.100 2. Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection and Testing of Cranes.029 6.012 6.003 Title Work Permit System Pressure Testing Safely Electrical Safety for Boom or Derrick Type Hoisting Equipment Gas Testing Procedures Mechanical Completion & Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit Fire and Safety Watch Contractor Sites Allotment Procedure Loss Prevention Policy Implementation Notification Requirements for Incidents (Including Fires) Guide for Committees Investigating Major Incidents or Engineering Reviews of Other Incidents Isolation.021 6.030 7.002 6.708 2.702 2.Appendix H: GI Master Index Page 441 . Critical Crane Lifts Inspection.001 6.020 6.710 2. Elevators.Construction Safety Manual .718 5.028 7. Multiple/Tandem.025 7.027 7.026 7. On or Near Water Safety Requirements for Abrasive Blast Cleaning Control of Remote Area Travel and Search/Rescue Procedures Reporting and Recording of Motor Vehicle Accidents Traffic and Vehicle Safety Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Lifting/Elevating and Mobile Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Personnel Work Platform Operations Heavy Crane Lift.711 2.GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS (GI) MASTER INDEX GI Number 2.029 7. Lockout and Use of Hold Tags Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over. Powered Platforms.

New Installation. Inspection.081 402.001 432.87 355.002 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding Prescription Safety Glasses Air-Supplied Breathing Apparatus Protective (Safety) Footwear Disaster Contingency Plan .015-01 355.001 8.002 150. Storing and Issuing Explosives Deterioration and Disposal of Explosives Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders Performance Qualifications For Welders and Welding Operators Operational Chemical Cleaning of Boilers Pipeline Hydrotest Water Disposal Pipeline Repair and Maintenance Repair Procedures on Hydrocarbon Pipelines Pressure Relief Valves .002 8.005 70.Refinery and Terminal .Appendix H: GI Master Index Page 442 .003 151.001 150.002 355.Ras Tanura Asbestos Regulations First Aid/CPR Training and First Aid Kits .500 80.8. Storing and Issuing Hazardous Material Disposing of Hazardous Material Handling and Disposing of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Requisitioning.Dhahran Area Disaster Control .003 8.00 441.015 355.004 355.500 150.020 401. Cataloging. Change in Set Pressure. Quality Assurance and Regulation 447. Replacement or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves .Routine Tests.Remote Areas Ionizing Radiation Implementing the Saudi Aramco Sanitation Code Bulk Deliveries of Oil Field Treatment Chemicals from Local Vendors Identifying.014 447.003 355.003 February 1993 . Receiving. Ordering and Tracking Hazardous Materials Receiving.001 355.006 330.00 434.

001 1196.921 1183.001 1197. Tanajib or West Pier SAG Regulations and Practice as Applied to All Types of Marine Craft at the Port of Ras Tanura Collision & Damage By or To Marine Equipment or Craft Operating Practices for Harbor Tugs.001 1193.002 1194.001 1192.001 1021.215 Blasting Near Existing Facilities Use of Explosives in Construction Confined Space Entry Procedure Special Regulations for the Use of Explosives in Seismic Operations Street and Road Closure.001 618. Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Barges Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Marine Oil Recovery and Storage Barge/Vessel.001 1198.165 1131.002 1192. Including Safety Rules Marine Port Information and Regulations Navigation Warnings Requesting. Assigning and Dispatching Pollution Control Vessels.000 1127.Appendix H: GI Master Index Page 443 .002 520.003 1186. Launches and Barges Whistle Signals for Use Between Tugs and Barges or Tugs and Self-Propelled Vessels When Berthing Procedures and Safety Rules for Diving Operations Rig/Barge Moving 1185. Reinstatement and Traffic Controls Transportation Engineering Procedures for Heavy-Lift/Over-Sized Equipment Vehicle Loading Use of Trailer Brakes Use of Trailer Safety Chains Transporting Explosives in Comp any Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles Death or Injury Aboard Seagoing Vessels Marine Craft Fueling.504 1187.502 1186.001 1192.001 February 1993 . Excavation.013 1131.475.001 475.502 1193. Tugs.700 1130. Offshore Vessels and Launches.

1199.001 1781.Appendix H: GI Master Index Page 444 .002 1602. Message Switch And Facsimile Terminals Inspection/Maintenance .Fire Protection Equipment Fire Reports February 1993 .003 1603. Unneeded Communication Equipment Radio Asset Control And Accountability Program (RACAP) Residential Telephone Service Business Telephone Service Inside Aramco Communities and Facilities Business Telephone Service Outside Aramco Communities and Facilities Data Circuits.001-1 1787.003 1601.00-1 Safe Operation of Self-Propelled Jack-Up Barges Transportation of Dangerous Articles Onboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft Request for Air Medical Evacuation Destruction of Obsolete/Damaged.001 1310.000 1321.002 1602.001 1602.015 1600.

Construction Safety Manual .Appendix I: List Of Figures Page 445 .Appendix I: List Of Figures February 1993 .

18 Figure II. Spectacles.25 Figure II.4A Figure II.7 Figure II.15 Figure II.9 Figure II.26 Figure II.17 Figure II.20 Figure II.22 Figure II.3A Figure II.3 Figure I.6 Figure I.27 Hold Tag Lockout Clip (Typical) Excavations Made In Type A Soil Simple/Multiple Bench Unsupported Vertically Sided Excavations Made In Type B Soil Single/Multiple Bench Excavations Made In Type C Soils Excavations Made In Layered Soils Excavations Made In Layered Soils Examples Of Trench Shields Guide To Safe Distance Back From Top Of Slope For Storage Of Materials Or Placing Equipment Examples Of Screw Trench Jacks Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Typical Installations Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Waler Systems For Soil Type B Example Of Timber Shoring Protective Systems Timber Trench Shoring .6A Figure II.LIST OF FIGURES I.10 Figure II.Appendix I: List Of Figures Page 446 .4 Figure II.5 Figure I.11 Figure II.3 Figure II. Face Shields And Helmets Protection Against Radiant Energy Specialized Hand Protectors Typical Self-Powered Platform For Building Maintenance Respiratory Protection Clearance Considerations For Safety Equipment Know Your Fire Extinguisher 43 44 69 76 77 78 79 86 87 94 II.6 Figure II. General And Civil: Figure II.14 Figure II.9 Preliminary Accident Report Contractor Monthly Safety Report Injury Summary Protective Goggle.2 Figure II.8 Figure I.5 Figure II.1 Figure II.8 Figure II.Minimum Timber Requirements Standard Coupler Adjustable Coupler Typical End To End Coupler Screwjack Typical Reveal Pin Typical Base Plate A Typical Independent Tied Scaffold Constructed Using Tube And Coupler Scaffolding A Typical Tube And Coupler Scaffold Plan View Of Two-Way Tie Plan View Of Column Box Tie Plan View Of Reveal Tie 121 122 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 192 192 192 192 192 192 210 211 212 212 212 February 1993 .Minimum Timber Requirements Timber Trench Shoring .23 Figure II.3B Figure II.2 Figure I.19 Figure II. Administration: Figure I.1 Figure I.4 Figure I.21 Figure II.12 Figure II.Minimum Timber Requirements Timber Trench Shoring .24 Figure II.16 Figure II.4A Figure I.13 Figure II.7 Figure I.

3 Figure III.5 Figure III.31 Figure II.34 Figure II.30 Figure II.1 Figure V.7 Figure III.36 Figure II.Figure II.3 Identification Of Materials By Hazard Signal Dimensions And Arrangement Explanation Of Hazard Rating Codes Identification Of Health Hazard.1 Figure IV.38 Figure II.2 Figure IV.Machine Guarding Ring Test Correctly Mounted Wheel Wire Conversion Chart Self Adjusted Guard Table Saws Table Saw . Chemicals And Operations: Figure V. Flammability And Reactivity 351 352 353 February 1993 .37 Figure II.29 Figure II.44 Figure II.28 Figure II.Radiation 318 319 324 V.Machine Guarding Radial Saws The Woodworking Machine Regulations Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control 213 214 214 215 216 217 217 217 225 226 227 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 III. Electrical And Radiation: Figure IV.1 Figure III.6 Figure III.42 Figure II.13 Pre-Lift Operation Checklist Lift Plan For Cranes Identification Tags Installing A Wedge Socket On A Rope Two-Legged Chain Sling: Major Components Sling Fixings Synthetic Webbing Slings Sling Loading Eyebolts Crane Hooks Shackles Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log Typical Construction Materials Store Yard 266-267 268 277 278 278 278 279 280 280 280 280 281 297 IV.33 Figure II.2 Figure III.12 Figure III.39 Figure II.3 Temporary Crossing For Construction Equipment Proper Use Of Insulating Tools And Protective Apparel Standard Sign .10 Figure III.8 Figure III.40 Figure II.43 Figure II.46 Figure II.9 Figure III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials: Figure III.Appendix I: List Of Figures Page 447 .11 Figure III.35 Figure II.2 Figure V.41 Figure II.45 Figure II.47 A Typical System Scaffold A Typical System Scaffold Being Assembled A Typical System Scaffold Base In The Process Of Being Assembled And Leveled A Typical Fabricated Tubular Frame Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold A Typical Tube And Coupler Mobile Access Tower Cross Tube Anchor Outriggers In Use Driven Tube Anchor Abrasive/Grinding Wheel Grinder Guards Bench Grinder .4 Figure III.32 Figure II.

1 Figure B.2 Figure B.5 Figure B.3 If You Work Over. On Or Near Water International Code Flag "A" Signals 361 373 373 Appendix A: Figure A.3 Figure B.Sample Table Of Contents 412 413 414 418 419 420-421 February 1993 .VI. Marine: Figure VI.1 Figure VI.1 Contractor's Evaluation Competition Job Safety 380-381 Appendix B: Figure B.2 Figure VI.Appendix I: List Of Figures Page 448 .4 Figure B.6 Typical Emergency Organization Chart Scenario Analysis Sheet For (Location) Emergency/Disaster Control Tasks Checklist Flow Diagram Of Typical Offshore Emergency Response Emergency Reporting Instructions Emergency Plan .

Construction Safety Manual: Appendix J: List Of Tables Page 449 .Appendix J: List Of Tables February 1993 .

Administration: Table I.Construction Safety Manual: Appendix J: List Of Tables Page 450 .Heavy Duty Ventilation Requirements For Confined Spaces Personal Protective Equipment To Be Worn Or Used During Surface Preparation And Paint Application 131 191 201 202 203 248 252 III.1 Table II.Medium Duty Tube And Coupler Scaffolds . General And Civil: Table II. Force Of Wind In Pounds Per Square Foot Wind Speed Definition 269 269 February 1993 .4 Table II.LIST OF TABLES I. Mechanical Equipment And Materials Table III.3 Table II.2 Wind Speed (Miles Per Hour) vs.2 Table II.7 Maximum Allowable Slopes Wood Scaffold Plank Loading Tube And Coupler Scaffolds .5 Table II.1 Basic Personal Protective Equipment 75 II.1 Table III.Light Duty Tube And Coupler Scaffolds .6 Table II.

Appendix K: Forms February 1993 .Construction Safety Manual: Appendix K: Forms Page 451 .

Construction Safety Manual: Appendix K: Forms Page 452 .• Appendix K contains originals of many of the forms which have appeared as figures throughout the Manual. February 1993 . Please copy these for use in your safety program.

PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT: Detailed Report Required Within 3 Days Accident Location: Company: Date Of Accident: Personnel Injured: Control No_________________ Time Of Accident: Badge Number: Type Of Injuries: Property Damage And Estimated Cost Damage: Description Of Accident: Witness Statement(s) What Caused The Accident: What Corrective Action Has Been Taken Signed:_______________________________________________________________Badge No:________________________ Date Of Report:________________________________________________ Name (Printed):_____________________________________________________________________ Company:___________________________________________________ Job Title:_________________________________ .

.

Incidents Or Property Damage (Over SR 10. Fires: 3. 4.000): 4.CONTRACTOR MONTHLY SAFETY REPORT PROJECT TITLE:___________________________________ LOCATION:_________________________________ CONTRACTOR:_______________________________________________________________________________________ BUDGET ITEM No:. 2. Incidents Involving Damage To Saudi Aramco Equipment: 6. Work Injuries: 2. 5. 3. Motor Vehicle Accidents: 5.:________________JOB No:_______ 1. Heavy Equipment & Manlift Accidents: 7. Safety Meeting: (A) Topics Discussed: 1._______________________________________ CONTRACT No. (B) Attendance: (C) Instructor(s): Prepared By:_____________________________ Contractor Safety Officer:_____________________________________ Signed By:____________________________________ Saudi Aramco Representative:____________________________ Date:___________________________ . Crane.

Where. How.INJURY SUMMARY (PAGE ___OF___) Project:__________________________________Project No. Name Of Injured Badge Numbe r Craft Date Of Accident Carry Over Yes/No Days Lost This Month Nature Of Injury And Part Of Body Affected Brief Description Of Accident State What. Why Total Lost Time Injuries This Month: Total Days Lost: Total Man-hours Worked This Month: Report Prepared By:________________________________ Signature:_________________________________ .:_________________________ Injury No.:________________________Month & Ye ar:____________________ Contractor:__________________________________File No.

Title And Telephone:_______________ .

Abqaiq) Footnote: This form is to be filled out for the following lifts: 1.LIFT PLAN FOR CRANES 1. Operator Saudi Aramco certified: Yes:o No:o 4. (Note: The sketch of the crane should include the following rigging information: size of each component. 10. Associated with offshore and marine sites and operations. 7.: ______ ______ ______ _______ Others: __________________________________ _______ __________________________________ _______ Total (Gross Load Weight): _______ • • • 6..:_____________________________________________ 2. No.028 for appropriate derating based on type of lift. 3. 9. Contractor:__________________________________________________ J.0. •Type of crane to be used ______________________ •Boom length (total) _______________________ft/m •Jib length ______________________________ft/m Stowed Erected N/A (lbs/kgs) o o o Jib: _______ o o o Extension: _______ Hookblock (Main): ______ _____ _____ _______ o o Aux. 8.) 11. type of component. . Sketch and supplementary information for crane lift is required to be attached to this plan. Operating radius ___________ft/m. Ground and site conditions:______________________________________________ 13. Boom Head: ______ _______ o o Headache Ball: ______ _______ Slings. Crane capacity for jib configuration:____________ 12. Load moment indicator: Yes:o No:o Type:_________________________________________ 16. Lift quadrant zone ___________________ . At all construction sites and operating plants.028 and 7. Shackles.027. Weight of load _______lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib headache ball ______ lbs/kgs Weight of hoist rope below boom tip______ lbs/kgs Weight of other rigging ______ lbs/kgs Total load weight _____ lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib _____ lbs/kgs (see jib chart) Weight of load block _____ lbs/kgs Weight of spreader bar _____ lbs/kgs Hoisting clearance ________ft/m. Description of load:___________________________________________________ 5. • • • • 7. component diameter. Crane capacity at operating radius __________ (Note: Do not make lift if total load is greater than crane capacity shown in Item 10. 4. Contractor:______________________ Date:__________________ Crane Operator:_______________________ Date:__________________________ Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ Reviewed by:_____________________ Date:_____________________________ (Competent Person) (Saudi Aramco Site Representative) Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ (Heavy Haul/Rig Move Unit. safe working load (SWL) capacity. Within safety zones of power lines. Crane Inspection Sticker valid: Yes:o No:o Date of expiry:________________________________________________________________ 3.030). Involving personnel platforms (as per GI 7. Wind speed:__________mph (Maximum 20 mph) 14. Work permit required: Yeso No:o 15. length of slings. etc. Transportation Dept. Refer to GI 7. 2. weight of component and sling angles).

WIRE ROPE SLING INSPECTION LOG Contractor:______________________________________ Location: __________________________ BI/JO Number: ___________________________________ Project Title: ______________________ Sling# Diameter Length SWL Date-In Service Date-OutService Inspector Signature (Date) .

Name/ Signature Issued By Remarks Warning: Above items can only be issued to workers with valid training certificate Storekeeper: Safety Officer: .CARTRIDGE /TOOL ISSUANCE CONTROL Date Issued Cartridge Quantity Returned Returned Used Unused Returned Unexploded Tool Issued (Type/MDL) Received By Cert No.

) (north/south/east/west) There are ___________(no. etc. 1. if an operator. gas leak.) of people hurt and requiring medical assistance.xx (other for the facility) (if busy see below) After the message has been given successfully. the reporting individual.EMERGENCY REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS TELEPHONE: XXX-XXXX I have an emergency to report: I am calling from _____________________________________________________ My name is _________________________ My badge number is _______________ I see a _____________________________________at ________________________ (fire. 2. try the following in the order listed: telephone xxx-zzzz radio frequency xxx. . DO NOT HANG UP. ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE A RESPONSE THEN IF NECESSARY REPEAT THE ABOVE INFORMATION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS. If the number is busy or unavailable. should return immediately to the emergency site to do whatever he can safely do to improve the emergency situation. 3. 4.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM To: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Date: ____________________________ Name Of Contractor: Contractor's Address: Contractor's Phone Number: Job Description: Job Number: Starting Date: Estimated Completion Date: B. Code: Name Of Contractor's Safety Representative: Contractor's Site Phone Number: Site Location: Signed:____________________________________________________(Contractor's Representative) Job Title:__________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________________ Date:_______________________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Proponent Department:____________________________________________________ This form is to be completed and sent to the local Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Office with a copy to the designated senior Project Engineer. who is a member of the proponent Project Management Team (PMT). Signed:________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Project Manager . Number: Peak Number Of Employees: Contractor Site Representative: Saudi Aramco Site (PMT) Engineer: Project Mgmt. Department: Telephone Number: Telephone Number: Org.I.

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